Science.gov

Sample records for 0-10 10-20 20-30

  1. Investigations on hydrogen storage properties of Mg{sub 2}Ni+x wt% LaMg{sub 2}Ni (x=0, 10, 20, 30) composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Xin; Han Shumin; Zhu Xilin; Liu Baozhong; Liu Yanqing

    2012-06-15

    Mg{sub 2}Ni+x wt% LaMg{sub 2}Ni (x=0, 10, 20, 30) composites have been prepared by ball milling Mg{sub 2}Ni and LaMg{sub 2}Ni hydrides. X-ray Diffraction indicates that the composites consist of LaH{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} phases. Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} phase transforms between with Mg{sub 2}Ni phase during hydriding/dehydriding cycling, while the LaH{sub 3} phase exists still after dehydriding process. Backscatter Electron results reveal that the LaH{sub 3} phase, which is decomposed from hydrided LaMg{sub 2}Ni, distributes in Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy homogeneously after ball milling procedure. Hydriding/Dehydriding measurements indicate significant improvement in reversible hydrogen storage properties of the composites over Mg{sub 2}Ni at low temperature. At 473 K, the hydrogen storage capacity of Mg{sub 2}Ni+20 wt% LaMg{sub 2}Ni composite reaches 3.22 wt% and can reversely desorb hydrogen completely, while the pure Mg{sub 2}Ni hydride is hardly desorbs hydrogen at this temperature. The improvement in the hydrogen storage properties is attributed to the existence of LaH{sub 3} phase in the composites. - Graphical abstract: The Mg{sub 2}Ni + x wt% LaMg{sub 2}Ni (x=10, 20, 30) composites display enhancement on reversible hydrogen storage properties compared with that of pure Mg{sub 2}Ni. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tittle La is introduced into Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy without multiphase created. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La is introduced into Mg{sub 2}Ni by hydrogen decomposed ball-milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversible hydrogen storage properties at low temperature are improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen storage capacity of composites is beyond 3 wt% at 473 K.

  2. Accounting 10-20-30. Senior High School Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This manual is intended to help teachers meet the objectives of the 1985 Alberta, Canada, Accounting 10-20-30 curriculum. The manual is organized in nine sections. The first section introduces the curriculum and lists the course objectives, and the following section provides a flowchart of the accounting modules. Information on planning the…

  3. Accounting 10-20-30. Business Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This curriculum guide is one of nine such guides developed for an Alberta high school business education program. Its content covers the main subject area or strand of accounting. Subject to the constraints outlined in the guide, the modules are to be formatted into three- or four-credit courses within each strand. Introductory materials include a…

  4. Personal Living Skills 10-20-30. Home Economics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This home economics curriculum contains 16 modules for teaching personal, family, and applied skills in high schools in Alberta. The modules may be used in courses on various levels. Each module consists of generalizations, objectives, suggested learning experiences related to resources, and a content checklist. Modules in the personal living…

  5. Computer Processing 10-20-30. Business Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This curriculum guide is one of nine such guides developed for an Alberta high school business education program. Its content covers the main subject area or strand of computer processing. Subject to the constraints outlined in the guide, the modules are to be formatted into three- or four-credit courses within each strand. Introductory materials…

  6. Musique instrumentale 10-20-30: Instruments a vent et a percussion. (Instrumental Music 10-20-30: Wind and Percussion Instruments. Teaching Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The introduction for this Alberta (Canada) music education guide offers reasons for students to study the fine arts at the secondary school level. A philosophy of music education is presented along with 5 key outcomes and 11 music appreciation expectations for secondary students to attain. The volume features wind and percussion instruments. The…

  7. Business Education 10-20-30. Mini Courses. Optional Modules. Business Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This curriculum guide is one of nine such guides developed for an Alberta high school business education program. These 16 modules may be used to enhance the subject area strand or to form these three-credit courses: recordkeeping, business calculation, business communication, dicta typing, and word processing. Introductory materials include a…

  8. Japanese Language and Culture 10-20-30: Guide to Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton (Canada). Curriculum Standards Branch.

    This teacher's guide provides an innovative program of studies for teaching Japanese at the secondary level, featuring a content-based curriculum, an integrated approach, results (outcomes)-based orientation, and the use of language for effective interaction. This guide provides teachers with suggestions for designing and planning a Japanese…

  9. French Language Arts, 10-20-30: Programme d'etudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leduc, Denise; Mariez, Jean-Marie

    The Alberta (Canada) curriculum for 10th, 11th, and 12th grade French immersion instruction is presented. An introductory section describes the rationale and objectives of the program and provides a brief bibliography. The next section charts the types of discourse on which the curriculum focuses within each language skill area (listening,…

  10. 46 CFR 72.20-30 - Messrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Messrooms. 72.20-30 Section 72.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-30 Messrooms. (a) Messrooms must be located as near to the galley...

  11. 46 CFR 72.20-30 - Messrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Messrooms. 72.20-30 Section 72.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-30 Messrooms. (a) Messrooms must be located as near to the galley...

  12. 46 CFR 72.20-30 - Messrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Messrooms. 72.20-30 Section 72.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-30 Messrooms. (a) Messrooms must be located as near to the galley...

  13. Biology 20-30: Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Presented in English and French, Biology 20-30 is an academic program that helps students in Alberta, Canada, better understand and apply fundamental concepts and skills. The major goals of the program are: (1) to develop in students an understanding of the interconnecting ideas and principles that transcend and unify the natural science…

  14. Physics 20-30: Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Presented in English and French, Physics 20-30 is an academic program that helps students better understand and apply fundamental concepts and skills. The major goals of the program are: (1) to develop in students an understanding of the interconnecting ideas and principles that transcend and unify the natural science disciplines; (2) to provide…

  15. Marketing 20-30. Senior High School Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This manual is intended to help teachers meet the objectives of the 1985 Alberta, Canada, Marketing 20-30 curriculum. The manual is organized in six sections. The first section contains introductory information on the Marketing 20-30 curriculum, including course objectives and a flowchart of the modules in the marketing course. Planning the course…

  16. The 20/30 GHz satellite systems technology needs assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G.; Wright, D.

    1978-01-01

    Rain attenuation in the 20/30 GHz bands, and the resultant impact on system user costs were estimated for a variety of satellite communication system concepts. Results of previous and current NASA Lewis contractual and in-house studies on system design are reported as well as market studies conducted to evaluate the concepts and test their relevancy against forecasted market needs. The 20/30 GHz bands appear attractive economically and, with certain technology, appear to offer a virtually unlimited spectrum resource. This attractiveness is especially relevant to high density trunking where there is sufficient traffic to justify dual-station site diversity.

  17. Chemistry 20-30: Background, Exemplars and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Desiree; And Others

    This document is designed to provide practical information for teaching the Chemistry 20-30 Program of Studies. The first section provides an overview of Chemistry 20, explaining the program philosophy and the relationships among science, technology, and society. The use of concept connections and teaching a course around major science themes is…

  18. Biology 20-30: Background, Exemplars and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormie, George; And Others

    This document is designed to provide practical information for teaching the Biology 20-30 Program of Studies. The first section provides an overview of Biology 20, explaining the program philosophy and depth of coverage of some of the objectives. The use of concept connections and teaching a course around major science themes is described, as well…

  19. Physics 20-30 Background, Exemplars and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Desiree; And Others

    This document is designed to provide practical information for teaching the Physics 20-30 Program of Studies. The first section provides an overview of Physics 20, explaining the program philosophy and the selection and sequencing of topics. The use of concept connections and teaching a course around the science themes are described, as well as…

  20. Future mobile satellite communication concepts at 20/30 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, S. K.; Norbury, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The outline of a design of a system using ultra small earth stations (picoterminals) for data traffic at 20/30 GHz is discussed. The picoterminals would be battery powered, have an RF transmitter power of 0.5 W, use a 10 cm square patch antenna, and have a receiver G/T of about -8 dB/K. Spread spectrum modulation would be required (due to interference consideration) to allow a telex type data link (less than 200 bit/s data rate) from the picoterminal to the hub station of the network and about 40 kbit/s on the outbound patch. An Olympus type transponder at 20/30 GHz could maintain several thousand simultaneous picoterminal circuits. The possibility of demonstrating a picoterminal network with voice traffic using Olympus is discussed together with fully mobile systems based on this concept.

  1. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull construction. 151.10-20 Section 151.10-20 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Barge Hull Construction Requirements § 151.10-20 Hull construction. (a) Construction features. (1) Each barge hull shall be constructed with a suitable bow...

  2. 46 CFR 54.10-20 - Marking and stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking and stamping. 54.10-20 Section 54.10-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and Stamping § 54.10-20 Marking and stamping. (a) Pressure vessels (replaces UG-116, except paragraph (k), and UG-118)....

  3. Antennas for 20/30 GHz and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. Harry; Wong, William C.; Hamada, S. Jim

    1989-01-01

    Antennas of 20/30 GHz and higher frequency, due to the small wavelength, offer capabilities for many space applications. With the government-sponsored space programs (such as ACTS) in recent years, the industry has gone through the learning curve of designing and developing high-performance, multi-function antennas in this frequency range. Design and analysis tools (such as the computer modelling used in feedhorn design and reflector surface and thermal distortion analysis) are available. The components/devices (such as BFN's, weight modules, feedhorns and etc.) are space-qualified. The manufacturing procedures (such as reflector surface control) are refined to meet the stringent tolerance accompanying high frequencies. The integration and testing facilities (such as Near-Field range) also advance to facilitate precision assembling and performance verification. These capabilities, essential to the successful design and development of high-frequency spaceborne antennas, shall find more space applications (such as ESGP) than just communications.

  4. Adaptive TDMA for 20/30 GHz fade countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, S. K.

    1989-05-01

    The traffic capacity of the Olympus 20/30 GHz transponder is calculated under various conditions and the results are compared. The capacity is first calculated under conventional fixed data rate design rules as given in the Olympus Users Guide and the data rate for each station is then varied according to its position in the satellite footprint and its antenna mis-pointing, allowing a uniform margin for widespread light rain. The heavy rain condition is analyzed with allowances for the dynamic effects of signaling overhead, idling stations, and adaptive lag. The traffic mode can be increased by a factor of 480/64 or 7.5 times by adopting an adaptive TDMA (time division multiple access) approach to fade countermeasures.

  5. 37 CFR 10.20 - Canons and Disciplinary Rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canons and Disciplinary Rules. 10.20 Section 10.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Patent and...

  6. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  7. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  8. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  9. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  10. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  11. 16 CFR 0.10 - Office of the Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of the Executive Director. 0.10 Section 0.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.10 Office of the Executive Director. The Executive Director, under the direction of...

  12. 16 CFR 0.10 - Office of the Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of the Executive Director. 0.10 Section 0.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.10 Office of the Executive Director. The Executive Director, under the direction of...

  13. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  14. 21 CFR 20.30 - Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information Staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information Staff. 20.30 Section 20.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.30 Food and Drug Administration Freedom...

  15. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  16. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  17. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  18. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  19. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  20. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  1. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  2. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  3. Checking the odd Goldbach conjecture up to 10(20)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saouter, Y.

    1998-04-01

    Vinogradov's theorem states that any sufficiently large odd integer is the sum of three prime numbers. This theorem allows us to suppose the conjecture that this is true for all odd integers. In this paper, we describe the implementation of an algorithm which allowed us to-check this conjecture up to 10(20).

  4. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  5. 46 CFR 54.10-20 - Marking and stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... liters (U.S. gallons), if a cargo carrying pressure vessel. (b) Multichambered pressure vessels (replaces... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and Stamping § 54.10-20 Marking and stamping. (a) Pressure vessels (replaces UG-116,...

  6. Gastric Fluid and Heat Stress Response of Listeria monocytogenes Inoculated on Frankfurters Formulated with 10%, 20%, and 30% Fat Content

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Han, Sung Gu; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of frankfurter fat content on Listeria monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and gastric fluid, and the Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency of the pathogen. A 10-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated on frankfurters formulated with 10%, 20%, and 30% fat content (10%: F10, 20%: F20, 30%: F30) and stored at 10℃ for 30 d. The samples were analyzed for L. monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and a simulated gastric fluid challenge. The total bacteria and L. monocytogenes survival rates were measured on tryptic soy agar plus 0.6% yeast extract and Palcam agar, respectively. L. monocytogenes colonies inoculated on F10, F20, and F30 samples were used for a Caco-2 cell invasion assay. In general, no obvious differences were observed between the survival rates of total bacteria and L. monocytogenes grown on different fat contents under heat stress and gastric fluid challenge. However, L. monocytogenes obtained from the F30 samples had a significantly higher Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency than those in the F10 and F20 samples (p<0.05). These results indicate that although high fat content in food may not be related to L. monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and gastric fluid, it may increase the Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency of the pathogen. PMID:26760741

  7. 46 CFR 92.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 92.10-20 Section 92.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the two required means of escape, except that...

  8. 46 CFR 92.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 92.10-20 Section 92.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the two required means of escape, except that...

  9. 46 CFR 190.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 190.10-20 Section 190.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking door giving access to either of the two required means of escape except that...

  10. 46 CFR 92.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 92.10-20 Section 92.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the two required means of escape, except that...

  11. 46 CFR 190.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 190.10-20 Section 190.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking door giving access to either of the two required means of escape except that...

  12. 46 CFR 92.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 92.10-20 Section 92.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the two required means of escape, except that...

  13. 46 CFR 190.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 190.10-20 Section 190.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking door giving access to either of the two required means of escape except that...

  14. 46 CFR 190.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 190.10-20 Section 190.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking door giving access to either of the two required means of escape except that...

  15. 46 CFR 92.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 92.10-20 Section 92.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the two required means of escape, except that...

  16. 46 CFR 190.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 190.10-20 Section 190.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking door giving access to either of the two required means of escape except that...

  17. 20/30 GHz satellite systems technology needs assessment. [for domestic communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G.; Wright, D.

    1978-01-01

    The paper surveys the system and market work done at NASA-Lewis with regard to exploring the potential of the 20/30 GHz bands for domestic satellite communications. The 20/30 GHz bands appear attractive economically and, with certain technology advances, appear to offer a virtually unlimited spectrum resource. This attractiveness is especially relevant to high density trunking where there is sufficient traffic to justify dual-station site diversity. Ongoing system and market studies actively involve satellite system suppliers and carriers as well as the government in a cooperative, mutually beneficial effort. It is considered that this is the approach most likely to result in a spectrum-efficient acceptable-risk high-capacity 30/30 GHz satellite system which is relevant to anticipated markets.

  18. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38.10-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid...

  19. 46 CFR 72.10-20 - No means for locking door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false No means for locking door. 72.10-20 Section 72.10-20... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-20 No means for locking door. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the 2 required means of escape, except that crash doors or...

  20. 46 CFR 72.10-20 - No means for locking door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false No means for locking door. 72.10-20 Section 72.10-20... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-20 No means for locking door. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the 2 required means of escape, except that crash doors or...

  1. 46 CFR 72.10-20 - No means for locking door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No means for locking door. 72.10-20 Section 72.10-20... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-20 No means for locking door. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the 2 required means of escape, except that crash doors or...

  2. 46 CFR 72.10-20 - No means for locking door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false No means for locking door. 72.10-20 Section 72.10-20... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-20 No means for locking door. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the 2 required means of escape, except that crash doors or...

  3. 46 CFR 72.10-20 - No means for locking door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false No means for locking door. 72.10-20 Section 72.10-20... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-20 No means for locking door. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the 2 required means of escape, except that crash doors or...

  4. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  5. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  6. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  7. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-20 - Deadweight or DWT-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... gravity 1.025 at the load waterline corresponding to the summer freeboard assigned according to 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deadweight or DWT-TB/ALL. 30.10-20 Section 30.10-20...-20 Deadweight or DWT—TB/ALL. The term deadweight or DWT means the difference in metric tons...

  9. 28 CFR 0.10 - Attorney General's Advisory Committee of U.S. Attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Associate Attorney General in formulating new programs for improvement of the criminal justice... U.S. Attorneys. 0.10 Section 0.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.10 Attorney General's Advisory Committee of...

  10. 28 CFR 0.10 - Attorney General's Advisory Committee of U.S. Attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Associate Attorney General in formulating new programs for improvement of the criminal justice... U.S. Attorneys. 0.10 Section 0.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.10 Attorney General's Advisory Committee of...

  11. 28 CFR 0.10 - Attorney General's Advisory Committee of U.S. Attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Attorney General's Advisory Committee of U.S. Attorneys. 0.10 Section 0.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.10 Attorney General's Advisory Committee of...

  12. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 59.10-20 Patches in shells and tube sheets. (a) Unreinforced openings in the shells or drums of... inside the drum or shell and sealed against leakage by welding. Such plates shall have a diameter of...

  13. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 59.10-20 Patches in shells and tube sheets. (a) Unreinforced openings in the shells or drums of... inside the drum or shell and sealed against leakage by welding. Such plates shall have a diameter of...

  14. The possibilities for mobile and fixed services up to the 20/30 GHz frequency bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Clifford D.; Feliciani, F.; Spiller, J.

    Satellite Communications and broadcasting is presently in a period of considerable change. In the fixed service there is strong competition from terrestrial fiber optic systems which have virtually arrested the growth of the traditional satellite market for long distance high capacity communications. The satellite has however made considerable progress in areas where it has unique advantages; for example, in point to multipoint (broadcasting), multipoint to point (data collection) and generally in small terminal system applications where flexibility of deployment coupled with ease of installation are of importance. In the mobile service, in addition to the already established geostationary systems, there are numerous proposals for HEO, MEO and LEO systems. There are also several new frequency allocations as a result of the WARC 92 to be taken into account. At one extreme there are researchers working on Ka band 20/30 GHz mobile systems and there are other groups who foresee no future above the L-band frequency allocations. Amongst all these inputs it is difficult to see the direction in which development activities both for satellites and for earth segment should be focused. However, as an aid to understanding, this paper seeks to find some underlying relationships and to clarify some of the variables.

  15. The possibilities for mobile and fixed services up to the 20/30 GHz frequency bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Clifford D.; Feliciani, F.; Spiller, J.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite Communications and broadcasting is presently in a period of considerable change. In the fixed service there is strong competition from terrestrial fiber optic systems which have virtually arrested the growth of the traditional satellite market for long distance high capacity communications. The satellite has however made considerable progress in areas where it has unique advantages; for example, in point to multipoint (broadcasting), multipoint to point (data collection) and generally in small terminal system applications where flexibility of deployment coupled with ease of installation are of importance. In the mobile service, in addition to the already established geostationary systems, there are numerous proposals for HEO, MEO and LEO systems. There are also several new frequency allocations as a result of the WARC 92 to be taken into account. At one extreme there are researchers working on Ka band 20/30 GHz mobile systems and there are other groups who foresee no future above the L-band frequency allocations. Amongst all these inputs it is difficult to see the direction in which development activities both for satellites and for earth segment should be focused. However, as an aid to understanding, this paper seeks to find some underlying relationships and to clarify some of the variables.

  16. 46 CFR 31.10-20 - Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-20 Definitions relating to hull examinations—T/B ALL. As used in this part— (a... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings....

  17. 46 CFR 31.10-20 - Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-20 Definitions relating to hull examinations—T/B ALL. As used in this part— (a... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings....

  18. 46 CFR 31.10-20 - Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-20 Definitions relating to hull examinations—T/B ALL. As used in this part— (a... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings....

  19. 46 CFR 31.10-20 - Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-20 Definitions relating to hull examinations—T/B ALL. As used in this part— (a... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings....

  20. 46 CFR 31.10-20 - Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-20 Definitions relating to hull examinations—T/B ALL. As used in this part— (a... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings....

  1. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  2. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  3. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  4. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  5. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  6. 34 CFR 30.20 - To what do §§ 30.20-30.31 apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary of Education, and 34 CFR part 32, Salary Offset to Recover Overpayments of Pay or Allowances from... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false To what do §§ 30.20-30.31 apply? 30.20 Section 30.20 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DEBT COLLECTION What Provisions Apply...

  7. An Aeronautical-Mobile 20/30 GHz Satellite-Tracking Antenna for High Data Rate Satcom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Densmore, A.; Guler, M.

    1995-01-01

    An antenna for use on an aircraft has been developed and tested for transmissions to and from a communications satellite. The antenna operates at 20/30 GHz and a data rate of 512 kbps, and it does not require modifying the shape of the aircraft fuselage.

  8. Adequacy of the International 10-20 electrode system for computed neurophysiologic topography.

    PubMed

    Myslobodsky, M S; Coppola, R; Bar-Ziv, J; Weinberger, D R

    1990-10-01

    The adequacy of the International 10-20 System is reviewed in light of demands imposed on the accuracy of lead placement by improvements in spatiotemporal brain electrical activity mapping technology. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies reveal that the most frequent sources of inaccuracy of electrode locations are difficulties in defining the inion, variance in the anatomy of the occipital bone, inconspicuous sagittal deformities, variance of sulcal pattern, and brain width asymmetries. Owing to these factors, electrodes placed bilaterally and equidistant from the nasion-inion line may not be homotopically located. Therefore, the authors suggest that practitioners who employ the 10-20 System in order to gain precise and more individualized laterality information do so with extreme caution until the range of placement and interpretative errors is more precisely determined using CT/MRI-assisted EEG. PMID:2262544

  9. Plasma levels of clobazam after 10-, 20-, and 40-mg tablet doses in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Vallner, J J; Kotzan, J A; Stewart, J T; Honigberg, I L; Needham, T E; Brown, W J

    1980-07-01

    It is evident that substantial intersubject and intrasubject varition in the bioavailability of clobazam exists following ingestion of 10, 20 and 40 mg doses in these 12 volunteers. Peak concentrations and area under the plasma level-time curve were directly proportional to the dose of clobazam and the mean plasma half-life of clobazam was about 18 hours regardless of dose administered. The t1/2 value was less than that previously reported, as the current results allow differentiation of parent drug from metabolites. This 18 hr t1/2 compares favorably with the half-life of other benzodiazepines. PMID:6107307

  10. 21 CFR 10.20 - Submission of documents to Division of Dockets Management; computation of time; availability for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Management; computation of time; availability for public disclosure. 10.20 Section 10.20 Food and Drugs FOOD... Management; computation of time; availability for public disclosure. (a) A submission to the Division of Dockets Management of a petition, comment, objection, notice, compilation of information, or any...

  11. Accurate whole genome sequencing and haplotyping from10-20 human cells

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brock A.; Kermani, Bahram G.; Sparks, Andrew B.; Alferov, Oleg; Hong, Peter; Alexeev, Andrei; Jiang, Yuan; Dahl, Fredrik; Tang, Y. Tom; Haas, Juergen; Robasky, Kimberly; Zaranek, Alexander Wait; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Ball, Madeleine Price; Peterson, Joseph E.; Perazich, Helena; Yeung, George; Liu, Jia; Chen, Linsu; Kennemer, Michael I.; Pothuraju, Kaliprasad; Konvicka, Karel; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, Mike; Pant, Krishna P.; Ebert, Jessica C.; Nilsen, Geoffrey B.; Baccash, Jonathan; Halpern, Aaron L.; Church, George M.; Drmanac, Radoje

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in whole genome sequencing have brought the vision of personal genomics and genomic medicine closer to reality. However, current methods lack clinical accuracy and the ability to describe the context (haplotypes) in which genome variants co-occur in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe a low-cost DNA sequencing and haplotyping process, Long Fragment Read (LFR) technology, similar to sequencing long single DNA molecules without cloning or separation of metaphase chromosomes. In this study, ten LFR libraries were made using only ~100 pg of human DNA per sample. Up to 97% of the heterozygous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were assembled into long haplotype contigs. Removal of false positive SNVs not phased by multiple LFR haplotypes resulted in a final genome error rate of 1 in 10 Mb. Cost-effective and accurate genome sequencing and haplotyping from 10-20 human cells, as demonstrated here, will enable comprehensive genetic studies and diverse clinical applications. PMID:22785314

  12. An experimental 20/30 GHz communications satellite conceptual design employing multiple-beam paraboloid reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A. M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental 20/30 GHz communications satellite conceptual design is described which employs multiple-beam paraboloid reflector antennas coupled to a TDMA transponder. It is shown that the satellite employs solid state GaAs FET power amplifiers and low noise amplifiers while signal processing and switching takes place on-board the spacecraft. The proposed areas to be served by this satellite would be the continental U.S. plus Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as southern Canada and Mexico City. Finally, attention is given to the earth stations which are designed to be low cost.

  13. 17 CFR 270.0-10 - Small entities under the Investment Company Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Investment Company Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. 270.0-10 Section 270.0-10 Commodity..., INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.0-10 Small entities under the Investment Company Act for purposes of the... defined for purposes of a particular rulemaking, the term small business or small organization...

  14. Surveying with the A10-20 Absolute Gravimeter for Geodesy and Geodynamics - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krynski, Jan; Sekowski, Marcin

    2010-05-01

    The A10 is the first outdoor absolute gravimeter that allows for the determination of gravity with high precision. Absolute gravity survey with the A10 becomes highly competitive in terms of both efficiency and precision with traditional relative gravity survey. The portable A10-20 absolute gravimeter has been installed at the Borowa Gora Geodetic-Geophysical Observatory in September 2008. Since then a number of test measurements was conducted. Under laboratory conditions the series of gravity determination was obtained at two independent pillars at Borowa Gora as well as in Metsahovi and the BIPM gravimetric laboratories. Also a number outdoor gravity measurements with the use of mobile gravimetric laboratory was performed at the stations of gravity control in Poland and in Finland. The results obtained indicate high quality of gravity determination with the A10 under laboratory conditions and unprecedented quality under field conditions. They confirm the applicability of the A10 absolute gravimeter to the modernization of gravity control and high precision gravity survey required in modern gravity networks, but also its usefulness in microgravimetry as well as geodynamics. Some practical problems concerning the use of the A10 and its operational procedure including laser and frequency standard are discussed.

  15. The success story at Birchwood: Operation below 0.10 lb/10{sup 6} Btu

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.B.

    1999-07-01

    The Southern Energy, Inc. (SEI) Birchwood Power Facility is successfully operating on coal maintaining stack NO{sub x} emissions below 0.10 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (73 ppmvd at 3% O{sub 2}, 43 ng/J) on a 30-day rolling average. The cogeneration plant uses an integrated approach for controlling NO{sub x} including in-furnace reduction from a TFS 2000{trademark} firing system and post-combustion control from selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The plant began operation in November 1996, and continues to meet the State of Virginia's stringent environmental requirements under all operating conditions. This paper focuses upon recent performance and operation of the NO{sub x} control technologies. Operational data of the NO{sub x} emissions from the steam generator as well as those exiting the SCR are presented. In addition, the latest information from the Spring '99 outage is discussed.

  16. Performance demonstration of hydrogen advanced loop heat pipe for 20-30K cryocooling of far infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Triem T.; O'Connell, Tamara A.; Ku, Jentung; Butler, C. D.; Swanson, Theodore D.

    2005-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program have identified the need for cryogenic cooling transport devices that (i) provide robust/reliable thermal management for Infrared (IR) sensors/detectors in the temperature range of 20-30K, (ii) minimize vibration effects of mechanical cryocoolers on the instruments, (iii) reduce spatial temperature gradients in cryogenic components, and (iv) afford long continuous service life of the telescope. Passive two-phase capillary cooling technologies such as heat pipes, Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs), and Capillary pumped Loops (CPLs) have proven themselves capable of performing necessary thermal control functions for room temperature applications. They have no mechanical moving part to wear out or to introduce unwanted vibration to the instruments and, hence, are reliable and maintenancefree. However, utilizing these capillary devices for cryogenic cooling still remains a challenge because of difficulties involving the system start-up and operation in a warm environment. An advanced concept of LHP using Hydrogen as the working fluid was recently developed to demonstrate the cryocooling transport capabilities in the temperature range of 20-30K. A full-size demonstration test loop - appropriately called H2-ALHP_2 - was constructed and performance tested extensively in a thermal vacuum chamber. It was designed specifically to manage "heat parasitics" from a warm surrounding, enabling it to start up from an initially supercritical state and operate without requiring a rigid heat shield. Like room temperature LHPs, the H2-ALHP transport lines were made of small-diameter stainless steel tubing that are flexible enough to isolate the cryocooler-induced vibration from the IR instruments. In addition, focus of the H2-ALHP research and development effort was also placed on the system weight saving for space-based applications.

  17. Bone marrow myelopoiesis in rats after 10%, 20%, or 30% thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Gruber, D F; Farese, A M

    1989-01-01

    The high incidence of serious opportunistic infections that follow thermal injuries is well documented. Normal levels of functioning leukocytes are essential to the host's ability to resist infection. This study examined alterations in murine granulopoiesis after the inducement of a standardized, sublethal, third-degree burn covering 10%, 20%, or 30% of the dorsal body surface area. Significant alterations arose in peripheral leukocyte concentrations after inducement of uncomplicated thermal injury. In general, within the first day of injury, all three trauma levels produced a peripheral leukocytosis that lasted for 35 days or more. The leukocytoses that followed 20% and 30% injuries were similar and in numerous respects paralleled previously reported human peripheral responses after similar levels of thermal trauma. Differential examinations of peripheral blood demonstrated the peripheral leukocytosis to be due primarily to the influx of morphologically mature-appearing polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Premature bone marrow release did not appear to be a factor as immature polymorphonuclear neutrophils were seldom greater than 2% of polymorphonuclear neutrophil totals. Bone marrow granulopoietic activity was examined by in vitro clonal cell culture techniques and assessed over a period of 35 days after injury. Granulocyte-macrophage colony forming cells (GM-CFC), indicative of marrow progenitor cell concentrations, were significantly increased for 28 to 35 days after 10% injury and 11 to 14 days after 20% or 30% injury. Normal or increased progenitor cell concentrations and a lack of morphologically appearing premature forms suggest that the leukocytosis is the result of injury-induced alteration(s) in polymorphonuclear neutrophil margination or release mechanisms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2677015

  18. Sludge quality after 10-20 years of treatment in reed bed systems.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Steen; Bruun, Esben Wilson

    2015-09-01

    The effect on the environment of the operation of sludge treatment in reed beds (STRB) system is seen as quite limited compared to traditional sludge treatment systems such as mechanical dewatering, drying and incineration with their accompanying use of chemicals and energy consumption. There are several STRB systems in Denmark receiving sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants. Stabilization and mineralization of the sludge in the STRB systems occur during a period between 10 and 20 years, where after the basins are emptied and the sludge residue typically is spread on agricultural land. In the present study, the sludge residue quality after treatment periods of 10-20 years from four Danish STRBs is presented. After reduction, dewatering and mineralization of the feed sludge (dry solid content of 0.5-3 %) in the STRB systems, the sludge residue achieved up to 26 % dry solid, depending on the sludge quality and dimensioning of the STRB system. The concentration of heavy metals and hazardous organic compounds in the sludge residue that are listed in the Danish and EU legislation for farmland application of sludge was below the limit values. The nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations as an average in the sludge residue were 28 and 36 g/kg dry solid (DS), respectively. In addition, mineralization on average across the four STRB systems removed up to 27 % of the organic solids in the sludge. The investigation showed that the sludge residue qualities of the four STRBs after a full treatment period all complied with the Danish and European Union legal limits for agricultural land disposal. PMID:25422113

  19. Anatomical correlations of the international 10-20 sensor placement system in infants.

    PubMed

    Kabdebon, C; Leroy, F; Simmonet, H; Perrot, M; Dubois, J; Dehaene-Lambertz, G

    2014-10-01

    Developmental research, as well as paediatric clinical activity crucially depends on non-invasive and painless brain recording techniques, such as electroencephalography (EEG), and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). However, both of these techniques measure cortical activity from the scalp without precise knowledge of the recorded cerebral structures. An accurate and reliable mapping between external anatomical landmarks and internal cerebral structures is therefore fundamental to localise brain sources in a non-invasive way. Here, using MRI, we examined the relations between the 10-20 sensor placement system and cerebral structures in 16 infants (3-17 weeks post-term). We provided an infant template parcelled in 94 regions on which we reported the variability of sensors locations, concurrently with the anatomical variability of six main cortical sulci (superior and inferior frontal sulcus, central sulcus, sylvian fissure, superior temporal sulcus, and intraparietal sulcus) and of the distances between the sensors and important cortical landmarks across these infants. The main difference between infants and adults was observed for the channels O1-O2, T5-T6, which projected over lower structures than in adults. We did not find any asymmetry in the distances between the scalp and the brain envelope. However, because of the Yakovlean torque pushing dorsally and frontally the right sylvian fissure, P3-P4 were not at the same distance from the posterior end of this structure. This study should help to refine hypotheses on functional cognitive development by providing an accurate description of the localization of standardised channels relative to infants' brain structures. Template and atlas are publicly available on our Web site (http://www.unicog.org/pm/pmwiki.php/Site/InfantTemplate). PMID:24862070

  20. 'Did not attends' in children 0-10: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Arai, L; Stapley, S; Roberts, H

    2014-11-01

    Patients who do not attend ('DNA') health appointments have been identified as a service problem incurring significant costs to the NHS. In order to explore the causes, effects and costs of child DNAs, we carried out a scoping study to map the literature and identify gaps in the research. Given the breadth of issues underpinning DNAs, a scoping study, including research studies, audits, policy documents and conference abstracts, was the most useful way to map the field. To foster public and patient participation, we sought advice from parents participating in the National Children's Bureau's Family Research Advisory Group. From a pool of 1997 items, we found few UK studies with non-attendance of 0-10 year olds as a primary focus, though many more incidentally reported DNA rates. Overall, four topics predominated: the conceptualization of DNAs; the correlates of non-attendance; initiatives to reduce non-attendance; and the relationship between non-attendance and safeguarding. The Family Research Advisory Group identified broadly similar issues, but with a stronger emphasis on communication and practical matters. While there may be circumstances where failing to attend appointments makes little or no difference to a child (or even benefits them) it is likely that there are children whose health or well-being are compromised as a result of failing to attend appointments. Both 'over' and 'under'-attendance can be a source of anxiety to health professionals. Areas where further work is needed include robust evaluation of the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and maintenance of measures to reduce DNAs and a better understanding of the relationship of safeguarding to non-attendance. PMID:24134800

  1. 17 CFR 240.0-10 - Small entities under the Securities Exchange Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Small entities under the Securities Exchange Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. 240.0-10 Section 240.0-10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules...

  2. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Bi{sub 0.90}La{sub 0.10}Fe{sub 0.90}Co{sub 0.10}O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Muneeswaran, M.; Giridharan, N. V.; Bhuvaneswari, S.; Senguttuvan, G.

    2014-04-24

    Multiferroic Bi{sub 0.90}La{sub 0.10}Fe{sub 0.90}Co{sub 0.10}O{sub 3} ceramics have been synthesized via soft chemical co-precipitation method. From the X-ray diffraction analysis, ceramic powder sintered at 600°C was found to be single phase belonging to the rhombohedral structure with R3c space group confirmed by Rietveld analysis. Further, dielectric, Leakage and magnetic studies were performed at room temperature.

  3. Preparation, crystal structure and enhanced bipolar response of 0.90BLNT-0.10BCT lead-free piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Vijayeta; Kumar, A.; Thakur, O. P.; Dwivedi, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, a solid solution of lead free 0.90[(Bi0.96La0.04)0.5Na0.5TiO3]-0.10(Ba0.90Ca0.10TiO3] (abbreviated as 0.90BLNT-0.10BCT) piezoceramics has been synthesized by semi-wet technique. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the phase formation. Rietveld refinement of XRD data demonstrates the coexistence of rhombhohedral (R3c) + tetragonal (P4mm) phase at room temperature. Raman spectrum is also support the above analysis. A large enhancement in bipolar strain of 0.12 % and calculated normalized strain, d*33 (defined as Smax/Emax) ~ 265 pm/V at 40kV/cm has been observed for this composition as compared to pure BLNT specimen, which make possible it as a potential lead-free candidates for piezoelectric applications.

  4. 13C(n,α0)10Be cross section measurement with sCVD diamond detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavrigin, P.; Griesmayer, E.; Belloni, F.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Weiss, C.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents 13C(n, α0)10Be cross section measurements performed at the Van de Graaff facility of the Joint Research Centre Geel. The 13C(n, α0)10Be cross section was measured relative to the 12C(n, α0)9Be cross section at 14.3 MeV and 17.0 MeV neutron energies. The measurements were performed with an sCVD (single-crystal chemical vapor deposition) diamond detector which acted as sample and as sensor simultaneously. A novel analysis technique was applied, which is based on the pulse-shape analysis of the detector's ionization current. This technique resulted in an efficient separation of background events and consequently in a well-determined selection of the nuclear reaction channels 12C(n, α0)9Be and 13C(n, α0)10Be.

  5. Nuclear data for neutron and proton interactions with 12C in the energy range 0-10 GeV.

    PubMed

    Pearlstein, S

    1993-08-01

    Nuclear model codes and nuclear systematics are used to give a first approximation to data for nucleons interacting with a 12C target over the range 0-10 GeV. Where there are experiments, the trial values are replaced by an eye guide through the measurements. The evaluated data have been placed in computerized form and are available for distribution. PMID:8392503

  6. Catalytic behaviour and copper leaching of Cu0.10Zn0.90Al1.90Fe0.10O4 spinel for catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aihua; Sun, Chenglin

    2012-06-01

    A Cu0.10Zn0.90Al1.90Fe0.10O4 spinel catalyst prepared by the sol-gel method was tested for catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol. The catalyst showed high activity for phenol degradation. During successive test at 170 degrees C, 100% phenol conversion and 95% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were observed. Results from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the catalyst structure remained unchanged during reaction. From the analysis of temperature programmed reduction (TPR), diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra (DR UV-Vis) and activity assay at basic solution pH, it can be suggested that the highly dispersed copper ions on the catalyst surface were almost completely dissolved into the reaction solution, whereas the tetra-coordinated copper ions were not only stable against leaching but also active towards phenol degradation. PMID:22856307

  7. Role of the 10-20-day oscillation in sustained rainstorms over Hainan, China in October 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yunting; Zhang, Chunhua; Jian, Maoqiu

    2015-03-01

    Hainan, an island province of China in the northern South China Sea, experienced two sustained rainstorms in October 2010, which were the most severe autumn rainstorms of the past 60 years. From August to October 2010, the most dominant signal of Hainan rainfall was the 10-20-day oscillation. This paper examines the roles of the 10-20-day oscillation in the convective activity and atmospheric circulation during the rainstorms of October 2010 over Hainan. During both rainstorms, Hainan was near the center of convective activity and under the influence of a lower-troposphere cyclonic circulation. The convective center was initiated in the west-central tropical Indian Ocean several days prior to the rainstorm in Hainan. The convective center first propagated eastward to the maritime continent, accompanied by the cyclonic circulation, and then moved northward to the northern South China Sea and South China, causing the rainstorms over Hainan. In addition, the westward propagation of convection from the tropical western Pacific to the southern South China Sea, as well as the propagation farther northward, intensified the convective activity over the northern South China Sea and South China during the first rainstorm.

  8. Characterisation of a counting imaging detector for electron detection in the energy range 10-20 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, G.; Sikharulidze, I.; Matheson, J.; Derbyshire, G.; Kirkland, A. I.; Abrahams, J. P.

    2012-07-01

    As part of a feasibility study into the use of novel electron detector for X-ray photoelectron emission microscopes (XPEEM) and related methods, we have characterised the imaging performance of a counting Medipix 2 readout chip bump bonded to a Silicon diode array sensor and directly exposed to electrons in the energy range 10-20 keV. Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE), Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and Noise Power Spectra (NPS) are presented, demonstrating very good performance for the case of electrons with an energy of 20 keV. Significant reductions in DQE are observed for electrons with energy of 15 keV and less, down to levels of 20% for electrons of 10 keV.

  9. Product yields of sup 235 U, sup 238 U, sup 237 Np, and sup 239 Pu by photofission reactions with 20-, 30-, and 60-MeV Bremsstrahlung

    SciTech Connect

    Kase, T.; Yamadera, A.; Nakamura, T. ); Shibata, S. ); Fujiwara, I. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports that as a basic study of photonuclear transmutation of actinides in high-level radioactive wastes using electron-produced bremsstrahlung, the absolute yields of cumulative mass distributions and the transmutation rate of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu by photofission reactions induced by 20-, 30-, and 60-MeV bremsstrahlung were measured. The results of mass yield distributions and transmutation yields agree well with other experimental results and those calculated using photofission cross sections, respectively. The transmutation efficiency per electron increases about one order of magnitude with electron energy from 20 to 60 MeV.

  10. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air and its products of combustion with ASTMA-A-1 fuel and natural gas at 20, 30, and 40 atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The isentropic exponent, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy were calculated for air, the combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air, and the combustion products of natural gas and air. The properties were calculated over a temperature range from 300 to 2800 K in 100 K increments and for pressures of 20, 30 and 40 atmospheres. The data for natural gas and ASTM-A-1 were calculated for fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric in 0.01 increments.

  11. Strategies to observe JWST First Light objects at z=10--20 based on recent results from the HUDF XDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, S. H.; Jansen, R. A.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A.; Alpaslan, M.; Lange, R.; Hopkins, A. M.; Cluver, M.; Konstantopoulos, I.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Barone-Nugent, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on the best observing strategies to see an optimum number of First Light objects at 10-20 with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), based on recent results from the Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 UltraDeep Field. First, we summarize the best available data to redshifts z<8 on how the Schechter UV Luminosity Function (LF) evolves in its faint-end slope [alpha(z)], its characteristic luminosity [M*(z)] and corresponding space density [phi*(z)], and use hierarchical models to explore how alpha(z) and phi*(z) may evolve for z>8. We use the strongly declining number of z=9-11 candidates in the HUDF-XDF compared to the large number of z=7-8 objects, to constrain the plausible range in evolution of M*(z) for z> 9. While hierarchical models suggest that alpha(z>8) converges to ~-2 and phi*(z>8) to ~< 10^-3/Mpc^3, the one plausible =10-12 candidate seen in the HUDF-XDF suggests that M*(z) may drop to fainter than M=--17.5 mag at z>10 in WMAP9/Planck cosmology. If so, this may have a significant impact on the optimal observing strategies of z>10 objects with JWST. If M*(z) and/or phi*(z) continue to decline significantly for z>9, only deep 200+-hr JWST surveys that reach to AB>31 mag will see a significant number of z>10 objects. Shallow or medium deep JWST surveys that reach to AB<30 mag will not see very many unlensed z>10 objects, since they will generally sample brighter than M* at z>10. Hence, in order to sample the brighter-end of the LF at z>10, and to average over the expected significant cosmic variance at z>10, JWST will either need to observe a larger number (>5) of deep JWST fields, and/or it will need to do a much larger number (>10-20) of medium-deep surveys on gravitational lensing foreground targets. The 6 Hubble Frontier Fields that started in 2013 are excellent lensing targets for JWST. We present a subset of 2400 galaxy groups from the GAMA spectroscopic survey to z=0.4 that have M>10^15 M_o and are sufficiently compact to also be excellent

  12. Preparation of UC0.07-0.10N0.90-0.93 spheres for TRISO coated fuel particles

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Jack Lee; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Johnson, Jared A; Silva, Chinthaka M; Lindemer, Terrence

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is considering a new nuclear fuel, which should be much more impervious during a loss of coolant accident. The fuel would consist of tristructural isotropic coated particles with dense uranium nitride (UN) kernels. The objectives of this effort are to make uranium oxide microspheres with adequately dispersed carbon nanoparticles and to convert these microspheres into UN kernels. Recent improvements to internal gelation process were successfully applied to the production of uranium gel spheres with different concentrations of carbon black. After the spheres were washed, a simple, two-step heat profile was used to produce kernels with a chemical composition of UC0.07 0.10N0.90 0.93. The first step involved heating the microspheres to 2023 K in a vacuum, and in the second step, the microspheres were held at 1873 K for 6 hrs in nitrogen.

  13. Effect of oral olive oil on healing of 10-20% total body surface area burn wounds in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Najmi, Mahtab; Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Zahra; Tolouei, Mohammad; Amiri, Zohreh

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of oral olive oil on clinical outcomes and wound healing of thermally injured patients with hospital stays. One hundred patients (mean age; 33.34±7 years) with 10-20% total body surface area, deep second degree and more burn wounds were randomized to receive either oral olive oil or sunflower oil as the oil in their diet. Patients were evaluated daily for occurrence of wound infection, sepsis and healing of the grafted skin. Also the duration of hospitalization and admission to the intensive care unit were compared in two groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the olive oil group and the control group in percent of TBSA involvement (14.28±0.53 vs. 13.02±0.48, P=0.7), albumin concentration (3.25±0.5 vs. 3.13±0.5, P=0.5) and mean calorie intake (2034±216.9 kcal vs2118±192.1 kcal, P=0.2). We found a significant difference in the duration of wound healing (7.2±0.5 vs. 8.7±0.5, P=0.04) and duration of hospitalization (7.4±0.5 vs. 8.9±0.4, P=0.05) in the olive oil group versus the control group. We did not find any difference in ICU admission, wound infection and occurrence of sepsis between two groups. This study showed that an oral diet provided with olive oil in patients with burn may accelerate wound healing and decrease the duration of hospitalization. PMID:25306088

  14. Morphologies of ˜190,000 Galaxies at z = 0-10 Revealed with HST Legacy Data. I. Size Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, Takatoshi; Ouchi, Masami; Harikane, Yuichi

    2015-08-01

    We present the redshift evolution of the galaxy effective radius re obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) samples of ˜190,000 galaxies at z = 0-10. Our HST samples consist of 176,152 photo-z galaxies at z = 0-6 from the 3D-HST+CANDELS catalog and 10,454 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z = 4-10 identified in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), HUDF 09/12, and HFF parallel fields, providing the largest data set to date for galaxy size evolution studies. We derive re with the same technique over the wide redshift range of z = 0-10, evaluating the optical-to-UV morphological K correction and the selection bias of photo-z galaxies+LBGs as well as the cosmological surface-brightness dimming effect. We find that re values at a given luminosity significantly decrease toward high z, regardless of statistics choices (e.g., {r}{{e}}\\propto {(1+z)}-1.10+/- 0.06 for median). For star-forming galaxies, there is no evolution of the power-law slope of the size-luminosity relation and the median Sérsic index (n˜ 1.5). Moreover, the re distribution is well represented by log-normal functions whose standard deviation {σ }{ln{r}{{e}}} does not show significant evolution within the range of {σ }{ln{r}{{e}}}˜ 0.45-0.75. We calculate the stellar-to-halo size ratio from our re measurements and the dark-matter halo masses estimated from the abundance-matching study, and we obtain a nearly constant value of {r}{{e}}/{r}{vir}=1.0%-3.5% at z = 0-8. The combination of the re-distribution shape+standard deviation, the constant {r}{{e}}/{r}{vir}, and n˜ 1.5 suggests a picture in which typical high-z star-forming galaxies have disk-like stellar components in a sense of dynamics and morphology over cosmic time of z˜ 0-6. If high-z star-forming galaxies are truly dominated by disks, the {r}{{e}}/{r}{vir} value and the disk-formation model indicate that the specific angular momentum of the disk normalized by the host halo is {j

  15. Phenotypic and functional modulation of 20-30 year old dermal fibroblasts by mid- and late-gestational keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Dianbao; Wang, Xiliang; Zhao, Feng; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Rui; Lin, Xuewen; Shi, Ping; Pang, Xining

    2015-08-01

    Fetal wound healing occurs rapidly and without scar formation early in gestation, but the mechanisms underlying this scarless healing are poorly understood. This study explores the phenotypic and functional modulation of 20-30 year old dermal fibroblasts by mid- and late-gestational keratinocytes (KCs) in vitro. Human KCs of different gestational ages were isolated, characterized, and co-cultured with human 20-30 year old fibroblasts. Gene expression and protein levels of TGF-β family members, precollagen, collagen, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were measured in the fibroblasts. Mid-gestational KCs promoted faster proliferation and migration of fibroblasts than late-gestational KCs. Additionally, significant differences in gene expression and protein levels of some markers were observed in fibroblasts co-cultured with mid- or late-gestational KCs. Fibroblasts co-cultured with mid-gestational KCs for 48 h exhibited downregulated gene expression of precollagen 1, collagen 1, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3, while precollagen 3, collagen 3, TGF-β3, and MMP-1, -2, -3, -9 and -14 were upregulated. In contrast, late-gestational KCs exhibited downregulated TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 levels, while collagen 1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and MMP-2, -3, -9 and -14 were upregulated. Moreover, statistically significant differences in expression levels of precollagen 1, precollagen 3, collagen 1, TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3, MMP-1, -3 and MMP-14, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were found between fibroblasts co-cultured with mid- and late-gestational KCs. Furthermore, cytokine levels of IL-1a and HB-EGF were found to be statistically different between conditioned medium from mid- and late-gestational KCs. Therefore, the gestational age of KCs appears to have an important effect on scarless wound healing in the human fetus. PMID:25599870

  16. Preparation of UC0.07-0.10N0.90-0.93 spheres for TRISO coated fuel particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, R. D.; Silva, C. M.; Lindemer, T. B.; Johnson, J. A.; Collins, J. L.

    2014-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering a new nuclear fuel that would be less susceptible to ruptures during a loss-of-coolant accident. The fuel would consist of tristructural isotropic coated particles with dense uranium nitride (UN) kernels with diameters of 650 or 800 μm. The objectives of this effort are to make uranium oxide microspheres with adequately dispersed carbon nanoparticles and to convert these microspheres into UN spheres, which could be then sintered into kernels. Recent improvements to the internal gelation process were successfully applied to the production of uranium gel spheres with different concentrations of carbon black. After the spheres were washed and dried, a simple two-step heat profile was used to produce porous microspheres with a chemical composition of UC0.07-0.10N0.90-0.93. The first step involved heating the microspheres to 2023 K in a vacuum, and in the second step, the microspheres were held at 1873 K for 6 h in flowing nitrogen.

  17. Order and disorder in Ca 2ND 0.90H 0.10-A structural and thermal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbraeken, Maarten C.; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T. S.

    2011-08-01

    The structure of calcium nitride hydride and its deuterided form has been re-examined at room temperature and studied at high temperature using neutron powder diffraction and thermal analysis. When synthesised at 600 °C, a mixture of both ordered and disordered Ca 2ND 0.90H 0.10 phases results. The disordered phase is the minor component and has a primitive rocksalt structure (spacegroup Fm3 m) with no ordering of D/N on the anion sites and the ordered phase is best described using the rhombohedral spacegroup R-3 m with D and N arranged in alternate layers in (111) planes. This mixture of ordered and disordered phases exists up to 580 °C, at which the loss of deuterium yields Ca 2ND 0.85 with the disappearance of the disordered phase. In the new ordered phase there exists a similar content of vacancies on both anion sites; to achieve this balance, a little N transfers onto the D site, whereas there is no indication of D transferring onto the N-sites. These observations are thought to indicate that the D/N ordering is difficult to achieve with fully occupied anion sites. It has previously been reported that Ca 2ND has an ordered cubic cell with alternating D and N sites in the [100] directions [1]; however, for the samples studied herein, there were clearly two coexisting phases with apparent broadening/splitting of the primitive peaks but not for the ordered peaks. The rhombohedral phase was in fact metrically cubic; however, all the observed peaks were consistent with the rhombohedral unit cell with no peaks requiring the larger ordered cubic unit cell to be utilised. Furthermore this rhombohedral cell displays the same form of N-D ordering as the Sr and Ba analogues, which are metrically rhombohedral.

  18. The microstructure and magnetization behaviors of (Pr8.2Fe86.1-xCoxB5.7)0.99Zr0.01 (x = 0-10) nanocomposite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renjie; Guo, Shuai; Wang, Jinzhi; Lee, Don; Yan, Aru

    2011-04-01

    Nanocomposite (Pr8.2Fe86.1-xCoxB5.7)0.99Zr0.01 (x = 0-10) ribbons consisting of Pr2(Fe,Co)14B and α-(Fe,Co) phases were prepared by a melt-spun technique. The microstructure and magnetic properties were studied. The results show that the Curie temperature increases drastically with increasing Co content. The optimal permanent magnetic properties are obtained at x = 2, and the value of Hci, Ms, Mr, and (BH)max are 6.52 kOe, 150.2 emu/g, 120.9 emu/g, and 22.34 MGOe, respectively. Typical magnetization behaviors of nanocomposite magnets are found in these ribbons. The significant remanence enhancement indicates that a strong intergrain exchange coupling exists in all ribbons studied in this work. By Co substitution, the intergrain exchange coupling is enhanced significantly. The study of microstructure shows that the larger grains of Pr2(Fe,Co)14B hard phase are surrounded by the smaller grains of α-(Fe,Co) soft phase with size about 10-20 nm in the ribbon with Co substitution. This kind of microstructure is in favor of exchange coupling between magnetically hard and soft phases and results in excellent magnetic properties.

  19. Covariations of SST and surface heat flux on 10-20 day and 30-60 day time scales over the South China Sea and western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Cao, Xi; Chen, Shangfeng

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the variability and relationship between intraseasonal sea surface temperature (SST) and surface net heat flux (NHF) variations in the South China Sea and western North Pacific regions. It is shown that the intraseasonal SST variations and their coherence with surface heat flux variations display large differences between winter and summer and between 10-20 day and 30-60 day time scales. The intraseasonal SST variability is comparable on 10-20 day and 30-60 day time scales but larger during summer than during winter. The NHF variability is much larger on the 10-20 day time scale and during winter. The coherence between intraseasonal SST and NHF variations is higher during summer than during winter due to the seasonal change in the mixed-layer depth. During summer, coherent intraseasonal SST and NHF variations are identified in a southwest-northeast tilted region from the South China Sea to the subtropics on the 10-20 day time scale but within a broad zonal band from the South China Sea to the Philippine Sea on the 30-60 day time scale. Such difference is not discernable during winter. The contribution of NHF to the SST tendency is larger on the 30-60 day time scale than on the 10-20 day time scale and during summer than during winter. Latent heat flux provides a much larger contribution than shortwave radiation to intraseasonal SST variations in most regions except for the South China Sea during summer on the 30-60 day time scale.

