Science.gov

Sample records for 0-10 10-20 20-30

  1. General Music 10-20-30. Guide to Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lorraine, Ed.

    In Canada's province of Alberta, senior high school General Music 10-20-30 is a sequence of courses for students who are interested in a broad spectrum of musical experiences within a nonperformance-based environment but not interested in specializing in choral or instrumental performance. General Music 10, 20, and 30 courses are offered for 3 or…

  2. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners.

    PubMed

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup of runners (n = 18). 10-20-30 improved 5-K time (38 s) and lowered systolic BP (2 ± 1 mmHg). For hypertensive subjects in 10-20-30 (n = 30), systolic and diastolic BP was lowered by 5 ± 4 and 3 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, which was a greater reduction than in the non-hypertensive subjects (n = 102). 10-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily implemented training intervention improving endurance performance, VO2max and lowering BP in recreational runners, but does not affect muscle morphology and reduces muscle VEGF.

  3. Accounting 10-20-30. Senior High School Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This manual is intended to help teachers meet the objectives of the 1985 Alberta, Canada, Accounting 10-20-30 curriculum. The manual is organized in nine sections. The first section introduces the curriculum and lists the course objectives, and the following section provides a flowchart of the accounting modules. Information on planning the…

  4. Computer Processing 10-20-30. Business Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This curriculum guide is one of nine such guides developed for an Alberta high school business education program. Its content covers the main subject area or strand of computer processing. Subject to the constraints outlined in the guide, the modules are to be formatted into three- or four-credit courses within each strand. Introductory materials…

  5. Japanese Language and Culture 10-20-30: Guide to Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton (Canada). Curriculum Standards Branch.

    This teacher's guide provides an innovative program of studies for teaching Japanese at the secondary level, featuring a content-based curriculum, an integrated approach, results (outcomes)-based orientation, and the use of language for effective interaction. This guide provides teachers with suggestions for designing and planning a Japanese…

  6. 29 CFR 20.30 - Multiple debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Multiple debts. 20.30 Section 20.30 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 20.30 Multiple debts. When collecting multiple debts by administrative offset, agencies should apply the recovered amounts to those debts,...

  7. Physics 20-30: Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Presented in English and French, Physics 20-30 is an academic program that helps students better understand and apply fundamental concepts and skills. The major goals of the program are: (1) to develop in students an understanding of the interconnecting ideas and principles that transcend and unify the natural science disciplines; (2) to provide…

  8. Chemistry 20-30: Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Presented in English and French, Chemistry 20-30 is an academic program that helps students in Alberta, Canada, better understand and apply fundamental concepts and skills. The major goals of the program are: (1) to develop in students an understanding of the interconnecting ideas and principles that transcend and unify the natural science…

  9. Biology 20-30: Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Presented in English and French, Biology 20-30 is an academic program that helps students in Alberta, Canada, better understand and apply fundamental concepts and skills. The major goals of the program are: (1) to develop in students an understanding of the interconnecting ideas and principles that transcend and unify the natural science…

  10. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.30 Applicability. The provisions of this subpart of the regulations apply to the III System and the FIRS, and to duly authorized local, state,...

  11. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.30 Applicability. The provisions of this subpart of the regulations apply to the III System and the FIRS, and to duly authorized local, state,...

  12. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.30 Applicability. The provisions of this subpart of the regulations apply to the III System and the FIRS, and to duly authorized local, state,...

  13. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.30 Applicability. The provisions of this subpart of the regulations apply to the III System and the FIRS, and to duly authorized local, state,...

  14. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.30 Applicability. The provisions of this subpart of the regulations apply to the III System and the FIRS, and to duly authorized local, state,...

  15. 46 CFR 42.20-30 - Correction for depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Correction for depth. 42.20-30 Section 42.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-30 Correction for depth. (a) Where D exceeds L 1/15 the freeboard shall be increased by...

  16. 46 CFR 42.20-30 - Correction for depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Correction for depth. 42.20-30 Section 42.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-30 Correction for depth. (a) Where D exceeds L 1/15 the freeboard shall be increased by...

  17. 15 CFR 30.20-30.24 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 30.20-30.24 Section 30.20-30.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements §§ 30.20-30.24...

  18. 15 CFR 30.20-30.24 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 30.20-30.24 Section 30.20-30.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements §§ 30.20-30.24...

  19. 15 CFR 30.20-30.24 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 30.20-30.24 Section 30.20-30.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements §§ 30.20-30.24...

  20. 15 CFR 30.20-30.24 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 30.20-30.24 Section 30.20-30.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements §§ 30.20-30.24...

  1. 15 CFR 30.20-30.24 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 30.20-30.24 Section 30.20-30.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements §§ 30.20-30.24...

  2. Marketing 20-30. Senior High School Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This manual is intended to help teachers meet the objectives of the 1985 Alberta, Canada, Marketing 20-30 curriculum. The manual is organized in six sections. The first section contains introductory information on the Marketing 20-30 curriculum, including course objectives and a flowchart of the modules in the marketing course. Planning the course…

  3. The 20/30 GHz satellite systems technology needs assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G.; Wright, D.

    1978-01-01

    Rain attenuation in the 20/30 GHz bands, and the resultant impact on system user costs were estimated for a variety of satellite communication system concepts. Results of previous and current NASA Lewis contractual and in-house studies on system design are reported as well as market studies conducted to evaluate the concepts and test their relevancy against forecasted market needs. The 20/30 GHz bands appear attractive economically and, with certain technology, appear to offer a virtually unlimited spectrum resource. This attractiveness is especially relevant to high density trunking where there is sufficient traffic to justify dual-station site diversity.

  4. Chemistry 20-30: Background, Exemplars and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Desiree; And Others

    This document is designed to provide practical information for teaching the Chemistry 20-30 Program of Studies. The first section provides an overview of Chemistry 20, explaining the program philosophy and the relationships among science, technology, and society. The use of concept connections and teaching a course around major science themes is…

  5. Physics 20-30 Background, Exemplars and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Desiree; And Others

    This document is designed to provide practical information for teaching the Physics 20-30 Program of Studies. The first section provides an overview of Physics 20, explaining the program philosophy and the selection and sequencing of topics. The use of concept connections and teaching a course around the science themes are described, as well as…

  6. Future mobile satellite communication concepts at 20/30 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, S. K.; Norbury, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The outline of a design of a system using ultra small earth stations (picoterminals) for data traffic at 20/30 GHz is discussed. The picoterminals would be battery powered, have an RF transmitter power of 0.5 W, use a 10 cm square patch antenna, and have a receiver G/T of about -8 dB/K. Spread spectrum modulation would be required (due to interference consideration) to allow a telex type data link (less than 200 bit/s data rate) from the picoterminal to the hub station of the network and about 40 kbit/s on the outbound patch. An Olympus type transponder at 20/30 GHz could maintain several thousand simultaneous picoterminal circuits. The possibility of demonstrating a picoterminal network with voice traffic using Olympus is discussed together with fully mobile systems based on this concept.

  7. Future mobile satellite communication concepts at 20/30 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, S. K.; Norbury, J. R.

    The outline of a design of a system using ultra small earth stations (picoterminals) for data traffic at 20/30 GHz is discussed. The picoterminals would be battery powered, have an RF transmitter power of 0.5 W, use a 10 cm square patch antenna, and have a receiver G/T of about -8 dB/K. Spread spectrum modulation would be required (due to interference consideration) to allow a telex type data link (less than 200 bit/s data rate) from the picoterminal to the hub station of the network and about 40 kbit/s on the outbound patch. An Olympus type transponder at 20/30 GHz could maintain several thousand simultaneous picoterminal circuits. The possibility of demonstrating a picoterminal network with voice traffic using Olympus is discussed together with fully mobile systems based on this concept.

  8. 10 CFR 10.20 - Purpose of the procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose of the procedures. 10.20 Section 10.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.20 Purpose of...

  9. 10 CFR 10.20 - Purpose of the procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purpose of the procedures. 10.20 Section 10.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.20 Purpose of...

  10. 10 CFR 10.20 - Purpose of the procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purpose of the procedures. 10.20 Section 10.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.20 Purpose of...

  11. 10 CFR 10.20 - Purpose of the procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose of the procedures. 10.20 Section 10.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.20 Purpose of...

  12. 10 CFR 10.20 - Purpose of the procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose of the procedures. 10.20 Section 10.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.20 Purpose of...

  13. Antennas for 20/30 GHz and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. Harry; Wong, William C.; Hamada, S. Jim

    1989-01-01

    Antennas of 20/30 GHz and higher frequency, due to the small wavelength, offer capabilities for many space applications. With the government-sponsored space programs (such as ACTS) in recent years, the industry has gone through the learning curve of designing and developing high-performance, multi-function antennas in this frequency range. Design and analysis tools (such as the computer modelling used in feedhorn design and reflector surface and thermal distortion analysis) are available. The components/devices (such as BFN's, weight modules, feedhorns and etc.) are space-qualified. The manufacturing procedures (such as reflector surface control) are refined to meet the stringent tolerance accompanying high frequencies. The integration and testing facilities (such as Near-Field range) also advance to facilitate precision assembling and performance verification. These capabilities, essential to the successful design and development of high-frequency spaceborne antennas, shall find more space applications (such as ESGP) than just communications.

  14. 24 CFR 10.20 - Petition for rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petition for rulemaking. 10.20 Section 10.20 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...: (1) Be submitted to the Rules Docket Clerk, Room 5218, Department of Housing and Urban...

  15. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  16. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  17. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  18. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  19. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  20. 21 CFR 20.30 - Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information Staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information Staff. 20.30 Section 20.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.30 Food and Drug Administration Freedom...

  1. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  2. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  3. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  4. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  5. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  6. Gastric Fluid and Heat Stress Response of Listeria monocytogenes Inoculated on Frankfurters Formulated with 10%, 20%, and 30% Fat Content

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Han, Sung Gu; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of frankfurter fat content on Listeria monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and gastric fluid, and the Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency of the pathogen. A 10-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated on frankfurters formulated with 10%, 20%, and 30% fat content (10%: F10, 20%: F20, 30%: F30) and stored at 10℃ for 30 d. The samples were analyzed for L. monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and a simulated gastric fluid challenge. The total bacteria and L. monocytogenes survival rates were measured on tryptic soy agar plus 0.6% yeast extract and Palcam agar, respectively. L. monocytogenes colonies inoculated on F10, F20, and F30 samples were used for a Caco-2 cell invasion assay. In general, no obvious differences were observed between the survival rates of total bacteria and L. monocytogenes grown on different fat contents under heat stress and gastric fluid challenge. However, L. monocytogenes obtained from the F30 samples had a significantly higher Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency than those in the F10 and F20 samples (p<0.05). These results indicate that although high fat content in food may not be related to L. monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and gastric fluid, it may increase the Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency of the pathogen. PMID:26760741

  7. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... scientific data and evidence as may be necessary to establish the suitability of such materials or methods of... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods...

  8. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientific data and evidence as may be necessary to establish the suitability of such materials or methods of... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods...

  9. 46 CFR 190.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 190.10-20 Section 190.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking door giving access to either of the two required means of escape except that...

  10. 46 CFR 92.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 92.10-20 Section 92.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the two required means of escape, except that...

  11. 46 CFR 190.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 190.10-20 Section 190.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking door giving access to either of the two required means of escape except that...

  12. 46 CFR 92.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 92.10-20 Section 92.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the two required means of escape, except that...

  13. 46 CFR 72.10-20 - No means for locking door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false No means for locking door. 72.10-20 Section 72.10-20... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-20 No means for locking door. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the 2 required means of escape, except that crash doors or...

  14. 46 CFR 72.10-20 - No means for locking door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No means for locking door. 72.10-20 Section 72.10-20... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-20 No means for locking door. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the 2 required means of escape, except that crash doors or...

  15. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  16. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  17. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  18. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  19. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  20. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patches in shells and tube sheets. 59.10-20 Section 59... § 59.10-20 Patches in shells and tube sheets. (a) Unreinforced openings in the shells or drums of... vessels are met. (b) Portions of tube sheets which have deteriorated may be renewed by replacing...

  1. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patches in shells and tube sheets. 59.10-20 Section 59... § 59.10-20 Patches in shells and tube sheets. (a) Unreinforced openings in the shells or drums of... vessels are met. (b) Portions of tube sheets which have deteriorated may be renewed by replacing...

  2. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patches in shells and tube sheets. 59.10-20 Section 59... § 59.10-20 Patches in shells and tube sheets. (a) Unreinforced openings in the shells or drums of... vessels are met. (b) Portions of tube sheets which have deteriorated may be renewed by replacing...

  3. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patches in shells and tube sheets. 59.10-20 Section 59... § 59.10-20 Patches in shells and tube sheets. (a) Unreinforced openings in the shells or drums of... vessels are met. (b) Portions of tube sheets which have deteriorated may be renewed by replacing...

  4. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patches in shells and tube sheets. 59.10-20 Section 59... § 59.10-20 Patches in shells and tube sheets. (a) Unreinforced openings in the shells or drums of... vessels are met. (b) Portions of tube sheets which have deteriorated may be renewed by replacing...

  5. 28 CFR 0.10 - Attorney General's Advisory Committee of U.S. Attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Associate Attorney General in formulating new programs for improvement of the criminal justice... U.S. Attorneys. 0.10 Section 0.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.10 Attorney General's Advisory Committee of...

  6. 28 CFR 0.10 - Attorney General's Advisory Committee of U.S. Attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Associate Attorney General in formulating new programs for improvement of the criminal justice... U.S. Attorneys. 0.10 Section 0.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.10 Attorney General's Advisory Committee of...

  7. 28 CFR 0.10 - Attorney General's Advisory Committee of U.S. Attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Associate Attorney General in formulating new programs for improvement of the criminal justice... U.S. Attorneys. 0.10 Section 0.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.10 Attorney General's Advisory Committee of...

  8. 28 CFR 0.10 - Attorney General's Advisory Committee of U.S. Attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Associate Attorney General in formulating new programs for improvement of the criminal justice... U.S. Attorneys. 0.10 Section 0.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.10 Attorney General's Advisory Committee of...

  9. 28 CFR 0.10 - Attorney General's Advisory Committee of U.S. Attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Associate Attorney General in formulating new programs for improvement of the criminal justice... U.S. Attorneys. 0.10 Section 0.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.10 Attorney General's Advisory Committee of...

  10. A multi-purpose satellite service at 20/30 GHz - Opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Leslie

    1992-03-01

    The suitability of developing high-frequency bands is evaluated with particular attention given to the use of the 20/30-GHz band for satellite voice, data, and video communications. Crowding in the C- and Ku-band frequencies allocated to fixed-satellite services is examined in the light of continuing growth, and the benefits of establishing general-satellite services (GSSs) are listed. NASA's ACTS program and private GSS systems are delineated and shown to offer high-data-rate fixed-communications antennas and technologies suitable for multiple services. The Norstar satellite is described as an example of a GSS system, and the technical characteristics are given. In spite of technical, operational, and regulatory challenges presented by the development of GSS systems, a GSS allocation can enable the International Telecommunications Union to be proactive in its spectrum/orbit allocations.

  11. The possibilities for mobile and fixed services up to the 20/30 GHz frequency bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Clifford D.; Feliciani, F.; Spiller, J.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite Communications and broadcasting is presently in a period of considerable change. In the fixed service there is strong competition from terrestrial fiber optic systems which have virtually arrested the growth of the traditional satellite market for long distance high capacity communications. The satellite has however made considerable progress in areas where it has unique advantages; for example, in point to multipoint (broadcasting), multipoint to point (data collection) and generally in small terminal system applications where flexibility of deployment coupled with ease of installation are of importance. In the mobile service, in addition to the already established geostationary systems, there are numerous proposals for HEO, MEO and LEO systems. There are also several new frequency allocations as a result of the WARC 92 to be taken into account. At one extreme there are researchers working on Ka band 20/30 GHz mobile systems and there are other groups who foresee no future above the L-band frequency allocations. Amongst all these inputs it is difficult to see the direction in which development activities both for satellites and for earth segment should be focused. However, as an aid to understanding, this paper seeks to find some underlying relationships and to clarify some of the variables.

  12. The possibilities for mobile and fixed services up to the 20/30 GHz frequency bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Clifford D.; Feliciani, F.; Spiller, J.

    Satellite Communications and broadcasting is presently in a period of considerable change. In the fixed service there is strong competition from terrestrial fiber optic systems which have virtually arrested the growth of the traditional satellite market for long distance high capacity communications. The satellite has however made considerable progress in areas where it has unique advantages; for example, in point to multipoint (broadcasting), multipoint to point (data collection) and generally in small terminal system applications where flexibility of deployment coupled with ease of installation are of importance. In the mobile service, in addition to the already established geostationary systems, there are numerous proposals for HEO, MEO and LEO systems. There are also several new frequency allocations as a result of the WARC 92 to be taken into account. At one extreme there are researchers working on Ka band 20/30 GHz mobile systems and there are other groups who foresee no future above the L-band frequency allocations. Amongst all these inputs it is difficult to see the direction in which development activities both for satellites and for earth segment should be focused. However, as an aid to understanding, this paper seeks to find some underlying relationships and to clarify some of the variables.

  13. Two cases of partial trisomy 10q syndrome due to a familial 10;20 translocation.

    PubMed

    Tüysüz, B; Hacihanefioglu, S; Silahtaroglu, A; Yilmaz, S; Deviren, A; Cenani, A

    2000-01-01

    We describe an eleven day-old boy and his first degree double cousin who both have distal trisomy 10q syndrome. Their cytogenetic analysis using GTG-banding showed an unbalanced translocation 46, XY, -20, +der(20), t(10;20)(q22.3, p11) mat and 46, XX, -20, +der(20), t(10;20)(q22.3, p11) mat. The translocation was confirmed by FISH. We have found balanced translocation t(10;20)(q22.3; p11) with cytogenetic and FISH studies in the mothers and maternal grandfather of these children. Our cases had typical craniofacial and visceral anomalies of this syndrome. However case 1 had an agenesia of corpus callosum which was not previously described and case 2 had hypertrophied cardiomyopathy and cliteromegaly which were previously described as rare anomalies for this syndrome.

  14. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing provisions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25... of space stations to operate in a specified number of orbital planes. (c) In addition to providing... applicant for a space station in the Fixed-Satellite Service operating in the 20/30 GHz band if...

  15. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing provisions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25... covering a specified number of space stations to operate in a specified number of orbital planes. (c) In... applicant for a space station in the Fixed-Satellite Service operating in the 20/30 GHz band if...

  16. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25... covering a specified number of space stations to operate in a specified number of orbital planes. (c) In... applicant for a space station in the fixed-satellite service operating in the 20/30 GHz band if...

  17. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25... covering a specified number of space stations to operate in a specified number of orbital planes. (c) In... applicant for a space station in the fixed-satellite service operating in the 20/30 GHz band if...

  18. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25... covering a specified number of space stations to operate in a specified number of orbital planes. (c) In... applicant for a space station in the fixed-satellite service operating in the 20/30 GHz band if...

  19. An Aeronautical-Mobile 20/30 GHz Satellite-Tracking Antenna for High Data Rate Satcom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Densmore, A.; Guler, M.

    1995-01-01

    An antenna for use on an aircraft has been developed and tested for transmissions to and from a communications satellite. The antenna operates at 20/30 GHz and a data rate of 512 kbps, and it does not require modifying the shape of the aircraft fuselage.

  20. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  1. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  2. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  3. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  4. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  5. An experimental 20/30 GHz communications satellite conceptual design employing multiple-beam paraboloid reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A. M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental 20/30 GHz communications satellite conceptual design is described which employs multiple-beam paraboloid reflector antennas coupled to a TDMA transponder. It is shown that the satellite employs solid state GaAs FET power amplifiers and low noise amplifiers while signal processing and switching takes place on-board the spacecraft. The proposed areas to be served by this satellite would be the continental U.S. plus Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as southern Canada and Mexico City. Finally, attention is given to the earth stations which are designed to be low cost.

  6. Accurate whole genome sequencing and haplotyping from10-20 human cells

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brock A.; Kermani, Bahram G.; Sparks, Andrew B.; Alferov, Oleg; Hong, Peter; Alexeev, Andrei; Jiang, Yuan; Dahl, Fredrik; Tang, Y. Tom; Haas, Juergen; Robasky, Kimberly; Zaranek, Alexander Wait; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Ball, Madeleine Price; Peterson, Joseph E.; Perazich, Helena; Yeung, George; Liu, Jia; Chen, Linsu; Kennemer, Michael I.; Pothuraju, Kaliprasad; Konvicka, Karel; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, Mike; Pant, Krishna P.; Ebert, Jessica C.; Nilsen, Geoffrey B.; Baccash, Jonathan; Halpern, Aaron L.; Church, George M.; Drmanac, Radoje

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in whole genome sequencing have brought the vision of personal genomics and genomic medicine closer to reality. However, current methods lack clinical accuracy and the ability to describe the context (haplotypes) in which genome variants co-occur in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe a low-cost DNA sequencing and haplotyping process, Long Fragment Read (LFR) technology, similar to sequencing long single DNA molecules without cloning or separation of metaphase chromosomes. In this study, ten LFR libraries were made using only ~100 pg of human DNA per sample. Up to 97% of the heterozygous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were assembled into long haplotype contigs. Removal of false positive SNVs not phased by multiple LFR haplotypes resulted in a final genome error rate of 1 in 10 Mb. Cost-effective and accurate genome sequencing and haplotyping from 10-20 human cells, as demonstrated here, will enable comprehensive genetic studies and diverse clinical applications. PMID:22785314

  7. Room Temperature Antiferromagnetic Ordering of Nanocrystalline Tb1.90Ni0.10O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, J.; Dalal, M.; Sarkar, B. J.; Chakrabarti, P. K.

    2017-02-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni-doped terbium oxide (Tb1.90Ni0.10O3) has been synthesized by the co-precipitation method followed by annealing at 700°C for 6 h in vacuum. The crystallographic phase and the substitution of Ni2+ ions in the lattice of Tb2O3 are confirmed by Rietveld analysis of the x-ray diffraction pattern using the software MAUD. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is also carried out to study the morphology of the sample. Magnetic measurements are carried out at different temperatures from 5 K to 300 K using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The dependence of the magnetization of Tb1.90Ni0.10O3 as a function of temperature ( M- T) and magnetic field ( M- H) suggests the presence of both paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature, but antiferromagnetic phase dominates below ˜120 K. The lack of saturation in the M- H curve and good fitting of the M- T curve by the Johnston formula also indicate the presence of both paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature. Interestingly, an antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition is observed below ˜40 K. The result also shows a high value of magnetization at 5 K.

  8. Measuring 10-20 T magnetic fields in single wire explosions using Zeeman splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasek, J. T.; Engelbrecht, J. T.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.

    2016-10-01

    We have shown that the Zeeman splitting of the sodium (Na) D-lines at 5890 Å and 5896 Å can be used to measure the magnetic field produced by the current flowing in an exploding wire prior to wire explosion. After wire explosion, the lines in question are either not visible in the strong continuum from the exploding wire plasma, or too broad to measure the magnetic field by methods discussed in this paper. We have determined magnetic fields in the range 10-20 T, which lies between the small field and Paschen-Back regimes for the Na D-lines, over a period of about 70 ns on a 10 kA peak current machine. The Na source is evaporated drops of water with a 0.171 M NaCl solution deposited on the wire. The Na desorbs from the wire as it heats up, and the excited vapor atoms are seen in emission lines. The measured magnetic field, determined by the Zeeman splitting of these emission lines, estimates the average radial location of the emitting Na vapor as a function of time under the assumption the current flows only in the wire during the time of the measurement.

  9. Extensional Lower Cretaceous volcanism in the Coastal Range (29°20'-30°S), Chile: geochemistry and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morata, D.; Aguirre, L.

    2003-12-01

    Lower Cretaceous volcanism in the Coastal Range (29°20'-30°S) of Chile is mainly represented by highly porphyritic (20-30% phenocrysts) lavas with unzoned Ca-rich plagioclase (An 57-54Ab 40-42Or 3-4), clinopyroxene (Wo 40En 43Fs 17), magnetite, and minor idiomorphic, altered olivines. Geochemically, these lavas are characterized by a relative homogeneity with high Al 2O 3 and low MgO contents, and classified as high-K to shoshonitic basaltic andesites to andesites generated in an intra-arc extensional setting due to oblique subduction. Their isotopic geochemistry is characterized by highly homogeneous low initial Sr ratios (( 87Sr/ 86Sr) 0˜0.7036) and positive ɛNd values ( ɛNd=+2.9 to +4.7 ( 143Nd/ 144Nd) 0˜0.5127) that are very different from those proposed as representative of 'Andean-type' magmatism. A non-Andean modern setting dominated by subduction associated with intra-arc extension is proposed. On a ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) 0 versus ɛNd diagram, these lavas fit a model mixing curve for which the end members are Pacific MORB and Jurassic plutonic rocks from the Coastal Range. Coeval granitoids from the Coastal Range and lavas from the High Andes plot on the same field. Isotopically depleted mafic magmas could be metasomatized by the subducted sediments, which would increase their LILE content, and then partially contaminated by Jurassic plutonic rocks. The genesis of this magmatism may be related to a global low-spreading rate of 5 cm yr -1 in the southeast Pacific during 125-110 Ma.

  10. Rovibrational bound states of SO2 isotopologues. I: Total angular momentum J = 0-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen; Ellis, Joseph; Poirier, Bill

    2015-04-01

    Isotopic variation of the rovibrational bound states of SO2 for the four stable sulfur isotopes 32-34,36S is investigated in comprehensive detail. In a two-part series, we compute the low-lying energy levels for all values of total angular momentum in the range J = 0-20. All rovibrational levels are computed, to an extremely high level of numerical convergence. The calculations have been carried out using the ScalIT suite of parallel codes. The present study (Paper I) examines the J = 0-10 rovibrational levels, providing unambiguous symmetry and rovibrational label assignments for each computed state. The calculated vibrational energy levels exhibit very good agreement with previously reported experimental and theoretical data. Rovibrational energy levels, calculated without any Coriolis approximations, are reported here for the first time. Among other potential ramifications, this data will facilitate understanding of the origin of mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes in the Archean rock record-of great relevance for understanding the "oxygen revolution".

  11. Semi-automatic 10/20 Identification Method for MRI-Free Probe Placement in Transcranial Brain Mapping Techniques.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiang; Zhu, Hao; Liu, Wei-Jie; Yu, Xiao-Ting; Duan, Lian; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The International 10/20 system is an important head-surface-based positioning system for transcranial brain mapping techniques, e.g., fNIRS and TMS. As guidance for probe placement, the 10/20 system permits both proper ROI coverage and spatial consistency among multiple subjects and experiments in a MRI-free context. However, the traditional manual approach to the identification of 10/20 landmarks faces problems in reliability and time cost. In this study, we propose a semi-automatic method to address these problems. First, a novel head surface reconstruction algorithm reconstructs head geometry from a set of points uniformly and sparsely sampled on the subject's head. Second, virtual 10/20 landmarks are determined on the reconstructed head surface in computational space. Finally, a visually-guided real-time navigation system guides the experimenter to each of the identified 10/20 landmarks on the physical head of the subject. Compared with the traditional manual approach, our proposed method provides a significant improvement both in reliability and time cost and thus could contribute to improving both the effectiveness and efficiency of 10/20-guided MRI-free probe placement.

  12. Semi-automatic 10/20 Identification Method for MRI-Free Probe Placement in Transcranial Brain Mapping Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiang; Zhu, Hao; Liu, Wei-Jie; Yu, Xiao-Ting; Duan, Lian; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The International 10/20 system is an important head-surface-based positioning system for transcranial brain mapping techniques, e.g., fNIRS and TMS. As guidance for probe placement, the 10/20 system permits both proper ROI coverage and spatial consistency among multiple subjects and experiments in a MRI-free context. However, the traditional manual approach to the identification of 10/20 landmarks faces problems in reliability and time cost. In this study, we propose a semi-automatic method to address these problems. First, a novel head surface reconstruction algorithm reconstructs head geometry from a set of points uniformly and sparsely sampled on the subject's head. Second, virtual 10/20 landmarks are determined on the reconstructed head surface in computational space. Finally, a visually-guided real-time navigation system guides the experimenter to each of the identified 10/20 landmarks on the physical head of the subject. Compared with the traditional manual approach, our proposed method provides a significant improvement both in reliability and time cost and thus could contribute to improving both the effectiveness and efficiency of 10/20-guided MRI-free probe placement. PMID:28190997

  13. 17 CFR 240.0-10 - Small entities under the Securities Exchange Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Small entities under the Securities Exchange Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. 240.0-10 Section 240.0-10 Commodity... Regulatory Flexibility Act. For purposes of Commission rulemaking in accordance with the provisions...

  14. 17 CFR 240.0-10 - Small entities under the Securities Exchange Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Small entities under the Securities Exchange Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. 240.0-10 Section 240.0-10 Commodity... Regulatory Flexibility Act. For purposes of Commission rulemaking in accordance with the provisions...

  15. 17 CFR 270.0-10 - Small entities under the Investment Company Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Small entities under the Investment Company Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. 270.0-10 Section 270.0-10 Commodity... Regulatory Flexibility Act. (a) General. For purposes of Commission rulemaking in accordance with...

  16. 17 CFR 270.0-10 - Small entities under the Investment Company Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Small entities under the Investment Company Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. 270.0-10 Section 270.0-10 Commodity... Regulatory Flexibility Act. (a) General. For purposes of Commission rulemaking in accordance with...

  17. 17 CFR 240.0-10 - Small entities under the Securities Exchange Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Small entities under the Securities Exchange Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. 240.0-10 Section 240.0-10 Commodity... Regulatory Flexibility Act. For purposes of Commission rulemaking in accordance with the provisions...

  18. 17 CFR 270.0-10 - Small entities under the Investment Company Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Small entities under the Investment Company Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. 270.0-10 Section 270.0-10 Commodity... Regulatory Flexibility Act. (a) General. For purposes of Commission rulemaking in accordance with...

  19. 17 CFR 240.0-10 - Small entities under the Securities Exchange Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Small entities under the Securities Exchange Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. 240.0-10 Section 240.0-10 Commodity... Regulatory Flexibility Act. For purposes of Commission rulemaking in accordance with the provisions...

  20. 17 CFR 270.0-10 - Small entities under the Investment Company Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Small entities under the Investment Company Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. 270.0-10 Section 270.0-10 Commodity... Regulatory Flexibility Act. (a) General. For purposes of Commission rulemaking in accordance with...

  1. 17 CFR 270.0-10 - Small entities under the Investment Company Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Small entities under the Investment Company Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. 270.0-10 Section 270.0-10 Commodity... Regulatory Flexibility Act. (a) General. For purposes of Commission rulemaking in accordance with...

  2. Effects of CS Agents on Vegetation. II. Field and Screening Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-01

    10 Brassica rapa L.. turnip 30-50 50-70 Browallia speciosa Hook., browallia 0-10 10-20 Campanula medium L., Canterbury bells 10-20 20-30 Capsicum...Althaea rosea Cay., hollyhock a- 10 10-20 Arachis hypogaea L., peanut 10-20 10-20 Beta ’ulgaris L., beet 10-20 10-20 Brassica oleracea L, cabbage 0-10 0

  3. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Bi{sub 0.90}La{sub 0.10}Fe{sub 0.90}Co{sub 0.10}O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Muneeswaran, M.; Giridharan, N. V.; Bhuvaneswari, S.; Senguttuvan, G.

    2014-04-24

    Multiferroic Bi{sub 0.90}La{sub 0.10}Fe{sub 0.90}Co{sub 0.10}O{sub 3} ceramics have been synthesized via soft chemical co-precipitation method. From the X-ray diffraction analysis, ceramic powder sintered at 600°C was found to be single phase belonging to the rhombohedral structure with R3c space group confirmed by Rietveld analysis. Further, dielectric, Leakage and magnetic studies were performed at room temperature.

  4. 17 CFR 240.0-10 - Small entities under the Securities Exchange Act for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... purposes of a particular rulemaking proceeding, the term small business or small organization shall: (a... “issuer” or “person” that, on the last day of its most recent fiscal year, had total assets of $5 million... the meaning ascribed to those terms by § 270.0-10 of this chapter; (c) When used with reference to...

  5. Catalytic behaviour and copper leaching of Cu0.10Zn0.90Al1.90Fe0.10O4 spinel for catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aihua; Sun, Chenglin

    2012-06-01

    A Cu0.10Zn0.90Al1.90Fe0.10O4 spinel catalyst prepared by the sol-gel method was tested for catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol. The catalyst showed high activity for phenol degradation. During successive test at 170 degrees C, 100% phenol conversion and 95% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were observed. Results from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the catalyst structure remained unchanged during reaction. From the analysis of temperature programmed reduction (TPR), diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra (DR UV-Vis) and activity assay at basic solution pH, it can be suggested that the highly dispersed copper ions on the catalyst surface were almost completely dissolved into the reaction solution, whereas the tetra-coordinated copper ions were not only stable against leaching but also active towards phenol degradation.

  6. Photoluminescence properties of Y0.75-xGdxAl0.10BO3:Eu3+0.10, 0.05R3+ (R = Sc, Bi) (0.00 <= x <= 0.45)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Yu-Hua; Dong, Qi-Zheng; Liu, Ji-Di

    2010-06-01

    Y0.75-xGdxAl0.10BO3:Eu3+0.10, 0.05R3+ (R = Sc, Bi) (0.00 <= x <= 0.45) powder samples are prepared by solid-state reaction and their luminescence properties are investigated. With the replacement of Y3+ ions by Sc3+ (or Bi3+) and Gd3+ ions in (Y,Al)BO3:Eu, the intensities of emission at 254 and 147 nm are remarkably improved, because Sc3+ ions can absorb UV light and transfer the energy to Eu3+ ions efficiently. Moreover, Gd3+ and Bi3+ ions act as an intermediate “bridge" between the sensitizer and the activator (Eu3+) in energy transfer to produce light in the (Y, Gd)BO3:Bi3+, Eu3+ system more effectively. After doping an appropriate concentration of Gd3+ into Y0.50Gd0.25Al0.10BO3:Eu3+0.01, Bi3+0.05, the emission intensity reaches its maximum, which is nearly 110% compared with the red commercial phosphor (Y,Gd)BO3:Eu and better chromaticity coordinates (0.650, 0.350) are obtained.

  7. Elastic scattering and vibrational excitation of CO2 by 4, 10, 20 and 50 eV electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.; Nishimura, H.

    1980-01-01

    Elastic and vibrationally inelastic differential, integral and momentum-transfer cross sections for electrons scattered by CO2 molecules are reported at 4, 10, 20 and 50 eV impact energies. The elastic cross sections are placed on an absolute scale by means of a relative flow technique. The inelastic cross sections are normalised to the elastic ones by using the inelastic to elastic intensity ratios. Data are reported for up to ten features in the 0.0 to 0.4 eV energy-loss region.

  8. Study I: effects of 0.06% and 0.10% blood alcohol concentration on human postural control.

    PubMed

    Modig, F; Patel, M; Magnusson, M; Fransson, P A

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol intoxication causes many accidental falls presented at emergency departments, with the injury severity often related to level of blood alcohol concentration (BAC). One way to evaluate the decline in postural control and the fall risk is to assess standing stability when challenged. The study objective was to comprehensively investigate alcohol-related impairments on postural control and adaptive motor learning at specific BAC levels. Effects of alcohol intoxication at 0.06% and 0.10% BAC were examined with posturography when unperturbed or perturbed by calf vibration. Twenty-five participants (mean age 25.1 years) were investigated standing with either eyes open or closed. Our results revealed several significant findings: (1) stability declined much faster from alcohol intoxication between 0.06% and 0.10% BAC (60-140%) compared with between 0.0% and 0.06% BAC (30%); (2) sustained exposure to repeated balance perturbations augmented the alcohol-related destabilization; (3) there were stronger effects of alcohol intoxication on stability in lateral direction than in anteroposterior direction; and (4) there was a gradual degradation of postural control particularly in lateral direction when the balance perturbations were repeated at 0.06% and 0.10% BAC, indicating adaptation deficits when intoxicated. To summarize, alcohol has profound deteriorating effects on human postural control, which are dose dependent, time dependent and direction specific. The maximal effects of alcohol intoxication on physiological performance might not be evident initially, but may be revealed first when under sustained sensory-motor challenges.

  9. Synthetic undecapeptide (NTX10-20) of noxiustoxin blocks completely the I(A) potassium currents of cerebellum granular cells.

    PubMed

    Frau, A; Pisciotta, M; Gurrola, G B; Possani, L D; Prestipino, G

    2001-01-01

    Native noxiustoxin (NTX) and synthetic peptides corresponding to its primary sequence, from positions 1-9, 1-14, 1-20, 10-20, 21-39 and 30 39, were prepared and assayed on the K+ currents of cerebellum granular cells, using the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration system. Native toxin has a reversible inhibitory effect (IC50 = 360 nM), whereas synthetic peptides NTXI-20 and NTX1-9 had a half-effective dose IC50 of approximately 2 and 10 microM, respectively, which correlates with their biological effects in vivo. Synthetic peptide NTX10-20 was quite remarkable in having a preference for the IA current, which was completely inhibited at high peptide concentration. The effects of the other peptides (NTXI 14, NTX21-39 and NTX30-39), although positive and reversible, required higher concentrations (50 200 microM) to block both currents, suggesting no affinity or, at least, much lower specificity for the channels responsible for the potassium currents in the granular cells studied.

  10. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air and its products of combustion with ASTMA-A-1 fuel and natural gas at 20, 30, and 40 atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The isentropic exponent, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy were calculated for air, the combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air, and the combustion products of natural gas and air. The properties were calculated over a temperature range from 300 to 2800 K in 100 K increments and for pressures of 20, 30 and 40 atmospheres. The data for natural gas and ASTM-A-1 were calculated for fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric in 0.01 increments.

  11. Preparation of UC0.07-0.10N0.90-0.93 spheres for TRISO coated fuel particles

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Jack Lee; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Johnson, Jared A; Silva, Chinthaka M; Lindemer, Terrence

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is considering a new nuclear fuel, which should be much more impervious during a loss of coolant accident. The fuel would consist of tristructural isotropic coated particles with dense uranium nitride (UN) kernels. The objectives of this effort are to make uranium oxide microspheres with adequately dispersed carbon nanoparticles and to convert these microspheres into UN kernels. Recent improvements to internal gelation process were successfully applied to the production of uranium gel spheres with different concentrations of carbon black. After the spheres were washed, a simple, two-step heat profile was used to produce kernels with a chemical composition of UC0.07 0.10N0.90 0.93. The first step involved heating the microspheres to 2023 K in a vacuum, and in the second step, the microspheres were held at 1873 K for 6 hrs in nitrogen.

  12. Magnetic phase transition of nanocrystalline Fe-doped samarium oxide (Sm1.90Fe0.10O3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, J.; Sarkar, B. J.; Deb, A. K.; Chakrabarti, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe3+ doped samarium oxide (Sm1.90Fe0.10O3) has been prepared by the co-precipitation method. The as prepared sample has been annealed at 700 °C for 6 h in an argon atmosphere. The pure crystallographic phase as well as the substitution of Fe3+ ions in the lattice of Sm2O3 is confirmed by Rietveld analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns. The variation of magnetic susceptibility (χ) with temperature (T) is recorded by a Faraday Magnetometer in the temperature range of 300-14 K. The variation of χ vs. T down to ~50 K was successfully fitted by the Curie-Weiss law and below this temperature, susceptibility increases very rapidly, which suggests the presence of ordering at low temperature. To explore this, magnetic measurements are also carried out at different temperatures down to 2 K by using a SQUID Magnetometer. No hysteretic behavior is observed down to 50 K, but a feeble ferromagnetic behavior is observed in the magnetization vs. field curve recorded at ~30 K. A clear hysteresis loop is observed at 2 K with a comparatively high value of maximum magnetization (~3.32 emu/gm). The observed magnetic phase transition is analyzed by using the dipole-dipole interaction among the magnetic nanoparticles at low temperature.

  13. Preparation of UC0.07-0.10N0.90-0.93 spheres for TRISO coated fuel particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, R. D.; Silva, C. M.; Lindemer, T. B.; Johnson, J. A.; Collins, J. L.

    2014-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering a new nuclear fuel that would be less susceptible to ruptures during a loss-of-coolant accident. The fuel would consist of tristructural isotropic coated particles with dense uranium nitride (UN) kernels with diameters of 650 or 800 μm. The objectives of this effort are to make uranium oxide microspheres with adequately dispersed carbon nanoparticles and to convert these microspheres into UN spheres, which could be then sintered into kernels. Recent improvements to the internal gelation process were successfully applied to the production of uranium gel spheres with different concentrations of carbon black. After the spheres were washed and dried, a simple two-step heat profile was used to produce porous microspheres with a chemical composition of UC0.07-0.10N0.90-0.93. The first step involved heating the microspheres to 2023 K in a vacuum, and in the second step, the microspheres were held at 1873 K for 6 h in flowing nitrogen.