  20. Relationship of boreal summer 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillation intensity over the tropical western North Pacific to tropical Indo-Pacific SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Cao, Xi

    2016-07-01

    The present study contrasts interannual variations in the intensity of boreal summer 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) over the tropical western North Pacific and their factors. A pronounced difference is found in the relationship of the two ISOs to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The 10-20-day ISO intensity is enhanced during El Niño developing summer, whereas the 30-60-day ISO intensity is enhanced during La Niña decaying summer. The above different relationship is interpreted as follows. The equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies modify vertical wind shear, lower-level moisture, and vertical motion in a southeast-northwest oriented band from the equatorial western Pacific to the tropical western North Pacific where the 10-20-day ISOs originate and propagate. These background field changes modulate the amplitude of 10-20-day ISOs. Preceding equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies induce SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean in summer, which in turn modify vertical wind shear and vertical motion over the tropical western North Pacific. The modified background fields influence the amplitude of the 30-60-day ISOs when they reach the tropical western North Pacific from the equatorial region. A feedback of ISO intensity on local SST change is identified in the tropical western North Pacific likely due to a net effect of ISOs on surface heat flux anomalies. This feedback is more prominent from the 10-20-day than the 30-60-day ISO intensity change.

  1. The Evidence for Intravenous Theophylline Levels between 10-20mg/L in Children Suffering an Acute Exacerbation of Asthma: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Intravenous theophyllines are a second line treatment for children suffering an acute exacerbation of asthma. Various guidelines and formularies recommend aiming for serum theophylline levels between 10-20mg/l. This review aims to assess the evidence underpinning this recommendation. Methods A systematic review comparing outcomes of children who achieved serum theophylline concentrations between 10-20mg/l with those who did not. Primary outcomes were time until resolution of symptoms, mortality and need for mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes were date until discharge criteria are met, actual discharge, adverse effects and FEV1. Data sources MEDLINE, CINAHL, CENTRAL and Web of Science. Search performed in October 2015. Eligibility criteria Interventional or observational studies utilizing intravenous theophyllines for an acute exacerbation of asthma in children where serum theophylline levels and clinical outcomes were measured. Findings 10 RCTs and 2 observational studies were included. Children with serum levels between 10-20mg/l did not have a reduction in duration of symptoms, length of hospital stay or need for mechanical ventilation or better spirometric results compared with levels <10mg/l. Levels above 20mg/l are not associated with higher rates of adverse effects. This study is limited due to heterogeneity in the way theophylline levels were reported and poor surveillance of adverse effects across studies. Conclusion Dosing strategies aiming for levels between 10-20mg/l are not associated with better outcomes. Clinicians should rely on clinical outcomes and not serum levels when using intravenous theophyllines in children suffering an acute exacerbation of asthma. PMID:27096742

  2. Peculiarities of the anisotropy of cosmic rays with E{sub 0} {>=} 10{sup 19} eV from Yakutsk EAS array data

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, A. V.

    2009-11-15

    The arrival directions of primary cosmic ray particles with energies E{sub 0} {>=} 10{sup 19} eV and zenith angles {theta} {<=} 60{sup o} recorded on the Yakutsk array over the period 1974-2009 are analyzed. These events separated by different time intervals are shown to have different global anisotropies.

  3. Local anisotropy of cosmic rays with E{sub 0} {>=} 10{sup 17} eV from Yakutsk EAS array data

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, A. V.

    2010-07-15

    The arrival directions of primary cosmic ray particles with energies E{sub 0} {>=} 10{sup 17} eV and zenith angles {theta} {<=} 60{sup o} recorded on the Yakutsk array over the period 1974-2009 are analyzed. These events are shown to have different anisotropies in different energy ranges.

  4. Cycling Stability Performance of La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 Hydrogen Storage Alloy in Discharge-Charge System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaojiang; Huang, Lei; Wan, Qi; Li, Xu; Guang, Ma; Li, Ping

    2014-12-01

    La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 hydrogen storage alloy was prepared by vacuum induction melting furnace and subsequently heated treatment at 940°C for 8 h and cooled to room temperature in the oven. The electrochemical properties of La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 compound were measured by LAND CT2001A battery test system. The morphologies of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface state of samples was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the charge-discharge rate plays the key impact on the cycling stability of the alloy. During the cycle test, the prepared La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 compound presented an excellent capacity retention at the charge-discharge of 1 C while the capacity of sample declined rapidly at 0.2 C. The excellent cycling stability performance of La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 electrode at 1 C could be attributed to the less powder and less oxidation of surface effective active elements. The pulverization inevitably leads to the separation of the part of the cracking alloy and the electrode, resulting in reduction of the effective active substance and increasing attenuation of the capacity per cycle. In addition, on the analysis of the different cut-off potential effects on the electrode, it was found that the La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 electrode shows good comprehensive electrochemical properties at 1 C cut-off 0.6-0.7 V. During charging, heavy overcharge will not be conducive to cycling stability performance during the charging test.

  5. Pressure distributions obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the space shuttle Orbiter's forebody in the AEDC 16T propulsion wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Henry, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Pressure distribution test data obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the forward fuselage of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are presented without analysis. The tests were completed in the AEDC 16T Propulsion Wind Tunnel. The 0.10-scale model was tested at angles of attack from -2 deg to 18 deg and angles of side slip from -6 to 6 deg at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1/5 deg. The tests were conducted in support of the development of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS). In addition to modeling the 20 SEADS orifices, the wind-tunnel model was also instrumented with orifices to match Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) port locations that existed on the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (OV-102) during the Orbiter Flight Test program. This DFI simulation has provided a means of comparisons between reentry flight pressure data and wind-tunnel and computational data.

  6. Fabrication, spectral and laser performance of 5 at.% Yb3+ doped (La0.10Y0.90)2O3 transparent ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haojia; Yang, Qiuhong; Lu, Shenzhou; Huang, Dongdong; Wang, Yonggang; Wei, Zhiyi; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yongdong

    2013-02-01

    A 5 at.% Yb3+ doped (La0.10Y0.90)2O3 transparent ceramic was fabricated with nano-powders and sintered in H2 atmosphere. Spectroscopic properties and laser performance of Yb:(La0.10Y0.90)2O3 ceramic were studied. The ceramic exhibits excellent spectroscopic properties, with broad absorption and emission bands, and its refractive index (n) is close to 2. The gain cross-section (σg) was calculated at different population inversion ratio (β) values. In addition, among Yb3+ doped YAG crystal, Y2O3 and (YLa)2O3 ceramic, (YLa)2O3 ceramic has the least pump intensity (Imin) of 1.25 KW cm-2. Furthermore, a diode-pumped C-W ceramic laser output has been demonstrated at 1075 nm with a slope-efficiency of 60.2%.

  7. Ozone concentration and pulmonary response relationships for 6. 6-hour exposures with five hours of moderate exercise to 0. 08, 0. 10, and 0. 12 ppm

    SciTech Connect

    Horstman, D.H.; Folinsbee, L.J.; Ives, P.J.; Abdul-Salaam, S.; McDonnell, W.F. )

    1990-11-01

    The magnitudes of pulmonary responses we previously observed (1) following 6.6-h exposures to 0.12 ppm ozone (O3) suggested that responses would also occur with similar exposures at lower O3 concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of pulmonary function decrements, respiratory discomfort, and increased airway reactivity to methacholine induced by exposure to O3 below 0.12 ppm. Separate 6.6-h chamber exposures to 0.00, 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12 ppm O3 included six 50-min periods of moderate exercise (VE approximately equal to 39 L/min, HR approximately equal to 115 bpm, and VO2 approximately equal to 1.5 L/min). Each exercise period was followed by 10 min of rest. A 35-min lunch break was included midway through the exposure. Although not intended as an exact simulation, the overall duration, intensity, and metabolic requirements of the exercise performed were representative of a day of moderate to heavy work or play. Preexposure FEV1 averaged 4.39 L, and essentially no change (+0.03 L) occurred with exposure to 0.00 ppm O3. Significant decreases (p less than 0.01) of -0.31, -0.30, and -0.54 L were observed with exposures to 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12 ppm, respectively. The provocative dose of methacholine required to increase airway resistance by 100% (PD100) was 58 cumulative inhalation units (CIU) following exposure to 0.00 ppm and was significantly reduced (p less than 0.01) to 37 CIU at 0.08, 31 CIU at 0.10, and 26 CIU at 0.12 ppm O3; reductions in PD100 are considered indicative of increases in nonspecific airway responsiveness.

  8. Multiferroic properties of Pb0.90Sr0.10TiO3-CoFe2O4 nanostructured bilayered thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Kanchan; Kotnala, R. K.; Negi, N. S.

    2015-05-01

    Pb0.90Sr0.10TiO3-CoFe2O4(PST10-CFO) nanostructured bilayered thin film were grown on Si (100) substrate by using metallo-organic decomposition chemical route and spin coating technique. Results show that PST (pervoskite structure) and CFO (spinel) phase coexist in the bilayered thin films, annealed at 650°C for 2hr and no obvious impurity phase can be detected. The structural, surface morphology and micro structural properties were confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) respectively. Excellent ferroelectric behavior at different voltage was observed, with two platinum electrodes only at surface of the bilayer thin film. A room temperature ferromagnetic behavior was observed in the bilayered Pb0.90Sr0.10TiO3-CoFe2O4 nanostructured thin film. The saturation magnetization and variation in coercivity value of the bilayer thin film is lower than that of the pure CFO film in the presence of non ferromagnetic PST layer which is the attributed that the significant coupling between the two phases.

  9. Investigation of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric nozzles installed on a 0.10 scale F-18 prototype airplane model. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Berrier, B. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Langley 16 foot transonic tunnel was used to investigate the afterbody/nozzle longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of three different two dimensional nozzles and a base-line axisymmetric nozzle installed on a 0.10 scale model of the F-18 airplane. The effects of thrust vectoring and in-flight thrust reversing were also studied. Horizontal-tail deflections of 0 deg, -2 deg, and -5 deg were tested. Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20 over an angle-of-attack range from -2 deg to 10 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet off to about 10.

  10. Energy Spectrum and Anisotropy of Cosmic Rays with E{sub 0} {>=} 10{sup 17} eV from Yakutsk EAS Array Data

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, A.V.; Pravdin, M.I.

    2005-07-01

    Data from the Yakutsk extensive air shower array for the period 1974-2004 are used to analyze the energy spectrum and anisotropy of primary cosmic rays (PCRs) with energy E{sub 0} {>=} 10{sup 17} eV. The spectra from different regions of the sky are shown to differ in shape. Enhanced and reduced particle fluxes come from the disks of the Galaxy and the Supergalaxy (the Local Supercluster of galaxies) at E{sub 0} {>=} 5 x 10{sup 18} eV and E{sub 0} {<=} (2-3) x 10{sup 18} eV, respectively. This is interpreted as a manifestation of the possible interaction between extragalactic PCRs and the matter of these spatial structures.

  11. Astrophysical and structural peculiarities of extensive air showers with energy E{sub 0} {>=} 10{sup 17} eV from Yakutsk EAS array data

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, A. V. Pravdin, M. I.

    2006-12-15

    The astrophysical characteristics of primary cosmic rays (PCRs) and the structure of extensive air showers (EASs) with energy E{sub 0} {>=} 10{sup 17} eV are simultaneously analyzed using the Yakutsk EAS array data acquired in the period 1974-2005. Enhanced and reduced particle fluxes are shown to come from the disk of the Supergalaxy (the Local Supercluster of galaxies) at E{sub 0} {>=} 5 x 10{sup 18} eV and E{sub 0} {<=} (2-3) x 10{sup 18}, respectively. The development of air showers with E{sub 0} {>=} (3-5) x 10{sup 18} eV differs significantly from that at lower energies. This is interpreted as a manifestation of the possible interaction between extragalactic PCRs and the matter of this spatial structure.

  12. Effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on dielectric relaxation and conduction mechanism in Ba0.90Sr0.10TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, C. R. K.; Dey, Ranajit; Patel, Shiv P.; Pandey, R. K.; Sharma, M. P.; Bajpai, P. K.

    2016-04-01

    The effects of 100 MeV O8+ ion beam irradiation on the structural and dielectric behavior of Ba0.90Sr0.10TiO3 ceramics have been analyzed. Ion irradiation does not change the crystalline structure, however the tetragonal distortion increases. The low frequency dielectric dispersion especially at high temperatures increases significantly after ion irradiation. The dielectric relaxation phenomenon has been probed through complex impedance and electric modulus approaches. The observed dielectric relaxation has distributed relaxation times and is a thermally activated process. Ion irradiation enhances the cationic disordering. The contributions of grains and grains boundaries towards impedance have been separated. It is inferred that the grain boundaries become more resistive due to ion irradiation and is associated to oxygen vacancies annihilation. Ion irradiation also decreases the bulk ferroelectric polarization demonstrating that the surface or near surface modifications may tune the bulk properties in polar dielectrics.

  13. Influence of Sm doping on structural and dielectric properties of Y1-xSmxMnO3 (x = 0, 0.10, 0.20) manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Mashkoor Ahmad; Dar, Hilal Ahmad; Varshney, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Structural and dielectric properties of polycrystalline YMnO3 (x = 0.0, 0.10 and 0.20) which was prepared by solid-state reaction route, have been investigated. The X-ray diffraction pattern reveals that all the samples are in single phase and show hexagonal structure with P63cm space group. The particle size decreases with increase in Sm doping while to that X-ray density increases with increasing x. The dielectric constant (ɛ') of Y1-xSmxMnO3 measured in the frequency range 10 Hz to 1MHz is much higher at lower frequencies (≤ 1KHz) and its value decreases with enhanced frequency. At very high frequencies, ɛ' becomes frequency independent and is attributed to Maxwell Wagner type of interfacial polarization model. A very high value of dielectric constant ˜18642 is observed for x = 10%. The dielectric loss (tan δ) decreases wit increase in Sm doping.

  14. Investigation of dielectric and electrical behaviour of nanocrystalline Zn1-xMnxO (x=0 to 0.10) semiconductors synthesized by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, S.; Sain, S.; Mandal, M. K.; Pradhan, S. K.; Meikap, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    The results on the measurement of electric and dielectric behaviour and capacitance-voltage characteristics of Zn1-xMnxO (x=0 to 0.10) nanocrystalline semiconductors are reported. Direct current conductivity increases with the increase Mn concentration and its thermal behavior can be explained by adiabatic polaronic hopping model. The alternating current conductivity obeys a power law of temperature and frequency. The temperature exponent p strongly depends on Mn concentration. The temperature dependence of frequency exponent s suggests that the overlapping large polaron conduction model is the appropriate conduction mechanism for the investigated samples. The interfacial boundaries and grain contribution to the dielectric properties can be identified by the analysis of complex impedance. Relaxation behaviour of the samples can be explained from the analysis of the electric modulus. Formation of Schottky diode can be described from capacitance-voltage characteristic of the samples and different diode parameters can be extracted from it.

  15. Ozone-concentration and pulmonary-response relationships for 6. 6-hour exposures with five hours of moderate exercise to 0. 08, 0. 10, and 0. 12 ppm

    SciTech Connect

    Horstman, D.H.; Folinsbee, L.J.; Ives, P.J.; Salaam, S.A.; McDonnell, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    The magnitudes of pulmonary responses the authors previously observed (1) following 6.6-h exposure to 0.12 ppm ozone (O{sub 3}) suggested that responses would also occur with similar exposures at lower O{sub 3} concentrations. The objective of the study was to determine the extent of pulmonary function decrements, respiratory discomfort, and increased airway reactivity to methacholine induced by exposure to O{sub 3} below 0.12 ppm. Separate 6.6-h chamber exposures to 0.00, 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12 ppm O3 included six 50-min periods of moderate exercise (VE = 39 L/min, HR = 115 bpm, and VO2 = 1.5 L/min). Each exercise period was followed by 10 min of rest. A 35-min lunch break was included midway through the exposure. Although not intended as an exact simulation, the overall duration, intensity, and metabolic requirements of the exercise performed were representative of a day of moderate to heavy work or play. Preexposure FEV, averaged 4.39 L, and essentially no change (+0.03 L) occurred with exposure to 0.00 ppm O{sub 3}. Significant decreases (p<0.01) of -0.31, -0.30, and -0.54 L were observed with exposures to 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12 ppm, respectively. The study concludes that exposure to O{sub 3} at levels often found in ambient air while engaged in activity representative of a typical day of moderate to heavy work or play induced clinically meaningful pulmonary responses.

  16. Optical properties of CdTe- Cd0.90Mn0.10Te multiple quantum well structures grown by pulsed laser evaporation and epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubowski, J. J.; Roth, A. P.; Deleporte, E.; Peter, G.; Feng, Z. C.; Perkowitz, S.

    1992-02-01

    Low-temperature photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation and Raman spectroscopy measurements of CdTeCd 0.90Mn 0.10Te multiple quantum well (MQW) structures grown by pulsed laser evaporation and epitaxy (PLEE) on (001) Cd 1- xZn xTe substrates are carried out. The samples are grown from fluxes of Cd-Te and Cd-Mn-Te provided by ablation of solid CdTe and Cd 0.93Mn 0.07Te targets with Nd:YAG and excimer XeCl lasers, respectively. The excitonic lines corresponding to the quantum well E 1-HH 1 transition are investigated. Comparison between the observed PL excitonic emissions and calculated energy levels using a Kronig-Penney model with the well width as a fitting parameter allowed us to determine the "optical" well widths of the samples and to compare them with those determined from secondary ion mass spectroscopy in-depth profiles. Raman spectra for non-resonance excitation at 501.7 nm are dominated by the CdTe-like longitudinal optical (LO) modes at 166 cm -1 and MnTe-like LO modes at 194 cm -1 from the Cd 0.90Mn 0.10Te barriers. Under resonance conditions, with excitation at 476.5 nm the CdTe LO, 2LO and 3LO modes from the wells near 170,340 and 510 cm -1 dominate the spectra. The results clearly indicate that the PLEE-grown MQWs have the characteristics of the best currently available material.

  17. Structure, phase transition and impedance of Zn1- x Li x O (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.70) ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadu, U.; Salaudeen, Islamiyat Temitope

    2016-07-01

    Structural transformations of Li-doped Zn1- x Li x O (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.70) which was synthesised by solid-state reaction were investigated. XRD carried out on powder specimens of the samples show that they are polycrystalline in nature with a hexagonal wurtzite structure having minor impurities. The result indicates the maximum limit of substitution of Zn atoms by Li is at x = 0.4. The lattice parameter a reduced from 3.01 to 2.99 Å, while c reduced from 5.21 to 5.19 Å. However, the Zn-O bond length reduced from 1.88 to 1.87 Å for the undoped, to x = 0.60 for the doped, respectively. The c/ a ratio is 1.73 and is almost constant for all samples. The grain size of the (100) peak of the undoped ZnO is 41.73 nm and that of x = 0.10 is 41.76 nm. For x = 0.2-0.70, the grain size is 41.72 nm indicating that the grain size is almost independent of doping. The SEM results indicate a variation of grain size from 2.18 to 5.15 µm for the undoped ZnO to x = 0.50, which shows increase in grain size and reduction in grain boundaries as doping increases. The results show that x = 0.50 has the highest grain size and the one with the highest transition temperature is x = 0.6. DTA results indicate the structural phase transition temperature of the doped ZnO ranged from ~371 to ~409 K and increased as the amount of Li increases. A single arc is observed in all the impedance plots of the ZnO together with the presence of a relaxation process which is non-Debye. The impedance data show reduced resistance with increase in lithium content. A general increase in dielectric constant with increase in lithium content is observed.

  18. Structural and dynamic electromagnetic properties of Ni0.27 Cu0.10 Zn0.63 Alx Fe2-x O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossen, M. Belal; Hossain, A. K. M. Akther

    2015-08-01

    The influence of Al substitution on the structural and electromagnetic properties of Ni0.27Cu0.10Zn0.63AlxFe2 - xO4; (where x = 0.0 to x = 0.16 with step = 0.02) prepared by the combustion technique, has been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the presence of single phase cubic spinel structure without any secondary phase. The lattice constant, theoretical density, bulk density and average grain size decreases with increasing Al content. B-H loops have been traced for all the compositions and the various hysteresis parameters like saturation induction, coercivity, remanance, remanance ratio and power loss have been studied as a function of Al content. The saturation induction and the initial permeability increases with sintering temperature up to 1150 °C where the maximum bulk density is obtained, while for higher sintering temperature they decrease. The variation of complex initial permeability for Al substituted NiCuZn ferrites can be presented as a form of semicircle so called the Cole-Cole plot and the relaxation phenomena were explained with various shapes of the plots. The analysis of complex impedance spectra by an equivalent circuit model were used to separate the grain and grain boundary resistance of various Ni0.27 Cu0.10 Zn0.63 Alx Fe2 - x O4 . The impedance plot showed the first semicircle at high frequency which corresponds to grain effect and the second semicircle at lower frequency which corresponds to grain boundary (conduction phenomenon). Both grain and grain boundary resistance increases with increasing Al content and the relative increase of grain resistance is larger than the grain boundary resistance. The frequency dependent conductivity results support the double (Jonscher's modified) power law,σT (ω) = σ (o) +A1 ω n1 +A2 ω n2 , and the results showed evidence of three types of conduction process at room temperature: (i) low frequency conductivity is due to long-range ordering (frequency independent or its tendency

  19. Investigation of Material Gain of In0.90Ga0.10As0.59P0.41/InP Lasing Nano-Heregostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Rashmi; Lal, Pyare; Rahman, F.; Dalela, S.; Alvi, P. A.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a step separate confinement heterostructure (SCH) based lasing nano-heterostructure In0.90Ga0.10As0.59P0.41/InP consisting of single quantum well (SQW) and investigated material gain theoretically within TE and TM polarization modes. In addition, the quasi Fermi levels in the conduction and valence bands along with other lasing characteristics like anti-guiding factor, refractive index change with carrier density and differential gain have also been investigated and reported. Moreover, the behavior of quasi Fermi levels in respective bands has also been correlated with the material gain. Strain dependent study on material gain and refractive index change has also been reported. Interestingly, strain has been reported to play a very important role in shifting the lasing wavelength of TE mode to TM mode. The results investigated in the work suggest that the proposed unstrained nano-heterostructure is very suitable as a source for optical fiber based communication systems due to its lasing wavelengths achieved at 1.35 μm within TM mode, while 1.40 μm within TE mode.

  20. Electron-Ion Mixed Conduction of BaCe0.90Y0.10O3-δ Thin Film Generated by Ru Substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochi, Masanori; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Shohei; Suetsugu, Takaaki; Suzuki, Naoya; Kobayashi, Masaki; Minohara, Makoto; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Tohru

    2016-03-01

    The structural and electrical properties of a c-axis-oriented BaCe0.85Ru0.05Y0.10O3-δ (BCRY) thin film on an Al2O3(0001) substrate depending on film thickness have been studied. The lattice constant of the c-axis decreases with increasing film thickness. The electrical conductivity is higher in the thin film with a small lattice constant. The activation energy (EA) of the dry BCRY thin film with a high conductivity is 0.26 eV, which corresponds to half of that of the bulk ceramic. The BCRY thin film exhibits electron-ion mixed conduction with a small EA of 0.18 eV below 400 °C in H2O atmosphere. The Ce3+ state created by oxygen vacancies, which locates at the top of the valence band, plays an important role in the electron-ion mixed conduction or proton conduction of the BCRY thin film.

  1. Pressure distributions obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter's forebody in the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Henry, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Pressure distribution test data obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the forward fuselage of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are presented without analysis. The tests were completed in the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The UPWT tests were conducted in two different test sections operating in the continuous mode, the 8 x 7 feet and 9 x 7 feet test sections. Each test section has its own Mach number range, 1.6 to 2.5 and 2.5 to 3.5 for the 9 x 7 feet and 8 x 7 feet test section, respectively. The test Reynolds number ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 x 10 to the 6th power ft and 0.6 to 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power ft, respectively. The tests were conducted in support of the development of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS). In addition to modeling the 20 SEADS orifices, the wind-tunnel model was also instrumented with orifices to match Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) port locations that existed on the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102) during the Orbiter Flight test program. This DFI simulation has provided a means for comparisons between reentry flight pressure data and wind-tunnel and computational data.

  2. The experimental cascade curves of EAS at E sub 0 10(17) eV obtained by the method of detection of Cherenkov pulse shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fomin, Y. A.; Kalmykov, G. B.; Khristiansen, M. V.; Motova, M. V.; Nechin, Y. A.; Prosin, V. V.; Zhukov, V. Y.; Efimov, N. N.; Grigoriev, V. M.; Nikiforova, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    The individual cascade curves of EAS with E sub 0 10 to the 17th power eV/I to 3/ were studied by detection of EAS Cherenkov light pulses. The scintillators located at the center of the Yakutsk EAS array within a 500-m radius circle were used to select the showers and to determine the main EAS parameters. The individual cascade curves N(t) were obtained using the EAS Cherenkov light pulses satisfying the following requirements: (1) the signal-to-noise ratio fm/delta sub n 15, (2) the EAS axis-detector distance tau sub 350 m, (3) the zenith angle theta 30 deg, (4) the probability for EAS to be detected by scintillators W 0.8. Condition (1) arises from the desire to reduce the amplitude distortion of Cherenkov pulses due to noise and determines the range of EAS sizes, N(t). The resolution times of the Cherenkov pulse shape detectors are tau sub 0 approx. 23 ns which results in distortion of a pulse during the process of the detection. The distortion of pulses due to the finiteness of tau sub 0 value was estimated. It is shown that the rise time of pulse becomes greater as tau sub 0.5/tau sub 0 ratio decreases.

  3. Identifying the sources of ferromagnetism in sol-gel synthesized Zn1-xCoxO (0≤x≤0.10) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, J. J.; Barrero, C. A.; Punnoose, A.

    2016-08-01

    We have carefully investigated the structural, optical and electronic properties and related them with changes in the magnetism of sol-gel synthesized Zn1-xCoxO (0≤x≤0.10) nanoparticles. Samples with x≤0.05 were free of spurious phases. Samples with x≤0.03 were found to be with only high spin Co2+ ions into ZnO structure, whereas sample with x=0.05, exhibited the presence of high spin Co2+ and low spin Co3+. We found that the intensity of the main EPR peak associated with Co2+ varies with the nominal Co content in a similar manner as the saturation magnetization and coercive field do. These results point out that the ferromagnetism in these samples should directly be correlated with the presence of divalent cobalt ions. Bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model and the charge transfer model are insufficient to explain the ferromagnetic properties of Zn1-xCoxO nanoparticles. The room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) may be originated from a combination of several factors such as the interaction of high spin Co2+ ions, perturbation/alteration and/or changes in the electronic structure of ZnO close to the valence band edge and grain boundary effects.

  4. Crystal, electronic structure and electronic transport properties of the Ti{sub 1-x}V{sub x}NiSn (x=0-0.10) solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Stadnyk, Yu.; Horyn', A.; Romaka, V.V.; Gorelenko, Yu.; Romaka, L.P.; Hlil, E.K.; Fruchart, D.

    2010-12-15

    The n-TiNiSn ternary intermetallic semiconductor is doped by the V donor impurity and the crystalline structure of the obtained Ti{sub 1-x}V{sub x}NiSn solid solutions (x=0-0.10) is determined by X-ray diffraction. Temperature and concentration dependences of the resistivity and thermopower are investigated in 80-380 K range. As main results, the TiNiSn conductivity type is revealed insensitive to V doping and the thermopower factor substantially increases versus V content. First principle calculations based on DFT using FPLO and KKR-CPA methods are performed as well. Experimental data and electronic structure calculations are compared and discussed in terms of thermopower improvements. -- Graphical abstract: Both approaches experimental and calculations point to the same conclusions. Resisitivity, power factor and thermopower estimations indicate that doping of TiNiSn based compound by the V induces insulator-metal transition without change of the negative sign of S thermopower. Vanadium is revealed as donor impurity.

  5. Magnetic transitions driven by temperature in surface oxidized Co{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.90}/Cu(001) ultrathin films

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Ying-Ta; Shen, Wen-He; Lee, Kuo-Long; Pan, Wei

    2014-01-15

    The magnetization of Co{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.90}/Cu(001) films before and after surface oxidization at 300 K is presented. Before the oxidization, the magnetization of the films in the thickness of 11 to 20 monolayers (ML) is in the in-plane direction at the temperature ranging from 140 K to 300 K. After the oxidization, the magnetizations of the films are in the in-plane direction at the temperature above 200 K, but transit to magnetization demolishment, in-plane-and-out-of-plane co-existence, spin reorientation transition, and coercivity enhancement, for films of 11, 12, 13, and above 15 ML, respectively. The blocking temperature of this film is also 200 K, which implies the transitions might be driven by the ordering of the antiferromagnetic surface oxides. The various magnetizations provide a model system for manipulating the magnetization direction, as well as a spin valve device by combination of the oxidized films.

  6. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and..., federal, foreign, and international criminal justice agencies to the extent that they utilize the services of the III System or the FIRS. This subpart is applicable to both manual and automated...

  7. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and..., federal, foreign, and international criminal justice agencies to the extent that they utilize the services of the III System or the FIRS. This subpart is applicable to both manual and automated...

  8. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and..., federal, foreign, and international criminal justice agencies to the extent that they utilize the services of the III System or the FIRS. This subpart is applicable to both manual and automated...

  9. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and..., federal, foreign, and international criminal justice agencies to the extent that they utilize the services of the III System or the FIRS. This subpart is applicable to both manual and automated...

  10. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and..., federal, foreign, and international criminal justice agencies to the extent that they utilize the services of the III System or the FIRS. This subpart is applicable to both manual and automated...

  11. LIF study of N2(A3\\mathbf{\\Sigma}_{\\text{u}}^{+} , v = 0-10) vibrational kinetics under nitrogen streamer conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimek, M.; Ambrico, P. F.; Prukner, V.

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of individual v = 0-10 vibrational levels of N2(A3Σ\\text{u}+ ) metastable species produced by filamentary streamer discharge was investigated by the laser-induced fluorescence technique. Triggered single streamer filament was periodically produced in pure nitrogen at a pressure of 200 torr and metastable species were monitored during the streamer channel decay in the centre of the discharge gap. The observed dynamics of N2(A3Σ\\text{u}+ ) vibrational levels follow two very different scenarios: while higher (v  >  6) vibronic levels decay exponentially in hundreds of nanoseconds, the populations of lower levels (v  ≤  6) definitely increase, first reaching a local maximum on a microsecond timescale and then decreasing afterwards. Population maxima of N2(A3Σ\\text{u}+ , v  ≤  6) levels occur after the streamer onset with a certain delay, which decreases with increasing vibrational number. Interpretation of experimental observation based on a 0D kinetic model of the post-discharge period takes into account the most important processes redistributing populations between the N2(A3Σ\\text{u}+ ), N2 ≤ft({{\\text{B}}3}{{\\Pi}\\text{g}}\\right) and N2≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}\\text{u}}\\right) vibronic levels. The model reproduces experimental observations fairly well, including observed maxima delays occurring due to the collisional cascade, which transfers metastable species from higher even/odd vibrational levels towards v = 0/v = 1 terminal levels through the Δv = 2 vibrational relaxation mechanism. A calibration procedure based on the rate of energy-pooling processes was used to determine absolute populations of the v = 0 and 1 levels from LIF data, and the model results were utilized to place on an absolute scale all the higher (v  >  1) measured vibronic levels. Vibrational distributions obtained from calibrated LIF data at selected instants show a reasonable qualitative agreement with model predictions

  12. Double-exposure strategy using OPC and simulation and the performance on wafer with sub-0.10-μm design rule in ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Wan-Ho; Yune, Hyoung-Soon; Kim, Hee-Bom; Kim, Seo-Min; Ahn, Chang-Nam; Shin, Ki-Soo

    2002-07-01

    , registration between two stitched regions and stitching itself in the boundary. It is found from the experiment that total DOF of DE (double exposure) is 0.5 um and the total EL of DE is 10.0% in this paper. At present, it is very difficult to ensure stable process margin for the sub-0.10 um patterning. But there is a promising technology called stitching with special optimization. In addition, this technology will be nominated as an eternal candidate process whenever our lithography is in the adversity at the limits of his days.

  13. Room temperature long range ferromagnetic ordering in Ni{sub 0.58}Zn{sub 0.42}Co{sub 0.10}Cu{sub 0.10}Fe{sub 1.8}O{sub 4} nano magnetic system

    SciTech Connect

    Sarveena, Chand, Jagdish; Verma, S.; Singh, M.; Kotnala, R. K.; Batoo, K. M.

    2015-06-24

    The structural and magnetic behavior of sol-gel autocombustion synthesized nanocrystalline Ni{sub 0.58}Zn{sub 0.42}Co{sub 0.10}Cu{sub 0.10}Fe{sub 1.8}O{sub 4} have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM). Sample of high purity and high homogeneity was obtained by calcination at low temperature (500°C) resulting in nanoparticles of average diameter ∼15nm as determined by XRD and further confirmed by TEM. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selective area diffraction (SAED) confirmed the single phase of the sample. Mössbauer results are supported by magnetization data. Well defined sextets and appearance of hysteresis at room temperature indicate the existence of ferromagnetic coupling at room temperature finding material utility in magnetic storage data. The existence of iron in ferric state confirmed by isomer shift is a clear evidence of improved magnetic properties of the present system.

  14. Contrast of local air-sea relationships between 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillations during May-September over the South China Sea and western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Kunhui; Wu, Renguang

    2015-12-01

    Present study compares local air-sea relationship of 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) over the South China Sea (SCS) and western North Pacific (WNP) during May through September for the period 1998-2010. It is shown that sea surface temperature (SST) has a larger intraseasonal variance in the North Indian Ocean, the SCS, and subtropical WNP on the 30-60-day time scale, but in tropical WNP on the 10-20-day time scale. The local correlation of SST with rain, surface shortwave radiation (SWR) and latent heat flux (LHF) displays a southwest-northeast tilted structure on the 10-20-day time scale, but a broad west-east pattern with a larger correlation on the 30-60-day time scale. The time of SST leading rain is larger in off-equatorial regions than in near-equatorial regions for both types of ISOs, whereas the time of rain leading SST is larger in near-equatorial regions than in off-equatorial regions. A similar feature is seen for SWR, but an opposite feature for LHF. The atmospheric ISOs induce intraseasonal SST variations through cloud-radiation and wind-evaporation changes. The intraseasonal SST variations feedback on the atmosphere through modulation of atmospheric stability over off-equatorial regions on both timescales. The SST impacts on the atmosphere appear larger on the 30-60-day time scale than on the 10-20-day time scale. The distinct spatial patterns of local air-sea relationship on the two types of ISOs are associated with different spatial structures in both atmospheric ISO-associated SWR and LHF anomalies and SST-induced atmospheric stability anomalies.

  15. Temperature-dependent structural property and power factor of n type thermoelectric Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10} and Bi{sub 0.86}Sb{sub 0.14} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, K.; Das, Diptasikha; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, Aritra; Mandal, P.; Srihari, Velaga

    2013-12-09

    Thermal variation of structural property, linear thermal expansion coefficient (α), resistivity (ρ), thermopower (S), and power factor (PF) of polycrystalline Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} (x = 0.10 and 0.14) samples are reported. Temperature-dependent powder diffraction experiments indicate that samples do not undergo any structural phase transition. Rietveld refinement technique has been used to perform detailed structural analysis. Temperature dependence of α is found to be stronger for Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10}. Also, PF for direct band gap Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10} is higher as compared to that for indirect band gap Bi{sub 0.86}Sb{sub 0.14}. Role of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering on ρ, S, and PF has been discussed.

  16. Ab-initio computation of electronic, and transport properties of wurtzite aluminum nitride (W-AlN) and microwave absorption properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (outer diameter 20-30 nanometers)-epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwigboji, Ifeanyi Humphrey

    In Section I, We report findings from several ab-initio, self-consistent calculations of electronic and transport properties of wurtzite aluminum nitride (w-AlN). Our calculations utilized a local density approximation (LDA) potential and the linear combination of Gaussian orbitals (LCGO). Unlike some other density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we employed the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams' method, enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). The BZW-EF method verifiably leads to the minima of the occupied energies; these minima, the low laying unoccupied energies, and related wave functions provide the most variationally and physically valid density functional theory (DFT) description of the ground states of materials under study. With multiple oxidation states of Al (Al3+ to Al) and the availability of N3- to N, the BZW-EF method required several sets of self-consistent calculations with different ionic species as input. The binding energy for (Al3+ & N3-) as input was 1.5 eV larger in magnitude than those for other input choices; the results discussed here are those from the calculation that led to the absolute minima of the occupied energies with this input. Our calculated, direct band gap for w-AlN, at the Gamma point, is 6.28 eV, in excellent agreement with the 6.28 eV experimental value at 5K. We discuss the bands, total and partial densities of states, and calculated, effective masses. In section II, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-epoxy composites with MWCNTs of outer diameters (OD) of 20-30nm was fabricated. The MWCNT loadings in the composites were controlled from 1-10 wt. %. An Agilent PNA Network analyzer was utilized in the measurements of microwave absorption (MA) properties of these MWCNTs-epoxy composites over a wide frequency range of 1-26.5GHz.The measurement results showed that MA strongly depends on MWCNTs loadings in the composites. In addition, the microwave reflection, transmission, and dielectric permittivity of the MWCNTs

  17. Forecasting Flooding in the Brahmaputra and Ganges Delta of Bangladesh on Short (1-10 days), Medium (20-30 days) and Seasonal Time Scales (1-6 months)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.; Hoyos, C. D.; Hopson, T. M.; Chang, H.; Jian, J.

    2007-12-01

    Following the devastating flood years of 1998 during which 60% of Bangladesh was under water for a period of 3 months, the Climate Forecast Applications in Bangladesh (CFAB) project was formed with funding by USAID and NSF which eventually resulted in a joint project with the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) and the Bangladesh Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre. The project was organized and developed through the Georgia Institute of Technology. The aim of CFAB was to develop innovative methods of extending the warning of flooding in Bangladesh noting that there was a unique problem: India provided no upstream discharge data to Bangladesh so that before CFAB the maximum lead time of a forecast was that given by measuring river discharge at the India-Bangladesh border: no lead-time at the border and 2 days in the southern parts of the country. Given that the Brahmaputra and Ganges catchment areas had to be regarded as essentially unguaged, it was clear that innovative techniques had to be developed. On of the basic criterion was that the system should provide probabilistic forecasts in order for the Bangladeshis to assess risk. A three-tier system was developed to allow strategic and tactical decisions to be made for agricultural purposes and disaster mitigation: seasonal (1-6 months: strategic), medium range (20-30 days: strategic/tactical) and short range (1-10 days: tactical). The system that has been developed brings together for the first time operational meteorological forecasts (ensemble forecasts from ECMWF), with satellite and discharge data and a suite of hydrological models. In addition, with ADPC and FFWC we have developed an in-country forecast dispersion system that allows a rapid dissemination. The system has proven to be rather successful, especially in the short range. The flooding events of 2004 were forecast with all forecasting tiers at the respective lead time. In

  18. Interstellar extinction at 10-20 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Rubin, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    The IRAS low-resolution spectra (LRS) spectra of 117 stars of excellent signal/noise with optically thin silicate dust shells were analyzed. The stellar continua (assumed to be a cool black body) were subtracted, and the resulting dust shell spectra were fit with simple models F(sub lambda) assuming uniform mass loss and dust temperature as a function of distance from the star, calculated using the optical constants for silcates of Draine (1985). From the comparison of the spectra and the models, functions for the emissivity, kappa(sub lambda), were derived.

  19. Discrepancy among the Au, Pt, and MgO Pressure Scales at 20-30 GPa and 1700-2100 K in the Laser-Heated Diamond-Anvil Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, S.; Ye, Y.; Meng, Y.; Prakapenka, V.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-anvil press study by Irifune et al. (1998) reported that the post-spinel transition occurs at 21.3 GPa and 1850 K using Anderson et al. (1989)'s Au scale in Mg2SiO4, while a later laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (LHDAC) study (Shim et al., 2001) reported 23.8 GPa using Holmes et al. (1989)' Pt scale at the same temperature. The 2.6-GPa difference has been attributed to the accuracy of the pressure scales. However, high-temperature equations of state (EOS) of Au and Pt have been compared only at a limited pressure-temperature range in multi-anvil press (Fei et al., 2004). We have compared the thermal EOS of Au, Pt, and MgO at 20-30 GPa and 1700-2100 K in LHDAC combined with synchrotron X-ray diffraction at the GSECARS and HPCAT sectors of APS through two different approaches: (1) determination of the post-spinel boundary in a MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 pyrolitic composition using the Au and Pt scales, and (2) unit-cell volume measurements on separate MgO+Au and MgO+Pt mixtures. In order to prevent alloying between Pt and Au, we did not mix them, but prepared separate samples and loaded in separate DACs. All the samples were loaded with an argon medium. Diffraction pattern analysis shows that deviatoric stress should be less than 1 GPa at high temperature. Spectroradiometry data show that temperature gradients should be less than 100 K. We found that the post-spinel boundary occurs at 23.4×0.2 GPa (at 1850 K) if Holmes et al. (1989)'s Pt scale is used, while at 24.3×0.2 GPa for Fei et al. (2007)'s Pt scale. In separate measurements, the transition occurs at 25.8×0.2 GPa for Anderson et al. (1989)'s Au scale and 27.6×0.2 GPa for Fei et al. (2007)'s Au scale, indicating 3.3×0.3 GPa discrepancy between Fei et al. (2007)'s Pt and Au scales, thermal parts of which are mainly constrained by intercalibration data at 21-24 GPa and 1400-2200 K in multi-anvil press (Fei et al., 2004). Our data on MgO+Pt mixtures show that pressures from Fei et al. (2007)'s Pt scale is 1.9×0

  20. Mechanical Property Characterization of Plasticized Sugar Beet Pulp and Poly(lactic acid) Green Composites using Acoustic Emission and Confocal Microscopy.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorbitol and glycerol were used to plasticize sugar beet pulp-poly (lactic acid) green composites. The plasticizer was incorporated into sugar beet pulp (SBP)at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% w/w at low temperature and shear and then compounded with PLA using twin-screw extrusion and injection molding. The...

  1. The Effects of Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)-Based Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to investigate the production of balanced diets for juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) feeds. Six isocaloric (3.20 kcal/g), isonitrogenous (31.5% db) ingredient blends were formulated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) at a feed...

  2. EFFECT OF SOLARIZATION ON SURVIVAL OF COLLETOTRICHUM ACUTATUM AND PHYTHOPHTHORA CACTORUM, CAUSAL AGENTS OF CROWN ROTS OF STRAWBERRY IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nylon bags containing strawberry plant tissues infected by Colletotrichum acutatum or V8 juice-oat seed-vermiculite (V8JOV) substrate colonized by Phytophthora cactorum were buried at depths of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 cm in Yolo Fine Sandy Loam soil, which was non-solarized or solarized using a 6-mm p...

  3. Growth Performance and Resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge. Five diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and ...

  4. Structural and electrical properties of ferroelectric Na0.5 (Bi1-xPrx )0.5TiO3 (x=0.00 and 0.10) ceramics synthesized by Sol-Gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalini, K.; Muneeswaran, M.; Giridharan, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric Na0.5(Bi1-xPrx)0.5TiO3 (x=0.00, 0.10) ceramics have been synthesized through sol-gel method. The phase formation has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis of ceramics annealed at 800°C. The relaxation mechanism is observed from variation of dielectric constant with respect to temperature and frequency. Substitution of Pr reduces vacancies and defects identified from leakage current measurements. Further, the polarization Vs electricfield (P-E) measurements have been performed at room temperature.

  5. Results of an air data probe investigation utilizing a 0.10 scale orbiter forebody (model 57-0) in the Ames Research Center 14-foot wind tunnel (OA220)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esparza, V.; Thornton, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of a 0.10 scale orbiter forebody test with left and right mounted air data probes (ADP) as well as a flight test probe (nose boom). Left and right ADP data were obtained at Mach numbers of .3, .4, .5, .6, .7, .8, .85, .9, .95, .98, 1.05 and 1.1 through a Reynolds number range of 1.3 to 4.4 million. Nose boom data were obtained at Mach numbers of .3, .4, .5, .6, .7, .9 and .98.

  6. Luminescence and dielectric properties of c-axis oriented (Bi1.90Eu0.10)(V1-zMoz)O5.5 ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wei; Zou, Changwei; Xie, Mubiao; Bao, Dinghua

    2016-05-01

    (Bi1.90Eu0.10)(V1-zMoz)O5.5 (z = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) thin films with c-axis oriented were prepared on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by using chemical solution deposition method. The effect of Mo6+ concentration on the structure, luminescence properties and dielectric properties of the thin films were characterized systematically. X-ray diffraction data indicates that the thin films with low Mo6+-doping content can remain Bi2VO5.5 structure. When the Mo6+-doping content z reaches to 0.15, the thin films are a mixture of diphase with the main phase Bi2VO5.5 and secondary phase Bi2MoO6. Under UV irradiation, all the thin films emit a bright red or orange emission which origin from Eu3+. With increasing Mo6+-doping content z, the relative intensity of the Red and Orange emissions show obviously change. The value of Red/Orange ratio first decrease, and it reached minimum when z is 0.15, then it recover to the initial value. The variation trend of the Red/Orange ratio reflects the change of the lattice symmetry. Dielectric constant of the thin films increased with the increasing of the Mo6+ concentration while dielectric loss decreased. The decrease of the quantities of oxygen vacancies and the generation of Bi2MoO6 phase are responsible for the improvement of electric properties. These results explain that Eu3+ion can be used as an effective luminescent probe in (Bi1.90Eu0.10)(V1-zMoz)O5.5 (z = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) thin films, and the electric properties of the thin films can be improved by Mo6+ doping.

  7. Reversible magnetization measurements of the anisotropic superconducting parameters of the infinite-layer electron-doped compound Sr 0.90La 0.10CuO 2 apparent anisotropy crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, J. L.; Markert, J. T.

    1994-06-01

    We report the results and analysis of DC magnetization studies of grain-aligned powders of the infinite-layer electron-doped compounds Sr 0.90La 0.10CuO 2. Magnetization data in the reversible temperature regime were analyzed to obtain the anisotropic superconducting parameters for this system. Three samples of Sr 0.90La 0.10CuO 2 were studied, presumably with very slightly diffrent La or O concentrations. Typically, the extracted values of the coherence lengths (ξ ∥=46 Å, ξ ⊥=30 Å), the penetration depths (λ ∥=290 nm, λ ⊥=450 nm), the mass anisotrophy ( ( {m ⊥}/{m ∥}) {1}/{2}≈1.5 ), and the lower and upper critical fields are appreciably less anisotropic than reported values for the electron-doped T‧ phase materials, possibly because the infinite-layer compound has a significantly shorter interplanar spacing (3.4 Å versus 6.0 Å). One notable sample, moreover, exhibits an inverse anisotropy (( ( {m ⊥}/{m ∥}) {1}/{2}≈0.6 ), further suggesting that this system behaves much like a three-dimensional metal.

  8. Multiferroic properties of Pb{sub 0.90}Sr{sub 0.10}TiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructured bilayered thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, Kanchan Kotnala, R. K.; Negi, N. S.

    2015-05-15

    Pb{sub 0.90}Sr{sub 0.10}TiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}(PST10-CFO) nanostructured bilayered thin film were grown on Si (100) substrate by using metallo-organic decomposition chemical route and spin coating technique. Results show that PST (pervoskite structure) and CFO (spinel) phase coexist in the bilayered thin films, annealed at 650°C for 2hr and no obvious impurity phase can be detected. The structural, surface morphology and micro structural properties were confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) respectively. Excellent ferroelectric behavior at different voltage was observed, with two platinum electrodes only at surface of the bilayer thin film. A room temperature ferromagnetic behavior was observed in the bilayered Pb{sub 0.90}Sr{sub 0.10}TiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructured thin film. The saturation magnetization and variation in coercivity value of the bilayer thin film is lower than that of the pure CFO film in the presence of non ferromagnetic PST layer which is the attributed that the significant coupling between the two phases.

  9. Electrical and structural properties of BaCe0.85Ru0.05Y0.10O3‑δ thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochi, Masanori; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Shohei; Suetsugu, Takaaki; Suzuki, Naoya; Kobayashi, Masaki; Minohara, Makoto; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Tohru

    2016-06-01

    The a- and c-axes-oriented BaCe0.85Ru0.05Y0.10O3‑δ (BCRY) thin films have been deposited on Nb-SrTiO3(100) substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Such BCRY thin films have mixed valence states of Ce4+ and Ce3+. The activation energies (E A) for the conductivity of films thicker than 200 nm are 0.23–0.26 eV, which corresponds to half E A of bulk ceramics, below 400 °C. The BCRY thin films exhibit ion conduction at the bulk region and electron–ion mixed conduction at the surface region. Proton conduction is also observed in the surface state in addition to the mixed conduction. The Fermi levels (E F) locate at the middle position in the band gap region, although E F of the BaCe0.90Y0.10O3‑δ thin films locates on the valence band side. These results indicate that the Ru5+ ions and protons act as donor ions in BCRY thin films.

  10. Sub-10 μm grain size, Ba1-xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 (x = 0.10 and x = 0.15) piezoceramics processed using a reduced thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Montero, A.; Pardo, L.; López-Juárez, R.; González, A. M.; Rea-López, S. O.; Cruz, M. P.; Villafuerte-Castrejón, M. E.

    2015-06-01

    The solid-state synthesis of Ba1-xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 (x = 0.10, 0.15) (BCTZ) powder and the processing method of ceramics, by the use of reduced synthesis time and temperature (1250 °C for 2 h), are reported. Homogeneous and dense (≥95%) ceramic microstructures with sub-10 μm grain size were obtained under all sintering conditions. A comparative study of their ferro-piezoelectric properties as a function of sintering temperatures is presented. The study shows the role of the grain size effect for improving both piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of these materials. With an increase of the sintering temperature, grain growth was promoted; therefore, higher ferro-piezoelectric values were obtained (at 1400 °C, for x = 0.10: d33 = 300 pC/N, {{d}31}=-150 pC/N, kp = 48% for x = 0.15: d33 = 410 pC/N, d31 =-154 pC/N, kp = 50%). In addition, a diffuse phase transition is observed in these BCTZ ceramics with a Curie temperature near 100 °C at 1 kHz.

  11. Studies of electrical conductivity and complex initial permeability of multiferroic xBa0.95Sr0.05TiO3-(1-x)BiFe0.90Gd0.10O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miah, Mohammad J.; Khan, M. N. I.; Hossain, A. K. M. Akther

    2016-07-01

    Multiferroic xBa0.95Sr0.05TiO3-(1-x)BiFe0.90Gd0.10O3 [xBST-(1-x)BFGO] (x = 0.00, 0.10 and 0.20) ceramics were prepared by the standard solid-state reaction technique. Crystal structure of the ceramics was determined by X-ray diffraction pattern. All the compositions exhibited rhombohedral crystal structure. The tolerance factor `t' varied from 0.847 to 0.864. The AC conductivity spectrum followed the Jonscher's power law. The Nyquist plots indicated that only grains have the contribution to the resistance in this material and the values of grain resistance (Rg) increased with BST content. The real part of complex initial permeability decreased with the increase in frequency and increased with increasing BST content. Magnetoelectric coefficient was determined for all compositions. The maximum value of magnetoelectric coefficient was found to be 1.467 mV.cm-1.Oe-1 for x = 0.20.

  12. Composition and temperature dependence of ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties of (1 − x)[PMN–PT(65/35)]–xPZ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tong; Li, Qiang; Yan, Qingfeng; Luo, Nengneng; Zhang, Yiling; Chu, Xiangcheng

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • PMN–PT–PZ ceramics with PZ content smaller than 0.10 mol% were synthesized. • T{sub rt} of the PMN–PT–PZ ceramics increased linearly with the increase of PZ constant. • A mutation of the ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties was observed near T{sub rt}. - Abstract: (1 − x)[Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} (65/35)]–xPbZrO{sub 3} (PMN–PT–PZ) ceramics near morphotropic phase boundary with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10 were synthesized via the conventional solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction and variable temperature dielectric property characterization indicated that the rhombohedral to tetragonal phase transition temperature (T{sub rt}) increased linearly with the increase of PZ constant. The composition and temperature dependence of their ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties were also investigated. The results showed that there appeared mutation for remnant polarization, coercive field, as well as pyroelectric coefficient at the temperate range near T{sub rt}, which was ascribed to the reorientation of dipoles caused by the rhombohedral–tetragonal phase transition.

  13. Synthesis, electrical and thermal properties of Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2−x}Y{sub x}O{sub 11} (x=0.0 and 0.10) ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, S. Roy, M.

    2014-04-24

    Polycrystalline ceramic samples of Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2−x}Y{sub x}O{sub 11} (x=0.0 and 0.10) have been synthesized by standard solid state reaction method. The formation of the compounds has been verified by room temperature (RT) X-ray diffraction. The frequency and temperature dependent dielectric constant of both the compounds have been measured. The dielectric studies indicate that the materials are highly lossy. The dc conductivity of the materials has been measured as a function of temperature from RT to 653K and their activation energies were calculated using Arrhenius relation σ = σ{sub o}exp(-Ea/kT). The specific heat and heat flow of both the compounds were determined as a function of temperature using Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC)

  14. Ferroelectric and electrical properties of lead-free (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.86Ta0.10Sb0.04)O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju Sung; Ahn, Chang Won; Ullah, Amir; Chae, Song A.; Kim, Ill Won

    2016-06-01

    The Li, Ta, and Sb-substituted lead-free (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.86Ta0.10Sb0.04)O3 (KNLNTS) thin films were fabricated on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates using the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. The KNLNTS thin films were annealed at 750 °C for 1 h in an oxygen ambient. The film with a thickness of 350 nm exhibited a typical ferroelectric P - E hysteresis loop without fatigue even after 1010 pulses. The KNLNTS thin film exhibited a relatively low leakage current density of ~10 -7 A/cm2 even up to an applied electric field of 142 kV/cm. A well-saturated piezoelectric hysteresis loop was obtained with a piezoelectric coefficient d 33 of 21 pm/V.

  15. Substitutional disorder in Sr2-yEuyB2-2xSi2+3xAl2-xN8+x (x ≃ 0.12, y ≃ 0.10).

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Shiro; Michiue, Yuichi; Takeda, Takashi; Xie, Rong-Jun; Hirosaki, Naoto

    2014-05-01

    A novel nitride, Sr2-yEuyB2-2xSi2+3xAl2-xN8+x (x ≃ 0.12, y ≃ 0.10) (distrontium europium diboron disilicon dialuminium octanitride), with the space group P62c, was synthesized from Sr3N2, EuN, Si3N4, AlN and BN under nitrogen gas pressure. The structure consists of a host framework with Sr/Eu atoms accommodated in the cavities. The host framework is constructed by the linkage of MN4 tetrahedra (M = Si, Al) and BN3 triangles, and contains substitutional disorder described by the alternative occupation of B2 or Si2N on the (0, 0, z) axis. The B2:Si2N ratio contained in an entire crystal is about 9:1. PMID:24816012

  16. High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Lateral Stability Characteristics of a 0.10-Scale Model of the Grumman XF9F-2 Airplane, TED No. NACA DE 301

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, Edward C.; King, Thomas J., Jr.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the high-speed lateral and directional stability characteristics of a 0.10-scale model of the Grumman XF9F-2 airplane in the Mach number range from 0.40 to 0.85. The results indicate that static lateral and directional stability is present throughout the Mach number range investigated although in the Mach number range from 0.75 to 0.85 there is an appreciable decrease in rolling moment due to sideslip. Calculations of the dynamic stability indicate that according to current flying-quality requirements the damping of the lateral oscillation, although probably satisfactory for the sea-level condition, may not be satisfactory for the majority of the altitude conditions investigated

  17. Strain and vacancy cluster behavior of vanadium and tungsten-doped Ba[Zr{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}]O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, F.; Simoes, A. Z.; Cavalcante, L. S.; Zampieri, M.; Varela, J. A.; Longo, E.; Zaghete, M. A.; Simoes, M. L.

    2008-01-21

    Strain and vacancy clusters behavior of polycrystalline vanadium (V) and tungsten (W)-doped Ba[Zr{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}]O{sub 3}, (BZT:2%V) and (BZT:2%W) ceramics obtained by the mixed oxide method was evaluated. Substitution of V and W reduces the distortion of octahedral clusters, decreasing the Raman modes. Electron paramagnetic resonance data indicate that the addition of dopants leads to defects and symmetry changes in the BZT lattice. Remnant polarization and coercive field are affected by V and W substitution due the electron-relaxation mode. The unipolar strain E curves as a function of electric field reach its maximum value for BZT:2%V and BZT:2%W ceramics.

  18. Catalytic Cage Formation via Controlled Dimerization of Norbornadienes: An Entry to Functionalized HCTDs (Heptacyclo[6.6.0.0(2,6).0(3,13).0(4,11).0(5,9).0(10,14)]tetradecanes).

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee Nam; Dong, Guangbin

    2016-03-01

    A general and practical catalytic method has been developed for the rapid synthesis of HCTD (heptacyclo[6.6.0.0(2,6).0(3,13).0(4,11).0(5,9).0(10,14)]tetradecanes) and various new 7,12-disubstituted HCTDs from norbornadienes. Compared to the known approaches, this new protocol avoids stoichiometric metals, utilizes commercially available reagents as catalysts, and affords higher yields and significantly improved selectivity. In addition, quadracyclane was discovered for the first time to undergo a similar endo,cis,endo cycloaddition to give HCTD in a good yield. Derivatization of HCTDs led to efficient preparation of a range of novel homo- and heterobifunctional scaffolds that hold potentials for biological and material applications. PMID:26862783

  19. Dielectric, ferroelectrics properties and impedance spectroscopy analysis of the [(Na0.535K0.480)0.966Li0.058](Nb0.90Ta0.10)O3-based lead-free ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, M.; Chaouchi, A.; D'Astorg, S.; Rguiti, M.; Courtois, C.

    2015-04-01

    Polycrystalline of [(Na0.535K0.480)0.966Li0.058](Nb0.90Ta0.10)O3 samples were prepared using the high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the formation of a single-phase with orthorhombic structure. AC impedance plots were used as tool to analyze the electrical behavior of the sample as a function of frequency at different temperatures. The AC impedance studies revealed the presence of grain effect, from 425°C onwards. Complex impedance analysis indicated non-Debye type dielectric relaxation. The Nyquist plot showed the negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) characteristic of NKLNT. The AC conductivity results were used to correlate with the barrier hopping (CBH) model to evaluate the binding energy (Wm), the minimum hopping distance (Rmin), the density of states at Fermi level (N(Ef)), and the activation energy of the compound.

  20. In-situ Electric Field-Induced Modulation of Photoluminescence in Pr-doped Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 Lead-Free Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hai Ling; Wu, Xiao; Chung, Tat Hang; Kwok, K W

    2016-01-01

    Luminescent materials with dynamic photoluminescence activity have aroused special interest because of their potential widespread applications. One proposed approach of directly and reversibly modulating the photoluminescence emissions is by means of introducing an external electric field in an in-situ and real-time way, which has only been focused on thin films. In this work, we demonstrate that real-time electric field-induced photoluminescence modulation can be realized in a bulk Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 ferroelectric ceramic doped with 0.2 mol% Pr(3+), owing to its remarkable polarization reversal and phase evolution near the morphotropic phase boundary. Along with in-situ X-ray diffraction analysis, our results reveal that an applied electric field induces not only typical polarization switching and minor crystal deformation, but also tetragonal-to-rhombohedral phase transformation of the ceramic. The electric field-induced phase transformation is irreversible and engenders dominant effect on photoluminescence emissions as a result of an increase in structural symmetry. After it is completed in a few cycles of electric field, the photoluminescence emissions become governed mainly by the polarization switching, and thus vary reversibly with the modulating electric field. Our results open a promising avenue towards the realization of bulk ceramic-based tunable photoluminescence activity with high repeatability, flexible controllability, and environmental-friendly chemical process. PMID:27339815

  1. In-situ Electric Field-Induced Modulation of Photoluminescence in Pr-doped Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hai Ling; Wu, Xiao; Chung, Tat Hang; Kwok, K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Luminescent materials with dynamic photoluminescence activity have aroused special interest because of their potential widespread applications. One proposed approach of directly and reversibly modulating the photoluminescence emissions is by means of introducing an external electric field in an in-situ and real-time way, which has only been focused on thin films. In this work, we demonstrate that real-time electric field-induced photoluminescence modulation can be realized in a bulk Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 ferroelectric ceramic doped with 0.2 mol% Pr3+, owing to its remarkable polarization reversal and phase evolution near the morphotropic phase boundary. Along with in-situ X-ray diffraction analysis, our results reveal that an applied electric field induces not only typical polarization switching and minor crystal deformation, but also tetragonal-to-rhombohedral phase transformation of the ceramic. The electric field-induced phase transformation is irreversible and engenders dominant effect on photoluminescence emissions as a result of an increase in structural symmetry. After it is completed in a few cycles of electric field, the photoluminescence emissions become governed mainly by the polarization switching, and thus vary reversibly with the modulating electric field. Our results open a promising avenue towards the realization of bulk ceramic-based tunable photoluminescence activity with high repeatability, flexible controllability, and environmental-friendly chemical process. PMID:27339815

  2. Tailoring Electrical Properties and the Structure Evolution of (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Ti0.90Zr0.10)1- x Li4 x O3 Ceramics with Low Sintering Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Xiaolian; Wang, Juanjuan; Xie, Xueke; Liang, Pengfei; Yang, Zupei

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to lower the sintering temperature of (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Ti0.90Zr0.10)O3 (BCZT) ceramics without sacrificing their piezoelectric performance. Li2CO3 was used as sintering aid so that BCZT ceramics with low sintering temperature were fabricated by conventional solid-state sintering. The sintering temperature of the BCZT ceramics was greatly decreased from 1450°C to 1260°C by introducing Li2CO3. The ceramics with a Li2CO3 content of x = 0.02 demonstrated outstanding piezoelectric and dielectric properties: d 33 = 436 pC/N, k p = 56%, Q m = 86, ɛ r = 5185, tan δ = 0.017 and T c = 83°C. We explain the structural evolution in these ceramics through the growth mechanism of liquid-phase sintering, which includes 4 steps: (1) interface reaction in the initial state; (2) diffusion of Li2CO3 into BCZT grains; (3) densification by diffusion of CO2 through BCZT; and (4) improvement of properties by diffusion into the lattice of grain. As a result, Li2CO3 additive can effectively improve the piezoelectric properties of BCZT-based ceramics sintered at low temperatures.

  3. Observation of bi-relaxor characteristic in multiferroic 0.70Bi0.90Ca0.10FeO3-0.30PbTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupathi, Patri; Chandra, Amreesh

    2013-09-01

    The coexistence of bi-relaxor property, i.e. ferroelectric relaxor as well as spin glass type behaviour, is observed in disordered multiferroic ceramic 0.70Bi0.90Ca0.10FeO3-0.30PbTiO3. The real parts of dielectric permittivity and magnetic susceptibility show pronounced frequency dispersion near the corresponding phase transition temperatures, namely, Tc ≈ 550 K and TN ≈ 110 K, respectively. The relaxor behaviour observed in temperature-dependent dielectric constant measurement is confirmed by fitting of the Vogel-Fulcher equation. Similarly, magnetic spin glass behaviour is proven by power law fitting. The origin of such bi-relaxor in the present system can be attributed to the disorder and frustration among the uncompensated spins of the Fe-ion. This has been confirmed by analysing the x-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectrum of the sample under investigation. Using FESEM micrographs, the coexistence of nano-sized and bulk grains is shown. The importance of such coexistence is discussed and also presented in the paper.

  4. Magnetic and electrical transport properties of La0.65Ca0.30Pb0.05Mn0.90Cu0.10O3 compounds: Thermal hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmak, A. E.; Taşarkuyu, E.; Coşkun, A.; Acet, M.; Samancıoğlu, Y.; Aktürk, S.

    2015-08-01

    Structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of La0.65(Ca0.30Pb0.05)Mn0.90Cu0.10O3 compound were investigated. The compound, prepared by the sol-gel route, was pressed into pellets and one of them was sintered at 900 °C and the other at 1000 °C for 24 h. The aim of the study was to explore structural, electrical and magnetic properties of the compound. Temperature dependent X-ray powder diffraction studies on the sample sintered at 900 °C reveal an orthorhombic-Pbnm perovskite structure through the temperature range between 320 K and 86 K. Scanning electron microcopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses showed grainy, homogeneous and stoichiometric structure. Magnetization and resistivity measurements reveal that the Curie temperatures, TC, and insulator-metal transition temperatures, TIM, coincide, but the samples sintered at 900 °C also exhibit thermal hysteresis both in magnetization and resistivity upon cooling and warming.

  5. In-situ Electric Field-Induced Modulation of Photoluminescence in Pr-doped Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hai Ling; Wu, Xiao; Chung, Tat Hang; Kwok, K. W.

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent materials with dynamic photoluminescence activity have aroused special interest because of their potential widespread applications. One proposed approach of directly and reversibly modulating the photoluminescence emissions is by means of introducing an external electric field in an in-situ and real-time way, which has only been focused on thin films. In this work, we demonstrate that real-time electric field-induced photoluminescence modulation can be realized in a bulk Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 ferroelectric ceramic doped with 0.2 mol% Pr3+, owing to its remarkable polarization reversal and phase evolution near the morphotropic phase boundary. Along with in-situ X-ray diffraction analysis, our results reveal that an applied electric field induces not only typical polarization switching and minor crystal deformation, but also tetragonal-to-rhombohedral phase transformation of the ceramic. The electric field-induced phase transformation is irreversible and engenders dominant effect on photoluminescence emissions as a result of an increase in structural symmetry. After it is completed in a few cycles of electric field, the photoluminescence emissions become governed mainly by the polarization switching, and thus vary reversibly with the modulating electric field. Our results open a promising avenue towards the realization of bulk ceramic-based tunable photoluminescence activity with high repeatability, flexible controllability, and environmental-friendly chemical process.

  6. Doping effect on the structural properties of Cu1-x(Ni, Zn, Al and Fe)xO samples (00.10): An experimental and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, J. B.; Araujo, R. M.; Pedra, P. P.; Meneses, C. T.; Duque, J. G. S.; dos S. Rezende, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the effect of insertion of transition metal, TM (=Ni, Zn, Al and Fe), ions in Cu1-xTMxO samples (00.10) prepared via co-precipitation method is studied through experimental and computational methods. The analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns using Rietveld refinement show that i) at x=0, all samples present a monoclinic crystal system with space group C2/c and ii) for increasing the TM-doping, Ni and Zn-doped samples show a small amount of spurious phases for concentrations above x=0.05. Based on these results, a defect disorder study for using atomistic computational simulations which is based on the lattice energy minimization technique is employed to predict the location of the dopant ions in the structure. In agreement with XRD data, our computational results indicate that the trivalent (Al and Fe ions) are more favorable to be incorporated into CuO matrix than the divalent (Ni and Zn ions).

  7. Synthesis, magnetic and dielectric characterization of nanocrystalline solid solutions of In{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15)

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Khatoon, Sarvari; Coolahan, Kelsey

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Monophasic and crystalline In{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of size 8–15 nm have been synthesized solvothermally and showed red shift in energy band gap which decreases on increasing Ni{sup 2+} concentration in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} host lattice. - Highlights: • Monophasic Ni-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles by solvothermal method for first time. • Plausible reaction mechanism using thermogravimetric analysis. • High surface area with small particle size obtained. • Solid solutions exhibit paramagnetism with very weak antiferromagnetic interactions. - Abstract: In{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by solvothermal method by the thermal decomposition of oxalate precursor at 450 °C for the first time. X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of highly crystalline and monophasic cubic structure of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} which is attributed to the formation of solid solution. These nanoparticles show good optical transmittance in the visible region. Optical measurements showed an energy band gap which decreases with increasing Ni concentration. The grain size decreases from 15 nm to 8 nm and surface area increases from 90 to 254 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} on increasing the Ni concentration. High dielectric constant and dielectric loss has been obtained which indicates the conducting nature of these solid solutions. Magnetic measurements showed that the samples are strong paramagnetic in nature with very weak antiferromagnetic interactions. No evidence of ferromagnetism is observed for these solid solutions at room temperature.

  8. Structure, sintering behavior, and microwave dielectric properties of (1 − x) CaWO{sub 4}–xYLiF{sub 4} (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Jian Jiang Ding, Yao Min

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Structure, sinterability, and dielectric properties of CaWO{sub 4}–YLiF{sub 4} were studied. • CaWO{sub 4} can be densified (TD 97%) at 750 °C/2 h by YLiF{sub 4} doping. • Excellent microwave dielectric properties could be obtained. - Abstract: Structures and sintering behaviors of (1 − x) CaWO{sub 4}–xYLiF{sub 4} (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) ceramic have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dilatometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in this work. The microwave dielectric properties were measured with a network analyzer at the frequency of about 8–15 GHz. Limited solid solution could be formed within the compositional range of x < 0.1. The sintering temperature of CaWO{sub 4} could successfully be reduced to ∼750 °C/2 h by doping with small amount of YLiF{sub 4}. An optimized microwave dielectric properties with ϵ{sub r} = 10.5, Q × f = 73 000 GHz and τ{sub f} = −37.7 ppm/°C could be obtained after sintered at the 750 °C for 2 h for x = 0.04 compositions. XRD and back scattering SEM analysis indicated that the (1 − x) CaWO{sub 4}–xYLiF{sub 4} (x = 0.04) ceramic could be chemically compatible with Ag after sintering at 750 °C/2 h.

  9. 20/30 GHz satellite personal communications networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, L. C.; Stern, A.; Sohn, P. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of personal communications networks that can provide 4.8-kbps voice communications between portable terminals and a hub station via a Ka-band geosynchronous satellite has been investigated. Tradeoffs are examined so that the combined system of hub and gateway earth stations, the satellite, and the personal terminals can provide a competitive service in terms of cost, availability, and quality. A baseline system is described using a spacecraft with approximately 140 spot beams that cover CONUS with 5-watt power amplifiers in each beam. Satellite access in both the forward and return directions uses frequency division multiple access/code division multiple access with a chip rate of 2.5 Mchip/sec.

  10. The Solar Wind at 20-30 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, A.; Gazis, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Pioneer 10 sampled the interplanetary plasma over the range 20 to 30 astronomical units, during the period 1979-1983. The median flow speed is about 400 km/s, and at 20 AU the median density, proton temperature and dynamic pressure are, respectively, 0.025 cm-3, 10(4) K, and 6x10-11 dyne cm-2. It is shown that the average solar wind flow speed does not vary significantly with increasing heliocentric distance, and the density falls off as R-2, as predicted by simple solar wind models. The day-to-day variations in solar wind parameters are smaller at larger distance. Very large shocks however, were detected beyond 25 AU. Comparison of Pioneer 10 and 11 observations at similar distances but different phases of the solar activity cycle shows that solar wind dynamic pressure varies over a wider range during epochs of high solar activity. The variation near 20 AU is likely to be smaller at Voyager 2 Uranus encounter than observed by Pioneer 10 in the 1979-80 period.

  11. 46 CFR 42.20-30 - Correction for depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) Where the height of superstructure or trunk is less than the standard height, the reduction shall be in the ratio of the actual to the standard height as defined...

  12. 46 CFR 42.20-30 - Correction for depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) Where the height of superstructure or trunk is less than the standard height, the reduction shall be in the ratio of the actual to the standard height as defined...

  13. 46 CFR 42.20-30 - Correction for depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) Where the height of superstructure or trunk is less than the standard height, the reduction shall be in the ratio of the actual to the standard height as defined...

  14. 46 CFR 42.20-30 - Correction for depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) Where the height of superstructure or trunk is less than the standard height, the reduction shall be in the ratio of the actual to the standard height as defined...

  15. 46 CFR 42.20-30 - Correction for depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) Where the height of superstructure or trunk is less than the standard height, the reduction shall be in the ratio of the actual to the standard height as defined...

  16. Marketing 20-30. Business Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This curriculum guide is one of nine such guides developed for an Alberta high school business education program. Its content covers the main subject area or strand of marketing. Subject to the constraints outlined in the guide, the modules are to be formatted into three- or four-credit courses within each strand. Introductory materials include a…

  17. Synthesis and enhancement of multiferroic properties of (x)Ba0.95Sr0.05TiO3-(1-x)BiFe0.90Dy0.10O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miah, M. J.; Khan, M. N. I.; Akther Hossain, A. K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Polycrystalline (x)Ba0.95Sr0.05TiO3-(1-x)BiFe0.90Dy0.10O3 [(x)BST-(1-x)BFDO] ceramics were synthesized by the standard solid-state reaction method. Samples prepared from these powders were sintered at various temperatures (900-1000 °C). The crystal structure, microstructure, magnetic, dielectric, complex impedance and magnetoelectric properties of the (x)BST-(1-x)BFDO ceramics were systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicated that (x)BST-(1-x)BFDO ceramics showed a structural transition from rhombohedral to cubic phase. The average grain size increased to a maximum 2.86 μm for x=0.20 and then decreased. M-H plot showed weak ferromagnetism for x=0.00 to 0.30. The magnetization value increased for increasing BST substitution up to x=0.20 due to the modification of crystal structure and then decreased for further increasing due to the nonmagnetic behavior of BST. A significant remnant magnetization (0.086 emu/g) and a coercive magnetic field (103.62 Oe) were also obtained for this solid solution. The complex initial permeability increased with the increase of both BST content (up to x=0.20) and sintering temperatures. The room-temperature dielectric constant increased whereas dielectric loss decreased with increasing BST content because of reducing oxygen vacancies. Impedance spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conducting grains and highly resistive grain boundaries affecting the conductivity but the grains had major contribution in the conduction mechanism. Magnetoelectric voltage coefficient (αME) increased with the increase of BST content because of strong interaction between magnetic and ferroelectric domains. The highest value of αME=1.67 mV cm-1 Oe-1 was observed for x=0.20 solid solution sintered at Ts=1000 °C because of uniform grains in size and shape at this composition.

  18. Development of ferroelectric correlations in the quantum paraelectric and antiferrodistortive regimes in Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} (x ≤ 0.10)

    SciTech Connect

    Hassnain Jaffari, G.; Mehmood, Zahid; Iqbal, Asad M.; Hasanain, S. K.; Ismat Shah, S.

    2014-08-28

    The dielectric response ε(T)  of Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} (x ≤ 0.1) for compositions at and below the critical composition for the ferroelectric transition has been studied. With progressive Ba substitution, the growth of ferroelectric correlations and the weakening of the Antiferrodistortive (AFD) and the quantum paraelectric (QPE) effects have been studied by monitoring the changes in both the in and out of phase parts of the dielectric response. For the compositions close to pure SrTiO{sub 3} (x = 0 and x = 0.02), the temperature dependence exhibits a continuous rise in the in-phase part and no ferroelectric peak, consistent with the QPE behavior. With increasing Ba substitution, the low temperature behavior of the in phase part ε{sup ′} progressively changes from a continuous rise to exhibit a weak maximum and finally to a well developed cusp. For higher Ba concentrations, the low temperature peak (T ∼ 50K), which corresponds to ferroelectric correlations, becomes increasingly sharper until at the critical composition, x = 0.10, the system shows a single well defined ferroelectric peak. However, the out of phase response of the x = 0.1 composition exhibited a succession of three BaTiO{sub 3} type ferroelectric transitions. For x≤0.04, the out of phase part shows evidence of an ordering around T ∼ 100K, which is the expected AFD ordering temperature. The deviations of the ε{sup ′}(T) data from the Curie-Weiss law have been analyzed within the frame work of two different theoretical models. It was determined that the dielectric behavior for lower concentrations of Ba (up to x ≤ 0.08) was explainable in terms of a model of non-interacting regions which are themselves homogeneously polarized and undergo a second order phase transition. For the phase boundary composition, i.e., x = 0.1, on the other hand, the data are explainable in terms of the Sherrington and Kirkpatrick model which includes the effects

  19. Characterization of UMG-Based Si Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hovel, Harold; Prettyman, kevin

    2010-09-06

    Solar cells made with turnkey lines using UMG stating material have been analyzed in detail, using photo-and electroluminescence, DLIT, quantum efficiency, LBIC life time maps and dark and light I-V. The starting blends of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 100% UMG alloyed with polycrystalline solar grade feed stock. Device efficiencies of 14.5-15.5% were obtained, nearly identical for all blends except 100% UMG.

  20. 16 CFR 0.10 - Office of the Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., financial management, information technology, and human resources. ... on strategic planning and assessing the management and resource implications of any proposed action... Chairman, is the chief operating official who develops and implements management and...

  1. 16 CFR 0.10 - Office of the Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., financial management, information technology, and human resources. ... on strategic planning and assessing the management and resource implications of any proposed action... Chairman, is the chief operating official who develops and implements management and...

  2. 16 CFR 0.10 - Office of the Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., financial management, information technology, and human resources. ... on strategic planning and assessing the management and resource implications of any proposed action... Chairman, is the chief operating official who develops and implements management and...

  3. 31 CFR 10.20 - Information to be furnished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that the practitioner has regarding the identity of any person who the practitioner believes may have... of his or her client regarding the identity of any person who may have possession or control of the... or independently verify any information provided by the practitioner's client regarding the...

  4. 46 CFR 54.10-20 - Marking and stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection... affixed only by the marine inspector. (4) Maximum allowable working pressure __ kPa (__ psig) at __ °C... completed vessel shall be stamped with the Coast Guard Symbol, the Marine Inspection Office...

  5. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  6. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lid shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8 inch. (b) Permanent sun shields shall be provided for sides... distance of 11/2 inches. Sun shields may be omitted when chests are installed “on deck protected,” shielded from direct exposure to the sun. (c) Chests shall be limited to a gross capacity of 100 cubic feet....

  7. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... strength of the material or 70 percent of the yield strength when specified, whichever is greater. (ii... the effect of the tanks, and UTS is the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the material. The value... tensile strength of the material, whichever is less. Critical buckling strength shall be at......

  8. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and top including the lid. These shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8-inch aluminum or 16-gage steel. Side shields shall be offset from the body a distance of 1 inch. The top shield shall be offset...

  9. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and top including the lid. These shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8-inch aluminum or 16-gage steel. Side shields shall be offset from the body a distance of 1 inch. The top shield shall be offset...

  10. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and top including the lid. These shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8-inch aluminum or 16-gage steel. Side shields shall be offset from the body a distance of 1 inch. The top shield shall be offset...

  11. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (length, shape, and height of headlog) to protect against diving at the maximum speed at which the barge... or more saddles shall be subjected to a 0.6L0.6 trochoidal wave hogsag analysis to determine...

  12. 46 CFR 2.10-20 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....O. Box 531030, Atlanta, GA 30353-1030. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S. Treasury... (COI), 1075 Loop Road, Atlanta, GA 30337-6002. (2) For Overseas Inspection Fees: (i) For payment by... 531769, Atlanta, GA 30353-1769. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S. Treasury, with...

  13. 46 CFR 2.10-20 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....O. Box 531030, Atlanta, GA 30353-1030. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S. Treasury... (COI), 1075 Loop Road, Atlanta, GA 30337-6002. (2) For Overseas Inspection Fees: (i) For payment by... 531769, Atlanta, GA 30353-1769. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S. Treasury, with...

  14. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reactions (if applicable) shall be determined. The hull bending stress shall not exceed the applicable... hull. In such case, the hull stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile... such case, the hull stress shall not exceed the percentage stress values prescribed in §...

  15. The NASA - Arc 10/20 micron camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, T. L.; Cooper, R.; Deutsch, L. K.; Mccreight, C.; Mckelvey, M.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Witteborn, F. C.; Yuen, L.; Mcmahon, T.; Werner, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new infrared camera (AIR Camera) has been developed at NASA - Ames Research Center for observations from ground-based telescopes. The heart of the camera is a Hughes 58 x 62 pixel Arsenic-doped Silicon detector array that has the spectral sensitivity range to allow observations in both the 10 and 20 micron atmospheric windows.

  16. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reactions (if applicable) shall be determined. The hull bending stress shall not exceed the applicable... hull. In such case, the hull stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile... such case, the hull stress shall not exceed the percentage stress values prescribed in §...

  17. 46 CFR 2.10-20 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the U.S. Treasury. Payment may also be made by credit card or wire transfer. (c) All payments must be accompanied by the vessel name and its vessel identification number. (d) Unless otherwise specified, fees required by this subpart must be mailed to the following addresses: For payment by credit card, U.S....

  18. 46 CFR 2.10-20 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the U.S. Treasury. Payment may also be made by credit card or wire transfer. (c) All payments must be... following methods: (1) For COI and COC Inspections: (i) For payment by credit card, online through www.pay... credit card, U.S. Coast Guard Finance Center (OGR), 1430A Kristina Way, Chesapeake, VA 23326. (ii)...

  19. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lid shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8 inch. (b) Permanent sun shields shall be provided for sides... distance of 11/2 inches. Sun shields may be omitted when chests are installed “on deck protected,” shielded from direct exposure to the sun. (c) Chests shall be limited to a gross capacity of 100 cubic feet....

  20. Glass forming ability and magnetic properties of Co(40.2-x)Fe(20.1+x)Ni6.7B22.7Si5.3Nb5 (x=0-10) bulk metallic glasses produced by suction casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlar, Kagan; Kucuk, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Fe concentration on the glass forming ability (GFA) and magnetic properties in Co(40.2-x)Fe(20.1+x)Ni6.7B22.7Si5.3Nb5 (x=0-10) bulk metallic glasses were investigated. By suction casting method, the bulk metallic glasses with diameters up to 2 mm were produced. We try to find out which Fe concentration makes an influence on Co based system's magnetic properties and glass forming ability. The curves of thermal analysis, obtained using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), show that the Co(40.2-x)Fe(20.1+x)Ni6.7B22.7Si5.3Nb5 (x=0-10) have a supercooled liquid region (∆Tx) of about 44 K. The saturation magnetizations (Js) for as-cast BMG alloys were in the range of 0.62 T-0.81 T.

  1. Frequency-dependent impedance spectroscopy on the 0.925(Bi0.5Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-0.075(Ba0.70Sr0.30)TiO3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Amir; Rahman, Muneeb-ur; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Ahn, Chang Won; Kim, Ill Won; Ullah, Aman

    2016-06-01

    The electrical properties of the 0.925(Bi0.5(Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-0.075(Ba0.70Sr0.30)TiO3 (0.925BNKT-0.075BST) ceramic were investigated by using AC impedance spectroscopy over a wide range of frequencies (10 -2 ~ 105 Hz). The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of a single-phase compound. A single semicircular arc in the impedance spectrum indicates that the main contribution of the bulk resistance ( R b ) were due to grain effects, with Rb decreasing with increasing temperature. The conductivity of the ceramics increased with increasing temperature, and the activation energy resulting from the DC conductivity was 0.86 eV. The ceramic displayed a typical negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior, like that of a semiconductor.

  2. Magnetic properties of the suction-cast bulk amorphous alloy: (Fe0.61Co0.10Zr0.025Hf0.025Ti0.02W0.02B0.20)96Y4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błoch, K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the results of studies into the structural and magnetic properties of the bulk amorphous alloy: (Fe0.61Co0.10Zr0.025Hf0.025Ti0.02W0.02B0.20)96Y4, fabricated in the form of rods of length: 20 mm, and diameters: 1 mm and 2 mm. The samples were produced using the suction-casting method. The amorphicity of the investigated alloy, in the as-quenched state, was verified using X-ray diffractometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Studies of the magnetic susceptibility disaccommodation and the approach to magnetic saturation facilitated the conclusion that the investigated alloy, obtained in the form of rods of 2 mm diameter, can be characterized by a higher packing density of atoms; this was further confirmed by the results of Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  3. Wave-function engineering and absorption spectra in Si{sub 0.16}Ge{sub 0.84}/Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06}/Si{sub 0.16}Ge{sub 0.84} strained on relaxed Si{sub 0.10}Ge{sub 0.90} type I quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Yahyaoui, N. E-mail: moncef-said@yahoo.fr; Sfina, N.; Said, M. E-mail: moncef-said@yahoo.fr; Lazzari, J.-L.; Bournel, A.

    2014-01-21

    We theoretically investigate germanium-tin alloy as a semiconductor for the design of near infrared optical modulators in which the Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloy is the active region. We have calculated the electronic band parameters for heterointerfaces between strained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} and relaxed Si{sub 1−y}Ge{sub y}. Then, a type-I strain-compensated Si{sub 0.10}Ge{sub 0.90}/Si{sub 0.16}Ge{sub 0.84}/Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} quantum well heterostructure optimized in terms of compositions and thicknesses is studied by solving Schrödinger equation without and under applied bias voltage. The strong absorption coefficient (>1.5 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −1}) and the shift of the direct transition under large Stark effect at 3 V are useful characteristics for the design of optoelectronic devices based on compressively strained IV-IV heterostructures at near infrared wavelengths.

  4. Large electrostrictive effect and bright upconversion luminescence in Er-modified 0.92(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.08(Ba0.90Ca0.10)(Ti0.92Sn0.08)O3 lead-free ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wu, Meihua; Diao, Wenxin; Zhang, Bing; Hao, Jigong; Xu, Zhijun; Chu, Ruiqing

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a new lead-free luminescent electrostrictive material has been obtained by introducing trivalent Er3+ as the activator into 0.92(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.08(Ba0.90Ca0.10)(Ti0.92Sn0.08)O3 (BNT-0.08BCST). A high, purely electrostrictive effect (the electrostrictive coefficient Q33 reaches up to 0.028 m4/C2) with exceptionally good fatigue resistance (up to 106 cycles) and thermostability (25-140 °C) is obtained in 0.2 mol%Er-modified BNT-0.08BCST ceramics. Besides the excellent electrostrictive properties, Er3+-modified BNT-0.08BCST samples exhibit a strong green-red upconversion emission, and the emission intensities are strongly dependent on the doping concentration, which reaches the optimal value as the doping concentration is 0.4 mol%. These results suggest that this kind of material may have potential application as a multifunctional device by integrating its excellent upconversion luminescence and electrostrictive properties.

  5. Thermoelectric and magnetic properties of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4–x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 9+δ} with x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10 and 0.15

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskar, Ankam; Lin, Z.R.; Liu, Chia-Jyi

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Resistivity of all the samples exhibits nonmetallic to metallic behavior in the low temperature region. • Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 3.85}Cu{sub 0.15}O{sub 9+δ} shows the highest dimensionless figure of merit. • The observed effective magnetic moments decrease with increasing Cu content. - Abstract: Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4–x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 9+δ} (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10 and 0.15) samples were prepared by conventional solid-state synthesis and their thermoelectric properties were systematically investigated. The thermopower of all the samples was positive, indicating that the predominant carriers are holes over the entire temperature range. Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 3.85}Cu{sub 0.15}O{sub 9+δ} had the highest power factor of 2.17 μW cm{sup −1} K{sup −2} at 141 K, representing an improvement of about 64.4% compared to undoped Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+δ}. Magnetization measurements indicated that all the samples exhibit a low-spin state of cobalt ions. The observed effective magnetic moments decreased with increasing copper content.

  6. Altitudinal variation of soil organic carbon stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalayas, India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Dar, Javid; Somaiah, Sundarapandian

    2015-02-01

    Soil organic carbon stocks were measured at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) in seven altitudes dominated by different forest types viz. Populus deltoides, 1550-1800 m; Juglans regia, 1800-2000 m; Cedrus deodara, 2050-2300 m; Pinus wallichiana, 2000-2300 m; mixed type, 2200-2400 m; Abies pindrow, 2300-2800 m; and Betula utilis, 2800-3200 m in temperate mountains of Kashmir Himalayas. The mean range of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks varied from 39.07 to 91.39 Mg C ha(-1) in J. regia and B. utilis forests at 0-30 cm depth, respectively. Among the forest types, the lowest mean range of SOC at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) was observed in J. regia (18.55, 11.31, and 8.91 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type, and the highest was observed in B. utilis (54.10, 21.68, and 15.60 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type. SOC stocks showed significantly (R (2) = 0.67, P = 0.001) an increasing trend with increase in altitude. On average, the percentages of SOC at 0-10-, 10-20-, and 20-30-cm depths were 53.2, 26.5, and 20.3 %, respectively. Bulk density increased significantly with increase in soil depth and decreased with increase in altitude. Our results suggest that SOC stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya vary greatly with forest type and altitude. The present study reveals that SOC stocks increased with increase in altitude at high mountainous regions. Climate change in these high mountainous regions will alter the carbon sequestration potential, which would affect the global carbon cycle. PMID:25619695

  7. High-resolution spectroscopy of the {A}^{1}{\\rm{\\Pi }}(v^{\\prime} =0{--}10){--}{X}^{1}{{\\rm{\\Sigma }}}^{+}(v^{\\prime\\prime} =0) bands in 13C18O: term values, ro-vibrational oscillator strengths and Hönl–London corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, J. L.; Eidelsberg, M.; Heays, A. N.; Gavilan, L.; Federman, S. R.; Stark, G.; Lyons, J. R.; de Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.

    2016-08-01

    Our knowledge of astronomical environments containing CO depends on accurate molecular data to reproduce and interpret observations. The constant improvement in UV space instrumentation, both in sensitivity and resolution, requires increasingly detailed laboratory data. Following a long-term experimental campaign at the SOLEIL Synchrotron facility, we have acquired complete datasets on the CO isotopologues in the vacuum ultraviolet. Absorption spectra were recorded using the Fourier-transform spectrometer installed on the DESIRS beamline, providing a resolving power R > 106 in the 8–12 eV range. Such resolution allows the analysis of individual line positions and strengths in electronic transitions and the location of perturbations. We continue our previous work on A–X bands of 12C16O and 13C16O, reporting here measurements for the 13C18O isotopologue. Gas column densities in the differentially-pumped system were calibrated using the B {}1{{{Σ }}}+–X {}1{{{Σ }}}+({v}\\prime =0,v\\prime\\prime =0) band. Absorption bands are analyzed by synthesizing line and band profiles and fitting them to measured spectra. New results for A {}1{{\\Pi }}({v}\\prime =0{--}10)–X {}1{{{Σ }}}+(v\\prime\\prime =0) bands include precise line assignments, term values, band-integrated oscillator strengths as well as individual ro-vibrational oscillator strengths and Hönl–London corrections. For ({v}\\prime =1) our results are compared with earlier studies. The interpretation of mixed perturbing bands, complementing an earlier study, is also presented as well as precise line assignments and term values for the B {}1{{{Σ }}}+–X {}1{{{Σ }}}+(0–0) band calibrator, and the nearby B–X (1–0) and C {}1{{{Σ }}}+–X {}1{{{Σ }}}+(0–0) bands.

  8. Realization of small intrinsic hysteresis with large magnetic entropy change in La{sub 0.8}Pr{sub 0.2}(Fe{sub 0.88}Si{sub 0.10}Al{sub 0.02}){sub 13} by controlling itinerant-electron characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, A.; Matsunami, D.; Yako, H.

    2014-03-24

    Tuning of phase-transition characteristics in La(Fe{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}){sub 13} was conducted in view of the correlation between microscopic itinerant electron natures and macroscopic thermodynamic (magnetocaloric) quantities. To realize a small hysteresis loss Q{sub H} accompanied by a large magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M} in La(Fe{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}){sub 13}, two types of modulation based on itinerant electron characteristics, namely, the Fermi-level shift and the magnetovolume effect were combined by complex partial substitution of Al and Pr. Ab-initio calculations predict the reduction of a transition hysteresis owing to the Fermi-level shift after partial substitution of Al. On the other hand, the chemical pressure arisen from partial substitution of Pr enhances ΔS{sub M} through magnetovolume effect. The selective enhancement of ΔS{sub M} apart from Q{sub H} by the magnetovolume effect is well explained by the phenomenological Landau model. Consequently, ΔS{sub M} of La{sub 0.8}Pr{sub 0.2}(Fe{sub 0.88}Si{sub 0.10}Al{sub 0.02}){sub 13} is −18 J/kg K under a magnetic field change of 0–1.2 T, while the maximum value of Q{sub H} becomes 1/6 of that for La(Fe{sub 0.88}Si{sub 0.12}){sub 13}.

  9. Solubility, viscosity and density of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1993--30 June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the results of experimental measurements on low refrigerant concentration mixtures (0, 10, 20,30 wt %) of twelve working fluids. These data have been reduced to engineering form and are presented in the form of a Daniel Chart and a plot of density versus temperature and composition. Extensive numerical analysis has been performed in order to derive equations which allow two independent variables (temperature and composition) and to provide for corrections in composition due to vapor space volume in the test apparatus; details of these calculations are provided in Appendix A. This report supersedes all previous reports.

  10. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  11. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  12. Propagation characteristics of 20/30 GHz links with a 40 deg masking angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz; Kantak, Anil V.; Le, Choung

    1994-01-01

    An effective means of reducing Ka-band propagation loss is the use of high elevation angle paths, i.e., a large masking angle, between earth stations and the space platform. Experimental data have shown that the signal loss associated with most atmospheric effects is inversely proportional to sin(theta), where theta denotes the path elevation angle. A large masking angle and a generous link margin are the primary tools used in the Teledesic Corporation network to minimize atmospheric-related signal outages. This report documents the results of a study sponsored by Teledesic Corporation to characterize the effect of radiowave propagation on Teledesic's links. The recent Olympus campaign in Europe and the U.S. has provided new information that is not included. Therefore, CCIR recommendations and NASA Propagation Handbook models constitute the base of this study, and, when applicable, data from other sources have been used to improve the predictions. Furthermore, attention has been given to data from the Olympus campaign. The effects investigated during this study include gas, rain, fog, sand, and cloud attenuation; diversity gain; scintillation; and depolarization.

  13. 21 CFR 20.30 - Food and Drug Administration Division of Freedom of Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration Division of Freedom... Division of Freedom of Information. (a) The office responsible for Agency compliance with the Freedom of Information Act and this part is the Division of Freedom of Information (ELEM-1029), Food and...

  14. 21 CFR 20.30 - Food and Drug Administration Division of Freedom of Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration Division of Freedom... Division of Freedom of Information. (a) The office responsible for Agency compliance with the Freedom of Information Act and this part is the Division of Freedom of Information (ELEM-1029), Food and...

  15. Effect of chromated copper arsenate structures on adjacent soil arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Patch, Steven C; Scheip, Katherine; Brooks, Billy

    2011-06-01

    Structures made of chromated copper arsenic (CCA) have been shown to leach arsenic into the surrounding soil. Soil cores were taken adjacent to six CCA decks at 0, 15, 60 and 300 cm from the deck at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm, and were analyzed for soil arsenic concentrations. Median soil arsenic concentrations ranged from 1.8 μg/g at a depth of 10-20 cm and a distance of 300 cm to 34.5 μg/g at a depth of 0-10 cm and a distance of 30 cm. Soil arsenic concentrations taken at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm decreased as distance from the deck increased. Soil arsenic concentrations close to the deck were higher at lower soil depths and at homes with greater deck wipe arsenic concentrations. Age of deck and slope of land had significant effects on the differences in arsenic concentrations between samples taken at different distances when evaluated in models by themselves, but not in models adjusting for deck wipe concentrations. Size of deck and bulk density of soil did not have significant effects on soil arsenic concentrations. PMID:21505794

  16. Shallow (0-10) seismic investigation of a distressed earthen levee, New Orleans, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, J. M.; Hicks, J.; Vera, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    Both deep- and near-surface hydrogeologic processes can contribute to the structural failure of artificial earthen levees. Recently, seismic geophysical methods have attempted to develop a proxy for engineering shear strength, by mapping changes in the transmission velocity of shear waves. High fluid content may indicate both weak, under-compacted materials and/or organic-rich sediments. In the absence of electromagnetic methods, Vp/Vs ratios can be used as good indicators of variations in the fluid (water, and air or gas) saturation. Cone penetration borehole tests measure the resistance of soils to penetration of the cone tip and its frictional sliding that can be correlated to sediment types and their physical properties. A distressed section of an artificial earthen levee, suitable for seismic investigation, lies ~15 km S of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Open curvilinear fissures, 10 cm wide, 30 cm deep, and up to 100 m in length, exist along the crest at two sites. Between September 2007 and February 2008 we collect horizontally (SH) polarized shear and compressional wave (P) data in pseudo-walkaway tests for the upper 100 m of the subsurface along the protected (west) side of the earthen levee, within 30 m of its crest. One profile lies parallel and adjacent to the damaged levee crest and, for reference, two profiles lie nearby adjacent to undamaged portions of the artificial earthen levee. In the first ~30 m of sediment below the lower delta plain of the Greater New Orleans area, a complex and dynamic interaction of freshwater and marine sedimentary environments juxtaposes a diverse set of facies. We combine of Vp and Vs velocity maps, sedimentary environment interpretations, and cone-penetration-derived sediment/soil and laboratory-derived physical properties to locate possible zones of high fluid concentration, (and perhaps seepage), weak engineering materials, and natural foundation soil shear strength. Under the distressed portion of the earthen levee, shear modulus minima in a constructed profile, correlate with zones of estimated high saturation porosity (80%) high organic content and undercomapcted clay-rich sediments. We interpret that despite nominal full soil saturation, small in-situ intergaranular, free gas maintains Vp values low (~140 m/s). However, Vp/Vs ratios increase to values > 14 within gas-free sands of the underlying St. Bernard delta lobe complex (2000 -4000 yr) at shallow depths (~ 5m).

  17. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service... inside the drum or shell and sealed against leakage by welding. Such plates shall have a diameter of at... wasted portion with a new section. The ligaments between the tube holes may be joined by means of...

  18. Fe(0) Nanomotors in Ton Quantities (10(20) Units) for Environmental Remediation.

    PubMed

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Zboril, Radek; Medrik, Ivo; Pumera, Martin

    2016-03-24

    Despite demonstrating potential for environmental remediation and biomedical applications, the practical environmental applications of autonomous self-propelled micro-/nanorobots have been limited by the inability to fabricate these devices in large (kilograms/tons) quantities. In view of the demand for large-scale environmental remediation by micro-/nanomotors, which are easily synthesized and powered by nontoxic fuel, we have developed bubble-propelled Fe(0) Janus nanomotors by a facile thermally induced solid-state procedure and investigated their potential as decontamination agents of pollutants. These Fe(0) Janus nanomotors, stabilized by an ultrathin iron oxide shell, were fuelled by their decomposition in citric acid, leading to the asymmetric bubble propulsion. The degradation of azo-dyes was dramatically increased in the presence of moving self-propelled Fe(0) nanomotors, which acted as reducing agents. Such enhanced pollutant decomposition triggered by biocompatible Fe(0) (nanoscale zero-valent iron motors), which can be handled in the air and fabricated in ton quantities for low cost, will revolutionize the way that environmental remediation is carried out. PMID:26845233

  19. 38 CFR 10.20 - “Demand for payment” certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... officer of an incorporated bank or trust company, notary public, or any person who is legally authorized... certified by an American consul, a recognized representative of an American embassy or legation or by...

  20. 38 CFR 10.20 - “Demand for payment” certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... officer of an incorporated bank or trust company, notary public, or any person who is legally authorized... certified by an American consul, a recognized representative of an American embassy or legation or by...

  1. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service... boilers or pressure vessels, the diameter of which does not exceed the maximum diameter of an unreinforced... vessels are met. (b) Portions of tube sheets which have deteriorated may be renewed by replacing...

  2. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service... boilers or pressure vessels, the diameter of which does not exceed the maximum diameter of an unreinforced... vessels are met. (b) Portions of tube sheets which have deteriorated may be renewed by replacing...

  3. You and Your Adolescent: A Parent's Guide for Ages 10-20. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; Levine, Ann

    Parents' relationship with a child will change when the child becomes an adolescent, but the relationship does not necessarily have to change for the worse. On the premise that knowing what to expect of this change is half the task of successfully parenting an adolescent, this book describes the "normal" developmental changes young people undergo…

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-20 - Deadweight or DWT-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the lightweight displacement and the total displacement of a vessel measured in water of specific gravity 1.025 at the load waterline corresponding to the summer freeboard assigned according to 46...

  5. 46 CFR 30.10-20 - Deadweight or DWT-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the lightweight displacement and the total displacement of a vessel measured in water of specific gravity 1.025 at the load waterline corresponding to the summer freeboard assigned according to 46...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-20 - Deadweight or DWT-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the lightweight displacement and the total displacement of a vessel measured in water of specific gravity 1.025 at the load waterline corresponding to the summer freeboard assigned according to 46...

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-20 - Deadweight or DWT-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the lightweight displacement and the total displacement of a vessel measured in water of specific gravity 1.025 at the load waterline corresponding to the summer freeboard assigned according to 46...

  8. Design and control of one precise tracking simulation bed for Chinese 20/30 meter optic/infrared telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Changzhi; Li, Xiaoyan; Song, Xiaoli; Niu, Yong; Li, Aihua; Zhang, Zhenchao

    2012-09-01

    Direct drive technology is the key to solute future 30-m and larger telescope motion system to guarantee a very high tracking accuracy, in spite of unbalanced and sudden loads such as wind gusts and in spite of a structure that, because of its size, can not be infinitely stiff. However, this requires the design and realization of unusually large torque motor that the torque slew rate must be extremely steep too. A conventional torque motor design appears inadequate. This paper explores one redundant unit permanent magnet synchronous motor and its simulation bed for 30-m class telescope. Because its drive system is one high integrated electromechanical system, one complexly electromechanical design method is adopted to improve the efficiency, reliability and quality of the system during the design and manufacture circle. This paper discusses the design and control of the precise tracking simulation bed in detail.

  9. Precipitation-attenuation studies based on measurements of ATS-6 20/30-GHz beacon signals at Clarksburg, Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, D. J.; Harris, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Radiometric sky temperature and minute precipitation measurements were intended to broaden the data base required to advance the understanding of the propagation characteristics of the earth-satellite path at frequencies over 10 GHz. Analyses of the data collected from the measurement program have established a detailed correlation between the satellite signal and the signals from auxiliary ground-based measurements. The indirectly derived statistics agreed reasonably well (or can be reconciled) with the earlier published results. The correlations may therefore be used for indirectly estimating long term cumulative attenuation statistics in the absence of direct satellite signal measurements.

  10. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... technically identical non-geostationary satellite orbit satellites will be awarded a single “blanket” license... addition to providing the information specified in § 25.114, each non-geostationary satellite orbit... space station into the previously-authorized orbit that is technically identical to those authorized...

  11. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing provisions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... technically identical non-geostationary satellite orbit satellites will be awarded a single “blanket” license... addition to providing the information specified in § 25.114, each non-geostationary satellite orbit... space station into the previously-authorized orbit that is technically identical to those authorized...

  12. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... technically identical non-geostationary satellite orbit satellites will be awarded a single “blanket” license... addition to providing the information specified in § 25.114, each non-geostationary satellite orbit... space station into the previously-authorized orbit that is technically identical to those authorized...

  13. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... technically identical non-geostationary satellite orbit satellites will be awarded a single “blanket” license... addition to providing the information specified in § 25.114, each non-geostationary satellite orbit... space station into the previously-authorized orbit that is technically identical to those authorized...

  14. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing provisions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... satellite orbit satellites will be awarded a single “blanket” license covering a specified number of space... specified in § 25.114, each non-geostationary satellite orbit applicant shall demonstrate the following: (1... launch a space station into the previously-authorized orbit that is technically identical to...

  15. Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20--30, 1992. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hebdon, F.J.

    1993-03-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew, a Category 4 hurricane, struck the Turkey Point Electrical Generating Station with sustained winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). This is the report of the team that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) jointly sponsored (1) to review the damage that the hurricane caused the nuclear units and the utility`s actions to prepare for the storm and recover from it, and (2) to compile lessons that might benefit other nuclear reactor facilities.

  16. Soil organic carbon beneath croplands and re-established grasslands in the North Dakota Prairie Pothole Region.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rebecca L; Eken, Mikki R; West, Mark S

    2015-05-01

    Grassland ecosystems established under the conservation reserve program (CRP) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) currently provide soil conservation and wildlife habitat services. We aimed to determine if these lands also sequester soil organic carbon (SOC), as compared with neighboring croplands across multiple farms in the North Dakota PPR. We sampled soil from small plots at 17 private farms in the central North Dakota PPR, where long-term (≥15 years) grasslands managed under the CRP were paired with neighboring annual croplands. Cores were collected to 100 cm and split into 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm soil depth layers. We hypothesized the effect of land use on soil organic carbon (SOC), root carbon (C), and bulk density would be greatest near the surface. For 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers, grasslands managed under the CRP were lower in bulk density and higher in SOC. From 0 to 70 cm, grasslands managed under the CRP were higher in root C. Average (±standard error) SOC for re-established grasslands and croplands was 25.39 (0.91) and 21.90 (1.02), respectively, for the 0-10 cm soil layer and 19.88 (0.86) and 18.31 (0.82), respectively, for the 10-20 soil layer. Compared to croplands, re-established grasslands sampled in the North Dakota PPR were 3-13 % lower in bulk density and 9-16 % higher in SOC from 0 to 20 cm, while root C was 2-6 times greater from 0 to 70 cm. PMID:25813629

  17. Soil Organic Carbon Beneath Croplands and Re-established Grasslands in the North Dakota Prairie Pothole Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Rebecca L.; Eken, Mikki R.; West, Mark S.

    2015-05-01

    Grassland ecosystems established under the conservation reserve program (CRP) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) currently provide soil conservation and wildlife habitat services. We aimed to determine if these lands also sequester soil organic carbon (SOC), as compared with neighboring croplands across multiple farms in the North Dakota PPR. We sampled soil from small plots at 17 private farms in the central North Dakota PPR, where long-term (≥15 years) grasslands managed under the CRP were paired with neighboring annual croplands. Cores were collected to 100 cm and split into 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm soil depth layers. We hypothesized the effect of land use on soil organic carbon (SOC), root carbon (C), and bulk density would be greatest near the surface. For 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers, grasslands managed under the CRP were lower in bulk density and higher in SOC. From 0 to 70 cm, grasslands managed under the CRP were higher in root C. Average (±standard error) SOC for re-established grasslands and croplands was 25.39 (0.91) and 21.90 (1.02), respectively, for the 0-10 cm soil layer and 19.88 (0.86) and 18.31 (0.82), respectively, for the 10-20 soil layer. Compared to croplands, re-established grasslands sampled in the North Dakota PPR were 3-13 % lower in bulk density and 9-16 % higher in SOC from 0 to 20 cm, while root C was 2-6 times greater from 0 to 70 cm.