  14. Effect of oral olive oil on healing of 10-20% total body surface area burn wounds in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Najmi, Mahtab; Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Zahra; Tolouei, Mohammad; Amiri, Zohreh

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of oral olive oil on clinical outcomes and wound healing of thermally injured patients with hospital stays. One hundred patients (mean age; 33.34±7 years) with 10-20% total body surface area, deep second degree and more burn wounds were randomized to receive either oral olive oil or sunflower oil as the oil in their diet. Patients were evaluated daily for occurrence of wound infection, sepsis and healing of the grafted skin. Also the duration of hospitalization and admission to the intensive care unit were compared in two groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the olive oil group and the control group in percent of TBSA involvement (14.28±0.53 vs. 13.02±0.48, P=0.7), albumin concentration (3.25±0.5 vs. 3.13±0.5, P=0.5) and mean calorie intake (2034±216.9 kcal vs2118±192.1 kcal, P=0.2). We found a significant difference in the duration of wound healing (7.2±0.5 vs. 8.7±0.5, P=0.04) and duration of hospitalization (7.4±0.5 vs. 8.9±0.4, P=0.05) in the olive oil group versus the control group. We did not find any difference in ICU admission, wound infection and occurrence of sepsis between two groups. This study showed that an oral diet provided with olive oil in patients with burn may accelerate wound healing and decrease the duration of hospitalization.

  15. Cost of owning and operating a 9-32-0/10-34-0 facility. [Ammonium polyphosphate base suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    This analysis specifies the relative economics of a 20-ton per hour combination 9-32-0/10-34-0 plant for a midwest location. The major points are: (A) Initial investment in on-site plant and equipment ranges from $192,000 to $242,000 (excluding storage costs) depending on use of fluid clay or dry clay respectively. Storage costs are a major cost outlay depending on scheduling of raw materials and final products. When storage and off-site costs such as truck scales, office building, and spare parts inventory were added, initial investment was from $356,000 (using fluid clay) to $406,000 (using dry clay). Since storage costs may be conservative, a total investment of $450,000 to $500,000 appears reasonable for planning purposes. (B) Annualized costs show raw materials as the predominant cost factor. For a 20-ton per hour plant, operated between 5000 tpy and 11,000 tpy, raw materials cost account for 81 to 89 percent of total annual costs. (C) Expected delivered phosphoric acid prices (1984) used in the analysis were $3.65 per unit (Ortho) and $4.56 per unit (Super). With a 60/40 annual production ratio in producing 10-34-0/9-32-0, the weighted break-even price ranged from $202 per ton for a 5000 tpy volume to $184 per ton for an 11,000 tpy volume. When revenues for the final product were set at $210 per ton for 10-34-0 and $183 per ton for 9-32-0, the breakeven volume was between 5000 and 6000 tons per year. As price estimates for the final products go down, this break-even volume will increase if everything else remains the same. (D) Although these estimates suggest economic feasibility for volumes above the breakeven point, this feasibility is highly sensitive to raw material cost and final product prices. Thus, quotes on prices and tonnages should not be divorced from assumptions on raw materials and revenues. 1 reference, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  16. Feedback of 10-20-day intraseasonal oscillations on seasonal mean SST in the tropical Western North Pacific during boreal spring through fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang

    2016-09-01

    The present study documents the factors for year-to-year changes in the intensity of 10-20-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) and investigates the feedback of the 10-20-day ISO intensity on seasonal mean sea surface temperature (SST) change in the tropical western North Pacific during boreal spring through fall. An analysis of local correlation reveals a significant negative correlation of the 10-20-day ISO intensity and the seasonal mean SST tendency in the tropical western North Pacific during spring, summer, and fall, suggesting a plausible feedback of the ISO intensity on seasonal mean SST anomaly. The 10-20-day ISO intensity change over the tropical western North Pacific is influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) through modulation of vertical shear of zonal winds, lower-level moisture, and upward motion. Due to the phase dependence of location of these ENSO-induced background field changes, the ISO intensity is subject to ENSO influence in different regions during the three seasons. The feedback of the 10-20-day ISO intensity on local seasonal mean SST change in the tropical western North Pacific is demonstrated by separating latent heat flux anomalies into components on different time scales. The ISO-induced latent heat flux anomalies may accumulate in a season and overcome interannual anomalies due to seasonal mean changes. Thus, the ISO-induced surface heat flux change may play an important role in the seasonal mean SST anomaly in the tropical western North Pacific.

  17. Ground-based atmospheric water vapor monitoring system with spectroscopy of radiation in 20-30 GHz and 50-60 GHz bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaki, Takeo; Tajima, Osamu; Araki, Kentaro; Ishimoto, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We propose a novel ground-based meteorological monitoring system. In the 20{30 GHz band, our system simultaneously measures a broad absorption peak of water vapor and cloud liquid water. Additional observation in the 50{60 GHz band obtains the radiation of oxygen. Spectral results contain vertical profiles of the physical temperature of atmospheric molecules. We designed a simple method for placing the system atop high buildings and mountains and on decks of ships. There is a simple optical system in front of horn antennas for each frequency band. A focused signal from a reflector is separated into two polarized optical paths by a wire grid. Each signal received by the horn antenna is amplified by low-noise amplifiers. Spectra of each signal are measured as a function of frequency using two analyzers. A blackbody calibration source is maintained at 50 K in a cryostat. The calibration signal is led to each receiver via the wire grid. The input path of the signal is selected by rotation of the wire grid by 90°, because the polarization axis of the reflected path and axis of the transparent path are orthogonal. We developed a prototype receiver and demonstrated its performance using monitoring at the zenith.

  18. Contrast of 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal SST propagation during summer and winter over the South China Sea and western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xi; Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng

    2017-02-01

    This study documents the structure and propagation of intraseasonal sea surface temperature (SST) variations and relative contribution of surface latent heat flux and shortwave radiation to the SST propagation in the South China Sea (SCS) and western North Pacific (WNP) regions. The emphasis is on the contrast of intraseasonal SST propagation between summer and winter and between 10-20-day and 30-60-day time scales. The dominant SST pattern during summer displays a tilted southwest-northeast band from the SCS to the subtropical WNP on both time scales, but with a larger value in the subtropical WNP on the 10-20-day time scale and in the SCS on the 30-60-day time scale. The dominant SST pattern during winter resembles that during summer, but with a larger value in the SCS. In summer, the SST anomalies show obvious northwestward and northward propagations in the SCS-WNP region on the 10-20-day and 30-60-day time scales, respectively. The cloud-radiation effect is a dominant factor for the SST propagation on both time scales in the SCS-WNP region, with a supplementary effect from the wind-evaporation effect on the 10-20-day time scale. In winter, the SST anomalies show southward propagation on both time scales in the SCS, while the southward propagation in the WNP is weak and confined to the subtropics on the 10-20-day time scale. The wind-evaporation effect makes a larger contribution to the SST propagation than the cloud-radiation effect on both time scales in the SCS-WNP region.

  19. Reconnaissance of chemical and physical characteristics of selected bottom sediments of the Caloosahatchee River and estuary, tributaries, and contiguous bays, Lee County, Florida, July 20-30, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario; Marot, M.E.; Holmes, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes a reconnaissance study, conducted July 20-30, 1998, of chemical and physical characteristics of recently deposited bottom sediments in the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary. Recently deposited sediments were identified using an isotopic chronometer, Beryllium-7 (7Be), a short-lived radioisotope. Fifty-nine sites were sampled in an area that encompasses the Caloosahatchee River (River) about three miles upstream from the Franklin Lock (S-79), the entire tidally affected length of the river (estuary), and the contiguous water bodies of Matlacha Pass, San Carlos Bay, Estero Bay, Tarpon Bay, and Pine Island Sound in Lee County, Florida. Bottom sediments were sampled for 7Be at 59 sites. From the results of the 7Be analysis, 30 sites were selected for physical and chemical analysis. Sediments were analyzed for particle size, total organic carbon (TOC), trace elements, and toxic organic compounds, using semiquantitative methods for trace elements and organic compounds. The semiquantitative scans of trace elements indicated that cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations, when normalized to aluminum, were above the natural background range at 24 of 30 sites. Particle size and TOC were used to characterize sediment deposition patterns and organic content. Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CaPAHs) were determined at 30 sites using immunoassay analysis. The semiquantitative immunoassay analyses of toxic organic compounds indicated that all of the samples contained DDT, cyclodienes as chlordane (pesticides), and CaPAHs. PCBs were not detected. Based on analyses of the 30 sites, sediments at 10 of these sites were analyzed for selected trace elements and toxic organic compounds, including pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs, using quantitative laboratory procedures. No arsenic or cadmium was detected. Zinc was detected at two sites with concentrations greater than the lower limit of the range of

  20. Performance of a Small Internal Combustion Engine Using N-Heptane and Iso-Octane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Figure 7. Throttle input percentage vs. butterfly angle ........................................ 25 Figure 8. Small engine LabView program...box. Figure 7 shows the input throttle percentage versus the angle of the throttle butterfly valve. The raw throttle data that is recorded is the...input percentage, not the Figure 7. Throttle input percentage vs. butterfly angle 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Th ro

  1. Lamb Wave Propagation in a Restricted Geometry Composite PI-Joint Specimen (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    increased, where for example the use of scanning laser vibrometry ( SLV ) has been used very effectively to identify propagating 0 10 20 30 40 50 60...A single bonded piezoelectric sensor disk was used to generate Lamb waves in the sample for the SLV measurements at the same location on the top... SLV Model 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Time (usec) A m pl itu de (a .u .) SLV Model FIGURE 7. Comparison of finite element model and scanning

  2. Size evolution of nanomagnetic particles and magnetotransport properties of (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 nanogranular films: influence of Cu80Ag15Au5 underlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öksüzoğlu, Ramis Mustafa; Meshcheryakov, Vladimir F.; Ayas, Erhan

    2012-06-01

    The influence of (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 film thickness and of Cu80Ag15Au5 underlayer on nanomagnetic, magnetotransport and structural properties of (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 nanogranular films prepared by ultra-high vacuum ion beam sputtering technique have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity and vibrating sample magnetometer. Films indicate a superparamagnetic behavior. The evolution of the magnetic particle size in (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 film with different thicknesses was calculated by fit of magnetization curves using Langevin equation. A parallel resistance model has been used to determine particle size distribution. The average (mean) particle sizes range from 1.6 to 2.1 nm. A linear dependence of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) on the particle size has been found. This result is also supported by the observed linear correlation between the square root of the effective magnetization and the particle size. Furthermore, a linear correlation between the square of GMR and the distance between particles has been found. This remains unchanged also in (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 films with Cu80Ag15Au5 underlayer. Using of the underlayer leads to an enhancement of the mean particle size (1.8-2.5 nm) and GMR; however, to a reduction of distances between particles accompanied by the destruction of the <111> texture in the Ag matrix structure. The reason of the GMR effect in the nanogranular films is discussed by means of the obtained results.

  3. High temperature x-ray diffraction studies on antiferroelectric and ferroelectric phase transitions in (Pb1-xBax)ZrO3 (x=0.05,0.10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokharel, Bhadra P.; Pandey, Dhananjai

    2001-09-01

    We have carried out high temperature x-ray diffraction studies on (Pb1-xBax)ZrO3(PBZ) to correlate the large thermal hysteresis (˜100 °C for x=0.05) and irreversibility (for x=0.10) of the antiferroelectric (AFE)-ferroelectric (FE) phase transition observed in dielectric measurements with structural changes. It is shown that for both the compositions, the sequence of phase transitions during heating is orthorhombic antiferroelectric (AO) to rhombohedral ferroelectric (FR) and then to cubic paraelectric (PC). The wide phase coexistence region (˜80 °C for x=0.05 and ˜160 °C for x=0.10) and the arrest of the FR to AO transition for x=0.10 during cooling strongly indicate first order character of the AO-FR transition. It is shown that the transformation strains associated with the AO to FR transition increases with Ba2+ concentration from a value of 0.6% for x=0 to 0.9% for 0.10. Similarities of the AO-FR transition in PBZ with nonthermoelastic martensitic transformations are pointed out. The FR to PC transition is also shown to be first order but with a small thermal hysteresis (˜10 °C) and a small discontinuous change in the cell volume (˜0.5%).

  4. Cycling Stability Performance of La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 Hydrogen Storage Alloy in Discharge-Charge System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaojiang; Huang, Lei; Wan, Qi; Li, Xu; Guang, Ma; Li, Ping

    2014-12-01

    La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 hydrogen storage alloy was prepared by vacuum induction melting furnace and subsequently heated treatment at 940°C for 8 h and cooled to room temperature in the oven. The electrochemical properties of La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 compound were measured by LAND CT2001A battery test system. The morphologies of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface state of samples was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the charge-discharge rate plays the key impact on the cycling stability of the alloy. During the cycle test, the prepared La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 compound presented an excellent capacity retention at the charge-discharge of 1 C while the capacity of sample declined rapidly at 0.2 C. The excellent cycling stability performance of La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 electrode at 1 C could be attributed to the less powder and less oxidation of surface effective active elements. The pulverization inevitably leads to the separation of the part of the cracking alloy and the electrode, resulting in reduction of the effective active substance and increasing attenuation of the capacity per cycle. In addition, on the analysis of the different cut-off potential effects on the electrode, it was found that the La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 electrode shows good comprehensive electrochemical properties at 1 C cut-off 0.6-0.7 V. During charging, heavy overcharge will not be conducive to cycling stability performance during the charging test.

  5. 10/20, 10/10, and 10/5 systems revisited: their validity as relative head-surface-based positioning systems.

    PubMed

    Jurcak, Valer; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Dan, Ippeita

    2007-02-15

    With the advent of multi-channel EEG hardware systems and the concurrent development of topographic and tomographic signal source localization methods, the international 10/20 system, a standard system for electrode positioning with 21 electrodes, was extended to higher density electrode settings such as 10/10 and 10/5 systems, allowing more than 300 electrode positions. However, their effectiveness as relative head-surface-based positioning systems has not been examined. We previously developed a virtual 10/20 measurement algorithm that can analyze any structural MR head and brain image. Extending this method to the virtual 10/10 and 10/5 measurement algorithms, we analyzed the MR images of 17 healthy subjects. The acquired scalp positions of the 10/10 and 10/5 systems were normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) stereotactic coordinates and their spatial variability was assessed. We described and examined the effects of spatial variability due to the selection of positioning systems and landmark placement strategies. As long as a detailed rule for a particular system was provided, it yielded precise landmark positions on the scalp. Moreover, we evaluated the effective spatial resolution of 329 scalp landmark positions of the 10/5 system for multi-subject studies. As long as a detailed rule for landmark setting was provided, 241 scalp positions could be set effectively when there was no overlapping of two neighboring positions. Importantly, 10/10 positions could be well separated on a scalp without overlapping. This study presents a referential framework for establishing the effective spatial resolutions of 10/20, 10/10, and 10/5 systems as relative head-surface-based positioning systems.

  6. Pressure distributions obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the space shuttle Orbiter's forebody in the AEDC 16T propulsion wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Henry, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Pressure distribution test data obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the forward fuselage of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are presented without analysis. The tests were completed in the AEDC 16T Propulsion Wind Tunnel. The 0.10-scale model was tested at angles of attack from -2 deg to 18 deg and angles of side slip from -6 to 6 deg at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1/5 deg. The tests were conducted in support of the development of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS). In addition to modeling the 20 SEADS orifices, the wind-tunnel model was also instrumented with orifices to match Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) port locations that existed on the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (OV-102) during the Orbiter Flight Test program. This DFI simulation has provided a means of comparisons between reentry flight pressure data and wind-tunnel and computational data.

  7. Ozone concentration and pulmonary response relationships for 6. 6-hour exposures with five hours of moderate exercise to 0. 08, 0. 10, and 0. 12 ppm

    SciTech Connect

    Horstman, D.H.; Folinsbee, L.J.; Ives, P.J.; Abdul-Salaam, S.; McDonnell, W.F. )

    1990-11-01

    The magnitudes of pulmonary responses we previously observed (1) following 6.6-h exposures to 0.12 ppm ozone (O3) suggested that responses would also occur with similar exposures at lower O3 concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of pulmonary function decrements, respiratory discomfort, and increased airway reactivity to methacholine induced by exposure to O3 below 0.12 ppm. Separate 6.6-h chamber exposures to 0.00, 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12 ppm O3 included six 50-min periods of moderate exercise (VE approximately equal to 39 L/min, HR approximately equal to 115 bpm, and VO2 approximately equal to 1.5 L/min). Each exercise period was followed by 10 min of rest. A 35-min lunch break was included midway through the exposure. Although not intended as an exact simulation, the overall duration, intensity, and metabolic requirements of the exercise performed were representative of a day of moderate to heavy work or play. Preexposure FEV1 averaged 4.39 L, and essentially no change (+0.03 L) occurred with exposure to 0.00 ppm O3. Significant decreases (p less than 0.01) of -0.31, -0.30, and -0.54 L were observed with exposures to 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12 ppm, respectively. The provocative dose of methacholine required to increase airway resistance by 100% (PD100) was 58 cumulative inhalation units (CIU) following exposure to 0.00 ppm and was significantly reduced (p less than 0.01) to 37 CIU at 0.08, 31 CIU at 0.10, and 26 CIU at 0.12 ppm O3; reductions in PD100 are considered indicative of increases in nonspecific airway responsiveness.

  8. Surface photovoltage investigations of Cd 1-xMn xTe for x = 0.01 and 0.10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuźmiński, S.; Szaynok, A. T.

    1988-07-01

    Surface photovoltage investigations of Cd 1- xMn xTe monocrystals for x = 0.01 and 0.10 were performed in the temperature range between 100 and 300 K with a modified Kelvin method at a pressure of 10 -5 Pa. The surfaces with orientation (110) were ground, polished with "Gamal", and rinsed in acetone and alcohol. Three types of effects were observed on the surface spectroscopy curves: A sharp increase in photovoltage, connected with the electron band-to-band transitions for a photon energy equal to the energy gap. Photovoltage quenching attributed to the existence of surface states with energy just above the edge of the valence band. Increase in photovoltage in the range between 0.9 and 1.0 eV resulting from electron transitions between the valence band and energy states connected with manganese ions.

  9. Investigation of dielectric and electrical behaviour of nanocrystalline Zn1-xMnxO (x=0 to 0.10) semiconductors synthesized by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, S.; Sain, S.; Mandal, M. K.; Pradhan, S. K.; Meikap, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    The results on the measurement of electric and dielectric behaviour and capacitance-voltage characteristics of Zn1-xMnxO (x=0 to 0.10) nanocrystalline semiconductors are reported. Direct current conductivity increases with the increase Mn concentration and its thermal behavior can be explained by adiabatic polaronic hopping model. The alternating current conductivity obeys a power law of temperature and frequency. The temperature exponent p strongly depends on Mn concentration. The temperature dependence of frequency exponent s suggests that the overlapping large polaron conduction model is the appropriate conduction mechanism for the investigated samples. The interfacial boundaries and grain contribution to the dielectric properties can be identified by the analysis of complex impedance. Relaxation behaviour of the samples can be explained from the analysis of the electric modulus. Formation of Schottky diode can be described from capacitance-voltage characteristic of the samples and different diode parameters can be extracted from it.

  10. Influence of sodium doping on the electrical and magnetic properties of La0.90Li0.10MnO3 manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, H. F.

    2017-02-01

    Monovalent perovskite manganites La0.90Li0.10-xNaxMnO3 were synthesized by using the solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure analysis presented that the samples are a single-phase rhombohedral (R 3 bar c) structure with no detectable impurity phases. Magnetic measurement showed a cusp at a certain temperature TC/F that gradually disappeared with adding the Na content. The samples undergo ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition, accompanying the metal-semiconductor transition at Tms. There is irreversible on low field M (T)ZFC and M (T)FC curves which gradual decrease with increasing the Na doping. The resistivity values decreased and the Tms increased as doping of sodium increased. In addition, two-transition temperature Tms appeared just by adding the sodium. In short, the influence of partial substitution of lithium by sodium at A-site cation of lanthanum manganite on its physical properties was studied.

  11. Reactions in 1,1,1-trifluoroacetone triggered by low energy electrons (0-10 eV): from simple bond cleavages to complex unimolecular reactions.

    PubMed

    Illenberger, Eugen; Meinke, Martina C

    2014-08-21

    The impact of low energy electrons (0-10 eV) to 1,1,1-trifluoroacetone yields a variety of fragment anions which are formed via dissociative electron attachment (DEA) through three pronounced resonances located at 0.8 eV, near 4 eV, and in the energy range 8-9 eV. The fragment ions arise from different reactions ranging from the direct cleavage of one single or double bond (formation of F(-), CF3(-), O(-), (M-H)(-), and M-F)(-)) to remarkably complex unimolecular reactions associated with substantial geometric and electronic rearrangement in the transitory intermediate (formation of OH(-), FHF(-), (M-HF)(-), CCH(-), and HCCO(-). The ion CCH(-), for example, is formed by an excision of unit from the target molecule through the concerted cleavage of four bonds and recombination to H2O within the neutral component of the reaction.

  12. Ozone-concentration and pulmonary-response relationships for 6. 6-hour exposures with five hours of moderate exercise to 0. 08, 0. 10, and 0. 12 ppm

    SciTech Connect

    Horstman, D.H.; Folinsbee, L.J.; Ives, P.J.; Salaam, S.A.; McDonnell, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    The magnitudes of pulmonary responses the authors previously observed (1) following 6.6-h exposure to 0.12 ppm ozone (O{sub 3}) suggested that responses would also occur with similar exposures at lower O{sub 3} concentrations. The objective of the study was to determine the extent of pulmonary function decrements, respiratory discomfort, and increased airway reactivity to methacholine induced by exposure to O{sub 3} below 0.12 ppm. Separate 6.6-h chamber exposures to 0.00, 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12 ppm O3 included six 50-min periods of moderate exercise (VE = 39 L/min, HR = 115 bpm, and VO2 = 1.5 L/min). Each exercise period was followed by 10 min of rest. A 35-min lunch break was included midway through the exposure. Although not intended as an exact simulation, the overall duration, intensity, and metabolic requirements of the exercise performed were representative of a day of moderate to heavy work or play. Preexposure FEV, averaged 4.39 L, and essentially no change (+0.03 L) occurred with exposure to 0.00 ppm O{sub 3}. Significant decreases (p<0.01) of -0.31, -0.30, and -0.54 L were observed with exposures to 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12 ppm, respectively. The study concludes that exposure to O{sub 3} at levels often found in ambient air while engaged in activity representative of a typical day of moderate to heavy work or play induced clinically meaningful pulmonary responses.

  13. Gene Expression Responses Linked to Reproduction Effect Concentrations (EC10,20,50,90) of Dimethoate, Atrazine and Carbendazim, in Enchytraeus albidus

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Sara C.; De Coen, Wim; Amorim, Mónica J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Molecular mechanisms of response to pesticides are scarce and information on such responses from soil invertebrates is almost inexistent. Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) is a standard soil ecotoxicology model species for which effects of many pesticides are known on survival, reproduction and avoidance behaviour. With the recent microarray development additional information can be retrieved on the molecular effects. Methodology/Principal Findings Experiments were performed to investigate the transcription responses of E. albidus when exposed to three pesticides – dimethoate (insecticide), atrazine (herbicide) and carbendazim (fungicide) – in a range of concentrations that inhibited reproduction by 10%, 20%, 50% and 90% (EC10, EC20, EC50 and EC90, respectively). The goal of this study was to further identify key biological processes affected by each compound and if dose-related. All three pesticides significantly affected biological processes like translation, regulation of the cell cycle or general response to stress. Intracellular signalling and microtubule-based movement were affected by dimethoate and carbendazim whereas atrazine affected lipid and steroid metabolism (also by dimethoate) or carbohydrate metabolism (also by carbendazim). Response to DNA damage/DNA repair was exclusively affected by carbendazim. Conclusions Changes in gene expression were significantly altered after 2 days of exposure in a dose-related manner. The mechanisms of response were comparable with the ones for mammals, suggesting across species conserved modes of action. The present results indicate the potential of using gene expression in risk assessment and the advantage as early markers. PMID:22558331

  14. Neighbourhood risk factors for Common Mental Disorders among young people aged 10-20 years: a structured review of quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Sarah; Pain, Rachel; Fuller, Sara; Khatib, Yasmin; Rothon, Catherine; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Daya, Shari

    2013-03-01

    We present a critical review of research concerning the vulnerability of mental health of young people in the 10-20 year age range to neighbourhood factors that are theoretically associated with increased risk of Common Mental Disorders (CMDs). We interpreted 'neighbourhood factors' as attributes and processes in the local social and physical environment that young people inhabit, beyond the immediate household. We conducted an extensive search, and a structured method of assessment of the research papers that met our search criteria. We draw conclusions about the research evidence on this topic and identify issues needing further discussion and investigation. We focus particularly on quantitative research that aims to measure these relationships. We note that parallel to this research, a significant body of qualitative research on the geographical experiences of young people (though not specifically on their mental health) offers a rich source of background information to illuminate the statistical findings. We conclude with some reflections on the future challenges for research in this field.

  15. Experimental and numerical investigations of radiation characteristics of Russian portable/compact pulsed neutron generators: ING-031, ING-07, ING-06 and ING-10-20-120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernikova, D.; Romodanov, V. L.; Belevitin, A. G.; Afanas`ev, V. V.; Sakharov, V. K.; Bogolubov, E. P.; Ryzhkov, V. I.; Khasaev, T. O.; Sladkov, A. A.; Bitulev, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    The present paper discusses results of full-scale experimental and numerical investigations of influence of construction materials of portable pulsed neutron generators ING-031, ING-07, ING-06 and ING-10-20-120 (VNIIA, Russia) to their radiation characteristics formed during and after an operation (shutdown period). In particular, it is shown that an original monoenergetic isotropic angular distribution of neutrons emitted by TiT target changes into the significantly anisotropic angular distribution with a broad energy spectrum stretching to the thermal region. Along with the low-energetic neutron part, a significant amount of photons appears during the operation of generators. In the pulse mode of operation of neutron generator, a presence of the construction materials leads to the "tailing" of the original neutron pulse and the appearance of an accompanying photon pulse at ~ 3 ns after the instant neutron pulse. In addition to that, reactions of neutron capture and inelastic scattering lead to the creation of radioactive nuclides, such as 58Co, 62Cu, 64Cu and 18F, which form the so-called activation radiation. Thus, the selection of a portable neutron generator for a particular type of application has to be done considering radiation characteristics of the generator itself. This paper will be of interest to users of neutron generators, providing them with valuable information about limitations of a specific generator and with recommendations for improving the design and performance of the generator as a whole.

  16. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Cognitive Function Profile of Rupatadine 10, 20 and 40 mg in Healthy Japanese Subjects: A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Täubel, Jörg; Ferber, Georg; Fernandes, Sara; Lorch, Ulrike; Santamaría, Eva; Izquierdo, Iñaki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rupatadine is a marketed second generation antihistamine, with anti-PAF activity, indicated for symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), safety and tolerability of rupatadine in healthy Japanese subjects after single and multiple oral doses. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 27 male and female healthy Japanese subjects were administered single and multiple escalating rupatadine dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg or placebo. Blood samples were collected at different time points for PK measurements and subjects were assessed for safety and tolerability. The effect of rupatadine on cognitive functioning was evaluated by means of computerized cognitive tests: rapid visual information processing (RVP), reaction time (RT), spatial working memory (SWM) and visual analogue scales (VAS). Results Exposure to rupatadine as measured by Cmax and AUC was found to increase in a dose dependent manner over the dose range of 10–40 mg for both single and multiple dose administration. The safety assessments showed that all treatment related side effects were of mild intensity and there were no serious adverse events (SAEs) or withdrawals due to treatment–emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in this study. The therapeutic dose of rupatadine did not show any CNS impairment in any of the cognitive tests. Conclusions This study demonstrated that rupatadine is safe and well tolerated by Japanese healthy subjects. The PK-PD profile confirmed previous experience with rupatadine. PMID:27632557

  17. Structural and dynamic electromagnetic properties of Ni0.27 Cu0.10 Zn0.63 Alx Fe2-x O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossen, M. Belal; Hossain, A. K. M. Akther

    2015-08-01

    The influence of Al substitution on the structural and electromagnetic properties of Ni0.27Cu0.10Zn0.63AlxFe2 - xO4; (where x = 0.0 to x = 0.16 with step = 0.02) prepared by the combustion technique, has been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the presence of single phase cubic spinel structure without any secondary phase. The lattice constant, theoretical density, bulk density and average grain size decreases with increasing Al content. B-H loops have been traced for all the compositions and the various hysteresis parameters like saturation induction, coercivity, remanance, remanance ratio and power loss have been studied as a function of Al content. The saturation induction and the initial permeability increases with sintering temperature up to 1150 °C where the maximum bulk density is obtained, while for higher sintering temperature they decrease. The variation of complex initial permeability for Al substituted NiCuZn ferrites can be presented as a form of semicircle so called the Cole-Cole plot and the relaxation phenomena were explained with various shapes of the plots. The analysis of complex impedance spectra by an equivalent circuit model were used to separate the grain and grain boundary resistance of various Ni0.27 Cu0.10 Zn0.63 Alx Fe2 - x O4 . The impedance plot showed the first semicircle at high frequency which corresponds to grain effect and the second semicircle at lower frequency which corresponds to grain boundary (conduction phenomenon). Both grain and grain boundary resistance increases with increasing Al content and the relative increase of grain resistance is larger than the grain boundary resistance. The frequency dependent conductivity results support the double (Jonscher's modified) power law,σT (ω) = σ (o) +A1 ω n1 +A2 ω n2 , and the results showed evidence of three types of conduction process at room temperature: (i) low frequency conductivity is due to long-range ordering (frequency independent or its tendency

  18. Pressure distributions obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter's forebody in the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Henry, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Pressure distribution test data obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the forward fuselage of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are presented without analysis. The tests were completed in the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The UPWT tests were conducted in two different test sections operating in the continuous mode, the 8 x 7 feet and 9 x 7 feet test sections. Each test section has its own Mach number range, 1.6 to 2.5 and 2.5 to 3.5 for the 9 x 7 feet and 8 x 7 feet test section, respectively. The test Reynolds number ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 x 10 to the 6th power ft and 0.6 to 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power ft, respectively. The tests were conducted in support of the development of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS). In addition to modeling the 20 SEADS orifices, the wind-tunnel model was also instrumented with orifices to match Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) port locations that existed on the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102) during the Orbiter Flight test program. This DFI simulation has provided a means for comparisons between reentry flight pressure data and wind-tunnel and computational data.

  19. Effect of yttrium on microstructure, dielectric, ferroelectric and optical properties of BaZr0.10Ti0.90O3 nanoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Patel, Piyush; Yadav, K. L.

    2014-06-01

    Y3+ doped barium zirconium titanate Ba(1-3x/2)Yx(Zr0.10Ti0.90)O3 ceramics were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Single phase compounds were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Morphological analysis shows that the addition of Y3+ content inhibits the grain growth and remarkably changes the dielectric and ferroelectric properties. The temperature dependence of dielectric constant shows a change due to the material's diffuse phase transition, with a shift of the Curie temperature towards room temperature. High dielectric constant (~7937) with low dielectric loss (~0.05) was found for x=0.01 composition at Curie temperature. The diffusivity parameter was calculated as a function of Y3+ content and diffuseness was found to increase with increasing Y3+ content. The remnant polarization shows a slight increase up to x=0.01 composition and then decreases with increasing Y3+ content. The UV-visible optical absorption spectra show that the band gap increases from 3.71 eV to 3.96 eV with increasing Y3+ content.

  20. Structural and dielectric studies of Bi (Ni0.45Ti0.45Fe0.10) O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nitin; Shukla, Alok; Choudhary, R. N. P.; Behera, C.

    2016-05-01

    In the present investigation, a solid solution of BiFeO3 and NiTiO3 i.e., Bi(Ni0.45Ti0.45Fe0.10)O3 (abbreviation is BNTF) have been synthesized using a solid-state reaction technique. Structural and dielectric properties of BNTF ceramics have been studied in details to understand their properties. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis confirm the formation of a new system, which is different from that of its parent compounds. Substitution of a small amount of NiTiO3 into BiFeO3 enhances dielectric and ferroelectric properties, and reduces electrical leakage current or tangent loss. It was shown by XRD that at room temperature structure of the compound is of single-phase with tetragonal symmetry. Some electrical characteristics (dielectric constant and loss) studied over a wide frequency (1 kHz-1 MHz) and temperature (25-400°C) ranges have provided many more interesting information useful for devices.

  1. Identifying the sources of ferromagnetism in sol-gel synthesized Zn1-xCoxO (0≤x≤0.10) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, J. J.; Barrero, C. A.; Punnoose, A.

    2016-08-01

    We have carefully investigated the structural, optical and electronic properties and related them with changes in the magnetism of sol-gel synthesized Zn1-xCoxO (0≤x≤0.10) nanoparticles. Samples with x≤0.05 were free of spurious phases. Samples with x≤0.03 were found to be with only high spin Co2+ ions into ZnO structure, whereas sample with x=0.05, exhibited the presence of high spin Co2+ and low spin Co3+. We found that the intensity of the main EPR peak associated with Co2+ varies with the nominal Co content in a similar manner as the saturation magnetization and coercive field do. These results point out that the ferromagnetism in these samples should directly be correlated with the presence of divalent cobalt ions. Bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model and the charge transfer model are insufficient to explain the ferromagnetic properties of Zn1-xCoxO nanoparticles. The room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) may be originated from a combination of several factors such as the interaction of high spin Co2+ ions, perturbation/alteration and/or changes in the electronic structure of ZnO close to the valence band edge and grain boundary effects.

  2. Law 20-30: Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, John; Jackson, Landis

    Law 20, in the Alberta (Canada) educational system, is an introductory course with three core modules: (1) "Nature of Law and Civil Law System," (2) "Contract Law," and (3) "Family Law." Law 30 consists of (1) "Basic Rights and Responsibilities," (2) "Labour Law," and (3) "Property Law."…

  3. Climatic Atlas of the Outer Continental Shelf Waters and Coastal Regions of Alaska. Volume 1. Gulf of Alaska, Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    30 40 so60 700so6010 0 10 2010 40 so600 so90 100 00 020 3D0050 6070 00 D0lo0 BELATIVE RUMIDITY I%) BELATIVE HUMIDITY It) RELATIVE HUMIDITY (it...Cape St. James Tofino l. . 21617 l ’ 17921 o° 20124 ’°° 15732 90 1012.0 9 0 1013.7 go .9 1 014.5 go 90 1016.9 so90 9 s 9.2 so9.2 so7.5 o0 90 60 G0o...Marine Area D 0 10 20 30 40 500 70 so SO lo 0 10 20 30 40 S080 70O80DO r10C 0 10 20 300050 6U 70 8090o 00 0 10 20 3040 so60 10 so90 D0 1 2? 2 + + N1 2

  4. Development of ferroelectric correlations in the quantum paraelectric and antiferrodistortive regimes in BaxSr1-xTiO3 (x ≤ 0.10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassnain Jaffari, G.; Mehmood, Zahid; Iqbal, Asad M.; Hasanain, S. K.; Ismat Shah, S.

    2014-08-01

    The dielectric response ɛ ( T ) of BaxSr1-xTiO3 (x ≤ 0.1) for compositions at and below the critical composition for the ferroelectric transition has been studied. With progressive Ba substitution, the growth of ferroelectric correlations and the weakening of the Antiferrodistortive (AFD) and the quantum paraelectric (QPE) effects have been studied by monitoring the changes in both the in and out of phase parts of the dielectric response. For the compositions close to pure SrTiO3 (x = 0 and x = 0.02), the temperature dependence exhibits a continuous rise in the in-phase part and no ferroelectric peak, consistent with the QPE behavior. With increasing Ba substitution, the low temperature behavior of the in phase part ɛ ' progressively changes from a continuous rise to exhibit a weak maximum and finally to a well developed cusp. For higher Ba concentrations, the low temperature peak (T ˜ 50K), which corresponds to ferroelectric correlations, becomes increasingly sharper until at the critical composition, x = 0.10, the system shows a single well defined ferroelectric peak. However, the out of phase response of the x = 0.1 composition exhibited a succession of three BaTiO3 type ferroelectric transitions. For x ≤ 0.04, the out of phase part shows evidence of an ordering around T ˜ 100K, which is the expected AFD ordering temperature. The deviations of the ɛ ' ( T ) data from the Curie-Weiss law have been analyzed within the frame work of two different theoretical models. It was determined that the dielectric behavior for lower concentrations of Ba (up to x ≤ 0.08) was explainable in terms of a model of non-interacting regions which are themselves homogeneously polarized and undergo a second order phase transition. For the phase boundary composition, i.e., x = 0.1, on the other hand, the data are explainable in terms of the Sherrington and Kirkpatrick model which includes the effects of weak correlations between the polar regions characterized by a glassy

  5. Room temperature long range ferromagnetic ordering in Ni{sub 0.58}Zn{sub 0.42}Co{sub 0.10}Cu{sub 0.10}Fe{sub 1.8}O{sub 4} nano magnetic system

    SciTech Connect

    Sarveena, Chand, Jagdish; Verma, S.; Singh, M.; Kotnala, R. K.; Batoo, K. M.

    2015-06-24

    The structural and magnetic behavior of sol-gel autocombustion synthesized nanocrystalline Ni{sub 0.58}Zn{sub 0.42}Co{sub 0.10}Cu{sub 0.10}Fe{sub 1.8}O{sub 4} have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM). Sample of high purity and high homogeneity was obtained by calcination at low temperature (500°C) resulting in nanoparticles of average diameter ∼15nm as determined by XRD and further confirmed by TEM. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selective area diffraction (SAED) confirmed the single phase of the sample. Mössbauer results are supported by magnetization data. Well defined sextets and appearance of hysteresis at room temperature indicate the existence of ferromagnetic coupling at room temperature finding material utility in magnetic storage data. The existence of iron in ferric state confirmed by isomer shift is a clear evidence of improved magnetic properties of the present system.

  6. Developing a Framework for Control of Agile Aircraft Platforms in Autonomous Hover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    ro n, δ a (d eg ) 4 5 6...10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time, t (sec) E le va to r, δ e (d eg ) 0 5 10 15 −40 −35 −30 −25 −20 −15 −10 −5 0 Time, t (sec) A ile ro n, δ a (d eg ) 0 5...t (sec) A ile ro n, δ a (d eg ) 0 10 20 30 40 50 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 x 10 −3 Time, t (sec) R ud de r, δ r ( de g) 0 10 20 30 40 50 −1 −0.5 0 0.5

  7. Mortuary Affairs Soldiers: Early Intervention and Altering Barriers to Care for Traumatic Stress and PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    most days” in the past 2 weeks and at least 1 symptom is depressed mood or anhedonia . Goals: The training of Soldiers to: • Develop self-care skills...days” in the past 2 weeks and at least 1 symptom is depressed mood or anhedonia . PTSD and Depression (1 month post deployment) Probable PTSD (N=47... anhedonia . PTSD and Depression (1 month post deployment) Probable PTSD (N=47) Probable Depression (N=46) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% PTSD 0% 10% 20% 30% 40

  8. Identification of Tumor Rejection Antigens for Breast Cancer Using a Mouse Tumor Rejection Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Days after Tumor Implantation Tu m or S iz e (m m 3 ) 0 10 20 30 40 0 1000 2000 3000 PBS MMC Swap70...or Gsn, or irradiated whole tumor cells at day -42, -28, and -14. Live MMC cells were given subcutaneously on day 0. 0 10 20 30 40...hICD Mtv1 Mtv1 + FxyD3 Mtv1 + FxyD3 + hICD Days after MMC chalange Tu m or s iz e( m m 3) Figure 4. Multi-antigen vaccines

  9. Scientific and Engineering Studies. Compiled 1979. Coherence Estimation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    70 60 IP PINCENAGE OVIU& 7’ Ta 4343 10 2 0 0 9 6 0 0 .9CWAKOVK M&n m8d11 bn11 . n I7 .001 0 10 20 30 40 50 40 70 So90 PEIENTAO OVERLAP n&g SS. uI...120 110 0 8 70 . 160 z so 40 30 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 SO90 PENCENTAGE OVERLAP 11g. 32. Number al FFls Required ftr Overlapped Pwoceef L81 TS 4343 A

  10. Passive Acoustic Monitoring for the Detection and Identification of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    analysis for delphinid tonal calls will permit subsequent work by this investigator or others to exploit the use of whistles for classification and...the auditory scene with the exception of clutter due to burst pulses which is a topic of continued research. 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 10 20...10 20 30 40 50 time (s) fre q (k H z) tonal S pe ct ru m L ev el [d B re c ou nt s2 /H z] -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Figure 1 (color online

  11. Forecasting Flooding in the Brahmaputra and Ganges Delta of Bangladesh on Short (1-10 days), Medium (20-30 days) and Seasonal Time Scales (1-6 months)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.; Hoyos, C. D.; Hopson, T. M.; Chang, H.; Jian, J.