  18. Nickel-cobalt bimetallic anode catalysts for direct urea fuel cell

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Gang; Wu, Zucheng

    2014-01-01

    Nickel is an ideal non-noble metal anode catalyst for direct urea fuel cell (DUFC) due to its high activity. However, there exists a large overpotential toward urea electrooxidation. Herein, NiCo/C bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared with various Co contents (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) to improve the activity. The best Co ratio was 10% in the aspect of cell performance, with a maximum power density of 1.57 mW cm−2 when 0.33 M urea was used as fuel, O2 as oxidant at 60°C. The effects of temperature and urea concentration on DUFC performance were investigated. Besides, direct urine fuel cell reaches a maximum power density of 0.19 mW cm−2 with an open circuit voltage of 0.38 V at 60°C. PMID:25168632

  19. Spanwise Structure of the Wall Pressure on a Cylinder under Axial Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokde, Arun L. W.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    1996-11-01

    The spanwise structure of the wall pressure fluctuations was measured in a thick axisymmetric turbulent boundary layer on a cylinder parallel to the free-stream. The boundary layer thickness to cylinder radius ratio was 5. The measurements were made using miniature hearing aid condenser microphones at spanwise separation angles of 0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 degrees. An improved measurement of the power spectrum was obtained on the low frequency end by utilizing a two-point subtraction method to remove the low frequency acoustic backgound noise. The spanwise correlation indicates that wall pressure structures are correlated for angles up to about 30 degrees. The spanwise coherence is weak and concentrated at low frequencies. Conditional sampling by peak and VITA detection on wall pressure indicate that the spanwise extent of events is about 60 degrees. (Supported by ONR and NUWC-New London).

  20. Modelling and mapping the topsoil organic carbon content for Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempen, Bas; Kaaya, Abel; Ngonyani Mhaiki, Consolatha; Kiluvia, Shani; Ruiperez-Gonzalez, Maria; Batjes, Niels; Dalsgaard, Soren

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), held in soil organic matter, is a key indicator of soil health and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The soil can act as a net source or sink of carbon depending on land use and management. Deforestation and forest degradation lead to the release of vast amounts of carbon from the soil in the form of greenhouse gasses, especially in tropical countries. Tanzania has a high deforestation rate: it is estimated that the country loses 1.1% of its total forested area annually. During 2010-2013 Tanzania has been a pilot country under the UN-REDD programme. This programme has supported Tanzania in its initial efforts towards reducing greenhouse gas emission from forest degradation and deforestation and towards preserving soil carbon stocks. Formulation and implementation of the national REDD strategy requires detailed information on the five carbon pools among these the SOC pool. The spatial distribution of SOC contents and stocks was not available for Tanzania. The initial aim of this research, was therefore to develop high-resolution maps of the SOC content for the country. The mapping exercise was carried out in a collaborative effort with four Tanzanian institutes and data from the Africa Soil Information Service initiative (AfSIS). The mapping exercise was provided with over 3200 field observations on SOC from four sources; this is the most comprehensive soil dataset collected in Tanzania so far. The main source of soil samples was the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA). The carbon maps were generated by means of digital soil mapping using regression-kriging. Maps at 250 m spatial resolution were developed for four depth layers: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 0-30 cm. A total of 37 environmental GIS data layers were prepared for use as covariates in the regression model. These included vegetation indices, terrain parameters, surface temperature, spectral reflectances, a land cover map and a small

  1. Experimental analysis to utilize the solid wastes in brick production.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Rajagopalan; Govindan, Venkatesan

    2013-07-01

    Utilization of industrial, municipal, agricultural and other waste products in the industry has been the focus of research for economical, environmental, and technical reasons. Two solid wastes, i.e. Sugar-cane bagasse--is a fibrous waste-product of the sugar refining industry and granite processing industry generates a large amount of wastes mainly in the form of powder during sawing and polishing processes, which pollute and damage the environment, have been taken to experimental study. The objective of this study is to utilize the bagasse ash and granite waste for the manufacturing of bricks. Mixtures were prepared with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% wastes of total weight of clay. The produced bricks are tested for mechanical properties, such as water absorption and compressive strength, according to Indian Standard Code. The result showed that 20% of bagasse ash and granite waste is optimum percentage to be used in the manufacturing of conventional bricks. PMID:25509952

  2. Establishing Quantitative Standards for Residual Alkaline Phosphatase in Pasteurized Milk.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Lim, Jong-Soo; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kang, Il-Byeong; Jeong, Dana; Song, Kwang-Young; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is a rapid and convenient method for verifying milk pasteurization. Since colorimetric ALP assays rely on subjective visual assessments, their results are especially unreliable near the detection limits. In this study, we attempted to establish quantitative criteria for residual ALP in milk by using a more objective method based on spectrophotometric measurements. Raw milk was heat-treated for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min and then subjected to ALP assays. The quantitative criteria for residual ALP in the milk was determined as 2 μg phenol/mL of milk, which is just above the ALP value of milk samples heat-treated for 30 min. These newly proposed methodology and criteria could facilitate the microbiological quality control of milk. PMID:27194927

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF ODS HEAT EXCHANGER TUBING

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Harper, Ph.D.

    2002-04-01

    Work continued on three major tasks of this project--increasing the circumferential strength of MA956 tubing, joining of the MA956 alloy, and determination of the high temperature corrosion limits of the MA956 alloy. With respect to increasing the circumferential strength of a MA956 tube, all of the cold working operations (0, 10, 20, 30, 40%) and annealing treatments (1000, 1150, 1300 C) have been completed. The sample microstructures produced by this processing continue to be analyzed with TEM results providing valuable information on the strengthening mechanism of this alloy. Creep testing to determine the ''stress threshold'' curves for this alloy continues. Regarding joining of the MA956 alloy, additional welds were produced with the friction welding and transient liquid phase bonding techniques. And finally, laboratory high temperature corrosion testing of the material continues in both fluid-side and fire-side simulated environments.

  4. Static stability and control effectiveness of models 12-0 and 34-0 of the vehicle 3 configuration, volume 3. [tabulated source data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, E. C.; Tuttle, T.

    1973-01-01

    Static stability and control effectiveness characteristics of two 0.004 scale models of the vehicle 3 configuration are reported. The components investigated consisted of a single aft body, vertical/rudder, OMS pods with two interchangeable wings, four interchangeable forward bodies, four trimmers, and a spoiler. The test was conducted in 14 x 14 inch trisonic wind tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 4.96. Angles of attack from 0 to 60 degrees and angles of sideslip from -10 to 10 degrees at 0, 10, 20,30, and 40 degrees angle of attack were tested. Elevon, body flap, and speed brake deflection composed the parametric considerations. No grit was placed on the models during the test. The tabulated source data and incremental data figures are presented.

  5. Static stability and control effectiveness of models 12-0 and 34-0 of the vehicle 3 configuration, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, E. C.; Tuttle, T.

    1973-01-01

    Static stability and control effectiveness characteristics of two 0.004 scale models of the vehicle 3 configuration are presented. The components investigated consisted of a single aft body, vertical/rudder, OMS pods with two interchangeable wings, four interchangeable forward bodies, four trimmers, and a spoiler. The test was conducted in a 14 x 14 inch trisonic wind tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 4.96. Angles of attack from 0 to 60 degrees and angles of sideslip from -10 to 10 degrees at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 degrees angle of attack were tested. Elevon, body flap, and speed brake deflection composed the parametric considerations. No grit was placed on the models during the test. The lateral-directional characteristics are presented along with some additional longitudinal data.

  6. Oviposition preference and egg eclosion in different salt concentrations in the coastal malaria vector Anopheles aquasalis Curry.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Frances R; Díaz, Sandra; Gómez, Cruz J; Moreno, Milagros; Hernández, Gilma

    2006-03-01

    Anopheles aquasalis is the main malaria vector in Sucre State, Venezuela. The larvae of this species are saltwater tolerant. The effects of different concentrations of salt on oviposition preference and egg survival were studied under laboratory conditions. Choice experiments with salt concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% in bottled water were set up for individual adult females and the number of eggs laid in each salt concentration was noted. Egg survival, as inferred by the number of hatched larvae also was determined for each salt concentration. Females preferred to oviposit in freshwater and rejected water salt concentrations of 40%, but they were neither attracted nor repelled by water with 10-30% of salt. Eggs hatched more quickly in the lower salt concentrations, but egg survival was not affected by salt concentrations of up to 20%. Thus, female oviposition preference in An. aquasalis determines egg survival. PMID:16646320

  7. Nickel-cobalt bimetallic anode catalysts for direct urea fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Gang; Wu, Zucheng

    2014-08-01

    Nickel is an ideal non-noble metal anode catalyst for direct urea fuel cell (DUFC) due to its high activity. However, there exists a large overpotential toward urea electrooxidation. Herein, NiCo/C bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared with various Co contents (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) to improve the activity. The best Co ratio was 10% in the aspect of cell performance, with a maximum power density of 1.57 mW cm-2 when 0.33 M urea was used as fuel, O2 as oxidant at 60°C. The effects of temperature and urea concentration on DUFC performance were investigated. Besides, direct urine fuel cell reaches a maximum power density of 0.19 mW cm-2 with an open circuit voltage of 0.38 V at 60°C.

  8. Establishing Quantitative Standards for Residual Alkaline Phosphatase in Pasteurized Milk

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Kwang-Yup

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is a rapid and convenient method for verifying milk pasteurization. Since colorimetric ALP assays rely on subjective visual assessments, their results are especially unreliable near the detection limits. In this study, we attempted to establish quantitative criteria for residual ALP in milk by using a more objective method based on spectrophotometric measurements. Raw milk was heat-treated for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min and then subjected to ALP assays. The quantitative criteria for residual ALP in the milk was determined as 2 μg phenol/mL of milk, which is just above the ALP value of milk samples heat-treated for 30 min. These newly proposed methodology and criteria could facilitate the microbiological quality control of milk. PMID:27194927

  9. Solubility, viscosity and density of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 July 1993--30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents results of measurements on low refrigerant concentration mixtures (0, 10, 20, 30 wt %) of CFC-12, HCFC`s 22, 123 and 124, HFC`s 134a, 32 and 125 with mineral oil, alkylbenzene and polyolester lubricants. Viscosity, solubility (vapor pressure) and density data are reported for 23 working fluids composed of combinations of these refrigerants and companion lubricants. These data, reduced to engineering form, are presented in form of a Daniel Chart and a plot of density vs temperature and composition. Extensive numerical analysis has been performed in order to derive equations which allow two independent variables (temperature and composition) and to provide for corrections in composition due to vapor space volume in the test apparatus; details of these calculations are provided.

  10. Comparing the effects of sucrose and glucose on functional properties of pregelatinized maize starch.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Sara; Shahidi, Fakhri; Koocheki, Arash; Farahnaky, Asgar; Majzoobi, Mahsa

    2016-07-01

    Pregelatinized (PG) starches are extensively used in food products which are processed at low temperature, to increase viscosity and offer a desirable texture. The functional properties of PG starch can be influenced by other constituents used in food matrices. Therefore the main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of sucrose and glucose (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of dry starch weight basis) as two common sweeteners on drum dried pregelatinized maize starch. Samples were characterized by light microscopy, water absorption, syneresis, cold paste viscosity, texture and turbidity measurements. The results indicated that the amount of leached glucose chains to the aqueous phase, water absorption, viscosity and mechanical properties increased when increasing the sugar concentration while, syneresis and turbidity decreased. However, these effects were more obvious in samples containing sucrose than those with glucose. PMID:27083847

  11. 45 CFR Exhibit A to Part 12 - Public Benefit Allowance for Transfer of Real Property for Health Purposes 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 20 20 10 10 20 30 10 100 Public Health Administration 2 100 2 100 Public Refuse Disposal and Water... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC...

  12. 45 CFR Exhibit A to Part 12 - Public Benefit Allowance for Transfer of Real Property for Health Purposes 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 20 20 10 10 20 30 10 100 Public Health Administration 2 100 2 100 Public Refuse Disposal and Water... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC...

  13. 45 CFR Exhibit A to Part 12 - Public Benefit Allowance for Transfer of Real Property for Health Purposes 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 20 20 10 10 20 30 10 100 Public Health Administration 2 100 2 100 Public Refuse Disposal and Water... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC...

  14. 45 CFR Exhibit A to Part 12 - Public Benefit Allowance for Transfer of Real Property for Health Purposes 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 20 20 10 10 20 30 10 100 Public Health Administration 2 100 2 100 Public Refuse Disposal and Water... Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC...

  15. Combined effect of ultrasound/SonoVue microbubble on CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells viability and optimized parameters for its transfection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chunying; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Haichao; Dong, Tianxiu; Chen, Yaodong; Xu, Yutong; Yang, Xiuhua

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of ultrasound and SonoVue microbubble on CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) viability and to explore the appropriate parameters for Tregs transfection. Tregs were separated from peripheral venous blood of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and seeded in 96-well plates. The optimal ultrasound exposure time and optimal SonoVue microbubble concentration for Tregs were measured by mechanical index (MI) of 1.2 or 1.4, exposure time of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180s, and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50μL/100μL microbubble per well, respectively. In addition, the combined effect of ultrasound and microbubble on Tregs viability was evaluated according to the following parameters: MI 1.2/1.4+exposure time of 120, 150, 180s+0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50μL/100μL microbubble per well. Tregs viability investigations were performed in order to explore the optimal transfection condition. The efficiency of plasmid transfer was determined by detection of luciferase activity on the microscopic examinations. The proliferation of Tregs could be promoted by ultrasound exposures, while being decreased with the increasing concentration of microbubbles. Under the current experimental conditions, the optimal ultrasound parameters were MI=1.4 and exposure time=150/180s. The optimal microbubble concentration was 10μL/100μL. Compared with treatment with ultrasound or microbubbles alone, the transfection efficiency of Tregs improved 50% by combining ultrasound and microbubble. The results indicate that both ultrasound and microbubble could affect the Tregs proliferation and the optimal Treg transfection rate was obtained by treating with 10% microbubbles and ultrasound exposure for 150/180s under ultrasound MI of 1.4. PMID:26048174

  16. Dissolved organic C and N pools in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems and sampling depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro Angel; García López de Sa, Esther; Polo, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Soil tillage practices exert a significant influence on the dynamic of soluble organic C and N pools, affecting nutrient cycling in agricultural systems by enhancing its mineralization through microbial activities or stabilization in soil microaggregates, which contribute to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions. The objective of the present research was to determine the influence of three different soil management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) obtained from wastewater treatment processes on dissolved organic C (water-soluble organic C -WSOC-, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds) and soluble N (total-N, NH4+, NO3-) pools in a long-term field experiment (27 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station "La Higueruela" (40° 03'N, 4° 24'W) under semi-arid conditions. Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 tonnes per hectare prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. Soil sampling was performed two months after tillage practices at the following depths for each treatment: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm. Results obtained for unamended soils showed that no-tillage management increased total-N, NH4+ and NO3- contents at the 0-10 cm depth samples, meanwhile WSC and carbohydrates contents were larger at 20-30 cm depth samples in both moldboard and no-tillage plots. CS and TSS-amended soils presented a general increase in soluble C and N compounds, being significantly higher in TSS-amended soils, as TSS contains a great amount of labile organic C and N substrates due to the lack of stabilization treatment. TSS-amended soils under no-tillage and chisel plowing showed larger N, NH4+ and NO3- content at the 0-10 cm samples, meanwhile moldboard management exhibited larger NH4+ and NO3- content at 10-20 and 20-30 cm samples, possibly due to the incorporation of TSS at deeper depths (20-40 cm). CS

  17. 17 CFR 240.0-10 - Small entities under the Securities Exchange Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... otherwise able to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such other person; or (2... otherwise able to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such other person. (k)...

  18. 17 CFR 240.0-10 - Small entities under the Securities Exchange Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... purposes of a particular rulemaking proceeding, the term small business or small organization shall: (a) When used with reference to an “issuer” or a “person,” other than an investment company, mean an... or less; (b) When used with reference to an “issuer” or “person” that is an investment company,...

  19. Methods used to produce nuclear data files for 0--10 GeV incident neutrons and protons

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear models for calculating medium energy data are in need of a unified theory. For energies above 100 MeV the incident nucleon wavelength is smaller than its collision mean-free-path within the target nucleus so that an intra-nuclear-cascade model, for example, is appropriate. For energies below 100 MeV the incident nucleon wavelength is larger than the dimensions of the target nucleus so that a partial wave nuclear model, for example, is appropriate. Comparisons between calculations and experiments show discrepancies even when using appropriate models. Experimental data alone is rarely convergent or sufficient to define an evaluation over the complete range of interest. The evaluator is therefore left to selectively choose from a diverse arsenal of experimental data, nuclear models and nuclear systematics those tools that may best help him to complete an evaluation. These points are illustrated by the use of calculation and experiment in the evaluation of nucleon data for [sup 12]C.

  20. Teamwork for Oversight of Processes and Systems (TOPS). Implementation guide for TOPS version 2.0, 10 August 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, Albert A.; Jackson, Darryl J.

    1992-01-01

    As the nation redefines priorities to deal with a rapidly changing world order, both government and industry require new approaches for oversight of management systems, particularly for high technology products. Declining defense budgets will lead to significant reductions in government contract management personnel. Concurrently, defense contractors are reducing administrative and overhead staffing to control costs. These combined pressures require bold approaches for the oversight of management systems. In the Spring of 1991, the DPRO and TRW created a Process Action Team (PAT) to jointly prepare a Performance Based Management (PBM) system titled Teamwork for Oversight of Processes and Systems (TOPS). The primary goal is implementation of a performance based management system based on objective data to review critical TRW processes with an emphasis on continuous improvement. The processes are: Finance and Business Systems, Engineering and Manufacturing Systems, Quality Assurance, and Software Systems. The team established a number of goals: delivery of quality products to contractual terms and conditions; ensure that TRW management systems meet government guidance and good business practices; use of objective data to measure critical processes; elimination of wasteful/duplicative reviews and audits; emphasis on teamwork--all efforts must be perceived to add value by both sides and decisions are made by consensus; and synergy and the creation of a strong working trust between TRW and the DPRO. TOPS permits the adjustment of oversight resources when conditions change or when TRW systems performance indicate either an increase or decrease in surveillance is appropriate. Monthly Contractor Performance Assessments (CPA) are derived from a summary of supporting system level and process-level ratings obtained from objective process-level data. Tiered, objective, data-driven metrics are highly successful in achieving a cooperative and effective method of measuring performance. The teamwork-based culture developed by TOPS proved an unequaled success in removing adversarial relationships and creating an atmosphere of continuous improvement in quality processes at TRW. The new working relationship does not decrease the responsibility or authority of the DPRO to ensure contract compliance and it permits both parties to work more effectively to improve total quality and reduce cost. By emphasizing teamwork in developing a stronger approach to efficient management of the defense industrial base TOPS is a singular success.

  1. Estimation of CO2 diffusion coefficient at 0-10 cm depth in undisturbed and tilled soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diffusion coefficients (D) of CO2 at 0 – 10 cm layers in undisturbed and tilled soil conditions were estimated using Penman, Millington-Quirk, Ridgwell et al. (1999), Troeh et al., and Moldrup et al. models. Soil bulk density and volumetric soil water content ('v) at 0 – 10 cm were measured on April...

  2. Are large concentration of atomic H storable in tritium-impregnated solid in H2 below 0.10 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, G.; Webeler, R. W. H.

    1979-01-01

    The storage and release of atomic hydrogen produced by the beta decay of tritium contained in a crystalline solid H2 matrix at concentrations greater than 2% and temperatures below 0.80 K are investigated. The temperature of a sample chamber containing tritium-impregnated H2 and placed in the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator was measured as the chamber was heated and cooled in order to determine the rates of energy storage and release. It is found that for samples containing 1.2 wt.% tritium, after storage at 0.054 K for 40 h, an increase in sample temperature to a trigger point of 0.17 K leads to an energy release due to the destabilization of atomic H in H2 as predicted by the phenomenological rate process theory. For a tritium weight fraction of 2.5%, energy releases were triggered at 0.54 and 0.82 K after storage at 0.080 K, indicating the trapping of H atoms at the sites of T2 and HT molecules in the sample. The application of a 15 kG magnetic field is shown to increase the storage capacity of T2 traps while reducing that of HT traps, and to lower the trigger temperatures of both. Results suggest that the direct conversion of nuclear energy to chemical energy may become technically feasible in the future.

  3. Large transverse momenta in nuclear interaction at E{sub 0} > 10{sup 16} eV detected in stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Managadze, A. K. Osedlo, V. I.; Roganova, T. M.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Galkin, V. I.; Rakobolskaya, I. V.; Goncharova, L. A.; Kotelnikov, K. A.; Polukhina, N. G.

    2007-01-15

    A gamma-hadron superfamily of cosmic-rays created by a primary cosmic-ray particle with energy above 10{sup 16} eV was detected at an altitude of 30 km by a stratospheric balloon-borne emulsion chamber. Being of superhigh energy, this event is the unique example in the world statistics of practically pure nuclear interactions in the energy range unattainable for modern accelerators. The present analysis allowed one to estimate the interaction height above the chamber and transverse momenta of the secondaries produced in the interaction. The mean value of transverse momenta appears to be very large ( > 2.5 GeV/c)

  4. Teamwork for Oversight of Processes and Systems (TOPS). Implementation guide for TOPS version 2.0, 10 August 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, Albert A.; Jackson, Darryl J.

    As the nation redefines priorities to deal with a rapidly changing world order, both government and industry require new approaches for oversight of management systems, particularly for high technology products. Declining defense budgets will lead to significant reductions in government contract management personnel. Concurrently, defense contractors are reducing administrative and overhead staffing to control costs. These combined pressures require bold approaches for the oversight of management systems. In the Spring of 1991, the DPRO and TRW created a Process Action Team (PAT) to jointly prepare a Performance Based Management (PBM) system titled Teamwork for Oversight of Processes and Systems (TOPS). The primary goal is implementation of a performance based management system based on objective data to review critical TRW processes with an emphasis on continuous improvement. The processes are: Finance and Business Systems, Engineering and Manufacturing Systems, Quality Assurance, and Software Systems. The team established a number of goals: delivery of quality products to contractual terms and conditions; ensure that TRW management systems meet government guidance and good business practices; use of objective data to measure critical processes; elimination of wasteful/duplicative reviews and audits; emphasis on teamwork--all efforts must be perceived to add value by both sides and decisions are made by consensus; and synergy and the creation of a strong working trust between TRW and the DPRO. TOPS permits the adjustment of oversight resources when conditions change or when TRW systems performance indicate either an increase or decrease in surveillance is appropriate. Monthly Contractor Performance Assessments (CPA) are derived from a summary of supporting system level and process-level ratings obtained from objective process-level data. Tiered, objective, data-driven metrics are highly successful in achieving a cooperative and effective method of measuring performance. The teamwork-based culture developed by TOPS proved an unequaled success in removing adversarial relationships and creating an atmosphere of continuous improvement in quality processes at TRW. The new working relationship does not decrease the responsibility or authority of the DPRO to ensure contract compliance and it permits both parties to work more effectively to improve total quality and reduce cost. By emphasizing teamwork in developing a stronger approach to efficient management of the defense industrial base TOPS is a singular success.

  5. 21 CFR 10.20 - Submission of documents to Division of Dockets Management; computation of time; availability for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... order to preclude a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. (5) Defamatory, scurrilous, or... invasion of personal privacy) and, except as provided in paragraph (j)(3) of this section,...

  6. 21 CFR 10.20 - Submission of documents to Division of Dockets Management; computation of time; availability for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... order to preclude a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. (5) Defamatory, scurrilous, or... invasion of personal privacy) and, except as provided in paragraph (j)(3) of this section,...

  7. 21 CFR 10.20 - Submission of documents to Division of Dockets Management; computation of time; availability for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... order to preclude a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. (5) Defamatory, scurrilous, or... invasion of personal privacy) and, except as provided in paragraph (j)(3) of this section,...

  8. CAHRD Consultation 2014: the 10-20 year Horizon Introduction and Overview – as circulated to Consultation participants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of the 2014 Consultation is to bring together internal and external partners to help shape the strategic direction for CAHRD over the 10 to 20 year horizon. Our strategic thinking will be guided by our vision of a healthy future for low and middle income populations and our mission to transform health systems to improve the health of these populations. Partnership between northern and southern institutions is integral to this work and critical in the consultation process. The Consultation considers four selected areas of the current work of CAHRD: Lung Health, Maternal & Newborn Health, Neglected Tropical Diseases, and Health Systems. We aim to foster dialogue and learning between these and across contexts and disciplines. The major challenges that will need to be addressed over the next 10 to 20 years will be scoped and pathways to possible solutions proposed. The overall vision is a process of co-production of knowledge

  9. 21 CFR 10.20 - Submission of documents to Division of Dockets Management; computation of time; availability for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... publication. (3) Where relevant information is contained in a document also containing irrelevant information... applicable Federal Register notice, or an order issued by an administrative law judge specifically states... judge or other presiding officer at a hearing referenced in paragraph (j)(2)(i). The administrative...

  10. Higher Education: Issues Related to Law School Cost and Access. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to participate in federal student financial aid programs, law schools must be accredited by an agency recognized by the Department of Education (Education). Accreditation is intended to ensure that schools provide basic levels of quality in their educational programs, and Education recognizes those accrediting agencies that it concludes…

  11. Physiological and genetic effects of chromium (+VI) on toxitolerant lichen species, Pyxine cocoes.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Shukla, Vertika; Singh, Niraj; Rana, T S; Upreti, D K

    2015-03-01

    Chromium is a highly toxic non-essential metal, which causes a variety of metabolic activities in plants. Pyxine cocoes a well known toxitolerant lichen species was considered to evaluate the possible physiological, biochemical, and genetic changes that occur due to chromium Cr (+VI) stress. The physiological (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein, and Fv/Fm) and genetic (ISSR-PCR and ITS) parameters were used to estimate the changes in P. cocoes. Different concentrations of Cr (+VI) (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 μM) for 10, 20, 30, and 45 days were employed on transplanted lichen species. The results revealed that the exposure of Cr (+VI) for 10, 20, 30, and 45 days under controlled conditions caused a significant decline in physiological processes with increasing metal stress. Amino acid profile at different concentrations on the 45th day too indicated prevailing stress condition as proline content significantly increased at 100 μM concentration. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) techniques were used to evaluate the genotoxicity induced by chromium stress. ISSR profiles showed a consistent increase in appearance and disappearance of bands with increasing concentration of the chromium. ISSR technique, therefore, is more sensitive and reproducible to study polymorphism induced by environmental stress. The present study revealed that the physiological and genetic changes induced by the Cr (+VI) can be used as a tool to study environmental stress and polymorphisms due to genotoxicity. To the best of our knowledge, application of ISSR-PCR and ITS sequences in toxitolerant species (P. cocoes) appears to be the maiden attempt to evaluate the genotoxicity. PMID:25263416

  12. Municipal landfill leachate induces hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Farombi, E O; Akintunde, J K; Nzute, N; Adedara, I A; Arojojoye, O

    2012-07-01

    Human beings are more often exposed to complex mixtures of hazardous chemicals than single toxicant. The present study investigated the effects of Olushosun municipal landfill leachate (OMLL) from Ojota in Lagos State of Nigeria on hepatic function and some biomarkers of oxidative stress in adult rats. Physicochemical characteristic analysis of OMLL showed that while total alkalinity, total acidity, total hardness, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were 3-fold, 2-fold, 4-fold and 1-fold, respectively, concentrations of heavy metals analysis showed that copper, lead, cadmium, arsenic, cobalt, chromium and mercury were 9-fold, 4-fold, 21-fold, 1320-fold, 7-fold, 5-fold and 4-fold, respectively, higher than acceptable limits by regulatory authorities. The OMLL was administered at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% concentrations to adult male rats for 14 days. Following exposure, serum was collected for serum biochemistry assays and liver was collected to determine the antioxidant status. Exposure of animals to 10, 20, 30 and 40% OMLL resulted in 3%, 31%, 52% and 83% increase in aspartate aminotransferase activity, whereas it elevated alanine aminotransferase activity by 10%, 25%, 30% and 49%, respectively, when compared with the control. While OMLL administration significantly increased catalase activity, a sequential decrease in reduced glutathione level and in superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities with concomitant increase in malondialdehyde level were observed, when compared with the control. Collectively, the hepatotoxicity of OMLL could be due to the induction of oxidative stress and may suggest possible health hazards in subjects with occupational or environmental exposure. PMID:21937537

  13. Effect of ultrasound treatment on the water state in kiwifruit during osmotic dehydration.

    PubMed

    Nowacka, M; Tylewicz, U; Laghi, L; Dalla Rosa, M; Witrowa-Rajchert, D

    2014-02-01

    The present work investigates how ultrasound pretreatment modulates the effects of osmotic dehydration (OD) on the water state and microstructure of kiwifruit. Kiwifruit slices (10mm thick) were subjected to ultrasonic waves in a water bath at a frequency of 35 kHz for 10, 20 and 30 min. OD process was then carried out by immersing the samples in 61.5% sucrose solution equilibrated at 25°C for a contact period of 0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 min. The partition of water into the cellular tissue structures (vacuole, cytoplasm, extracellular spaces and cell wall) was investigated by Time Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR). In parallel, the microstructure of kiwifruits slices was examined using a Scanning Electron Microscope. The results showed that US pretreatment performed for more than 10 min had a positive effect on the mass exchange caused by osmotic dehydration. A creation of microchannels and an increase of the average cross-section area of cells were observed when the samples were pretreated with US before OD. TD-NMR showed a slight redistribution of water through the substructures of the cells, as a function of the length of the US pretreatment applied. PMID:24099537

  14. High temperature and salinity enhance soil nitrogen mineralization in a tidal freshwater marsh.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haifeng; Bai, Junhong; He, Xinhua; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization in wetlands is sensitive to various environmental factors. To compare the effects of salinity and temperature on N mineralization, wetland soils from a tidal freshwater marsh locating in the Yellow River Delta was incubated over a 48-d anaerobic incubation period under four salinity concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 35‰) and four temperature levels (10, 20, 30 and 40°C). The results suggested that accumulated ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) increased with increasing incubation time under all salinity concentrations. Higher temperatures and salinities significantly enhanced soil N mineralization except for a short-term (≈10 days) inhibiting effect found under 35‰ salinity. The incubation time, temperature, salinity and their interactions exhibited significant effects on N mineralization (P<0.001) except the interactive effect of salinity and temperature (P>0.05), while temperature exhibited the greatest effect (P<0.001). Meanwhile, N mineralization processes were simulated using both an effective accumulated temperature model and a one-pool model. Both models fit well with the simulation of soil N mineralization process in the coastal freshwater wetlands under a range of 30 to 40°C (R2 = 0.88-0.99, P<0.01). Our results indicated that an enhanced NH4+-N release with increasing temperature and salinity deriving from the projected global warming could have profound effects on nutrient cycling in coastal wetland ecosystems. PMID:24733366

  15. High Temperature and Salinity Enhance Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in a Tidal Freshwater Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haifeng; Bai, Junhong; He, Xinhua; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization in wetlands is sensitive to various environmental factors. To compare the effects of salinity and temperature on N mineralization, wetland soils from a tidal freshwater marsh locating in the Yellow River Delta was incubated over a 48-d anaerobic incubation period under four salinity concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 35‰) and four temperature levels (10, 20, 30 and 40°C). The results suggested that accumulated ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) increased with increasing incubation time under all salinity concentrations. Higher temperatures and salinities significantly enhanced soil N mineralization except for a short-term (≈10 days) inhibiting effect found under 35‰ salinity. The incubation time, temperature, salinity and their interactions exhibited significant effects on N mineralization (P<0.001) except the interactive effect of salinity and temperature (P>0.05), while temperature exhibited the greatest effect (P<0.001). Meanwhile, N mineralization processes were simulated using both an effective accumulated temperature model and a one-pool model. Both models fit well with the simulation of soil N mineralization process in the coastal freshwater wetlands under a range of 30 to 40°C (R2 = 0.88–0.99, P<0.01). Our results indicated that an enhanced NH4+-N release with increasing temperature and salinity deriving from the projected global warming could have profound effects on nutrient cycling in coastal wetland ecosystems. PMID:24733366

  16. Bottom sediment as a source of organic contaminants in Lake Mead, Nevada, USA.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, David A; Rosen, Michael R; Perkins, Stephanie D; Cranor, Walter L; Schroeder, Vickie L; Jones-Lepp, Tammy L

    2012-07-01

    Treated wastewater effluent from Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities' flow through Las Vegas Wash (LVW) into the Lake Mead National Recreational Area at Las Vegas Bay (LVB). Lake sediment is a likely sink for many hydrophobic synthetic organic compounds (SOCs); however, partitioning between the sediment and the overlying water could result in the sediment acting as a secondary contaminant source. Locating the chemical plumes may be important to understanding possible chemical stressors to aquatic organisms. Passive sampling devices (SPMDs and POCIS) were suspended in LVB at depths of 3.0, 4.7, and 6.7 (lake bottom) meters in June of 2008 to determine the vertical distribution of SOCs in the water column. A custom sediment probe was used to also bury the samplers in the sediment at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30cm. The greatest number of detections in samplers buried in the sediment was at the 0-10cm depth. Concentrations of many hydrophobic SOCs were twice as high at the sediment-water interface than in the mid and upper water column. Many SOCs related to wastewater effluents, including fragrances, insect repellants, sun block agents, and phosphate flame retardants, were found at highest concentrations in the middle and upper water column. There was evidence to suggest that the water infiltrated into the sediment had a different chemical composition than the rest of the water column and could be a potential risk exposure to bottom-dwelling aquatic organisms. PMID:22464858

  17. Persistence of bifenthrin in sandy loam soil as affected by microbial community.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divya; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2012-06-01

    Soil was fortified with bifenthrin at the level of 10 μg g(-1) soil. Soil samples were drawn at regular intervals of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. For extraction of bifenthrin, soil was extracted with acetone. Clean up was done by liquid-liquid partitioning with dichloromethane after diluting with brine solution. Quantification of bifenthrin residues was done by GC using mega bore column and ECD detector. Recovery of bifenthrin in soil ranged between 92.6 % and 93.8 % at 0.5 and 1.0 μg g(-1). The instrumental limit of detection of bifenthrin was 0.005 μg mL(-1) and LOQ for soil by this method was found to be 0.05 μg g(-1). The calibration curve was found to be linear within range the range of 0.01 and 0.10 μg mL(-1) concentration. The DT(50) (disappearance time for 50 % loss) of bifenthrin at the level of 10 μg g(-1) in sterile and non sterile soil were found to be 330 and 147 days, respectively. A vast difference in the half life of sterile and non sterile soil indicated the presence of potential microbes for bifenthrin degradation. PMID:22476257

  18. The infrared and submillimetre sky after COBE; Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Les Houches, France, Mar. 20-30, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signore, Monique; Dupraz, Christophe

    The present conference discusses first-order cosmological inflation, the great attractor and the anisotropies of the relic radiation, the role of string theory in cosmology, the cosmic microwave background radiation, dark matter candidates and candidate detection methods, and the thermal history of the cosmological gas. Also discussed are Galactic IR emission, sources of cosmic IR-to-submillimeter background radiation, cosmic background anisotropies in the millimetric region, and linear and nonlinear gravitational effects on the cosmic microwave background.

  19. Children and Development in the 1990s: A UNICEF Sourcebook on the Occasion of the World Summit for Children (New York, New York, September 20-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This eight-part sourcebook provides background information, data, and references relating to child welfare issues throughout the world. The book is organized around a set of goals for children in the 1990s. An introductory section provides an overview of these goals and strategies for achieving them, and discusses infant and child mortality,…

  20. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  1. Interaction between morin and AOT reversed micelles--studies with UV-vis at 25 °C.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Ajaya; Wilczura-Wachnik, H

    2014-01-30

    The precise measurements of morin absorbance in presence of surfactant/solvent/water systems at 25 °C by UV-vis technique are reported. The surfactant used in presented study was sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate called Aerosol-OT or AOT. The solvents selected were: ethanol, ethylene glycol, and n-decanol. The concentrations of AOT were varied between 0.001 and 0.4 mol/kg. Morin concentration in quvette during UV-vis registration was not equals in all solvent because of its different solubility and absorption intensity depending on the solvent. Water concentration in the studied systems was defined by R parameter according to relation: R=[H2O]/[AOT] and was equal 0, 30 and 40 in ethanol; 0, 10, 20 and 30 in ethylene glycol and 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 in n-decanol. In presented work a Nernstian distribution of morin between the organic and micellar phases was assumed. The intensity of morin absorbance as a function of AOT concentration was analyzed. Using Non-linear Regression Procedure (NLREG) morin binding constant (K' [mol/kg]), and morin distribution constant (K) between organic phase and AOT micellar phase have been calculated. The experimental results have shown a significant influence of solvent, surfactant and water presence on morin UV-vis spectrum. Calculated data pointed out on different transfer of morin molecules from the organic to micellar phase depending on the solvent. Moreover, results of calculations indicate on competition between morin and water molecules interacting with AOT polar heads. Morin molecules privileged location in AOT reversed micelles strongly depends on the solvent. In case of systems with ethylene glycol as solvent is possible morin molecules location in polar cores of AOT reversed micelles as results of strong interaction between AOT polar heads and morin hydroxyl groups, whereas in case of ethanol and n-decanol morin molecules are located in palisade layer. PMID:24239834

  2. Laser effects in nonpigmented versus pigmented tissues using FiberTomeTM, Nd:YAG, and KTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Wendy J.; Vari, Sandor G.; Pergadia, Vani R.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Duffy, J. T.; Thomas, Reem; Shi, Wei-Qiang; Fry, Stephen M.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1994-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the FiberTomeTM (10, 20, 30 W), conventional Nd:YAG (10, 20, 30 W), and KTP (5, 10, 15 W) surgical laser systems, with respect to pigmented and nonpigmented tissues. The cutting width, cutting depth, and thermal damages were measured on the skin and liver of farmer pigs. The results show that there was no significant difference in the cutting width and depth, for nonpigmented versus pigmented tissues. KTP showed the most significant thermal damage reduction in pigmented tissue; 318 micrometers in nonpigmented vs 94 micrometers in pigmented tissue.

  3. Particles cellulation composite (PCC): Dispersion morphology of SiC particles in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, K.; Kamiya, N.

    1995-10-01

    Dispersion morphology of fine SiC particles in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/xSiC (x = 0, 10, 20, 30wt%, average size: 0.03 {micro} m) composites was statistically analyzed, and typical properties of the composites such as creep, electric and thermal conductivity were investigated. The dispersion morphology of SiC particles was analyzed by observing the ECR-plasma etched surface of the sintered composites using scanning electron microscopy. SiC particles in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiC composites were distributed both within Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains and on Si{sub 4}N{sub 4} grain boundary, but 90% or more of them was located on the grain boundary. For the composites with 20--30 wt%SiC, the SiC particles on the grain boundary clearly formed a three-dimensional network structure surrounding a few or more Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} crystalline grains. A Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiC composite with a three-dimensional network structure of SiC particles, named particles cellulation composite (PCC), was artificially made by pressing the granulated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder (less than 500 {micro} m diameter) discontinuously coated with SiC particles (average size: 0.4 {micro}m). The creep deformation of PCC was reduced to about 60% of that of the composites with SiC particles randomly dispersed. Electrical and thermal properties were also improved. These results suggest that the formation of three-dimensional network structure by the second phase particles in a composite would considerably improve its mechanical property as well as electrical and thermal properties.

  4. Validation of a food quantification picture book targeting children of 0-10 years of age for pan-European and national dietary surveys.

    PubMed

    Trolle, Ellen; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Ruprich, Jiří; Ege, Majken; Dofková, Marcela; de Boer, Evelien; Ocké, Marga

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate thirty-eight picture series of six pictures each developed within the PANCAKE (Pilot study for the Assessment of Nutrient intake and food Consumption Among Kids in Europe) project for portion size estimation of foods consumed by infants, toddlers and children for future pan-European and national dietary surveys. Identical validation sessions were conducted in three European countries. In each country, forty-five foods were evaluated; thirty-eight foods were the same as the depicted foods, and seven foods were different, but meant to be quantified by the use of one of the thirty-eight picture series. Each single picture within a picture series was evaluated six times by means of predefined portions. Therefore, thirty-six pre-weighed portions of each food were evaluated by convenience samples of parents having children aged from 3 months to 10 years. The percentages of participants choosing the correct picture, the picture adjacent to the correct picture or a distant picture were calculated, and the performance of individual pictures within the series was assessed. For twenty foods, the picture series performed acceptably (mean difference between the estimated portion number and the served portion number less than 0.4 (SD < 1.1)). In addition, twelve foods were rated acceptable after adjustment for density differences. Some other series became acceptable after analyses at the country level. In conclusion, all picture series were acceptable for inclusion in the PANCAKE picture book. However, the picture series of baby food, salads and cakes either can only be used for foods that are very similar to those depicted or need to be substituted by another quantification tool. PMID:23803561

  5. Structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of polycrystalline Fe3-xPtxO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. H.; Li, L. Y.; Wang, W. H.; Luo, X. G.; Liu, Hui; Zheng, R. K.

    2011-04-01

    Polycrystalline Fe3-xPtxO4 films have been prepared by cosputtering at room-temperature. The composition, magnetization and Hall effect measurements indicate that Pt ions have been doped at B-sites. The resistivity is dominated by fluctuation-induced tunneling and decreases with increasing x. The absolute magnetoresistance at room-temperature is above 7% for x ≤0.07. The carrier concentration is lower than that of the single-crystal and epitaxial films. A scaling relation of σxy∝σxxn between the Hall and longitudinal conductivities is obtained for all samples, which fits well with the recent developed universal scaling theory. The decreasing trend of the exponent n from 1.72 to 1.57 with increasing x could be qualitatively ascribed to the influence of the Pt2+ ions on the magnetic scattering center concentration of the B-sites Fe2+ ions. These findings make the Fe3-xPtxO4 film a useful candidate for spintronic or extraordinary Hall effect devices applications.

  6. Resonant x-ray scattering investigation of magnetic ordering in NpAs(1 - x)Se(x) (x = 0.05, 0.10).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, V H; Paixão, J A; Costa, M M R; Mannix, D; Bombardi, A; Rebizant, J; Lander, G H

    2011-01-19

    A resonant x-ray scattering investigation of the NpAs(1 - x)Se(x) system with single crystals of 5 and 10% Se content is reported. The main features of the magnetic phase diagram previously studied by neutron scattering were confirmed. The coexistence within a single domain of ferro- and antiferro-components in the low-T ferrimagnetic phase was established, as well as the single-k character of the incommensurate phase and of the antiferromagnetic component of the ferrimagnetic phase. A tetragonal lattice distortion was found in the ferro- and ferrimagnetic phases which is not compatible with the proposed model for the ferromagnetic phase. The study of ferromagnetism was carried out using polarization analysis of the diffracted beam to separate the scattering intensities originating from magnetism and charge, which are superimposed in reciprocal space. The magnetic character of the ferromagnetic signal calculated from the measured intensities in the polarization analysis σπ and σσ channels was confirmed by analysis of the corresponding temperature dependence. PMID:21406852

  7. Symmetric electron transfer reactions of state-selected ions: H 2+ + H 2 → H 2 + H 2+(ν= 0-10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. Keith; Baer, Tomas; Guyon, Paul M.; Govers, Thomas R.

    1984-08-01

    Total symmetric electron transfer cross sections for state-selected H 2+ ions were measured for vibrational levels of the ion from ν = 0 to 10 at a relative translational energy of 16 eV. The internal energy of the H 2+ ions was selected by threshold photoelectron—photoion coincidence using pulsed synchrotron radiation from the ACO storage ring at Orsay. The relative cross sections agree very well with the recent calculations of Lee and DePristo using a semiclassical energy conserving trajectory approach with an accurate diabatic interaction potential between the ion and neutral diatoms.

  8. Effect of surface roughness on the development of protective Al 2O 3 on Fe-10Al (at.%) alloys containing 0-10 at.% Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. G.; Hou, P. Y.; Gesmundo, F.; Niu, Y.

    2006-11-01

    The effect of alloy surface roughness, achieved by different degrees of surface polishing, on the development of protective alumina layer on Fe-10 at.% Al alloys containing 0, 5, and 10 at.% Cr was investigated during oxidation at 1000 °C in 0.1 MPa oxygen. For alloys that are not strong Al 2O 3 formers (Fe-10Al and Fe-5Cr-10Al), the rougher surfaces increased Fe incorporation into the overall surface layer. On the Fe-10Al, more iron oxides were formed in a uniform layer of mixed aluminum- and iron-oxides since the layer was thicker. On the Fe-5Cr-10Al, more iron-rich nodules developed on an otherwise thin Al 2O 3 surface layer. These nodules nucleated preferentially along surface scratch marks but not on alloy grain boundaries. For the strong Al 2O 3-forming Fe-10Cr-10Al alloy, protective alumina surface layers were observed regardless of the surface roughness. These results indicate that the formation of a protective Al 2O 3 layer on Fe-Cr-Al surfaces is not dictated by Al diffusion to the surface. More cold-worked surfaces caused an enhanced Fe diffusion, hence produced more Fe-rich oxides during the early stage of oxidation.

  9. Enhanced Shrinkage of Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (La0.90Sr0.10MnO3+δ) Resulting from Thermal and Oxygen Partial Pressure Cycling

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Ben; Pederson, Larry R.; Anderson, Harlan U.; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Singh, Prabhakar; Coffey, Greg W.; Thomsen, Ed C.

    2007-10-01

    Exposure of La0.9Sr0.1MnO3+δ to repeated oxygen partial pressure cycles (air/10 ppm O2) resulted in enhanced densification rates, similar to behavior shown previously due to thermal cycling. Shrinkage rates in the temperature range 700 to 1000oC were orders of magnitude higher than Makipirtti-Meng model estimations based on stepwise isothermal dilatometry results at high temperature. A maximum in enhanced shrinkage due to oxygen partial pressure cycling occurred at 900oC. Shrinkage was greatest when LSM-10 bars that were first equilibrated in air were exposed to gas flows of lower oxygen fugacity than in the reverse direction. The former creates transient cation and oxygen vacancies well above the equilibrium concentration, resulting in enhanced mobility. These vacancies annihilate as Schottky equilibria is re-established, whereas the latter condition does not lead to excess vacancy concentrations.

  10. Predictors (0-10 Months) of Psychopathology at Age 1 1/2 Years--A General Population Study in the Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, A. M.; Olsen, E. M.; Christiansen, E.; Houmann, T.; Landorph, S. L.; Jorgensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish…

  11. Development of balloon-borne CO2 sonde: CO2 vertical profile (0-10km) observations and comparison with the air craft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, M.; Matsumi, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.

    2012-12-01

    The atmospheric CO2 concentration has drastically increased since the Industrial Revolution due to the mass consumption of fossil fuels and natural gas by human activities. CO2 is considered to be a major factor of global warming; therefore it is important to measure CO2 correctly. CO2 vertical profile measurement is the key to estimate CO2 sources and sinks in high precision. However, current CO2 monitoring sites are limited and there are few CO2 vertical profile measurements. We have been developing a balloon-borne instrument that can measure the vertical distribution of CO2 in any place in the world under any kind of weather conditions (CO2 sonde). The target specifications of altitude range is from surface to 10 km. Time resolution is 1min. The CO2 sensor, originally developed for upper air sounding by our team, is based on the non-dispersed infrared absorption spectroscopy technique (NDIR) at the wavelengths of 4.0 and 4.3 micrometer. The data of the optical infrared absorption are transmitted through a GPS sonde with temperature, humidity and GPS data every second. In this study, we will show simultaneous measurement campaigns of the balloon-borne instruments and in-situ aircraft measurements in January and February 2011 in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan. We will present the comparisons between the results of CO2 sonde (5 flights) and two types of aircraft measurements. One is observed by the CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner) and the other is chartered flight measurements operated by NIES/JAXA.

  12. Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.10) alloys on Ge-buffered Si: Synthesis, microstructure, and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senaratne, C. L.; Gallagher, J. D.; Jiang, Liying; Aoki, Toshihiro; Smith, D. J.; Menéndez, J.; Kouvetakis, J.

    2014-10-01

    Novel hydride chemistries are employed to deposit light-emitting Ge1-ySny alloys with y ≤ 0.1 by Ultra-High Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition (UHV-CVD) on Ge-buffered Si wafers. The properties of the resultant materials are systematically compared with similar alloys grown directly on Si wafers. The fundamental difference between the two systems is a fivefold (and higher) decrease in lattice mismatch between film and virtual substrate, allowing direct integration of bulk-like crystals with planar surfaces and relatively low dislocation densities. For y ≤ 0.06, the CVD precursors used were digermane Ge2H6 and deuterated stannane SnD4. For y ≥ 0.06, the Ge precursor was changed to trigermane Ge3H8, whose higher reactivity enabled the fabrication of supersaturated samples with the target film parameters. In all cases, the Ge wafers were produced using tetragermane Ge4H10 as the Ge source. The photoluminescence intensity from Ge1-ySny/Ge films is expected to increase relative to Ge1-ySny/Si due to the less defected interface with the virtual substrate. However, while Ge1-ySny/Si films are largely relaxed, a significant amount of compressive strain may be present in the Ge1-ySny/Ge case. This compressive strain can reduce the emission intensity by increasing the separation between the direct and indirect edges. In this context, it is shown here that the proposed CVD approach to Ge1-ySny/Ge makes it possible to approach film thicknesses of about 1 μm, for which the strain is mostly relaxed and the photoluminescence intensity increases by one order of magnitude relative to Ge1-ySny/Si films. The observed strain relaxation is shown to be consistent with predictions from strain-relaxation models first developed for the Si1-xGex/Si system. The defect structure and atomic distributions in the films are studied in detail using advanced electron-microscopy techniques, including aberration corrected STEM imaging and EELS mapping of the average diamond-cubic lattice.

  13. Diffuse x-ray scattering from short-period W/C multilayers at in-plane momentum transfers 0.10-0.17 {angstrom}{sup -1}.

    SciTech Connect

    Headrick, R. L.; Liu, C. L.; Macrander, A. T.

    1999-04-20

    X-ray scattering measurements at 10 keV from multilayers having a period of 24.8 {angstrom} and consisting of 100 W/C bilayers are reported. Specular scans revealed first-order reflectivities in the range 73.5% to 78.0% with bandpasses in the range of 1.5% to 1.7%. Total roughness (or interface grading) values deduced from fitting to the specular data only were in the range 2.5 to 3.0 {angstrom} for the last-to-grow surface of the W layers. Diffuse scattering measurements were made in a geometry that permitted investigation of in-plane momentum transfers up to 0.17 {angstrom}{sup {minus}1}. This is roughly an order of magnitude larger than is possible in conventional rocking scans. Reasonable fitting results were obtained for an in-plane correlation function that has a Fourier transform proportional to exp(-vq{sub y}{sup 2}{vert_bar}z{sub i}-z{sub j}{vert_bar}), where z{sub i}-z{sub j} is the average separation between the i{sup th} and j{sup th} interfaces and q{sub y} is the in-plane momentum transfer.

  14. Ge{sub 1-y}Sn{sub y} (y = 0.01-0.10) alloys on Ge-buffered Si: Synthesis, microstructure, and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Senaratne, C. L.; Kouvetakis, J.; Gallagher, J. D.; Jiang, Liying; Smith, D. J.; Menéndez, J.; Aoki, Toshihiro

    2014-10-07

    Novel hydride chemistries are employed to deposit light-emitting Ge{sub 1-y}Sn{sub y} alloys with y ≤ 0.1 by Ultra-High Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition (UHV-CVD) on Ge-buffered Si wafers. The properties of the resultant materials are systematically compared with similar alloys grown directly on Si wafers. The fundamental difference between the two systems is a fivefold (and higher) decrease in lattice mismatch between film and virtual substrate, allowing direct integration of bulk-like crystals with planar surfaces and relatively low dislocation densities. For y ≤ 0.06, the CVD precursors used were digermane Ge₂H₆ and deuterated stannane SnD₄. For y ≥ 0.06, the Ge precursor was changed to trigermane Ge₃H₈, whose higher reactivity enabled the fabrication of supersaturated samples with the target film parameters. In all cases, the Ge wafers were produced using tetragermane Ge₄H₁₀ as the Ge source. The photoluminescence intensity from Ge{sub 1–y}Sn{sub y}/Ge films is expected to increase relative to Ge{sub 1–y}Sn{sub y}/Si due to the less defected interface with the virtual substrate. However, while Ge{sub 1–y}Sn{sub y}/Si films are largely relaxed, a significant amount of compressive strain may be present in the Ge{sub 1–y}Sn{sub y}/Ge case. This compressive strain can reduce the emission intensity by increasing the separation between the direct and indirect edges. In this context, it is shown here that the proposed CVD approach to Ge{sub 1–y}Sn{sub y}/Ge makes it possible to approach film thicknesses of about 1 μm, for which the strain is mostly relaxed and the photoluminescence intensity increases by one order of magnitude relative to Ge{sub 1–y}Sn{sub y}/Si films. The observed strain relaxation is shown to be consistent with predictions from strain-relaxation models first developed for the Si{sub 1–x}Ge{sub x}/Si system. The defect structure and atomic distributions in the films are studied in detail using advanced electron-microscopy techniques, including aberration corrected STEM imaging and EELS mapping of the average diamond–cubic lattice.

  15. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF BUBBLER CONFIGURATIONS USING HLW AZ-101 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-4 REV 0 10/5/04

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of six tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the other tests have been reported separately. The solids contents of the melter feeds were based on the WTP baseline value for the solids content of the feeds from pretreatment which changed during these tests from 20% to 15% undissolved solids resulting in tests conducted at two feed solids contents. Based on the results of earlier tests with single outlet 'J' bubblers, initial tests were performed with a total bubbling rate of 651 pm. The first set of tests (Tests 1A-1E) addressed the effects of skewing this total air flow rate back and forth between the two installed bubblers in comparison to a fixed equal division of flow between them. The second set of tests (2A-2D) addressed the effects of bubbler depth. Subsequently, as the location, type and number of bubbling outlets were varied, the optimum bubbling rate for each was determined. A third (3A-3C) and fourth (8A-8C) set of tests evaluated the effects of alternative bubbler designs with two gas outlets per bubbler instead of one by placing four bubblers in positions simulating multiple-outlet bubblers. Data from the simulated multiple outlet bubblers were used to design bubblers with two outlets for an additional set of tests (9A-9C). Test 9 was also used to determine the effect of small sugar additions to the feed on ruthenium volatility. Another set of tests (10A-10D) evaluated the effects on production rate of spiking the feed with chloride and sulfate. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The feed rate was increased to the point that a constant, essentially complete, cold cap was achieved, which was used as an indicator of a maximized feed rate for each test. The first day of each test was used to build the cold cap and decrease the plenum temperature. The remainder of each test was split into two- to six-day segments, each with a different bubbling rate, bubbler orientation, or feed concentration of chloride and sulfur.