    2007-12-01

    Following the devastating flood years of 1998 during which 60% of Bangladesh was under water for a period of 3 months, the Climate Forecast Applications in Bangladesh (CFAB) project was formed with funding by USAID and NSF which eventually resulted in a joint project with the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) and the Bangladesh Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre. The project was organized and developed through the Georgia Institute of Technology. The aim of CFAB was to develop innovative methods of extending the warning of flooding in Bangladesh noting that there was a unique problem: India provided no upstream discharge data to Bangladesh so that before CFAB the maximum lead time of a forecast was that given by measuring river discharge at the India-Bangladesh border: no lead-time at the border and 2 days in the southern parts of the country. Given that the Brahmaputra and Ganges catchment areas had to be regarded as essentially unguaged, it was clear that innovative techniques had to be developed. On of the basic criterion was that the system should provide probabilistic forecasts in order for the Bangladeshis to assess risk. A three-tier system was developed to allow strategic and tactical decisions to be made for agricultural purposes and disaster mitigation: seasonal (1-6 months: strategic), medium range (20-30 days: strategic/tactical) and short range (1-10 days: tactical). The system that has been developed brings together for the first time operational meteorological forecasts (ensemble forecasts from ECMWF), with satellite and discharge data and a suite of hydrological models. In addition, with ADPC and FFWC we have developed an in-country forecast dispersion system that allows a rapid dissemination. The system has proven to be rather successful, especially in the short range. The flooding events of 2004 were forecast with all forecasting tiers at the respective lead time. In

  12. Ab-initio computation of electronic, and transport properties of wurtzite aluminum nitride (W-AlN) and microwave absorption properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (outer diameter 20-30 nanometers)-epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwigboji, Ifeanyi Humphrey

    In Section I, We report findings from several ab-initio, self-consistent calculations of electronic and transport properties of wurtzite aluminum nitride (w-AlN). Our calculations utilized a local density approximation (LDA) potential and the linear combination of Gaussian orbitals (LCGO). Unlike some other density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we employed the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams' method, enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). The BZW-EF method verifiably leads to the minima of the occupied energies; these minima, the low laying unoccupied energies, and related wave functions provide the most variationally and physically valid density functional theory (DFT) description of the ground states of materials under study. With multiple oxidation states of Al (Al3+ to Al) and the availability of N3- to N, the BZW-EF method required several sets of self-consistent calculations with different ionic species as input. The binding energy for (Al3+ & N3-) as input was 1.5 eV larger in magnitude than those for other input choices; the results discussed here are those from the calculation that led to the absolute minima of the occupied energies with this input. Our calculated, direct band gap for w-AlN, at the Gamma point, is 6.28 eV, in excellent agreement with the 6.28 eV experimental value at 5K. We discuss the bands, total and partial densities of states, and calculated, effective masses. In section II, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-epoxy composites with MWCNTs of outer diameters (OD) of 20-30nm was fabricated. The MWCNT loadings in the composites were controlled from 1-10 wt. %. An Agilent PNA Network analyzer was utilized in the measurements of microwave absorption (MA) properties of these MWCNTs-epoxy composites over a wide frequency range of 1-26.5GHz.The measurement results showed that MA strongly depends on MWCNTs loadings in the composites. In addition, the microwave reflection, transmission, and dielectric permittivity of the MWCNTs

  13. The nonlinear and saturable absorption characteristics of Ga0.90In0.10Se and Ga0.85In0.15Se semiconductor crystals and their amorphous thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatay, Ahmet; Aksoy, Çagla; Gul Yaglioglu, H.; Elmali, Ayhan; Kürüm, Ulaş; Ateş, Aytunç; Gasanly, Nizami

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the nonlinear and saturable absorption characteristics of Ga0.90In0.10Se and Ga0.85In0.15Se semiconductor crystals and their very thin amorphous films by open aperture (OA) Z-scan and pump-probe techniques. The linear absorption spectra indicated a blue shift in energy with increasing film thickness. This can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect. For both 4 ns and 65 ps pulse durations the two photon absorption coefficients of Ga0.90In0.10Se and Ga0.85In0.15Se crystals increased with increasing input intensities. The life time of the localized defect states was measured as 3 ns for both Ga0.90In0.10Se and Ga0.85In0.15Se films while it was around 10 ns for GaSe and InSe films. Open aperture Z-scan experiments with a 4 ns pulse duration did not exhibit any saturable absorption behavior for thin films since the life time of localized defect states was not long enough to saturate these films. Thinner films exhibited saturable absorption and thicker films exhibited nonlinear absorption for a 65 ps pulse duration. This behavior was attributed to increasing localized defect states with increasing film thickness. The experimental curves were fitted to the theory of the open aperture Gaussian-beam Z-scan based on the Adomian decomposition method incorporating one photon, two photon, and free carrier absorptions and their saturations. The lowest saturation intensity threshold for the Ga0.90In0.10Se film was found to be 1.38 × 102 MW cm - 2 for 43 nm film thickness.

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17 -diol and (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-11 beta-methoxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-diol (17 alpha-(iodovinyl)estradiol derivatives) as high specific activity potential radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuka, I.; Ferreira, N.L.; Eckelman, W.C.; Francis, B.E.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Gibson, R.E.; Jagoda, E.M.; Reba, R.C.

    1984-10-01

    Two 17 alpha-(/sup 125/I)iodovinyl estradiol derivatives 4b,d possessing high specific activity have been prepared and tested as potential radiopharmaceuticals. The use of the 3-acetyl derivatives 2c,e and the replacement of iodine monochloride with sodium iodide and Chloramine-T in THF/phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) permitted us to synthesize no-carrier-added (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-d iol (4b) and (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-11 beta-methoxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-diol (4d) with 50% radiochemical yield and high purity. Although the specific activity represents only half of the theoretical value in some cases, this modified approach is a substantial improvement over the previously published method. Our preliminary distribution studies indicate that although both 4b and 4d localize in the tissues known to have a large concentration of estrogen receptors, 4d accumulates in higher amounts in target tissues and provides a high target to nontarget ratio.

  15. Results of an air data probe investigation utilizing a 0.10 scale orbiter forebody (model 57-0) in the Ames Research Center 14-foot wind tunnel (OA220)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esparza, V.; Thornton, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of a 0.10 scale orbiter forebody test with left and right mounted air data probes (ADP) as well as a flight test probe (nose boom). Left and right ADP data were obtained at Mach numbers of .3, .4, .5, .6, .7, .8, .85, .9, .95, .98, 1.05 and 1.1 through a Reynolds number range of 1.3 to 4.4 million. Nose boom data were obtained at Mach numbers of .3, .4, .5, .6, .7, .9 and .98.

  16. Sub-10 μm grain size, Ba1-xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 (x = 0.10 and x = 0.15) piezoceramics processed using a reduced thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Montero, A.; Pardo, L.; López-Juárez, R.; González, A. M.; Rea-López, S. O.; Cruz, M. P.; Villafuerte-Castrejón, M. E.

    2015-06-01

    The solid-state synthesis of Ba1-xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 (x = 0.10, 0.15) (BCTZ) powder and the processing method of ceramics, by the use of reduced synthesis time and temperature (1250 °C for 2 h), are reported. Homogeneous and dense (≥95%) ceramic microstructures with sub-10 μm grain size were obtained under all sintering conditions. A comparative study of their ferro-piezoelectric properties as a function of sintering temperatures is presented. The study shows the role of the grain size effect for improving both piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of these materials. With an increase of the sintering temperature, grain growth was promoted; therefore, higher ferro-piezoelectric values were obtained (at 1400 °C, for x = 0.10: d33 = 300 pC/N, {{d}31}=-150 pC/N, kp = 48% for x = 0.15: d33 = 410 pC/N, d31 =-154 pC/N, kp = 50%). In addition, a diffuse phase transition is observed in these BCTZ ceramics with a Curie temperature near 100 °C at 1 kHz.

  17. Composition and temperature dependence of ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties of (1 − x)[PMN–PT(65/35)]–xPZ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tong; Li, Qiang; Yan, Qingfeng; Luo, Nengneng; Zhang, Yiling; Chu, Xiangcheng

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • PMN–PT–PZ ceramics with PZ content smaller than 0.10 mol% were synthesized. • T{sub rt} of the PMN–PT–PZ ceramics increased linearly with the increase of PZ constant. • A mutation of the ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties was observed near T{sub rt}. - Abstract: (1 − x)[Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} (65/35)]–xPbZrO{sub 3} (PMN–PT–PZ) ceramics near morphotropic phase boundary with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10 were synthesized via the conventional solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction and variable temperature dielectric property characterization indicated that the rhombohedral to tetragonal phase transition temperature (T{sub rt}) increased linearly with the increase of PZ constant. The composition and temperature dependence of their ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties were also investigated. The results showed that there appeared mutation for remnant polarization, coercive field, as well as pyroelectric coefficient at the temperate range near T{sub rt}, which was ascribed to the reorientation of dipoles caused by the rhombohedral–tetragonal phase transition.

  18. Evaluation of the Mitsubishi 2040u 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 22-Inch Diagonal Color Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Swim/Drift ....................................................................................... 40 II.20 Warmup Period...Note suppressed zero on luminance scale). 2040u Warmup Characteristic for Lmin 0.01 0.1 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Time after power ON

  19. Evaluation of the Sony GDM F500R 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 21-Inch Diagonal Color, Flat Face, 0.22mm CRT Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Drift ....................................................................................... 34 II.20 Warmup Period...start with an input count of 0. (Note suppressed zero on luminance scale). Sony F500R, Lmin, fL Luminance Warmup Characteristic 0.01 0.1 1 0 10 20 30

  20. Evaluation of the Mitsubishi 2020u 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 21-Inch Diagonal Color Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Jitter/Swim/Drift ....................................................................................... 36 II.20 Warmup Period...this report. Warmup Characteristic for Lmin 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Time after power ON, minutes Lu m

  1. Growth Performance and Resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge. Five diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and ...

  2. Mechanical Property Characterization of Plasticized Sugar Beet Pulp and Poly(lactic acid) Green Composites using Acoustic Emission and Confocal Microscopy.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorbitol and glycerol were used to plasticize sugar beet pulp-poly (lactic acid) green composites. The plasticizer was incorporated into sugar beet pulp (SBP)at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% w/w at low temperature and shear and then compounded with PLA using twin-screw extrusion and injection molding. The...

  3. Volume I: Select Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    ab ili ty  (degrees) m1 m2 m3 m4 m5 m6 m7 m8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 ‐60 ‐45 ‐30 ‐15 0 15 30 45 60 Pr ob ab ili ty  (degrees) 0 10 20 30 40...50 60 70 80 ‐60 ‐45 ‐30 ‐15 0 15 30 45 60 Pr ob ab ili ty  (degrees) N5‐N8N4‐N7 N6‐N9 a) b) c) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ‐60 ‐45 ‐30 ‐15 0 15 30 45 60 Pr...ob ab ili ty  (degrees) m1 m2 m3 m4 m5 m6 m7 m8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ‐60 ‐45 ‐30 ‐15 0 15 30 45 60 Pr ob

  4. Tungsten: A Preliminary Environmental Risk Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Gastropod Food Source B A BUILDING STRONG® Uptake of W in Gastropod Food Source Exposed to Cabbage (251 mg/kg) Soil (547 ± 34) mg/kg soil Rates...exposure Assimilation efficiency greater Soil to Gastropod Days of exposure 0 5 10 15 20 Tu ng st en (m g/ kg ) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Cabbage to Gastropod

  5. EFFECT OF SOLARIZATION ON SURVIVAL OF COLLETOTRICHUM ACUTATUM AND PHYTHOPHTHORA CACTORUM, CAUSAL AGENTS OF CROWN ROTS OF STRAWBERRY IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nylon bags containing strawberry plant tissues infected by Colletotrichum acutatum or V8 juice-oat seed-vermiculite (V8JOV) substrate colonized by Phytophthora cactorum were buried at depths of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 cm in Yolo Fine Sandy Loam soil, which was non-solarized or solarized using a 6-mm p...

  6. Evolution of the Electronic State through the Reduction Annealing in Electron-Doped Pr1.3-xLa0.7CexCuO4+δ (x=0.10) Single Crystals: Antiferromagnetism, Kondo Effect, and Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Tadashi; Mori, Yosuke; Takahashi, Akira; Kato, Masatsune; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Sasaki, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Norio; Koike, Yoji

    2013-06-01

    The evolution of the electronic state through the reduction annealing has been investigated in electron-doped Pr1.3-xLa0.7CexCuO4+δ (x=0.10) single crystals with the so-called T' structure. From the ab-plane and c-axis electrical resistivity measurements in magnetic fields, it has been found that, through the reduction annealing, the strongly localized state of carriers accompanied by the antiferromagnetic (AF) pseudogap in the as-grown crystal changes to a metallic state bringing about the Kondo effect without AF pseudogap and to a superconducting state. These results are able to be understood in terms of a model based on the strong electron correlation. The complete removal of excess oxygen in the T'-cuprates is expected to result in the appearance of superconductivity in a wide range of the Ce concentration including the parent compound of x=0.

  7. Band alignment of InAs1-xSbx (0.050.10 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen-Jun; Tsai, Gene; Lin, Hao-Hsiung

    2009-05-01

    We determined the unstrained conduction-band and valence-band edge energies of InAs1-xSbx (0.050.10 quantum wells (QWs) that was measured in the temperature range 10-300 K. The results reveal that the QWs exhibit type-I band alignment. Furthermore, the valence band accounts for 65% of the energy-gap bowing of InAsSb. We propose a valence-band anticrossing (VBAC) model to explain the bowing of the valence band in InAsSb. Moreover, the spin-orbit splitting energy of InAsSb calculated by our VBAC model fits well with the experimental results reported in previous studies.

  8. Strain and vacancy cluster behavior of vanadium and tungsten-doped Ba[Zr{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}]O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, F.; Simoes, A. Z.; Cavalcante, L. S.; Zampieri, M.; Varela, J. A.; Longo, E.; Zaghete, M. A.; Simoes, M. L.

    2008-01-21

    Strain and vacancy clusters behavior of polycrystalline vanadium (V) and tungsten (W)-doped Ba[Zr{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}]O{sub 3}, (BZT:2%V) and (BZT:2%W) ceramics obtained by the mixed oxide method was evaluated. Substitution of V and W reduces the distortion of octahedral clusters, decreasing the Raman modes. Electron paramagnetic resonance data indicate that the addition of dopants leads to defects and symmetry changes in the BZT lattice. Remnant polarization and coercive field are affected by V and W substitution due the electron-relaxation mode. The unipolar strain E curves as a function of electric field reach its maximum value for BZT:2%V and BZT:2%W ceramics.

  9. High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Lateral Stability Characteristics of a 0.10-Scale Model of the Grumman XF9F-2 Airplane, TED No. NACA DE 301

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, Edward C.; King, Thomas J., Jr.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the high-speed lateral and directional stability characteristics of a 0.10-scale model of the Grumman XF9F-2 airplane in the Mach number range from 0.40 to 0.85. The results indicate that static lateral and directional stability is present throughout the Mach number range investigated although in the Mach number range from 0.75 to 0.85 there is an appreciable decrease in rolling moment due to sideslip. Calculations of the dynamic stability indicate that according to current flying-quality requirements the damping of the lateral oscillation, although probably satisfactory for the sea-level condition, may not be satisfactory for the majority of the altitude conditions investigated

  10. Synthesis, electrical and thermal properties of Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2−x}Y{sub x}O{sub 11} (x=0.0 and 0.10) ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, S. Roy, M.

    2014-04-24

    Polycrystalline ceramic samples of Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2−x}Y{sub x}O{sub 11} (x=0.0 and 0.10) have been synthesized by standard solid state reaction method. The formation of the compounds has been verified by room temperature (RT) X-ray diffraction. The frequency and temperature dependent dielectric constant of both the compounds have been measured. The dielectric studies indicate that the materials are highly lossy. The dc conductivity of the materials has been measured as a function of temperature from RT to 653K and their activation energies were calculated using Arrhenius relation σ = σ{sub o}exp(-Ea/kT). The specific heat and heat flow of both the compounds were determined as a function of temperature using Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC)

  11. Magnetic and structural characteristics of multiferroic Fe3O4/(Bi3.25Nd0.65Eu0.10)Ti3O12 composite thin films deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobune, Masafumi; Furotani, Ryosuke; Fujita, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Kazuki; Kikuchi, Takeyuki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Shimizu, Masaru; Fukumuro, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    Ferromagnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) thin films for magnetoelectric multiferroic applications were deposited on (200) (Bi3.25Nd0.65Eu0.10)Ti3O12 (BNEuT)/(101) Nb:TiO2 substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using an iron(III) tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) precursor as the iron source. The BNEuT film utilized as a ferroelectric template material was in the form of freestanding nanoplates with narrow spaces between them. The effects of deposition conditions such as the deposition time and substrate temperature on the magnetic and structural characteristics of the Fe3O4/BNEuT composite films were investigated. All the films consisted of mostly single-phase Fe3O4 with a cubic inverse-spinel structure. When deposition was carried out at temperatures of 400-420 °C, the filling rates of particles introduced into the narrow spaces between the BNEuT nanoplates exhibited high values of 76-89% including the amorphous phase. This suggested that the deposition in this temperature range made progress according to the growth mechanism of MOCVD in the surface reaction rate determining state. Room-temperature magnetic moment-magnetic field curves for Fe3O4 thin films deposited at 400-500 °C for 60 min exhibited narrow rectangular hysteresis loops, indicating typical soft magnetic characteristics.

  12. In-situ Electric Field-Induced Modulation of Photoluminescence in Pr-doped Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hai Ling; Wu, Xiao; Chung, Tat Hang; Kwok, K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Luminescent materials with dynamic photoluminescence activity have aroused special interest because of their potential widespread applications. One proposed approach of directly and reversibly modulating the photoluminescence emissions is by means of introducing an external electric field in an in-situ and real-time way, which has only been focused on thin films. In this work, we demonstrate that real-time electric field-induced photoluminescence modulation can be realized in a bulk Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 ferroelectric ceramic doped with 0.2 mol% Pr3+, owing to its remarkable polarization reversal and phase evolution near the morphotropic phase boundary. Along with in-situ X-ray diffraction analysis, our results reveal that an applied electric field induces not only typical polarization switching and minor crystal deformation, but also tetragonal-to-rhombohedral phase transformation of the ceramic. The electric field-induced phase transformation is irreversible and engenders dominant effect on photoluminescence emissions as a result of an increase in structural symmetry. After it is completed in a few cycles of electric field, the photoluminescence emissions become governed mainly by the polarization switching, and thus vary reversibly with the modulating electric field. Our results open a promising avenue towards the realization of bulk ceramic-based tunable photoluminescence activity with high repeatability, flexible controllability, and environmental-friendly chemical process. PMID:27339815

  13. Synthesis and crystal structure of 4-(2-ammonio­eth­yl)morpholin-4-ium di­chlorido­diiodido­cadmate/chlorido­tri­iodido­cadmate (0.90/0.10)

    PubMed Central

    Mahbouli Rhouma, Najla; Rayes, Ali; Mezzadri, Francesco; Calestani, Gianluca; Loukil, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, (C6H16N2O)[CdCl1.90I2.10], a new organic–inorganic hybrid salt synthesized in the form of single crystals, consists of discrete statistically distributed di­chlorido­diiodido­cadmate/chlorido­tri­iodido­cadmate anions (occupancy ratio 0.90:0.10) and 4-(2-ammonio­eth­yl)morpholin-4-ium cations, [NH3(CH2)2NH(CH2)4O]2+. The cations are linked by inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming corrugated chains extending parallel to the c axis. The [CdCl1.90I2.10]2− tetra­halidocadmate anions lie between the chains to maximize the electrostatic inter­actions and are connected with the organic cations via N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl(I) hydrogen bonds developing in the ab plane and leading to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure. The tetra­coordinate CdII atom has a distorted tetra­hedral conformation, with a τ4 index of 0.87. PMID:27746929

  14. Average and local atomic-scale structure in BaZrxTi(1-x)O3 (x = 0. 10, 0.20, 0.40) ceramics by high-energy x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Buscaglia, Vincenzo; Tripathi, Saurabh; Petkov, Valeri; Dapiaggi, Monica; Deluca, Marco; Gajović, Andreja; Ren, Yang

    2014-02-12

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and total scattering XRD coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis studies of the atomic-scale structure of archetypal BaZrxTi(1-x)O3 (x = 0.10, 0.20, 0.40) ceramics are presented over a wide temperature range (100-450 K). For x = 0.1 and 0.2 the results reveal, well above the Curie temperature, the presence of Ti-rich polar clusters which are precursors of a long-range ferroelectric order observed below TC. Polar nanoregions (PNRs) and relaxor behaviour are observed over the whole temperature range for x = 0.4. Irrespective of ceramic composition, the polar clusters are due to locally correlated off-centre displacement of Zr/Ti cations compatible with local rhombohedral symmetry. Formation of Zr-rich clusters is indicated by Raman spectroscopy for all compositions. Considering the isovalent substitution of Ti with Zr in BaZrxTi1-xO3, the mechanism of formation and growth of the PNRs is not due to charge ordering and random fields, but rather to a reduction of the local strain promoted by the large difference in ion size between Zr(4+) and Ti(4+). As a result, non-polar or weakly polar Zr-rich clusters and polar Ti-rich clusters are randomly distributed in a paraelectric lattice and the long-range ferroelectric order is disrupted with increasing Zr concentration.

  15. The coercivity and domain structure of Sm(CobalFe0.1CuxZr0.033)6.9 (x = 0.07, 0.10, 0.13) high temperature permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangjian; Jiang, Chengbao

    2012-08-01

    The domain structures have been found to be different in the Sm(CobalFe0.1CuxZr0.033)6.9 magnets (x = 0.07, 0.10, 0.13) with the abnormal and normal temperature dependence of coercivity by quenching at 400 °C and 600 °C, respectively. In the magnets with abnormal temperature dependence of coercivity, the domain structure shows more like the strip domain which is typical domain shape of the ferromagnets of easy-axis anisotropy, while the domain structure becomes narrower and shows more additional domains in the magnets with normal temperature dependence of coercivity. The difference of the domain structure can be attributed to whether the Cu is homogeneous in the 1:5 cell boundary phase, and this will lead to different domain wall pinning and different temperature dependence of coercivity in the magnets according to the noncontinuous domain wall pinning model. As the Cu is nearly homogeneous in the 1:5 cell boundary phase, the domain wall should be pinned near the interface between 2:17 cell phase and 1:5 cell boundary phase, and the coercivity shows abnormal temperature dependence. On the contrary, the domain wall should be pinned into the 1:5 cell boundary phase, where a gradient of Cu content exists, leading to the normal temperature of coercivity.

  16. The enhancing performance of (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15}Ti{sub 0.90}Zr{sub 0.10})O{sub 3} ceramics by tuning anatase–rutile phase structure

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Xiaolian; Wang, Juanjuan; Wang, Zhongming; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Zupei; Li, Guangzhao

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) with different phase structure had interesting influence on the crystal structure, microstructure, the sintering temperature and electrical properties. - Highlights: • BCZT ceramics were prepared using either anatase or rutile structures as Ti source. • Orthorhombic and tetragonal mixture structure was exhibited by adjusting Ti source. • The optimal properties were observed in BCZT ceramics with rutile titanium dioxide. - Abstract: To research effect of raw materials TiO{sub 2} with the phase structures on the crystal structure, microstructure and electrical properties of lead-free (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Ti{sub 0.90}Zr{sub 0.10})O{sub 3} (BCZT) ceramics, BCZT ceramics using either anatase or rutile as Ti source were synthesized by solid-state reaction. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) with anatase/rutile phase structures had interesting influence on the crystal structure, microstructure and the sintering temperature by the X-ray diffraction and SEM, which also played an important role in improved electrical properties. The BCZT ceramics with rutile titanium dioxide demonstrated optimal piezoelectric and dielectric properties: d{sub 33} = 590 pC/N, k{sub p} = 0.46, ε{sub r} = 2810, tanδ = 0.014 and T{sub c} = 91 °C, which was obviously superior to BCZT ceramics with anatase titanium dioxide.

  17. In-situ Electric Field-Induced Modulation of Photoluminescence in Pr-doped Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hai Ling; Wu, Xiao; Chung, Tat Hang; Kwok, K. W.

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent materials with dynamic photoluminescence activity have aroused special interest because of their potential widespread applications. One proposed approach of directly and reversibly modulating the photoluminescence emissions is by means of introducing an external electric field in an in-situ and real-time way, which has only been focused on thin films. In this work, we demonstrate that real-time electric field-induced photoluminescence modulation can be realized in a bulk Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 ferroelectric ceramic doped with 0.2 mol% Pr3+, owing to its remarkable polarization reversal and phase evolution near the morphotropic phase boundary. Along with in-situ X-ray diffraction analysis, our results reveal that an applied electric field induces not only typical polarization switching and minor crystal deformation, but also tetragonal-to-rhombohedral phase transformation of the ceramic. The electric field-induced phase transformation is irreversible and engenders dominant effect on photoluminescence emissions as a result of an increase in structural symmetry. After it is completed in a few cycles of electric field, the photoluminescence emissions become governed mainly by the polarization switching, and thus vary reversibly with the modulating electric field. Our results open a promising avenue towards the realization of bulk ceramic-based tunable photoluminescence activity with high repeatability, flexible controllability, and environmental-friendly chemical process.

  18. In-situ Electric Field-Induced Modulation of Photoluminescence in Pr-doped Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 Lead-Free Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hai Ling; Wu, Xiao; Chung, Tat Hang; Kwok, K W

    2016-06-24

    Luminescent materials with dynamic photoluminescence activity have aroused special interest because of their potential widespread applications. One proposed approach of directly and reversibly modulating the photoluminescence emissions is by means of introducing an external electric field in an in-situ and real-time way, which has only been focused on thin films. In this work, we demonstrate that real-time electric field-induced photoluminescence modulation can be realized in a bulk Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 ferroelectric ceramic doped with 0.2 mol% Pr(3+), owing to its remarkable polarization reversal and phase evolution near the morphotropic phase boundary. Along with in-situ X-ray diffraction analysis, our results reveal that an applied electric field induces not only typical polarization switching and minor crystal deformation, but also tetragonal-to-rhombohedral phase transformation of the ceramic. The electric field-induced phase transformation is irreversible and engenders dominant effect on photoluminescence emissions as a result of an increase in structural symmetry. After it is completed in a few cycles of electric field, the photoluminescence emissions become governed mainly by the polarization switching, and thus vary reversibly with the modulating electric field. Our results open a promising avenue towards the realization of bulk ceramic-based tunable photoluminescence activity with high repeatability, flexible controllability, and environmental-friendly chemical process.

  19. Deuteron NMR study of dynamics and of coexistence of paraelectric and ferroelectric phases in Rb0.90(ND4)0.10D2AsO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Nicholas J.; Howell, Francis L.; Schmidt, V. Hugo

    1993-09-01

    The deuteron glass Rb1-x(ND4)xD2AsO4 (DRADA) is a mixed crystal of RbD2AsO4 (DRDA) and ND4D2AsO4 (DADA). Deuteron nuclear magnetic resonance has been performed on the acid and ammonium deuterons. The crystal studied has an ammonium concentration (x=0.10) that puts it in the coexistence region of the phase diagram. Line-shape measurements of the ammonium deuterons show the coexistence of the ferroelectric (FE) and paraelectric (PE) phases as the temperature is lowered below the ferroelectric-phase-transition temperature Tc. The acid deuteron line shape on the other hand is found to broaden as the temperature is reduced but is unaffected by the ferroelectric transition. Spin-lattice-relaxation measurements have been performed and the activation energies for the relaxation processes have been computed. The relaxation-rate anomaly for acid deuterons in the ferroelectric-transition range indicates a short correlation length for the FE phase in the coexistence region of the phase diagram.

  20. Doping effect on the structural properties of Cu1-x(Ni, Zn, Al and Fe)xO samples (00.10): An experimental and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, J. B.; Araujo, R. M.; Pedra, P. P.; Meneses, C. T.; Duque, J. G. S.; dos S. Rezende, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the effect of insertion of transition metal, TM (=Ni, Zn, Al and Fe), ions in Cu1-xTMxO samples (00.10) prepared via co-precipitation method is studied through experimental and computational methods. The analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns using Rietveld refinement show that i) at x=0, all samples present a monoclinic crystal system with space group C2/c and ii) for increasing the TM-doping, Ni and Zn-doped samples show a small amount of spurious phases for concentrations above x=0.05. Based on these results, a defect disorder study for using atomistic computational simulations which is based on the lattice energy minimization technique is employed to predict the location of the dopant ions in the structure. In agreement with XRD data, our computational results indicate that the trivalent (Al and Fe ions) are more favorable to be incorporated into CuO matrix than the divalent (Ni and Zn ions).

  1. High charge-discharge performance of Pb0.98La0.02(Zr0.35Sn0.55Ti0.10)0.995O3 antiferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chenhong; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Xuefeng; Yan, Shiguang; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin; Wang, Genshui

    2016-08-01

    The energy storage performance and charge-discharge properties of Pb0.98La0.02(Zr0.35Sn0.55Ti0.10)0.995O3 (PLZST) antiferroelectric ceramics were investigated through directly measuring the hysteresis loops and pulse discharge current-time curves. The energy density only varies 0.2% per degree from 25 °C to 85 °C, and the energy efficiency maintains at about 90%. Furthermore, an approximate calculating model of maximum power density pmax was established for the discharge process. Under a relatively high working electric field (8.2 kV/mm), this ceramics possess a greatly enhanced power density of 18 MW/cm3. Moreover, the pulse power properties did not show degradation until 1500 times of charge-discharge cycling. The large released energy density, high energy efficiency, good temperature stability, greatly enhanced power density, and excellent fatigue endurance combined together make this PLZST ceramics an ideal candidate for pulse power applications.

  2. Structure, sintering behavior, and microwave dielectric properties of (1 − x) CaWO{sub 4}–xYLiF{sub 4} (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Jian Jiang Ding, Yao Min

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Structure, sinterability, and dielectric properties of CaWO{sub 4}–YLiF{sub 4} were studied. • CaWO{sub 4} can be densified (TD 97%) at 750 °C/2 h by YLiF{sub 4} doping. • Excellent microwave dielectric properties could be obtained. - Abstract: Structures and sintering behaviors of (1 − x) CaWO{sub 4}–xYLiF{sub 4} (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) ceramic have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dilatometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in this work. The microwave dielectric properties were measured with a network analyzer at the frequency of about 8–15 GHz. Limited solid solution could be formed within the compositional range of x < 0.1. The sintering temperature of CaWO{sub 4} could successfully be reduced to ∼750 °C/2 h by doping with small amount of YLiF{sub 4}. An optimized microwave dielectric properties with ϵ{sub r} = 10.5, Q × f = 73 000 GHz and τ{sub f} = −37.7 ppm/°C could be obtained after sintered at the 750 °C for 2 h for x = 0.04 compositions. XRD and back scattering SEM analysis indicated that the (1 − x) CaWO{sub 4}–xYLiF{sub 4} (x = 0.04) ceramic could be chemically compatible with Ag after sintering at 750 °C/2 h.

  3. Synthesis, magnetic and dielectric characterization of nanocrystalline solid solutions of In{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15)

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Khatoon, Sarvari; Coolahan, Kelsey

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Monophasic and crystalline In{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of size 8–15 nm have been synthesized solvothermally and showed red shift in energy band gap which decreases on increasing Ni{sup 2+} concentration in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} host lattice. - Highlights: • Monophasic Ni-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles by solvothermal method for first time. • Plausible reaction mechanism using thermogravimetric analysis. • High surface area with small particle size obtained. • Solid solutions exhibit paramagnetism with very weak antiferromagnetic interactions. - Abstract: In{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by solvothermal method by the thermal decomposition of oxalate precursor at 450 °C for the first time. X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of highly crystalline and monophasic cubic structure of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} which is attributed to the formation of solid solution. These nanoparticles show good optical transmittance in the visible region. Optical measurements showed an energy band gap which decreases with increasing Ni concentration. The grain size decreases from 15 nm to 8 nm and surface area increases from 90 to 254 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} on increasing the Ni concentration. High dielectric constant and dielectric loss has been obtained which indicates the conducting nature of these solid solutions. Magnetic measurements showed that the samples are strong paramagnetic in nature with very weak antiferromagnetic interactions. No evidence of ferromagnetism is observed for these solid solutions at room temperature.

  4. Phase equilibria in the Mo-Fe-P system at 800 °C and structure of ternary phosphide (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))3P (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.15).

    PubMed

    Oliynyk, Anton O; Lomnytska, Yaroslava F; Dzevenko, Mariya V; Stoyko, Stanislav S; Mar, Arthur

    2013-01-18

    Construction of the isothermal section in the metal-rich portion (<67 atom % P) of the Mo-Fe-P phase diagram at 800 °C has led to the identification of two new ternary phases: (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))(2)P (x = 0.30-0.82) and (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))(3)P (x = 0.10-0.15). The occurrence of a Co(2)Si-type ternary phase (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))(2)P, which straddles the equiatomic composition MoFeP, is common to other ternary transition-metal phosphide systems. However, the ternary phase (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))(3)P is unusual because it is distinct from the binary phase Mo(3)P, notwithstanding their similar compositions and structures. The relationship has been clarified through single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies on Mo(3)P (α-V(3)S-type, space group I42m, a = 9.7925(11) Å, c = 4.8246(6) Å) and (Mo(0.85)Fe(0.15))(3)P (Ni(3)P-type, space group I4, a = 9.6982(8) Å, c = 4.7590(4) Å) at -100 °C. Representation in terms of nets containing fused triangles provides a pathway to transform these closely related structures through twisting. Band structure calculations support the adoption of these structure types and the site preference of Fe atoms. Electrical resistivity measurements on (Mo(0.85)Fe(0.15))(3)P reveal metallic behavior but no superconducting transition.

  5. Basic Business 20-30. Business Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This curriculum guide is one of nine such guides developed for an Alberta high school business education program. Its content covers the main subject area or strand of basic business. Subject to the constraints outlined in the guide, the modules are to be formatted into three- or four-credit courses within each strand. Introductory materials…

  6. Marketing 20-30. Business Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This curriculum guide is one of nine such guides developed for an Alberta high school business education program. Its content covers the main subject area or strand of marketing. Subject to the constraints outlined in the guide, the modules are to be formatted into three- or four-credit courses within each strand. Introductory materials include a…

  7. Identifying the sources of ferromagnetism in sol-gel synthesized Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O (0≤x≤0.10) nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrán, J.J.; Barrero, C.A.; Punnoose, A.

    2016-08-15

    We have carefully investigated the structural, optical and electronic properties and related them with changes in the magnetism of sol-gel synthesized Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O (0≤x≤0.10) nanoparticles. Samples with x≤0.05 were free of spurious phases. Samples with x≤0.03 were found to be with only high spin Co{sup 2+} ions into ZnO structure, whereas sample with x=0.05, exhibited the presence of high spin Co{sup 2+} and low spin Co{sup 3+}. We found that the intensity of the main EPR peak associated with Co{sup 2+} varies with the nominal Co content in a similar manner as the saturation magnetization and coercive field do. These results point out that the ferromagnetism in these samples should directly be correlated with the presence of divalent cobalt ions. Bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model and the charge transfer model are insufficient to explain the ferromagnetic properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O nanoparticles. The room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) may be originated from a combination of several factors such as the interaction of high spin Co{sup 2+} ions, perturbation/alteration and/or changes in the electronic structure of ZnO close to the valence band edge and grain boundary effects. - Graphical abstract: The intensity of the main EPR peak associated with Co{sup 2+} varies with the nominal Co content in a similar manner as the saturation magnetization and coercive field do. These results point out that the ferromagnetism in these samples should directly be correlated with the presence of Co{sup 2+} ions. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Systematic and carefully study of physical-chemical properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O nanoparticles. • Samples with x=0.01 and 0.03 were found to be with only high spin Co{sup 2+}. • Sample with x=0.05, exhibited the presence of high spin Co{sup 2+} and low spin Co{sup 3+}. • The BMP and charge transfer models seem not explain the ferromagnetic properties. • RTFM: high spin Co{sup 2+} ions

  8. Toxin Inhibition - Deconvolution Strategies and Assay Screening of Combinatorial Peptide Libraries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    0 10 20 30 40 50 [S] (iimollL) Lineweaver - Burk Plot 0.25- 0.2D 0.15- 0.10 0.05- 0.00- 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 1I[SJ Figure 7. Kinetic study of BoNTIA...LC cleavage of oAbz1DNP-SNAPtide substrate. Top: Michaelis-Menten plot, initial velocity versus substrate concentration. Bottom: Lineweaver - Burke ...00 0 10 20 30 4 50 6 [S] (I~moVL) Lineweaver - Burk Plot 7- 6-0 5- 4-0 3-0 2- 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 I [S] Figure 8. Kinetic study of BoNTIA LC cleavage

  9. Low Intensity Conflict Combat Attrition Methodology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-99 Cluster Bombs 1 40 50 50 50 60 2 60 70 70 70 80 3 80 80 80 90 90 4 80 90 90 90 100 General Purpose Bomos 1 O . - 20 20...60 7.62 t4 mini gun . 10 10 . ZO 20 2 20 20 20 30 30 3 30 30 40 40 40 4 40 40 40 50 50 68 MM Rockets 1 50 60 60 60 70 2 70 80 80 80 90 3 80 90 90 90...Bombs 1 40 50 so so 60 2 60 70 70 70 80 3 80 80 80 90 90 4 80 90 .90 90 to0 General Purpose Bomos 1 " 0- 10 𔃺 .. 10 20 2 10 20, 20. 20 30 3 20. - 30 30

  10. Defining the Role of BTLA in Breast Cancer Immunosurveillance and Selective Targeting of the BTLA-HVEM-LIGHT Costimulatory System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Nonidet P - 40 (NP- 40 ) and 1 µl of 10× G7 buffer (NEB), divided into two 6-µl aliquots, and treated without or with...donor + BTLA -/- donor CB6F1 BTLA+/+ BTLA-/- CB6F1 CB6F1 BTLA+/+ BTLA-/- BTLA +/+ P = 0.0002 n.s. BTLA -/- 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % Fo xp 3+ o f C...D 4+ P < 0.0001 6A6Control 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % Fo xp 3+ o f C D 4+ Control 6A6 Figure 4 a CD4 5 20 WT donor CD45.1+ Fo xp 3 b WT

  11. Defense Industrial Base Assessment: Counterfeit Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    ufa ctu rer s OE Ms Ot he r Pr im e/S ub C on tra cto rs DO D De po ts OC Ms Ot he r U .S. Fe de...2% 10% 40% 30% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Br ok ers Ind ep en de nt Di str ibu tor s Ind ivi du als Co ntr ac t M an ufa ctu rer s OE...by Type of Customer 53% 46% 37% 34% 8% 7% 5% 5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% OE Ms Co ntr ac t M an ufa ctu rer s Pr im e/S ub

  12. Dynamic Effects of Airborne Water Droplets on Air-Sea Interactions: Sea-Spray and Rain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY...new computer system Velocity Profiles in Wall Coordinates z+=zu* / ν 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 0 10 20 30 40 U + = (U -U 0) /u...Drag Coefficient U10 0 10 20 30 40 10 3 C D 0 1 2 3 4 T10-T0=0 °C T10-T0=-2 °C T10-T0=2 °C 50 Figure 2. Drag coeffiecnt that results from the wind

  13. 16 CFR 0.10 - Office of the Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., financial management, information technology, and human resources. ... Chairman, is the chief operating official who develops and implements management and administrative... on strategic planning and assessing the management and resource implications of any proposed...

  14. 16 CFR 0.10 - Office of the Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., financial management, information technology, and human resources. ... Chairman, is the chief operating official who develops and implements management and administrative... on strategic planning and assessing the management and resource implications of any proposed...

  15. 16 CFR 0.10 - Office of the Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., financial management, information technology, and human resources. ... Chairman, is the chief operating official who develops and implements management and administrative... on strategic planning and assessing the management and resource implications of any proposed...

  16. 16 CFR 0.10 - Office of the Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., financial management, information technology, and human resources. ... Chairman, is the chief operating official who develops and implements management and administrative... on strategic planning and assessing the management and resource implications of any proposed...

  17. 16 CFR 0.10 - Office of the Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... on strategic planning and assessing the management and resource implications of any proposed action... Chairman, is the chief operating official who develops and implements management and administrative..., financial management, information technology, and human resources....

  18. Bearing Survivability and Friction Determination for Fuze Decoupling Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    issues and spin-related effects on the sensor package. The three bearings tested included a generic ball bearing made by SPB USA LLC (6907), a SKF ...20 30 40 50 Sp in R at e (H z) Time (sec) SKF Generic Kaydon 4 After running the bearings for six to nine trials, the bearings “break-in...40 50 Sp in R at e (H z) Time (sec) SKF Generic Kaydon 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 10 20 30 40 50 Sp in R at e (H z) Time (sec

  19. Solid-Fuel Stove Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-17

    Boiling Test) Protocol – Stove cold, 5L water heated to boil , high power – Stove hot, 5L water heated to boil , high power – Stove hot, 5L water maintained...Research Center, using a standard test protocol Methodology • Tested 14 stove /fuel combinations for performance and emissions • Used WBT ( Water ...rocket stove Time to Boil 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 3-S ton e, fir 3-S ton e, oa k VIT A, fir VIT

  20. An Analysis of the Navy’s Fiscal Year 2015 Shipbuilding Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    guided missile destroyer; CG = guided missile cruiser; LSD = dock landing ship; LHA and LHD = amphibious assault ship; LPD = amphibious transport dock...2024 2026 2028 2030 2032 2034 2036 2038 2040 2042 2044 0 10 20 30 40 Amphibious Warfare Ships 33-Ship Inventory Goal LHA-1 and LHD-1 LSD -41 and LSD -49...11 LPD amphibious transport docks, and 11 replacements for the Navy’s LSD dock landing ships. In pursuit of that force, the 2015 plan calls for

  1. Management of Munitions Constituents in Soil Using Alkaline Hydrolysis: A Guide for Practitioners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Lime Fly ash T M T M T M 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Rain Event (weekly) R D X C on ce nt ra tio n in p pb (µ g...Shott Treatment Times? ·-or- Are DNTs Present? Yes Caustic Soda In Well Mixed Application No No Hydrated Ume In Topical Application Hydrated

  2. Special Technology Area Review on Vacuum Electronics Technology for RF Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-12

    devices and transmitters. Feasibility has been demonstrated using a field emitter array cathode on a C-band helix TWT . 16. Advanced materials and...and Broadband TWTs 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Ef fic ie nc y (% ) Space TWT EW TWT Three - Fold...Development of specific VE device types for identified and potential system insertion opportunities including: • Ultra-wide-band helix TWTs and Vacuum

  3. Baseline Skills Assessment of the US Army Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Basic Research Campaign competencies 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Physics Chemical Sciences Biological Sciences Social Sciences Social Informatics ...9 2 2 13 ^Social informatics 0 … … 0 ^Social sciences 0 … 1 1 Biological sciences 11 … 1 12 Chemical sciences 14 2 6 22 Physics 21 … 2 23 ^Less...might be: Network Sciences, Social Informatics , and Social Sciences were all selected by less than 5 individuals. All areas in this campaign are

  4. Nonlinear Frequency Conversion in III-V Semiconductor Photonic Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    polarizing beamsplitter, SPF : short pass filter, PD: photodiode. The incident light traces the red line into the cavity sample. The second harmonic...33 CCD HWP HWP NPBSOLSample Polarizer Laser PBS PD Monochromator SPF 720 730 740 750 760 770 0 10 20 30 40 50 Wavelength [nm] C o u n ts a. b. c...OL: objective lens, PBS: polarizing beamsplitter, SPF : short pass filter, PD: photodiode. The incident light traces the red line into the cavity

  5. Spinning of Fibers from Aqueous Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Kevlar 29 and Nephila clavipes dragline silk. Spider silk can absorb more energy than Kevlar 29, as represented by area under the curv e...energy before breaking than Kevlar (Figure 1), making it an attractive material to duplicate. Under previous 14, Kevlar 29 12 \\ Nephila Spider Silk 10. S8...06 U) U) 4- 2- 0 10 20 30 40 Percent Strain Figure 1. Stress/strain comparison of Kevlar 29 and Nephila clavipes dragline silk. Spider silk can

  6. A Report on the Navy SBIR Program: Best Practices, Roadblocks and Recommendations for Technology Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    0 2 4 6 8 10 Increase in technology / IP inventory Phase II subcontract revenues Reduced CR&D and related costs...UnCLASSIFIeD page 19 Figure 3 | processes that Slow transition Figure 4 | processes that Accelerate transition 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Third...Configuration Management (CM), Quality Assurance (QA), and Government Contract compliance. 0 2 4 6 8 10 Certifications, licenses, etc. Partnering

  7. Evaluating the Unit Performance Assessment System’s After Action Review Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    e ° ° ’ ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ... . .. . o • o o o o o o ° ° . . . . 0, i ....1 DISAGREE BORDERLI AOREE AGREEMENT MAnimated Rerun M Slide Show Figure 13...120................ 0 DISLIKE NEUTRAL LIKE APPROVAL MAnimated Rerun MSlide Show Figure 15. Approval of how the...t ll liili , , , imore 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 minutes C. After careful examination of different features and time factors, how strongly would you prefer

  8. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lid shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8 inch. (b) Permanent sun shields shall be provided for sides... distance of 11/2 inches. Sun shields may be omitted when chests are installed “on deck protected,” shielded from direct exposure to the sun. (c) Chests shall be limited to a gross capacity of 100 cubic feet....

  9. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lid shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8 inch. (b) Permanent sun shields shall be provided for sides... distance of 11/2 inches. Sun shields may be omitted when chests are installed “on deck protected,” shielded from direct exposure to the sun. (c) Chests shall be limited to a gross capacity of 100 cubic feet....

  10. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lid shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8 inch. (b) Permanent sun shields shall be provided for sides... distance of 11/2 inches. Sun shields may be omitted when chests are installed “on deck protected,” shielded from direct exposure to the sun. (c) Chests shall be limited to a gross capacity of 100 cubic feet....

  11. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lid shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8 inch. (b) Permanent sun shields shall be provided for sides... distance of 11/2 inches. Sun shields may be omitted when chests are installed “on deck protected,” shielded from direct exposure to the sun. (c) Chests shall be limited to a gross capacity of 100 cubic feet....

  12. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lid shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8 inch. (b) Permanent sun shields shall be provided for sides and top including the lid. These shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8-inch aluminum or 16-gage steel. Side shields shall be offset from the body a distance of 1 inch. The top shield shall be offset...

  13. The NASA - Arc 10/20 micron camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, T. L.; Cooper, R.; Deutsch, L. K.; Mccreight, C.; Mckelvey, M.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Witteborn, F. C.; Yuen, L.; Mcmahon, T.; Werner, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new infrared camera (AIR Camera) has been developed at NASA - Ames Research Center for observations from ground-based telescopes. The heart of the camera is a Hughes 58 x 62 pixel Arsenic-doped Silicon detector array that has the spectral sensitivity range to allow observations in both the 10 and 20 micron atmospheric windows.

  14. 46 CFR 2.10-20 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Inspection Fees, P.O. Box 531030, Atlanta, GA 30353-1030. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S... 531030 (COI), 1075 Loop Road, Atlanta, GA 30337-6002. (2) For Overseas Inspection Fees: (i) For payment..., P.O. Box 531769, Atlanta, GA 30353-1769. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S....

  15. 46 CFR 2.10-20 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....O. Box 531030, Atlanta, GA 30353-1030. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S. Treasury... (COI), 1075 Loop Road, Atlanta, GA 30337-6002. (2) For Overseas Inspection Fees: (i) For payment by... 531769, Atlanta, GA 30353-1769. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S. Treasury, with...

  16. 46 CFR 2.10-20 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....O. Box 531030, Atlanta, GA 30353-1030. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S. Treasury... (COI), 1075 Loop Road, Atlanta, GA 30337-6002. (2) For Overseas Inspection Fees: (i) For payment by... 531769, Atlanta, GA 30353-1769. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S. Treasury, with...

  17. 46 CFR 54.10-20 - Marking and stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection... (__ °F). (5) Class. (6) Minimum design metal temperature, if below −18 °C (0 °F). (7) Water capacity in... stamped is to be insulated or otherwise covered, the data shall be reproduced on a metal nameplate....

  18. 46 CFR 2.10-20 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subpart must be paid in U.S. currency by check or money order, drawn on a U.S. bank, and made payable to the U.S. Treasury. Payment may also be made by credit card or wire transfer. (c) All payments must...

  19. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... tensile strength of the material, whichever is less. Critical buckling strength shall be at least 75 percent greater than calculated buckling stresses. The maximum tank bending moments and saddle...

  20. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  1. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rests upon a pinnacle at the water surface. The maximum hull and tank bending moment and tank saddle..., regardless of the number of saddle supports shall be subject to a still water bending analysis to determine... reactions. (iii) The still water tank bending moments and saddle reactions shall be superimposed upon...

  2. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rests upon a pinnacle at the water surface. The maximum hull and tank bending moment and tank saddle..., regardless of the number of saddle supports shall be subject to a still water bending analysis to determine... reactions. (iii) The still water tank bending moments and saddle reactions shall be superimposed upon...

  3. Investigation of the Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability Characteristics of a 0.10-Scale Model of a Three-Stage Configuration of the Scout Research Vehicle at Mach Numbers of 2.29, 2.96, 3.96, and 4.65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernell, Lloyd S.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation w a s made i n the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel o determine the effects of fin area and the effects of antennas and w iring tunnels on the static longitudinal and lateral stability of a 0 .10- scale model of a three- stage configuration of the Scout vehicle. The tests were performed at Mach numbers of 2.29, 2.96, 3.96, and 4. 65 6 and at Reynolds numbers of about 3.5 X 10 per foot.

  4. Development of Automated Objective Meteorological Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-30

    Bright 63 60 WATER CLOUD 50 40 SSC (Near IR) 30 (a) Cumulo- 20 nimbus LAND Cirrostratus / 10 S OCEAN SNOW Dark 0 I I I 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 6 3 Dark...VISIBLE Bright 63 Bright 60 s0 - WATER CLOUD SSC 40- (Near IR) 30 - Cumulo- (b) nimbus 20 - Cirrostratus LAND / 10- OCEAN SNOW Dark 0 __________ 0 10...AWDS; developing objective techniques for estimating cloud base heights, predicting slant visual range, -nd predicting low-level winds; devel- oping

  5. Frequency-dependent impedance spectroscopy on the 0.925(Bi0.5Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-0.075(Ba0.70Sr0.30)TiO3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Amir; Rahman, Muneeb-ur; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Ahn, Chang Won; Kim, Ill Won; Ullah, Aman

    2016-06-01

    The electrical properties of the 0.925(Bi0.5(Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-0.075(Ba0.70Sr0.30)TiO3 (0.925BNKT-0.075BST) ceramic were investigated by using AC impedance spectroscopy over a wide range of frequencies (10 -2 ~ 105 Hz). The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of a single-phase compound. A single semicircular arc in the impedance spectrum indicates that the main contribution of the bulk resistance ( R b ) were due to grain effects, with Rb decreasing with increasing temperature. The conductivity of the ceramics increased with increasing temperature, and the activation energy resulting from the DC conductivity was 0.86 eV. The ceramic displayed a typical negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior, like that of a semiconductor.

  6. High-resolution spectroscopy of the {A}^{1}{\\rm{\\Pi }}(v^{\\prime} =0{--}10){--}{X}^{1}{{\\rm{\\Sigma }}}^{+}(v^{\\prime\\prime} =0) bands in 13C18O: term values, ro-vibrational oscillator strengths and Hönl-London corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, J. L.; Eidelsberg, M.; Heays, A. N.; Gavilan, L.; Federman, S. R.; Stark, G.; Lyons, J. R.; de Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.

    2016-08-01

    Our knowledge of astronomical environments containing CO depends on accurate molecular data to reproduce and interpret observations. The constant improvement in UV space instrumentation, both in sensitivity and resolution, requires increasingly detailed laboratory data. Following a long-term experimental campaign at the SOLEIL Synchrotron facility, we have acquired complete datasets on the CO isotopologues in the vacuum ultraviolet. Absorption spectra were recorded using the Fourier-transform spectrometer installed on the DESIRS beamline, providing a resolving power R > 106 in the 8-12 eV range. Such resolution allows the analysis of individual line positions and strengths in electronic transitions and the location of perturbations. We continue our previous work on A-X bands of 12C16O and 13C16O, reporting here measurements for the 13C18O isotopologue. Gas column densities in the differentially-pumped system were calibrated using the B {}1{{{Σ }}}+-X {}1{{{Σ }}}+({v}\\prime =0,v\\prime\\prime =0) band. Absorption bands are analyzed by synthesizing line and band profiles and fitting them to measured spectra. New results for A {}1{{\\Pi }}({v}\\prime =0{--}10)-X {}1{{{Σ }}}+(v\\prime\\prime =0) bands include precise line assignments, term values, band-integrated oscillator strengths as well as individual ro-vibrational oscillator strengths and Hönl-London corrections. For ({v}\\prime =1) our results are compared with earlier studies. The interpretation of mixed perturbing bands, complementing an earlier study, is also presented as well as precise line assignments and term values for the B {}1{{{Σ }}}+-X {}1{{{Σ }}}+(0-0) band calibrator, and the nearby B-X (1-0) and C {}1{{{Σ }}}+-X {}1{{{Σ }}}+(0-0) bands.

  7. Realization of small intrinsic hysteresis with large magnetic entropy change in La{sub 0.8}Pr{sub 0.2}(Fe{sub 0.88}Si{sub 0.10}Al{sub 0.02}){sub 13} by controlling itinerant-electron characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, A.; Matsunami, D.; Yako, H.

    2014-03-24

    Tuning of phase-transition characteristics in La(Fe{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}){sub 13} was conducted in view of the correlation between microscopic itinerant electron natures and macroscopic thermodynamic (magnetocaloric) quantities. To realize a small hysteresis loss Q{sub H} accompanied by a large magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M} in La(Fe{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}){sub 13}, two types of modulation based on itinerant electron characteristics, namely, the Fermi-level shift and the magnetovolume effect were combined by complex partial substitution of Al and Pr. Ab-initio calculations predict the reduction of a transition hysteresis owing to the Fermi-level shift after partial substitution of Al. On the other hand, the chemical pressure arisen from partial substitution of Pr enhances ΔS{sub M} through magnetovolume effect. The selective enhancement of ΔS{sub M} apart from Q{sub H} by the magnetovolume effect is well explained by the phenomenological Landau model. Consequently, ΔS{sub M} of La{sub 0.8}Pr{sub 0.2}(Fe{sub 0.88}Si{sub 0.10}Al{sub 0.02}){sub 13} is −18 J/kg K under a magnetic field change of 0–1.2 T, while the maximum value of Q{sub H} becomes 1/6 of that for La(Fe{sub 0.88}Si{sub 0.12}){sub 13}.

  8. Antennas in the 20/30 GHz band for the ground segment of the Italsat system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamou, A.; Pagana, E.; Saitto, A.; Vatalaro, F.

    A description is given of two antenna standards that were assessed to be capable of assuring the required service quality and availability. Both antennas have an offset configuration with three reflectors. The main reflector is a paraboloid which is realized with carbon-fiber multilayered materials. The two shaped metallic subreflectors and a specially designed feed system incorporating a frequency selective surface allow a compact antenna structure design that provides high gain, low sidelobes, and good cross-polarization performance.

  9. Historical Development Summary of Automatic Cannon Caliber Ammunition: 20-30 Millimeter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    o, this report is specified on verso of front cover. " 0 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by block numb, r...M53. F. Amor Piercing Projectiles The evolution of armor and armor piercing ammunition is a continuous see-saw. The improvement of one forces a

  10. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  11. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  12. Altitudinal variation of soil organic carbon stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalayas, India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Dar, Javid; Somaiah, Sundarapandian

    2015-02-01

    Soil organic carbon stocks were measured at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) in seven altitudes dominated by different forest types viz. Populus deltoides, 1550-1800 m; Juglans regia, 1800-2000 m; Cedrus deodara, 2050-2300 m; Pinus wallichiana, 2000-2300 m; mixed type, 2200-2400 m; Abies pindrow, 2300-2800 m; and Betula utilis, 2800-3200 m in temperate mountains of Kashmir Himalayas. The mean range of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks varied from 39.07 to 91.39 Mg C ha(-1) in J. regia and B. utilis forests at 0-30 cm depth, respectively. Among the forest types, the lowest mean range of SOC at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) was observed in J. regia (18.55, 11.31, and 8.91 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type, and the highest was observed in B. utilis (54.10, 21.68, and 15.60 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type. SOC stocks showed significantly (R (2) = 0.67, P = 0.001) an increasing trend with increase in altitude. On average, the percentages of SOC at 0-10-, 10-20-, and 20-30-cm depths were 53.2, 26.5, and 20.3 %, respectively. Bulk density increased significantly with increase in soil depth and decreased with increase in altitude. Our results suggest that SOC stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya vary greatly with forest type and altitude. The present study reveals that SOC stocks increased with increase in altitude at high mountainous regions. Climate change in these high mountainous regions will alter the carbon sequestration potential, which would affect the global carbon cycle.

  13. Nose Boom B-Dot Sensor Location Optimization for NASA F-106.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    F- IOGA ,TOP,H-PRR FUS, POSG; FH@0@g J-J 1 .5 .5 11 SUN 94 UM 0 10 20 30 40 5o GO 7 FREQUENCY (MHz) 200 F-i 01:t,TOP, H-PRR FUG, POE GFHO009 1 00 0 Ua...Reference file U4F106 (unity) Set 4.2(a): E 1 and E2for bottom incidence, H-parallel to fuselage. 65 t2 F- IOGA ,BOT,H-PRR FUS,POS4;.FHOl33 1.5 I, I_ .5

  14. The Geometry of Selected U.S. Tidal Inlets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    OF THlE 13 VALUES 0.1 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 DMX (ft) 50 20 0. lo0 0-- 0 25 10 -15 󈧄 -25 350 -75 200 225 250 * wDM ( ft10 ) 60...20- l0 0 25 510 75 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 WC ( ft10 ) 50157 30 z20 l o 0 -l--A I a~4..... 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 L (ft X 100) 25 20

  15. Dialable Cryptography for Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    r of C om m od iti es Commodity Size Gamma Distribution with...from the non-modified gamma distribution. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 N um be r of C om m od iti es Commodity Size Modified...increase (each priority from 1 to 100 have an equal probability of occurring). 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 N um be r of C om

  16. Nonlinear Microwave Properties of Atomic Layer Controlled HTS Multilayers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-14

    nm YBCO 160 nm YBCO 160 nm YBCO -160 -130 - 100 -70 -40 -10 0 10 20 30 Circulating power (dBm) N or m al iz ed IM D p ow er (d B m ) Single layer...film with each YBCO layer 160- nm thick interspersed with CeO2 buffer layers 40- nm thick, giving an aggregate thickness of 640 nm of YBCO . The...flux penetration and flux motion are sources of loss. Thickness dependence of IMD of YBCO

  17. Defining and Measuring the Success of Services Contracts in the United States Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    LVL  I... LVL  II LVL  III M EA N  R ES PO N SE CATEGORIES Definitions of Success Across DAWIA  Levels PROCESS OUTCOME 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% PROCESS  LVL ...I  OUTCOME  LVL  I  PROCESS  LVL  II OUTCOME  LVL  II  PROCESS  LVL  III OUTCOME  LVL  III Ranking of Definitions of Success  Across DAWIA Levels

  18. Role of Merlin/NF2 in mTOR Signaling and Meningioma Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Nonidet p - 40 (NP- 40 ) containing calyculin (50 nmol/L; Cell Signaling Technology), 1...IP kinase In vitro assay EGF-stimulated arachnoid cells 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 con RNAi NF2 RNAi A ve ra g e re la ti ve A kt S 47 3 p h o...R T - P R T pAKT S473 pp70 S6K T389 Akt pAKT S473 (long exposure) 1 h 24 h BA pAkt S473 DC p70 S6K 1 h 24 h 0 10 20 30 40

  19. Security Vulnerability Trends Related to Electric Power Supplied at Military Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    miles) Peak Demand Number of Customers (U.S. & Canada) Florida Reliability Coordination Council ( FRCC ) ~ 50,000 45,734 MW ~ 16,000,000...while some NERC regions (e.g., SPP, MRO, FRCC ) experienced a fairly consistent number of outages, other regions (e.g., WECC, RFC, NPCC) had a sizeable...of power outages except the fact that nature tends to be the source of most power outages. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC

  20. UAV Digital Tracking Array Design, Development and Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    vs Fetch Number Pedestal Angle -11 dBm -16 dBm -26 dBm -36 dBm ...150 200 250 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Fetch Number A ng le (d eg ) Plot of Scanned Angle vs Fetch Number Pedestal Angle -46 dBm -56 dBm -63 dBm -69...Scanned Angle vs Fetch Number Pedestal Angle -11 dBm -16 dBm -26 dBm -36 dBm Figure 123. Plot of Angle against Fetch Number for AOA of 30

  1. Analysis of Hydrodynamic Interaction Between HMCS FREDERICTON and USNS KANAWHA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Speed Latitude Longitude Comment ( Zulu ) (deg) (deg) (knots) (N) (W) 233400 29.1 30.1 13.3 28◦ 2.877′ 79◦ 18.436′ 233410 28.3 28.0 13.1 28◦ 2.909′ 79...2336 2337 2338 2339 Time - Zulu (hours and minutes) 0 10 20 30 40 H ea di ng ψ ,C ou rs e χ (d eg...made good χ 2334 2335 2336 2337 2338 2339 Time - Zulu (hours and minutes) 0 5 10 15 20 S pe ed V (k no ts

  2. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    memory as assessed Quantitation of immunofluorescence 18...I+K+E 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 T im e ( s e c t o p la tf o rm ; d a y 1 1 ) Figure 5. Working Memory Assay. N = 8 N = 7 N = 7 N = 12 pɘ.05pɘ.05 N...area. Working memory test relies on the improved performance of the rat at the end of the second of four trials run on the fifth day post

  3. Engineering Transgenic Plants for the Sustained Containment and In Situ Treatment of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    cloacae nitroreductase ...................................... 24 Figure 9 Relative quantitative levels of nfsI expression in transgenic plant lines... Plant Line Fo ld e xp re ss io n Figure 10. Relative quantitative levels of nfsI expression in transgenic plant lines Results are the mean...relative to the lowest nfsI expressing transgenic line, NR 20-3 (Figure 10). 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 NR 20-3 NR 3-2, T0 NR 3-2, T2 NR 9-1 Transgenic

  4. The Glass Ceiling Effect and Its Impact on Mid-Level Female Military Officer Career Progression in the United States Marine Corps and Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    society . The Defense Department assured the committee that there would be no attempt to remove restrictions on the kind of military duties women ...lower than the men. Nevertheless more women are entering the Air 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Pe rc en t Ac ad em y RO TC Di rec t A pp t OC S / OT S Ot he...Stay. Womens ’ Enews. Retrieved from http://www.womensenews.org Rostker, B., Thie, H., Lacy, J. L., Kawata, J. H., & Purnell, S . W.(1993). The

  5. A Climatology of a Newly-Defined Tropopause Using Simultaneous Ozone-Temperature Profiles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    always separate the different physical properties of the two regions. It is the purpose of this paper to show that the altitude in a vertical ozone...monthly means were printed on paper and recorded on magnetic tape. G. Calculation of Vertical Ozonc Gradients The question arises as to how to ’-fine the...DEC 3 0 87 A. 7 Table 7a. 49 I O-20i ONTH LAYRI x-1O0 -50 -40 -0 20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 100 150 200 p200 N JAN . 0 JAN 1.0 0 JAN 1,8 0 JAN 2 0 0 JAN

  6. Ballistic Flash Characterization of Entry-Side Flash

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    5 Sep 2012_ Darryl K. Ahner, LTC, USA (Member) date ________//SIGNED//_______________________ 5 Sep 2012_ Mr. Jaime J...I would like to thank Mr. Jaime Bestard who was instrumental in making sure we were always heading in the right direction...Position vs. Time for AL 2024 Model -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60Di st an ce F ro m O rig in (m ) Scaled Time (sec/.000121

  7. Ramjet and Ramrocket Propulsion Systems for Missiles Held at Monterey, California, London (United Kingdom), and Neubiberg (Germany F. R.) on 5-6; 10-11 and 13-14 September 1984

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Margin of Inlet:, 3et Htrs H 0kkm C, 0.0.5 0.0 10 20 30c. p I -dIv~ 1-13 12 R2T Fig. 16 10 RAMJETS Regions of Application of Ram-Po’R %• RA ROCKE...attack or sideslip) and the rate of heat addition in the combustor. The matching of inlet and thrust nozzle is illustrated by fig. 10 . Some simplifications...1- 0 2 1. 6 8 10 12 14 1 Mo ---- Fig. 3 En’gine Inte~ration and Booster Instalkptlon 2. GEDRATION SOOSTEft SOVAC ?5O K6 U4 Fg42 TALOS GMEF

  8. Fluctuations of Mid-to-High Frequency Acoustic Waves in Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12...waveguide such as the ratio between the thermocline layer thickness and the water depth, this effect could be significant (as large as 10 dB in an...experiment. A well defined regime during the first hour is changing into a less defined ocean structure during the second hour. 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

  9. Office Work in the Context of Rapidly Developing Information Technology: Better Ergonomics Needed to Limit Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    reaching more than 60%, among systems engineers using the free address system, whereas it was around 30% among nurses , whose work is known to be...Munakata, K., Inaoka, F., Takahashi, T., & Kawano, M. (1988). In T. Doi (Ed.), Burnout: mental health for physicians, nurses and teachers. Tokyo, Japan...Types of Work. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Physician Psychiatrist Nurse Total SE (Fixed) SE (Free) Design Pe rc en t Low (0~1point) Medium (2~4point) High (5~point) Health Care Workers (Doi et al.,1985) IT Company Workers

  10. Book Analysis of Arms and Insecurity in the Persian Gulf.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    average weight loss (4.73 ± 0.62 kg) using an automated analyzer (Beckman, Palo Alto, CA). between groups. During both phases, the active group (n Plasma...would result in -. - L -. I -, ,- -:,,!, -decreased ammonia accumulation during submaximal plasma lactate; insulin; glucose; maximal oxygen up take...test subjects. 30 - Acute, t < 24 h; chronic, t = 13 days. 20 p" ,\\ a a I l I I I I 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 AM A 4 FAST REST EXERCISE RECOVERY

  11. The Detection and Characterization of High Frequency and High Wavenumber Solar Oscillations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    error t. vs. velocity for line-width increments: 0, 10, 20, 30% (a. 3 method) ........ ............................ 25 f 2.11 Geometry of modeled line...this has not been optimised ); for a total of 66k words. ! -,£ CHAPTER 2. MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES 18 I Domain and Range of a and 3 1 The ratio a has a...Integrate [sum] over wavelength to get "measured" intensity. The Riemann interval and limits of integration were varied to verify that they [ did not affect

  12. Storm Water Toxicity Evaluation Conducted at Naval Station San Diego, Naval Submarine Base San Diego, Naval Amphibious Base Coronado, and Naval Air Station North Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Development PAH PCB* Chlorinated Pesticides* Cu, ZnMetals TIE TSS DOC Special Floating Bioassay Study S A M P L E T Y P E S A M P L E A N A L Y S I S ...Survival (%) Mussel Normal Development (%)NI 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 O F2 3A - S DB 4- FF O F2 3A - S DB 6- FF O F2 6- SD B6 -F F O F2 6...Strongylocentrotus purpuratus ) and Bay Mussels (Mytilus

  13. Building Sustainability into the Air Force Remediation Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-06

    Case Studies 10 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 19 91 19 93 19 95 19 97 19 99 20 01 20 03 20 05 20 07 20 09 20 11 20 13 Fiscal Year Pe...Sustainability in AF Remediation: “Green” Remediation Phytoremediation , Travis AFB, CA  Sustainability metrics not new endeavor  ER programs focus on cost, risk...remediation technology examples:  Phytoremediation – 5  LNAPL recovery – 16  Passive in situ treatment Wetlands  Enh bio – 114  MNA –

  14. Conceptual Model for Prediction of Magnetic Soil Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-13

    and the average frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd%) of 5 soils on Kohala Volcano and Mauna Kea Volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii. The...Plot of χfd% versus the iron content of the basalt sample and soils 1-3 on Kohala Volcano and soil 5 on Mauna Kea Volcano. c) Sampling locations...m3/kg) fd % Kohala Basalt Kohala 3 180 Kohala 2 750 Kohala 1 1300 Mauna Kea 6 3275 Mauna Kea 5 5485 b) c) 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 10 20 30 40 50

  15. Gas Foil Bearing Development Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    curve For the 12 -Foil Bearing. 58 8 1 0 MEASURED DATA - ~- w 3 0 CALCULATED DATA S2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 s0 90 100 LOAD, LB Figure 29. Comparison...Government drawings, specifications, or other data are used for any purpose other than in connection with a definitely related Government procurement...formulated, furnished, or in any way supplied the said drawings, specifications, or other data , is not to be regarded by implication or otherwise as in any

  16. Solubility, viscosity and density of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1993--30 June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the results of experimental measurements on low refrigerant concentration mixtures (0, 10, 20,30 wt %) of twelve working fluids. These data have been reduced to engineering form and are presented in the form of a Daniel Chart and a plot of density versus temperature and composition. Extensive numerical analysis has been performed in order to derive equations which allow two independent variables (temperature and composition) and to provide for corrections in composition due to vapor space volume in the test apparatus; details of these calculations are provided in Appendix A. This report supersedes all previous reports.

  17. Recovering Sample Diversity in Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    at: 0. 1 % 4- Speed bias (m/s): 0.05 Speed sf: 0.05 % 3- Simulation 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Meters Figure 4-2: True agent patti fr~om one( realizat...XY Covanance 1. Posterior Distribution Simulation .. Estimated Landmarks 1-a 0 2 4 6 8 t0 Meters (b) -igure 4-3: A typical SLA\\I scenario showing...resampling: 10.8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Simulation Time (sec) ( b) Figu ire 4- 6 : FasrSLA I 1.0: CEP and diversity for single rum at ramne ineasiureient NILS

  18. Targeting the I-Kappa-B Kinase Epsilon (IKKe) for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    l o n y n u m b e 200 400 600 C o l o n y n u m b * * Figure 2 0 NC siR-1 siR-8 0 NC siR-1 siR-8...70Migration Invasion 80 100 120 c e l l n u m b e r 40 50 60 e l l n u m b e r * 0 20 40 60 M i g r a t e d c 0 10 20 30 I n v a d e d c e * * * NC...siR-1 siR-8 Figure 4A Migration

  19. Allograft Fascia Lata as an Augmentation Device for Musculoskeletal Repairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Figure 1) and also to the human supraspinatus tendon (Itoi et al., 1995). 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Grip-to-Grip Strain St re ss (M Pa...species are being explored for the repair of musculoskeletal tendon injuries. In this paper we demonstrate that amongst these ECM scaffolds, only...tensor fascia lata has structural and tensile material properties comparable to tendon , but fascia has poor suture retention properties. We have

  20. [Effects of land use and abandonment on soil labile organic carbon in the Karst region of southwest China].

    PubMed

    Liao, Hong-Kai; Li, Juan; Long, Jian; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Liu, Ling-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Effects of land use and land abandonment on labile organic carbon (LOC) in whole soils and different aggregate sizes were studied by sampling analysis of the soils in some typical land uses of the Karst region, southwest China. Results showed that the content and degree of dispersion of labile organic carbon decreased with soil depth, and the content of LOC was highly significant (P < 0.01) in 0-10 cm than in 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm. In the 0-10 cm soil layer, the content of LOC distribution in different aggregates was higher in the < 0.25 mm size, while no obvious changes of LOC among aggregates were found in the 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm depths. In different land use patterns, the LOC was the highest in paddy whether in whole soils or aggregates, followed by shrub, and the lowest in abandoned 3 years grassland. Within-between principal component analysis showed that the accumulation characters between land use and LOC were in the order of paddy > shrub > abandoned 15 years grassland = dry land > abandoned 3 years grassland, the content of LOC increased by 20.3% as compared to dryland, and had reached 80% of the content of shrub in abandoned 15 years grassland at the 0-10 cm depth, indicating that at the early stage of land abandonment, the natural recovery of carbon is relatively slow, while with the abandonment time increase, the carbon sink effect gradually appear.

  1. Onium salt reduces the inhibitory polymerization effect from an organic solvent in a model dental adhesive resin.

    PubMed

    Ogliari, Fabrício A; Ely, Caroline; Lima, Giana S; Conde, Marcus C M; Petzhold, Cesar L; Demarco, Flávio F; Piva, Evandro

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of organic solvent concentration on the polymerization kinetics for a model dental adhesive resin containing a ternary photoinitiator system. A monomer blend based on the bis-GMA, TEGDMA, and HEMA was used as a model dental adhesive resin, which was polymerized using a binary system [camphorquinone (CQ) and ethyl 4-dimethylamine benzoate (EDAB)] and a ternary system [CQ, EDAB, and diphenyliodonium hexafluorphosphate (DPIHFP)]. Additionally, these blends had 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt % ethanol added. Real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the polymerization reaction over photoactivation time. Data were plotted, and Hill's three-parameter nonlinear regression was performed for curve fitting. The addition of a solvent to the monomer blends decreased the polymerization kinetics, directly affecting the rate of polymerization, delaying vitrification, and attenuating the Trommsdorf effect. The introduction of DPIHFP displayed a strong increase in reaction kinetics, reducing the solvent inhibition effect. After 10 s of photoactivation, the binary system obtained in 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% of ethanol, a degree of conversion of 44.6, 26.3, 13.4, 1.15, and 0.0%, respectively, whereas when a ternary system was used, the values were 54.6, 40.5, 27.4, 14.5, and 3.4%. An improvement was observed in the polymerization kinetics of a model dental adhesive resin when using a ternary photoinitiation system, making the material less sensitive to the residual presence of a solvent before photoactivation.

  2. Shallow (0-10) seismic investigation of a distressed earthen levee, New Orleans, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, J. M.; Hicks, J.; Vera, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    Both deep- and near-surface hydrogeologic processes can contribute to the structural failure of artificial earthen levees. Recently, seismic geophysical methods have attempted to develop a proxy for engineering shear strength, by mapping changes in the transmission velocity of shear waves. High fluid content may indicate both weak, under-compacted materials and/or organic-rich sediments. In the absence of electromagnetic methods, Vp/Vs ratios can be used as good indicators of variations in the fluid (water, and air or gas) saturation. Cone penetration borehole tests measure the resistance of soils to penetration of the cone tip and its frictional sliding that can be correlated to sediment types and their physical properties. A distressed section of an artificial earthen levee, suitable for seismic investigation, lies ~15 km S of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Open curvilinear fissures, 10 cm wide, 30 cm deep, and up to 100 m in length, exist along the crest at two sites. Between September 2007 and February 2008 we collect horizontally (SH) polarized shear and compressional wave (P) data in pseudo-walkaway tests for the upper 100 m of the subsurface along the protected (west) side of the earthen levee, within 30 m of its crest. One profile lies parallel and adjacent to the damaged levee crest and, for reference, two profiles lie nearby adjacent to undamaged portions of the artificial earthen levee. In the first ~30 m of sediment below the lower delta plain of the Greater New Orleans area, a complex and dynamic interaction of freshwater and marine sedimentary environments juxtaposes a diverse set of facies. We combine of Vp and Vs velocity maps, sedimentary environment interpretations, and cone-penetration-derived sediment/soil and laboratory-derived physical properties to locate possible zones of high fluid concentration, (and perhaps seepage), weak engineering materials, and natural foundation soil shear strength. Under the distressed portion of the earthen levee, shear modulus minima in a constructed profile, correlate with zones of estimated high saturation porosity (80%) high organic content and undercomapcted clay-rich sediments. We interpret that despite nominal full soil saturation, small in-situ intergaranular, free gas maintains Vp values low (~140 m/s). However, Vp/Vs ratios increase to values > 14 within gas-free sands of the underlying St. Bernard delta lobe complex (2000 -4000 yr) at shallow depths (~ 5m).

  3. Screening for Pain in the Ambulatory Cancer Setting: Is 0-10 Enough?

    PubMed Central

    LeBaron, Virginia T.; Blonquist, Traci M.; Hong, Fangxin; Halpenny, Barbara; Berry, Donna L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore concordance between patient self-reports of pain on validated questionnaires and discussions of pain in the ambulatory oncology setting. Methods: Adult, ambulatory patients (N = 452) with all stages of cancer were included. Three pain measures were evaluated: two items from the Symptom Distress Scale (frequency [SDSF] and intensity [SDSI]) and the Pain Intensity Numeric Scale (PINS). Relevant pain was defined as: (1) scores 3 of 5 on SDSF or SDSI or 5 of 10 on the (PINS); or (2) discussion of existing pain in an audio-recorded clinic visit. For each scale, McNemar's test assessed concordance of patient self-reports of relevant pain with discussions of relevant pain in the audio-recorded clinic visit. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated and a receiver operating characteristic analysis evaluated thresholds on self-report pain questionnaires to best identify relevant pain discussed in clinic. Results: Identification of relevant pain by self-report was discordant (P < .001) with discussed pain coded in audio-recorded visits for all three measures. Specificity was higher for intensity (SDSI, 0.94; PINS, 0.97) than frequency (SDSF, 0.87); sensitivity was higher for frequency (SDSF, 0.35) than intensity (SDSI, 0.24; PINS, 0.12). Accuracy was higher for the SDS pain items (SDSF, 0.57; SDSI, 0.54) than for PINS (0.48). Receiver operating characteristic analysis curves suggest that lower threshold scores may improve the identification of relevant pain. Conclusion: Self-report pain screening measures favored specificity over sensitivity. Asking about pain frequency (in addition to intensity) and reconsidering threshold scores on pain intensity scales may be practical strategies to more accurately identify patients with cancer who have relevant pain. PMID:26306620

  4. Fe(0) Nanomotors in Ton Quantities (10(20) Units) for Environmental Remediation.

    PubMed

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Zboril, Radek; Medrik, Ivo; Pumera, Martin

    2016-03-24

    Despite demonstrating potential for environmental remediation and biomedical applications, the practical environmental applications of autonomous self-propelled micro-/nanorobots have been limited by the inability to fabricate these devices in large (kilograms/tons) quantities. In view of the demand for large-scale environmental remediation by micro-/nanomotors, which are easily synthesized and powered by nontoxic fuel, we have developed bubble-propelled Fe(0) Janus nanomotors by a facile thermally induced solid-state procedure and investigated their potential as decontamination agents of pollutants. These Fe(0) Janus nanomotors, stabilized by an ultrathin iron oxide shell, were fuelled by their decomposition in citric acid, leading to the asymmetric bubble propulsion. The degradation of azo-dyes was dramatically increased in the presence of moving self-propelled Fe(0) nanomotors, which acted as reducing agents. Such enhanced pollutant decomposition triggered by biocompatible Fe(0) (nanoscale zero-valent iron motors), which can be handled in the air and fabricated in ton quantities for low cost, will revolutionize the way that environmental remediation is carried out.

  5. An observation of cosmic ray positrons from 10-20 GeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, D.; Tang, J.

    1985-01-01

    A balloon flight of the University of Chicago electron telescope was performed. Making use of the east-west asymmetry in the geomagnetic cut off rigidity, the cosmic ray positrons and negatrons were separated over the range 10 GeV to 20 GeV. The positron to electron ratio, e+/(e++e-), was measured to be 17% + or - 5%, significantly higher than the ratio measured in the 1 GeV to 10 GeV range by other experiments. This increase appears to suggest that either a primary component of positrons become significant above 10 GeV, or that the spectrum of primary negatrons decreases above 10 GeV more sharply than that of secondary positrons.

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-20 - Deadweight or DWT-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the lightweight displacement and the total displacement of a vessel measured in water of specific gravity 1.025 at the load waterline corresponding to the summer freeboard assigned according to 46...

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-20 - Deadweight or DWT-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the lightweight displacement and the total displacement of a vessel measured in water of specific gravity 1.025 at the load waterline corresponding to the summer freeboard assigned according to 46...

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-20 - Deadweight or DWT-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the lightweight displacement and the total displacement of a vessel measured in water of specific gravity 1.025 at the load waterline corresponding to the summer freeboard assigned according to 46...

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-20 - Deadweight or DWT-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the lightweight displacement and the total displacement of a vessel measured in water of specific gravity 1.025 at the load waterline corresponding to the summer freeboard assigned according to 46...

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-20 - Deadweight or DWT-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the lightweight displacement and the total displacement of a vessel measured in water of specific gravity 1.025 at the load waterline corresponding to the summer freeboard assigned according to 46...

  11. 38 CFR 10.20 - “Demand for payment” certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... officer of an incorporated bank or trust company, notary public, or any person who is legally authorized... person authorized to administer oaths under the laws of the place where execution of demand is...

  12. Field Sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflorus) Seeds in the Same Bur Respond Differently to Temperature and Water Potential in Relation to Germination in a Semi-Arid Environment, China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yuguang; Liu, Huifang; Niu, Xueli; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The success of a biological invasion relies on the environment and is closely linked to factors such as water and temperature. Invasive plant species display different seed characteristics, including shape. Field sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflorus) is a globally widespread invasive species capable of adapting to broad environmental conditions. However, its germination response to water and temperature still remains unclear. C. pauciflorus contains two seeds in the same bur that differ in size: big seeds (M) and small seeds (P). Separate greenhouse experiments were conducted under different temperature regimes (0/10°C, 5/15°C, 10/20°C, 15/25°C, 18/28°C, 20/30°C and 25/35°C) and water potentials (-1.50Mpa, -1.00Mpa, -0.75Mpa, -0.50Mpa, -0.25Mpa and 0Mpa) for M and P seeds. The results support the hypothesis that germination of C. pauciflorus is significantly influenced by seed type, temperature and water potential. M and P seeds responded differently to varied alternative temperatures and water potentials. However, M and P seeds were more sensitive to water potential than to temperature. Optimal conditions for M and P seed germination were measured at 25/35°C (night temperature/day temperature) and 20/30°C, respectively. In contrast, the highest germination rate was observed for the 0Mpa of the water potential treatment. Additionally, base temperature (Tbase) and base water potential (Wbase) were lower for M (7.7°C, -1.11Mpa at 10/20°C, and -1.07Mpa at 20/30°C) than for P (9.4°C, -0.92Mpa at 10/20°C, and -0.52Mpa at 20/30°C). These different germination strategies of M and P seeds with respect to temperature and water potential increased overall plant propagation. These results indicate that tropical and subtropical regions water potentials beyond -0.50Mpa (10/20°C) or -1.00Mpa (20/30°C) face a potential risk of C. pauciflorus invasion. PMID:27992496

  13. Production of /sup 123/I by irradiating /sup 124/Xe with 20-30-MeVprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuralev, B.V.; Ivanova, S.P.; Krasnov, N.N.; Shubin, Y.N.