  16. ELT and Development: The Place of English Language Teaching in Aid Programmes. Report on the Dunford Seminar (England, United Kingdom, August 10-20, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Helen, Ed.

    Proceedings of a seminar on the role of English language teaching (ELT) in British technical assistance projects are presented in the form of session and case study narrative summaries. They include descriptions of sessions on the development of ELT projects; a presentation on a project in Oman using a recommended format; a case study simulation…

  17. Observation of the fluxes of nuclei with energies 10-20 MEV per nucleon during the solar flare of April 26, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobrovskaya, V. V.; Grigorov, N. L.; Alekseev, N. V.; Vakulov, P. V.; Zhuravlev, D. A.; Kondratyeva, M. A.; Nymmik, R. A.; Tretyakova, C. A.; Sechinov, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of the fluxes of low energy nuclei in the Earth's magnetosphere are reported. The energy distribution and the composition of the nuclear component of cosmic rays observed during the solar flare of April 26, 1984 are presented.

  18. Effects of grass hay proportion in a corn silage-based diet on rumen digesta kinetics and digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Win, Kyaw San; Ueda, Koichiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of six levels of orchardgrass hay (GH) proportion (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% or 50% of dry matter) in finely chopped corn silage (CS)-based diets on digesta kinetics of CS and GH in the rumen. Six non-lactating, rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Ruminal digesta kinetics was measured by ruminal dosing of feed particle markers (dysprosium for CS, erbium for GH) followed by fecal sampling. The increase of GH proportion had a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) on total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber. The proportion of GH did not affect the particle size distribution of rumen digesta, total weight of dry matter or NDF in the rumen. The rates of large particle size reduction in the rumen for CS tended to increase linearly with increasing GH proportion (P = 0.077). A quadratic effect (P < 0.05) was found with increasing the GH proportion for the ruminal passage rate of small GH particles, but not for CS particles. The results suggested that associative effects between CS and GH could be generated on rumen digesta kinetics when cows were fed a CS-based diet with an increased proportion of GH. PMID:25599766

  19. Changes in plasma osmolality, cortisol and amino acid levels of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) at different salinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodong; Xu, Kefeng; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Fang, Ziheng

    2015-10-01

    A serial of salinity transferring treatments were performed to investigate the osmoregulation of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). Juvenile tongue sole were directly transferred from a salinity of 30 to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Blood sampling was performed for each treatment after 0, 1, 6 and 12 h, as well as after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 d. The plasma osmolality, cortisol and free amino acids were assessed. Under the experimental conditions, no fish died after acute salinity transfer. The plasma cortisol level increased 1 h after the abrupt transfer from a salinity of 30 to that of 0, 40 and 50, and decreased from 6 h to 8 d after transfer. Similar trends were observed in the changes of plasma osmolality. The plasma free amino acids concentration showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity after being transferred to different salinities for 4 days. More obvious changes of plasma free amino acid concentration occurred under hyper-osmotic conditions than under hypo-osmotic conditions. The concentrations of valine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and taurine increased with rising salinity. The plasma levels of threonine, leucine, arginine, serine, and alanine showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity. The results of this study suggested that free amino acids might have important effects on osmotic acclimation in tongue sole.

  20. The effects of urine concentration, and cushion centrifugation to remove urine, on the quality of cool-stored stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Voge, Jared; Varner, Dickson D; Blanchard, Terry L; Meschini, Marika; Turner, Carly; Teague, Sheila R; Brinsko, Steven P; Love, Charles C

    2016-09-15

    Urine-contaminated stallion semen is a clinical problem due to a variety of causes. The effect of the level of urine contamination on the longevity of sperm quality has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urine concentration level (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) and cushioned centrifugation and resuspension of the sperm pellet in fresh extender, on measures of sperm quality, immediately after semen collection (T0), after 1 hour of storage at room temperature (T1), and after 24 hours of cooled storage (T24). In general, most sperm quality measures declined with increasing urine concentration starting at T0. Cushioned centrifugation (CC), but not simple dilution, generally maintained sperm quality at T24 as compared with T1. At T24, total sperm motility was higher in all urine-contaminated CC samples compared with uncentrifuged samples (P < 0.05); sperm viability was lower in CC than uncentrifuged at a urine concentration of 20%, but higher at 30% and 40% (P < 0.05); and DNA quality was decreased (higher % cells outside the main population) in all urine concentrations (P < 0.05). Immediate extension in semen extender, followed by cushioned centrifugation and resuspension of the sperm pellet in fresh extender, provided the best option for preserving sperm quality of urospermic semen. PMID:27349135

  1. Effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on maximal sprint performance in competitive male cyclists.

    PubMed

    Chong, E; Guelfi, K J; Fournier, P A

    2011-03-01

    There is evidence that rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution can improve endurance performance. The goal of this study was to investigate whether a CHO mouth rinse can improve the performance of a maximal sprint effort. Fourteen competitive male cyclists (64.0±5.6 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (mean±SD)) each completed the following 5-s mouth rinse trials in a randomised counter-balanced order; (a) 6.4% maltodextrin solution [Mal], (b) 7.1% glucose solution [Glu], (c) water [Wa] and (d) a control trial with no rinse [Con]. Each participant then performed a 30-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Glu, Mal and Wa trials were not significantly different from Con across all indicators of sprint performance (maximal power output, mean power output over 0-30, 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30s), nausea or fatigue level (p>0.05). These findings suggest that the use of a 5-s mouth rinse with an isoenergetic amount of either maltodextrin or glucose is not beneficial for maximal sprint performance. PMID:20932798

  2. Control of human norovirus surrogates in fresh foods by gaseous ozone and a proposed mechanism of inactivation.

    PubMed

    Predmore, Ashley; Sanglay, Gabe; Li, Jianrong; Lee, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Fresh produce is a major concern for transmission of foodborne enteric viruses as it is normally consumed with no heat treatments and minimal other processing to ensure safety. Commonly used sanitizers are ineffective at removing foodborne viruses from fresh produce. Thus the use of gaseous ozone for viral inactivation was investigated. Ozone has great potential for improved food safety because of four benefits: It is a potent sanitizer, it is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, it is permitted for food use as regulated by the U.S. FDA and several other nations, and it spontaneously decomposes to oxygen leaving no residue. This study determined the effectiveness of gaseous ozone for the sanitization of two norovirus surrogates (MNV-1 and TV) from both liquid media and popular fresh foods where viral contamination is common-lettuce and strawberries. Foods were treated with gaseous ozone at 6% wt/wt ozone in oxygen for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min, and surviving viruses were quantified by viral plaque assay. Our results showed that gaseous ozone inactivated norovirus in both liquid media and fresh produce in a dose-dependent manner. These results are promising because ozone treatment significantly reduced two important norovirus surrogates in both liquid and food matrices. Viruses are generally more resistant to sanitation treatments than bacteria, thus gaseous ozone is an effective means to improve fresh produce safety. PMID:25998824

  3. Ecological Distribution of Indicator Species and Effective Edaphical Factors on the Northern Iran Lowland Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooch, Y.; Bahmanyar, H. Jalilvand M. A.; Pormajidian, M. R.

    The objectives of this research were to identify the ecological species groups and study the relationship between topographic and edaphic factors with plant species to determine the main factors affecting the separation of vegetation types in Khanikan lowland forests of Mazandaran province (North of Iran). Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). Vegetation was classified into different groups. The topographic conditions were recorded in quadrate locations. Soil samples were taken from organic horizon (litter layer) and mineral layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm). Soil acidity, bulk density, saturation moisture, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchangeable capacity, available phosphorous, soil texture, lime, biomass of earthworms, litter carbon and litter nitrogen were measured. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patters were mainly related to soil characteristics such as pH, bulk density, texture, phosphorous, organic carbon, nitrogen and CEC. Totally, considering the habitat conditions and ecological needs, each plant species has a significant relation with soil properties.

  4. Combined effect of vacuum packaging and refrigerated storage on the chemical quality of paneer tikka.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Kunal K; Goyal, G K

    2013-06-01

    Paneer tikka, a popular dish for vegetarians, is a tongue tingling favourite of Indian gourmets. It is a perishable commodity which requires more than five hours for its preparation. The shelf life of paneer tikka is hardly one day at room temperature which impedes its proper marketing. In order to enhance the shelf life of paneer tikka, the product was vacuum packed in two high barrier packages, viz., LLDPE(*)/BA(†)/Nylon-6/BA/LDPE(‡) (110 μ, (*)linear low density polyethylene, (†)binding agent, (‡)low density polyethylene) and metallized polyester/LDPE (20/75 μ) along with LDPE (100 μ) as control, and stored at 3 ± 1 °C. The stored samples were evaluated at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 day(s) for changes in chemical characteristics, namely moisture, pH, titratable acidity, free fatty acids content, tyrosine content and water activity. The analysis of variance of the data revealed that type of packages had significant influence on all the above parameters excluding water activity during storage of paneer tikka. PMID:24425964

  5. Three-dimensional stress In vitro promotes the proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells implanted by bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Li, G; Chen, J; Lin, Z; Qin, H; Ji, J

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the biological and mechanical microenvironment on the directional differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) In vitro. PDLSCs were cultured in three-dimensional stress system In vitro for 1, 2 and 3 weeks. Methods like immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry were adopted and the proliferation and differentiation situation of PDLSCs were determined. Bioactive glass (BAG) of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% was implanted into PDLSCs with or without three-dimensional stress for 3 weeks, respectively. The proliferation and differentiation situation of PDLSCs were determined. The mRNA levels of Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Type I Collagen (COL I), Type II Collagen (COL II), Bone sialoprotein (BSP), Osteocalcin (OCN) and Osteopontin (OPN) were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. 30% BAG and three-dimensional stress for 3 weeks promoted the proliferation and differentiation of PDLSCs mostly. PDLSCs induced by BAG and 3D force and the control all expressed the mRNA of ALP, COLⅠand COL Ⅱ. The BAG and three-dimensional stress induced PDLSCs also expressed the mRNA of BSP, OCN and OPN. BAG and three-dimensional stress indicated microenvironment In vitro can promote the proliferation and differentiation of PDLSCs. PMID:27609476

  6. Effect of copolymer latexes on physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume fly ash as a replacement material of cement.

    PubMed

    Negim, El-Sayed; Kozhamzharova, Latipa; Gulzhakhan, Yeligbayeva; Khatib, Jamal; Bekbayeva, Lyazzat; Williams, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume of fly ash (FA) as partial replacement of cement in presence of copolymer latexes. Portland cement (PC) was partially replaced with 0, 10, 20, 30 50, and 60% FA. Copolymer latexes were used based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA) and 2-hydroxymethylacrylate (2-HEMA). Testing included workability, setting time, absorption, chemically combined water content, compressive strength, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of FA to mortar as replacement of PC affected the physicomechanical properties of mortar. As the content of FA in the concrete increased, the setting times (initial and final) were elongated. The results obtained at 28 days of curing indicate that the maximum properties of mortar occur at around 30% FA. Beyond 30% FA the properties of mortar reduce and at 60% FA the properties of mortar are lower than those of the reference mortar without FA. However, the addition of polymer latexes into mortar containing FA improved most of the physicomechanical properties of mortar at all curing times. Compressive strength, combined water, and workability of mortar containing FA premixed with latexes are higher than those of mortar containing FA without latexes. PMID:25254256

  7. Viral interference between infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus and white spot syndrome virus in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Bonnichon, Valérie; Lightner, Donald V; Bonami, Jean-Robert

    2006-10-17

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly virulent and has caused significant production losses to the shrimp culture industry over the last decade. Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) also infects penaeid shrimp and, while being less important than WSSV, remains a major cause of significant production losses in Litopenaeus vannamei (also called Penaeus vannamei) and L. stylirostris (also called Penaeus stylirostris). These 2 viruses and their interactions were previously investigated in L. stylirostris. We report here laboratory challenge studies carried out to determine if viral interference between IHHNV and WSSV also occurs in L. vannamei, and it was found that experimental infection with IHHNV induced a significant delay in mortality following WSSV challenge. L. vannamei infected per os with IHHNV were challenged with WSSV at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 d post-infection. Groups of naïve shrimp infected with WSSV alone died in 3 d whereas shrimp pre-infected with IHHNV for 30, 40 or 50 d died in 5 d. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the delay correlated to the IHHNV load and that WSSV challenge induced a decrease in IHHNV load, indicating some form of competition between the 2 viruses. PMID:17140141

  8. AFM and SEM study of the effects of etching on IPS-Empress 2 TM dental ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X.-P.; Silikas, N.; Allaf, M.; Wilson, N. H. F.; Watts, D. C.

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing etching time on the surface of the new dental material, IPS-Empress 2 TM glass ceramic. Twenty one IPS-Empress 2 TM glass ceramic samples were made from IPS-Empress 2 TM ingots through lost-wax, hot-pressed ceramic fabrication technology. All samples were highly polished and cleaned ultrasonically for 5 min in acetone before and after etching with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid gel. The etching times were 0, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 s respectively. Microstructure was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the surface roughness and topography. Observations with SEM showed that etching with hydrofluoric acid resulted in preferential dissolution of glass matrix, and that partially supported crystals within the glass matrix were lost with increasing etching time. AFM measurements indicated that etching increased the surface roughness of the glass-ceramic. A simple least-squares linear regression was used to establish a relationship between surface roughness parameters ( Ra, RMS), and etching time, for which r2>0.94. This study demonstrates the benefits of combining two microscopic methods for a better understanding of the surface. SEM showed the mode of action of hydrofluoric acid on the ceramic and AFM provided valuable data regarding the extent of surface degradation relative to etching time.

  9. A novel orange phosphor of Eu{sup 2+}-activated calcium chlorosilicate for white light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Weijia; Wang Jing; Zhang Mei; Zhang Qiuhong; Su Qiang . E-mail: Suqiang@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2006-11-15

    Novel orange phosphor of Eu{sup 2+}-activated calcium chlorosilicate was synthesized at 1273 K by conventional solid-state reactions under reductive atmosphere and investigated by means of photoluminescence excitation, diffuse reflectance and emission spectroscopies. These results show that this phosphor can be efficiently excited by the incident light of 300-450 nm, well matched with the emission band of 395 nm-emitting InGaN chip, and emits an intense orange light peaking at 585 nm. By combining this phosphor with a 395 nm-emitting InGaN chip, an intense orange light-emitting diode (LED) was fabricated. Under 20 mA forward-bias current, its CIE chromaticity coordinates are (0.486, 0.446). The dependence of as-fabricated orange LED on forward-bias current indicates that it shows excellent chromaticity stability and luminance saturation. These results show that this Eu{sup 2+}-activated calcium chlorosilicate is a promising orange-emitting phosphor for near-ultraviolet (UV) InGaN-based white LED. -- Graphical abstract: The CIE coordinates of as-synthesized and orange LED-based CSCE under I {sub F}=5.0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mA in the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. The inset shows the dependence of the emission intensity on forward-bias currents.

  10. Mechanical properties and structural features of novel Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with unprecedented plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiming; Liu, Haishun; Zhao, Yucheng; Inoue, Akihisa; Jiang, Kemin; Huo, Juntao; Ling, Haibo; Li, Qiang; Shen, Baolong

    2014-08-01

    Fe-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have attracted great attention due to their unique magnetic and mechanical properties, but few applications have been materialized because of their brittleness at room temperature. Here we report a new Fe50Ni30P13C7 BMG which exhibits unprecedented compressive plasticity (>20%) at room temperature without final fracture. The mechanism of unprecedented plasticity for this new Fe-based BMG was also investigated. It was discovered that the ductile Fe50Ni30P13C7 BMG is composed of unique clusters mainly linked by less directional metal-metal bonds which are inclined to accommodate shear strain and absorbed energy in the front of crack tip. This conclusion was further verified by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy experiments of Fe80-xNixP13C7 (x = 0, 10, 20, 30) and Fe72-xNixB20Si4Nb4 (x = 0, 7.2, 14.4, 21.6, 28.8) glassy systems. The results also indicate a strong correlation between the p-d hybridization and plasticity, verifying that the transition from brittle to ductile induced by Ni addition is due to the change of bonding characteristics in atomic configurations. Thus, we can design the plasticity of Fe-based BMGs and open up a new possible pathway for manufacturing BMGs with high strength and plasticity.

  11. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of gold-plated sandpaper.

    PubMed

    Stuhlinger, T W; Dereniak, E L; Bartell, F O

    1981-08-01

    Gold-plated sandpaper was investigated for use as a Lambertian standard reference reflector for the IR spectrum. Various grit sizes from 3 to 400 microm and material types (i.e., silicon carbide and aluminum oxide) were studied. The different gold-plated sandpaper grit sizes were measured in the same way using three laser wavelengths (0.6328, 3.39, and 10.6 microm) at five angles of incidence of the source (0, 10, 20, 30, and 60 degrees ). All the scattering measurements were performed in the plane of incidence. The best choices of sandpaper grit sizes were 9-microm A1(2)O(3) for 0.6328- and 3.39-microm radiation and 600 grit by Armak Co. for 10.6-microm radiation. These choices were compared with other commonly used reflectors such as magnesium oxide, halon, sintered bronze, and flowers of sulfur. An attempt was made to correlate surface roughness (size of grit) to the degree of approximation to a good Lambertian reflector, but it was found that grit size is not as important as the filling factor, or density of particles, over a given area. It was found that fairly good approximations to Lambertian behavior result when the angle of incidence is small but not when the angle of incidence is as large as 60 degrees . PMID:20333013

  12. Analysis of fern spore banks from the soil of three vegetation types in the central region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Trejo, María Del Rosario; Pérez-García, Blanca; Orozco-Segovia, Alma

    2004-05-01

    The vertical structure of fern spore banks was studied in a xerophilous shrubland, montane rain forest, and pine-oak forest in Hidalgo, Mexico, using the emergence method. Soil samples were collected in April 1999 at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm. Viable spores decreased significantly with depth in all vegetation types, and the highest number of prothallia and sporophytes was found in the uppermost layer. The montane rain forest and the xerophilous shrubland had the largest and the richest banks, respectively. Twenty-three fern taxa were registered in the aboveground vegetation, 12 in the soil banks, and 43.5% were in both. Aboveground and in the soil bank, the xerophilous shrubland, the montane rain forest, and the pine-oak forest had, 17 and 7, 1 and 6, and 7 and 3 taxa, respectively. These were distributed differentially in relation to depth. The Sørensen index indicated a similarity of 61.5% between the xerophilous shrubland and the montane rain forest, and the Czeckanovsky index indicated 19.75%. The presence of viable spores in the soil of all vegetation types confirmed the existence of natural spore banks. Long-distance dispersal was an important factor determining the specific composition of the xerophilous shrubland and the pine-oak forest. PMID:21653423

  13. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue

    PubMed Central

    Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P < 0.05) for the consumption of dry matter with maximum point value estimated at adding 23.25% additive. Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P < 0.05), by quadratic behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P < 0.05), showing quadratic behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P < 0.05) by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior. PMID:27547811

  14. Delayed plastic responses to anodal tDCS in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Fujiyama, Hakuei; Hyde, Jane; Hinder, Mark R.; Kim, Seok-Jin; McCormack, Graeme H.; Vickers, James C.; Summers, Jeffery J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of research reporting the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in healthy young adults and clinical populations, the extent of potential neuroplastic changes induced by tDCS in healthy older adults is not well understood. The present study compared the extent and time course of anodal tDCS-induced plastic changes in primary motor cortex (M1) in young and older adults. Furthermore, as it has been suggested that neuroplasticity and associated learning depends on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphisms, we also assessed the impact of BDNF polymorphism on these effects. Corticospinal excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation before and following (0, 10, 20, 30 min) anodal tDCS (30 min, 1 mA) or sham in young and older adults. While the overall extent of increases in corticospinal excitability induced by anodal tDCS did not vary reliably between young and older adults, older adults exhibited a delayed response; the largest increase in corticospinal excitability occurred 30 min following stimulation for older adults, but immediately post-stimulation for the young group. BDNF genotype did not result in significant differences in the observed excitability increases for either age group. The present study suggests that tDCS-induced plastic changes are delayed as a result of healthy aging, but that the overall efficacy of the plasticity mechanism remains unaffected. PMID:24936185

  15. Effect of incorporation of plantain and chickpea flours on the quality characteristics of biscuits.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ritika B; Yadav, Baljeet S; Dhull, Nisha

    2012-04-01

    Blends of plantain and chickpea flours each with concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% along with of refined wheat flour were used for development of biscuits. The flours were evaluated for their chemical and functional properties. Plantain flour had highest crude fiber (3.6%) and carbohydrate content (80.8%), whereas chickpea flour had highest protein content (19.3%) and fat content (4.4%). Plantain flour showed highest water absorption (167.7%) whereas lowest oil absorption capacity (144.6). The chickpea flour showed highest foaming capacity and stability. The thickness and diameter of biscuits did not differ significantly (p < 0.05). The spread ratio and percent spread decreased with the addition of plantain and chickpea flours each up to a concentration of 30%. The fracture strength of biscuits increased significantly (p < 0.05) with addition of plantain and chickpea flours and was highest at 40% concentration (21.1 N). The protein and crude fiber content of biscuits increased significantly (p < 0.05) from 7.1 to 9.2% and 1.1 to 3.6%, respectively with increasing extent of chickpea flour and plantain flours in the blends. The sensory properties of biscuits prepared by replacing refined wheat flour up to 20% each with plantain and chickpea flour were more or less similar to those of control biscuits. PMID:23572843

  16. Utilization of heavy metal-rich tannery sludge for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivation.

    PubMed

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Patra, D D

    2015-05-01

    Unlike food crops, essential oil-bearing crops in which the oil is extracted through hydro-distillation can be a suitable crop to be grown in heavy metal-polluted soils as the oil does not carry any heavy metal. In a field experiment conducted at CIMAP, Lucknow, India during 2011 and 2012, influence of six doses of tannery sludge viz 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 t ha(-1) were tested, taking sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) as the test crop. Maximum herb yield was obtained with the application of sludge at 20 t ha(-1). While in root, accumulation of Cd and Pb increased significantly up to 20 t ha(-1), Cr accumulation increased with increasing the dose of tannery sludge reaching maximum at 50 t ha(-1). Essential oil yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum) was significantly affected due to sludge application. Quality of essential oil, in term of chemical constituents, however, was marginally influenced due to tannery sludge application. PMID:25850748

  17. Relationship between Surface Properties and In Vitro Drug Release from a Compressed Matrix Containing an Amphiphilic Polymer Material.

    PubMed

    Yarce, Cristhian J; Pineda, Diego; Correa, Clara E; Salamanca, Constain H

    2016-01-01

    The performance of compressed tablet drug delivery systems made using polymeric materials depend on multiple factors, such as surface properties like contact angle, surface free energy and water absorption rate, besides the release mechanisms driven by the kind of polymer used. Hence, it should be possible to establish a relationship between the surface properties and the drug release kinetics. Compressed tablets with different proportions of poly(maleic acid-alt-octadecene) potassium salt (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were prepared. Blends of a model drug (ampicillin trihydrate) and the polymer material were analyzed by DSC. The surface properties of the tablets were determined by the sessile drop method, while the surface energy was determined using the semi-empirical Young-Dupre, Neumann and OWRK models. The release profiles were determined simulating in vitro conditions (buffer solutions pH 1.2 and pH 7.4 with ionic strength of 1.5 M at 37 °C (310.15 K)). A kinetic analysis of the dissolution profiles using different models (zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas) was realized. The results showed a significant effect of the proportion of polymer in both the surface properties of the tablets and the dissolution release, indicating a relationship between the kinetic and thermodynamic properties. PMID:27347979

  18. Mapping of accumulated nitrogen in the sediment pore water of a eutrophic lake in Iowa, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iqbal, M.Z.; Fields, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    A large pool of nitrogen in the sediment pore fluid of a eutrophic lake in Iowa, USA, was mapped in this study. Previously, the lake had supported fishing and boating, but today it no longer supports its designated uses as a recreational water body. In the top 5 cm of the lake bottom, the pore water nitrogen ranges between 3.1 and 1,250 ??g/cm3 of sediments, with an average of 160.3 ??g/cm3. Vertically, nitrate concentrations were measured as 153 ??g/cm3 at 0-10 cm, 162 ??g/cm3 at 10-20 cm, and 32 ??g/cm3 at 20-30 cm. Nitrate mass distribution was quantified as 3.67 ?? 103 kg (65%) in the bottom sediments, 172 kg (3%) in suspended particulates, and 1.83 ?? 103 kg (32%) in the dissolved phase. Soil runoff nutrients arrive at the lake from the heavily fertilized lands in the watershed. Upon sedimentation, a large mass of nitrogen desorbs from mineral particles to the relatively immobile pore fluid. Under favorable conditions, this nitrogen diffuses back into the water column, thereby dramatically limiting the lake's capability to process incoming nutrients from farmlands. Consequently, a condition of oxygen deficiency disrupts the post-season biological activities in the lake. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Ferreira, Daniele; de Moura Zanine, Anderson; de Paula Lana, Rogério; Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Nunes Parente, Henrique; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P < 0.05) for the consumption of dry matter with maximum point value estimated at adding 23.25% additive. Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P < 0.05), by quadratic behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P < 0.05), showing quadratic behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P < 0.05) by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior. PMID:27547811

  20. Estimation of neutron production from accelerator head assembly of 15 MV medical LINAC using FLUKA simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, B. J.; Chavan, S. T.; Pethe, S. N.; Krishnan, R.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    For the production of a clinical 15 MeV photon beam, the design of accelerator head assembly has been optimized using Monte Carlo based FLUKA code. The accelerator head assembly consists of e-γ target, flattening filter, primary collimator and an adjustable rectangular secondary collimator. The accelerators used for radiation therapy generate continuous energy gamma rays called Bremsstrahlung (BR) by impinging high energy electrons on high Z materials. The electron accelerators operating above 10 MeV can result in the production of neutrons, mainly due to photo nuclear reaction (γ, n) induced by high energy photons in the accelerator head materials. These neutrons contaminate the therapeutic beam and give a non-negligible contribution to patient dose. The gamma dose and neutron dose equivalent at the patient plane (SSD = 100 cm) were obtained at different field sizes of 0 × 0, 10 × 10, 20 × 20, 30 × 30 and 40 × 40 cm 2, respectively. The maximum neutron dose equivalent is observed near the central axis of 30 × 30 cm 2 field size. This is 0.71% of the central axis photon dose rate of 0.34 Gy/min at 1 μA electron beam current.

  1. Efficacy of silicon priming and fertigation to modulate seedling's vigor and ion homeostasis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under saline environment.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Iqbal, Naeem; Kausar, Shakila; Javed, M Tariq; Akram, M Sohail; Sajid, M Asim

    2015-09-01

    Seed preconditioning, a short gun approach to modulate the effects of abiotic stresses on crop plants, has recently gained considerable attention of the researchers to induce salinity tolerance in agronomically important crops. The present study was conducted to explore the comparative efficacy of presowing seed priming with silicon (Si) and Si fertigation to modulate the wheat growth and ion dynamics. Seeds of wheat variety, PUNJAB-11, were sown in Petri plates having nutrient solutions with (120 mM) and without NaCl. Six levels of Si (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 mM), applied as sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), were tested either as a seed priming agent or as a supplement in the nutrient solution. Priming of seeds with Si mitigated the adverse effects of salinity stress on germination percentage, root as well as shoot length, dry and fresh weight. Application of Si either as preconditioning of seeds or addition in the growth medium resulted in reduced accumulation of sodium (Na(+)) in wheat seedlings under saline environment. Seedling's potassium (K(+)) contents either remained unaffected or decreased whereas calcium (Ca(2+)) contents decreased at all Si concentrations except at 30 mM when Si primed seeds were grown under salt stress. Addition of Si, under salt stress, in cultivation medium exerted a positive effect on seedling's K(+) and Ca(2+) contents. Silicon contribution to decontamination strategies was evaluated. PMID:26154041

  2. Quality Characteristics of PSE-Like Turkey Pectoralis major Muscles Generated by High Post-Mortem Temperature in a Local Turkish Slaughterhouse

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high post-mortem temperature application on development of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) turkey meat characteristics in terms of local slaughter conditions. Within this scope, it was targeted to obtain PSE-like muscles benefiting from different post-mortem temperature applications. Immediately after slaughter, turkey Pectoralis major (n=15) muscles were kept at various post-mortem temperatures (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40℃) for 5 h. pH values of 40℃ treatment were lower than four other treatments (p<0.05). L* values, drip loss, cook loss, and thawing loss of 40℃ group were higher than the other groups (p< 0.05). Napole yield of 40℃ treatment indicated that high post-mortem temperature decreases brine uptake. Protein solubility of 40℃ group was lower than 0℃ group (p<0.05). Expressible moisture did not differ between 0 and 40℃ treatments. Hardness, gumminess and chewiness of 40℃ treatment were higher than 0℃ treatment. The results of this research showed that high post-mortem temperature treatment induced development of PSE-like turkey meat, with lower pH, paler color, higher technological and storage losses, and reduced protein solubility and texture. PMID:26761875

  3. Effect of Copolymer Latexes on Physicomechanical Properties of Mortar Containing High Volume Fly Ash as a Replacement Material of Cement

    PubMed Central

    Kozhamzharova, Latipa; Gulzhakhan, Yeligbayeva; Bekbayeva, Lyazzat; Williams, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume of fly ash (FA) as partial replacement of cement in presence of copolymer latexes. Portland cement (PC) was partially replaced with 0, 10, 20, 30 50, and 60% FA. Copolymer latexes were used based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA) and 2-hydroxymethylacrylate (2-HEMA). Testing included workability, setting time, absorption, chemically combined water content, compressive strength, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of FA to mortar as replacement of PC affected the physicomechanical properties of mortar. As the content of FA in the concrete increased, the setting times (initial and final) were elongated. The results obtained at 28 days of curing indicate that the maximum properties of mortar occur at around 30% FA. Beyond 30% FA the properties of mortar reduce and at 60% FA the properties of mortar are lower than those of the reference mortar without FA. However, the addition of polymer latexes into mortar containing FA improved most of the physicomechanical properties of mortar at all curing times. Compressive strength, combined water, and workability of mortar containing FA premixed with latexes are higher than those of mortar containing FA without latexes. PMID:25254256

  4. Effect of Particle Size and Lattice Strain on the Debye-Waller Factors of Silicon Carbide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Purushotham, E

    2016-03-01

    Nano Silicon Carbide (SiC) particles have been produced by ball milling process. The sample was taken 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 hours of milling. The resulting nanoparticle powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction measurements. The high-energy ball milling of SiC after 50 hours resulted in particle size of about 24 nm. The Debye temperature, mean-square amplitudes of vibration, Debye-Waller factor, particle size, and lattice strain and vacancy formation of energies of SiC nanoparticles prepared by ball mill have been obtained from X-ray integrated intensities. The integrated intensities have been measured with a Philips CWU 3710 X-ray powder diffractometer fitted with a scintillation counter using filtered CuKα radiation at room temperature and have been corrected for thermal diffuse scattering. The X-ray Debye temperatures obtained in the present investigation has been used to estimate the vacancy formation energies for SiC nanoparticles. PMID:27455685

  5. The suitability of teff flour in bread, layer cakes, cookies and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jennifer; Abaye, A O; Barbeau, William; Thomason, Wade

    2013-11-01

    A niche market in alternative foods has emerged in response to interest in a health conscientious diet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the baking characteristics of teff to determine whether teff could produce satisfactory baked products. Cakes, cookies, biscuits and bread were made in triplicate from composites of wheat flour with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 100% teff flour. Objective tests on size, shape, color and texture were used to evaluate the quality of the baked products. Increases in percent teff resulted in decreases in bread and cake volume (p > 0.05). The fracture strength of the cookies were not significantly different (p > 0.05) but spread was significantly greater for cookies made with 40% and 100% teff flour (p ≤ 0.05). There was also significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in biscuit height and color among teff treatments. Overall, this study showed that teff flour is best suited for use in cookies and biscuits. PMID:23730794

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF ODS HEAT EXCHANGER TUBING

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Harper, Ph.D.

    2001-10-01

    Work continued on four major tasks of this project--increasing the circumferential strength of MA956 tubing, joining of the MA956 alloy, determining the bending limits of MA956 tubing, and determination of the high temperature corrosion limits of the MA956 alloy. With respect to increasing the circumferential strength of a MA956 tube, an additional 120 MA956 rods have been extruded (total of 180 rods) using 16:1 and 10:1 extrusion ratios and extrusion temperatures of 1000, 1075, 1150, and 1200 C. Also, approximately 40 cold work (0, 10, 20, 30, 40%) plus annealing treatments (1000, 1150, 1300 C) have been completed with the resulting sample microstructures presently being analyzed. Creep testing to determine the ''stress threshold'' curves for this alloy continues. Regarding joining of the MA956 alloy, work continued using friction welding, magnetic impulse welding, explosive welding, and transient liquid phase bonding, with encouraging results obtained from the friction, explosive, and transient liquid phase joining methods. Initial work on determining the bending limits of the MA956 tubing has shown that the recrystallized material shows good ductility but the unrecrystallized material does not. And finally, fluid-side high temperature corrosion testing of the material continues and the environment for the laboratory fireside corrosion testing has been established and testing initiated.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ODS HEAT EXCHANGER TUBING

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Harper, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    Work continued on four major tasks of this project--increasing the circumferential strength of MA956 tubing, joining of the MA956 alloy, determining the bending limits of MA956 tubing, and determination of the high temperature corrosion limits of the MA956 alloy. With respect to increasing the circumferential strength of a MA956 tube, all of the extrusions plus decanning operations have been completed (total of 180 rods) for Task 2.1.1 (Extrusion Ratio = 20:1, 16:1, 10:1 and Extrusion Temperature = 1000, 1075, 1150, and 1200 C). Also, essentially all of the cold working operations have been completed (0, 10, 20, 30, 40%) with approximately 100 annealing treatments (1000, 1150, 1300 C) remaining. The sample microstructures produced by this processing continue to be analyzed. Creep testing to determine the ''stress threshold'' curves for this alloy continues. Regarding joining of the MA956 alloy, advances were made using transient liquid phase bonding. And finally, laboratory high temperature corrosion testing of the material continues (both fluid-side and fire-side) with fabrication of the field probes initiated.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF ODS HEAT EXCHANGER TUBING

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Harper

    2001-07-01

    Work continued on three major tasks of this project--increasing the circumferential strength of the MA956 tube, joining of the MA956 alloy, and determination of the high temperature corrosion limits of the MA956 alloy. With respect to increasing the circumferential strength of a MA956 tube, an additional 120 MA956 rods have been extruded (total of 180 rods) using 16:1 and 10:1 extrusion ratios and extrusion temperatures of 1000, 1075, 1150, and 1200 C. Also, approximately 40 cold work (0, 10, 20, 30, 40%) plus annealing treatments (1000, 1150, 1300 C) have been completed with sample microstructure presently being analyzed. Also, creep testing to determine the ''stress threshold'' curves for this alloy continues. Regarding joining of the alloy MA956, work continued on the friction welding, magnetic impulse welding, explosive welding, and transient liquid phase bonding, with joints produced using the friction, magnetic impulse and explosive welding techniques. And finally, fluid-side high temperature corrosion tests of the material have been initiated.

  9. The Effect of Complex Solvents on the Structure and Dynamics of Protein Solutions: the case of Lysozyme in Trehalose/Water Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K; Carri, Gustavo A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a Molecular Dynamics simulation study of the effect of trehalose concentration on the structure and dynamics of individual proteins immersed in trehalose/water mixtures. Hen Egg White Lysozyme is used in this study and trehalose concentrations of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 100% by weight are explored. Surprisingly, we have found that changes in trehalose concentration do not change the global structural characteristics of the protein as measured by standard quantities like the mean square deviation, radius of gyration, solvent accessible surface area, inertia tensor and asphericity. Only in the limit of pure trehalose these metrics change significantly. Specifically, we found that the protein is compressed by 2% when immersed in pure trehalose. At the amino acid level there is noticeable rearrangement of the surface residues due to the change in polarity of the surrounding environment with the addition of trehalose. From a dynamic perspective, our computation of the Incoherent Intermediate Scattering Function shows that the protein slows down with increasing trehalose concentration; however, this slowdown is not monotonic. Finally, we also report in-depth results for the hydration layer around the protein including its structure, hydrogen- bonding characteristics and dynamic behavior at different length scales.

  10. Effect of Glycerol Water Binary Mixtures on the Structure and Dynamics of Protein Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K; Carri, Gustavo A.

    2014-01-01

    We have performed 20ns of fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of Hen Egg-White Lysozyme in 0, 10, 20, 30 and 100% by weight of glycerol in water to better understand the microscopic physics behind the bioprotection offered by glycerol to naturally occuring biological systems. The sovlent exposure of protein surface residues changes when glycerol is introduced. The dynamic behavior of the protein, as quantified by the Incoherent Intermediate Scattering Function, shows a non-monotonic dependence on glycerol content. The fluctuations of the protein residues with respect to each other were found to be similar in all water containing solvents; but different from the pure glycerol case. The increase in the number of protein glycerol hydrogen bonds in glycerol water binary mixtures explains the slowing down of protein dynamics as the glycerol content increases. We also explored the dynamic behavior of the hydration layer. We show that the short-length scale dynamics of this layer are insenstive to glycerol concentration. However, the long-length scale behavior shows a significant dependence on glycerol content. We also provide insights into the behavior of bound and mobile water molecules.

  11. The Efficacy and Safety of Topical Rocuronium Bromide to Induce Bilateral Mydriasis in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    PubMed

    Baine, Katherine; Hendrix, Diane V H; Kuhn, Sonia E; Souza, Marcy J; Jones, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy and safety of topically applied rocuronium in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) was assessed in a group of 10 adult birds. A complete ophthalmic examination (including Schirmer tear test, ocular reflexes, applanation tonometry, fluorescein staining, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy) was performed, and rocuronium bromide (0.15 mg in both eyes) was administered. Pupillary light reflex (PLR) and pupillary diameter were recorded in a darkened room at the following time points: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 300, and 360 minutes, and 24 hours. Fluorescein staining in both eyes was performed at 24 hours. By 10 minutes, PLR was absent in all birds (at 5 minutes, 8 birds; at 10 minutes, remaining 2 birds). Pupil diameter differed significantly from baseline at all time points. Additionally, PLR was decreased in 7/10 birds at 360 minutes and normal in all birds at 24 hours. Superficial corneal ulceration was observed at 24 hours in the left eye of 2/10 of the birds after fluorescein stain application. This study demonstrated that rocuronium bromide was an effective mydriatic agent in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots with rapid onset and prolonged duration of action. PMID:27088739

  12. Physiological responses of the southern king crab, Lithodes santolla (Decapoda: Lithodidae), to aerial exposure.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Mauricio A; Paschke, Kurt; Gebauer, Paulina; Cumillaf, Juan Pablo; Rosas, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    The recent demand for live seafood has made Lithodes santolla a potential candidate for the live crab market. Since live transport implies long aerial exposure times, the present study determined the tolerance of L. santolla to aerial exposure and also explored the physiological status of L. santolla after six different aerial exposure times: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50h. No mortalities were recorded during emersion periods shorter than 40 h, however, all hemolymph parameters were modulated by aerial exposure. Hemolymph dissolved oxygen and pH were inversely related with the aerial exposure time (-0.016 mg L(-1) h(-1) and -0.018 h(-1), respectively), while oxyhemocyanin and hemolymph protein were positively correlated (0.006 mmol L(-1) h(-1) and 0.487 mg mL(-1) h(-1), respectively). Oxygen consumption at re-immersion was affected by aerial exposure time, with low values in animals emersed for longer than 30 h. We postulate that the unexpected high tolerance of L. santolla to aerial exposure is mainly related to adaptations to hypoxia, developed to overcome hypoxic events in their natural environment in deep water. The present findings are not only important for understanding L. santolla's physiology, but also provide the first evaluation of the potential marketing of southern king crab as live seafood. PMID:23973259

  13. Alantolactone induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells via reactive oxygen species generation, glutathione depletion and inhibition of the Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, YAN; XU, HANJIE; WANG, JIAFEI

    2016-01-01

    Alantolactone is the active ingredient in frankincense, and is extracted from the dry root of elecampane. It has a wide variety of uses, including as an insect repellent, antibacterial, antidiuretic, analgesic and anticancer agent. In addition, alantolactone induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells, however, its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated whether alantolactone was able to induce apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells, and its potential mechanisms of action were analyzed. Treatment of HeLa cells with alantolactone (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 µM) for 12 h significantly inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner. Cells treated with 30 µM of alantolactone for 0, 3, 6 and 12 h demonstrated marked induction of apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of HeLa cells with 30 µM of alantolactone for 0, 3, 6 and 12 h significantly induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibited glutathione (GSH) production in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Alantolactone additionally markedly inhibited the Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway in HeLa cells. Therefore, administration of alantolactone induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells via ROS generation, GSH depletion and inhibition of the Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway. PMID:27313767

  14. Prediction of soil organic carbon in forest areas of the Piedmont region, Northern Italy, using environmental variables: vegetation and topographic patterns effect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueslati, Ines; Allamano, Paola; Bonifacio, Eleonora; Claps, Pierluigi; Laguardia, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the most important parameters affecting soil hydraulic properties. It is easily measured by chemical analyses, but it is highly variable in space. Therefore the definition of a methodology allowing for SOC spatial prediction with a reasonable accuracy is crucial in large scale studies. This study aims at predicting the spatial variability of the soil organic carbon concentration (%SOC) in forest topsoils in Piedmont (North-western Italy) using spatially referenced environmental factors related to terrain morphology, climate, and vegetation. In this region 122 soil profiles were available with soil organic carbon concentrations at depths of 0 -10 cm, 10 -20 cm, 20 -30 cm, 0 -20 cm and 0 -30 cm and in the horizons A, B and C. For each point terrain attributes were derived from a 50 meters pixel digital elevation model (DEM), using the SAGA geographic information system. In addition basic NDVI statistics, such as the mean, minimum and maximum values, and the Fourier series phases (F1 and F2) and amplitudes (A1 and A2) for the 12 months and 6 months periods were evaluated from the long term monthly average NDVI series obtained by SPOT-Vegetation data. Mean annual precipitation estimates were also available for each sample. A multiple regression analysis were applied to investigate the relationship between the %SOC in different layers and horizons and the environmental descriptors. The relationships that we found show that the NDVI parameters and the precipitation are statistically significant predictors (P

  15. The carbonic anhydrase of the Chinese crab Eriocheir sinensis: Effects of adaption from tap to salt water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsowski, A.; Putzenlechner, M.; Böttcher, K.; Graszynski, K.

    1995-03-01

    In the present investigation we studied the carbonic anhydrase (CA) in various tissues of Chinese crab Eriocheir sinensis which were acclimated to different salinities (0, 10, 20, 30‰). We found only negligible CA activity in haemolymph, heart, hypodermis, antennal gland, leg muscle and digestive gland, irrespective of the acclimation medium. However, high amounts of CA activity were found in the gills. In the case of the posterior gills, a strong dependence on the acclimatization of the animals was demonstrated; the highest activities were found in those adapted to tap water. To investigate the cellular distribution of the CA in the posterior gills, the additional enzyme activities were measured in all fractions of a differential centrifugation of the gill homogenate: Na+/K+-ATP'ase (a marker for the plasmamembrane); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; as marker for the cytosol); and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; as marker for mitochondria). Independent of the acclimation salinity (0 or 36‰ salinity), we found about 70% of CA associated with the highest level of the Na+/K+-ATP'ase in the second 100 000 g pellet (membrane fraction), while only 15% were found in the cytosolic fractions (associated with highest levels of LDH). We conclude that the carbonic anhydrase of posterior gills of the Chinese crab is mainly membrane-bound. Furthermore, the activity of CA shows a strong dependence on the salinity of the water in which the crabs were kept.

  16. Fine-root carbon and nitrogen concentration of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Italy Prealps: possible implications of coppice conversion to high forest.

    PubMed

    Terzaghi, Mattia; Montagnoli, Antonio; Di Iorio, Antonino; Scippa, Gabriella S; Chiatante, Donato

    2013-01-01

    Fine-root systems represent a very sensitive plant compartment to environmental changes. Gaining further knowledge about their dynamics would improve soil carbon input understanding. This paper investigates C and N concentrations in fine roots in relation to different stand characteristics resulting from conversion of coppiced forests to high forests. In order to evaluate possible interferences due to different vegetative stages of vegetation, fine-root sampling was repeated six times in each stand during the same 2008 growing season. Fine-root sampling was conducted within three different soil depths (0-10; 10-20; and 20-30 cm). Fine-root traits were measured by means of WinRHIZO software which enable us to separate them into three different diameter classes (0-0.5, 0.5-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm). The data collected indicate that N concentration was higher in converted stands than in the coppiced stand whereas C concentration was higher in the coppiced stand than in converted stands. Consequently the fine-root C:N ratio was significantly higher in coppiced than in converted stands and showed an inverse relationship with fine-root turnover rate, confirming a significant change of fine-root status after the conversion of a coppice to high forest. PMID:23785374

  17. Comparative study on carbon accumulation in soils under managed and unmanaged forests in Central Balkan Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenova, Lora; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Leifeld, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Each soil has a carbon storage capacity, which depends on many factors including type of soil, vegetation, precipitation and temperature. The aim of this work is to compare the carbon accumulation in forest floor layers and mineral soil horizons under managed and unmanaged spruce and beech forest ecosystems developed on Cambisols in Central Balkan Mountains, Bulgaria. We have investigated two managed and two unmanaged forests - pure stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). In each experimental site one representative soil profile was prepared with additional 4 sampling profiles for more precise determination of spatial variability of soil characteristic at site level. The forest floor was sampled in 3 repetitions per site, by a plastic frame (25:25 cm). The textural composition of soil, bulk density, coarse fraction content, pH, carbon and nitrogen content were analysed for forest floor layers and soil at different soil depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-50 cm). Both European beech and Norway spruce stands had higher accumulation of organic matter in the forest floor and the Ah horizon under unmanaged conditions. When managed, carbon contents tended to be higher in deeper horizons of the mineral soil, probably due to differences in microclimate after cutting. However, the variability in carbon storage was higher in managed sites which may reflect a higher degree of disturbance. Further work will analyse the soil carbon dynamics using radiocarbon as a tracer.

  18. A gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Yoldash, Rashiduddin; Boehnen, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    It has been proven that hamming distance score between frontal and off-angle iris images of same eye differs in iris recognition system. The distinction of hamming distance score is caused by many factors such as image acquisition angle, occlusion, pupil dilation, and limbus effect. In this paper, we first study the effect of the angle variations between iris plane and the image acquisition systems. We present how hamming distance changes for different off-angle iris images even if they are coming from the same iris. We observe that increment in acquisition angle of compared iris images causes the increment in hamming distance. Second, we propose a new technique in off-angle iris recognition system that includes creating a gallery of different off-angle iris images (such as, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees) and comparing each probe image with these gallery images. We will show the accuracy of the gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition.

  19. Modeling infrared thermal emissions on Mars during dust storm of MY28: PFS/MEX observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Syed A.; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Giuranna, Marco; Kuroda, Takeshi; Jethwa, Masoom P.

    2016-07-01

    We have analysed thermal emission spectra obtained from Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) onboard Mars Express (MEX) for Martian Year (MY) 28 in presence and absence of dust storm at low latitude. A radiative transfer model for dusty atmosphere of Mars is developed to estimate the thermal emission spectra at latitude range 0-10oS, 10-20oS and 20-30oS. These calculations are made at Ls=240o, 280o, 300o, and 320o between wave numbers 250-1400 cm-1. We have also retrieved brightness temperatures from thermal emission spectra by inverting the Planck function. The model reproduces the observed features at wave numbers 600-750 cm-1 and 900-1200 cm-1 due to absorptions by CO2 and dust respectively. In presence of dust storm thermal emission spectra and brightness temperature are reduced by a factor of ~ 2 between wave numbers 900-1200 cm-1. The altitude profiles of dust concentration are also estimated for different aerosol particles of sizes 0.2 to 3 micron. The best fit to the PFS measurements is obtained in presence of aerosol particle of size 0.2 micron.

  20. Microcystin-LR induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Li, Jinhui; Huang, Hui; Yang, Mingfeng; Zhuang, Donggang; Cheng, Xuemin; Zhang, Huizhen; Fu, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and to explore the mechanism of MC-LR-induced apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. HBE cells were treated with MC-LR (1, 10, 20, 30 and 40 µg/ml) alone or with MC-LR (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 µg/ml) and Z-VAD-FMK (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 µM), which is a caspase inhibitor, for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability was assessed via an MTT assay and the half maximal effective concentration of MC-LR was determined. The optimal concentration of Z-VAD-FMK was established as 50 µm, which was then used in the subsequent experiments. MC-LR significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis of HBE cells in a dose-dependent manner, as detected by an Annexin V/propidium iodide assay. MC-LR induced cell apoptosis, excess reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, upregulated Bax expression and downregulated B-cell lymphoma-2 expression in HBE cells. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that MC-LR increased the activity levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and induced cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, suggesting that MC-LR-induced apoptosis is associated with the mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK reduced MC-LR-induced apoptosis by blocking caspase activation in HBE cells. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that MC-LR is capable of significantly inhibiting the viability of HBE cells by inducing apoptosis in a mitochondria-dependent manner. The present study provides a foundation for further understanding the mechanism underlying the toxicity of MC-LR in the respiratory system. PMID:27446254

  1. The suitability of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata larvae as hosts of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata and Diachasmimorpha tryoni: Effects of host age and radiation dose and implications for quality control in mass rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence of parasitoids from irradiated tephritid host larvae of different species and ages was evaluated. Parasitoid and fly longevity and fecundity resulting from each treatment were also assessed. Doses of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 80, 100 and 150 Gy were applied to samples (100 larvae) of 6-, ...

  2. Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth, immunity, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile channel catfish were fed for 12 weeks with diets containing wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (WDDGS) at levels of 0 (diet 1), 10, 20, 30 and 40% without (diets 2-5) or with (diets 6-9) lysine supplementation as substitutes of soybean and corn meal mixture. Fish fed diet 5 had th...

  3. STARCH-LIPID COMPOSITES IN PLAIN SET YOGURT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-lipid composites (0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4%) were used to replace milk solids (5, 10, 20, 30, 40%) in yogurt mixes. The effects of the starch-lipid composites on the yogurt fermentations and rheology were studied. The rate of fermentation was evaluated by the change of pH every two minutes durin...

  4. Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth, immunology, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of the inclusion of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (WDDGS) at levels of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 40% without (diets 2-5) and with (diets 6-9) lysine supplementation, as substitutes of soybean meal and corn meal mixture on growth, body composition, he...

  5. 7 CFR 201.62 - Tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Tests, When Results Are Based on 10 to 1,000 Seeds, Seedlings, or Plants Used in a Test Seed, seedling, or plant count percent Number of seeds, seedlings, or plants in tests 10 20 30 50 75 100 150 200...

  6. 7 CFR 201.62 - Tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Tests, When Results Are Based on 10 to 1,000 Seeds, Seedlings, or Plants Used in a Test Seed, seedling, or plant count percent Number of seeds, seedlings, or plants in tests 10 20 30 50 75 100 150 200...

  7. 7 CFR 201.62 - Tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Tests, When Results Are Based on 10 to 1,000 Seeds, Seedlings, or Plants Used in a Test Seed, seedling, or plant count percent Number of seeds, seedlings, or plants in tests 10 20 30 50 75 100 150 200...

  8. Interactive Cholesterol Advisory Tool

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-05

    Low Risk (0-10% Chance) of Developing Cardiovascular Disease Within 10 Years Based on Risk Factors; Moderate Risk (10-20% Chance) of Developing Cardiovascular (Heart) Disease Within 10 Years Based on Risk Factors

  9. Ammonia, Total Reduced Sulfides, and Greenhouse Gases of Pine Chip and Corn Stover Bedding Packs.

    PubMed

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E

    2016-03-01

    Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. Our objective in this study was to compare headspace concentrations of ammonia (NH), total reduced sulfides (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH), and nitrous oxide (NO) when pine wood chips ( spp.) and corn stover ( L.) were mixed in various ratios (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, and 100% pine chips) and used as bedding with manure. Air samples were collected from the headspace of laboratory-scaled bedded manure packs weekly for 42 d. Ammonia concentrations were highest for bedded packs containing 0, 10, and 20% pine chips (equivalent to 501.7, 502.3, and 502.3 mg m, respectively) in the bedding mixture and were lowest when at least 80% pine chips were used as bedding (447.3 and 431.0 mg m, respectively for 80 and 100% pine chip bedding). The highest NH concentrations were observed at Day 28. The highest concentration of TRS was observed when 100% pine chips were used as bedding (11.4 µg m), with high concentrations occurring between Days 7 and 14, and again at Day 35. Greenhouse gases were largely unaffected by bedding material but CH and CO concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged and NO concentrations were highly variable throughout the incubation. We conclude that a mixture of bedding material that contains 30 to 40% pine chips may be the ideal combination to reduce both NH and TRS emissions. All gas concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged, suggesting that frequent cleaning of facilities would improve air quality in the barn, regardless of bedding materials used. PMID:27065410

  10. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on international key comparison CCQM-K65: Gas standards containing methyl and ethyl mercaptans (at the level of 20-30 µmol/mol) in methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Vishnyakov, I. M.; Pavlov, M. V.; Efremova, O. V.; Woo, Jin-Chun; Kim, Yong-Doo; Wessel, Rob M.; Ziel, Paul R.; Milton, Martin J. T.; Vargha, G.; Brown, A.; Uprichard, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The key comparison CCQM-K65 was intended to compare the capabilities for the preparation and value assignment of gas standards for methyl and ethyl mercaptans in methane, maintained at the participating national metrological institutes: VNIIM (Russia), KRISS (Korea), VSL (Netherlands) and NPL (United Kingdom). The range of the nominal amount of substance fractions of the comparison gas mixtures was 20 µmol/mol to 30 µmol/mol, which is close to regulatory level (in several countries including Russia) for mercaptans in odorated natural gas. This comparison was proposed at the 12th GAWG meeting in October 2004 and was conducted in 2008. Conclusions are as follows: The results of all laboratories are consistent with the reference values. The observed differences between the reference and reported values are within +/-0.9% for methyl mercaptan and +/-0.75% for ethyl mercaptan relative to the gravimetric values, and do not exceed the appropriate assigned expanded uncertainties. The prepared mixtures were found to be stable during about a year within the uncertainty of the measurements. The gravimetric values were successfully validated with a dynamic method. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  11. Solar technical assistance provided to Forest City military communities in Hawaii for incorporation of 20-30 MW of solar energy generation to power family housing for US Navy personnel.