    1986-11-01

    The authors calculated on the basis of statistical theory the excitation functions of all the nuclear reactions leading to the formation of /sup 124/Xe with 15-30-MeV protons. The authors determined the physical yields of isotopes for a thick target and the optimum conditions ensuring high efficiency of /sup 123/I production without the admixture of undesirable radioisotope impurities. Recommendations on organizing /sup 123/I production on cyclotrons with an energy of 22-30 MeV are given. It was shown that this method makes it possible to use 22-30-MeV cyclotrons and that the problem of adequate supply of medically important /sup 123/I radioisotope that would be free from the /sup 124/impurity would probably be solved.

  14. Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20--30, 1992. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hebdon, F.J.

    1993-03-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew, a Category 4 hurricane, struck the Turkey Point Electrical Generating Station with sustained winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). This is the report of the team that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) jointly sponsored (1) to review the damage that the hurricane caused the nuclear units and the utility`s actions to prepare for the storm and recover from it, and (2) to compile lessons that might benefit other nuclear reactor facilities.

  15. Total reaction cross sections for 20-30 MeV pions and the anomaly of pionic atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Goldring, A.; Johnson, R. R.; Meirav, O.; Vetterli, D.; Weber, P.; Altman, A.

    1991-03-01

    Total reaction cross sections of 20 MeV π- and 30 MeV π+ and π- have been measured for carbon and nickel targets. The experimental results are in very good agreement with calculations based on commonly accepted pion-nucleus potentials but disagree with calculations based on the potentials associated with the so-called pionic atom anomaly.

  16. Precipitation-attenuation studies based on measurements of ATS-6 20/30-GHz beacon signals at Clarksburg, Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, D. J.; Harris, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Radiometric sky temperature and minute precipitation measurements were intended to broaden the data base required to advance the understanding of the propagation characteristics of the earth-satellite path at frequencies over 10 GHz. Analyses of the data collected from the measurement program have established a detailed correlation between the satellite signal and the signals from auxiliary ground-based measurements. The indirectly derived statistics agreed reasonably well (or can be reconciled) with the earlier published results. The correlations may therefore be used for indirectly estimating long term cumulative attenuation statistics in the absence of direct satellite signal measurements.

  17. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility changes with applied external pressure: significant difference between arteries with different compliance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mengyan; Chen, Aiqing; Si, Xiaoshui; Ji, Mingxia; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the different effect of external cuff pressure on arterial volume distensibility between peripheral arteries with different compliance. 30 healthy subjects were studied with the arm at two positions (0° and 45° from the horizontal level) to introduce different compliance of arteries. The electrocardiogram and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously under five external cuff pressures (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg) on the whole arm to obtain arterial volume distensibility. With the applied external cuff pressures of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg, the overall changes in arterial volume distensibility referred to those without external pressure were 0.010, 0.029, 0.054 and 0.108% per mmHg for the arm at the horizontal level, and 0.026, 0.071, 0.170 and 0.389% per mmHg for the arm at 45° from the horizontal level, confirming the non-linearity between arterial volume distensibility and external pressure. More interestingly, the significant differences in arterial volume distensibility changes were observed between the two arm positions, which were 0.016, 0.043, 0.116 and 0.281% per mmHg (all P < 0.01). Our findings demonstrated that arterial volume distensibility of peripheral arm arteries increased with external pressure, with a greater effect for more compliant arteries. PMID:28094277

  18. How to Select a Good Training-data Subset for Transcription: Submodular Active Selection for Sequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    used as a base- line. Specifically, we randomly take p% of the TIMIT train- ing set, where p = 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 , 60, 70, 80, 90. For each...components in the 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% 2.5 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Percentage...10% 12% 14% 2.5 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Percentage(%) of the training data R e la ti v e P E R i m p r o v m e n t Facility

  19. Soil organic carbon beneath croplands and re-established grasslands in the North Dakota Prairie Pothole Region.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rebecca L; Eken, Mikki R; West, Mark S

    2015-05-01

    Grassland ecosystems established under the conservation reserve program (CRP) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) currently provide soil conservation and wildlife habitat services. We aimed to determine if these lands also sequester soil organic carbon (SOC), as compared with neighboring croplands across multiple farms in the North Dakota PPR. We sampled soil from small plots at 17 private farms in the central North Dakota PPR, where long-term (≥15 years) grasslands managed under the CRP were paired with neighboring annual croplands. Cores were collected to 100 cm and split into 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm soil depth layers. We hypothesized the effect of land use on soil organic carbon (SOC), root carbon (C), and bulk density would be greatest near the surface. For 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers, grasslands managed under the CRP were lower in bulk density and higher in SOC. From 0 to 70 cm, grasslands managed under the CRP were higher in root C. Average (±standard error) SOC for re-established grasslands and croplands was 25.39 (0.91) and 21.90 (1.02), respectively, for the 0-10 cm soil layer and 19.88 (0.86) and 18.31 (0.82), respectively, for the 10-20 soil layer. Compared to croplands, re-established grasslands sampled in the North Dakota PPR were 3-13 % lower in bulk density and 9-16 % higher in SOC from 0 to 20 cm, while root C was 2-6 times greater from 0 to 70 cm.

  20. Soil Organic Carbon Beneath Croplands and Re-established Grasslands in the North Dakota Prairie Pothole Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Rebecca L.; Eken, Mikki R.; West, Mark S.

    2015-05-01

    Grassland ecosystems established under the conservation reserve program (CRP) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) currently provide soil conservation and wildlife habitat services. We aimed to determine if these lands also sequester soil organic carbon (SOC), as compared with neighboring croplands across multiple farms in the North Dakota PPR. We sampled soil from small plots at 17 private farms in the central North Dakota PPR, where long-term (≥15 years) grasslands managed under the CRP were paired with neighboring annual croplands. Cores were collected to 100 cm and split into 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm soil depth layers. We hypothesized the effect of land use on soil organic carbon (SOC), root carbon (C), and bulk density would be greatest near the surface. For 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers, grasslands managed under the CRP were lower in bulk density and higher in SOC. From 0 to 70 cm, grasslands managed under the CRP were higher in root C. Average (±standard error) SOC for re-established grasslands and croplands was 25.39 (0.91) and 21.90 (1.02), respectively, for the 0-10 cm soil layer and 19.88 (0.86) and 18.31 (0.82), respectively, for the 10-20 soil layer. Compared to croplands, re-established grasslands sampled in the North Dakota PPR were 3-13 % lower in bulk density and 9-16 % higher in SOC from 0 to 20 cm, while root C was 2-6 times greater from 0 to 70 cm.

  1. Comparing the effects of sucrose and glucose on functional properties of pregelatinized maize starch.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Sara; Shahidi, Fakhri; Koocheki, Arash; Farahnaky, Asgar; Majzoobi, Mahsa

    2016-07-01

    Pregelatinized (PG) starches are extensively used in food products which are processed at low temperature, to increase viscosity and offer a desirable texture. The functional properties of PG starch can be influenced by other constituents used in food matrices. Therefore the main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of sucrose and glucose (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of dry starch weight basis) as two common sweeteners on drum dried pregelatinized maize starch. Samples were characterized by light microscopy, water absorption, syneresis, cold paste viscosity, texture and turbidity measurements. The results indicated that the amount of leached glucose chains to the aqueous phase, water absorption, viscosity and mechanical properties increased when increasing the sugar concentration while, syneresis and turbidity decreased. However, these effects were more obvious in samples containing sucrose than those with glucose.

  2. Influence of Surface Carburization of Machinable Ceramics on Its Pulsed Flashover Characteristics in Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Nan; Huang, Xuezeng; Mu, Haibao; Zhang, Guanjun

    2011-12-01

    For pulsed power devices, surface flashover phenomena across solid insulators greatly restrict their overall performance. In recent decades, much attention has been paid on enhancing the surface electric withstanding strength of insulators, and it is found that surface treatment of material is useful to improve the surface flashover voltage. The carburization treatment is employed to modify the surface components of newly-developed machinable ceramics (MC) materials. A series of MC samples with different glucose solution concentration (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) are prepared by chemical reactions for surface carburization modification, and their surface flashover characteristics are investigated under pulsed voltage in vacuum. It is found that the surface carburization treatment greatly modifies the surface resistivity of MCs and hence the flashover behaviors. Based on the reduction of surface resistivity and the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) theory, the adjustment of flashover withstanding ability can be reasonably explained.

  3. Oviposition preference and egg eclosion in different salt concentrations in the coastal malaria vector Anopheles aquasalis Curry.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Frances R; Díaz, Sandra; Gómez, Cruz J; Moreno, Milagros; Hernández, Gilma

    2006-03-01

    Anopheles aquasalis is the main malaria vector in Sucre State, Venezuela. The larvae of this species are saltwater tolerant. The effects of different concentrations of salt on oviposition preference and egg survival were studied under laboratory conditions. Choice experiments with salt concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% in bottled water were set up for individual adult females and the number of eggs laid in each salt concentration was noted. Egg survival, as inferred by the number of hatched larvae also was determined for each salt concentration. Females preferred to oviposit in freshwater and rejected water salt concentrations of 40%, but they were neither attracted nor repelled by water with 10-30% of salt. Eggs hatched more quickly in the lower salt concentrations, but egg survival was not affected by salt concentrations of up to 20%. Thus, female oviposition preference in An. aquasalis determines egg survival.

  4. Motion and Seasickness of Fast Warships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Hidrodinámicas de El Pardo, CEHIPAR, Spain (2) Dep. Arquitectura de Computadores y Automática, UCM, Spain (3) Dep. Informática y Automática, UNED, Spain...expressed in equation (12), 10log ( / ) 100 0.5 0.4 z MSa gMSI erf µ  ±  = ⋅ ±      m I  (12) where erf is the error function, az is...gradually decreases. In this case in two days all the crew become habituated. 0 1 2 3 4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Motion Sickness Incidence

  5. Static stability and control effectiveness of models 12-0 and 34-0 of the vehicle 3 configuration, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, E. C.; Tuttle, T.

    1973-01-01

    Static stability and control effectiveness characteristics of two 0.004 scale models of the vehicle 3 configuration are presented. The components investigated consisted of a single aft body, vertical/rudder, OMS pods with two interchangeable wings, four interchangeable forward bodies, four trimmers, and a spoiler. The test was conducted in a 14 x 14 inch trisonic wind tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 4.96. Angles of attack from 0 to 60 degrees and angles of sideslip from -10 to 10 degrees at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 degrees angle of attack were tested. Elevon, body flap, and speed brake deflection composed the parametric considerations. No grit was placed on the models during the test. The lateral-directional characteristics are presented along with some additional longitudinal data.

  6. 1999 Aged Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    effective transition of R &D activities from promising 6.1 projects, through 6.2 and 6.3 efforts into key processes and products for DoD systems. With the...eventually also have significant commercial sales. It is imperative that DoD continues to make these necessary R &D investments. AGED anticipates a continued...24 Quartz LG S R us si a LG S LG S LG SLG T LG T LG N LG T Figure 10. Langasite Measured Q x F Values 17 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0 10 20 30 40 | ΓΓ

  7. Defining the Role of BTLA in Breast Cancer Immunosurveillance and Selective Targeting of the BTLA-HVEM-LIGHT Constimulatory System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Nonidet P - 40 (NP- 40 ) and 1 µl of 10× G7 buffer (NEB), divided into two 6-µl aliquots, and treated without or...30 40 50 60 % Fo xp 3+ o f C D 4+ P < 0.0001 6A6Control 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % Fo xp 3+ o f C D 4+ Control 6A6 Figure 4 a CD4 5 20 WT donor CD45.1+ Fo...9 Appendices…………………………………………………………………………… 10 4 | P a g e INTRODUCTION: The current

  8. Utilization of heavy metal-rich tannery sludge for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivation.

    PubMed

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Patra, D D

    2015-05-01

    Unlike food crops, essential oil-bearing crops in which the oil is extracted through hydro-distillation can be a suitable crop to be grown in heavy metal-polluted soils as the oil does not carry any heavy metal. In a field experiment conducted at CIMAP, Lucknow, India during 2011 and 2012, influence of six doses of tannery sludge viz 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 t ha(-1) were tested, taking sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) as the test crop. Maximum herb yield was obtained with the application of sludge at 20 t ha(-1). While in root, accumulation of Cd and Pb increased significantly up to 20 t ha(-1), Cr accumulation increased with increasing the dose of tannery sludge reaching maximum at 50 t ha(-1). Essential oil yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum) was significantly affected due to sludge application. Quality of essential oil, in term of chemical constituents, however, was marginally influenced due to tannery sludge application.

  9. Ecology of the Wood-boring Bivalve Martesia striata (Pholadidae) in Indian Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yennawar, P. L.; Thakur, N. L.; Anil, A. C.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A. B.

    1999-08-01

    Martesia striata (Linnaeus) is one of the dominant wood-boring organisms found in Indian waters. Incidence of this organism in the Zuari estuary (Goa) was evaluated by exposing wooden panels (Mangifera indica) to the marine environment between January 1996 and January 1997. Effects of salinity variation on embryonic and larval development were evaluated (salinity 0, 10, 20, 30, 35, 40 and 50, temperature 25 °C) and maximum metamorphic success was observed at 30 salinity. Results of the rearing experiments, destruction pattern of wood in the environment and reproductive biology indicate that although recruitment is halted during the monsoon, adults survive and become reproductively mature in the following post-monsoon, leading to increased recruitment during pre-monsoon months.

  10. Carcinogenicity of Embedded Tungsten Alloys in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    NiF e Pb W Ta Ni Ta Co Ta Fe Ta W NiT a W Co Ta W Fe Ta Ni Fe Ta Ni Co Ta Implantation Group W (n g/ gm ti ss ue ) B...Brain Nickel Levels 0 10 20 30 40 50 NS Ta N i W NiC o W NiF e Pb W Ta Ni Ta Co Ta Fe Ta W NiT a W Co Ta W Fe Ta Ni Fe Ta Ni Co Ta Implantation...5 NS Ta N i W NiC o W NiF e Pb WT a NiT a Co Ta Fe Ta W NiT a W Co Ta W Fe Ta Ni Fe Ta Ni

  11. Photoluminescence of PbS Quantum Dots on Semi-Insulating GaAs (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    ns ity (a rb .u ni ts ) Energy (eV) 5 K 100 K 200 K 300 K InGaAs...detector. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 PL in te ns ity (a rb .u ni ts ) Energy (eV) 5 K 20 K 50 K 100 K 150 K 200 K 250 K 300 K InSb...3.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 PL in te ns ity (a rb .u ni ts ) Energy (eV) SI GaAs PbS/SI GaAs5 K FIG. 4. Color online Comparison of the

  12. Nutritional and functional evaluation of wheat flour cookies supplemented with gram flour.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Ali A; Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmad, Asif; Hameed, Tabassum; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Hayat, Imran; Khalid, Nauman

    2013-02-01

    Protein-enriched cookies were prepared by supplementing gram flour into wheat flour at levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% and analysed for physicochemical properties. The protein quality of the cookies was assessed by feeding gram flour-supplemented cookies to albino rats for 10 days. The supplementation resulted in a significant increase in protein, fat, crude fibre and ash contents of the cookies. The thickness and spread factor of cookies differ significantly while non-significant effect was observed in the width of the cookies. The protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilization, biological value and true digestibility differed significantly among diets containing cookies with gram flour fed to rats. Cookies with 30% substitution of straight grade flour and gram flour produced acceptable cookies as compared to control. The cookies containing 40-50% gram flour were best regarded as protein bioavailability for rats.

  13. Optimization of Superaustenitic Stainless Steel Filler Metals for Welding Advanced Double Hull Combatant Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-16

    of vertical isopleths was constructed of the Fe-Ni- Cr -Mo system using the CALPHAD software Thermo-Calc 8 in conjunction with the Iron Alloy Database 9...Element (wt/ o ) 25.4-mm-thick plate 15.9-mm-thick plate C 0.02 0.02 Mn 0.51 0.38 P 0.016 0.016 S 0.001 0.001 Si 0.46 0.50 Cr 20.54 20.69 Ni 24.31 24.06 Mo...red). 45 30% Niobium 20% 0 0 / o ’ 10% -- J--- 0% 10% 20% 30% Cr concentration, wt% Figure 26. Phase stability diagram of Fe-Ni- Cr -6Mo compositions

  14. The Titanium-Aluminum Phase Diagram. A Review of the Near Ti-50 At.% Al Phase Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    wwr O ~r, iv i nq rund . Drugwa y, ’: T i - ATTN: ’,rhrin ir , 1 r- i r’, 7-r (ni ic i cr ro r-ra t i o i A) iv 1 111 Ii rijo f Oilj’ , Hi r r i i rrri...DISPOSIT ON INSTRUCTIONS Oestrov this reort when it is no ongs needed. O not return it to the ortgonstor UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE...ATOMIC PER CENT ALUMINUM .0 10o W0 40 50 60 ඎ an an IrV -OC u R - I I I " " ~~~7 +La j.. Lii 800 a Ti A 13fLJUa T60C1 400 ~~~-TA 3 A 0 o 10 20 30 40

  15. Modelling and mapping the topsoil organic carbon content for Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempen, Bas; Kaaya, Abel; Ngonyani Mhaiki, Consolatha; Kiluvia, Shani; Ruiperez-Gonzalez, Maria; Batjes, Niels; Dalsgaard, Soren

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), held in soil organic matter, is a key indicator of soil health and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The soil can act as a net source or sink of carbon depending on land use and management. Deforestation and forest degradation lead to the release of vast amounts of carbon from the soil in the form of greenhouse gasses, especially in tropical countries. Tanzania has a high deforestation rate: it is estimated that the country loses 1.1% of its total forested area annually. During 2010-2013 Tanzania has been a pilot country under the UN-REDD programme. This programme has supported Tanzania in its initial efforts towards reducing greenhouse gas emission from forest degradation and deforestation and towards preserving soil carbon stocks. Formulation and implementation of the national REDD strategy requires detailed information on the five carbon pools among these the SOC pool. The spatial distribution of SOC contents and stocks was not available for Tanzania. The initial aim of this research, was therefore to develop high-resolution maps of the SOC content for the country. The mapping exercise was carried out in a collaborative effort with four Tanzanian institutes and data from the Africa Soil Information Service initiative (AfSIS). The mapping exercise was provided with over 3200 field observations on SOC from four sources; this is the most comprehensive soil dataset collected in Tanzania so far. The main source of soil samples was the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA). The carbon maps were generated by means of digital soil mapping using regression-kriging. Maps at 250 m spatial resolution were developed for four depth layers: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 0-30 cm. A total of 37 environmental GIS data layers were prepared for use as covariates in the regression model. These included vegetation indices, terrain parameters, surface temperature, spectral reflectances, a land cover map and a small

  16. Transient-Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions, Preliminary Results for Validity of TEOAEs Implemented on Mimosa Acoustics T2K Measurement System v3.1.3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-23

    20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Frequency (kHz) L s ( dB S P L r m s/ 23 .4 H z) Click Dau chirp Shera chirp Figure 1. Comparison of spectra for the click...found. PAGE 5 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 -5 0 5 p s ( 20 m P a pe ak ) Click 53 dB SPL, 1-5 kHz -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 -5 0 5 p s ( 20 m P a pe ak...Dau chirp 53 dB SPL, 1-5 kHz -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 -5 0 5 Stimulus duration (ms) p s ( 20 m P a pe ak )

  17. Nickel-cobalt bimetallic anode catalysts for direct urea fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Gang; Wu, Zucheng

    2014-08-29

    Nickel is an ideal non-noble metal anode catalyst for direct urea fuel cell (DUFC) due to its high activity. However, there exists a large overpotential toward urea electrooxidation. Herein, NiCo/C bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared with various Co contents (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) to improve the activity. The best Co ratio was 10% in the aspect of cell performance, with a maximum power density of 1.57 mW cm(-2) when 0.33 M urea was used as fuel, O2 as oxidant at 60 °C. The effects of temperature and urea concentration on DUFC performance were investigated. Besides, direct urine fuel cell reaches a maximum power density of 0.19 mW cm(-2) with an open circuit voltage of 0.38 V at 60 °C.

  18. Applicability of Linear Analysis in Probabilistic Estimation of Seismic Building Damage to Reinforced-Concrete Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    70 10 Figure 27: Time history for Imperial Valley 10/15/79 23:16 Chihuahua earthquake ................................. 70 Figure 28... Chihuahua earthquake -0.003 g -0.002 g -0.001 g 0.000 g 0.001 g 0.002 g 0.003 g 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time (Seconds) San Fernando 02/09/71 14:00 LA...Hollywood Stor Lot -0.300 g -0.200 g -0.100 g 0.000 g 0.100 g 0.200 g 0.300 g 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (Seconds) Imperial Valley 10/15/79 23:16 Chihuahua 71

  19. Evaluation of Alternative Life Assessment Approaches Using P-3 SLAP Test Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    SN Curves for R=-1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1E+01 1E+ 02 1E+03 1E+04 1E+05 1E+06 1E+07 1E+08 Number of Cycles (N) St re ss A m pl itu de (k si...crack length observed from the coupons. 1.0E-09 1.0E-08 1.0E-07 1.0E-06 1.0E-05 1.0E-04 1.0E-03 1.0E- 02 1.0E-01 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000...Development and Standardization ( MMPDS ), R. Rice, J. Jackson, J. Bakuckas and S. Thompson, DOT/FAA/AR- MMPDS -01, US Department of Transportation

  20. Unique Effects of Infectious or Inflammatory Stress on Fat Metabolism in Rats.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-07

    UNCLA AUG 81 N A ME WEL, J PACE, M V KAMINSKI WCUSSZF1ED EREOllllllEE EEIIEEEII E 1EEEll1l/ l / UEuLASSIFIED CURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When...Entered) ’ Unique Effects of Infectious or Inflammatory stress on Fat Metabolism in I _. Rats, Rt............ 5 r l Harold A . lNeuf eld~~: Judith C. Pacei...w ~oa. a . qa.a V-9--1 Io I I) I cc I 0 -: I ccI -II Z LL C) w0 0 04 c ( - L /b INSULIN, pLU/mI 0 10 20 30 40 48H FASTED 104.3PFU, VEE m 48H FASTED*P<.0

  1. Momentum Flux Measurements from Under Expanded Orifices: Applications for Micropropulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Thrust c~Deflection 11 - 21 x Deflection .Deflection 11 -27FM ond ý0.5 * Y=8:0476e-11I+ 0O45541 x R=1 I 0.4. .......y= -2.7208e- 10Q . 0.11549x R 0.3...exit Ftj-20 ... ...... ..... ....... . .0.9 0. 0.8 o- 0--7----0- 0.6 00. 0 10 20 .30 40 50 .60 70 Re* 11 - 21 -N2-deflection d 10:12:03 AM 11128/00 0.5 -7I...y=-0. 0137980.11643x R 0.9996 "" y=-0.0099468+0.1199x R= 0.99966 0.4 --- - - - y=:-0.00777-9 +0.11903x R- 0.99909 >0. o 0.2 SDeflection 11 - 21

  2. Experimental analysis to utilize the solid wastes in brick production.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Rajagopalan; Govindan, Venkatesan

    2013-07-01

    Utilization of industrial, municipal, agricultural and other waste products in the industry has been the focus of research for economical, environmental, and technical reasons. Two solid wastes, i.e. Sugar-cane bagasse--is a fibrous waste-product of the sugar refining industry and granite processing industry generates a large amount of wastes mainly in the form of powder during sawing and polishing processes, which pollute and damage the environment, have been taken to experimental study. The objective of this study is to utilize the bagasse ash and granite waste for the manufacturing of bricks. Mixtures were prepared with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% wastes of total weight of clay. The produced bricks are tested for mechanical properties, such as water absorption and compressive strength, according to Indian Standard Code. The result showed that 20% of bagasse ash and granite waste is optimum percentage to be used in the manufacturing of conventional bricks.

  3. Computational Vision Based on Neurobiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-09

    1993 Pacific Grove, California Sponsored and Published by SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering 94-12599 E = r , -7-0 z󈨑 C.-- D ... E 10I z1C I 3 E10 20 0 30 5 100 3 5 10 20 30 50 100 0) __ 0 7 C D CL. C 06 A 50 IC 400 30 CVILR7.12 0 uyee to t 3 5 10 20 3050 100 3 5 10 20 30 50 100...34 I (Descartes, 1664) problems of segmentation, 3- d reconstruction, identifying he wrote: faces and distinguishing dogs from cats. Before tackling "the

  4. 45 CFR Exhibit A to Part 12 - Public Benefit Allowance for Transfer of Real Property for Health Purposes 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 20 20 10 10 20 30 10 100 Public Health Administration 2 100 2 100 Public Refuse Disposal and Water... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC...

  5. 45 CFR Exhibit A to Part 12 - Public Benefit Allowance for Transfer of Real Property for Health Purposes 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 20 20 10 10 20 30 10 100 Public Health Administration 2 100 2 100 Public Refuse Disposal and Water... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC...

  6. 45 CFR Exhibit A to Part 12 - Public Benefit Allowance for Transfer of Real Property for Health Purposes 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 20 20 10 10 20 30 10 100 Public Health Administration 2 100 2 100 Public Refuse Disposal and Water... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC...

  7. 45 CFR Exhibit A to Part 12 - Public Benefit Allowance for Transfer of Real Property for Health Purposes 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 20 20 10 10 20 30 10 100 Public Health Administration 2 100 2 100 Public Refuse Disposal and Water... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC...

  8. 45 CFR Exhibit A to Part 12 - Public Benefit Allowance for Transfer of Real Property for Health Purposes 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 20 20 10 10 20 30 10 100 Public Health Administration 2 100 2 100 Public Refuse Disposal and Water... Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC...

  9. Combined effect of ultrasound/SonoVue microbubble on CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells viability and optimized parameters for its transfection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chunying; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Haichao; Dong, Tianxiu; Chen, Yaodong; Xu, Yutong; Yang, Xiuhua

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of ultrasound and SonoVue microbubble on CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) viability and to explore the appropriate parameters for Tregs transfection. Tregs were separated from peripheral venous blood of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and seeded in 96-well plates. The optimal ultrasound exposure time and optimal SonoVue microbubble concentration for Tregs were measured by mechanical index (MI) of 1.2 or 1.4, exposure time of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180s, and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50μL/100μL microbubble per well, respectively. In addition, the combined effect of ultrasound and microbubble on Tregs viability was evaluated according to the following parameters: MI 1.2/1.4+exposure time of 120, 150, 180s+0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50μL/100μL microbubble per well. Tregs viability investigations were performed in order to explore the optimal transfection condition. The efficiency of plasmid transfer was determined by detection of luciferase activity on the microscopic examinations. The proliferation of Tregs could be promoted by ultrasound exposures, while being decreased with the increasing concentration of microbubbles. Under the current experimental conditions, the optimal ultrasound parameters were MI=1.4 and exposure time=150/180s. The optimal microbubble concentration was 10μL/100μL. Compared with treatment with ultrasound or microbubbles alone, the transfection efficiency of Tregs improved 50% by combining ultrasound and microbubble. The results indicate that both ultrasound and microbubble could affect the Tregs proliferation and the optimal Treg transfection rate was obtained by treating with 10% microbubbles and ultrasound exposure for 150/180s under ultrasound MI of 1.4.

  10. Teamwork for Oversight of Processes and Systems (TOPS). Implementation guide for TOPS version 2.0, 10 August 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, Albert A.; Jackson, Darryl J.

    As the nation redefines priorities to deal with a rapidly changing world order, both government and industry require new approaches for oversight of management systems, particularly for high technology products. Declining defense budgets will lead to significant reductions in government contract management personnel. Concurrently, defense contractors are reducing administrative and overhead staffing to control costs. These combined pressures require bold approaches for the oversight of management systems. In the Spring of 1991, the DPRO and TRW created a Process Action Team (PAT) to jointly prepare a Performance Based Management (PBM) system titled Teamwork for Oversight of Processes and Systems (TOPS). The primary goal is implementation of a performance based management system based on objective data to review critical TRW processes with an emphasis on continuous improvement. The processes are: Finance and Business Systems, Engineering and Manufacturing Systems, Quality Assurance, and Software Systems. The team established a number of goals: delivery of quality products to contractual terms and conditions; ensure that TRW management systems meet government guidance and good business practices; use of objective data to measure critical processes; elimination of wasteful/duplicative reviews and audits; emphasis on teamwork--all efforts must be perceived to add value by both sides and decisions are made by consensus; and synergy and the creation of a strong working trust between TRW and the DPRO. TOPS permits the adjustment of oversight resources when conditions change or when TRW systems performance indicate either an increase or decrease in surveillance is appropriate. Monthly Contractor Performance Assessments (CPA) are derived from a summary of supporting system level and process-level ratings obtained from objective process-level data. Tiered, objective, data-driven metrics are highly successful in achieving a cooperative and effective method of measuring performance. The teamwork-based culture developed by TOPS proved an unequaled success in removing adversarial relationships and creating an atmosphere of continuous improvement in quality processes at TRW. The new working relationship does not decrease the responsibility or authority of the DPRO to ensure contract compliance and it permits both parties to work more effectively to improve total quality and reduce cost. By emphasizing teamwork in developing a stronger approach to efficient management of the defense industrial base TOPS is a singular success.

  11. Estimation of CO2 diffusion coefficient at 0-10 cm depth in undisturbed and tilled soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diffusion coefficients (D) of CO2 at 0 – 10 cm layers in undisturbed and tilled soil conditions were estimated using Penman, Millington-Quirk, Ridgwell et al. (1999), Troeh et al., and Moldrup et al. models. Soil bulk density and volumetric soil water content ('v) at 0 – 10 cm were measured on April...

  12. Teamwork for Oversight of Processes and Systems (TOPS). Implementation guide for TOPS version 2.0, 10 August 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, Albert A.; Jackson, Darryl J.

    1992-01-01

    As the nation redefines priorities to deal with a rapidly changing world order, both government and industry require new approaches for oversight of management systems, particularly for high technology products. Declining defense budgets will lead to significant reductions in government contract management personnel. Concurrently, defense contractors are reducing administrative and overhead staffing to control costs. These combined pressures require bold approaches for the oversight of management systems. In the Spring of 1991, the DPRO and TRW created a Process Action Team (PAT) to jointly prepare a Performance Based Management (PBM) system titled Teamwork for Oversight of Processes and Systems (TOPS). The primary goal is implementation of a performance based management system based on objective data to review critical TRW processes with an emphasis on continuous improvement. The processes are: Finance and Business Systems, Engineering and Manufacturing Systems, Quality Assurance, and Software Systems. The team established a number of goals: delivery of quality products to contractual terms and conditions; ensure that TRW management systems meet government guidance and good business practices; use of objective data to measure critical processes; elimination of wasteful/duplicative reviews and audits; emphasis on teamwork--all efforts must be perceived to add value by both sides and decisions are made by consensus; and synergy and the creation of a strong working trust between TRW and the DPRO. TOPS permits the adjustment of oversight resources when conditions change or when TRW systems performance indicate either an increase or decrease in surveillance is appropriate. Monthly Contractor Performance Assessments (CPA) are derived from a summary of supporting system level and process-level ratings obtained from objective process-level data. Tiered, objective, data-driven metrics are highly successful in achieving a cooperative and effective method of measuring performance. The teamwork-based culture developed by TOPS proved an unequaled success in removing adversarial relationships and creating an atmosphere of continuous improvement in quality processes at TRW. The new working relationship does not decrease the responsibility or authority of the DPRO to ensure contract compliance and it permits both parties to work more effectively to improve total quality and reduce cost. By emphasizing teamwork in developing a stronger approach to efficient management of the defense industrial base TOPS is a singular success.

  13. Large transverse momenta in nuclear interaction at E{sub 0} > 10{sup 16} eV detected in stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Managadze, A. K. Osedlo, V. I.; Roganova, T. M.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Galkin, V. I.; Rakobolskaya, I. V.; Goncharova, L. A.; Kotelnikov, K. A.; Polukhina, N. G.

    2007-01-15

    A gamma-hadron superfamily of cosmic-rays created by a primary cosmic-ray particle with energy above 10{sup 16} eV was detected at an altitude of 30 km by a stratospheric balloon-borne emulsion chamber. Being of superhigh energy, this event is the unique example in the world statistics of practically pure nuclear interactions in the energy range unattainable for modern accelerators. The present analysis allowed one to estimate the interaction height above the chamber and transverse momenta of the secondaries produced in the interaction. The mean value of transverse momenta appears to be very large ( > 2.5 GeV/c)

  14. Are large concentration of atomic H storable in tritium-impregnated solid in H2 below 0.10 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, G.; Webeler, R. W. H.

    1979-01-01

    The storage and release of atomic hydrogen produced by the beta decay of tritium contained in a crystalline solid H2 matrix at concentrations greater than 2% and temperatures below 0.80 K are investigated. The temperature of a sample chamber containing tritium-impregnated H2 and placed in the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator was measured as the chamber was heated and cooled in order to determine the rates of energy storage and release. It is found that for samples containing 1.2 wt.% tritium, after storage at 0.054 K for 40 h, an increase in sample temperature to a trigger point of 0.17 K leads to an energy release due to the destabilization of atomic H in H2 as predicted by the phenomenological rate process theory. For a tritium weight fraction of 2.5%, energy releases were triggered at 0.54 and 0.82 K after storage at 0.080 K, indicating the trapping of H atoms at the sites of T2 and HT molecules in the sample. The application of a 15 kG magnetic field is shown to increase the storage capacity of T2 traps while reducing that of HT traps, and to lower the trigger temperatures of both. Results suggest that the direct conversion of nuclear energy to chemical energy may become technically feasible in the future.

  15. Experimental results on gamma-ray sources at E sub 0 = 10(13) - 10(14) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Periale, L.; Vallania, P.

    1985-01-01

    The detection of very high energy gamma ray sources has been reported in the last few years by means of extensive air shower observations. The Plateau Rosa array for the registration of the arrival directions of extensive air showers has been operating since 1980 and first results on Cygnus X-3 have been reported. Here, the status of observations of Cygnus X-3 and of the Crab Pulsar are reported.

  16. Dissolved organic C and N pools in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems and sampling depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro Angel; García López de Sa, Esther; Polo, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Soil tillage practices exert a significant influence on the dynamic of soluble organic C and N pools, affecting nutrient cycling in agricultural systems by enhancing its mineralization through microbial activities or stabilization in soil microaggregates, which contribute to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions. The objective of the present research was to determine the influence of three different soil management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) obtained from wastewater treatment processes on dissolved organic C (water-soluble organic C -WSOC-, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds) and soluble N (total-N, NH4+, NO3-) pools in a long-term field experiment (27 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station "La Higueruela" (40° 03'N, 4° 24'W) under semi-arid conditions. Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 tonnes per hectare prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. Soil sampling was performed two months after tillage practices at the following depths for each treatment: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm. Results obtained for unamended soils showed that no-tillage management increased total-N, NH4+ and NO3- contents at the 0-10 cm depth samples, meanwhile WSC and carbohydrates contents were larger at 20-30 cm depth samples in both moldboard and no-tillage plots. CS and TSS-amended soils presented a general increase in soluble C and N compounds, being significantly higher in TSS-amended soils, as TSS contains a great amount of labile organic C and N substrates due to the lack of stabilization treatment. TSS-amended soils under no-tillage and chisel plowing showed larger N, NH4+ and NO3- content at the 0-10 cm samples, meanwhile moldboard management exhibited larger NH4+ and NO3- content at 10-20 and 20-30 cm samples, possibly due to the incorporation of TSS at deeper depths (20-40 cm). CS

  17. The Effect of Remote Sensor Spatial Resolution in Monitoring U.S. Army Training Maneuver Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    at Pinon Canyon and the abbreviations used in tnis research. 68 BOGR /HIJA 10-20% COVER Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) and Galleta (Hilaria 1 amesii...approximately 10-20% ground cover. BOGR /AGSM/HIJA 20-30% Blue grama (Bouteloua COVER gracilis) , Western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii) and Galleta...Hilaria Jamesii), approximately 20-30% ground cover. BOGR /SPAI/HIJA 30-40% Blue grama (Bouteloua COVER gracilis), Alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides

  18. CAHRD Consultation 2014: the 10-20 year Horizon Introduction and Overview – as circulated to Consultation participants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of the 2014 Consultation is to bring together internal and external partners to help shape the strategic direction for CAHRD over the 10 to 20 year horizon. Our strategic thinking will be guided by our vision of a healthy future for low and middle income populations and our mission to transform health systems to improve the health of these populations. Partnership between northern and southern institutions is integral to this work and critical in the consultation process. The Consultation considers four selected areas of the current work of CAHRD: Lung Health, Maternal & Newborn Health, Neglected Tropical Diseases, and Health Systems. We aim to foster dialogue and learning between these and across contexts and disciplines. The major challenges that will need to be addressed over the next 10 to 20 years will be scoped and pathways to possible solutions proposed. The overall vision is a process of co-production of knowledge

  19. Higher Education: Issues Related to Law School Cost and Access. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to participate in federal student financial aid programs, law schools must be accredited by an agency recognized by the Department of Education (Education). Accreditation is intended to ensure that schools provide basic levels of quality in their educational programs, and Education recognizes those accrediting agencies that it concludes…

  20. 21 CFR 10.20 - Submission of documents to Division of Dockets Management; computation of time; availability for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... be accompanied by an English translation verified to be complete and accurate, together with the name, address, and a brief statement of the qualifications of the person making the translation. A translation of literature or other material in a foreign language is to be accompanied by copies of the...

  1. 21 CFR 10.20 - Submission of documents to Division of Dockets Management; computation of time; availability for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Under § 20.63 (a) and (b), the names and other information that would identify patients or research... information. (e) Quantitative or semiquantitative formulas. (f) Information on product design or...

  2. 21 CFR 10.20 - Submission of documents to Division of Dockets Management; computation of time; availability for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Under § 20.63 (a) and (b), the names and other information that would identify patients or research... information. (e) Quantitative or semiquantitative formulas. (f) Information on product design or...

  3. 21 CFR 10.20 - Submission of documents to Division of Dockets Management; computation of time; availability for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Under § 20.63 (a) and (b), the names and other information that would identify patients or research... information. (e) Quantitative or semiquantitative formulas. (f) Information on product design or...

  4. 21 CFR 10.20 - Submission of documents to Division of Dockets Management; computation of time; availability for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., including quality control procedures. (d) Production, sales distribution, and similar information, except... readily available to the agency. (2) If a part of the material submitted is in a foreign language, it must... of literature or other material in a foreign language is to be accompanied by copies of the...

  5. Reconnaissance of Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Selected Bottom Sediments of the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary, Tributaries, and Contiguous Bays, Lee County, Florida, July 20-30, 1998

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    areas of Lee County discharge through stormwater conveyances into the Caloosahatchee River estuary (Tony Pellicer , Natural Resource Manager, Lee County... Pellicer , Tony, Natural Resource Manager, Lee County, Florida, 1999, verbal communication. Seal, Thomas, Florida Department of Environmental...23 24 25 26 2829 30 31 32 33 34 35 38 39 40 40A 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 7 9 13 27 37 51 52 21 8 Franklin Lock Olga Fort

  6. Children and Development in the 1990s: A UNICEF Sourcebook on the Occasion of the World Summit for Children (New York, New York, September 20-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This eight-part sourcebook provides background information, data, and references relating to child welfare issues throughout the world. The book is organized around a set of goals for children in the 1990s. An introductory section provides an overview of these goals and strategies for achieving them, and discusses infant and child mortality,…

  7. Cork Embedded Internal Features and Contrast Mechanisms with Del Using 18, 20, 30, 36 and 40 keV Synchrotron X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, D.V.; Zhong, Z.; Akatsuka, T.; Yuasa, T.; Hasan, M.Z.; Takeda, T.

    2010-01-01

    Images of the cork used for wine and other bottles are visualized with the use of diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) technique. Present experimental studies allowed us to identify the cracks, holes, porosity, and importance of soft-matter (soft-material) and associated biology by visualization of the embedded internal complex features of the biological material such as cork and its microstructure. Highlighted the contrast mechanisms above and below the K-absorption edge of iodine and studied the attenuation through a combination of weakly and strongly attenuating materials.

  8. Cork Embedded Internal Features and Contrast Mechanisms with DEI using 18, 20, 30, 36, and 40 kev Synchrotron X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Donepudi, R.; Cesareo, R; Brunetti, A; Zhong, Z; Yuasa, T; Takeda, T; Gigante, G

    2010-01-01

    Images of the cork used for wine and other bottles are visualized with the use of diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) technique. Present experimental studies allowed us to identify the cracks, holes, porosity, and importance of soft-matter (soft-material) and associated biology by visualization of the embedded internal complex features of the biological material such as cork and its microstructure. Highlighted the contrast mechanisms above and below the K-absorption edge of iodine and studied the attenuation through a combination of weakly and strongly attenuating materials.

  9. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  10. Effect of ultrasound treatment on the water state in kiwifruit during osmotic dehydration.

    PubMed

    Nowacka, M; Tylewicz, U; Laghi, L; Dalla Rosa, M; Witrowa-Rajchert, D

    2014-02-01

    The present work investigates how ultrasound pretreatment modulates the effects of osmotic dehydration (OD) on the water state and microstructure of kiwifruit. Kiwifruit slices (10mm thick) were subjected to ultrasonic waves in a water bath at a frequency of 35 kHz for 10, 20 and 30 min. OD process was then carried out by immersing the samples in 61.5% sucrose solution equilibrated at 25°C for a contact period of 0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 min. The partition of water into the cellular tissue structures (vacuole, cytoplasm, extracellular spaces and cell wall) was investigated by Time Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR). In parallel, the microstructure of kiwifruits slices was examined using a Scanning Electron Microscope. The results showed that US pretreatment performed for more than 10 min had a positive effect on the mass exchange caused by osmotic dehydration. A creation of microchannels and an increase of the average cross-section area of cells were observed when the samples were pretreated with US before OD. TD-NMR showed a slight redistribution of water through the substructures of the cells, as a function of the length of the US pretreatment applied.

  11. High Temperature and Salinity Enhance Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in a Tidal Freshwater Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haifeng; Bai, Junhong; He, Xinhua; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization in wetlands is sensitive to various environmental factors. To compare the effects of salinity and temperature on N mineralization, wetland soils from a tidal freshwater marsh locating in the Yellow River Delta was incubated over a 48-d anaerobic incubation period under four salinity concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 35‰) and four temperature levels (10, 20, 30 and 40°C). The results suggested that accumulated ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) increased with increasing incubation time under all salinity concentrations. Higher temperatures and salinities significantly enhanced soil N mineralization except for a short-term (≈10 days) inhibiting effect found under 35‰ salinity. The incubation time, temperature, salinity and their interactions exhibited significant effects on N mineralization (P<0.001) except the interactive effect of salinity and temperature (P>0.05), while temperature exhibited the greatest effect (P<0.001). Meanwhile, N mineralization processes were simulated using both an effective accumulated temperature model and a one-pool model. Both models fit well with the simulation of soil N mineralization process in the coastal freshwater wetlands under a range of 30 to 40°C (R2 = 0.88–0.99, P<0.01). Our results indicated that an enhanced NH4+-N release with increasing temperature and salinity deriving from the projected global warming could have profound effects on nutrient cycling in coastal wetland ecosystems. PMID:24733366

  12. Allelopathic Effects of Litter Axonopus compressus against Two Weedy Species and Its Persistence in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Samedani, B.; Juraimi, A. S.; Rafii, M. Y.; Anuar, A. R.; Sheikh Awadz, S. A.; Anwar, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the allelopathic effect of Axonopus compressus litter on Asystasia gangetica and Pennisetum polystachion. In experiment 1 the bioassays with 0, 10, 30, and 50 g L−1 of aqueous A. compressus litter leachate were conducted. Experiment 2 was carried out by incorporating 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 g L−1 of A. compressus litter leachate into soil. In experiment 3, the fate of A. compressus litter leachate phenolics in the soil was investigated. A. compressus leachates did not affect the germination percentage of A. gangetica and P. polystachion, but delayed germination of A. gangetica seeds and decreased seed germination time of P. polystachion. A. compressus litter leachates affected weeds hypocotyl length. Hypocotyl length reductions of 18 and 31% were observed at the highest concentration (50 g L−1) compared to the control in A. gangetica and P. polystachion, respectively. When concentration of A. compressus litter leachate-amended soil increased A. gangetica and P. polystachion seedling shoot length, root length, seedling weight and chlorophyll concentration were not affected. The 5-week decomposition study of A. compressus showed that the phenolic compounds in A. compressus litter abruptly decreased about 52% after two weeks and remained steady until the end of the incubation. PMID:24260020

  13. Effects of tillage on the Fe oxides activation in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Guangyu; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Taihui

    2009-07-01

    Since mid-1950s, the wetland ecosystems in Sanjiang Plain of Northeast China have been experiencing greater changes in land use, which had negative effects on the soil environments. This study assessed the effects of soil tillage on the activation of soil Fe in the region. The test ecosystems included natural wetland, paddy field and upland field converted from wetland. Soil samples at the depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm, 40-60 cm, 60-90 cm and 90-120 cm were collected from each of the ecosystems for the analysis of vertical distribution of soil pH, organic carbon, chelate Fe oxides and Fe(II). The results showed that the conversion of wetland into paddy field and upland field induced a decrease of organic carbon content in 0-10 cm soil layer by 61.8% (P <0.05) and 70.0% (P < 0.05), respectively. The correlations among iron forms and soil organic carbon showed that chelate Fe oxides and Fe(II) was correlated positively with soil organic carbon and chelate ratio had a more positive relationship with organic carbon than chelate Fe oxides and Fe(II). The results of chelate Fe oxides, Fe(II) and chelate ratio of Fe suggested that reclamation could prevent the Fe activation and organic matter is credited for having an important influence on the process of Fe activation.

  14. Bottom sediment as a source of organic contaminants in Lake Mead, Nevada, USA.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, David A; Rosen, Michael R; Perkins, Stephanie D; Cranor, Walter L; Schroeder, Vickie L; Jones-Lepp, Tammy L

    2012-07-01

    Treated wastewater effluent from Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities' flow through Las Vegas Wash (LVW) into the Lake Mead National Recreational Area at Las Vegas Bay (LVB). Lake sediment is a likely sink for many hydrophobic synthetic organic compounds (SOCs); however, partitioning between the sediment and the overlying water could result in the sediment acting as a secondary contaminant source. Locating the chemical plumes may be important to understanding possible chemical stressors to aquatic organisms. Passive sampling devices (SPMDs and POCIS) were suspended in LVB at depths of 3.0, 4.7, and 6.7 (lake bottom) meters in June of 2008 to determine the vertical distribution of SOCs in the water column. A custom sediment probe was used to also bury the samplers in the sediment at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30cm. The greatest number of detections in samplers buried in the sediment was at the 0-10cm depth. Concentrations of many hydrophobic SOCs were twice as high at the sediment-water interface than in the mid and upper water column. Many SOCs related to wastewater effluents, including fragrances, insect repellants, sun block agents, and phosphate flame retardants, were found at highest concentrations in the middle and upper water column. There was evidence to suggest that the water infiltrated into the sediment had a different chemical composition than the rest of the water column and could be a potential risk exposure to bottom-dwelling aquatic organisms.

  15. Interaction between morin and AOT reversed micelles--studies with UV-vis at 25 °C.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Ajaya; Wilczura-Wachnik, H

    2014-01-30

    The precise measurements of morin absorbance in presence of surfactant/solvent/water systems at 25 °C by UV-vis technique are reported. The surfactant used in presented study was sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate called Aerosol-OT or AOT. The solvents selected were: ethanol, ethylene glycol, and n-decanol. The concentrations of AOT were varied between 0.001 and 0.4 mol/kg. Morin concentration in quvette during UV-vis registration was not equals in all solvent because of its different solubility and absorption intensity depending on the solvent. Water concentration in the studied systems was defined by R parameter according to relation: R=[H2O]/[AOT] and was equal 0, 30 and 40 in ethanol; 0, 10, 20 and 30 in ethylene glycol and 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 in n-decanol. In presented work a Nernstian distribution of morin between the organic and micellar phases was assumed. The intensity of morin absorbance as a function of AOT concentration was analyzed. Using Non-linear Regression Procedure (NLREG) morin binding constant (K' [mol/kg]), and morin distribution constant (K) between organic phase and AOT micellar phase have been calculated. The experimental results have shown a significant influence of solvent, surfactant and water presence on morin UV-vis spectrum. Calculated data pointed out on different transfer of morin molecules from the organic to micellar phase depending on the solvent. Moreover, results of calculations indicate on competition between morin and water molecules interacting with AOT polar heads. Morin molecules privileged location in AOT reversed micelles strongly depends on the solvent. In case of systems with ethylene glycol as solvent is possible morin molecules location in polar cores of AOT reversed micelles as results of strong interaction between AOT polar heads and morin hydroxyl groups, whereas in case of ethanol and n-decanol morin molecules are located in palisade layer.

  16. Development of balloon-borne CO2 sonde: CO2 vertical profile (0-10km) observations and comparison with the air craft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, M.; Matsumi, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.

    2012-12-01

    The atmospheric CO2 concentration has drastically increased since the Industrial Revolution due to the mass consumption of fossil fuels and natural gas by human activities. CO2 is considered to be a major factor of global warming; therefore it is important to measure CO2 correctly. CO2 vertical profile measurement is the key to estimate CO2 sources and sinks in high precision. However, current CO2 monitoring sites are limited and there are few CO2 vertical profile measurements. We have been developing a balloon-borne instrument that can measure the vertical distribution of CO2 in any place in the world under any kind of weather conditions (CO2 sonde). The target specifications of altitude range is from surface to 10 km. Time resolution is 1min. The CO2 sensor, originally developed for upper air sounding by our team, is based on the non-dispersed infrared absorption spectroscopy technique (NDIR) at the wavelengths of 4.0 and 4.3 micrometer. The data of the optical infrared absorption are transmitted through a GPS sonde with temperature, humidity and GPS data every second. In this study, we will show simultaneous measurement campaigns of the balloon-borne instruments and in-situ aircraft measurements in January and February 2011 in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan. We will present the comparisons between the results of CO2 sonde (5 flights) and two types of aircraft measurements. One is observed by the CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner) and the other is chartered flight measurements operated by NIES/JAXA.

  17. A Structural Weight Estimation Program (SWEEP) for Aircraft. Volume 6 - Wing and Empennage Module. Appendix F: Program Listings, Overlays (9,0), (10, 0) and (18,0)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    the exchange and stimulation of ideas. X / / JAMES H. HALL, Colonel, USAF Deputy for Development Planning TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page II...nciisii • nemn nciBi> • ncimi • raciiio 2510 itrvt iisiiKi juroriou avm KI - sccr mm /»o CIVONOC nonxc COMCHIS •••• mi »i? c »11 c mi c nn 1...ititfiiiaaaaaaaaiaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaiaaaaaaaa «JBROUTJ« WRI8 imSil R. rc/rccR. fee« suen FOR na RCVISION -- oi to 66 -■ teurem«. Revise IIMUCC * LCS’. nuH 1. 2 R • I

  18. Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.10) alloys on Ge-buffered Si: Synthesis, microstructure, and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senaratne, C. L.; Gallagher, J. D.; Jiang, Liying; Aoki, Toshihiro; Smith, D. J.; Menéndez, J.; Kouvetakis, J.

    2014-10-01

    Novel hydride chemistries are employed to deposit light-emitting Ge1-ySny alloys with y ≤ 0.1 by Ultra-High Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition (UHV-CVD) on Ge-buffered Si wafers. The properties of the resultant materials are systematically compared with similar alloys grown directly on Si wafers. The fundamental difference between the two systems is a fivefold (and higher) decrease in lattice mismatch between film and virtual substrate, allowing direct integration of bulk-like crystals with planar surfaces and relatively low dislocation densities. For y ≤ 0.06, the CVD precursors used were digermane Ge2H6 and deuterated stannane SnD4. For y ≥ 0.06, the Ge precursor was changed to trigermane Ge3H8, whose higher reactivity enabled the fabrication of supersaturated samples with the target film parameters. In all cases, the Ge wafers were produced using tetragermane Ge4H10 as the Ge source. The photoluminescence intensity from Ge1-ySny/Ge films is expected to increase relative to Ge1-ySny/Si due to the less defected interface with the virtual substrate. However, while Ge1-ySny/Si films are largely relaxed, a significant amount of compressive strain may be present in the Ge1-ySny/Ge case. This compressive strain can reduce the emission intensity by increasing the separation between the direct and indirect edges. In this context, it is shown here that the proposed CVD approach to Ge1-ySny/Ge makes it possible to approach film thicknesses of about 1 μm, for which the strain is mostly relaxed and the photoluminescence intensity increases by one order of magnitude relative to Ge1-ySny/Si films. The observed strain relaxation is shown to be consistent with predictions from strain-relaxation models first developed for the Si1-xGex/Si system. The defect structure and atomic distributions in the films are studied in detail using advanced electron-microscopy techniques, including aberration corrected STEM imaging and EELS mapping of the average diamond-cubic lattice.

  19. Diffuse x-ray scattering from short-period W/C multilayers at in-plane momentum transfers 0.10-0.17 {angstrom}{sup -1}.

    SciTech Connect

    Headrick, R. L.; Liu, C. L.; Macrander, A. T.

    1999-04-20

    X-ray scattering measurements at 10 keV from multilayers having a period of 24.8 {angstrom} and consisting of 100 W/C bilayers are reported. Specular scans revealed first-order reflectivities in the range 73.5% to 78.0% with bandpasses in the range of 1.5% to 1.7%. Total roughness (or interface grading) values deduced from fitting to the specular data only were in the range 2.5 to 3.0 {angstrom} for the last-to-grow surface of the W layers. Diffuse scattering measurements were made in a geometry that permitted investigation of in-plane momentum transfers up to 0.17 {angstrom}{sup {minus}1}. This is roughly an order of magnitude larger than is possible in conventional rocking scans. Reasonable fitting results were obtained for an in-plane correlation function that has a Fourier transform proportional to exp(-vq{sub y}{sup 2}{vert_bar}z{sub i}-z{sub j}{vert_bar}), where z{sub i}-z{sub j} is the average separation between the i{sup th} and j{sup th} interfaces and q{sub y} is the in-plane momentum transfer.

  20. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF BUBBLER CONFIGURATIONS USING HLW AZ-101 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-4 REV 0 10/5/04

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of six tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the other tests have been reported separately. The solids contents of the melter feeds were based on the WTP baseline value for the solids content of the feeds from pretreatment which changed during these tests from 20% to 15% undissolved solids resulting in tests conducted at two feed solids contents. Based on the results of earlier tests with single outlet 'J' bubblers, initial tests were performed with a total bubbling rate of 651 pm. The first set of tests (Tests 1A-1E) addressed the effects of skewing this total air flow rate back and forth between the two installed bubblers in comparison to a fixed equal division of flow between them. The second set of tests (2A-2D) addressed the effects of bubbler depth. Subsequently, as the location, type and number of bubbling outlets were varied, the optimum bubbling rate for each was determined. A third (3A-3C) and fourth (8A-8C) set of tests evaluated the effects of alternative bubbler designs with two gas outlets per bubbler instead of one by placing four bubblers in positions simulating multiple-outlet bubblers. Data from the simulated multiple outlet bubblers were used to design bubblers with two outlets for an additional set of tests (9A-9C). Test 9 was also used to determine the effect of small sugar additions to the feed on ruthenium volatility. Another set of tests (10A-10D) evaluated the effects on production rate of spiking the feed with chloride and sulfate. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The feed rate was increased to the point that a constant, essentially complete, cold cap was achieved, which was used as an indicator of a maximized feed rate for each test. The first day of each test was used to build the cold cap and decrease the plenum temperature. The remainder of each test was split into two- to six-day segments, each with a different bubbling rate, bubbler orientation, or feed concentration of chloride and sulfur.

  1. Ge{sub 1-y}Sn{sub y} (y = 0.01-0.10) alloys on Ge-buffered Si: Synthesis, microstructure, and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Senaratne, C. L.; Kouvetakis, J.; Gallagher, J. D.; Jiang, Liying; Smith, D. J.; Menéndez, J.; Aoki, Toshihiro

    2014-10-07

    Novel hydride chemistries are employed to deposit light-emitting Ge{sub 1-y}Sn{sub y} alloys with y ≤ 0.1 by Ultra-High Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition (UHV-CVD) on Ge-buffered Si wafers. The properties of the resultant materials are systematically compared with similar alloys grown directly on Si wafers. The fundamental difference between the two systems is a fivefold (and higher) decrease in lattice mismatch between film and virtual substrate, allowing direct integration of bulk-like crystals with planar surfaces and relatively low dislocation densities. For y ≤ 0.06, the CVD precursors used were digermane Ge₂H₆ and deuterated stannane SnD₄. For y ≥ 0.06, the Ge precursor was changed to trigermane Ge₃H₈, whose higher reactivity enabled the fabrication of supersaturated samples with the target film parameters. In all cases, the Ge wafers were produced using tetragermane Ge₄H₁₀ as the Ge source. The photoluminescence intensity from Ge{sub 1–y}Sn{sub y}/Ge films is expected to increase relative to Ge{sub 1–y}Sn{sub y}/Si due to the less defected interface with the virtual substrate. However, while Ge{sub 1–y}Sn{sub y}/Si films are largely relaxed, a significant amount of compressive strain may be present in the Ge{sub 1–y}Sn{sub y}/Ge case. This compressive strain can reduce the emission intensity by increasing the separation between the direct and indirect edges. In this context, it is shown here that the proposed CVD approach to Ge{sub 1–y}Sn{sub y}/Ge makes it possible to approach film thicknesses of about 1 μm, for which the strain is mostly relaxed and the photoluminescence intensity increases by one order of magnitude relative to Ge{sub 1–y}Sn{sub y}/Si films. The observed strain relaxation is shown to be consistent with predictions from strain-relaxation models first developed for the Si{sub 1–x}Ge{sub x}/Si system. The defect structure and atomic distributions in the films are studied in detail using advanced electron-microscopy techniques, including aberration corrected STEM imaging and EELS mapping of the average diamond–cubic lattice.

  2. Enhanced Shrinkage of Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (La0.90Sr0.10MnO3+δ) Resulting from Thermal and Oxygen Partial Pressure Cycling

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Ben; Pederson, Larry R.; Anderson, Harlan U.; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Singh, Prabhakar; Coffey, Greg W.; Thomsen, Ed C.

    2007-10-01

    Exposure of La0.9Sr0.1MnO3+δ to repeated oxygen partial pressure cycles (air/10 ppm O2) resulted in enhanced densification rates, similar to behavior shown previously due to thermal cycling. Shrinkage rates in the temperature range 700 to 1000oC were orders of magnitude higher than Makipirtti-Meng model estimations based on stepwise isothermal dilatometry results at high temperature. A maximum in enhanced shrinkage due to oxygen partial pressure cycling occurred at 900oC. Shrinkage was greatest when LSM-10 bars that were first equilibrated in air were exposed to gas flows of lower oxygen fugacity than in the reverse direction. The former creates transient cation and oxygen vacancies well above the equilibrium concentration, resulting in enhanced mobility. These vacancies annihilate as Schottky equilibria is re-established, whereas the latter condition does not lead to excess vacancy concentrations.

  3. Evaluation of ASTM D5006 for Accuracy, Repeatability, and Reproducibility for Fuel System Icing Inhibitor (FSII) Concentrations 0.10% by Volume and Varying Fuel Composition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Acknowledgements The authors thank Jim Gammon (Gammon Technical Products, Inc) and Michael Rainer (MISCO) for providing the corresponding digital...refractometers used in this study and to these individuals and Bob Falkiner (ESSO), Enrico Lodrigueza (ConcoPhillips), Donald Phelps (AFRL/RQPF), Emilio Alfaro

  4. Radio frequency interference survey over the 1.0-10.4 GHz frequency range at the Goldstone-Venus Development Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, S.; Olsen, E. T.; Klein, M. J.; Jackson, E. B.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a low sensitivity Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) survey carried out at the Venus Station of the Goldstone Communications Complex are reported. The data cover the spectral range from 1 GHz to 10.4 GHz with a 10-kHz instantaneous bandwidth. Frequency and power levels were observed using a sweep-frequency spectrum analyzer connected to a 1-m diameter antenna pointed at zenith. The survey was conducted from February 16, 1987 through February 24, 1987.

  5. Predictors (0-10 Months) of Psychopathology at Age 1 1/2 Years--A General Population Study in the Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, A. M.; Olsen, E. M.; Christiansen, E.; Houmann, T.; Landorph, S. L.; Jorgensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish…

  6. Wide-Area Cooperative Biometric Tagging, Tracking and Locating in a Multimodal Sensor Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    ICT NCR on ICT NCR on FT (a) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cumulative Matching Characteristic (CMC) Camera Pair 1 − 3...Rank Score R e c o g n it io n P e rc e n ta g e SDALF WACN FT ICT NCR on ICT NCR on FT (b) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100...Cumulative Matching Characteristic (CMC) Camera Pair 2 − 3 Rank Score R e c o g n it io n P e rc e n ta g e

  7. ELT and Development: The Place of English Language Teaching in Aid Programmes. Report on the Dunford Seminar (England, United Kingdom, August 10-20, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Helen, Ed.

    Proceedings of a seminar on the role of English language teaching (ELT) in British technical assistance projects are presented in the form of session and case study narrative summaries. They include descriptions of sessions on the development of ELT projects; a presentation on a project in Oman using a recommended format; a case study simulation…

  8. Simple and flexible generation of vestigial side band modified duobinary return-to-zero signals at 10, 20 and 40 Gb/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang; Wang, Fei; Huang, Dexiu

    2010-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple and flexible approach to generate vestigial side band modified duobinary return-to-zero (VSB MD-RZ) signals at 10-40 Gb/s, using a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator and a detuned optical band-pass filter. The performance of the proposed VSB MD-RZ signal is investigated by comparing with double side band MD-RZ (DSB MD-RZ) and conventional VSB MD-RZ. Bit error ratio (BER) measurement at 10 Gb/s shows an error free operation for the generated signal. Good performance is further observed after 100 km of single-mode-fiber transmission at 40 Gb/s.

  9. Preparation and kinetic performance assessment of thick film 10-20 μm open tubular silica capillaries in normal phase high pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Forster, Simon; Kolmar, Harald; Altmaier, Stephan

    2013-11-08

    It is well-known that the open tubular column design basically can offer very high plate numbers. Experimental realization has however not kept pace with theoretical considerations, lacking efficient methods for the deposition of a thick film porous layer within a microbore capillary. A previously published sol-gel synthesis method was extended from 20 μm to 10 μm inner diameter fused silica capillaries and the resulting columns were compared to a monolithic reference capillary in terms of kinetic performance at pressure maximum. Column permeability was investigated and pressure/flow-diagrams were obtained with a 400-fold permeability gain for the open tubes. Structural characterizations regarding layer thickness and surface porosity were carried out and displayed via scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen sorption analysis. Chromatographic results in normal phase mode at elevated mobile phase flow rate reveal the intrinsic performance potential of this column format when it comes to kinetic performance limitation plots, which were constructed for all columns prepared and compared to the monolithic silica reference capillary.

  10. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue

    PubMed Central

    Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P < 0.05) for the consumption of dry matter with maximum point value estimated at adding 23.25% additive. Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P < 0.05), by quadratic behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P < 0.05), showing quadratic behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P < 0.05) by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior. PMID:27547811

  11. Combined effect of vacuum packaging and refrigerated storage on the chemical quality of paneer tikka.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Kunal K; Goyal, G K

    2013-06-01

    Paneer tikka, a popular dish for vegetarians, is a tongue tingling favourite of Indian gourmets. It is a perishable commodity which requires more than five hours for its preparation. The shelf life of paneer tikka is hardly one day at room temperature which impedes its proper marketing. In order to enhance the shelf life of paneer tikka, the product was vacuum packed in two high barrier packages, viz., LLDPE(*)/BA(†)/Nylon-6/BA/LDPE(‡) (110 μ, (*)linear low density polyethylene, (†)binding agent, (‡)low density polyethylene) and metallized polyester/LDPE (20/75 μ) along with LDPE (100 μ) as control, and stored at 3 ± 1 °C. The stored samples were evaluated at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 day(s) for changes in chemical characteristics, namely moisture, pH, titratable acidity, free fatty acids content, tyrosine content and water activity. The analysis of variance of the data revealed that type of packages had significant influence on all the above parameters excluding water activity during storage of paneer tikka.

  12. AFM and SEM study of the effects of etching on IPS-Empress 2 TM dental ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X.-P.; Silikas, N.; Allaf, M.; Wilson, N. H. F.; Watts, D. C.

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing etching time on the surface of the new dental material, IPS-Empress 2 TM glass ceramic. Twenty one IPS-Empress 2 TM glass ceramic samples were made from IPS-Empress 2 TM ingots through lost-wax, hot-pressed ceramic fabrication technology. All samples were highly polished and cleaned ultrasonically for 5 min in acetone before and after etching with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid gel. The etching times were 0, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 s respectively. Microstructure was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the surface roughness and topography. Observations with SEM showed that etching with hydrofluoric acid resulted in preferential dissolution of glass matrix, and that partially supported crystals within the glass matrix were lost with increasing etching time. AFM measurements indicated that etching increased the surface roughness of the glass-ceramic. A simple least-squares linear regression was used to establish a relationship between surface roughness parameters ( Ra, RMS), and etching time, for which r2>0.94. This study demonstrates the benefits of combining two microscopic methods for a better understanding of the surface. SEM showed the mode of action of hydrofluoric acid on the ceramic and AFM provided valuable data regarding the extent of surface degradation relative to etching time.

  13. Effect of Copolymer Latexes on Physicomechanical Properties of Mortar Containing High Volume Fly Ash as a Replacement Material of Cement

    PubMed Central

    Kozhamzharova, Latipa; Gulzhakhan, Yeligbayeva; Bekbayeva, Lyazzat; Williams, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume of fly ash (FA) as partial replacement of cement in presence of copolymer latexes. Portland cement (PC) was partially replaced with 0, 10, 20, 30 50, and 60% FA. Copolymer latexes were used based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA) and 2-hydroxymethylacrylate (2-HEMA). Testing included workability, setting time, absorption, chemically combined water content, compressive strength, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of FA to mortar as replacement of PC affected the physicomechanical properties of mortar. As the content of FA in the concrete increased, the setting times (initial and final) were elongated. The results obtained at 28 days of curing indicate that the maximum properties of mortar occur at around 30% FA. Beyond 30% FA the properties of mortar reduce and at 60% FA the properties of mortar are lower than those of the reference mortar without FA. However, the addition of polymer latexes into mortar containing FA improved most of the physicomechanical properties of mortar at all curing times. Compressive strength, combined water, and workability of mortar containing FA premixed with latexes are higher than those of mortar containing FA without latexes. PMID:25254256

  14. Alantolactone induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells via reactive oxygen species generation, glutathione depletion and inhibition of the Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, YAN; XU, HANJIE; WANG, JIAFEI

    2016-01-01

    Alantolactone is the active ingredient in frankincense, and is extracted from the dry root of elecampane. It has a wide variety of uses, including as an insect repellent, antibacterial, antidiuretic, analgesic and anticancer agent. In addition, alantolactone induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells, however, its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated whether alantolactone was able to induce apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells, and its potential mechanisms of action were analyzed. Treatment of HeLa cells with alantolactone (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 µM) for 12 h significantly inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner. Cells treated with 30 µM of alantolactone for 0, 3, 6 and 12 h demonstrated marked induction of apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of HeLa cells with 30 µM of alantolactone for 0, 3, 6 and 12 h significantly induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibited glutathione (GSH) production in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Alantolactone additionally markedly inhibited the Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway in HeLa cells. Therefore, administration of alantolactone induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells via ROS generation, GSH depletion and inhibition of the Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway. PMID:27313767

  15. Recycling of ash from biomass incinerator in clay matrix to produce ceramic bricks.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Villarejo, L; Eliche-Quesada, D; Iglesias-Godino, Fco J; Martínez-García, C; Corpas-Iglesias, Fco A

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of incorporation of ash from biomass incinerator as raw material on the production of ceramic bricks for their application in construction. So, for the fabrication of bricks, compositions were prepared with addition of increasing amounts of waste ash (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% in wt.) in the clay body. The mixed samples were sintered using conventional powder processing based on powder compaction at 54.5 MPa and firing them at 950 °C without the addition of additives. Effect on apparent density, water absorption and mechanical properties were investigated. The results showed that water absorption increased and apparent density and compressive strength decreased with higher amounts of ash. Bricks with an ash content up to 20% meet the UNE standards compressive strength. As a result, since interesting performances were observed, the potential use of ashes from biomass incinerator up to 20 wt.% in ceramic formulations of industrial interest was confirmed. In this sense, incorporating ashes into clay body reduces environmental problems and total cost of raw material disposition.

  16. Effects of grass hay proportion in a corn silage-based diet on rumen digesta kinetics and digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Win, Kyaw San; Ueda, Koichiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of six levels of orchardgrass hay (GH) proportion (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% or 50% of dry matter) in finely chopped corn silage (CS)-based diets on digesta kinetics of CS and GH in the rumen. Six non-lactating, rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Ruminal digesta kinetics was measured by ruminal dosing of feed particle markers (dysprosium for CS, erbium for GH) followed by fecal sampling. The increase of GH proportion had a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) on total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber. The proportion of GH did not affect the particle size distribution of rumen digesta, total weight of dry matter or NDF in the rumen. The rates of large particle size reduction in the rumen for CS tended to increase linearly with increasing GH proportion (P = 0.077). A quadratic effect (P < 0.05) was found with increasing the GH proportion for the ruminal passage rate of small GH particles, but not for CS particles. The results suggested that associative effects between CS and GH could be generated on rumen digesta kinetics when cows were fed a CS-based diet with an increased proportion of GH.

  17. Efficacy of silicon priming and fertigation to modulate seedling's vigor and ion homeostasis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under saline environment.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Iqbal, Naeem; Kausar, Shakila; Javed, M Tariq; Akram, M Sohail; Sajid, M Asim

    2015-09-01

    Seed preconditioning, a short gun approach to modulate the effects of abiotic stresses on crop plants, has recently gained considerable attention of the researchers to induce salinity tolerance in agronomically important crops. The present study was conducted to explore the comparative efficacy of presowing seed priming with silicon (Si) and Si fertigation to modulate the wheat growth and ion dynamics. Seeds of wheat variety, PUNJAB-11, were sown in Petri plates having nutrient solutions with (120 mM) and without NaCl. Six levels of Si (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 mM), applied as sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), were tested either as a seed priming agent or as a supplement in the nutrient solution. Priming of seeds with Si mitigated the adverse effects of salinity stress on germination percentage, root as well as shoot length, dry and fresh weight. Application of Si either as preconditioning of seeds or addition in the growth medium resulted in reduced accumulation of sodium (Na(+)) in wheat seedlings under saline environment. Seedling's potassium (K(+)) contents either remained unaffected or decreased whereas calcium (Ca(2+)) contents decreased at all Si concentrations except at 30 mM when Si primed seeds were grown under salt stress. Addition of Si, under salt stress, in cultivation medium exerted a positive effect on seedling's K(+) and Ca(2+) contents. Silicon contribution to decontamination strategies was evaluated.

  18. Relationship between Surface Properties and In Vitro Drug Release from a Compressed Matrix Containing an Amphiphilic Polymer Material.

    PubMed

    Yarce, Cristhian J; Pineda, Diego; Correa, Clara E; Salamanca, Constain H

    2016-06-24

    The performance of compressed tablet drug delivery systems made using polymeric materials depend on multiple factors, such as surface properties like contact angle, surface free energy and water absorption rate, besides the release mechanisms driven by the kind of polymer used. Hence, it should be possible to establish a relationship between the surface properties and the drug release kinetics. Compressed tablets with different proportions of poly(maleic acid-alt-octadecene) potassium salt (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were prepared. Blends of a model drug (ampicillin trihydrate) and the polymer material were analyzed by DSC. The surface properties of the tablets were determined by the sessile drop method, while the surface energy was determined using the semi-empirical Young-Dupre, Neumann and OWRK models. The release profiles were determined simulating in vitro conditions (buffer solutions pH 1.2 and pH 7.4 with ionic strength of 1.5 M at 37 °C (310.15 K)). A kinetic analysis of the dissolution profiles using different models (zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas) was realized. The results showed a significant effect of the proportion of polymer in both the surface properties of the tablets and the dissolution release, indicating a relationship between the kinetic and thermodynamic properties.

  19. The Efficacy and Safety of Topical Rocuronium Bromide to Induce Bilateral Mydriasis in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    PubMed

    Baine, Katherine; Hendrix, Diane V H; Kuhn, Sonia E; Souza, Marcy J; Jones, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy and safety of topically applied rocuronium in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) was assessed in a group of 10 adult birds. A complete ophthalmic examination (including Schirmer tear test, ocular reflexes, applanation tonometry, fluorescein staining, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy) was performed, and rocuronium bromide (0.15 mg in both eyes) was administered. Pupillary light reflex (PLR) and pupillary diameter were recorded in a darkened room at the following time points: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 300, and 360 minutes, and 24 hours. Fluorescein staining in both eyes was performed at 24 hours. By 10 minutes, PLR was absent in all birds (at 5 minutes, 8 birds; at 10 minutes, remaining 2 birds). Pupil diameter differed significantly from baseline at all time points. Additionally, PLR was decreased in 7/10 birds at 360 minutes and normal in all birds at 24 hours. Superficial corneal ulceration was observed at 24 hours in the left eye of 2/10 of the birds after fluorescein stain application. This study demonstrated that rocuronium bromide was an effective mydriatic agent in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots with rapid onset and prolonged duration of action.

  20. Structural and Optical Studies on Dy{sup 3+} Doped Boro-Tellurite Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Maheshvaran, K.; Marimuthu, K.

    2011-07-15

    Dy{sup 3+} doped Boro-tellurite glasses were prepared by following melt quenching technique with the chemical composition (69-x)H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}+xTeO{sub 2}+15Mg{sub 2}CO{sub 3}+15K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}+1Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} by varying the tellurium dioxide content as (x = 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%). The structural and optical properties have been studied through FTIR, absorption and emission spectra. The UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra were used to calculate the oscillator strength, bonding parameters ({beta}-bar and {delta}), Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters ({Omega}{sub {lambda}}, {lambda} = 2, 4 and 6). The Y/B ratio has been discussed from the luminescence spectra for the excited states corresponding to {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 13/2}, and {sup 6}H{sub 15/2} transitions. The structural and optical properties corresponding to the compositional changes are discussed and reported.

  1. The effect of interface microstructure on interfacial shear strength for osteochondral scaffolds based on biomimetic design and 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijie; Lian, Qin; Li, Dichen; Wang, Kunzheng; Hao, Dingjun; Bian, Weiguo; Jin, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Interface integration between chondral phase and osseous phase is crucial in engineered osteochondral scaffolds. However, the integration was poorly understood and commonly failed to meet the need of osteochondral scaffolds. In this paper, a biphasic polyethylene glycol (PEG)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold with enhanced interfacial integration was developed. The chondral phase was a PEG hydrogel. The osseous phase was a β-TCP ceramic scaffold. The PEG hydrogel was directly cured on the ceramic interface layer by layer to fabricate osteochondral scaffolds by 3D printing technology. Meanwhile, a series of interface structure were designed with different interface pore area percentages (0/10/20/30/40/50/60%), and interfacial shear test was applied for interface structure optimization (n=6 samples/group). The interfacial shear strength of 30% pore area group was nearly three folds improved compared with that of 0% pore area percentage group, and more than fifty folds improved compared with that of traditional integration (5.91±0.59 kPa). In conclusion, the biomimetic PEG/β-TCP scaffolds with interface structure enhanced integration show promising potential application for osteochondral tissue engineering.

  2. Relationship between Surface Properties and In Vitro Drug Release from Compressed Matrix Containing Polymeric Materials with Different Hydrophobicity Degrees

    PubMed Central

    Yarce, Cristhian J.; Echeverri, Juan D.; Palacio, Mario A.; Rivera, Carlos A.; Salamanca, Constain H.

    2017-01-01

    This work is the continuation of a study focused on establishing relations between surface thermodynamic properties and in vitro release mechanisms using a model drug (ampicillin trihydrate), besides analyzing the granulometric properties of new polymeric materials and thus establishing the potential to be used in the pharmaceutical field as modified delivery excipients. To do this, we used copolymeric materials derived from maleic anhydride with decreasing polarity corresponding to poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic acid) (hydrophilic), sodium salt of poly(maleic acid-alt-octadecene) (amphiphilic), poly(maleic anhydride-alt-octadecene) (hydrophobic) and the reference polymer hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose (HPMC). Each material alone and in blends underwent spectroscopic characterization by FTIR, thermal characterization by DSC and granulometric characterization using flow and compaction tests. Each tablet was prepared at different polymer ratios of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%, and the surface properties were determined, including the roughness by micro-visualization, contact angle and water absorption rate by the sessile drop method and obtaining Wadh and surface free energy (SFE) using the semi-empirical models of Young–Dupré and  Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Käelbe (OWRK), respectively. Dissolution profiles were determined simulating physiological conditions in vitro, where the kinetic models of order-zero, order-one, Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas were evaluated. The results showed a strong relationship between the proportion and nature of the polymer to the surface thermodynamic properties and kinetic release mechanism. PMID:28125020

  3. Mechanical properties and structural features of novel Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with unprecedented plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiming; Liu, Haishun; Zhao, Yucheng; Inoue, Akihisa; Jiang, Kemin; Huo, Juntao; Ling, Haibo; Li, Qiang; Shen, Baolong

    2014-08-01

    Fe-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have attracted great attention due to their unique magnetic and mechanical properties, but few applications have been materialized because of their brittleness at room temperature. Here we report a new Fe50Ni30P13C7 BMG which exhibits unprecedented compressive plasticity (>20%) at room temperature without final fracture. The mechanism of unprecedented plasticity for this new Fe-based BMG was also investigated. It was discovered that the ductile Fe50Ni30P13C7 BMG is composed of unique clusters mainly linked by less directional metal-metal bonds which are inclined to accommodate shear strain and absorbed energy in the front of crack tip. This conclusion was further verified by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy experiments of Fe80-xNixP13C7 (x = 0, 10, 20, 30) and Fe72-xNixB20Si4Nb4 (x = 0, 7.2, 14.4, 21.6, 28.8) glassy systems. The results also indicate a strong correlation between the p-d hybridization and plasticity, verifying that the transition from brittle to ductile induced by Ni addition is due to the change of bonding characteristics in atomic configurations. Thus, we can design the plasticity of Fe-based BMGs and open up a new possible pathway for manufacturing BMGs with high strength and plasticity.

  4. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a translating grid choked flow inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, J. M.; Miller, B. A.; Golladay, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a translating grid choked-flow inlet was determined in a low-speed wind tunnel at free-stream velocities of 24, 32, and 45 m/sec and incidence angles of 0, 10, 20, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 deg. The inlet was sized to fit a 13.97- centimeter-diameter fan with a design weight flow of 2.49 kg/sec. Measurements were made to determine inlet total pressure recovery, flow distortion, and sound pressure level for both choked and unchoked geometries over a range of inlet weight flows. For the unchoked geometry, inlet total pressure recovery ranged from 0.983 to 0.989 at incidence angles less than 40 deg. At 40 deg incidence angle, inlet cowl separation was encountered which resulted in lower values of pressure recovery and higher levels of fan broadband noise. For the choked geometry, increasing total pressure losses occurred with increasing inlet weight flow that prevented the inlet from reaching full choked conditions with the particular fan used. These losses were attributed to the high Mach number drag rise characteristics of airfoil grid. At maximum attainable inlet weight flow, the total pressure recovery at static conditions was 0.935. The fan blade passing frequency and other fan generated pure tones were eliminated from the noise spectrum, but the broadband level was increased.

  5. A gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Yoldash, Rashiduddin; Boehnen, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    It has been proven that hamming distance score between frontal and off-angle iris images of same eye differs in iris recognition system. The distinction of hamming distance score is caused by many factors such as image acquisition angle, occlusion, pupil dilation, and limbus effect. In this paper, we first study the effect of the angle variations between iris plane and the image acquisition systems. We present how hamming distance changes for different off-angle iris images even if they are coming from the same iris. We observe that increment in acquisition angle of compared iris images causes the increment in hamming distance. Second, we propose a new technique in off-angle iris recognition system that includes creating a gallery of different off-angle iris images (such as, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees) and comparing each probe image with these gallery images. We will show the accuracy of the gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition.

  6. Effect of Particle Size and Lattice Strain on the Debye-Waller Factors of Silicon Carbide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Purushotham, E

    2016-03-01

    Nano Silicon Carbide (SiC) particles have been produced by ball milling process. The sample was taken 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 hours of milling. The resulting nanoparticle powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction measurements. The high-energy ball milling of SiC after 50 hours resulted in particle size of about 24 nm. The Debye temperature, mean-square amplitudes of vibration, Debye-Waller factor, particle size, and lattice strain and vacancy formation of energies of SiC nanoparticles prepared by ball mill have been obtained from X-ray integrated intensities. The integrated intensities have been measured with a Philips CWU 3710 X-ray powder diffractometer fitted with a scintillation counter using filtered CuKα radiation at room temperature and have been corrected for thermal diffuse scattering. The X-ray Debye temperatures obtained in the present investigation has been used to estimate the vacancy formation energies for SiC nanoparticles.

  7. Contingent muscular tension during a choice reaction task.

    PubMed

    Araki, Masanobu; Choshi, Koji

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the effects of contingent muscular tension on a choice reaction task, and especially, the effects various amounts of muscular tension have on the information processing of choice reaction time. The reactive movement task included a choice reaction task. Ten right-handed healthy men (ages 18 to 19 years) underwent trials with stimulus presentation probabilities of 50% and 20% on the muscular tension task and choice reaction tasks. The conditions for the muscular tension tasks were divided into seven different conditions: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% of maximum voluntary contraction. On these tasks, subjects performed isometric contraction of the biceps brachii. The choice reaction task was a rapid extension of the left or right knee as a choice reaction. Measures were choice reaction time, movement time, and total reaction time. Analysis indicated that shortening choice reaction time of the left and right feet was observed under 10% muscular tension of maximum strength. Muscular tension appreciably influenced information processing, including choice reaction time. Muscular tension did not affect movement time. Results are discussed with respect to previous research and the optimal muscular tension for best performance.