    SciTech Connect

    Dominick, Jeff; Merrigan, Tim; Boudra, Will; Miller, Ryan; Cisneros, Gabriela; Rosenthal, Andrew L.; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2010-06-01

    In May 2007, Forest City Military Communities won a US Department of Energy Solar America Showcase Award. As part of this award, executives and staff from Forest City Military Communities worked side-by-side with a DOE technical assistance team to overcome technical obstacles encountered by this large-scale real estate developer and manager. This paper describes the solar technical assistance that was provided and the key solar experiences acquired by Forest City Military Communities over an 18 month period.

  12. A new experimental model of acid- and endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Puig, F; Herrero, R; Guillamat-Prats, R; Gómez, M N; Tijero, J; Chimenti, L; Stelmakh, O; Blanch, L; Serrano-Mollar, A; Matthay, M A; Artigas, A

    2016-08-01

    The majority of the animal models of acute lung injury (ALI) are focused on the acute phase. This limits the studies of the mechanisms involved in later phases and the effects of long-term treatments. Thus the goal of this study was to develop an experimental ALI model of aspiration pneumonia, in which diffuse alveolar damage continues for 72 h. Rats were intratracheally instilled with one dose of HCl (0.1 mol/l) followed by another instillation of one dose of LPS (0, 10, 20, 30, or 40 μg/g body weight) 2 h later, which models aspiration of gastric contents that progresses to secondary lung injury from bacteria or bacterial products. The rats were euthanized at 24, 48, and 72 h after the last instillation. The results showed that HCl and LPS at all doses caused activation of inflammatory responses, increased protein permeability and apoptosis, and induced mild hypoxemia in rat lungs at 24 h postinstillation. However, this lung damage was present at 72 h only in rats receiving HCl and LPS at the doses of 30 and 40 μg/g body wt. Mortality (∼50%) occurred in the first 48 h and only in the rats treated with HCl and LPS at the highest dose (40 μg/g body wt). In conclusion, intratracheal instillation of HCl followed by LPS at the dose of 30 μg/g body wt results in severe diffuse alveolar damage that continues at least 72 h. This rat model of aspiration pneumonia-induced ALI will be useful for testing long-term effects of new therapeutic strategies in ALI. PMID:27317688

  13. Toxic Effects of Levofloxacin on Rat Annulus Fibrosus Cells: An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Zhi-Long; Chen, Qian; Yang, Si-Dong; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Hai-Ying; Yang, Da-Long; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluoroquinolones are in wide clinical use as safe and effective antibiotics. Articular cartilage, tendons, and epiphyseal growth plates have been recognized as targets of fluoroquinolone-induced connective tissue toxicity. However, the effects of fluoroquinolones on annulus fibrosus (AF) cells are still unknown. Material/Methods The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of levofloxacin, a typical fluoroquinolone antibiotic drug, on rat AF cells in vitro. Rat annulus fibrosus (RAF) cells were treated with levofloxacin at different concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, and 90 μg/ml) and were assessed to determine the possible cytotoxic effects of levofloxacin. Inverted phase-contrast microscopy was used to accomplish the morphological observation of apoptosis of treated cells. Western blot and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) was used to explore the expression of active caspase-3 and MMP-3. Flow cytometry was used to measure the apoptotic incidences. Results Our study showed that levofloxacin, with concentrations at 30, 60, and 90 μg/ml, induced dose-dependent RAF cell apoptosis and higher expression of caspase-3 and MMP-3. More apoptotic cells were observed by inverted phase-contrast microscopy. Moreover, levofloxacin increased the activity of caspase-3, and it also reduced cell viability with different concentrations ranging from 10 to 80 μg/ml. Conclusions Our study results suggest that levofloxacin has cytotoxic effects on RAF cells, characterized by enhancing apoptosis and reducing cell viability, and indicate a potential toxic effect of fluoroquinolones on RAF cells. PMID:25380657

  14. Effects of glutamine, proline, histidine and betaine on post-thaw motility of stallion spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Trimeche, A; Yvon, J M; Vidament, M; Palmer, E; Magistrini, M

    1999-07-01

    The supplementation of the freezing diluent with 3 amino acids (glutamine, proline and histidine) and 1 amino acid-related compound (betaine) in preserving stallion spermatozoa diluted in INRA82 extender containing 2.5% (v/v) glycerol and 2% (v/v) egg yolk (control extender) during freezing and thawing was studied at 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 mM in 20 split ejaculates (10 stallions x 2 ejaculates; Experiment 1). Glutamine and proline were studied at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mM in 20 split ejaculates (10 stallions x 2 ejaculates; Experiment 2). In each experiment, spermatozoa were evaluated after thawing by computer automated sperm analyzer. The percentage of motile spermatozoa (faster than 30 microns/sec) was assessed. In addition, the velocity of the average path (VAP), the straight line velocity (VSL), the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the amplitude of the lateral head displacement (ALH) were also measured. In Experiment 1, only glutamine (40 mM) significantly improved sperm motility (56.0% +/- 3.0 vs 49.7% +/- 1.6; P < 0.05) compared with the control extender, while velocities were unaffected at concentrations of 40 to 120 mM. However, at 160 mM, a significant decrease in motility and velocity was observed for all amino acids. In Experiment 2, motility in glutamine (range 41.1% +/- 3.8%; 42.4% +/- 3.6) and proline (43.0% +/- 3.7; 45.6% +/- 3.8) extenders compared with the control (34.7% +/- 1.6) was improved significantly (P < 0.05). Sperm velocity was improved at concentrations higher than 40 mM glutamine and 50 mM proline. PMID:10734416

  15. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    PubMed

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) breed effect on body weight and gain, shank length, thigh length, body width and body length. The growth traits of Anak breed were found to be superior to NHLE chickens. Within treatments, chicks on T1, T2 and T3, grew heavier than those on T4 and T5. However, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and haematological indices (RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC count) were not significant (P > 0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens. PMID:25939914

  16. Composition dependence of the diffuse scattering in the relaxor ferroelectric compound (1-x)Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} (0{<=}x{<=}0.40)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, M.; Hirota, K.; Gehring, P. M.; Ye, Z.-G.; Chen, W.; Shirane, G.

    2006-10-01

    We have used neutron diffraction to characterize the diffuse scattering in five single crystals of the relaxor ferroelectric (1-x)Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-xPT) with x=0, 10, 20, 30, and 40%. The addition of ferroelectric PbTiO{sub 3} modifies the well-known 'butterfly' and 'ellipsoidal' diffuse scattering patterns observed in pure PMN (x=0), which are believed to be associated with the presence of randomly oriented polar nanoregions. In particular, the anisotropy of the diffuse scattering diminishes as the PT content increases. The spatial correlation length {xi} along the [110] direction derived from the width of the diffuse scattering at room temperature increases from 12.6 A for PMN to 350 A for PMN-20%PT. In addition, the diffuse scattering intensity at q=0 grows and reaches a maximum value around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), which suggests that it is proportional to the dielectric susceptibility. Beyond x=30%, a concentration very close to the MPB, no diffuse scattering is observed below T{sub C}, and well-defined critical behavior appears near T{sub C}. By contrast, the diffuse scattering for x{<=}20% persists down to low temperatures, where the system retains an average cubic structure (T{sub C}=0). Finally, the anisotropic soft transverse optic (TO) modes observed in PMN are found to be isotropic for PMN-30%PT, which strongly suggests a connection between the anisotropic diffuse scattering and the TO modes.

  17. Organoleptic properties and perception of maize, African yam bean, and defatted coconut flour-based breakfast cereals served in conventional forms.

    PubMed

    Usman, Grace Ojali; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi

    2016-09-01

    Breakfast cereals were produced by roasting (t = 280°C) - a dry heat treatment process to gelatinize and semidextrinize the starch - in order to generate dry ready-to-eat products from blends of African yam bean (AYB), maize (M), and defatted coconut (DC) flour. Six samples were generated by mixing AYB and maize composite flour with graded levels of DC flour (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) to obtain the following ratios; 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50 that were added equal quantities of sugar, salt, sorghum malt extract, and water. The obtained products were served dry (without added fluid), with water, milk, and warm milk to 15 panelists along with Weetabix Original (commercial control) to evaluate color, consistency, flavor, taste, aftertaste, mouth feel, and overall acceptability using a nine-point hedonic scale (1 = dislike extremely, 9 = like extremely). The results revealed that the samples were acceptable to the panelists. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences, between the control (Weetabix) and the formulated samples in terms of overall acceptability, when served with water, whereas significant differences (P < 0.05) existed when served dry, with milk or warm milk. This new roasting process for producing breakfast cereals offers huge potentials for production of acceptable breakfast cereals enriched with protein and fiber-rich sources that could be consumed dry, with water, milk, or warm milk. PMID:27625775

  18. Evaluation of Hepatic Tumors Using Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingjie; Li, Xudan; Zou, Jianxun; Chen, Xugao; Chen, Shuyan; Xiang, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the D value, D* value, and f magnitude for identifying benign and malignant hepatic tumors using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Material/Methods Data of 89 cases (123 lesions) with hepatic tumor confirmed by surgical pathology and postoperative follow-up were retrospectively collected. Among these cases, 40 cases were benign hepatic tumors (57 lesions) and 49 cases were malignant hepatic tumors (66 lesions). All subjects underwent conventional MRI with T1WI, T2WI, multi-b-value DWI, and dynamic enhanced LAVA scan. Diffusion-weighted images with 11 b values (0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 80, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1000 s/mm2) were obtained to calculate true molecular diffusion (D), perfusion-related diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f). The diagnostic performance in differentiating between malignant and benign hepatic lesions was analyzed. Results Malignant lesions had a significantly lower D value ([1.04±0.34]×10−3 mm2/s) and D* value ([16.5±7.7]×10−3 mm2/s) compared to benign lesions (D value: [1.70±0.55]×10−3 mm2/s, P<0.01; D* value: [21.7±9.9]×10−3 mm2/s, P<0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in f values between malignant (23.3±9.5) and benign lesions (33.5±14.9, P=0.13). In addition, D exhibited a better diagnostic performance than D* in terms of the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity when identifying malignancies from benign lesions. Conclusions D and D* are significant parameters for diagnosing hepatic tumors. Moreover, the D value is a more reliable parameter in distinguishing benign and malignant hepatic tumors. PMID:26931063

  19. Organic Amendment Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Long-Term Stockpiled Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvomuya, F.; Laskosky, J.

    2014-12-01

    In oil sands projects in Alberta, Canada, salvaged soils are often placed in large stockpiles where they are stored for the duration of the project, typically 20-30 years. Alberta regulations require that topsoil and subsoil are salvaged in two distinct operations - a process known as two-lifting. Reclamation using long-term stockpiled soils often gives poor results, characterized by lower soil organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations compared with equivalent natural, undisturbed soils. It is thought that the change from an aerobic to an anaerobic environment during soil stockpiling and back again to aerobic during placement are largely responsible for the low carbon and nitrogen due to microbial activity transforming C and N in the soil into CO2, CH4 and N2O and releasing them to the atmosphere. Evidence from recent studies indicates that biochar improves soil physical, chemical and biological properties, and hence could mitigate C and N losses due to greenhouse gas emissions from the soil indirectly. We postulate that documented improvements in soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in soils treated with amendments such as biochar may help mitigate C and N losses due to greenhouse gas emissions from the soil indirectly. This laboratory incubation experiment tested the effects of differential rates (0, 10, 20, and 40 g biochar carbon equivalents kg-1 dry soil) of biochar, peat, and humalite on greenhouse gas emissions from a 25-year old two-lift stockpiled soil. The soils were fertilized according to standard practice, placed in 120-mL plastic containers, and incubated at 25°C for 45 days. Gas samples were taken at 1- to 7-day intervals and analyzed for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Data on treatment differences in emissions will be presented. Results from this experiment will provide an insight into the potential for organic amendments to mitigate greenhouse gas emission during reclamation using degraded soils.

  20. Creation and Characterization of an Ultrasound and CT Phantom for Non-invasive Ultrasound Thermometry Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chun-Yen; Kruse, Dustin E.; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Caskey, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound thermometry provides noninvasive two-dimensional (2-D) temperature monitoring, and in this paper, we have investigated the use of computed tomography (CT) radiodensity to characterize tissues to improve the accuracy of ultrasound thermometry. Agarose-based tissue-mimicking phantoms were created with glyceryl trioleate (a fat-mimicking material) concentration of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%. The speed of sound (SOS) of the phantoms was measured over a temperature range of 22.1–41.1°C. CT images of the phantoms were acquired by a clinical dedicated breast CT scanner, followed by calculation of the Hounsfield units (HU). The phantom was heated with a therapeutic acoustic pulse (1.54 MHz), while RF data were acquired with a 10-MHz linear-array transducer. 2-D speckle tracking was used to calculate the thermal strain offline. The tissue dependent thermal strain parameter required for ultrasound thermometry was analyzed and correlated with CT radiodensity, followed by validation of the temperature prediction. Results showed that the change in SOS with the temperature increase was opposite in sign between the 0–10% and 20–50% trioleate phantoms. The inverse of the tissue dependent thermal strain parameter of the phantoms was correlated with the CT radiodensity (R2 = 0.99). A blinded ultrasound thermometry study on phantoms with a trioleate range of 5–35% demonstrated the capability to estimate the tissue dependent thermal strain parameter and estimate temperature with error less than ~1°C. In conclusion, CT radiodensity may provide a method for improving ultrasound thermometry in heterogeneous tissues. PMID:24107918

  1. Development of a ceramic primer with higher bond durability for resin cement.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui

    2010-07-01

    To increase the bond durability of resin to the CAD/CAM ceramic surface, two types of two-bottle type ceramic primers, consisting of Primer A1 or A2 and Primer B, were designed. Primer A1 was prepared by dissolving 25, 50, or 100 mg of gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane in 1 mL of ethanol. Primer A2 was prepared by dissolving 50 mg of mixed silanes, consisting of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane to gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, in 1 mL of ethanol. Mole fractions of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane to gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mol%. Primer B was prepared after dissolving 0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid in ethanol by 50 vol%. Ceramic surface was silanated with a mixture of Primers A1 and B or Primers A2 and B for 1 min, and then air-dried. Commercial GC ceramic primer and Porcelain Liner M were utilized. Thereafter, dual-curing type resin cement was bonded to silanated ceramic surface through visible-light irradiation. Shear bond strength of resin to the ceramic surface was measured, before and after thermo-cycling. Addition of 0.01 or 0.05 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid to the gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane allowed for significant increases in the bond strength. However, thermo-cycling resulted in significant decreases of approximately 5 MPa in the bond strength. Conversely, when the mixed silane, where 30 mol% of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane dissolved in gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, was utilized with 0.05 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid, the reduction in the bond strength decreased to approximately 2 MPa. The designed ceramic primers exhibited higher ceramic bond durability than commercial ceramic primers. PMID:20136699

  2. Activity of hepatic but not skeletal muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase enzyme is depressed by intravenous glucose infusions in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Al-Trad, B; Wittek, T; Gäbel, G; Fürll, M; Reisberg, K; Aschenbach, J R

    2010-12-01

    A positive energy balance in dairy cows pre-partum may decrease hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) enzyme activity, which might contribute to disturbances of lipid metabolism post-partum. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal muscle CPT activity can also be downregulated during positive energy balance. Mid-lactating dairy cows were maintained on intravenous infusion of either saline (control) or glucose solutions that increased linearly over 24 days, remained at the 24-day level until day 28 and were suspended thereafter. Liver and skeletal muscle biopsies, as well as four diurnal blood samples, were taken on days 0, 8, 16, 24, and 32, representing infusion levels equivalent to 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 0% of the net energy for lactation (NE(L)) requirement respectively. Glucose infusion increased serum insulin concentrations on day 16 and 24 while plasma glucose levels were increased at only a single time point on day 24. Serum beta-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations decreased between day 8 and 24; whereas changes in non-esterified fatty acids were mostly insignificant. Total lipid contents of liver and skeletal muscle were not affected by treatment. Hepatic CPT activity decreased with glucose infusion (by 35% on day 24) and remained decreased on day 32. Hepatic expression levels of CPT-1A and CPT-2 mRNA were not significantly altered but tended to reflect the changes in enzyme activity. In contrast to the liver, no effect of glucose infusion was observed on skeletal muscle CPT activity. We conclude that suppression of CPT activity by positive energy balance appears to be specific for the liver in mid-lactating dairy cows. PMID:20546068

  3. The effects on tensile, shear, and adhesive mechanical properties when recycled epoxy/fiberglass is used as an alternative for glass microballoons in fiberglass foam core sandwiches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Dru Matthew

    The problem of this study was to determine whether fiberglass foam core sandwiches made with recycled epoxy/fiberglass have equal or better flatwise tension, shear, and peel (adhesion) mechanical properties when compared with composite sandwiches made with industry standard glass microballoons. Recycling epoxy/fiberglass could save money by: (1) reusing cured composite materials, (2) consuming less virgin composite materials, (3) spending less on transportation and disposing of unusable composites, and (4) possibly enabling companies to sell their recycled composite powder to other manufacturers. This study used three mechanical property tests, which included: flatwise tensile test, shear test, and peel (adhesion) test. Each test used 300 samples for a combined total of 900 sandwich test samples for this study. A factorial design with three independent variables was used. The first variable, filler type, had three levels: no filler, microballoon filler, and recycled epoxy/fiberglass filler. The second variable, foam density, had four levels: 3 lb/ft³, 4 lb/ft³, 5 lb/ft³, and 6 lb/ft³. The third variable, filler percentage ratio, had eight levels: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70%. The results of this study revealed two primary conclusions. The first conclusion was that sandwich test panels produced with recycled epoxy/fiberglass powder were equal or significantly better in tensile, shear, and peel (adhesion) strength than sandwiches produced with hollow glass microballoons. The second conclusion was that sandwich test panels produced with recycled epoxy/fiberglass powder were equal or significantly lighter in weight than sandwiches produced with hollow glass microballoons.

  4. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose concentration on physical properties of biodegradable cassava starch-based films

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cassava starch, the economically important agricultural commodity in Thailand, can readily be cast into films. However, the cassava starch film is brittle and weak, leading to inadequate mechanical properties. The properties of starch film can be improved by adding plasticizers and blending with the other biopolymers. Results Cassava starch (5%w/v) based films plasticized with glycerol (30 g/100 g starch) were characterized with respect to the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%w/w total solid) and relative humidity (34 and 54%RH) on the mechanical properties of the films. Additionally, intermolecular interactions were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), melting temperature by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water solubility of the films was also determined. Increasing concentration of CMC increased tensile strength, reduced elongation at break, and decreased water solubility of the blended films. FT-IR spectra indicated intermolecular interactions between cassava starch and CMC in blended films by shifting of carboxyl (C = O) and OH groups. DSC thermograms and SEM micrographs confirmed homogeneity of cassava starch-CMC films. Conclusion The addition of CMC to the cassava starch films increased tensile strength and reduced elongation at break of the blended films. This was ascribed to the good interaction between cassava starch and CMC. Cassava starch-CMC composite films have the potential to replace conventional packaging, and the films developed in this work are suggested to be suitable for low moisture food and pharmaceutical products. PMID:21306655

  5. Decomposition and humification of soil organic carbon after land use change on erosion prone slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häring, Volker; Fischer, Holger; Cadisch, Georg; Stahr, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon decline after land use change from forest to maize usually lead to soil degradation and elevated CO2 emissions. However, limited knowledge is available on the interactions between rates of SOC change and soil erosion and how SOC dynamics vary with soil depth and clay contents. The 13C isotope based CIDE approach (Carbon Input, Decomposition and Erosion) was developed to determine SOC dynamics on erosion prone slopes. The aims of the present study were: (1) to test the applicability of the CIDE approach to determine rates of decomposition and SOC input under particular considerations of concurrent erosion events on three soil types (Alisol, Luvisol, Vertisol), (2) to adapt the CIDE approach to deeper soil layers (10-20 and 20-30 cm) and (3) to determine the variation of decomposition and SOC input with soil depth and soil texture. SOC dynamics were determined for bulk soil and physically separated SOC fractions along three chronosequences after land use change from forest to maize (up to 21 years) in northwestern Vietnam. Consideration of the effects of soil erosion on SOC dynamics by the CIDE approach yielded a higher total SOC loss (6 to 32%), a lower decomposition (13 to 40%) and a lower SOC input (14 to 31%) relative to the values derived from a commonly applied 13C isotope based mass balance approach. Comparison of decomposition between depth layers revealed that tillage accelerated decomposition in the plough layer (0-10 cm), accounting for 3 to 34% of total decomposition. With increasing clay contents SOC input increased. In addition, decomposition increased with increasing clay contents, too, being attributed to decomposition of exposed labile SOC which was attached to clay particles in the sand sized stable aggregate fraction. This study suggests that in situ SOC dynamics on erosion prone slopes are commonly misrepresented by erosion unadjusted approaches.

  6. Soil fungal community shift evaluation as a potential cadaver decomposition indicator.

    PubMed

    Chimutsa, Monica; Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim J U; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    Fungi metabolise organic matter in situ and so alter both the bio-/physico-chemical properties and microbial community structure of the ecosystem. In particular, they are responsible reportedly for specific stages of decomposition. Therefore, this study aimed to extend previous bacteria-based forensic ecogenomics research by investigating soil fungal community and cadaver decomposition interactions in microcosms with garden soil (20 kg, fresh weight) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcass (5 kg, leg). Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm on days 3, 28 and 77 in the absence (control -Pg) and presence (experimental +Pg) of Sus scrofa domesticus and used for total DNA extraction and nested polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiling of the 18S rRNA gene. The Shannon-Wiener (H') community diversity indices were 1.25±0.21 and 1.49±0.30 for the control and experimental microcosms, respectively, while comparable Simpson species dominance (S) values were 0.65±0.109 and 0.75±0.015. Generally, and in contrast to parallel studies of the bacterial 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA profiles, statistical analysis (t-test) of the 18S dynamics showed no mathematically significant shifts in fungal community diversity (H'; p=0.142) and dominance (S; p=0.392) during carcass decomposition, necessitating further investigations. PMID:26322496

  7. Catch trials in force field learning influence adaptation and consolidation of human motor memory

    PubMed Central

    Stockinger, Christian; Focke, Anne; Stein, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Force field studies are a common tool to investigate motor adaptation and consolidation. Thereby, subjects usually adapt their reaching movements to force field perturbations induced by a robotic device. In this context, so-called catch trials, in which the disturbing forces are randomly turned off, are commonly used to detect after-effects of motor adaptation. However, catch trials also produce sudden large motor errors that might influence the motor adaptation and the consolidation process. Yet, the detailed influence of catch trials is far from clear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of catch trials on motor adaptation and consolidation in force field experiments. Therefore, 105 subjects adapted their reaching movements to robot-generated force fields. The test groups adapted their reaching movements to a force field A followed by learning a second interfering force field B before retest of A (ABA). The control groups were not exposed to force field B (AA). To examine the influence of diverse catch trial ratios, subjects received catch trials during force field adaptation with a probability of either 0, 10, 20, 30, or 40%, depending on the group. First, the results on motor adaptation revealed significant differences between the diverse catch trial ratio groups. With increasing amount of catch trials, the subjects' motor performance decreased and subjects' ability to accurately predict the force field—and therefore internal model formation—was impaired. Second, our results revealed that adapting with catch trials can influence the following consolidation process as indicated by a partial reduction to interference. Here, the optimal catch trial ratio was 30%. However, detection of consolidation seems to be biased by the applied measure of performance. PMID:24795598

  8. Effect of different crops on soil organic matter and biological activity in Oxisols under three different crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, Diana Marcela; Arzuaga, Silvia; Dalurzo, Humberto; Zornoza, Raúl; Vazquez, Sara

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate changes in soil organic matter in Oxisols under different crops compared to native rainforest, and to assess if acid phosphatase activity (APA) could be a good indicator for SOC changes and soil quality. The experimental design consisted of four completely randomized blocks with four treatments: subtropical rainforest (F); yerba mate crop (I) (Ilex paraguariensis SH.); citrus crop (C) (Citrus unshiu Marc); and tobacco crop (T) (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Soil samples were taken at 0-10; 10-20 and 20-30 cm depths. The variables measured were soil organic carbon (SOC), APA, clay content, pH, total nitrogen (Nt), available phosphorus (P) and CO2 emissions. All data were analyzed by ANOVA to assess the effects of land-use changes. The treatment means were compared through Duncan's multiple range tests (p<0.05). The relationship between variables was determined with a simple correlation analysis and with a multiple linear regression analysis through the stepwise method. These soils showed an acid reaction and their clay content was over 650 g kg-1 for the three depths. SOC and N contents were higher in native soils, intermediate for the citrus crop, and lower under both tobacco and yerba mate crops. CO2 emissions were higher in the rainforest (47.32 kg ha-1 of CO2) than in cultivated soils, which indicates that biological activity is enhanced in rainforest soils where substrates for soil biota and fauna are more readily available. The variability of 76% in APA was explained by total nitrogen, which is closely related to soil organic matter, and by available P. Conversion of subtropical rainforests into agricultural lands reduced SOC content and acid phosphatase activity, thereby lowering soil quality. In this study, acid phosphatase activity proved to be a sensitive indicator to detect changes from pristine to cropped soils, but it failed to distinguish differences among crop systems.

  9. Effects of Replacement of Concentrate Mixture by Broccoli Byproducts on Lactating Performance in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Yi, X. W.; Yang, F.; Liu, J. X.; Wang, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of feeding pelletized broccoli byproducts (PBB) on milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. In Trial 1, an in vitro gas test determined the optimal replacement level of PBB in a concentrate mixture in a mixed substrate with Chinese wild ryegrass hay (50:50, w/w) at levels of 0, 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% (dry matter basis). When the concentrate was replaced by PBB at a level of 20%, no adverse effects were found on the gas volume or its rate constant during ruminal fermentation. In trial 2, 24 lactating cows (days in milk = 170.4±35; milk yield = 30±3 kg/d; body weight = 580 ±13 kg) were divided into 12 blocks based on day in milk and milk yield and randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a basic diet with or without PBB replacing 20% of the concentrate mixture. The feeding trial lasted for 56 days; the first week allowed for adaptation to the diet. The milk composition was analyzed once a week. No significant difference in milk yield was observed between the two groups (23.5 vs 24.2 kg). A significant increase was found in milk fat content in the PBB group (p<0.05). Inclusion of PBB did not affect milk protein, lactose, total solids or solids-not-fat (p>0.05). These results indicated that PBB could be included in dairy cattle diets at a suitable level to replace concentrate mixture without any adverse effects on dairy performance. PMID:26323401

  10. USING KUIPER BELT BINARIES TO CONSTRAIN NEPTUNE'S MIGRATION HISTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Schlichting, Hilke E.

    2011-04-01

    Approximately 10%-20% of all Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) occupy mean-motion resonances with Neptune. This dynamical configuration likely resulted from resonance capture as Neptune migrated outward during the late stages of planet formation. The details of Neptune's planetesimal-driven migration, including its radial extent and the concurrent eccentricity evolution of the planet, are the subject of considerable debate. Two qualitatively different proposals for resonance capture have been proposed-migration-induced capture driven by smooth outward evolution of Neptune's orbit and chaotic capture driven by damping of the planet's eccentricity near its current semi-major axis. We demonstrate that the distribution of comparable-mass, wide-separation binaries occupying resonant orbits can differentiate between these two scenarios. If migration-induced capture occurred, this fraction records information about the formation locations of different populations of KBOs. Chaotic capture, in contrast, randomizes the orbits of bodies as they are placed in resonance. In particular, if KBO binaries are formed by dynamical capture in a protoplanetary disk with a surface mass density typical of observed extrasolar disks, then migration-induced capture produces the following signatures. The 2:1 resonance should contain a dynamically cold component, with inclinations less than 5{sup 0}-10{sup 0}, having a binary fraction comparable to that among cold classical KBOs. If the 3:2 resonance also hosts a cold component, its binary fraction should be 20%-30% lower than in the cold classical belt. Among cold 2:1 (and if present 3:2) KBOs, objects with eccentricities e < 0.2 should have a binary fraction {approx}20% larger than those with e>0.2. Other binary formation scenarios and disk surface density profiles can generate analogous signatures but produce quantitatively different results. Searches for cold components in the binary fractions of resonant KBOs are currently practical. The

  11. White light simulation and luminescence studies on Dy3+ doped Zinc borophosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Venkataiah, G.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Dy3+ doped Zinc borophosphate glasses with the chemical composition (79-x)B2O3+xP2O5+10Li2O+10ZnO+1Dy2O3 (where x=0, 10, 20, 30 and 50 in wt%) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The prepared glass samples were characterized through optical absorption, emission and decay measurements. The bonding parameters, optical band gap and Urbach's energy values were calculated from the optical absorption spectra to explore the bonding nature of the Dy-O metal ligand and electronic band structure of the studied glasses. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters were calculated from the absorption spectra by using the JO theory and it gives information about symmetry of the ligand environment around the Dy3+ ion site. The Y/B intensity ratio and radiative properties were obtained from the emission spectra and the results were compared with the reported literature. The x, y chromaticity color coordinates of the studied glasses were analyzed using a CIE 1931 color chromaticity diagram and found that the x, y coordinates lie in the white light region. The decay curve measurements of the prepared glasses exhibit non-exponential behavior and are well fitted to Inokuti-Hirayama (IH) model to understand the energy transfer mechanism between Dy3+ ions. The Q, R0 and CDA values of the prepared Dy3+ doped glasses were obtained from the IH model and the results were discussed and compared with the reported literature.

  12. Ecological stoichiometric characteristics and element reserves of three stands in a closed forest on the Chinese loess plateau.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuanbo; Wang, Baitian; Wei, Tingting; Ma, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Populus davidiana, Leuchtenbergia principis, and Pinus tabulaeformis are important greening tree species with a cosmopolitan distribution. However, the stoichiometric characteristics and element reserves of stands of these three species are not particularly clear. In this study, we conducted a plot-level investigation of forest stands of these species in the loess area; these have been closed forest stands more than 28 years. Trees were sampled from an area of 50 m × 20 m (in 6, 8, and 9 plots, respectively), which was sufficient for shrub (2 m × 2 m), herbal species, and litter (1 m × 1 m) investigations. The C, N, and P concentrations and the C:N:P stoichiometry in five different soil layers (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-50 cm, and 50-100 cm) and in the leaves, stems, branches, and roots of the plants were examined. The soil element concentrations and density were affected by soil depth. The element content had a significantly negative correlation with soil depth, and element density differed significantly among the soil layers. A particular element in a particular organ differed significantly between the forest stands, and the same element in different organs of the same stand was also significantly different. The C, N, and P element reserves in the soil were considerably higher than in the plants. Our results indicate that there are different stoichiometric characteristics and element reserves of the three stands in a closed forest on the Chinese loess plateau, which may provide a reference when we develop and optimize the structure of forest stands. PMID:26739010

  13. Sensitivity of tumor motion simulation accuracy to lung biomechanical modeling approaches and parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasehi Tehrani, Joubin; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation.

  14. Sensitivity of tumor motion simulation accuracy to lung biomechanical modeling approaches and parameters.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-21

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation. PMID:26531324

  15. Effects of soil mechanical resistance on nematode community structure under conventional sugarcane and remaining of Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Cardoso, Mércia; Pedrosa, Elvira M R; Rolim, Mário M; Silva, Enio F F E; de Barros, Patrícia A

    2012-06-01

    Nematodes present high potential as a biological indicator of soil quality. In this work, it was evaluated relations between soil physical properties and nematode community under sugarcane cropping and remaining of Atlantic Forest areas in Northeastern Pernambuco, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from September to November 2009 along two 200-m transects in both remaining of Atlantic Forest and sugarcane field at deeps of 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 cm. For soil characterization, it was carried out analysis of soil size, water content, total porosity, bulk density, and particle density. The level of soil mechanical resistance was evaluated through a digital penetrometer. Nematodes were extracted per 300 cm(3) of soil through centrifugal flotation in sucrose being quantified, classified according trophic habit, and identified in level of genus or family. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation at 5% of probability. Geostatistical analysis showed that the penetration resistance, water content, total porosity, and bulk density on both forest and cultivated area exhibited spatial dependence at the sampled scale, and their experimental semivariograms were fitted to spherical and exponential models. In forest area, the ectoparasites and free-living nematodes exhibited spherical model. In sugarcane field, the soil nematodes exhibited pure nugget effect. Pratylenchus sp. and Helicotylenchus sp. were prevalent in sugarcane field, but in forest, there was prevalence of Dorylaimidae and Rhabditidae. Total amount of nematode did not differ between environments; however, community trophic structure in forest presented prevalence of free-living nematodes: omnivores followed by bacterial-feeding soil nematodes, while plant-feeding nematodes were prevalent in sugarcane field. The nematode diversity was higher in the remaining of Atlantic Forest. However, the soil mechanical resistance was higher under sugarcane cropping, affecting more directly the free

  16. Heavy metal accumulation in wheat plant grown in soil amended with industrial sludge.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sutapa; Bhattacharyya, A K

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of different forms of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb and Fe metals were determined for the roadside sludge collected from pickling-rolling and electroplating industrial area. In sludge the relative abundance of total heavy metals were Fe>Mn>Cr>Ni>Cu>Pb>Zn>Cd and DTPA-extractable metals were in the order--Fe>Ni>Mn>Cr>Cu>Zn>Pb>Cd. Pot-culture experiment was conducted in soils amended with sludge (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%), pretreated with lime (0%, 0.5% and 1%). The soils were alkaline in nature (pH>8.3) with organic carbon contents were 0.34% and 0.72%. The most abundant total and bio-available metal was Fe. Two wheat seedlings were grown in each pot containing 3kg sludge-amended or control soil and the experiment was conducted till harvesting. Application of sludge increased both total and bio-available forms of metals in the soils, while lime application decreased the bioavailability of heavy metals in sludge-amended soils. The content of organic carbon showed positive correlation with all metals except Zn, Cr and Pb. CEC also showed a strong positive correlation (R2>0.7) with Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Cd. Though wheat plants are not accumulators, the translocation efficiency was appreciably high. The translocation factor from shoot to grain was found smaller than that of root to shoot of wheat plants. This makes an implication that the heavy metal accumulation was proportionally lesser in grain than in shoot. In, 10% sludge with 0.5% lime-amended soils; each of these toxic heavy metals was found to be within permissible range (USEPA). Hence, on the basis of present study, the best possible treatment may be recommended. PMID:17825356

  17. Elemental quantification, chemistry, and source apportionment in golf course facilities in a semi-arid urban landscape using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udeigwe, T. K.; Young, J.; Kandakji, T.; Weindorf, D. C.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Stietiya, M. H.

    2015-04-01

    This study extends the application of the portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry to the examination of elements in semi-arid urban landscapes of the Southern High Plains (SHP) of the United States, focusing on golf courses. The complex environmental challenges of this region and the unique management practices at golf course facilities could lead to differences in concentration and in the chemistry of elements between managed (irrigated) and non-managed (non-irrigated) portions of these facilities. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm from managed and non-managed areas of seven different facilities in the city of Lubbock, Texas, and analyzed for a suite of soil properties. Total elemental quantification was conducted using a PXRF spectrometer. Findings mostly indicated no significant differences in the concentration of examined elements between the managed and non-managed areas of the facilities. However, strong positive relationships (R = 0.82-0.91, p < 0.001) were observed among elements (e.g., Fe on the one hand and Cr, Mn, Ni, and As on the other; Cu and Zn; As and Cr) and between these elements and soil constituents or properties such as clay, calcium carbonate, organic matter, and pH. The strengths of these relationships were mostly higher in the non-managed areas, suggesting a possible alteration in the chemistry of these elements by anthropogenic influences in the managed areas. Principal component and correlation analyses within the managed areas suggested that As, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Ni could be of lithogenic origin, while Cu, Pb, and Zn could have anthropogenic influences. Only one possible, likely lithogenic, source of the elements was identified within the non-managed areas. As evidenced by the study, the PXRF spectrometer can be a valuable tool for elemental quantification and rapid investigation of elemental interaction and source apportionment in semi-arid climates.

  18. Elemental quantification, chemistry, and source apportionment in golf course facilities in semi-arid urban landscape using portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udeigwe, T. K.; Young, J.; Kandakji, T.; Weindorf, D. C.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Stietiya, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study extends the application of the portable x-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry to examination of elements in semi-arid urban landscapes of the Southern High Plains (SHP) of the United States (US), focusing on golf courses. The complex environmental challenges of this region and the unique management practices at golf course facilities could lead to differences in concentration and chemistry of elements between managed (irrigated) and non-managed (non-irrigated) portions of these facilities. Soil samples were collected at the depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm from managed and non-managed areas of seven different facilities in the city of Lubbock, Texas, and analyzed for a suite of soil properties. Total elemental quantification was conducted using PXRF. Findings mostly indicated no significant differences in concentration of examined elements between the managed and non-managed areas of the facilities. However, strong positive relationships (R2 = 0.82-0.91, p < 0.001) were observed among elements (e.g. Fe and each of Cr, Mn, Ni, and As; Cu and Zn; As and Cr) and between these elements and soil constituents or properties such as clay, calcium carbonate, organic matter, and pH. The strengths of these relationships were mostly higher in the non-managed areas, suggesting possible alteration in the chemistry of these elements by anthropogenic influences. Principal component analyses (PCA) and correlation analyses within the managed areas suggested that As, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Ni could be of lithogenic origin, while Cu, Pb, and Zn were attributed to anthropogenic influences. Only one possible source of element, likely lithogenic, was identified within non-managed areas. As evidenced from the study, the PXRF can be a valuable tool for elemental quantification, and rapid investigation of elemental interaction and source apportionment in semi-arid climates.

  19. Evaluating management-induced soil salinization in golf courses in semi-arid landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J.; Udeigwe, T. K.; Weindorf, D. C.; Kandakji, T.; Gautam, P.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Site-specific information on land management practices are often desired to make better assessments of their environmental impacts. A study was conducted in Lubbock, Texas, in the Southern High Plains of the United States, an area characterized by semi-arid climatic conditions, to (1) examine the potential management-induced alterations in soil salinity indicators in golf course facilities and (2) develop predictive relationships for a more rapid soil salinity examination within these urban landscape soils using findings from a portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from managed (well irrigated) and non-managed (non-irrigated) areas of seven golf course facilities at 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depths and analyzed for a suite of chemical properties. Among the extractable cations, sodium (Na) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the managed zones of all the golf facilities. Soil electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), parameters often used in characterizing soil salinity and sodicity, were for the most part significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the managed areas. Water quality reports collected over a 22-year period (1991-2013, all years not available) indicated a gradual increase in pH, EC, SAR, total alkalinity, and extractable ions, thus supporting the former findings. Findings from the PXRF suggested possible differences in chemical species and sources that contribute to salinity between the managed and non-managed zones. PXRF-quantified Cl and S, and to a lesser extent Ca, individually and collectively explained 23-85% of the variability associated with soil salinity at these facilities.

  20. Evaluating management-induced soil salinization in golf courses in semi-arid landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J.; Udeigwe, T. K.; Weindorf, D. C.; Kandakji, T.; Gautam, P.; Mahmoud, M. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Site-specific information on land management practices are often desired to make better assertions of their environmental impacts. A study was conducted in Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains of the United States, an area characterized by semi-arid climatic conditions, to (1) examine the potential management-induced alteration in soil salinity indicators in golf course facilities and (2) develop predictive relationships for a more rapid soil salinity examination within these urban landscape soils using findings from portable x-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from the managed (well irrigated) and non-managed (non irrigated) areas of seven golf course facilities at 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depths, and analyzed for a suite of chemical properties. Among the extractable cations, sodium (Na) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the managed zones of all the golf facilities. Soil electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), parameters often used in characterizing soil salinity and sodicity, were in most part significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the managed areas. Water quality report collected over a 22-year period (1991-2013, all years not available) indicated a gradual increase in pH, EC, SAR, total alkalinity, and extractable ions, thus, supporting the former findings. Findings from the PXRF suggested possible differences in chemical species and sources that contribute to salinity between the managed and non-managed zones. PXRF quantified Cl and S, and to a lesser extent Ca, individually and collectively explained 23-85% of the variability associated with soil salinity at these facilities.

  1. BaCO3 mediated modifications in structural and magnetic properties of natural nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widanarto, W.; Jandra, M.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Effendi, M.; Cahyanto, W. T.

    2015-04-01

    Preparing M-type barium hexaferrite and improving the magnetic response of natural ferrites by incorporating barium carbonate (BaCO3) is ever-demanding. Series of barium carbonate doped ferrites with composition (100-x)Fe3O4·xBaCO3 (x=0, 10, 20, 30 wt%) are prepared through solid state reaction method and sintered gradually at temperatures of 800 and 1000 °C. Nanoparticles of natural ferrite and commercial BaCO3 are used as raw materials. Impacts of BaCO3 on structural and magnetic properties of these synthesized ferrites are inspected. The obtained ferrites are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature. Uniform barium hexaferrite particles in terms of both morphology and size are not achieved. The average crystallite size of BaFe12O19 is observed to be within 30-600 nm. The sintering process results phase transformation from Fe3O4 (magnetite) to α-Fe2O3 (hematite) and the formation of hexagonal barium ferrite crystals. The occurrence of barium crystal is found to enhance with the increase of BaCO3 concentrations up to 20 wt% and suddenly drop at 30 wt%. Saturation and remanent magnetization of the doped ferrites are significantly augmented up to 16.37 and 8.92 emu g-1, respectively compared to their pure counterpart. Furthermore, the coercivity field is slightly decreased as BaCO3 concentrations are increased. BaCO3 mediated improvements in the magnetic response of natural ferrites are demonstrated.

  2. Brief oral stimulation, but especially oral fat exposure, elevates serum triglycerides in humans.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D

    2009-02-01

    Oral exposure to dietary fat results in an early initial spike, followed by a prolonged elevation, of serum triglycerides in humans. The physiological and pathophysiological implications remain unknown. This study sought to determine the incidence of the effect, the required fat exposure duration, and its reliability. Thirty-four healthy adults participated in four to six response-driven trials held at least a week apart. They reported to the laboratory after an overnight fast, a catheter was placed in an antecubital vein, and a blood sample was obtained. Participants then ingested 50 g of safflower oil in capsules with 500 ml of water within 15 min to mimic a high fat meal but without oral fat exposure. Blood was collected 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 min after capsule ingestion with different forms (full fat, nonfat, none) and durations of oral fat exposures (10 s, 5 min, 20 min, and/or 2 h). A triglyceride response (increase of triglyceride >10 mg/dl within 30 min) was observed in 88.2%, 70.5%, and 50% of participants with full-fat, nonfat, and no oral exposure, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 75% with full-fat exposure but only 45.4% with nonfat exposure. Full-fat and nonfat exposures led to comparable significant elevations of triglyceride over no oral stimulation with 10-s exposures, but full fat led to a greater rise than nonfat with 20 min of exposure. These data indicate that nutritionally relevant oral fat exposures reliably elevate serum triglyceride concentrations in most people. PMID:19074638

  3. Oral Fat Exposure Pattern and Lipid Loading Effects on the Serum Triacylglycerol Concentration of Humans.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D

    2009-12-01

    Orosensory exposure to dietary fat elicits an early, transient spike (first phase; minutes 0-60) and augmented, more sustained postprandial (second phase; minutes 120-360) elevation of serum triacylglycerol (TAG) in humans. To assess the physiological significance of these effects, TAG concentrations were monitored following manipulation of the oral exposure pattern and accompanying lipid load. Fifteen healthy adults participated in a randomized, 6-arm, crossover design study. Conditions consisted of ingestion of 30-g loads of safflower oil, provided as capsules to bypass oral stimulation, followed by 15 min of oral stimulation (mastication and expectoration) with full-fat or nonfat cream cheese (conditions 1 and 2); the same oral load ingested intermittently with oral stimulation by both food forms (conditions 3 and 4); and 10-g lipid loads ingested with intermittent oral stimulation by both food forms (conditions 5 and 6). Blood was collected via an indwelling catheter and TAG was measured at minutes -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 240, and 360 relative to the onset of sensory stimulation. Testing was conducted weekly. Sequential (lipid loading followed by oral stimulation) and intermittent (intermixed lipid loading and oral stimulation) conditions led to comparable TAG responses. Significant first- and second-phase TAG concentration increases were observed with the 30-g loads, but not the 10-g loads. TAG responses to the full-fat and nonfat stimuli were similar. These data support the veracity of the earlier literature based on sequential oral exposure regimens and indicate that TAG responses reflect an interaction between oral fat signaling and gut lipid content. The augmentation of TAG associated specifically with dietary fat exposure, as compared to a nonfat food matched on other sensory properties, may only occur with higher fat loads. PMID:20352072

  4. [Lipid composition in erythrocytic membranes of rats with various stress resistance during repeated immobilization].

    PubMed

    Tsygvintsev, A A; Bryndina, I G

    2011-01-01

    The dependence between variation of erythrocyte phospholipid composition and stress resistance was studied in chronic experiment on nonline male albino rats, previously differed by their behavior in the 'open field' test. A significant exhausting of membrane pool by the basic classes of phospholipids was registered under influence of 2 hours daily immobilization during 5, 10, 20, 30 days, however, their metabolism for resistant and predisposed to stress animals flows variously. PMID:21688664

  5. [Characteristics of the rat nystagmic reaction after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Shipov, A A; Tabakova, L A

    1982-01-01

    The vestibular nystagmus of rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-1129 was examined with reference to the latent period, number of beats, duration and the average velocity. The nystagmus was elicited by increasing angular acceleration of 10, 20, 30 degrees/sec2. As compared to the controls, the flown animals showed a significant inhibition of the nystagmic reaction (P less than less than 0.001). The inhibition can be attributed to the desynchronosis which developed inflight. PMID:7176506

  6. OZONE CONCENTRATION-PULMONARY RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS FOR 6.6 HOUR EXPOSURES WITH 5 HOURS OF MODERATE EXERCISE TO 0.08, 0.10 AND 0.12 PPM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The magnitudes of pulmonary responses we previously observed (1) following 6.6-h exposures to 0.12 ppm ozone (O3) suggested that responses would also occur with similar exposures at lower O3 concentrations. he objective of this study was to determine the extent of pulmonary funct...

  7. FINAL REPORT REGULATORY OFF GAS EMISSIONS TESTING ON THE DM1200 MELTER SYSTEM USING HLW AND LAW SIMULANTS VSL-05R5830-1 REV 0 10/31/05

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The operational requirements for the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) melter systems, together with the feed constituents, impose a number of challenges to the off-gas treatment system. The system must be robust from the standpoints of operational reliability and minimization of maintenance. The system must effectively control and remove a wide range of solid particulate matter, acid mists and gases, and organic constituents (including those arising from products of incomplete combustion of sugar and organics in the feed) to concentration levels below those imposed by regulatory requirements. The baseline design for the RPP-WTP LAW primary off-gas system includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS), a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed (AC-S), a thermal catalytic oxidizer (TCO), a single-stage selective catalytic reduction NOx treatment system (SCR), and a packed-bed caustic scrubber (PBS). The baseline design for the RPP-WTP HLW primary off-gas system includes an SBS, a WESP, a high efficiency mist eliminator (HEME), and a HEPA filter. The HLW secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed, a silver mordenite bed, a TCO, and a single-stage SCR. The one-third scale HLW DM1200 Pilot Melter installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was equipped with a prototypical off-gas train to meet the needs for testing and confirmation of the performance of the baseline off-gas system design. Various modifications have been made to the DM1200 system as the details of the WTP design have evolved, including the installation of a silver mordenite column and an AC-S column for testing on a slipstream of the off-gas flow; the installation of a full-flow AC-S bed for the present tests was completed prior to initiation of testing. The DM1200 system was reconfigured to enable testing of the baseline HLW or LAW off-gas trains to perform off-gas emissions testing with both LAW and HLW simulants in the present work. During 2002 and 2003, many of these off-gas components were tested individually and in an integrated manner with the DM1200 Pilot Melter. Data from these tests are being used to support engineering design confirmation and to provide data to support air permitting activities. In fiscal year 2004, the WTP Project was directed by the Office of River Protection (ORP) to comply with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements for organics. This requires that the combined melter and off-gas system have destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of >99.99% for principal organic dangerous constituents (PODCs). In order to provide confidence that the melter and off-gas system are able to achieve the required DRE, testing has been directed with both LAW and HLW feeds. The tests included both 'normal' and 'challenge' WTP melter conditions in order to obtain data for the potential range of operating conditions for the WTP melters and off-gas components. The WTP Project, Washington State Department of Ecology, and ORP have agreed that naphthalene will be used for testing to represent semi-volatile organics and allyl alcohol will be used to represent volatile organics. Testing was also performed to determine emissions of halides, metals, products of incomplete combustion (PICs), dioxins, furans, coplanar PCBs, total hydrocarbons, and COX and NOX, as well as the particle size distribution (PSD) of particulate matter discharged at the end of the off-gas train. A description of the melter test requirements and analytical methods used is provided in the Test Plan for this work. Test Exceptions were subsequently issued which changed the TCO catalyst, added total organic emissions (TOE) to exhaust sampling schedule, and allowing modification of the test conditions in response to attainable plenum temperatures as well as temperature increases in the sulfur impr

  8. [Evaluation of a triatoma infestans eradication program in rural dwellings from the IV region, Chile, by means of serology for Chagas disease in 0-10 years old children].

    PubMed

    Lorca, M; Schenone, H; del C Contreras, M; García, A; Bahamonde, M I; Correa, V; Valdés, J; Rojas, A; Jofré, A

    1995-01-01

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the effectiveness of the measures employed in the control of Triatoma infestans, the vector of Trypanosoma cruzi infection (Chagas' disease), in the IV region of Chile through a serological follow up program. For this reason, a serological survey has been carried out in 2,783 children, from 0 to 10 years, who live in rural high endemic areas of the region. The sera were tested using an indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) and ELISA techniques with results agreeing in 99.9% of the samples. In children with positive serology xenodiagnosis was performed and blood samples from the corresponding mothers were submitted to serology for Chagas' disease. These additional tests should allow to distinguish between congenital infection and vectorial transmission. It was observed that vectorial transmission of T. cruzi was interrupted in some localities where entomological control has been applied for 10 years, or lowered in those which have been submitted to desinsectations in the last 5 years. On the other hand, a relatively high prevalence of the infection has been detected in some localities. These results suggest an apparent increase of vectorial transmission, indicating the need of readjusting the dwellings insecticide sprayings activities to improve the measures against the vector. PMID:8762674

  9. An Intercomparison of Water Vapor Measurements in the TTL and Lower Tropical Stratosphere during CRAVE and TC4: The Importance and Implications of Laboratory Calibrations With water Vapor Mixing Ratios From 0-10 ppmv.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Hanisco, T. F.; Sayres, D. S.; St. Clair, J. M.; O'Brien, A.; Anderson, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the effort to validate instruments on the Aura satellite, the Costa Rica Aura Validation Experiment (CRAVE) was flown in January and February of 2006. Systematic differences in measured water vapor in the tropopause region and lower stratosphere between in situ instruments on the WB57, the NOAA Colorado frostpoint hygrometer (CFH) and satellite borne instruments such as the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) are well-documented. Results from CRAVE, presented during a water vapor workshop organized as part of the CRAVE science meeting, provided further confirmation of these differences. The availability for the first time of multiple robust intercomparisons between these instruments led to the conclusion that at low water mixing ratios (less than 10 ppmv), the differences appear to be well-represented by an offset of about 2 ppmv with in situ instruments on the WB57 measuring higher than MLS and CFH. This enduring discrepancy precludes a satisfactory validation of satellite retrievals of stratospheric water vapor profiles. In this talk we will summarize the recent low water calibration runs in our laboratory that provide direct evidence that the Harvard Lyman alpha instrument measures accurately at low water. We will then compare data taken during the recent TC4 campaign in August 2007 with that from CRAVE and previous campaigns. The implications of the results on our understanding of the mechanisms that control the stratospheric water vapor budget will be discussed.