  8. The Effect of Complex Solvents on the Structure and Dynamics of Protein Solutions: the case of Lysozyme in Trehalose/Water Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K; Carri, Gustavo A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a Molecular Dynamics simulation study of the effect of trehalose concentration on the structure and dynamics of individual proteins immersed in trehalose/water mixtures. Hen Egg White Lysozyme is used in this study and trehalose concentrations of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 100% by weight are explored. Surprisingly, we have found that changes in trehalose concentration do not change the global structural characteristics of the protein as measured by standard quantities like the mean square deviation, radius of gyration, solvent accessible surface area, inertia tensor and asphericity. Only in the limit of pure trehalose these metrics change significantly. Specifically, we found that the protein is compressed by 2% when immersed in pure trehalose. At the amino acid level there is noticeable rearrangement of the surface residues due to the change in polarity of the surrounding environment with the addition of trehalose. From a dynamic perspective, our computation of the Incoherent Intermediate Scattering Function shows that the protein slows down with increasing trehalose concentration; however, this slowdown is not monotonic. Finally, we also report in-depth results for the hydration layer around the protein including its structure, hydrogen- bonding characteristics and dynamic behavior at different length scales.

  9. Effect of Glycerol Water Binary Mixtures on the Structure and Dynamics of Protein Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K; Carri, Gustavo A.

    2014-01-01

    We have performed 20ns of fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of Hen Egg-White Lysozyme in 0, 10, 20, 30 and 100% by weight of glycerol in water to better understand the microscopic physics behind the bioprotection offered by glycerol to naturally occuring biological systems. The sovlent exposure of protein surface residues changes when glycerol is introduced. The dynamic behavior of the protein, as quantified by the Incoherent Intermediate Scattering Function, shows a non-monotonic dependence on glycerol content. The fluctuations of the protein residues with respect to each other were found to be similar in all water containing solvents; but different from the pure glycerol case. The increase in the number of protein glycerol hydrogen bonds in glycerol water binary mixtures explains the slowing down of protein dynamics as the glycerol content increases. We also explored the dynamic behavior of the hydration layer. We show that the short-length scale dynamics of this layer are insenstive to glycerol concentration. However, the long-length scale behavior shows a significant dependence on glycerol content. We also provide insights into the behavior of bound and mobile water molecules.

  10. Measuring and modeling ammonium adsorption by calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, F; Jalali, M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was assessment of ammonium (NH 4(+) ) adsorption isotherms in some agricultural calcareous soils and modeling of that by using the mechanistic exchange model. Ten surface soils (0-30 cm) were collected from areas covered with different land uses in Hamedan, western Iran. Isotherm experiments were carried out by concentrations of NH 4(+) prepared from NH4Cl salt (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, and 150 mg NH 4(+)  l(-1)) in presence of 0.01 M CaCl2 solution. The empirical models including simple adsorption isotherm and Freundlich equations were fitted well to the experimental data. The average amounts of adsorbed NH 4(+) in studied soils varied from 8.95 to 35.23 %. Adsorption percentage indicated positive correlation with pH, cation-exchange capacity (CEC), equivalent calcium carbonate, and clay content and had negative correlation with sand content. In order to predict and model NH 4(+) adsorption, cation-exchange model in PHREEQC program was used. The model could simulate the NH 4(+) adsorption very well in all studied soils. The values of CEC played the major role in modeling of NH 4(+) adsorption in this study indicating that cation-exchange process was the major mechanism controlling NH 4(+) adsorption in studied soils.

  11. Changes in plasma osmolality, cortisol and amino acid levels of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) at different salinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodong; Xu, Kefeng; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Fang, Ziheng

    2015-10-01

    A serial of salinity transferring treatments were performed to investigate the osmoregulation of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). Juvenile tongue sole were directly transferred from a salinity of 30 to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Blood sampling was performed for each treatment after 0, 1, 6 and 12 h, as well as after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 d. The plasma osmolality, cortisol and free amino acids were assessed. Under the experimental conditions, no fish died after acute salinity transfer. The plasma cortisol level increased 1 h after the abrupt transfer from a salinity of 30 to that of 0, 40 and 50, and decreased from 6 h to 8 d after transfer. Similar trends were observed in the changes of plasma osmolality. The plasma free amino acids concentration showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity after being transferred to different salinities for 4 days. More obvious changes of plasma free amino acid concentration occurred under hyper-osmotic conditions than under hypo-osmotic conditions. The concentrations of valine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and taurine increased with rising salinity. The plasma levels of threonine, leucine, arginine, serine, and alanine showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity. The results of this study suggested that free amino acids might have important effects on osmotic acclimation in tongue sole.

  12. The Influence of Chicken Egg Shell as Fillers on Biocomposite Acrylic Resin for Denture Based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, M.; Ginting, M. H. S.; Dalimunthe, N. F.; Hasibuan, D. M. T.; Sastrodihardjo, S.

    2017-03-01

    This research was conducted to discover the influence of the addition of chicken egg shells microparticle as filler on the mechanical properties such as modulus of elasticity, modulus of rapture and particle size analysis on biocomposite acrylic resin for denture based. The raw materials used in this research were acrylic resin, egg shell, cold mold seals, gypsum, Vaseline and wax. The process of making biocomposite acrylic resin for denture based with mix the acrylic resin in ratio 2:1 (w/w). Then added the microparticle filler 0,10,20,30 (%w) to mold and boil in 75°C for 90 minutes and increase the temperature to 90 °C for 30 minutes. Took the sample and let it dried. The results of research showed the increase of modulus elasticity and modulus of rapture. The modulus of elasticity showed a very significant increase by adding fillers 10% of 2.123 GPa, which was only 1.932 GPa without adding the filler of chicken egg shells. For modulus of rapture showed the increase by adding fillers 20% of 48,311MPa, which was only 46,865 GPa without adding the filler of chicken egg shells

  13. Orange Pomace Improves Postprandial Glycemic Responses: An Acute, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial in Overweight Men

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C.-Y. Oliver; Rasmussen, Helen; Kamil, Alison; Du, Peng; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    Orange pomace (OP), a fiber-rich byproduct of juice production, has the potential for being formulated into a variety of food products. We hypothesized that OP would diminish postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and lunch. We conducted an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial with 34 overweight men who consumed either a 255 g placebo (PLA), a low (35% OP (LOP)), or a high (77% (HOP)) dose OP beverage with breakfast. Blood was collected at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 45 min and at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, and 8 h. Lunch was consumed after the 5.5-h blood draw. OP delayed the time (Tmax1) to the maximum concentration (Cmax1) of serum glucose during the 2-h period post breakfast by ≥36% from 33 (PLA) to 45 (HOP) and 47 (LOP) min (p = 0.055 and 0.013, respectively). OP decreased post-breakfast insulin Cmax1 by ≥10% and LOP delayed the Tmax1 by 14 min, compared to PLA at 46 min (p ≤ 0.05). HOP reduced the first 2-h insulin area under concentration time curve (AUC) by 23% compared to PLA. Thus, OP diminishes postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and the second meal in overweight men. PMID:28208806

  14. [Effect of reclamation on the vertical distribution of SOC and retention of DOC].

    PubMed

    Huo, Li-Li; Zou, Yuan-Chun; Guo, Jia-Wei; Lü, Xian-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Contents and density of soil organic carbon (SOC) in soil profiles and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of soil solution in different soil depths in wetland, soybean and paddy field reclaimed from the wetland around Xingkai Lake were determined to investigate how reclamation of wetland for soybean and rice farming impacts vertical distribution of SOC and retention of DOC. SOC contents in 0-40 cm soil layers were significantly influenced. SOC contents in 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm soil layers in soybean and paddy field were 79.07% and 82.01%, 79.01% and 82.28%, 79.86% and 92.90%, 37.49% and 78.05% respectively lower than those in wetland. Before and after reclamation, SOC contents in soil layers deeper than 40 cm were not significantly different. SOC densities in soybean and paddy field were 25.50% and 47.35% respectively lower than those in wetland. However, either in wetland or farm land, most of the SOC storage in 0-100 cm soil layer was stored in 0-50 cm soil layer. The relationships between SOC content and soil depth in wetland and two farm lands all could be described by exponential functions; cultivation did not change the variation of SOC content with soil depth. The retention of DOC was more obvious for soybean farming than wetland and rice farming, and that was roughly the same for wetland as rice farming.

  15. Control of human norovirus surrogates in fresh foods by gaseous ozone and a proposed mechanism of inactivation.

    PubMed

    Predmore, Ashley; Sanglay, Gabe; Li, Jianrong; Lee, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Fresh produce is a major concern for transmission of foodborne enteric viruses as it is normally consumed with no heat treatments and minimal other processing to ensure safety. Commonly used sanitizers are ineffective at removing foodborne viruses from fresh produce. Thus the use of gaseous ozone for viral inactivation was investigated. Ozone has great potential for improved food safety because of four benefits: It is a potent sanitizer, it is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, it is permitted for food use as regulated by the U.S. FDA and several other nations, and it spontaneously decomposes to oxygen leaving no residue. This study determined the effectiveness of gaseous ozone for the sanitization of two norovirus surrogates (MNV-1 and TV) from both liquid media and popular fresh foods where viral contamination is common-lettuce and strawberries. Foods were treated with gaseous ozone at 6% wt/wt ozone in oxygen for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min, and surviving viruses were quantified by viral plaque assay. Our results showed that gaseous ozone inactivated norovirus in both liquid media and fresh produce in a dose-dependent manner. These results are promising because ozone treatment significantly reduced two important norovirus surrogates in both liquid and food matrices. Viruses are generally more resistant to sanitation treatments than bacteria, thus gaseous ozone is an effective means to improve fresh produce safety.

  16. Relationship between Surface Properties and In Vitro Drug Release from a Compressed Matrix Containing an Amphiphilic Polymer Material

    PubMed Central

    Yarce, Cristhian J.; Pineda, Diego; Correa, Clara E.; Salamanca, Constain H.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of compressed tablet drug delivery systems made using polymeric materials depend on multiple factors, such as surface properties like contact angle, surface free energy and water absorption rate, besides the release mechanisms driven by the kind of polymer used. Hence, it should be possible to establish a relationship between the surface properties and the drug release kinetics. Compressed tablets with different proportions of poly(maleic acid-alt-octadecene) potassium salt (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were prepared. Blends of a model drug (ampicillin trihydrate) and the polymer material were analyzed by DSC. The surface properties of the tablets were determined by the sessile drop method, while the surface energy was determined using the semi-empirical Young-Dupre, Neumann and OWRK models. The release profiles were determined simulating in vitro conditions (buffer solutions pH 1.2 and pH 7.4 with ionic strength of 1.5 M at 37 °C (310.15 K)). A kinetic analysis of the dissolution profiles using different models (zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas) was realized. The results showed a significant effect of the proportion of polymer in both the surface properties of the tablets and the dissolution release, indicating a relationship between the kinetic and thermodynamic properties. PMID:27347979

  17. Design of a soil cutting resistance sensor for application in site-specific tillage.

    PubMed

    Agüera, Juan; Carballido, Jacob; Gil, Jesús; Gliever, Chris J; Perez-Ruiz, Manuel

    2013-05-10

    One objective of precision agriculture is to provide accurate information about soil and crop properties to optimize the management of agricultural inputs to meet site-specific needs. This paper describes the development of a sensor equipped with RTK-GPS technology that continuously and efficiently measures soil cutting resistance at various depths while traversing the field. Laboratory and preliminary field tests verified the accuracy of this prototype soil strength sensor. The data obtained using a hand-operated soil cone penetrometer was used to evaluate this field soil compaction depth profile sensor. To date, this sensor has only been tested in one field under one gravimetric water content condition. This field test revealed that the relationships between the soil strength profile sensor (SSPS) cutting force and soil cone index values are assumed to be quadratic for the various depths considered: 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm (r2 = 0.58, 0.45 and 0.54, respectively). Soil resistance contour maps illustrated its practical value. The developed sensor provides accurate, timely and affordable information on soil properties to optimize resources and improve agricultural economy.

  18. Resistance and Inactivation Kinetics of Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Non-Chlorinated and Chlorinated Effluents of a WWTP

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Hernández, Sylvia; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela A.; Beltrán-Hernández, Rosa I.; Prieto-García, Francisco; Miranda-López, José M.; Franco-Abuín, Carlos M.; Álvarez-Hernández, Alejandro; Iturbe, Ulises; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological quality of water from a wastewater treatment plant that uses sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant was assessed. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were not removed efficiently. This fact allowed for the isolation of several bacterial strains from the effluents. Molecular identification indicated that the strains were related to Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli (three strains), Enterobacter cloacae, Kluyvera cryocrescens (three strains), Kluyvera intermedia, Citrobacter freundii (two strains), Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. The first five strains, which were isolated from the non-chlorinated effluent, were used to test resistance to chlorine disinfection using three sets of variables: disinfectant concentration (8, 20 and 30 mg·L−1), contact time (0, 15 and 30 min) and water temperature (20, 25 and 30 °C). The results demonstrated that the strains have independent responses to experimental conditions and that the most efficient treatment was an 8 mg·L−1 dose of disinfectant at a temperature of 20 °C for 30 min. The other eight strains, which were isolated from the chlorinated effluent, were used to analyze inactivation kinetics using the disinfectant at a dose of 15 mg·L−1 with various retention times (0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 min). The results indicated that during the inactivation process, there was no relationship between removal percentage and retention time and that the strains have no common response to the treatments. PMID:23924881

  19. Lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, arginine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, and threonine maintenance requirements of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Sakomura, N K; Ekmay, R D; Mei, S J; Coon, C N

    2015-11-01

    Five hundred and sixty Cobb-Vantress broiler breeders were used to determine the maintenance requirement of dietary Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, and Val in 10 21-d assays using the comparative slaughter technique. Fifty sexually immature broiler breeder pullets per assay were given crystalline amino acid diets containing graded levels of Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, or Val, respectively, representing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40% of their suggested requirement level (NRC, 1994) with all other amino acids maintained at 40% of their suggested requirement level. Sixty hens were slaughtered prior to the beginning of the study to assess initial body composition at 3 weight groups. Linear regression lines (protein accretion vs. amino acid intake) were determined and the maintenance requirements were calculated based on zero protein accretion. The maintenance requirements expressed on a metabolic weight basis were determined to be 174, 94, 52, 81, 60, 126, 133, and 155 mg/kg(0.75)/d for Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, and Val, respectively. Additionally, the maintenance requirements, expressed on metabolic protein weight basis, were determined to be 651, 329, 172, 295, 223, 523, 478, and 546 mg/kgCP/d for Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, and Val, respectively. The requirement for His could not be established as the results obtained were outside of assay range.

  20. Mapping of accumulated nitrogen in the sediment pore water of a eutrophic lake in Iowa, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iqbal, M.Z.; Fields, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    A large pool of nitrogen in the sediment pore fluid of a eutrophic lake in Iowa, USA, was mapped in this study. Previously, the lake had supported fishing and boating, but today it no longer supports its designated uses as a recreational water body. In the top 5 cm of the lake bottom, the pore water nitrogen ranges between 3.1 and 1,250 ??g/cm3 of sediments, with an average of 160.3 ??g/cm3. Vertically, nitrate concentrations were measured as 153 ??g/cm3 at 0-10 cm, 162 ??g/cm3 at 10-20 cm, and 32 ??g/cm3 at 20-30 cm. Nitrate mass distribution was quantified as 3.67 ?? 103 kg (65%) in the bottom sediments, 172 kg (3%) in suspended particulates, and 1.83 ?? 103 kg (32%) in the dissolved phase. Soil runoff nutrients arrive at the lake from the heavily fertilized lands in the watershed. Upon sedimentation, a large mass of nitrogen desorbs from mineral particles to the relatively immobile pore fluid. Under favorable conditions, this nitrogen diffuses back into the water column, thereby dramatically limiting the lake's capability to process incoming nutrients from farmlands. Consequently, a condition of oxygen deficiency disrupts the post-season biological activities in the lake. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Study of smart antibacterial PCL-xFe3 O4 thin films using mouse NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pai B, Ganesh; Kulkarni, Ajay V; Jain, Shilpee

    2016-01-13

    Surface energy plays a major role in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell interactions with biomedical devices. In the present study, poly(ε-caprolactone)-xFe3 O4 nanoparticles (PCL-xFO NPs; x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 wt% FO concentration in PCL) composite thin films were developed for skin tissue regeneration. The surface properties in terms of roughness, surface energy, wettability of the thin films were altered with the incorporation of Fe3 O4 NPs. These thin films show antimicrobial properties and cyto-compatibility with NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The porosity and thickness of the films were controlled by varying RPM of the spin coater. Interestingly, at 1000 RPM the roughness of the film decreased with increasing concentrations of FO NPs in PCL, whereas the surface energy increased with increasing FO NPs concentrations. Furthermore, the spreading of NIH-3T3 cells grown on PCL-xFO thin films was less as compared to control (TCPS), however cells overcame this effect after 48 h of seeding and cells spread similarly to those grown on TCPS after 48 h. Also, the incorporation of FO NPs in thin films induced inner membrane permeabilization in E. coli bacteria leading to bacterial cell death. The viability of E. coli bacteria decreased with increasing concentration of FO NPs in PCL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  2. Changes to soil bacterial profiles as a result of Sus scrofa domesticus decomposition.

    PubMed

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Komang Ralebitso-Senior, T

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cadaver decomposition knowledge for clandestine grave location cannot be over emphasised. Notwithstanding this, only a limited understanding is available on the resulting soil microbial community dynamics. To address this paucity, a pig leg (Sus scrofa domesticus; 5kg) was buried in freshly weighed (20kg) sandy loamy soil in a sealed microcosm (40cm height) in parallel with a soil only control. Both microcosms were perforated nine times at equal distances and maintained outside. Soil samples were collected through these perforations from the top (0-10cm), middle (10-20cm) and bottom (20-30cm) segments every three days for the first two weeks, and then weekly up to 14 weeks. PCR-DGGE gels quantified by 1D Phoretix showed increases in the cumulative soil community richness values of 43, 66 and 106 for the top, middle and bottom segments, respectively, in the presence of Sus scrofa domesticus. Shannon-Wiener's (H') and Simpon's (D) indices confirmed corresponding species diversity increases in the middle (H'=1.58-2.33; D=0.79-0.91) and bottom (H'=2.48-3.16; D=0.85-0.95) depths between days 10 and 71 compared with the control. In contrast, similar evenness was recorded for all segments in both the Sus scrofa domesticus and control soils.

  3. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of gold-plated sandpaper.

    PubMed

    Stuhlinger, T W; Dereniak, E L; Bartell, F O

    1981-08-01

    Gold-plated sandpaper was investigated for use as a Lambertian standard reference reflector for the IR spectrum. Various grit sizes from 3 to 400 microm and material types (i.e., silicon carbide and aluminum oxide) were studied. The different gold-plated sandpaper grit sizes were measured in the same way using three laser wavelengths (0.6328, 3.39, and 10.6 microm) at five angles of incidence of the source (0, 10, 20, 30, and 60 degrees ). All the scattering measurements were performed in the plane of incidence. The best choices of sandpaper grit sizes were 9-microm A1(2)O(3) for 0.6328- and 3.39-microm radiation and 600 grit by Armak Co. for 10.6-microm radiation. These choices were compared with other commonly used reflectors such as magnesium oxide, halon, sintered bronze, and flowers of sulfur. An attempt was made to correlate surface roughness (size of grit) to the degree of approximation to a good Lambertian reflector, but it was found that grit size is not as important as the filling factor, or density of particles, over a given area. It was found that fairly good approximations to Lambertian behavior result when the angle of incidence is small but not when the angle of incidence is as large as 60 degrees .

  4. The suitability of teff flour in bread, layer cakes, cookies and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jennifer; Abaye, A O; Barbeau, William; Thomason, Wade

    2013-11-01

    A niche market in alternative foods has emerged in response to interest in a health conscientious diet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the baking characteristics of teff to determine whether teff could produce satisfactory baked products. Cakes, cookies, biscuits and bread were made in triplicate from composites of wheat flour with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 100% teff flour. Objective tests on size, shape, color and texture were used to evaluate the quality of the baked products. Increases in percent teff resulted in decreases in bread and cake volume (p > 0.05). The fracture strength of the cookies were not significantly different (p > 0.05) but spread was significantly greater for cookies made with 40% and 100% teff flour (p ≤ 0.05). There was also significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in biscuit height and color among teff treatments. Overall, this study showed that teff flour is best suited for use in cookies and biscuits.

  5. Mechanical properties and structural features of novel Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with unprecedented plasticity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiming; Liu, Haishun; Zhao, Yucheng; Inoue, Akihisa; Jiang, Kemin; Huo, Juntao; Ling, Haibo; Li, Qiang; Shen, Baolong

    2014-08-29

    Fe-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have attracted great attention due to their unique magnetic and mechanical properties, but few applications have been materialized because of their brittleness at room temperature. Here we report a new Fe(50)Ni(30)P(13)C(7) BMG which exhibits unprecedented compressive plasticity (>20%) at room temperature without final fracture. The mechanism of unprecedented plasticity for this new Fe-based BMG was also investigated. It was discovered that the ductile Fe(50)Ni(30)P(13)C(7) BMG is composed of unique clusters mainly linked by less directional metal-metal bonds which are inclined to accommodate shear strain and absorbed energy in the front of crack tip. This conclusion was further verified by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy experiments of Fe(80-x)Ni(x)P(13)C(7) (x = 0, 10, 20, 30) and Fe(72-x)Ni(x)B(20)Si(4)Nb(4) (x = 0, 7.2, 14.4, 21.6, 28.8) glassy systems. The results also indicate a strong correlation between the p-d hybridization and plasticity, verifying that the transition from brittle to ductile induced by Ni addition is due to the change of bonding characteristics in atomic configurations. Thus, we can design the plasticity of Fe-based BMGs and open up a new possible pathway for manufacturing BMGs with high strength and plasticity.

  6. [Microbial community abundance and diversity in typical karst ecosystem to indicate soil carbon cycle].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhen-Jiang; Tang, Hua-Feng; Li, Min; Huang, Bing-Fu; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Li, Gui-Wen

    2014-11-01

    The soil microbial characteristics were detected to clarify their indications in organic carbon cycle in karst system. Soil samples from three karst types (saddle, depression and slop) at 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm layers were collected in the Yaji Karst Experimental Site, a typical karst ecosystem. The microbial diversity and abundance were assayed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and fluorescence quantitative PCR. The data showed that the highest abundance of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA were in depression with 1.32 x 10(11) copies x g(-1) and in saddle with 1.12 x 10(10) copies x g(-1), respectively. The abundance of 16S rRNA in saddle and depression decreased from top to bottom, while that of 18S rRNA in three karst forms decreased, which showed that the abundance changed consistently with soil organic carbon (SOC). The 3 diversity indices of 16S rRNA and 6 diversity indices of 18S rRNA increased from top to bottom in soil profiles of three karst forms. These results showed that microbial diversity changed conversely with the abundance and SOC in soil profile. It can be concluded that the abundance was more important than the diversity index for soil carbon cycle in karst system.

  7. Effects of repeated soil irrigation with liquid biological paper sludge on poplar Populus alba saplings: potential risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Sylvain; Bourioug, Mohamed; Alaoui-Sossé, Laurence; Bourgeade, Pascale; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-11-01

    The authors explored the risks and benefits of repeated irrigation of Populus alba saplings with aqueous paper sludge (APS). Saplings were cultivated in pots of forest soil (3 L) in a greenhouse for 7 weeks and watered twice a week with differing concentrations of APS (0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 75, and 100 % v/v with deionized water). Plant growth and ecophysiological variables along with zinc and aluminum transfer were monitored. A stimulation of plant growth was observed with sludge treatments of 30 or 50 %, significantly correlated to APS input (r = 0.81). This may be explained by the easily available nitrogen as is shown with the positive correlation of CO2 assimilation and leaf nitrogen (r = 0.70). However, a significant reduction in plant growth was observed when treatments of 75 and 100 % of APS were administered, despite a high nutritional level (nitrogen and phosphorus). The study suggests that APS concentrations from 30 to 50 % may positively affect the growth of poplar saplings; however, the higher concentrations indicated a risk for plant growth and the environment.

  8. Orange Pomace Improves Postprandial Glycemic Responses: An Acute, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial in Overweight Men.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Rasmussen, Helen; Kamil, Alison; Du, Peng; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2017-02-13

    Orange pomace (OP), a fiber-rich byproduct of juice production, has the potential for being formulated into a variety of food products. We hypothesized that OP would diminish postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and lunch. We conducted an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial with 34 overweight men who consumed either a 255 g placebo (PLA), a low (35% OP (LOP)), or a high (77% (HOP)) dose OP beverage with breakfast. Blood was collected at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 45 min and at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, and 8 h. Lunch was consumed after the 5.5-h blood draw. OP delayed the time (Tmax1) to the maximum concentration (Cmax1) of serum glucose during the 2-h period post breakfast by ≥36% from 33 (PLA) to 45 (HOP) and 47 (LOP) min (p = 0.055 and 0.013, respectively). OP decreased post-breakfast insulin Cmax1 by ≥10% and LOP delayed the Tmax1 by 14 min, compared to PLA at 46 min (p ≤ 0.05). HOP reduced the first 2-h insulin area under concentration time curve (AUC) by 23% compared to PLA. Thus, OP diminishes postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and the second meal in overweight men.

  9. Effect of tellurium addition on the physical properties of germanium selenide glassy semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Katyal, S. C.

    2008-10-01

    Effect of tellurium (Te) addition on the physical properties, density ( ρ), molar volume ( Vm), compactness ( δ), cohesive energy (CE), coordination number ( m), lone pair electrons ( L) and glass transition temperature ( Tg) of Ge 10Se 90-xTe x ( x=0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50) bulk glassy alloy has been investigated. The density of the glassy alloys has been found to increase with the increasing Te content. The molar volume and compactness of the structure of the glass, determined from measured density of the glass, have been found to increase with the increase of Te content. The CE of the investigated samples has been calculated using the chemical bond approach (CBA) and is correlated with decrease in optical band gap with the increase of Te content. The glass transition temperature has been estimated using Tichy-Ticha approach and found to increase with the increase of Te content. This has been observed that the estimated glass transition temperature using Tichy-Ticha approach is not consistent with experimental results.

  10. [Spatial pattern of soil moisture at the cropland-grassland boundary in agro-pastoral transitional zone of North China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Kun; Mi, Jia; Xie, Ying-Zhong

    2010-03-01

    By the methods of classic statistics and geostatistics, this paper analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture at 0-50 cm depth in different sampling grain sizes (1 m x 1 m and 2 m x 2 m) at the cropland-grassland boundary in agro-pastoral transitional zone of North China. In study area, the soil moisture at 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm, and 40-50 cm depths of cropland, grassland, and cropland-grassland boundary presented moderate variance, and the coefficient of variation (CV) of grassland was higher than that of cropland. The CV increased with soil depth, and a significant linear regression relation (P < 0.05) was observed between them in sampling grain size 1 m x 1 m. In sampling grain size 1 m x 1 m, the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture at different depths was obviously higher at cropland-grassland boundary than in cropland and grassland, which had a moderate to strong spatial dependency, and the range (A0) was 7.65-30.99 m; whereas in sampling grain size 2 m x 2 m, the spatial distribution of soil moisture at cropland-grassland boundary had both the moderate to strong spatial dependency and the pure nugget effect, and the A0 was 4.16-18.86 m, suggesting that there existed ecological edge effect of soil moisture at cropland-grassland boundary.

  11. Phytotoxic effects of nickel on yield and concentration of macro- and micro-nutrients in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hussain, Mumtaz

    2011-01-30

    The phytotoxic effects of varying levels of nickel (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg L(-1)) on growth, yield and accumulation of macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were appraised in this study. A marked reduction in root and shoot fresh biomass was recorded at higher Ni levels. Nickel stress also caused a substantial decrease in all macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes. The lower level of Ni (10 mg L(-1)) had a non-significant effect on various yield attributes, but higher Ni levels considerably decreased these parameters. Higher Ni levels decreased the concentrations of Ca, Mn and Fe in achenes. In contrast, achene N, K, Zn, Mn and Cu decreased consistently with increasing level of Ni, even at lower level (10 mg L(-1)). Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 had better yield and higher most of the nutrients in achenes as compared with SF-187. The maximum reduction in all parameters was observed at the maximum level of nickel (40 mg L(-1)) where almost all parameters were reduced more than 50% of those of control plants. In conclusion, the pattern of uptake and accumulation of different nutrients in sunflower plants were nutrient- and cultivar-specific under Ni-stress.

  12. Use of microscopy to assess bran removal patterns in milled rice.

    PubMed

    Wood, Delilah F; Siebenmorgen, Terry J; Williams, Tina G; Orts, William J; Glenn, Gregory M

    2012-07-18

    During rice milling, the bran and germ are successively removed from the caryopsis (kernel). Because bran and germ contain large quantities of lipid, the amount of lipid remaining on the kernel surface may be used as a method for the assessment of milling quality. Bulk samples of rice pureline varieties and an experimental hybrid were milled for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that brown rice kernels had large contours of linear protuberances and depressions running lengthwise along the kernel surface. The protuberances were abraded successively during milling, but varying amounts of material remained in the depressions. Light microscopy combined with the lipid-specific probes Nile Blue A or Sudan Black B demonstrated that the material in the depressions observed with SEM was lipid. Sections of whole, milled rice kernels, prepared using a modified sectioning technique and stained with Nile Blue A, showed that portions of the embryo remain after milling and that lipid is located on or near the surface of the kernel. Differences in quantity and distribution of residual lipid as milling duration increased were documented photographically to indicate the extent to which the bran and embryo components were removed during milling. This paper provides proof of concept that residual lipid is a robust measure of the degree of milling.

  13. Cytotoxic effects of β-carboline alkaloids on human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yuxiang; Patima, Abulimiti; Chen, Yu; Zeng, Fanye; He, Wenting; Luo, Lingjuan; Jie, Yanghua; Zhu, Yanhua; Zhang, Liping; Lei, Jun; Xie, Xinmei; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effects of β-carboline alkaloids on human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Human gastric cancer SGC-790s1 cells were treated with β-carboline alkaloids at the concentration of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 μg/ml for 48 hr. Cell viability was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis. The expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay and western blot analysis. β-carboline alkaloids inhibited the growth of SGC-7901 cells concentration dependently. β-carboline alkaloids treated SGC-7901 cells displayed apoptotic nuclei as detected using Hoechst 33258 staining. β-carboline alkaloids also induced DNA ladder, indicative of apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells concentration-dependently. Furthermore, β-carboline alkaloids increased PTEN and decreased ERK mRNA expression in SGC-7901 cells in a concentration dependent manner. They also increased PTEN and decreased ERK protein expression. β-carboline alkaloids inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells. The cytotoxic effects of β-carboline alkaloids might correlate with increased PTEN expression and decreased ERK expression in SGC-7901 cells. PMID:26550217

  14. Microcystin-LR induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Li, Jinhui; Huang, Hui; Yang, Mingfeng; Zhuang, Donggang; Cheng, Xuemin; Zhang, Huizhen; Fu, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and to explore the mechanism of MC-LR-induced apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. HBE cells were treated with MC-LR (1, 10, 20, 30 and 40 µg/ml) alone or with MC-LR (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 µg/ml) and Z-VAD-FMK (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 µM), which is a caspase inhibitor, for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability was assessed via an MTT assay and the half maximal effective concentration of MC-LR was determined. The optimal concentration of Z-VAD-FMK was established as 50 µm, which was then used in the subsequent experiments. MC-LR significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis of HBE cells in a dose-dependent manner, as detected by an Annexin V/propidium iodide assay. MC-LR induced cell apoptosis, excess reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, upregulated Bax expression and downregulated B-cell lymphoma-2 expression in HBE cells. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that MC-LR increased the activity levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and induced cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, suggesting that MC-LR-induced apoptosis is associated with the mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK reduced MC-LR-induced apoptosis by blocking caspase activation in HBE cells. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that MC-LR is capable of significantly inhibiting the viability of HBE cells by inducing apoptosis in a mitochondria-dependent manner. The present study provides a foundation for further understanding the mechanism underlying the toxicity of MC-LR in the respiratory system. PMID:27446254

  15. Evaluation of nitric and acetic acid resistance of cement mortars containing high-volume black rice husk ash.

    PubMed

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents the performance of cement mortar containing black rice husk ash (BRHA) under nitric and acetic acid attacks. The BRHA, collected from an electrical generating power plant that uses rice husk as fuel, was ground using a grinding machine. The compressive strength loss, weight loss, and expansion of mortars under nitric and acetic acid attack were investigated. The test results of BRHA properties in accordance with the ASTM C 618 standard found that the optimal grinding time was 4 h as this achieved a Blaine fineness of 5370 cm(2)/g. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55, 0.60, and 0.65. From test results, when the percentage replacements of BRHA in cement increased, it was observed that the strength loss and weight loss of mortars containing BRHA under acetic acid attack were higher than those of the mortars against nitric acid attack. It was found that, of the various BHRA mortars, the strength loss and weight loss due to nitric and acetic acid attacks were the lowest in the mortar with 10% BRHA replacement. For 10%, 20% and 30% BRHA replacements, the rate of expansion of the BRHA mortar decreased when compared with the control mortar. For the mortars with other percentage replacements of BRHA, the rate of expansion increased. Furthermore, the effective water-to-binder ratios of control and BRHA mortars were the primary factor for determining the durability of mortar mixed with BRHA.

  16. Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth, immunology, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of the inclusion of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (WDDGS) at levels of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 40% without (diets 2-5) and with (diets 6-9) lysine supplementation, as substitutes of soybean meal and corn meal mixture on growth, body composition, he...

  17. Mild Hypoxia and Visual Performance with Night Vision Goggles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    21 5. Single - session data gathering .......................... 26 6. Performance without supplemental oxygen ................... 30 7...30 40 50 60 7 oz 0 CNNe M CD , 0 C 10 20 30 40 60 70 MINUTES Figure 5. Single - session data gathering. 27 Depletion of premixed gas required on-site

  18. Passive 19.3 GHz Radiometer and Aerosol Data from the North Sea during MARSEN I, September-October 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-13

    MODIFIED CONTINENTAL 3.0- [ 0.17 2! y > 0.06, CONTINENTAL, POLLUTED CONTINENTAL 3. ro 2.0- 1.0 20 30 40 SO 60 70 so 90 100 R. H. (% Fig. 15 - Plot...Chemistry of Sea/Air Particulate Exchange Processes; Summary and Recommendations, Journal de Recherches Atmospheriques , 8, pp 509-513. (3) Blanchard

  19. Interactive Cholesterol Advisory Tool

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-05

    Low Risk (0-10% Chance) of Developing Cardiovascular Disease Within 10 Years Based on Risk Factors; Moderate Risk (10-20% Chance) of Developing Cardiovascular (Heart) Disease Within 10 Years Based on Risk Factors

  20. Ammonia, Total Reduced Sulfides, and Greenhouse Gases of Pine Chip and Corn Stover Bedding Packs.

    PubMed

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E

    2016-03-01

    Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. Our objective in this study was to compare headspace concentrations of ammonia (NH), total reduced sulfides (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH), and nitrous oxide (NO) when pine wood chips ( spp.) and corn stover ( L.) were mixed in various ratios (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, and 100% pine chips) and used as bedding with manure. Air samples were collected from the headspace of laboratory-scaled bedded manure packs weekly for 42 d. Ammonia concentrations were highest for bedded packs containing 0, 10, and 20% pine chips (equivalent to 501.7, 502.3, and 502.3 mg m, respectively) in the bedding mixture and were lowest when at least 80% pine chips were used as bedding (447.3 and 431.0 mg m, respectively for 80 and 100% pine chip bedding). The highest NH concentrations were observed at Day 28. The highest concentration of TRS was observed when 100% pine chips were used as bedding (11.4 µg m), with high concentrations occurring between Days 7 and 14, and again at Day 35. Greenhouse gases were largely unaffected by bedding material but CH and CO concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged and NO concentrations were highly variable throughout the incubation. We conclude that a mixture of bedding material that contains 30 to 40% pine chips may be the ideal combination to reduce both NH and TRS emissions. All gas concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged, suggesting that frequent cleaning of facilities would improve air quality in the barn, regardless of bedding materials used.

  1. Uncertainty analysis for seismic hazard in Northern and Central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombardi, A.M.; Akinci, A.; Malagnini, L.; Mueller, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examine uncertainty and parametric sensitivity of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and 1-Hz Spectral Acceleration (1-Hz SA) in probabilistic seismic hazard maps (10% probability of exceedance in 50 years) of Northern and Central Italy. The uncertainty in hazard is estimated using a Monte Carlo approach to randomly sample a logic tree that has three input-variables branch points representing alternative values for b-value, maximum magnitude (Mmax) and attenuation relationships. Uncertainty is expressed in terms of 95% confidence band and Coefficient Of Variation (COV). The overall variability of ground motions and their sensitivity to each parameter of the logic tree are investigated. The largest values of the overall 95% confidence band are around 0.15 g for PGA in the Friuli and Northern Apennines regions and around 0.35 g for 1-Hz SA in the Central Apennines. The sensitivity analysis shows that the largest contributor to seismic hazard variability is uncertainty in the choice of ground-motion attenuation relationships, especially in the Friuli Region (???0.10 g) for PGA and in the Friuli and Central Apennines regions (???0.15 g) for 1-Hz SA. This is followed by the variability of the b-value: its main contribution is evident in the Friuli and Central Apennines regions for both 1-Hz SA (???0.15 g) and PGA (???0.10 g). We observe that the contribution of Mmax to seismic hazard variability is negligible, at least for 10% exceedance in 50-years hazard. The overall COV map for PGA shows that the uncertainty in the hazard is larger in the Friuli and Northern Apennine regions, around 20-30%, than the Central Apennines and Northwestern Italy, around 10-20%. The overall uncertainty is larger for the 1-Hz SA map and reaches 50-60% in the Central Apennines and Western Alps.

  2. Spatial variability and stocks of soil organic carbon in the Gobi desert of Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pingping; Shao, Ming'an

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays an important role in improving soil properties and the C global cycle. Limited attention, though, has been given to assessing the spatial patterns and stocks of SOC in desert ecosystems. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the spatial variability of SOC and its influencing factors and estimated SOC storage in a region (40 km2) of the Gobi desert. SOC exhibited a log-normal depth distribution with means of 1.6, 1.5, 1.4, and 1.4 g kg(-1) for the 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm layers, respectively, and was moderately variable according to the coefficients of variation (37-42%). Variability of SOC increased as the sampling area expanded and could be well parameterized as a power function of the sampling area. Significant correlations were detected between SOC and soil physical properties, i.e. stone, sand, silt, and clay contents and soil bulk density. The relatively coarse fractions, i.e. sand, silt, and stone contents, had the largest effects on SOC variability. Experimental semivariograms of SOC were best fitted by exponential models. Nugget-to-sill ratios indicated a strong spatial dependence for SOC concentrations at all depths in the study area. The surface layer (0-10 cm) had the largest spatial dependency compared with the other layers. The mapping revealed a decreasing trend of SOC concentrations from south to north across this region of the Gobi desert, with higher levels close to an oasis and lower levels surrounded by mountains and near the desert. SOC density to depths of 20 and 40 cm for this 40 km2 area was estimated at 0.42 and 0.68 kg C m(-2), respectively. This study provides an important contribution to understanding the role of the Gobi desert in the global carbon cycle.

  3. Fixation of Soft-inner Part of Oil Palm Trunk by Close System Compression Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartono, R.; Dwianto, W.; Wahyudi, I.; Febrianto, F.; Morooka, T.

    2017-03-01

    Compression by closes system compression (CSC) improved quality of the soft-inner part of oil palm trunk (S-OPT). The problem of compressed-wood was spring back or recovery of set, if it was exposed to moisture content. The objective of these study were to evaluate the recovery of set (RS) and weight loss (WL) of S-OPT by CSC. These methods were compared with heat treatment (HT) and steam treatment (ST). Density of S-OPT was 0.3 g/cm3. All samples were compressed to compression ratio of 50%. The compression of HT method used the temperatur of 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 °C for 0, 10, 30, 60 and 180 minutes; and ST method used temperature of 120, 140, 160, 170 and 180 °C for 0, 5, 10 and 30 minute; while CSC method used temperature of 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 °C for 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. The results showed that the temperature and compression time contributed to the RS and WL value for all methods. Increasing compression temperature and time leads to decreased the RS value and to increased the WL value. The lower RS value indicated that S-OPT fixation would be better or high dimensional stability. Fixation of S-OPT by ST method was achieved at temperature of 170 °C for 30 min, CSC at temperature of 180 °C for 30 min, while HT method has not fixated until 200 °C for 180 min.

  4. Solar technical assistance provided to Forest City military communities in Hawaii for incorporation of 20-30 MW of solar energy generation to power family housing for US Navy personnel.

    SciTech Connect

    Dominick, Jeff; Merrigan, Tim; Boudra, Will; Miller, Ryan; Cisneros, Gabriela; Rosenthal, Andrew L.; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2010-06-01

    In May 2007, Forest City Military Communities won a US Department of Energy Solar America Showcase Award. As part of this award, executives and staff from Forest City Military Communities worked side-by-side with a DOE technical assistance team to overcome technical obstacles encountered by this large-scale real estate developer and manager. This paper describes the solar technical assistance that was provided and the key solar experiences acquired by Forest City Military Communities over an 18 month period.