  10. Study of room temperature Raman scattering and XPS, high temperature electrical and low temperature magnetic properties of Zn1-yLiyO (0.00 ≤ y ≤ 0.10) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah Awan, Saif; Hasanain, S. K.; Mehmood, Zahid; Anjum, D. H.; Shah, Saqlain A.; Aftab, M.; Abbas, Turab Ali

    2015-11-01

    Multiferroics are potentially future materials in spintronics for memory and data storage applications. In this paper, a series of Li-doped nanoparticles were studied to investigate the effects of Li on the physical properties of the ZnO system. Analysis of structural micrographs and Raman spectra confirmed the wurtzite structure of doped samples. The vibrational modes of Zinc and oxygen atoms were labeled as E2L and E2H with an additional mode at 134 cm-1 in the doped samples. We observed the presence of interstitial and substitutional Li defects from the deconvolution of Li 1s core level spectra using high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The approximated measured values (e.g., for y = 0.04 and 0.08 samples) for interstitial Li defects were 27% and 39%, and for substitutional Li defects were 73% and 61% respectively. For the y = 0.06 composition, dc resistivity was the highest, while the transition temperature (measured from dielectric loss) was the lowest. We observed a non-monotonic trend of saturation magnetization (obtained at 50 K) against the Li concentration. The compositions having the highest magnetic moment were those having higher interstitial Li defects and lower dc resistivity. Higher hole carrier concentrations and dielectric transition temperatures were correlated with the higher magnetization. Interstitial Li defects played a key role in stabilizing more cationic Zn vacancies. Hole carriers were the major cause of long-range ferromagnetic order in these nanoparticles.

  11. Electrochemical performance of LiFe(1-x)MnxPO4 (x = 0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.2) synthesized by solid state process as cathode material for Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triwibowo, J.; Priyono, S.; Purawiardi, R. I.; Ratri, C. R.; Suwandi, E.

    2016-02-01

    Mn-doped LiFePO4 was synthesized through solid state process. Starting materials as LiOH.2H2O, Fe2O3, MnO2, H3PO4 and citric acid were technical grade materials. Synthesis process was conducted in two step heating process. The first heating process was purposed to remove organic materials at temperature of 320 °C for 10 hours in inert atmosphere. Subsequently, the second heating process was conducted at 800 °C for 8 hours also in inert atmosphere. Obtained phase was further observed by means of XRD. Morphology of the obtained powder was analyzed by SEM. The electrochemical performance was observed by cyclic voltammetry with the potential range 2 - 4.2 V under the scan rate mV/s. The rate capability of the obtained material was determined by charge-discharge test under various C-rates (0.5-10C) for potential range of 2 - 4.2 V.

  12. Electron-impact excitation of UF6 at an electron energy of 20 eV in the energy-loss range of 0-10 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Srivastava, S. K.; Trajmar, S.; Williams, W.; Cartwright, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    A technique combining electron impact excitation and optical absorption spectroscopy was applied to UF6. The crucial features of the experiment were that: (1) the electron optics was differentially pumped relative to the scattering chamber and (2) the target UF6 beam was condensed on a liquid nitrogen cold trap placed immediately above the scattering center. Energy loss spectra are presented at an incident electron energy of 20 eV and at scattering angles between 20 and 135 degrees. It is shown that no transitions are found below the first-detected feature at 3.0 eV and an optically forbidden excitation is found at 4.2 eV. A fairly strong optical absorption at 4.8 eV is observed to 'fill-in' at a scattering angle of 20 degrees but is practically absent at higher angles.

  13. High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics of a 0.10-Scale Model of the Grumman XF9F-2 Airplane, TED No. NACA DE301

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, Edward C.; King, Thomas J., Jr.

    1948-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley high-speed 7-by 10-foot tunnel to determine the high-speed longitudinal stability end con&o1 characteristics of a 0.01-scale model of the Grumman XF9F-2 airplane in the Mach number range from 0.40 to 0.85. The results indicated that the lift and drag force breaks occurred at a Mach number of about 0.76. The aerodynamic-center position moved rearward after the force break and control position stability was present for all Mach numbers up to a Mach number of 0.80.

  14. [Effects of the different land use on soil labile organic matter and carbon management index in Junyun Mountain].

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Hao, Qing-Ju; Zhu, Tao

    2013-10-01

    The impacts of different land use on soil organic matter (SOM), soil labile organic matter (SLOM) and their efficiency ratios (ER), and soil carbon management index (CMI) were studied in this study. Subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (abbreviation: forest) , sloping farmland, orchard and abandoned land were selected and soils at the depths of 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50 and 50-60 cm were sampled in the spring of 2011 to determine the contents of soil organic matter and labile organic matter. The results showed that the contents of soil organic matter and soil labile organic matter both decreased with the increase of soil depth under all four land use types; however, forest and orchard enriched SOM and SLOM contents in the 0-10 cm and 0-20 cm soil layers, respectively, while the contents of SOM and SLOM decreased evenly in sloping farmland and abandoned land. In the whole soil layer (0-60 cm) , the order of SOM and SLOM contents was abandoned land > forest > orchard > sloping farmland, indicating that at the conversion from forest into orchard or sloping farmland, SOM was reduced by 21.56% (P >0.05) and 55.90% (P <0.05), respectively, and at the conversion from sloping farmland into abandoned land, the low SLOM, middle SLOM and high SLOM increased by 144.2% (P<0.05) , 153.3% (P <0.05) and 242.7% (P <0.05), respectively. There was no significant difference in low ER, middle ER and high ER among the four land uses as suggested by ANOVA which showed that SRs were not sensible to the change of land use. All three CMis were in the order of abandoned land > forest > orchard > sloping farmland, revealing that forest reclamation resulted in the reduction of soil organic carbon storage and the decline of soil quality, and the abandonment of sloping farmland would increase soil carbon sink and improve soil quality. Three kinds of SLOM were all positively correlated with soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium, while negatively correlated

  15. Changes in soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus due to land-use changes in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppo, J. D.; Lins, S. R. M.; Camargo, P. B.; Assad, E. D.; Pinto, H. S.; Martins, S. C.; Salgado, P. R.; Evangelista, B.; Vasconcellos, E.; Sano, E. E.; Pavão, E.; Luna, R.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and stocks were investigated in agricultural and natural areas in 17 plot-level paired sites and in a regional survey encompassing more than 100 pasture soils In the paired sites, elemental soil concentrations and stocks were determined in native vegetation (forests and savannas), pastures and crop-livestock systems (CPSs). Nutrient stocks were calculated for the soil depth intervals 0-10, 0-30, and 0-60 cm for the paired sites and 0-10, and 0-30 cm for the pasture regional survey by sum stocks obtained in each sampling intervals (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-60 cm). Overall, there were significant differences in soil element concentrations and ratios between different land uses, especially in the surface soil layers. Carbon and nitrogen contents were lower, while phosphorus contents were higher in the pasture and CPS soils than in native vegetation soils. Additionally, soil stoichiometry has changed with changes in land use. The soil C : N ratio was lower in the native vegetation than in the pasture and CPS soils, and the carbon and nitrogen to available phosphorus ratio (PME) decreased from the native vegetation to the pasture to the CPS soils. In the plot-level paired sites, the soil nitrogen stocks were lower in all depth intervals in pasture and in the CPS soils when compared with the native vegetation soils. On the other hand, the soil phosphorus stocks were higher in all depth intervals in agricultural soils when compared with the native vegetation soils. For the regional pasture survey, soil nitrogen and phosphorus stocks were lower in all soil intervals in pasture soils than in native vegetation soils. The nitrogen loss with cultivation observed here is in line with other studies and it seems to be a combination of decreasing organic matter inputs, in cases where crops replaced native forests, with an increase in soil organic matter decomposition that leads to a decrease in the long

  16. The feeding of dried distillers' grains with solubles to lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Greiner, L; Neill, C; Allee, G L; Wang, X; Connor, J; Touchette, K; Usry, J L

    2015-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the feeding of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) in sow lactation diets. In Exp. 1, 168 multiparous sows (PIC, Camborough 22) were fed a 10% DDGS diet throughout gestation. Sows were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 corn-soybean meal lactation diets formulated to contain different levels of DDGS (0, 10, 20, and 30%, respectively). All diets were formulated to be isocaloric (3.46 Mcal ME/kg) and all other nutrients exceeded NRC (1998) nutrient recommendations. Sow ADFI was not different ( > 0.10) as DDGS level increased. Increasing DDGS resulted in a linear ( < 0.03) increase in sow weight gain (7.5, 11.3, 20.3, and 17.2 kg, respectively) and a reduction in wean-to-first-service interval (7.1, 5.2, 5.0, and 4.9 d, respectively). Increasing DDGS did not affect subsequent total born per litter (13.7, 12.8, 13.3, and 12.3, respectively; > 0.10). In Exp. 2 and 3, lactation diets consisted of corn and 20, 30, 40, or 50% DDGS. Diets were formulated at 3.25 Mcal ME/kg, 1.05% standardized ileal digestible lysine, and all other nutrients to exceed NRC (1998) nutrient recommendations. In both experiments, sows (PIC, Camborough) were fed 40% DDGS in gestation and allocated to a randomized complete block based on the parity of the sow at the time of entry into the farrowing house. In Exp. 2, 256 gilts and multiparous sows were fed the randomly assigned diets. As DDGS inclusion increased, sow feed intake (6.2, 6.2, 6.0, and 5.9 kg/d, respectively) and sow weight gain (10.5, 10.3, 8.2, and 6.2 kg, respectively) tended to linearly decrease ( < 0.06). Sow wean to estrus differed between 20 and 30% DDGS inclusion (4.9 vs. 6.9 d; < 0.01). Litter gain was not different (2.55, 2.53, 2.51, and 2.59 kg/d, respectively; > 0.10) as DDGS inclusion increased. In Exp. 3, 98 multiparous sows were randomly allotted to 1 of the 4 experimental diets during the summer months. Sow feed intake, sow weight gain, and litter gain were not different

  17. Operant conditioning of a small-scale muscle response1

    PubMed Central

    Sasmor, Robert M.

    1966-01-01

    Six naive male subjects were reinforced for responses in the 20-30 microvolt range, and two each for those in 10-20 and 30-40 microvolt ranges. Records were taken of 15 min of “settling down,” 15 min of initial operant level responding, 30 min of conditioning, and 45 min of extinction, 30 min with light present and 15 min without. The results were: (1) small-scale muscle potentials from the thenar eminence, in the 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 microvolt ranges, were conditioned, using pointer movement as the reinforcement; (2) the response rate in adjacent ranges of greater and lesser amplitude also increased during such conditioning and decreased during the subsequent extinction; (3) during conditioning the frequency of response distribution shifted toward the reinforced range; (4) subjects were unaware of the reinforced response; (5) observing a noncontingent moving pointer increased the response rate in the 20-30 microvolt range, but did not lead to conditioning. PMID:5903967

  18. The Effects of Drip Irrigation and Fertilizer Rate on Corn Yield and Soil Salinity in the Arkansas River Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted at the Arkansas Valley Research Center (AVRC) in 2005 to test the effects of irrigation type and scheduling and fertilizer rate on corn yield and soil salinity. Four N (0, 60, 120, and 180 lb N/acre) and four manure (0, 10, 20, and 30 t/acre) application rates were ...

  19. Pre-cooked Fiber-enriched Wheat Flour Obtained by Extrusion: Rheological and Functional Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional and rheological properties of different process conditions of extruded wheat flour with 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% fiber levels were studied in the production of cookies and tortillas. Functional and rheological properties were evaluated using Rapid Visco Analyzer and Mixograph equipment. Resul...

  20. CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON FINE ROOT LENGTH, PRODUCTION, AND MORTALITY: A 4-YEAR PONDEROSA PINE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a 4-year study of Pinus ponderosa fine root (<2 mm) responses to atmospheric CO2 and N-fertilization. Seedlings were grown in open-top chambers at 3 CO2 levels (ambient, ambient+175 mol/mol, ambient+350 mol/mol) and 3 N-fertilization levels (0, 10, 20 g?m-2?yr-1). ...

  1. Soil Microbial Communities associated to Plant Rhizospheres in an Organic Farming System in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microbial communities under different organic crop rhizospheres (0-10 and 10-20 cm) were characterized using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and pyrosequencing techniques. The soil was a silt loam (12.8% clay, 71.8% silt and15.4% sand). Soils at this site are characterized as having pH of ~6.53,...

  2. 75 FR 6560 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Expansion of Special Information Sharing Procedures To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Terrorist Activity, 67 FR 60,579 (Sept. 26, 2002). \\2\\ 31 CFR 103.100. Since its inception, the 314(a...\\ See 74 FR 58926 (Nov. 16, 2009). III. Comments on the Notice--Overview and General Issues The comment... 240.0-10. \\20\\ See 73 FR 13692, 13704 (Mar. 13, 2008) (The Securities and Exchange Commission...

  3. Effects of Sweep Angle on the Boundary-Layer Stability Characteristics of an Untapered Wing at Low Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boltz, Frederick W.; Kenyon, George C.; Allen, Clyde Q.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Ames 12-Foot Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to determine the effects of sweep on the boundary-layer stability characteristics of an untapered variable-sweep wing having an NACA 64(2)A015 section normal to the leading edge. Pressure distribution and transition were measured on the wing at low speeds at sweep angles of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 deg. and at angles of attack from -3 to 3 deg. The investigation also included flow-visualization studies on the surface at sweep angles from 0 to 50 deg. and total pressure surveys in the boundary layer at a sweep angle of 30 deg. for angles of attack from -12 to 0 deg. It was found that sweep caused premature transition on the wing under certain conditions. This effect resulted from the formation of vortices in the boundary layer when a critical combination of sweep angle, pressure gradient, and stream Reynolds number was attained. A useful parameter in indicating the combined effect of these flow variables on vortex formation and on beginning transition is the crossflow Reynolds number. The critical values of crossflow Reynolds number for vortex formation found in this investigation range from about 135 to 190 and are in good agreement with those reported in previous investigations. The values of crossflow Reynolds number for beginning transitions were found to be between 190 and 260. For each condition (i.e., development of vortices and initiation of transition at a given location) the lower values in the specified ranges were obtained with a light coating of flow-visualization material on the surface. A method is presented for the rapid computation of crossflow Reynolds number on any swept surface for which the pressure distribution is known. From calculations based on this method, it was found that the maximum values of crossflow Reynolds number are attained under conditions of a strong pressure gradient and at a sweep angle of about 50 deg. Due to the primary dependence on pressure

  4. The effect of sheet processing on the microstructure, tensile, and creep behavior of INCONEL alloy 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehlert, C. J.; Dickmann, D. S.; Eisinger, Ny. N. C.

    2006-01-01

    The grain size, grain boundary character distribution (GBCD), creep, and tensile behavior of INCONEL alloy 718 (IN 718) were characterized to identify processing-microstructure-property relationships. The alloy was sequentially cold rolled (CR) to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80 pct followed by annealing at temperatures between 954 °C and 1050 °C and the traditional aging schedule used for this alloy. In addition, this alloy can be superplastically formed (IN 718SPF) to a significantly finer grain size and the corresponding microstructure and mechanical behavior were evaluated. The creep behavior was evaluated in the applied stress (σ a ) range of 300 to 758 MPa and the temperature range of 638 °C to 670 °C. Constant-load tensile creep experiments were used to measure the values of the steady-state creep rate and the consecutive load reduction method was used to determine the values of backstress (σ0). The values for the effective stress exponent and activation energy suggested that the transition between the rate-controlling creep mechanisms was dependent on effective stresses (σ e =σ a σ0) and the transition occurred at σ e ≅ 135 MPa. The 10 to 40 pct CR samples exhibited the greatest 650 °C strength, while IN 718SPF exhibited the greatest room-temperature (RT) tensile strength (>1550 MPa) and ductility (ɛ f >16 pct). After the 954 °C annealing treatment, the 20 pct CR and 30 pct CR microstructures exhibited the most attractive combination of elevated-temperature tensile and creep strength, while the most severely cold-rolled materials exhibited the poorest elevated-temperature properties. After the 1050 °C annealing treatment, the IN 718SPF material exhibited the greatest backstress and best creep resistance. Electron backscattered diffraction was performed to identify the GBCD as a function of CR and annealing. The data indicated that annealing above 1010 °C increased the grain size and resulted in a greater fraction of twin boundaries, which in

  5. Computer modelling of anthelmintic resistance and worm control outcomes for refugia-based nematode control strategies in Merino ewes in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, M P; Jacobson, C; Dobson, R; Besier, R B

    2016-04-15

    This study utilised computer simulation modelling (Risk Management Model for Nematodes) to investigate the impact of different parasite refugia scenarios on the development of anthelmintic resistance and worm control effectiveness. The simulations were conducted for adult ewe flocks in a Mediterranean climatic region over a 20 year time period. Factors explored in the simulation exercise were environment (different weather conditions), drug efficacy, the percentage of the flock left untreated, the timing of anthelmintic treatments, the initial worm egg count, and the number of drenches per annum. The model was run with variable proportions of the flock untreated (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%), with ewes selected at random so that reductions in the mean worm burden or egg count were proportional to the treated section of the flock. Treatments to ewes were given either in summer (December; low refugia potential, hence highly selective) or autumn (March; less selective due to a greater refugia potential), and the use of different anthelmintics was simulated to indicate the difference between active ingredients of different efficacy. Each model scenario was run for two environments, specifically a lower rainfall area (more selective) and a higher rainfall area (less selective) within a Mediterranean climatic zone, characterised by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Univariate general linear models with least square difference post-hoc tests were used to examine differences between means of factors. The results confirmed that leaving a proportion of sheep in a flock untreated was effective in delaying the development of anthelmintic resistance, with as low as 10% of a flock untreated sufficient to significantly delay resistance, although this strategy was associated with a small reduction in worm control. Administering anthelmintics in autumn rather than summer was also effective in delaying the development of anthelmintic resistance in the lower rainfall

  6. Impact of chronic lead exposure on selected biological markers.

    PubMed

    Jangid, Ambica P; John, P J; Yadav, D; Mishra, Sandhya; Sharma, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Lead poisoning remains a major problem in India due to the lack of awareness of its ill effects among the clinical community. Blood lead, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations are widely used as biomarkers for lead toxicity The present study was designed to determine the impact of chronic lead exposure on selected biological markers. A total of 250 subjects, of both sexes, ranging in age from 20 to 70 years, were recruited. On the basis of BLLs, the subjects were categorized into four groups: Group A (BLL: 0-10 μg/dl), Group B (BLL: 10-20 μg/dl). Group C (BLL: 20-30 μg/dl) and Group D (BLL: 30-40 μg/dl) having BLLs of 3.60 ± 2.71 μg/dl, 15.21 ± 2.65 μg/dl, 26.82 ± 2.53 μg/dl and 36.38 ± 2.83 μg/dl, respectively. Significant changes in biological markers due to elevated BLLs were noted. The relation of BLL and biological markers to demographic characteristics such as sex, habits, diet and substances abuse (smoking effect) were also studied in the present investigation. Males, urban population, non-vegetarians, and smokers had higher blood lead levels. δ-ALAD activity was found to be significantly lower with increased BLL (P < 0.001), while the ZPP level was significantly higher with increased BLL (P < 0.001). Further, BLL showed a negative correlation with δ-ALAD (r = -0.425, P < 0.001, N = 250) and a positive correlations with ZPP (r = 0.669, P < 0.001, N = 250). Chronic lead exposure affects the prooxidant-antioxidant equilibrium leading to cellular oxidative stress. PMID:23277717

  7. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: metabolic response to glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Broadway, P R; Hughes, H D; Roberts, S L; Richeson, J T; Schmidt, T B; Vann, R C

    2016-07-01

    Cattle temperament, defined as the reactivity of cattle to humans or novel environments, can greatly influence several physiological systems in the body, including immunity, stress, and most recently discovered, metabolism. Greater circulating concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) found in temperamental cattle suggest that temperamental cattle are metabolically different than calm cattle. Further, elevated NEFA concentrations have been reported to influence insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether cattle temperament would influence the metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin sensitivity test (IST). Angus-cross steers (16 calm and 15 temperamental; 216 ± 6 kg BW) were selected based on temperament score measured at weaning. On day 1, steers were moved into indoor stanchions to allow measurement of individual ad libitum feed intake. On day 6, steers were fitted with indwelling rectal temperature probes and jugular catheters. At 9 AM on day 7, steers received the GTT (0.5-mL/kg BW of a 50% dextrose solution), and at 2 PM on day 7, steers received the IST (2.5 IU bovine insulin/kg BW). Blood samples were collected and serum isolated at -60, -45, -30, -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min relative to each challenge. Serum was stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol, glucose, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. All variables changed over time (P < 0.01). For the duration of the study, temperamental steers maintained greater (P < 0.01) serum NEFA and less (P ≤ 0.01) serum blood urea nitrogen and insulin sensitivity (calculated using Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index) compared with calm steers. During the GTT, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum glucose, yet decreased (P = 0.03) serum insulin and (P < 0.01) serum insulin: serum glucose compared to calm cattle. During the IST, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum

  8. Strong and macroporous calcium phosphate cement: Effects of porosity and fiber reinforcement on mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Xu, H H; Quinn, J B; Takagi, S; Chow, L C; Eichmiller, F C

    2001-12-01

    Because of its excellent osteoconductivity and bone-replacement capability, self-setting calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been used in a number of clinical procedures. For more rapid resorption and concomitant osseointegration, methods were desired to build macropores into CPC; however, this decreased its mechanical properties. The aims of this study, therefore, were to use fibers to strengthen macroporous CPC and to investigate the effects of the pore volume fraction on its mechanical properties. Water-soluble mannitol crystals were incorporated into CPC paste; the set CPC was then immersed in water to dissolve mannitol, producing macropores. Mannitol/(mannitol + CPC powder) mass fractions of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% were used. An aramid fiber volume fraction of 6% was incorporated into the CPC-mannitol specimens, which were set in 3 mm x 4 mm x 25 mm molds and then fractured in three-point flexure to measure the strength, work of fracture, and modulus. The dissolution of mannitol created well-formed macropores, with CPC at 40% mannitol having a total porosity of a 70.8% volume fraction. Increasing the mannitol content significantly decreased the properties of CPC without fibers (analysis of variance; p < 0.001). The strength (mean +/- standard deviation; n = 6) of CPC at 0% mannitol was 15.0 +/- 1.8 MPa; at 40% mannitol, it decreased to 1.4 +/- 0.4 MPa. Fiber reinforcement improved the properties, with the strength increasing threefold at 0% mannitol, sevenfold at 30% mannitol, and nearly fourfold at 40% mannitol. The work of fracture increased by 2 orders of magnitude, but the modulus was not changed as a result of fiber reinforcement. A scanning electron microscopy examination of specimens indicated crack deflection and bridging by fibers, matrix multiple cracking, and frictional pullout of fibers as the reinforcement mechanisms. Macroporous CPCs were substantially strengthened and toughened via fiber reinforcement. This may help extend the use of CPCs with

  9. Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by afforestation: the Darab Kola forest (north of Iran) case study.

    PubMed

    Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Zaccone, Claudio; Jalilvand, Hamid; Hojjati, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of formerly arable lands and/or degraded areas has been acknowledged as a land-use change contributing to the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere. In the present work, we study the soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCS) in 21 year old stands of maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.), and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in the Darab Kola region, north of Iran. Soil samples were collected at four different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm), and characterized with respect to bulk density, water content, electrical conductivity, pH, texture, lime content, total organic C, total N, and earthworm density and biomass. Data showed that afforested stands significantly affected soil characteristics, also raising SOCS phenomena, with values of 163.3, 120.6, and 102.1 Mg C ha(-1) for red pine, oak and maple stands, respectively, vs. 83.0 Mg C ha(-1) for the control region. Even if the dynamics of organic matter (OM) in soil is very complex and affected by several pedo-climatic factors, a stepwise regression method indicates that SOCS values in the studied area could be predicted using the following parameters, i.e., sand, clay, lime, and total N contents, and C/N ratio. In particular, although the chemical and physical stabilization capacity of organic C by soil is believed to be mainly governed by clay content, regression analysis showed a positive correlation between SOCS and sand (R = 0.86(**)), whereas a negative correlation with clay (R = -0.77(**)) was observed, thus suggesting that most of this organic C occurs as particulate OM instead of mineral-associated OM. Although the proposed models do not take into account possible changes due to natural and anthropogenic processes, they represent a simple way that could be used to evaluate and/or monitor the potential of each forest plantation in immobilizing organic C in soil (thus

  10. Accumulation of Nitrogen in the Pore Water of Anoxic Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. Z.; Fields, C. L.

    2005-05-01

    The impact of soil runoff nitrogen on the Silver Lake of Iowa was assessed in this study. Currently, the lake cannot support its designated uses as a recreational water body. Extensive algal blooms characterize the lake in late summer, lowering the dissolved oxygen content in water (< 2.0 mg/L). The goal of this study was to map the buildup of nitrogen in the pore water of lake sediments and come up with recommendations for restoration strategies. Sediment cores were taken from 20 sites along 5 transects in the lake. In the top 5 cm of the sediments, the pore water nitrogen ranges between 1.8 and 733.1 micro-gm of nitrate per gm of sediments. The average concentration is 94 micro-g/gm. Vertically, nitrate concentrations were measured at 90 micro-g/gm at 0-10 cm, 95 micro-g/gm at 10-20 cm, and 19 micro-g/gm at 20-30 cm. The sharp decline in nitrate below the 20 cm depth in the sediment is attributed to biochemical reduction of nitrate through denitrification in relatively older, much anoxic sediments. The above results indicate that sediments in Silver Lake are heavily contaminated with N trapped in the pore water. The primary sources of N are the surrounding croplands and an active hog lot on the southeastern lakeshore. The average rate of sedimentation in the lake has been 1 cm/year in the last 32 years. Upon sedimentation, the pore water N is slowly released to the lake water, thereby dramatically limiting the lake's capability to process incoming nutrients. The mass distribution of N in the lake was estimated as 3.66 x 103 kg (65%) in bottom sediments, 172 kg (3%) in suspended particulates, and 1.83 x 103 kg (32%) in the dissolved phase. Some of the recommendations made through this study include dredging the top 25 cm of lake sediments, applying buffer strips along the lake's northern and eastern shorelines, and reducing the application of N and P-based fertilizers.

  11. The cysteine, total sulfur amino acid, tyrosine, phenylalanine + tyrosine, and non-essential amino acid maintenance requirements of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Mei, S J; Sakomura, N K; Coon, C N

    2016-06-01

    Two hundred and fifty Cobb-Vantress broiler breeders were used to determine the maintenance requirement and efficiency of utilization of dietary Cys, Tyr, and non-essential amino acids (AA) in a 21-day experiment. The breeders were fed crystalline amino acid diets containing graded levels of Cys or Tyr representing 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% of their suggested requirement level with all other amino acids maintained at 40% of their suggested requirement level. To determine the non-essential AA maintenance requirement, graded levels of non-essential AA were provided by glutamic acid to represent 12, 19, 26, 33, and 40% of the ideal level of glutamic acid with all other amino acids maintained at their maintenance requirement level. The total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) and Phe + Tyr requirements were calculated by combining Cys and Tyr results, respectively, with previously determined Met and Phe, respectively. The slope of Cys, Tyr, and non-essential AA accretion regression line indicated that 29% Cys, 24% TSAA, 21% Tyr, 20% Phe + Tyr, and 9% non-essential AA of crystalline amino acids were retained. The Cys requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 30.48 mg/d or 17.006 mg/ kgBW(0.75)/d or 75.426 mg/kgCP/d. The TSAA requirement for zero accretion was calculated to be 132.25 mg/b/d, 71.48 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d, and 307.55 mg/kgCP/d. The Tyr requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 65.907 mg/d or 37.233 mg/ kgBW(0.75)/d or 175.566 mg/kgCP/d. The Phe + Tyr requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 352.18 mg/b/d, 190.37 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d, and 749.33 mg/kgCP/d. The non-essential AA requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 3715.194 mg/d or 2003.155 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d or 9452.954 mg/kgCP/d. PMID:26994191

  12. Use of Solid Waste (Foundry Slag) Mortar and Bamboo Reinforcement in Seismic Analysis for Single Storey Masonry Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Husain, A.; Ghani, F.; Alam, M. N.

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of large amount of solid waste (foundry slag) into alternate source of building material will contribute not only as a solution to growing waste problem, but also it will conserve the natural resources of other building material and thereby reduce the cost of construction. The present work makes an effort to safe and economic use of recycle mortar (1:6) as a supplementary material. Conventional and recycled twelve prisms were casted with varying percentage of solid waste (foundry slag) added (0, 10, 20, 30 %) replacing cement by weight and tested under compression testing machine. As the replacement is increasing, the strength is decreasing. 10 % replacement curve is very closed to 0 % whereas 20 % is farther and 30 % is farthest. 20 % replacement was chosen for dynamic testing as its strength is within permissible limit as per IS code. A 1:4 scale single storey brick model with half size brick was fabricated on shake table in the lab for dynamic testing using pure friction isolation system (coarse sand as friction material µ = 0.34). Pure friction isolation technique can be adopted economically in developing countries where low-rise building prevails due to their low cost. The superstructure was separated from the foundation at plinth level, so as to permit sliding of superstructure during severe earthquake. The observed values of acceleration and displacement responses compare fairly with the analytical values of the analytical model. It also concluded that 20 % replacement of cement by solid waste (foundry slag) could be safely adopted without endangering the safety of the masonry structures under seismic load.To have an idea that how much energy is dissipated through this isolation, the same model with fixed base was tested and results were compared with the isolated free sliding model and it has been observed that more than 60 % energy is dissipated through this pure friction isolation technique. In case of base isolation, no visible cracks

  13. Dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity in treated wastewater irrigated agricultural soils along soil profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jüschke, Elisabeth; Marschner, Bernd; Chen, Yona; Tarchitzky, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Treated wastewater (TWW) is an important source for irrigation water in arid and semiarid regions and already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Reclaimed water still contains organic matter (OM) and various compounds that may effect microbial activity and soil quality (Feigin et al. 1991). Natural soil organic carbon (SOC) may be altered by interactions between these compounds and the soil microorganisms. This study evaluates the effects of TWW irrigation on the quality, dynamics and microbial transformations of natural SOC. Priming effects (PE) and SOC mineralization were determined to estimate the influence of TWW irrigation on SOC along soil profiles of agricultural soils in Israel and the Westbank. The used soil material derived from three different sampling sites allocated in Israel and The Palestinian Authority. Soil samples were taken always from TWW irrigated sites and control fields from 6 different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50, 50-70, 70-100 cm). Soil carbon content and microbiological parameters (microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities) were investigated. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. The fact that PE are triggered continuously due to TWW irrigation may result in a decrease of SOC over long term irrigation. Already now this could be

  14. SU-E-J-184: Volumetric Indices to Aid Definition of Respiratory Gates with Particular Reference to Lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, H; Gomez, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Conventional definition of respiratory gates relies on tumor motion determination in limited planes. We are proposing a new method to define the RPM gates in a consistent manner ensuring that the tumor motion is restricted to 4 mm in 3D for lung SBRT patients. The method relies on studying the ratio of volumes obtained by GTVnn intersection with GTV50+2mm margin and GTVnn where GTVnn is the GTV volume in phase nn (=0,10,30.) while GTV50+2mm is a pseudo structure created by adding an isotropic margin of 2mm to GTV50. If for any phase nn, above ratio equals 1, it ensures that the tumor motion is ≤ ±2 mm in 3D from GTV50. Methods: This method was tested for 50 patients (14-Central, 36-peripheral) to determine the RPM gates which were then compared with the gates used clinically. The minimum cut-off value of the above coefficient for its inclusion of a phase in RPM gate was taken as 0.97 for central and 0.95 for peripheral tumors. Results: 15 (30%) of the patients did not require any change in the RPM gates w.r.t. gates defined using conventional motion assessment methods. In 15(30%) cases, the RPM gates could have been smaller while in remaining 20 patients, gates could have been larger. 5(/14) patient’s central tumors and 10 (/36) peripheral tumors did not need any gate change. 8(/50) patients could have RPM gate change of 30% while 10(/50) could have a gate change of up to 20%. 10, 20 & 30% RPM gate change could have happened for 11, 10 & 9 patients, respectively. Conclusion: Proposed volumetric indices based method allows a consistent, scientific and objective method to decide optimal RPM gates which is free from any inter or intra person variability and satisfies the tumor motion limits as defined by AAPM TG-76 in totality.

  15. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: System Fitness of Grazeable Home-grown Forages, Land Areas and Walking Distances.

    PubMed

    Islam, M R; Garcia, S C; Clark, C E F; Kerrisk, K L

    2015-06-01

    To maintain a predominantly pasture-based system, the large herd milked by automatic milking rotary would be required to walk significant distances. Walking distances of greater than 1-km are associated with an increased incidence of undesirably long milking intervals and reduced milk yield. Complementary forages can be incorporated into pasture-based systems to lift total home grown feed in a given area, thus potentially 'concentrating' feed closer to the dairy. The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the total land area required and associated walking distance for large automatic milking system (AMS) herds when incorporating complementary forage rotations (CFR) into the system. Thirty-six scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as moderate; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as high) and 6 rates of replacement of each of these pastures by grazeable CFR (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) were investigated. Results showed that AMS cows were required to walk greater than 1-km when the farm area was greater than 86 ha. Insufficient pasture could be produced within a 1 km distance (i.e. 86 ha land) with home-grown feed (HGF) providing 43%, 29%, and 22% of the metabolisable energy (ME) required by 400, 600, and 800 cows, respectively from pastures. Introduction of pasture (moderate): CFR in AMS at a ratio of 80:20 can feed a 400 cow AMS herd, and can supply 42% and 31% of the ME requirements for 600 and 800 cows, respectively with pasture (moderate): CFR at 50:50 levels. In contrast to moderate pasture, 400 cows can be managed on high pasture utilisation (provided 57% of the total ME requirements). However, similar to the scenarios conducted with moderate pasture, there was insufficient feed produced within 1-km distance of the dairy for 600 or 800 cows. An 800 cow herd required 140 and 130 ha on moderate and high pasture-based AMS

  16. Effect of Bi2O3 on the structural and spectroscopic properties of Sm3+ ions doped sodiumfluoroborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariyappan, M.; Arunkumar, S.; Marimuthu, K.

    2016-02-01

    Trivalent samarium ions doped bismuth sodiumfluoroborate glasses have been prepared with the chemical composition 40B2O3+(40-x)Na2CO3+xBi2O3+19CaF2+1Sm2O3 (where x = 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 in wt%) following the conventional melt quenching technique. The structural and spectroscopic characterizations have been carried out using XRD, FTIR and UV-Vis-NIR, luminescence and decay measurements. Judd-Ofelt (JO) theory has been used to study the effect of local field environment around the Sm3+ ion site to calculate the radiative properties. Bonding parameters and JO intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) were determined from the absorption spectra to explore the nature of bonding and symmetry around the Sm3+ ion site. The spectroscopic quality factor (χ = Ω4/Ω6) and asymmetry ratio (R/O) have been determined to elucidate the potential strength of the stimulated emission and asymmetry around the Sm3+ ion site in the prepared glasses. Using JO theory, various radiative properties like transition probability (A), effective bandwidth (Δλeff), stimulated emission cross-section (σpE) and branching ratio (βR) for the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 emission levels of the prepared glasses were determined and compared with the reported literature. The decay curves corresponding to the 4G5/2 level of the Sm3+ ions were measured and are found to be single exponential for lower Bi2O3 content and turn to become non-exponential for higher Bi2O3 content and is due to the donor to acceptor energy transfer through cross-relaxation process. Among the prepared glasses, 40BiNFBS glass exhibit higher A, βR, σpE and η values and is suggested for useful gain medium and reddish orange laser applications.

  17. [Influences of biochar and nitrogen fertilizer on soil nematode assemblage of upland red soil].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-yan; Wang, Ming-wei; Chen, Xiao-vun; Liu, Man-qiang; Chen, Xiao-min; Cheng, Yan-hong; Huang, Qian-ru; Hu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The use of biochar as soil remediation amendment has received more and more concerns, but little attention has been paid to its effect on soil fauna. Based on the field experiment in an upland red soil, we studied the influences of different application rates of biochar (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 t · hm⁻²) and nitrogen fertilizer (60, 90, 120 kg N · hm⁻²) on soil basic properties and nematode assemblages during drought and wet periods. Our results showed that the biochar amendment significantly affect soil moisture and pH regardless of drought or wet period. With the increasing of biochar application, soil pH significantly increased, while soil moisture increased first and then decreased. Soil microbial properties (microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, microbial biomass C/N, basal respiration) were also significantly affected by the application of biochar and N fertilizer. Low doses of biochar could stimulate the microbial activity, while high doses depressed microbial activity. For example, averaged across different N application rates, biochar amendment at less than 30 t · hm⁻² could increase microbial activity in the drought and wet periods. Besides, the effects of biochar also depended on wet or drought period. When the biochar application rate higher than 30 t · hm⁻², the microbial biomass C was significantly higher in the drought period than the control, but no differences were observed in the wet period. On the contrary, microbial biomass N showed a reverse pattern. Dissolved organic matter and mineral N were affected by biochar and N fertilizer significantly in the drought period, however, in the wet period they were only affected by N fertilizer rather than biochar. There was significant interaction between biochar and N fertilizer on soil nematode abundance and nematode trophic composition independent of sampling period. Combined high doses of both biochar and N fertilization promoted soil nematode abundance. Moreover, the biochar amendment

  18. Carbon storage potential in size-density fractions from semi-natural grassland ecosystems with different productivities over varying soil depths.

    PubMed

    Breulmann, Marc; Boettger, Tatjana; Buscot, François; Gruendling, Ralf; Schulz, Elke

    2016-03-01

    Researchers have increasingly recognised a profound need for more information on SOC stocks in the soil and the factors governing their stability and dynamics. Many questions still remain unanswered about the interplay between changes in plant communities and the extent to which changes in aboveground productivity affect the carbon dynamics in soils through changes in its quantity and quality. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to examine the SOC accumulation potential of semi-natural grasslands of different productivities and determine the distribution of SOM fractions over varying soil depth intervals (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 30-50 50-80 and 80+cm). SOM fractionation was considered as a relative measure of stability to separate SOM associated with clay minerals from SOM of specific light densities less than 2 g cm(-3) (size-density fractionation). Two clay-associated fractions (CF1, <1 μm; and CF2, 1-2 μm) and two light fractions (LF1, <1.8 g cm(-3); and LF2, 1.8-2.0 g cm(-3)) were separated. The stability of these fractions was characterised by their carbon hot water extractability (CHWE) and stable carbon isotope composition. In the semi-natural grasslands studied, most OC was stored in the top 30 cm, where turnover is rapid. Effects of low productivity grasslands became only significantly apparent when fractional OC contributions of total SOM was considered (CF1 and LF1). In deeper soil depths OC was largely attributed to the CF1 fraction of low productivity grasslands. We suggest that the majority of OM in deeper soil depth intervals is microbially-derived, as evidenced by decreasing C/N ratios and decreasing δ(13)C values. The hot water extraction and natural δ(13)C abundance, employed here allowed the characterisation of SOM stabilisation properties, however how climatic changes affect the fate of OM within different soil depth intervals is still unknown. PMID:26745290

  19. Long term impact of different tillage practices on soil C sequestration potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valboa, Giuseppe; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Papini, Rossella; Brandi, Giorgio; Elio Agnelli, Alessandro; Simoncini, Stefania; Vignozzi, Nadia; Pellegrini, Sergio

    2013-04-01

    Long-term experiments provide important information on the impact of agricultural management practices on soil quality. In 1994, a trial was started to investigate the effects of four different tillage systems on organic carbon and physical properties of a Calcari Fluvic Cambisol loam soil under continuous maize. The tillage practices compared were: conventional tillage by mould-board ploughing to 40 cm depth (DP); ripper sub-soiling to 40-45 cm (RS); shallow tillage by mould-board ploughing to 20 cm depth (SP); minimum tillage by disk harrowing to 10-15 cm (DH). Soil carbon pool, bulk density, macroporosity and aggregate stability were studied at different depth increments (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm) and by two repeated samplings (in 1999 and 2011), in order to evaluate their temporal evolution under the different tillage systems. For a better understanding of mechanisms leading to C sequestration, a qualitative characterization of soil organic matter (OM) was performed by acid hydrolysis (HCl 6N), in order to separate the labile and the recalcitrant fractions. After 18 years of treatments we hypothesized changes in OM content and quality, as well as in its vertical distribution, due to tillage practices. At the end of the trial, soil total organic carbon (TOC) stock increased in the surface layers under DH (to 10 cm depth), RS (to 20 cm depth) and SP (to 10 cm depth), while it was unchanged under DP. When considering the whole 0-40 cm layer, all tillage treatments resulted in no significant variation in TOC stock. OM quality and its evolution over time showed well defined differences among treatments: the OM recalcitrant fraction increased under RS (up to 30 cm depth), decreased under DP (up to 40 cm depth) and showed no significant changes under DH and SP. The negative impact of DP on C stabilization was confirmed by a significant decrease of the recalcitrant to TOC ratio in the whole sampled layer. In conclusion, DP showed the worst impact on C storage

  20. Lateral Pressure and VAS Pain Score Analysis for the Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion Procedure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) procedure is a minimally invasive procedure that has become widely utilized. The LLIF procedure typically involves bending the table to access the disc spaces of interest due to anatomical constraints. It is unknown if this bending process is painful or what pressures are exhibited on the downside part of the body. The goal of the study was to determine whether sex, height, weight, body mass index, bed angle, or positioning relative to the break of the bed affects the downside skin pressures and VAS pain scores in awake volunteers. Methods Fifty-six volunteers were placed in the lateral decubitus position and pressure sensors were placed at the downside part of their anatomy (shoulder, T10 rib , iliac crest, and greater trochanter). The pressures were checked with the iliac crest or greater trochanter at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 degree bed angles. VAS scores were checked when the iliac crest or greater trochanter were at the maximum bed break angles. Results A significant positive association was found between increased bed angle and pressure at all five areas on the downside body locations (p<0.0001). The greatest pressures were located at the iliac crest and greater trochanter when these specific locations were centered over the break of the bed (p<0.0001). When the iliac crest was placed at maximal bed break, each unit increase in BMI increased the VAS pain by 0.13 (p<0.0001)and men had 1.96 (p=0.0009)higher VAS scores then women. When the greater trochanter was placed at the maximal bed break, each unit increase in BMI decreased VAS pain by 0.19 (p<0.0001) and women had 1.55 (p=0.0002)higher VAS pain scores then men. Conclusions In awake volunteers, the pressure at the iliac crest or greater trochanter at the break of the bed increases by increasing the bed angle. Women with a lower BMI had high VAS pain scores when their greater trochanter was at maximal bed break. Men with higher BMI had high VAS pain scores when

  1. Effect of Stress from Cadmium Combined with Different Levels of Molybdenum on Serum Free Radical and Expression of Related Apoptosis Genes in Goat Livers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huabin; Xing, Chenghong; Zhuang, Yu; Gu, Xiaolong; Luo, Junrong; Guo, Xiaoquan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Caiying; Hu, Guoliang

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential element for human beings and animals; however, high dietary intake of Mo can lead to adverse reactions. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major transitional metals which have toxic effects in animals. The toxicity of simple Cd or Mo has been researched frequently. However, the toxicity of Mo combined with Cd was rarely studied. To investigate the toxicity of Mo combined with Cd in liver of goats, 36 Boer goats were randomly divided into four groups and assigned with one of the three oral treatments of CdCl2 (0.5 mg kg(-1) Cd) and [(NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O] (15 mg kg(-1) Mo, group I; 30 mg kg(-1) Mo, group II; 45 mg kg(-1) Mo, group III), while the control group received deionized water. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 to determine antioxidant indices in serum. In addition, liver tissues were collected on days 0, 25, and 50 for detecting the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax. Moreover, liver tissues at 50 days were subjected to histopathological analysis with the optical microscope. The results revealed a significant increase (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) in the levels of nitric oxide (NO), malonaldehyde (MDA), and the activity of nitrix oxide synthase (NOS) and a significant decline (P < 0.05) in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC). The mRNA expression level of Bcl-2 was suppressed (P < 0.05), while the expression of Bax was increased (P < 0.05) in liver. The histopathological changes were observed in the liver of goats including a small amount of erythrocyte, the unclear structure of hepatic cord and hepatic sinusoid, granular degeneration, vacuolar degeneration, and steatosis. In conclusion, combined chronic toxicity of Cd with different levels of Mo might induce goat liver cell apoptosis and cause oxidative stress in serum, and it showed a possible synergistic relationship between the two elements. PMID:26758867

  2. Fast changes in seasonal forest communities due to soil moisture increase after damming.

    PubMed

    do Vale, Vagner Santiago; Schiavini, Ivan; Araújo, Glein Monteiro; Gusson, André Eduardo; Lopes, Sérgio de Faria; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; do Prado-Júnior, Jamir Afonso; Arantes, Carolina de Silvério; Dias-Neto, Olavo Custodio

    2013-12-01

    Local changes caused by dams can have drastic consequences for ecosystems, not only because they change the water regime but also the modification on lakeshore areas. Thus, this work aimed to determine the changes in soil moisture after damming, to understand the consequences of this modification on the arboreal community of dry forests, some of the most endangered systems on the planet. We studied these changes in soil moisture and the arboreal community in three dry forests in the Araguari River Basin, after two dams construction in 2005 and 2006, and the potential effects on these forests. For this, plots of 20 m x 10 m were distributed close to the impoundment margin and perpendicular to the dam margin in two deciduous dry forests and one semi-deciduous dry forest located in Southeastern Brazil, totaling 3.6 ha sampled. Besides, soil analysis were undertaken before and after impoundment at three different depths (0-10, 20-30 and 40-50 cm). A tree (minimum DBH of 4.77 cm) community inventory was made before (TO) and at two (T2) and four (T4) years after damming. Annual dynamic rates of all communities were calculated, and statistical tests were used to determine changes in soil moisture and tree communities. The analyses confirmed soil moisture increases in all forests, especially during the dry season and at sites closer to the reservoir; besides, an increase in basal area due to the fast growth of many trees was observed. The highest turnover occurred in the first two years after impoundment, mainly due to the higher tree mortality especially of those closer to the dam margin. All forests showed reductions in dynamic rates for subsequent years (T2-T4), indicating that these forests tended to stabilize after a strong initial impact. The modifications were more extensive in the deciduous forests, probably because the dry period resulted more rigorous in these forests when compared to semideciduous forest. The new shorelines created by damming increased soil

  3. 12 years of intensive management increases soil carbon stocks in Loblolly pine and Sweetgum stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, F. G.; Samuelson, L.; Johnsen, K.

    2009-12-01

    To achieve and maintain productivity goals, forest managers rely on intensive management strategies. These strategies have resulted in considerable gains in forest productivity. However, the impacts of these strategies on belowground carbon dynamics is less clear. Carbon dynamics are influenced by a multitude of factors including soil moisture, nutrient status, net primary productivity and carbon allocation patterns. In this study, we describe the impact of four management strategies on soil carbon and nitrogen stocks in 12-year-old loblolly pine and sweetgum plantations. The management strategies are: (1) complete understory control, (2) complete understory control + drip irrigation, (3) complete understory control + drip irrigation and fertilization and (4) complete understory control + drip irrigation and fertilization and pest control. These management strategies were replicated on 3 blocks in a randomized complete block design. After 12 years, soil carbon stocks increased with increasing management intensity for both tree species. This effect was consistent throughout the depth increments measured (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm). Alternatively, no significant effect was detected for soil nitrogen at any depth increment. Sweetgum had higher soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at each depth increment than loblolly pine. There was a greater difference in nitrogen stocks than carbon stocks between the two species resulting in lower soil C:N ratios in the sweetgum stands. These observations may be due to differences in net primary productivity, rooting structure and carbon allocation patterns of sweetgum compared with loblolly pine. To determine the relative stability of the carbon and nitrogen stocks for the different treatments and tree species, we sequentially fractionated the soil samples into six fractions of differing stability. Although soil carbon stocks for both species increased with management intensity, there was no detectable difference in the soil carbon

  4. New decontamination method based on caprylic acid in combination with citric acid or vanillin for eliminating Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in reconstituted infant formula.

    PubMed

    Choi, M J; Kim, S A; Lee, N Y; Rhee, M S

    2013-09-16

    The antimicrobial effects of natural compounds (caprylic acid, CA; citric acid, CTA; and vanillin, VNL) on the inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were examined in reconstituted infant formula. The samples were treated with: 1) CA, CTA, or VNL alone (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80 mM); 2) a combination of CA (10 and 20 mM) and CTA (15 and 30 mM); and 3) a combination of CA (10 and 20 mM) and VNL (15 and 30 mM), at mild feeding temperatures (40 °C and 45 °C), and the bacterial populations were assayed periodically (0, 5, 10, and 30 min). For both bacteria, the combined treatments had marked synergistic antimicrobial effects compared with the sum of the effects of each individual treatment. For example, there was no noticeable reduction (P > 0.05) in the population of C. sakazakii following an individual treatment with 20 mM CA or 30 mM CTA for 5 min at 40 °C, whereas the population was reduced to undetectable levels (reduction > 7.3 log CFU/ml) following treatment with a combination of CA and CTA (20 CA+30 CTA for 5 min at 40 °C). As the temperature increased, the bactericidal effect was stronger at all time points with a synergistic effect. In a validation assay using a low level inoculum (approximately 10³ CFU/ml) of desiccation-stressed bacteria in certain conditions, the combined treatments (e.g., CA 10 mM+CTA 30 mM for 5 min at 45 °C for C. sakazakii, and CA 10mM+VNL 15 mM for 10 min at 45 °C for S. Typhimurium) completely destroyed the bacteria with no recovery of cell viability. Disintegration of the membrane and changes in the cell structure or morphology, such as plasmolysis and membrane disruption, were detected by flow cytometry and electron microscopy, respectively. These methods use antimicrobials that could be applied as food additives in infant formula, which may help to eliminate bacteria. PMID:24042002

  5. Changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen capacities of Salix cheilophila Schneid along a revegetation chronosequence in semi-arid degraded sandy land of the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Jia, Z. Q.

    2014-11-01

    The Gonghe Basin is a sandified and desertified region of China, but the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) along the cultivation chronosequence across this ecologically fragile region is not well understood. This study was carried out to understand the effects of restoration with Salix cheilophila for different periods of time (6, 11, 16, 21 years) to test whether it enhanced C and N storage. Soil samples, in four replications from seven depth increments (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50, 50-100, 100-150 and 150-200 cm), were collected in each stand. Soil bulk density, SOC, TN, aboveground biomass and root biomass were measured. Results indicated that changes occurred in both the upper and deeper soil layers with an increase in revegetation time. The 0-200 cm soil showed that the 6-year stand gained 3.89 Mg C ha-1 and 1.00 Mg N ha-1, which accounted for 40.82% of the original SOC and 11.06% of the TN of the 0-year stand. The 11-year stand gained 7.82 Mg C ha-1 and 1.98 Mg N ha-1 in the 0-200 cm soil layers, accounting for 58.06% of the SOC and 19.80% of the TN of the 0-year stand. The 16-year stand gained 11.32 Mg C ha-1 and 3.30 Mg N ha-1 in the 0-200 cm soil layers, accounting for 66.71% of the SOC and 21.98% of the TN of the 0-year stand. The 21-year stand gained 13.05 Mg C ha-1 and 5.45 Mg N ha-1 from the same soil depth, accounting for 69.79% of the SOC and 40.47% of the TN compared with the 0-year stand. The extent of these changes depended on soil depth and plantation age. The results demonstrated that, as stand age increased, the storage of SOC and TN increased. These results further indicated that restoration with S. cheilophila has positive impacts on the Gonghe Basin and has increased the capacity of SOC sequestration and N storage. The shrub's role as carbon sink is compatible with system management and persistence. The findings are significant for assessing C and N sequestration accurately in semi-arid degraded high, cold sandy

  6. The rare earth element geochemistry on surface sediments, shallow cores and lithological units of Lake Acıgöl basin, Denizli, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budakoglu, Murat; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Kumral, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    The sediments in Lake Acıgöl, located in SW Anatolia, Turkey, were formed under tectono-sedimentary events. REE geochemical investigations of the Lake Acıgöl sediments, from surface and shallow core sediments at different depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm) are presented to clarify the characteristics of REE and the nature of source rocks in the lake sediments' and to deduce their paleoenvironmental proxies. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of these sediments are shown as light enrichment in LREE and flat HREE with a negative Eu anomaly that is close to the continental collision basin (CCB) in its profile; this is not comparable with PAAS and UCC. Inorganic detrital materials control the REE characteristics of the Lake Acıgöl sediments and these sediments were accumulated in oxic and dysoxic depositional conditions and/or at passive margins derived from oceanic island arc rocks. They were affected by low chemical weathering, either at the original source or during transport, before deposition under arid or subtropical humid climatic conditions. In addition, we used GIS techniques (such as Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR)) to investigate the spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the REEs from the lake surface sediments in Lake Acıgöl and its surrounding lithological units. GIS techniques showed that the lithological units (e.g., Hayrettin Formation) north of Lake Acıgöl have high REE contents; however, Eu/Eu∗ values were higher in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units, and that refers to a negative Eu-anomaly. Therefore, Lake Acıgöl sediments are derived from the weathered products, mainly from local, highly basic bedrock around the lake from the Archean crust. The chronology of Lake Acıgöl sediment was conducted using the Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model. Using the CRS methods for the calculation of sedimentation rate, we obtained a 0.012 g/cm2/year value which is an

  7. Newly Shaped Intra-Aortic Balloons Improve the Performance of Counterpulsation at the Semirecumbent Position: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Kolyva, Christina; Pepper, John R; Khir, Ashraf W

    2016-08-01

    The major hemodynamic benefits of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation are augmentation in diastolic aortic pressure (Paug ) during inflation, and decrease in end-diastolic aortic pressure (ΔedP) during deflation. When the patient is nursed in the semirecumbent position these benefits are diminished. Attempts to change the shape of the IAB in order to limit or prevent this deterioration have been scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hemodynamic performance of six new IAB shapes, and compare it to that of a traditional cylindrical IAB. A mock circulation system, featuring an artificial left ventricle and an aortic model with 11 branches and physiological resistance and compliance, was used to test one cylindrical and six newly shaped IABs at angles 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40°. Pressure was measured continuously at the aortic root during 1:1 and 1:4 IABP support. Shape 2 was found to consistently achieve, in terms of absolute magnitude, larger ΔedP at angles than the cylindrical IAB. Although ΔedP was gradually diminished with angle, it did so to a lesser degree than the cylindrical IAB; this diminishment was only 53% (with frequency 1:1) and 40% (with frequency 1:4) of that of the cylindrical IAB, when angle increased from 0 to 40°. During inflation Shape 1 displayed a more stable behavior with increasing angle compared to the cylindrical IAB; with an increase in angle from 0 to 40°, diastolic aortic pressure augmentation dropped only by 45% (with frequency 1:1) and by 33% (with frequency 1:4) of the drop reached with the cylindrical IAB. After compensating for differences in nominal IAB volume, Shape 1 generally achieved higher Paug over most angles. Newly shaped IABs could allow for IABP therapy to become more efficient for patients nursed at the semirecumbent position. The findings promote the idea of personalized rather than generalized patient therapy for the achievement of higher IABP therapeutic efficiency, with a choice

  8. Newly Shaped Intra‐Aortic Balloons Improve the Performance of Counterpulsation at the Semirecumbent Position: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kolyva, Christina; Pepper, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The major hemodynamic benefits of intra‐aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation are augmentation in diastolic aortic pressure (P aug) during inflation, and decrease in end‐diastolic aortic pressure (ΔedP) during deflation. When the patient is nursed in the semirecumbent position these benefits are diminished. Attempts to change the shape of the IAB in order to limit or prevent this deterioration have been scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hemodynamic performance of six new IAB shapes, and compare it to that of a traditional cylindrical IAB. A mock circulation system, featuring an artificial left ventricle and an aortic model with 11 branches and physiological resistance and compliance, was used to test one cylindrical and six newly shaped IABs at angles 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40°. Pressure was measured continuously at the aortic root during 1:1 and 1:4 IABP support. Shape 2 was found to consistently achieve, in terms of absolute magnitude, larger ΔedP at angles than the cylindrical IAB. Although ΔedP was gradually diminished with angle, it did so to a lesser degree than the cylindrical IAB; this diminishment was only 53% (with frequency 1:1) and 40% (with frequency 1:4) of that of the cylindrical IAB, when angle increased from 0 to 40°. During inflation Shape 1 displayed a more stable behavior with increasing angle compared to the cylindrical IAB; with an increase in angle from 0 to 40°, diastolic aortic pressure augmentation dropped only by 45% (with frequency 1:1) and by 33% (with frequency 1:4) of the drop reached with the cylindrical IAB. After compensating for differences in nominal IAB volume, Shape 1 generally achieved higher P aug over most angles. Newly shaped IABs could allow for IABP therapy to become more efficient for patients nursed at the semirecumbent position. The findings promote the idea of personalized rather than generalized patient therapy for the achievement of higher IABP therapeutic efficiency

  9. Oral treatment of mule ducks with arsenicals for inducing fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Chen, K L; Chiout, P W

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dosage and the compounds of arsenic that induce fatty liver in mule ducks and also to investigate their effects on tissue residues. One hundred four ducks, 8 wk old, were randomly selected for one of six dietary treatments in Trial 1 or one of seven dietary treatments in Trial 2. Different levels of roxarsone were administrated: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 mg/d, respectively, in Trial 1. In Trial 2, the experimental treatments were of the same level (11.36 mg/d) with different sources of arsenic that included the control without As, roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), arsanilic acid, phenylarsonic acid, O-nitro-phenylarsonic acid, As2O3, or As2O5. Both trials lasted 3 wk, with 1 wk on the treatment followed by 2 wk of withdrawal. Results in Trial 1 showed that a dose of 40 mg roxarsone/d increased liver weight and caused fatty liver, whereas administration of 50 mg/d was lethal. In Trial 2, administration of arsenic (11.36 mg/d) for 1 wk significantly depressed feed intake in the roxarsone, As2O3, and As2O5 groups (P < 0.05), whereas the treatment significantly decreased only live weight gain in the roxarsone group (P < 0.05). Administration of roxarsone alone increased (P < 0.05) serum cholesterol (CHOL), albumin (ALB), and total protein (TP), whereas only As2O3 among treatments significantly decreased serum triacylglycerol (TG) concentration (P < 0.05). In the roxarsone, arsanilic acid, and phenylarsonic acid groups, serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) decreased to a greater extent (P < 0.05), and arsanilic acid treatment significantly increased the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) (P < 0.05). After 2 wk of withdrawal, liver weights and relative liver weights were heavier in the treatment groups of roxarsone, As2O3, and As2O5 as compared to the control (P < 0.05). Levels of CHOL, TG, TP, and ALB were significantly higher in the groups treated with As2O3 or As2O5 as compared to the control (P < 0.05). The

  10. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: System Fitness of Grazeable Home-grown Forages, Land Areas and Walking Distances

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. R.; Garcia, S. C.; Clark, C. E. F.; Kerrisk, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    To maintain a predominantly pasture-based system, the large herd milked by automatic milking rotary would be required to walk significant distances. Walking distances of greater than 1-km are associated with an increased incidence of undesirably long milking intervals and reduced milk yield. Complementary forages can be incorporated into pasture-based systems to lift total home grown feed in a given area, thus potentially ‘concentrating’ feed closer to the dairy. The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the total land area required and associated walking distance for large automatic milking system (AMS) herds when incorporating complementary forage rotations (CFR) into the system. Thirty-six scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as moderate; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as high) and 6 rates of replacement of each of these pastures by grazeable CFR (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) were investigated. Results showed that AMS cows were required to walk greater than 1-km when the farm area was greater than 86 ha. Insufficient pasture could be produced within a 1 km distance (i.e. 86 ha land) with home-grown feed (HGF) providing 43%, 29%, and 22% of the metabolisable energy (ME) required by 400, 600, and 800 cows, respectively from pastures. Introduction of pasture (moderate): CFR in AMS at a ratio of 80:20 can feed a 400 cow AMS herd, and can supply 42% and 31% of the ME requirements for 600 and 800 cows, respectively with pasture (moderate): CFR at 50:50 levels. In contrast to moderate pasture, 400 cows can be managed on high pasture utilisation (provided 57% of the total ME requirements). However, similar to the scenarios conducted with moderate pasture, there was insufficient feed produced within 1-km distance of the dairy for 600 or 800 cows. An 800 cow herd required 140 and 130 ha on moderate and high pasture-based AMS

  11. Quantitative and qualitative responses of soil organic carbon to six years of extreme soil warming in a subarctic grassland in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Leblans, Niki I. W.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Kätterer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks to global warming are expected, but constitute a major uncertainty in climate models. Soils in northern latitudes store a large proportion of the total global biosphere carbon stock and might thus become a strong source of CO2 when warmed. Long-term in situ observations of warming effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics are indispensable for an in depth understanding of the involved processes. We investigated the effect of six years of soil warming on SOC quantity and quality in a geothermally heated grassland soil in Iceland. We isolated five fractions of SOC along an extreme soil warming gradient of +0 to +40°C. Those fractions vary conceptually in turnover time from active to passive in the following order: particulate organic matter (POM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SOC in sand and stable aggregates (SA), SOC in silt and clay (SC-rSOC) and resistant SOC (rSOC). Soil warming of 1°C increased bulk SOC by 22% (0-10 cm) and 27% (20-30 cm), while further warming led to exponential SOC depletion of up to 79% (0-10 cm) and 74% (20-30) in the most heated plots (~ +40°C). Only the SA fraction was more sensitive than the bulk soil, with 93% (0-10 cm) and 86% (20-30 cm) losses and with the highest relative enrichment in 13C (+1.6‰ in 0-10 cm and +1.3‰ in 20-30 cm). In addition, the mass of the SA fraction did significantly decline along the warming gradient, which we explained by devitalization of aggregate binding mechanisms. As a consequence, the fine SC fraction mass increased with warming which explained the relative enrichment of presumably more slow-cycling SOC (R2=0.61 in 0-10 cm and R2=0.92 in 20-30 cm). Unexpectedly, no difference was observed between the responses of SC-rSOC (slow-cycling) and rSOC (passive) to warming. Furthermore, the 13C enrichment by trophic fractionation in the passive rSOC fraction was equal to this in the bulk soil. We therefore conclude that the sensitivity of SOC to warming was not a

  12. Kinetic Study on Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Frond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, V. S. Y.; Chin, B. L. F.; Lim, A. C. R.

    2016-03-01

    The pyrolysis of oil palm frond is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. The present study investigates the thermal degradation behaviour and determination of the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (EA ) and pre-exponential factor (A) values of oil palm frond under pyrolysis condition. The kinetic data is produced based on first order rate of reaction. In this study, the experiments are conducted at different heating rates of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 K/min in the temperature range of 323-1173 K under non-isothermal condition. Argon gas is used as an inert gas to remove any entrapment of gases in the TGA equipment.

  13. Adsorptive removal of 2-chlorophenol by low-cost coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Kavitha, D

    2003-03-17

    Adsorption of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) by coir pith carbon was carried out by varying the parameters such as agitation time, 2-CP concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature. Adsorption equilibrium reached at 40, 60, 80 and 100 min for 2-CP concentration of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/l, respectively. Adsorption followed second-order kinetics. The adsorption equilibrium data obeyed Freundlich isotherm. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of 2-CP. Desorption studies showed that chemisorption plays a major role in the adsorption process. PMID:12628792

  14. The effect of the granulometric composition of a hydroxyapatite powder on the structure and phase composition of coatings deposited by the detonation gas spraying technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, A. A.; Yakovlev, V. I.; Legostaeva, E. V.; Sitnikov, A. A.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.

    2013-04-01

    The granulometric composition of a hydroxyapatite powder has been investigated. The initial powder has been classified into particle size ranges (0.1-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 50-300 μm). Coatings prepared from a hydroxyapatite powder of different size have been deposited by the detonation gas spraying technique. The structure and phase composition of the coatings have been studied. Changing the initial granulometric composition of the powder mixture is shown to provide control over the sprayed surface roughness.

  15. Plaque pH modulations of children's favourite snacks.

    PubMed

    Gauba, K; Goyal, A; Tewari, A

    1991-03-01

    Cariogenic potential of a few children's favourite snacks, assessed by evaluation of pH modulations on their respective consumption after 2,5,10,20,30 and 40 minutes compared to 10 percent sucrose control using pooled plaque method, in 8-12 years old children revealed lollipop (hard sucking candy) to be the most cariogenic and samosa without chutney to be the least cariogenic. The cariogenic potential of ice creams were similar, however, low as compared to sucrose solution of 10 percent. PMID:2056343

  16. Pressure distributions on a 1- by 3-meter semispan wing with a nonstreamwise tip in subsonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.; Shubert, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Pressure distributions on a 1- by 3-meter semispan wing with a tip that is streamwise at 0 deg sweep are presented. The tip becomes nonstreamwise as the wing is swept. At 0 deg sweep angle, the semispan wing has a taper ratio of 1.0 and NACA 0012 airfoil section contours. The test was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel at a freestream dynamic pressure of 2.46 kPa. Pressure distributions are presented for sweep angles of 10, 20, 30, and 40 with an angle of attack range from -6 deg to 20 deg. The data are presented without analysis or discussion.

  17. [Mutagenesis induced with dioxidin in the Allium-test].

    PubMed

    Shkarupa, V M; Baryliak, I R

    2006-01-01

    The influence of dioxidin in different concentrations (10-100 mg/l) on the cytogenetic parameters of Allium cepa L. has been studied. The mutagenic effect of dioxidin was shown within all the range of the studied concentrations. The curve "dose-effect" has been determined for the concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100 mg/l. The peak of the mutagenic effect and significant reduction of the mitotic index were revealed at the concentration of 100 mg/l. It was shown that the mutagenic efficiency of the dioxidin statistically correlated with reduction of the mitotic activities. PMID:17385416

  18. Assessment of the systemic distribution and toxicity of formaldehyde following pulpotomy treatment: Part one

    SciTech Connect

    Ranly, D.M.

    1985-11-01

    This report, the first of a two-part study, was undertaken to quantitate the systemic distribution of formaldehyde from a pulpotomy site, and to compare this level to doses that elicit overt systemic pathology. Maxillary first molars of rats were pulpotomized and treated with 14C-labeled formaldehyde, for 5 minutes. Additionally, four groups of rats were infused with 10, 20, 30, or 50 percent of the first quantity applied to the site. The data show that approximately 30 percent of the 14C-formaldehyde placed in the pulp chamber was distributed systemically; 50 percent to 59 percent was expired as CO2; and 2 percent was excreted.

  19. Temporal Changes in the Vertical Distribution of Pratylenchus penetrans under Raspberry.

    PubMed

    Forge, T A; Deyoung, R; Vrain, T C

    1998-06-01

    Population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans and the biomass of fine roots of raspberry at depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm were determined every 2 weeks for 2 years. The vertical distribution of P. penetrans varied from season to season, but the seasonal changes were not similar for the 2 years. In most seasons, the greatest population density was in the 5 to 10-cm-depth interval. Population densities of P. penetrans were not consistently correlated with the vertical distribution of raspberry roots in any season. PMID:19274208

  20. Temporal Changes in the Vertical Distribution of Pratylenchus penetrans under Raspberry

    PubMed Central

    Forge, Thomas A.; DeYoung, Robyn; Vrain, Thierry C.

    1998-01-01

    Population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans and the biomass of fine roots of raspberry at depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm were determined every 2 weeks for 2 years. The vertical distribution of P. penetrans varied from season to season, but the seasonal changes were not similar for the 2 years. In most seasons, the greatest population density was in the 5 to 10-cm-depth interval. Population densities of P. penetrans were not consistently correlated with the vertical distribution of raspberry roots in any season. PMID:19274208

  1. The influence of liposomal formulation on the incorporation and retention of PNA oligomers.

    PubMed

    Ringhieri, Paola; Avitabile, Concetta; Saviano, Michele; Morelli, Giancarlo; Romanelli, Alessandra; Accardo, Antonella

    2016-09-01

    Liposomal formulations composed of phospholipids with different unsaturation degrees, head groups and at different cholesterol content have been tested for the encapsulation of Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) oligomers. The best loading capability (177μg, ER%=87.2) was obtained for pure liposomes of phosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) with negatively charged head group. The insertion of a 10-20% of cholesterol in DOPG based liposomes provides a slight decrease (∼160μg) of the PNA loading. On the other hand, the cholesterol addition (20-30%) slows down the PNA's release (∼27%) in fetal bovine serum from the liposomal formulation. Based on the encapsulation and the release properties, PEGylated DOPG liposomes with a percentage of cholesterol of 10-20% are the optimal formulation for the loading of PNA-a210. PMID:27236097

  2. The influence of forest shelterbelts on 137Cs fallout in Chernobyl affected areas (Tula region, Russia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Maxim; Shamshurina, Eugeniya; Tatyana, Paramonova; Vladimir, Belyaev; Angelina, Gavruchenkova; Nikolai, Lugovoy; Konstantinov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    consist of two perpendicular lines forming right angle. Sample of soil were collected inside the and within rectangular network on the sides from the shelterbelt. The distance between sampling points included into network is 15 m for the closest to the shelterbelt point and 70 m for other point in adjacent field. Each sample contains upper 30-cm layer of soil. Inside shelterbelts samples were subdivided into three parts for layer of 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm deep. In group of points sampling was undertaken with description of soil sections. All samples were dried, sieved and examined with γ-spectrometer. After statistical analysis of obtained data we calculated spatial variability of 137Cs inventories and correlation between distance before shelterbelt and inventory was assessed. According to obtained results map of spatial distribution of 137Cs within observed areas were created.

  3. Effects of salinity, temperature, and polyethylene glycol on the seed germination of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Luan, Zhihui; Xiao, Moxin; Zhou, Daowei; Zhang, Hongxiang; Tian, Yu; Wu, Yi; Guan, Bo; Song, Yantao

    2014-01-01

    Salinization has severe influences on agriculture in the whole world. The main aims of this work were to evaluate osmotic effect and ion effect of NaCl on seed germination of three sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars interacting with three alternating temperature regimes and to select the most salt tolerant cultivars to plant in the saline region. Seeds were germinated in the isotonic NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions of -0.45, -0.90, -1.34, -1.79, and -2.24 MPa at 10:20, 15:25, and 20:30 °C temperature regimes. Both NaCl and PEG inhibited germination, but the effects of NaCl were less as compared to that of PEG, which means that adverse effects of PEG on germination were due to osmotic effect rather than specific ion accumulation. For the three cultivars, higher germination occurred at 10:20 °C in NaCl treatments and at 20:30 °C in the isotonic PEG treatments. Among the three cultivars, Sandaomei (SDM) is the most tolerant to salt and PEG stress. PMID:25610896

  4. In vitro scolicidal effect of Satureja khuzistanica (Jamzad) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Hoseini, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Amir Mootabi

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the scolicidal effect of the Satureja khuzistanica (S. khuzistanica)essential oil from aerial parts of this herbal plant. Methods The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst. Protoscolices were exposed to various concentrations of the oil (3, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results : A total of 19 compounds representing 97.6% of the total oil, were identified. Carvacrol (94.9%) was found to be the major essential oil constituent. Scolicidal activity of S. khuzistanica essential oil at concentration of 3 mg/mL was 28.58, 32.71, 37.20 and 42.02%, respectively. This essential oil at concentration of 5 mg/mL killed 51.33, 66.68, 81.12, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, 30 and 60 min, respectively. One hundred scolicidal effect was observed with S. khuzistanica essential oil at the concentration of 10 mg/mL after 10 min (comparing with 7.19% for control group). Conclusions The essential oil of S. khuzistanica is rich in carvacrol and may be used as a natural scolicidal agent. PMID:23569981

  5. Impact of different tillage treatments on soil respiration and microbial activity for different agricultural used soils in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klik, Andreas; Scholl, Gerlinde; Baatar, Undrakh-Od

    2015-04-01

    Soils can act as a net sink for sequestering carbon and thus attenuating the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide if appropriate soil and crop management is applied. Adapted soil management strategies like less intensive or even no tillage treatments may result in slower mineralization of soil organic carbon and enhanced carbon sequestration. In order to assess the impact of different soil tillage systems on carbon dioxide emissions due to soil respiration and on soil biological activity parameters, a field study of three years duration (2007-2010)has been performed at different sites in Austria. Following tillage treatments were compared: 1) conventional tillage (CT) with plough with and without cover crop during winter period, 2) reduced tillage (RT) with cultivator with cover crop, and 3) no-till (NT) with cover crop. Each treatment was replicated three times. At two sites with similar climatic conditions but different soil textures soil CO2 efflux was measured during the growing seasons in intervals of one to two weeks using a portable soil respiration system consisting of a soil respiration chamber attached to an infrared gas analyzer. Additionally, concurrent soil temperature and soil water contents of the top layer (0-5 cm)were measured. For these and additional three other sites with different soil and climatic conditions soil samples were taken to assess the impact of tillage treatment on soil biological activity parameters. In spring, summer and autumn samples were taken from each plot at the soil depth of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm to analyze soil microbial respiration (MR), substrate induced respiration (SIR), beta-glucasidase activity (GLU) and dehydrogenase (BHY). Samples were sieved (2 mm) and stored at 4 °C in a refrigerator. Analyses of were performed within one month after sampling. The measurements show a high spatial variability of soil respiration data even within one plot. Nevertheless, the level of soil carbon dioxide efflux was similar for

  6. Threshold for transitory diarrhea induced by ingestion of xylitol and lactitol in young male and female adults.

    PubMed

    Oku, Tsuneyuki; Nakamura, Sadako

    2007-02-01

    The ingestion of a sufficiently large amount of non-digestible and/or non-absorbable sugar substitutes causes overt diarrhea. The objective is to estimate the non-effective dosage that does not cause transitory diarrhea for xylitol, lactitol, and erythritol in healthy subjects. Twenty-seven males and 28 females gave informed and written consent to participate, were selected, and participated in the study. The oral dose levels of xylitol were 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g, while those of lactitol were 10, 20, 30, and 40 g. Those of erythritol were 20, 30, 40 and 50 g. The test substance was ingested in 150 mL of water 2-3 h after a meal. The ingestion order progressed from the smallest to larger amounts, and stopped at the dose that caused diarrhea, or at the largest dose level to be set up. The non-effective dose level of xylitol was 0.37 g/kg B.W. for males and 0.42 g/kg B.W. for females. That of lactitol was 0.25 g/kg B.W. for males and 0.34 g/kg B.W. for females, and that of erythritol was 0.46 g/kg B.W. for males and 0.68 g/kg B.W. for females. These results appear reasonable, because xylitol is poorly absorbed from the small intestine, and the absorption rate is less than that of erythritol, while lactitol is not hydrolyzed. Non-digestible and/or non-absorbable sugar alcohols and oligosaccharides with beneficial health effects inevitably cause overt diarrhea. The estimation of the non-effective dose level of these sugar substitutes is essential and important to produce processed foods that the consumer can use safely and with confidence. PMID:17484374

  7. Aluminum-based water treatment residual use in a constructed wetland for capturing urban runoff phosphorus: Column study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) have a strong affinity to sorb phosphorus. In a proof-of-concept greenhouse column study, Al-WTR was surface-applied at 0, 62, 124, and 248 Mg/ha to 15 cm of soil on top of 46 cm of sand; Al-WTR rates were estimated to capture 0, 10, 20, and 40 year...

  8. Further studies on the effects of diets containing dried coffee pulp: growth performance, blood and carcass characteristics of pigs.

    PubMed

    Okai, D B; Dabo, P

    1991-01-01

    4 groups of 5 pigs each were fed rations containing 0, 10, 20, or 30% of dried coffee pulp over a period of 10 weeks. The inclusion of these rations had no significant influence on the feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. There were no significant differences in the blood parameters either (glucose, protein, P, Ca, cholesterol) or in the slaughter weight. Pigs fed the coffee pulp had less backfat and higher liver weights. PMID:1793431

  9. Impact of skin temperature and hydration on plasma volume responses during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Sollanek, Kurt J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-08-15

    Heat stress and hydration may both alter plasma volume (PV) responses during acute exercise; potential interactions have not been fully studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of graded elevations in skin temperature (Tsk) on PV changes during steady-state exercise under conditions of euhydration (EU) and hypohydration (HYPO, -4% of body mass). Thirty-two men (22 ± 4 yr) were divided into four cohorts (n = 8 each) and completed EU and HYPO trials in one environment [ambient temperature (Ta) 10, 20, 30, and 40°C]. Thirty minutes of cycle ergometry (50% V̇o2peak) was performed. Core (Tre) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured; changes in PV, total circulating protein (TCP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated; and skin blood flow (SkBF) was estimated. Hypohydration decreased (P < 0.05) PV by 200 ml (-5.7%) but did not alter TCP. Plasma loss was not different between EU and HYPO during exercise at any Ta. Plasma losses were greater (P < 0.05) with elevated Ta with an average -130, -174, -294, and -445 ml losses during the 10, 20, 30, and 40°C trials, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations (r = 0.50 to 0.84) were found between ΔTCP and ΔPV during exercise when Tsk was cool/warm (<33°C; Ta 10, 20, and 30°C), but not at 40°C (high Tsk). We conclude that 1) graded skin warming proportionally accentuated plasma loss; 2) plasma loss was associated with plasma protein efflux at lower Tsk and SkBF; 3) at high Tsk, additional plasma loss likely results from increased net filtration at the capillaries; and 4) HYPO did not alter vascular fluid loss during exercise in any environment. PMID:24994888

  10. Gender and Age Differences in Hourly and Daily Patterns of Sedentary Time in Older Adults Living in Retirement Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bellettiere, John; Carlson, Jordan A.; Rosenberg, Dori; Singhania, Anant; Natarajan, Loki; Berardi, Vincent; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Moran, Kevin; Crist, Katie; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Background Total sedentary time varies across population groups with important health consequences. Patterns of sedentary time accumulation may vary and have differential health risks. The purpose of this study is to describe sedentary patterns of older adults living in retirement communities and illustrate gender and age differences in those patterns. Methods Baseline accelerometer data from 307 men and women (mean age = 84±6 years) who wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers for ≥ 4 days as part of a physical activity intervention were classified into bouts of sedentary time (<100 counts per minute). Linear mixed models were used to account for intra-person and site-level clustering. Daily and hourly summaries were examined in mutually non-exclusive bouts of sedentary time that were 1+, 5+, 10+, 20+, 30+, 40+, 50+, 60+, 90+ and 120+ minutes in duration. Variations by time of day, age and gender were explored. Results Men accumulated more sedentary time than women in 1+, 5+, 10+, 20+, 30+, 40+, 50+ and 60+ minute bouts; the largest gender-differences were observed in 10+ and 20+ minute bouts. Age was positively associated with sedentary time, but only in bouts of 10+, 20+, 30+, and 40+ minutes. Women had more daily 1+ minute sedentary bouts than men (71.8 vs. 65.2), indicating they break up sedentary time more often. For men and women, a greater proportion of time was spent being sedentary during later hours of the day than earlier. Gender differences in intra-day sedentary time were observed during morning hours with women accumulating less sedentary time overall and having more 1+ minute bouts. Conclusions Patterns identified using bouts of sedentary time revealed gender and age differences in the way in which sedentary time was accumulated by older adults in retirement communities. Awareness of these patterns can help interventionists better target sedentary time and may aid in the identification of health risks associated with sedentary behavior. Future studies

  11. Occurrence and distribution of PAHs, PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides in Tunisian soil irrigated with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Haddaoui, Imen; Mahjoub, Olfa; Mahjoub, Borhane; Boujelben, Abdelhamid; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2016-03-01

    Treated wastewater (TWW) is a well recognized source of organic pollutants (OPs) that may accumulate during irrigation. For the first time, data on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) and organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) in wastewater irrigated soil in Nabeul (Tunisia) are reported. 13 PAHs, 18 PCBs and 16 OCPs were analyzed in soil samples collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth before each and every irrigation and after the irrigation period expanding from June to October. Soil was extracted with an accelerated solvent extractor and analyzed by a tandem gas chromatograph in selected reaction monitoring mode (GC/MS/MS/SRM). OPs residues were detected before irrigation and accumulated at the end of the season for some of them. The total concentration of PAHs varied between 120.01 and 365.18 μg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) at 0-10 cm depth before and at the end of irrigation, respectively. The total concentration of PCBs varied between 11.26 and 21.89 μg kg(-1) dw at 0-10 cm, being higher than those reported for 10-20 cm. The six indicator PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) were predominant. OCPs concentrations ranged between 12.49 and 21.81 μg kg(-1) at 0-10 cm and between 74.03 and 310.54 μg kg(-1) at 10-20 cm depth. DDT was predominant accounting for more than 94% of the total OCPs. In view of the present results, OPs are relevant to the agricultural environment, calling for more research on their persistence and potential transfer to plants and/or groundwater while taking into account farmers' practices. PMID:26716883

  12. Semiconductor Sequencing Reveals the Diversity of Bacterial Communities in an Amazon Reservoir Considered as a Methane Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graças, D. A.; Ramos, R. T.; Sá, P. G.; Baraúna, R. A.; Schneider, M. C.; Silva, A.

    2013-05-01

    oxygen production is considerable in this layer. The oxygen produced by Cyanobacteria coupled to atmospheric oxygen provides the ideal environment for the methanotrophic bacteria oxidize methane. Indeed, methanotrophic bacteria represented approximately 10% in the upper layers. Another bacterial phylum well represented in the upper layers was Bacteroidetes, which accounted for about 3% in the layers of 0-30m. Rarefaction analyses, using a cutoff of 3%, tell us the existence of 3212, 6657, 10171, 4209, 10533, 74, 24345 and 64683 OTUs for the layers of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 meters, respectively. Bacterial diversity seems to increase with depth, probably due to the large amount of organic matter deposited in the pellet. The 50 meter depth layer showed the lowest diversity due to low quality sequencing of this barcode, which hampered the analysis. The abundance of methanotrophic bacteria shows that the microbial profile of the reservoir is able to consume much of the methane produced by methanogenic archaea in the sediment and that there is a huge diversity whose function is still unknown. The use of semiconductor sequencing proved to be a robust tool to analysis of the microbial community, as an alternative to pyrosequencing.

  13. Effect of resident microbiota on the solubilization of gold in soil from the Tomakin Park Gold Mine, New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reith, F.; McPhail, D. C.

    2006-03-01

    The processes influencing the solubilization and observed mobility of Au in soil were studied using a combination of geochemical and microbiological techniques. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that biotic processes mediated by the resident microbiota are likely to control the mobilization of Au in auriferous soils and other regolith materials. Microcosms with auriferous soils from the Tomakin Park Gold Mine in temperate south eastern New South Wales, Australia, were incubated under biologically active versus inactive (sterilized) conditions. The soils were incubated oxic and anoxic, unamended and Au pellet- or cycloheximide amended for 70 days in a 1:4 (w:v) aqueous slurry at 25 °C in the dark. In biologically active unamended Ah- and B-horizon microcosms up to 80 wt.% of total Au was detected in solution after 45 days of incubation. In biologically active Au pellet amended microcosms Au was liberated from the soil and also from added Au pellets. Scanning electron microscopy and nucleic acid staining combined with confocal stereo laser microscopy revealed the presence of bacterial biofilms on Au pellets incubated in the biologically active microcosms. The biologically inactive microcosms displayed no or significantly reduced Au solubilization. After 40-50 days of incubation Au was generally re-adsorbed to the solid soil fractions. The results of sequential extractions conducted with dried slurry samples collected from the biologically active Ah-horizon microcosms after 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 68 days of incubation indicated a continuous microscale solubilization and re-adsorption of Au. In samples taken after 40 days of incubation more than 80 wt.% of the Au was extracted from the operationally defined organic fraction, which appears to act as a final re-adsorption site for Au in the soil. In samples taken after 10 days of incubation from microcosms amended with 100 μg g -1 (d.w. soil) of Au as AuCl 4- 95 wt.% of the Au was associated with the

  14. Evaluation of Long-term Agroecosystem Management on Changes in Subsurface vs. Surface Soil Carbon Fractions and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, D.; Beem-Miller, J.; Kong, A.; Comstock, J.; Sherpa, S.; Wine, E.; Mallorino, A.

    2013-12-01

    Most studies of terrestrial soil organic carbon (SOC) have focused on the upper soil profile (e.g., 0-30 cm), so our knowledge of C dynamics in deeper layers is incomplete. Here, we examine the depth-dependent mechanisms and constraints by which management of the upper soil profile for optimum crop yield in agroecosystems can influence SOC fractions and change in both the surface and subsurface. Our study includes continuous corn systems under long-term conventional tillage (CT) vs no-tillage (NT) at Willsboro, New York (NY) (Kingsbury silty loam soil; 19 y) and Chazy, NY (Raynham silt loam; 38 y), and long-term crop rotation experiments under CT at Algona, Iowa (IA) (Clarion loam; 11 y) and Kanawha, IA (Canisteo clay loam; 57 y). Rotations in IA compared continuous corn to corn rotations with soybean, alfalfa, and/or oats. Cores were collected in 2011 and 2012 at 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50 and 50-75 cm, and analyzed for bulk density, soil texture, percent organic matter, total C and nitrogen (N), soil inorganic C, and active C (permanganate oxidizable C, POXC). Recent studies have documented that POXC is closely correlated with heavy, small-sized particulate organic C, reflecting a relatively processed and stable pool of labile C that is well-suited to assess land management effects on C dynamics. Overall, cumulative SOC stocks (0-75 cm) in the IA and NY soils ranged from 109.9-168.8 MgC ha-1, and 37.8-104.1 MgC ha-1, respectively. The proportion of total SOC stocks that occurred in the subsurface (30-75 cm) ranged from 39-44% in the IA soils, compared to 16-26% in NY. Across all sites and management we found no examples of statistically significant SOC change below 30 cm, although this may be in part an artifact of greater variability and smaller absolute values of C concentration at depth. SOC data were correlated with POXC measurements, although depth- and site-specific discrepancies in these two measures were observed. For example, POXC was relatively

  15. Multiscale characterization of pore size distributions using mercury porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Tarquis, A. M.; Miranda, J. G. V.; Vidal Vázquez, E.

    2009-04-01

    The soil pore space is a continuum extremely variable in size, including structures smaller than nanometres and as large as macropores or cracks with millimetres or even centimetres size. Pore size distributions (PSDs) affects important soil functions, such as those related with transmission and storage of water, and root growth. Direct and indirect measurements of PSDs are becoming increasingly used to characterize soil structure. Mercury injection porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption isotherms are techniques commonly employed for assessing equivalent pore size diameters in the range from about 50 nm to 100 m and 2 to 500 nm, respectively. The multifractal formalism was used to describe Hg injection curves and N2 adsorption isotherms from two series of a Mollisol cultivated under no tillage and minimum tillage. Soil samples were taken from 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm depths in two experimental fields located in the north of Buenos Aires and South of Santa Fe provinces, Argentina. All the data sets analyzed from the two studied soil attributes showed remarkably good scaling trends as assessed by singularity spectrum and generalized dimension spectrum. Both, experimental Hg injection curves and N2 adsorption isotherms could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. A wide variety of singularity and generalized dimension spectra was found for the variables. The capacity dimensions, D0, for both Hg injection and N2 adsorption data were not significantly different from the Euclidean dimension. However, the entropy dimension, D1, and correlation dimension, D2, obtained from mercury injection and nitrogen adsorption data showed significant differences. So, D1 values were on average 0.868 and varied from 0.787 to 0.925 for Hg intrusion curves. Entropy dimension, D1, values for N2 adsorption isotherms were on average 0.582 significantly lower than those obtained when using the former technique. Twenty-three out of twenty-four N2 isotherms had D1 values in a

  16. Fallow Effects on Improving Soil Properties and Decreasing Erosion: Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, J. P.; Silva, L. M.; Lima, R. L.; Donagemma, G. K.; Bertolino, A. V. A.; Fernandes, N. F.; Correa, F. M.; Polidoro, J. C.; Tato, G.

    2009-04-01

    fallow) and forest. For each case, 12 soil samples were collected at 4 depths: 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30cm, with 3 repetitions, leading to a total of 60 soil samples, where the following properties were characterized: porosity (micro, macro and total), bulk density and aggregate stability. Besides, in situ measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity were conducted with a Guelph permeameter. The results obtained in this study attested that all the soil properties analyzed were affected by soil usage, especially at shallow depths, in particular macroporosity and total porosity, which have major influences on infiltration rates, runoff and soil erosion. Besides, the results suggested that the 5-year fallow (F5) was able to recover from 72% to 100% of total porosity for the 0-10cm depth layer (considering forest values as reference), while in the 2-year fallow (F2) this recovery was lower, ranging from 66 to 80%. A similar trend was observed for macroporosity, showing recovering values from 60% to 90% and from 50% to 76%, for F5 and F2, respectively. However, aggregate stability values did not show significant variations between the two fallows. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, on the other hand, presented the lowest recovering values for all the studied properties: between 13% and 58% for F5 and between 6% and 33% for F2. Comparing to the natural forest (reference value), the coffee plantations presented the worst soil conditions in terms of soil hydrology and erosion. The results presented here attested important improvements in soil physical and hydrological properties after a 5-year fallow, leading to decrease in surface runoff and soil erosion in the area.

  17. Small-scale spatial variability of soil microbial community composition and functional diversity in a mixed forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiufeng; Tian, Jing; Yu, Guirui

    2014-05-01

    Patterns in the spatial distribution of organisms provide important information about mechanisms that regulate the diversity and complexity of soil ecosystems. Therefore, information on spatial distribution of microbial community composition and functional diversity is urgently necessary. The spatial variability on a 26×36 m plot and vertical distribution (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm) of soil microbial community composition and functional diversity were studied in a natural broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest soil in Changbai Mountain. The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) pattern was used to characterize the soil microbial community composition and was compared with the community substrate utilization pattern using Biolog. Bacterial biomass dominated and showed higher variability than fungal biomass at all scales examined. The microbial biomass decreased with soil depths increased and showed less variability in lower 10-20 cm soil layer. The Shannon-Weaver index value for microbial functional diversity showed higher variability in upper 0-10 cm than lower 10-20 cm soil layer. Carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, polymers and amino acids are the main carbon sources possessing higher utilization efficiency or utilization intensity. At the same time, the four carbon source types contributed to the differentiation of soil microbial communities. This study suggests the higher diversity and complexity for this mix forest ecosystem. To determine the driving factors that affect this spatial variability of microorganism is the next step for our study.

  18. Interaction of calcium sulfate with xanthan gum: effect on in vitro bioadhesion and drug release behavior from xanthan gum based buccal discs of buspirone.

    PubMed

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Abhishek, A; Vinay, S; Charde, S Y

    2013-11-01

    Bioadhesive polymers in buccal drug delivery systems play an important role in delivery of therapeutic drug molecules for local and systemic action. Xanthan gum, a GRAS listed natural polymer was used to design buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride by direct compression method. Effect of calcium sulfate on bioadhesive and drug release behavior of xanthan gum buccal discs was studied. Varying amount of calcium sulfate (0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%, w/w) in combination with xanthan gum was used to prepare buccal bioadhesive discs. Increase in calcium sulfate concentration resulted in faster drug release and decreased the bioadhesive strength of the designed discs. Further, in rheological evaluation it was observed that viscosity of xanthan gum gel reduces with increasing concentration of calcium sulfate. Compatibility of drug with various excipients was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. PMID:23907052

  19. Thyroid and adrenal cortical rhythmicity during bed rest.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Leach, C. S.; Winget, C. M.; Rambaut, P. C.; Mack, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of prolonged bed rest on adrenocortical and thyroid function were assessed in eight healthy males, aged 20-40 years, who were submitted to bed rest for 56 days on a 14L:10D regimen (lights-on, 9:00 AM). Four of these subjects exercised three times daily throughout the experiment. Circulating cortisol, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine, concentrations were determined in blood samples drawn at four hourly intervals for 48-hr periods before, 10, 20, 30, 42, and 54 days during, and 10 days post-bed rest. Significant fluctuations in the circulating levels of all three hormones occurred with peaks at 7:30 AM. The suggestion is advanced that thyroid rhythms may be posture dependent.

  20. Methacrylated monosaccharides as the modifiers for carbochain polymers: Synthesis, mechanical/thermal properties and biodegradability of hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushev, P.; Bershtein, V.; Bukowska-Śluz, I.; Sobiesiak, M.; Gawdzik, B.

    2016-05-01

    Methacrylated derivatives of glucose (MGLU) and galactose (MGAL) were synthesized by the procedure described by Vogel, and their copolymers with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and MMA/N-vinyl pyrrolidone (MMA/NVP) (1:1) mixture were obtained with the aim to modify some properties of carbochain polymers, in particular to generate their biodegradability. These hybrids of synthetic and natural products, with 10, 20 or 30 wt. % modifiers, were characterized by DMA and TGA methods and in the biodegradation tests. Increasing Tg values by 20-30°C was registered in all cases whereas thermal stability was improved only for PMMA due to modification. On the contrary, only for hybrids based on hygroscopic MMA/NVP copolymer the essential biodegradability could be generated.

  1. Ablation of CsI by XUV Capillary Discharge Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pira, Peter; Zelinger, Zdenek; Burian, Tomas; Vysin, Ludek; Wild, Jan; Juha, Libor; Lancok, Jan; Nevrly, Vaclav

    2015-09-01

    XUV capillary discharge laser (CDL) is suitable source for ablation of ionic crystals as material which is difficult to ablate by conventional laser. Single crystal of CsI was irradiated by 2.5 ns pulses of a 46.9 nm radiation at 2 Hz. The CDL beam was focused by Sc/Si multilayer spherical mirror. Attenuation length of CsI for this wavelength is 38 nm. Ablation rate was calculated after irradiation of 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 pulses. Depth of the craters was measured by optical profiler (white light interferometry). Ablation threshold was determined from craters after irradiation with the changing fluence and compared with modeling by XUV-ABLATOR.

  2. Wavelength dependence of Verdet constant of Tb3+:Y2O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snetkov, I. L.; Permin, D. A.; Balabanov, S. S.; Palashov, O. V.

    2016-04-01

    Samples of the magneto-active material—Tb3+:Y2O3 ceramics with Tb3+ ion concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 100% (Tb2O3)—were prepared and studied. The wavelength dependence of Verdet constant in the 380 nm-1750 nm range was approximated for all investigated ceramic samples and was predicted for a pure Tb2O3 material. Tb2O3 ceramics demonstrates a more than three times higher Verdet constant in comparison with terbium gallium garnet crystal or ceramics. The linear dependence of the Verdet constant on Tb3+ ion concentration in the Tb3+:Y2O3 ceramics was demonstrated. The obtained data will be useful for fabricating magneto-optical elements of Faraday devices based on Tb3+:Y2O3 with arbitrary Tb3+ ion concentration operating at room temperature in the wavelength range of 380 nm-1750 nm.

  3. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio ( Pistachia vera) hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants ( P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content ( P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.

  4. Atmospheric measurements of pyruvic and formic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreae, Meinrat O.; Li, Shao-Meng; Talbot, Robert W.

    1987-01-01

    Pyruvic acid, a product of the atmospheric oxidation of cresols and probably of isoprene, has been determined together with formic acid in atmospheric aerosols and rain as well as in the vapor phase. Both acids are present predominantly as vapor; only about 10-20 percent of the total atmospheric pyruvate and 1-2 percent of the total formate are in the particulate phase. The concentrations of pyruvic and formic acid are highly correlated, with typical formic-to-pyruvic ratios of 10-30 in the gas phase, 20-30 in rain, and 2-10 in aerosols. The gas-phase and rain ratios are comparable to those predicted to result from isoprene oxidation. Pyruvic acid levels were similar in the eastern United States (during summer) and the Amazon Basin, suggesting that natural processes, particularly the photochemical oxidation of isoprene, could account for most of the pyruvic acid present in the atmosphere.

  5. Cu influence on hens weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonina, I. A.; Kleptsyna, E. S.; Petukhov, V. L.; Patrashkov, S. A.

    2003-05-01

    Copper plays an important part in living being bodies. But, both high and low Cu levels may cause human and animal diseases. Some East Siberia areas are characterized by Cu pollution [1]. 5 group of hens were formed: 1 - control, 2-5 - experimental. For a month the hens from experimental groups were drunk with water where Cu content was 5, 10, 20 and 30 times higher than the upper limits (UL). Group 1 - 3 hens' weight was almost the same during the experiment. Weight decrease (from 2020 to 1656 g) was detected in group 4 (20 UL) for the first half a month. All the hens of group 4 except for 3 hens were died for the last 2 weeks. In group 5 (30 UL) all the hens died after 2 ... 14 days. Thus, high Cu concentrations (20 ... 30 UL) cause hens' weight reduction of and their death.

  6. Assessment of in vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen on human cultured lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Timocin, Taygun; Ila, Hasan Basri; Dordu, Tuba; Husunet, Mehmet Tahir; Tazehkand, Mostafa Norizadeh; Valipour, Ebrahim; Topaktas, Mehmet

    2016-07-01

    Flurbiprofen is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is commonly used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of the study was to explore the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen in human cultured lymphocytes by sister chromatid exchange, chromosome aberration, and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus tests. 10, 20, 30, and 40 μg/mL concentrations of flurbiprofen (solvent is DMSO) were used to treatment of human cultured lymphocytes at two different treatment periods (24 and 48 h). Flurbiprofen had no significant genotoxic effect in any of these tests. But exposing to flurbiprofen for 24 and 48 h led to significant decrease on proliferation index, mitotic index, and nuclear division index (NDI). Also, all decreases were concentration-dependent (except NDI at 24 h treatment period). Consequently, the findings of this research showed that flurbiprofen had cytotoxic effects in human blood lymphocytes. PMID:26738809

  7. Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations. PMID:24250352

  8. Digital circuits using universal logic gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor); Cameron, Eric G. (Inventor); Donohoe, Gregory W. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    According to the invention, a digital circuit design embodied in at least one of a structural netlist, a behavioral netlist, a hardware description language netlist, a full-custom ASIC, a semi-custom ASIC, an IP core, an integrated circuit, a hybrid of chips, one or more masks, a FPGA, and a circuit card assembly is disclosed. The digital circuit design includes first and second sub-circuits. The first sub-circuits comprise a first percentage of the digital circuit design and the second sub-circuits comprise a second percentage of the digital circuit design. Each of the second sub-circuits is substantially comprised of one or more kernel circuits. The kernel circuits are comprised of selection circuits. The second percentage is at least 5%. In various embodiments, the second percentage could be at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, or 95%.

  9. Spin valves based on Mn{sub 75}Ir{sub 25} antiferromagnet with controllable functional parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Milyaev, M. A. Naumova, L. I.; Kamenskii, I. Yu.; Ustinov, V. V.

    2015-12-15

    Using the example of spin valves of the Ta(50 Å)/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}(30 Å)/Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}(15 Å)/Cu(28 Å)/Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}(20 Å)/Mn{sub 75}Ir{sub 25}(50 Å)/Ta(20 Å) composition, factors controlling the hysteresis properties are studied for the case of macro- and microscopic sizes of an experimental sample. It is shown that a linear change in the magnetoresistance with small hysteresis while retaining the giant magnetoresistance effect at a level of 8% can be obtained in a micro-object (meander) using thermomagnetic treatment.

  10. Effect of hot-dry environment on fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tioua, Tahar; Kriker, Abdelouahed; Salhi, Aimad; Barluenga, Gonzalo

    2016-07-01

    Drying shrinkage can be a major reason for the deterioration of concrete structures. Variation in ambient temperature and relative humidity cause changes in the properties of hardened concrete which can affect their mechanical and drying shrinkage characteristics. The present study investigated mechanical strength and particularly drying shrinkage properties of self-compacting concretes (SCC) reinforced with date palm fiber exposed to hot and dry environment. In this study a total of nine different fibers reinforced self compacting concrete (FRSCC) mixtures and one mixture without fiber were prepared. The volume fraction and the length of fibers reinforcement were 0.1-0.2-0.3% and 10-20-30 mm. It was observed that drying shrinkage lessened with adding low volumetric fraction and short length of fibers in curing condition (T = 20 °C and RH = 50 ± 5 %), but increased in hot and dry environment.

  11. Properties of lightweight cement-based composites containing waste polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Záleská, Martina; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-07-01

    Improvement of buildings thermal stability represents an increasingly important trend of the construction industry. This work aims to study the possible use of two types of waste polypropylene (PP) for the development of lightweight cement-based composites with enhanced thermal insulation function. Crushed PP waste originating from the PP tubes production is used for the partial replacement of silica sand by 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mass%, whereas a reference mixture without plastic waste is studied as well. First, basic physical and thermal properties of granular PP random copolymer (PPR) and glass fiber reinforced PP (PPGF) aggregate are studied. For the developed composite mixtures, basic physical, mechanical, heat transport and storage properties are accessed. The obtained results show that the composites with incorporated PP aggregate exhibit an improved thermal insulation properties and acceptable mechanical resistivity. This new composite materials with enhanced thermal insulation function are found to be promising materials for buildings subsoil or floor structures.

  12. Electron momentum distribution in amorphous metals investigated by positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiakova, K.; Kristiak, J.; Galan, P.

    Electron momentum distribution in amorphous metals and the crystalline form of Ni xFe 80- xB 20 ( x = 10, 20, 30, 40) were investigated by positron annihilation. The samples were 30 mn thick ribbons, produced by rapid quenching of liquid metal on a rotating Cu wheel. The positron source was 22Na on mylar or blotting paper between two samples in sandwich arrangement. The γ-radiation was detected by a Ge(Li) detector which has a resolution at 511.9 keV ( 106Ru) of 1.6 keV. An unfolding method based on Bayes principle was applied to calculate the Doppler-broadening; S-parameter values were also determined. The calculated momentum distribution revealed a difference for the Ni 30Fe 50B 20 sample.

  13. Genotoxicity effects of Flusilazole on the somatic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Ozakca, Dilek Unal; Silah, Hulya

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the fungicide flusilazole on somatic cells of Allium cepa. For evaluation of cytogenetic effects, root meristem cells of A. cepa were treated with 10, 20, 30 and 45 ppm (EC50 concentration) for 24, 48 and 72 h. The mitotic index and different types of chromosomal abnormalities such as bridges, stickiness and laggards were determined in both control and test groups. Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide double staining and fluorescence microscope was used to determine the stability of chromosome structure. Data obtained from staining process indicated that ratio of necrotic cells significantly increased by the flusilazole presoaking. The RAPD-PCR method was used and the higher doses treated-group (45 ppm) was more distant to the control group compare with others. PMID:25149233

  14. Synthesis of TiN Reinforced Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites Through Microwave Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, K.; Saurabh, Suman; Rajinikanth, V.; Sahu, Ranjan Kumar; Ray, Ajoy Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Al-TiN (10, 20, 30 wt.%) composites were fabricated by using microwave radiation. Al and TiN powders were selected as starting materials, mixed in a ball mill for ~10 min and sintered for various times. Results indicate that an optimum microwave sintering time of 2 min was essential and responsible for the improved densification and mechanical properties. The presence of TiN particles at grain boundaries plays a significant role in improving the densification and hardness values. Dry sliding wear results show the improved wear resistance of the composite (Al-TiN) due to the presence of TiN particles and the wear results are superior to the Al-TiN samples made by hot pressing technique.

  15. Transport ac loss in a rectangular thin strip with power-law E (J) relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Du-Xing; Fan, Yu; Fang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Transport ac losses of a rectangular thin strip obeying relation E /Ec =(J /Jc) n with a fixed critical current Ic and n = 5, 10, 20, 30 , and 40 are accurately computed at a fixed frequency f as functions of the current amplitude Im . The results may be interpolated and scaled to those at any values of Ic, f , and 5 ⩽ n ⩽ 40 . Normalized in the same way as that in Norris' analytical formula derived from the critical-state model and converting f to a critical frequency fc , the modeling results may be better compared with the Norris formula and experimental data. A complete set of calculated modeling data are given with necessary formulas to be easily used by experimentalists in any particular case.

  16. All Screen-Printed CdS/CuInSe2 Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhaimi, S. A. AL; Bahammam, S.

    1990-08-01

    Thick film technology offers advantages of low cost, product amenability and automation. This technology has been successful in the manufacture of solar cells using CdS/CdTe heterojunctions. It enables the use of the same equipment in various processes involved in manufacturing solar cells. In the present work, n-CdS/p-CuInSe2 solar cells are prepared by screen printing and sintering pastes which contain the semiconductors. An efficiency of 8.75% is achieved. Electron affinity difference, saturation current and diode quality factor are measured. They are 0.49 eV, (0.9--1.8)× 10-7 A, 1.5 respectively. Microstructure and electrical properties of sintered CdS films containing 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt% CdCl2 are investigated. Optimum results are obtained for the CdS films containing 10 wt% CdCl2.

  17. PbSe films by ion exchange of synthetic plumbonacrite layers immersed in a selenium ionic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendívil-Reynoso, T.; Ochoa-Landín, R.; Ramírez-Rodríguez, L. P.; Gutierrez-Acosta, K.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Castillo, S. J.

    2016-06-01

    Plumbonacrite is a lead compound with chemical formula Pb10(CO3)6(OH)6O, where several groups can be substituted by ion exchange in mild conditions. Plumbonacrite layers can be deposited by means of the chemical bath deposition technique. In this work it is studied the structural and morphological evolution of a plumbonacrite layer as a function of the immersion time in an aqueous solution containing Se-2 ions. The 1.39 μm thick plumbonacrite layer was chemically deposited on a glass substrate and immersed in an aqueous solution with Se-2 ions for 10, 20, 30 and 50 min. The as grown plumbonacrite layer as well as the immersed ones were analyzed by X-rays Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy measurements. The results show that the plumbonacrite layer is gradually converted to PbSe one by ion exchange process, where Se-2 ions substitute the groups of plumbonacrite.

  18. Internal inertia-gravity waves in the tropical lower stratosphere observed by the Arecibo radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maekawa, Y.; Kato, S.; Fukao, S.; Sato, T.; Woodman, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    A quasi-periodic wind oscillation with an apparent 20-50 hour period was observed at between 16 and 20 km in every experiment conducted during three periods from 1979 to 1981 with the Arecibo UHF radar. The wave disappeared near 20 km, where the mean zonal flow had easterly shear with height. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of wave absorption at a critical level, and it is suggested that the wave had a westward horizontal phase speed of 10-20 m/sec. On the basis of a relationship from f-plane theory in which the Doppler-shifted wave frequency approaches the Coriolis frequency at the critical level, an intrinsic period and horizontal wavelength at the wave-generated height of 20-30 hours and about 2000 km, respectively, are inferred.

  19. Determining fine-structure parameters for tungsten powder and filings by harmonic analysis of x-ray diffraction lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchik, A.E.; Moshkina, T.I.; Osmakov, A.S.

    1986-12-01

    Evidence has been accumulating on determining fine-structure parameters by line shape harmonic analysis (LSHA) although many aspects remain unresolved. In this paper, the authors discuss the interpretations afresh, on-going improvements in x-ray techniques, in recording methods, and in processing the data, as well as in programs for determining the parameters by LSHA. The authors selected tungsten because of its bcc lattice, whose diffraction peaks are widely separated, which almost completely rules out their overlapping even if there is considerable broadening, such as is produced by large plastic strain. The material was produced in two ways: by firing a tungsten single crystal and by grinding VChDK tungsten powder in a laboratory vibration mill for 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 h.

  20. Radar clutter via ray methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappert, R. A.

    1990-05-01

    In a recent study, radar clutter results calculated via waveguide methods were compared with Tappert's backscatter results generated by using parabolic equation and Monte Carlo methods. For the geometries and environments considered, the waveguide results generally broke down for ranges less than about 8 kilometers. In this study, ray methods, along with results of first order scatter theory, are used to calculate clutter for ranges applicable to direct illumination. The latter includes those close in ranges not accessible via waveguide methods. Ray theory comparisons with Tappert's results and waveguide results are given at 9.6 gigahertzs for the standard atmosphere, and for 14 and 28 meters evaporation ducts. Results apply to wind speeds of 10, 20, 30, and 40 knots at a transmitter altitude of 25 meters.