  5. Real-Time Detector of Human Fatigue: Detecting Lapses in Alertness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-15

    188 188 20-30 223 222 30-40 210 210 40- 50 150 144 50 -60 75 31 SUM 1045 991 Session 11.17 00-10 205 202 10-20 224 233 20-30 229 232 30-40 226 219 40- 50 ...MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) USAF, AFRL/NL AF Office of Scientific Research 875 Randolph Street, Rm. 3112 11 ...larger number of stimuli and provide a larger number of responses.) We provisionally accepted the 50 longest RT events to index attentional lapses. We

  6. FINAL REPORT REGULATORY OFF GAS EMISSIONS TESTING ON THE DM1200 MELTER SYSTEM USING HLW AND LAW SIMULANTS VSL-05R5830-1 REV 0 10/31/05

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The operational requirements for the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) melter systems, together with the feed constituents, impose a number of challenges to the off-gas treatment system. The system must be robust from the standpoints of operational reliability and minimization of maintenance. The system must effectively control and remove a wide range of solid particulate matter, acid mists and gases, and organic constituents (including those arising from products of incomplete combustion of sugar and organics in the feed) to concentration levels below those imposed by regulatory requirements. The baseline design for the RPP-WTP LAW primary off-gas system includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS), a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed (AC-S), a thermal catalytic oxidizer (TCO), a single-stage selective catalytic reduction NOx treatment system (SCR), and a packed-bed caustic scrubber (PBS). The baseline design for the RPP-WTP HLW primary off-gas system includes an SBS, a WESP, a high efficiency mist eliminator (HEME), and a HEPA filter. The HLW secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed, a silver mordenite bed, a TCO, and a single-stage SCR. The one-third scale HLW DM1200 Pilot Melter installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was equipped with a prototypical off-gas train to meet the needs for testing and confirmation of the performance of the baseline off-gas system design. Various modifications have been made to the DM1200 system as the details of the WTP design have evolved, including the installation of a silver mordenite column and an AC-S column for testing on a slipstream of the off-gas flow; the installation of a full-flow AC-S bed for the present tests was completed prior to initiation of testing. The DM1200 system was reconfigured to enable testing of the baseline HLW or LAW off-gas trains to perform off-gas emissions testing with both LAW and HLW simulants in the present work. During 2002 and 2003, many of these off-gas components were tested individually and in an integrated manner with the DM1200 Pilot Melter. Data from these tests are being used to support engineering design confirmation and to provide data to support air permitting activities. In fiscal year 2004, the WTP Project was directed by the Office of River Protection (ORP) to comply with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements for organics. This requires that the combined melter and off-gas system have destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of >99.99% for principal organic dangerous constituents (PODCs). In order to provide confidence that the melter and off-gas system are able to achieve the required DRE, testing has been directed with both LAW and HLW feeds. The tests included both 'normal' and 'challenge' WTP melter conditions in order to obtain data for the potential range of operating conditions for the WTP melters and off-gas components. The WTP Project, Washington State Department of Ecology, and ORP have agreed that naphthalene will be used for testing to represent semi-volatile organics and allyl alcohol will be used to represent volatile organics. Testing was also performed to determine emissions of halides, metals, products of incomplete combustion (PICs), dioxins, furans, coplanar PCBs, total hydrocarbons, and COX and NOX, as well as the particle size distribution (PSD) of particulate matter discharged at the end of the off-gas train. A description of the melter test requirements and analytical methods used is provided in the Test Plan for this work. Test Exceptions were subsequently issued which changed the TCO catalyst, added total organic emissions (TOE) to exhaust sampling schedule, and allowing modification of the test conditions in response to attainable plenum temperatures as well as temperature increases in the sulfur impregnated activated carbon (AC-S) column. Data are provided in this final report for all the required emission samples as well as melter and off-gas conditions during all the sampling periods. Appended to this report are previously issued VSL Letter Reports on method development for monitoring allyl alcohol in melter exhaust streams, on the results of characterization of the selected AC-S carbon media (Donnau BAT37), and on DM1200 off-line tests on the AC-S bed; also appended are reports from Air Tech on emissions sampling, and reports from Keika Ventures on validation of analytical data provided by Severn Trent Laboratories of Knoxville, Tennessee.

  7. An Intercomparison of Water Vapor Measurements in the TTL and Lower Tropical Stratosphere during CRAVE and TC4: The Importance and Implications of Laboratory Calibrations With water Vapor Mixing Ratios From 0-10 ppmv.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Hanisco, T. F.; Sayres, D. S.; St. Clair, J. M.; O'Brien, A.; Anderson, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the effort to validate instruments on the Aura satellite, the Costa Rica Aura Validation Experiment (CRAVE) was flown in January and February of 2006. Systematic differences in measured water vapor in the tropopause region and lower stratosphere between in situ instruments on the WB57, the NOAA Colorado frostpoint hygrometer (CFH) and satellite borne instruments such as the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) are well-documented. Results from CRAVE, presented during a water vapor workshop organized as part of the CRAVE science meeting, provided further confirmation of these differences. The availability for the first time of multiple robust intercomparisons between these instruments led to the conclusion that at low water mixing ratios (less than 10 ppmv), the differences appear to be well-represented by an offset of about 2 ppmv with in situ instruments on the WB57 measuring higher than MLS and CFH. This enduring discrepancy precludes a satisfactory validation of satellite retrievals of stratospheric water vapor profiles. In this talk we will summarize the recent low water calibration runs in our laboratory that provide direct evidence that the Harvard Lyman alpha instrument measures accurately at low water. We will then compare data taken during the recent TC4 campaign in August 2007 with that from CRAVE and previous campaigns. The implications of the results on our understanding of the mechanisms that control the stratospheric water vapor budget will be discussed.

  8. High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics of a 0.10-Scale Model of the Grumman XF9F-2 Airplane, TED No. NACA DE301

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, Edward C.; King, Thomas J., Jr.

    1948-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley high-speed 7-by 10-foot tunnel to determine the high-speed longitudinal stability end con&o1 characteristics of a 0.01-scale model of the Grumman XF9F-2 airplane in the Mach number range from 0.40 to 0.85. The results indicated that the lift and drag force breaks occurred at a Mach number of about 0.76. The aerodynamic-center position moved rearward after the force break and control position stability was present for all Mach numbers up to a Mach number of 0.80.

  9. Theoretical Study of Si(x) Ge(y)Li(z) (x=4-10, y=1-10, z=0-10) Clusters for Designing of Novel Nanostructured Materials to be Utilized as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-16

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0088 Theoretical Study of Novel Nanostructured Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Mario Sanchez-Vazquez CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION...SiGeLi Clusters for Design of Novel Nanostructured Materials to Be Utilized as Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER...incorporating germanium atoms to silicon clusters improves and prevents fragmentation. 15.  SUBJECT TERMS lithium batteries 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  10. Theoretical Study of Si(x)Ge(y)Li(z)- (x=4-10, y=1-10, z=0-10) Clusters for Designing of Novel Nanostructured Materials to be Utilized as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-16

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0088 Theoretical Study of Novel Nanostructured Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Mario Sanchez-Vazquez CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION...of Novel Nanostructured Materials to Be Utilized as Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0175 5c...improves and prevents fragmentation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS lithium batteries 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES

  11. Electrochemical performance of LiFe(1-x)MnxPO4 (x = 0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.2) synthesized by solid state process as cathode material for Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triwibowo, J.; Priyono, S.; Purawiardi, R. I.; Ratri, C. R.; Suwandi, E.

    2016-02-01

    Mn-doped LiFePO4 was synthesized through solid state process. Starting materials as LiOH.2H2O, Fe2O3, MnO2, H3PO4 and citric acid were technical grade materials. Synthesis process was conducted in two step heating process. The first heating process was purposed to remove organic materials at temperature of 320 °C for 10 hours in inert atmosphere. Subsequently, the second heating process was conducted at 800 °C for 8 hours also in inert atmosphere. Obtained phase was further observed by means of XRD. Morphology of the obtained powder was analyzed by SEM. The electrochemical performance was observed by cyclic voltammetry with the potential range 2 - 4.2 V under the scan rate mV/s. The rate capability of the obtained material was determined by charge-discharge test under various C-rates (0.5-10C) for potential range of 2 - 4.2 V.

  12. Inlet Performance Characteristics from Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 0.10-Scale Air-Induction System Model of the YF-108A Airplane at Mach Numbers of 2.50, 2.76, and 3.00

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackaby, James R.; Lyman, E. Gene; Altermann, John A., III

    1959-01-01

    Inlet-performance and external-drag-coefficient characteristics are presented without analysis. Effects are shown of variations of fuselage boundary-layer diverter profile, bleed-surface porosity, bleed-exit area, and inlet ramp, and lip angle.

  13. Aeroheating (pressure) characteristics on a 0.10-scale version of the vehicle 3 space shuttle configuration (26-OTS) in the Langley Research Center 4-foot wind tunnel (IH4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsland, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    Results of wind tunnel tests, conducted at the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, are presented. The model tested was an 0.010-scale version of the Vehicle 3 Space Shuttle Configuration. Pressure measurements were made on the launch configuration, Orbiter alone, external tank alone, and solid rocket booster alone, to provide heat transfer pressure data. The tests were conducted for a Mach number range from 2.36 to 4.6 and Reynolds number range from 1.2 to 5 million per foot. The model was tested at angles of attack from -10 to 20 deg for a sideslip angle range from -5 to +5 deg, and at sideslip angles from -5 to 48 deg for 0 deg angle of attack. Tabulated data are given and photographs of the test configuration are shown.

  14. Dielectric relaxation related to single-ionized oxygen vacancies in (Pb{sub 1-x}La{sub x})(Zr{sub 0.90}Ti{sub 0.10}){sub 1-x/4}O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaiz-Barranco, A.; Guerra, J.D.S.

    2010-09-15

    The dielectric relaxation phenomenon has been studied in lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the high temperature paraelectric phase. The high temperature dielectric response revealed an anomalous behavior, which is characterized by an increase of the real component of the dielectric permittivity with the increase of the temperature. At the same time, a similar behavior, with very high values, has been observed in the imaginary component of the dielectric permittivity, which can be associated with conduction effects related to the conductivity losses. The frequency and temperature behavior of the complex dielectric permittivity has been analyzed considering the semi-empirical complex Cole-Cole equation. The activation energy value, obtained from the Arrhenius' dependence for the relaxation time, was found to decreases with the increase of the lanthanum concentration and has been associated with single-ionized oxygen vacancies. The short-range hopping of oxygen vacancies is discussed as the main cause of the dielectric relaxation.

  15. Dietary copper requirement of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and effects on non-specific immune responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Hsien; Shiau, Shi-Yen

    2002-10-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary copper (Cu) requirement and its effect on the non-specific immune responses of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with seven levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 160 mg Cu kg diet(-1) of supplemental Cu were fed to P. monodon (mean initial weight 0.29 +/- 0.004 g). Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. The rearing water contained 1.53 microg Cu 1(-1). Shrimp fed diets supplemented with 10 and 20 mg Cu kg diet(-1) had significantly (P < 0.01) greater weight gain, feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) than those fed the unsupplemented control diet and diets supplemented with > or = 40 mg Cu kg diet(-1). Whole body Cu concentration in shrimp generally increased as dietary Cu supplementation increased. Total haemocyte count (THC) was higher in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 10-30 mg Cu kg diet(-1) than shrimp fed the unsupplemented control diet and diets supplemented with > or = 40 mg Cu kg diet(-1). Intracellular superoxide anion (O2-) production ratios were significantly higher in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 10-30 mg Cu kg diet(-1) than shrimp fed the diet supplemented with 160 mg Cu kg diet(-1). Analysis by polynomial regression of weight gain percent, FE and by linear regression of the whole-body Cu retention of shrimp indicated that the adequate dietary Cu concentration in growing P. monodon is about 15-21 mg Cu kg diet (-1). The immune indicators suggest that an adequate dietary Cu concentration for non-specific immune responses in P. monodon is about 10-30 mg Cu kg diet(-1).

  16. Sensitivity of Tumor Motion Simulation Accuracy to Lung Biomechanical Modeling Approaches and Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the Neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation. PMID:26531324

  17. Catch trials in force field learning influence adaptation and consolidation of human motor memory.

    PubMed

    Stockinger, Christian; Focke, Anne; Stein, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Force field studies are a common tool to investigate motor adaptation and consolidation. Thereby, subjects usually adapt their reaching movements to force field perturbations induced by a robotic device. In this context, so-called catch trials, in which the disturbing forces are randomly turned off, are commonly used to detect after-effects of motor adaptation. However, catch trials also produce sudden large motor errors that might influence the motor adaptation and the consolidation process. Yet, the detailed influence of catch trials is far from clear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of catch trials on motor adaptation and consolidation in force field experiments. Therefore, 105 subjects adapted their reaching movements to robot-generated force fields. The test groups adapted their reaching movements to a force field A followed by learning a second interfering force field B before retest of A (ABA). The control groups were not exposed to force field B (AA). To examine the influence of diverse catch trial ratios, subjects received catch trials during force field adaptation with a probability of either 0, 10, 20, 30, or 40%, depending on the group. First, the results on motor adaptation revealed significant differences between the diverse catch trial ratio groups. With increasing amount of catch trials, the subjects' motor performance decreased and subjects' ability to accurately predict the force field-and therefore internal model formation-was impaired. Second, our results revealed that adapting with catch trials can influence the following consolidation process as indicated by a partial reduction to interference. Here, the optimal catch trial ratio was 30%. However, detection of consolidation seems to be biased by the applied measure of performance.

  18. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-02-12

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  19. Composition dependence of the diffuse scattering in the relaxor ferroelectric compound (1-x)Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} (0{<=}x{<=}0.40)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, M.; Hirota, K.; Gehring, P. M.; Ye, Z.-G.; Chen, W.; Shirane, G.

    2006-10-01

    We have used neutron diffraction to characterize the diffuse scattering in five single crystals of the relaxor ferroelectric (1-x)Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-xPT) with x=0, 10, 20, 30, and 40%. The addition of ferroelectric PbTiO{sub 3} modifies the well-known 'butterfly' and 'ellipsoidal' diffuse scattering patterns observed in pure PMN (x=0), which are believed to be associated with the presence of randomly oriented polar nanoregions. In particular, the anisotropy of the diffuse scattering diminishes as the PT content increases. The spatial correlation length {xi} along the [110] direction derived from the width of the diffuse scattering at room temperature increases from 12.6 A for PMN to 350 A for PMN-20%PT. In addition, the diffuse scattering intensity at q=0 grows and reaches a maximum value around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), which suggests that it is proportional to the dielectric susceptibility. Beyond x=30%, a concentration very close to the MPB, no diffuse scattering is observed below T{sub C}, and well-defined critical behavior appears near T{sub C}. By contrast, the diffuse scattering for x{<=}20% persists down to low temperatures, where the system retains an average cubic structure (T{sub C}=0). Finally, the anisotropic soft transverse optic (TO) modes observed in PMN are found to be isotropic for PMN-30%PT, which strongly suggests a connection between the anisotropic diffuse scattering and the TO modes.

  20. Effects of different sewage sludge applications on heavy metal accumulation, growth and yield of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Eid, Ebrahem M; El-Bebany, Ahmed F; Alrumman, Sulaiman A; Hesham, Abd El-Latif; Taher, Mostafa A; Fawy, Khaled F

    2017-04-03

    In this study, we present the response of spinach to different amendment rates of sewage sludge (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g kg(-1)) in a greenhouse pot experiment, where plant growth, biomass and heavy metal uptake were measured. The results showed that sewage sludge application increased soil electric conductivity (EC), organic matter, chromium and zinc concentrations and decreased soil pH. All heavy metal concentrations of the sewage sludge were below the permissible limits for land application of sewage sludge recommended by the Council of the European Communities. Biomass and all growth parameters (except the shoot/root ratio) of spinach showed a positive response to sewage sludge applications up to 40 g kg(-1) compared to the control soil. Increasing the sewage sludge amendment rate caused an increase in all heavy metal concentrations (except lead) in spinach root and shoot. However, all heavy metal concentrations (except chromium and iron) were in the normal range and did not reach the phytotoxic levels. The spinach was characterized by a bioaccumulation factor <1.0 for all heavy metals. The translocation factor (TF) varied among the heavy metals as well as among the sewage sludge amendment rates. Spinach translocation mechanisms clearly restricted heavy metal transport to the edible parts (shoot) because the TFs for all heavy metals (except zinc) were <1.0. In conclusion, sewage sludge used in the present study can be considered for use as a fertilizer in spinach production systems in Saudi Arabia, and the results can serve as a management method for sewage sludge.

  1. Effects of glutamine, proline, histidine and betaine on post-thaw motility of stallion spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Trimeche, A; Yvon, J M; Vidament, M; Palmer, E; Magistrini, M

    1999-07-01

    The supplementation of the freezing diluent with 3 amino acids (glutamine, proline and histidine) and 1 amino acid-related compound (betaine) in preserving stallion spermatozoa diluted in INRA82 extender containing 2.5% (v/v) glycerol and 2% (v/v) egg yolk (control extender) during freezing and thawing was studied at 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 mM in 20 split ejaculates (10 stallions x 2 ejaculates; Experiment 1). Glutamine and proline were studied at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mM in 20 split ejaculates (10 stallions x 2 ejaculates; Experiment 2). In each experiment, spermatozoa were evaluated after thawing by computer automated sperm analyzer. The percentage of motile spermatozoa (faster than 30 microns/sec) was assessed. In addition, the velocity of the average path (VAP), the straight line velocity (VSL), the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the amplitude of the lateral head displacement (ALH) were also measured. In Experiment 1, only glutamine (40 mM) significantly improved sperm motility (56.0% +/- 3.0 vs 49.7% +/- 1.6; P < 0.05) compared with the control extender, while velocities were unaffected at concentrations of 40 to 120 mM. However, at 160 mM, a significant decrease in motility and velocity was observed for all amino acids. In Experiment 2, motility in glutamine (range 41.1% +/- 3.8%; 42.4% +/- 3.6) and proline (43.0% +/- 3.7; 45.6% +/- 3.8) extenders compared with the control (34.7% +/- 1.6) was improved significantly (P < 0.05). Sperm velocity was improved at concentrations higher than 40 mM glutamine and 50 mM proline.

  2. Investigation of sulfur forms and transformation during the co-combustion of sewage sludge and coal using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Sheng; Hu, Yi; Yu, Wan; Yue, Ya-Nan; Xu, Qiao; Hu, Song; Hu, Nian-Su; Yang, Jun

    2009-08-15

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the characteristics and evolution of sulfur (S) in mixtures of bituminous coal and sewage sludge (SS) and their chars during isothermal combustion. Five groups of mixtures with SS content of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 100%, were examined at different burn-off ratios (beta) of 0, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100%. The S in the coal mainly exist as the forms of mercaptan (S1), sulfide (S2), thiophene (S3), sulfoxide (S4), sulfone (S5) and sulfate (S6). During the coal combustion process, the content of S1 and S2 decreased, while that of S3 and S5 increased in the early stage and decreased in the late stage. The S4 content increased throughout the entire process of combustion. Small amount of S6 was detected, showing a fluctuated pattern. The trend of S1, S2, S5 and S6 in SS was alike with that in coal, whereas S4 decreased at the end of combustion. The changing process of S3 in SS was opposite to that of coal, while the composition of S in the mixtures resulted from the mixing of coal and SS. The transformation of each functional group during co-combustion were correlated with their transformation characteristics during the mono-combustion of coal and SS, and no obvious interaction was observed, which demonstrated that the coal-origin and SS-origin sulfur in mixtures kept their own characteristics in the combustion. SS may accumulate on the solid surface as alpha increase, resulting its significant influence on the evolution of each form of S. When alpha was low, most of the S-contained functional groups presented the characteristics of coal. The percentage of coal-origin functional groups declined as alpha increased. The transforming trends of most functional groups were similar with that of SS when alpha reached 30%.

  3. Effect of different crops on soil organic matter and biological activity in Oxisols under three different crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, Diana Marcela; Arzuaga, Silvia; Dalurzo, Humberto; Zornoza, Raúl; Vazquez, Sara

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate changes in soil organic matter in Oxisols under different crops compared to native rainforest, and to assess if acid phosphatase activity (APA) could be a good indicator for SOC changes and soil quality. The experimental design consisted of four completely randomized blocks with four treatments: subtropical rainforest (F); yerba mate crop (I) (Ilex paraguariensis SH.); citrus crop (C) (Citrus unshiu Marc); and tobacco crop (T) (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Soil samples were taken at 0-10; 10-20 and 20-30 cm depths. The variables measured were soil organic carbon (SOC), APA, clay content, pH, total nitrogen (Nt), available phosphorus (P) and CO2 emissions. All data were analyzed by ANOVA to assess the effects of land-use changes. The treatment means were compared through Duncan's multiple range tests (p<0.05). The relationship between variables was determined with a simple correlation analysis and with a multiple linear regression analysis through the stepwise method. These soils showed an acid reaction and their clay content was over 650 g kg-1 for the three depths. SOC and N contents were higher in native soils, intermediate for the citrus crop, and lower under both tobacco and yerba mate crops. CO2 emissions were higher in the rainforest (47.32 kg ha-1 of CO2) than in cultivated soils, which indicates that biological activity is enhanced in rainforest soils where substrates for soil biota and fauna are more readily available. The variability of 76% in APA was explained by total nitrogen, which is closely related to soil organic matter, and by available P. Conversion of subtropical rainforests into agricultural lands reduced SOC content and acid phosphatase activity, thereby lowering soil quality. In this study, acid phosphatase activity proved to be a sensitive indicator to detect changes from pristine to cropped soils, but it failed to distinguish differences among crop systems.

  4. Maternal residential proximity to nuclear facilities and low birth weight in offspring in Texas.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xi; Benjamin Zhan, F; Lin, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Health effects of close residential proximity to nuclear facilities have been a concern for both the general public and health professionals. Here, a study is reported examining the association between maternal residential proximity to nuclear facilities and low birth weight (LBW) in offspring using data from 1996 through 2008 in Texas, USA. A case-control study design was used together with a proximity-based model for exposure assessment. First, the LBW case/control births were categorized into multiple proximity groups based on distances between their maternal residences and nuclear facilities. Then, a binary logistic regression model was used to examine the association between maternal residential proximity to nuclear facilities and low birth weight in offspring. The odds ratios were adjusted for birth year, public health region of maternal residence, child's sex, gestational weeks, maternal age, education, and race/ethnicity. In addition, sensitivity analyses were conducted for the model. Compared with the reference group (more than 50 km from a nuclear facility), the exposed groups did not show a statistically significant increase in LBW risk [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 1.03) for group 40-50 km; aOR 0.98 (CI 0.84, 1.13) for group 30-40 km; aOR 0.95 (CI 0.79, 1.15) for group 20-30 km; aOR 0.86 (CI 0.70, 1.04) for group 10-20 km; and aOR 0.98 (CI 0.59, 1.61) for group 0-10 km]. These results were also confirmed by results of the sensitivity analyses. The results suggest that maternal residential proximity to nuclear facilities is not a significant factor for LBW in offspring.

  5. Cecotrophy behavior and use of urea as non-protein nitrogen (NPN) source for capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama; Mendes, Alcester; Tavares, Ellis Fernanda Kowalski; da Cunha Nogueira, Selene Siqueira

    2013-11-01

    Fifteen female adult capybaras, with initial average body weight (BW) of 32.7 (± 5.8) kg, were kept in individual pens to evaluate effect of supplementation of concentrate feed and its supply time on cecotrophy behavior frequency. The animals were allocated in a completely randomized design, with five animals per treatment, receiving three diets: grass only, grass and grain corn offered in a single meal, and grass and grain corn offered in two daily meals; all cecotrophy acts were recorded. Later, in a second experiment, five capybaras received five levels of urea in their diet: 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g urea/100 kg BW, replacing soybean meal as true protein source, in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The animals were weighed and their blood was collected every 2 weeks. The frequency of cecotrophy (Ps < 0.05) was higher when the capybaras were fed grass only (0.5 ± 0.07 acts/h) than when they received grass and corn in a single meal (0.3 ± 0.05 acts/h) and grass and corn supplied in separate meals (0.1 ± 0.03 acts/h). With increased urea in their diet, the capybaras showed initial signs of chronic intoxication, together with increments in serum urea (r = 0.87, P < 0.05) and a decreasing trend in daily weight gain (r = -0.38, P = 0.06). Therefore, when including concentrate feeds in capybara diet, these must be mixed with roughage in a single meal to avoid high decrease in the frequency of cecotrophy behavior and increase in dry matter intake. The replacement of soybean meal with urea in capybara diet is not recommended.

  6. Plyometrics' trainability in preadolescent soccer athletes.

    PubMed

    Michailidis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Primpa, Eleni; Michailidis, Charalampos; Avloniti, Alexandra; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Barbero-Álvarez, José C; Tsoukas, Dimitrios; Douroudos, Ioannis I; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Margonis, Konstantinos; Berberidou, Fani; Kambas, Antonios

    2013-01-01

    Plyometric training (PT) is a widely used method to improve muscle ability to generate explosive power. This study aimed to determine whether preadolescent boys exhibit plyometric trainability or not. Forty-five children were randomly assigned to either a control (CG, N = 21, 10.6 ± 0.5 years; participated only in regular soccer practice) or a plyometric training group (PTG, N = 24, 10.6 ± 0.6 years; participated in regular soccer practice plus a plyometric exercise protocol). Both groups trained for 12 weeks during the in-season period. The PT exercises (forward hopping, lateral hopping, shuffles, skipping, ladder drills, skipping, box jumps, low-intensity depth jumps) were performed twice a week. Preadolescence was verified by measuring Tanner stages, bone age, and serum testosterone. Speed (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 m), leg muscle power (static jumping, countermovement jumping, depth jumping [DJ], standing long jump [SLJ], multiple 5-bound hopping [MB5]), leg strength (10 repetition maximum), anaerobic power (Wingate testing), and soccer-specific performance (agility, kicking distance) were measured at baseline, midtraining, and posttraining. The CG caused only a modest (1.2-1.8%) increase in speed posttraining. The PTG induced a marked (p < 0.05) improvement in all speed tests (1.9-3.1% at midtraining and 3-5% at posttraining) and vertical jump tests (10-18.5% at midtraining and 16-23% at posttraining), SLJ (2.6% at midtraining and 4.2% at posttraining), MB5 (14.6% at midtraining and 23% at posttraining), leg strength (15% at midtraining and 28% at posttraining), agility (5% at midtraining and 23% at posttraining), and kicking distance (13.6% at midtraining and 22.5% at posttraining). Anaerobic power remained unaffected in both groups. These data indicate that (a) prepubertal boys exhibit considerable plyometric trainability, and (b) when soccer practice is supplemented with a PT protocol, it leads to greater performance gains.

  7. USING KUIPER BELT BINARIES TO CONSTRAIN NEPTUNE'S MIGRATION HISTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Schlichting, Hilke E.

    2011-04-01

    Approximately 10%-20% of all Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) occupy mean-motion resonances with Neptune. This dynamical configuration likely resulted from resonance capture as Neptune migrated outward during the late stages of planet formation. The details of Neptune's planetesimal-driven migration, including its radial extent and the concurrent eccentricity evolution of the planet, are the subject of considerable debate. Two qualitatively different proposals for resonance capture have been proposed-migration-induced capture driven by smooth outward evolution of Neptune's orbit and chaotic capture driven by damping of the planet's eccentricity near its current semi-major axis. We demonstrate that the distribution of comparable-mass, wide-separation binaries occupying resonant orbits can differentiate between these two scenarios. If migration-induced capture occurred, this fraction records information about the formation locations of different populations of KBOs. Chaotic capture, in contrast, randomizes the orbits of bodies as they are placed in resonance. In particular, if KBO binaries are formed by dynamical capture in a protoplanetary disk with a surface mass density typical of observed extrasolar disks, then migration-induced capture produces the following signatures. The 2:1 resonance should contain a dynamically cold component, with inclinations less than 5{sup 0}-10{sup 0}, having a binary fraction comparable to that among cold classical KBOs. If the 3:2 resonance also hosts a cold component, its binary fraction should be 20%-30% lower than in the cold classical belt. Among cold 2:1 (and if present 3:2) KBOs, objects with eccentricities e < 0.2 should have a binary fraction {approx}20% larger than those with e>0.2. Other binary formation scenarios and disk surface density profiles can generate analogous signatures but produce quantitatively different results. Searches for cold components in the binary fractions of resonant KBOs are currently practical. The

  8. Sensitivity of tumor motion simulation accuracy to lung biomechanical modeling approaches and parameters.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-21

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation.

  9. Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of maternal and fetal arteries during normal feline gestation.

    PubMed

    Blanco, P G; Rodríguez, R; Olguín, S; Rube, A; Tórtora, M; Gobello, C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Doppler parameters of uterine, umbilical, fetal abdominal aorta, fetal renal and fetal internal carotid arteries, as well as fetal heart rate (FHR), during normal feline gestation. Fifteen, 1-4 years of age, weighing 2.5-3.9kg, domestic short-hair pregnant queens, which were born in our institutional cat colony were included in this study. Color and pulsed-wave Doppler evaluations of uterine arteries were performed every 10 days (Day 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60) from mating. Fetal Doppler and M-mode ultrasonography were performed to assess umbilical, fetal abdominal aorta, fetal renal, fetal internal carotid arteries and FHR. Both peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) of uterine artery increased up to parturition (P<0.01), while resistance index (RI) decreased from Day 10 onwards (P<0.01). From Day 40 onwards, RI of umbilical artery diminished, while PSV and EDV augmented (P<0.01). Fetal abdominal aorta (P<0.01), renal (P<0.01) and internal carotid (P<0.01) arteries diminished their RI from Days 40, 60 and 40 onwards, respectively. Both PSV and EDV of these three arteries increased progressively. Fetal heart rate was first registered on Day 20 when it began to increase up to Day 40 and then diminished to the end of gestation (P<0.01). It is concluded that blood flow of uterine, umbilical, fetal abdominal aorta, fetal renal and fetal internal carotid arteries progressively increased during normal feline pregnancy, while FHR rose to mid gestation and then decreased up to parturition.

  10. Tensile properties and microstructure of 2024 aluminum alloy subjected to the high magnetic field and external stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gui-Rong; Xue, Fei; Wang, Hong-Ming; Zheng, Rui; Zhu, Yi; Chu, Qiang-Ze; Cheng, Jiang-Feng

    2016-10-01

    In order to explore the dependence of plasticity of metallic material on a high magnetic field, the effects of the different magnetic induction intensities ( H = 0 T, 0.5 T, 1 T, 3 T, and 5 T) and pulses number (N = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50) on tensile strength (σ b) and elongation (δ) of 2024 aluminum alloy are investigated in the synchronous presences of a high magnetic field and external stress. The results show that the magnetic field exerts apparent and positive effects on the tensile properties of the alloy. Especially under the optimized condition of H * = 1 T and N* = 30, the σ b and δ are 410 MPa and 17% that are enhanced by 9.3% and 30.8% respectively in comparison to those of the untreated sample. The synchronous increases of tensile properties are attributed to the magneto-plasticity effect on a quantum scale. That is, the magnetic field will accelerate the state conversion of radical pair generated between the dislocation and obstacles from singlet to the triplet state. The bonding energy between them is meanwhile lowered and the moving flexibility of dislocations will be enhanced. At H * = 1 T and N* = 30, the dislocation density is enhanced by 1.28 times. The relevant minimum grain size is 266.1 nm, which is reduced by 35.2%. The grain refining is attributed to the dislocation accumulation and subsequent dynamic recrystallization. The (211) and (220) peak intensities are weakened. It is deduced that together with the recrystallization, the fine grains will transfer towards the slip plane and contribute to the slipping deformation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51371091, 51174099, and 51001054) and the Industrial Center of Jiangsu University, China (Grant No. ZXJG201586).

  11. Soil Respiration Responses to Variation in Temperature Treatment and Vegetation Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Pavao-zuckerman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Complex linkages exist between terrestrial vegetation, soil moisture, soil organic matter (SOM), local climate, and soil microorganisms. Thus, large-scale changes in vegetation, such as the woody plant encroachment observed in many historically semiarid and arid grasslands worldwide, could potentially alter the flux of carbon from soil reserves to the atmosphere. Mathematical models that attempt to project the long-term impact of vegetative shifts on soil fluxes largely rely on assumptions such as first-order donor control rather than incorporate the biological aspects of soil respiration such as microbial activity. To examine the impact of vegetation type on soil physicochemical properties and soil microbial respiration and provide experimental data to refine existing predictive models, we compared soil (ground basalt from northern Arizona) in mesocosms established with no vegetation, velvet mesquites (Prosopis velutina; woody shrub), or sideoats gramas (Bouteloua curtipendula; grass) for 2 years, The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was examined by incubating soil (0-10 and 10-30 cm depth fractions) from each vegetation treatment at 10, 20, 30, and 40 °C for 24 hours. Vegetated soils contained more SOM (~0.1% for mesquite and grass mesocosms) than non-vegetated soils (~0.02%). Respiration rates were generally highest from grass-established soils, intermediate from mesquite-established soils, and lowest from non-vegetated soils. Respiration rates of samples incubated without the addition of substrate peaked at approximately 30 °C, whereas respiration rates of samples incubated with dextrose were highest at 40 °C. Further, the respiration assays suggest that while respiration rates are overall higher in grass-established soils, mesquite-established soils are more temperature sensitive which may have significant implications in the context of global warming and current fire management practices.

  12. Sensitivity of tumor motion simulation accuracy to lung biomechanical modeling approaches and parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasehi Tehrani, Joubin; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation.

  13. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    PubMed

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) breed effect on body weight and gain, shank length, thigh length, body width and body length. The growth traits of Anak breed were found to be superior to NHLE chickens. Within treatments, chicks on T1, T2 and T3, grew heavier than those on T4 and T5. However, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and haematological indices (RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC count) were not significant (P > 0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens.

  14. Ecological stoichiometric characteristics and element reserves of three stands in a closed forest on the Chinese loess plateau.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuanbo; Wang, Baitian; Wei, Tingting; Ma, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Populus davidiana, Leuchtenbergia principis, and Pinus tabulaeformis are important greening tree species with a cosmopolitan distribution. However, the stoichiometric characteristics and element reserves of stands of these three species are not particularly clear. In this study, we conducted a plot-level investigation of forest stands of these species in the loess area; these have been closed forest stands more than 28 years. Trees were sampled from an area of 50 m × 20 m (in 6, 8, and 9 plots, respectively), which was sufficient for shrub (2 m × 2 m), herbal species, and litter (1 m × 1 m) investigations. The C, N, and P concentrations and the C:N:P stoichiometry in five different soil layers (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-50 cm, and 50-100 cm) and in the leaves, stems, branches, and roots of the plants were examined. The soil element concentrations and density were affected by soil depth. The element content had a significantly negative correlation with soil depth, and element density differed significantly among the soil layers. A particular element in a particular organ differed significantly between the forest stands, and the same element in different organs of the same stand was also significantly different. The C, N, and P element reserves in the soil were considerably higher than in the plants. Our results indicate that there are different stoichiometric characteristics and element reserves of the three stands in a closed forest on the Chinese loess plateau, which may provide a reference when we develop and optimize the structure of forest stands.

  15. Evaluating management-induced soil salinization in golf courses in semi-arid landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J.; Udeigwe, T. K.; Weindorf, D. C.; Kandakji, T.; Gautam, P.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Site-specific information on land management practices are often desired to make better assessments of their environmental impacts. A study was conducted in Lubbock, Texas, in the Southern High Plains of the United States, an area characterized by semi-arid climatic conditions, to (1) examine the potential management-induced alterations in soil salinity indicators in golf course facilities and (2) develop predictive relationships for a more rapid soil salinity examination within these urban landscape soils using findings from a portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from managed (well irrigated) and non-managed (non-irrigated) areas of seven golf course facilities at 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depths and analyzed for a suite of chemical properties. Among the extractable cations, sodium (Na) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the managed zones of all the golf facilities. Soil electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), parameters often used in characterizing soil salinity and sodicity, were for the most part significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the managed areas. Water quality reports collected over a 22-year period (1991-2013, all years not available) indicated a gradual increase in pH, EC, SAR, total alkalinity, and extractable ions, thus supporting the former findings. Findings from the PXRF suggested possible differences in chemical species and sources that contribute to salinity between the managed and non-managed zones. PXRF-quantified Cl and S, and to a lesser extent Ca, individually and collectively explained 23-85% of the variability associated with soil salinity at these facilities.

  16. Long-term effects of ammonia on the behavioral activity of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Alonso, Alvaro; Camargo, Julio A

    2009-05-01

    An appropriate approach to assess the effect of toxicants on aquatic animals is to monitor behavioral endpoints, as they are a link between physiological and ecological processes. A group that can be exposed long-term to low toxic concentrations is benthic macroinvertebrates, as their mobility in aquatic ecosystems is relatively limited. Therefore, the study of behavioral long-term effects in this group is suitable from an ecological point of view, as behavioral effects can appear before mortality. During the last decades there has been an increase in ammonia concentrations in freshwater ecosystems, threatening aquatic animals. The present study focuses on the long-term effects (40 days) of nonionized ammonia on the behavioral activity of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. One control and three ammonia concentrations (0.02, 0.07, and 0.13 mg N-NH(3)/L) were used in triplicate, and the activity of snails (as mean time to start normal movement) and immobility were recorded for each treatment after 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 days of continuous exposure to nonionized ammonia. The results show that P. antipodarum presented a high tolerance to lethal long-term effects of nonionized ammonia, as no animal died during the bioassay. However, the behavioral activity of snails was a very sensitivity endpoint, as a mean nonionized ammonia concentration of 0.07 mg N-NH(3)/L affected P. antipodarum. The results are discussed and compared with the available literature on long-term effects of ammonia on freshwater macroinvertebrates. Additionally, the ammonia water quality criteria, NOECs, LOECs, and long-term LCs are discussed on the basis of the current available data for freshwater macroinvertebrates.

  17. Carcass yield and meat quality in broilers fed with canola meal.

    PubMed

    Gopinger, E; Xavier, E G; Lemes, J S; Moraes, P O; Elias, M C; Roll, V F B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of canola meal in broiler diets on carcass yield, carcass composition, and instrumental and sensory analyses of meat. 2. A total of 320 one-day-old Cobb broilers were used in a 35-d experiment using a completely randomised design with 5 concentrations of canola meal (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) as a dietary substitute for soya bean meal. 3. Polynomial regression at 5% significance was used to evaluate the effects of canola meal content. The following variables were measured: carcass yield, chemical composition of meat, and instrumental and sensorial analyses. 4. The results showed that carcass yield exhibited a quadratic effect that was crescent to the level of 18% of canola meal based on the weight of the leg and a quadratic increase at concentrations up to 8.4% of canola meal based on the weight of the chest. The yield of the chest exhibited a linear behaviour. 5. The chemical composition of leg meat, instrumental analysis of breast meat and sensory characteristics of the breast meat was not significantly affected by the inclusion of canola meal. The chemical composition of the breast meat exhibited an increased linear effect in terms of dry matter and ether extract and a decreased linear behaviour in terms of the ash content. 6. In conclusion, soya bean meal can be substituted with canola meal at concentrations up to 20% of the total diet without affecting carcass yield, composition of meat or the instrumental or sensory characteristics of the meat of broilers.

  18. The effect of different dietary levels of canola meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut morphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gopinger, E; Xavier, E G; Elias, M C; Catalan, A A S; Castro, M L S; Nunes, A P; Roll, V F B

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different levels of canola meal in broiler diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and duodenal morphometry. A total of 320 one-day-old Cobb broilers were used in a 35-d experiment. A completely randomized design with 5 levels of canola meal (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40%) as a substitute for soybean meal was used with 8 replicates of 8 birds each. The basal diets were formulated based on corn and soybean meal to meet nutrient requirements of broiler chickens. The levels of canola meal were evaluated with a polynomial regression at 5% of significance. Weight gain and average BW showed a quadratic response (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively), decreasing with the addition of 40% canola meal. The apparent nutrient digestibility of DM (P < 0.0001), CP (P < 0.0001), and nitrogen-free extract (P < 0.0001) decreased linearly with increased levels of canola meal. A quadratic effect was observed for villus height (P = 0.003), decreasing up to a 20% inclusion of canola meal in the diet and increasing beyond that level. In conclusion, canola meal can be added up to 16.7% in diets for broilers without affecting the key variables of growth performance. It can be added up to 20% with no negative effect on the CP digestibility, but there was a linear decrease in the digestibility of DM and nitrogen-free extract with increased inclusion of canola meal. Additionally, a quadratic response to canola was observed for villus height with a maximum at 23.6% canola meal.

  19. Heavy metal accumulation in wheat plant grown in soil amended with industrial sludge.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sutapa; Bhattacharyya, A K

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of different forms of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb and Fe metals were determined for the roadside sludge collected from pickling-rolling and electroplating industrial area. In sludge the relative abundance of total heavy metals were Fe>Mn>Cr>Ni>Cu>Pb>Zn>Cd and DTPA-extractable metals were in the order--Fe>Ni>Mn>Cr>Cu>Zn>Pb>Cd. Pot-culture experiment was conducted in soils amended with sludge (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%), pretreated with lime (0%, 0.5% and 1%). The soils were alkaline in nature (pH>8.3) with organic carbon contents were 0.34% and 0.72%. The most abundant total and bio-available metal was Fe. Two wheat seedlings were grown in each pot containing 3kg sludge-amended or control soil and the experiment was conducted till harvesting. Application of sludge increased both total and bio-available forms of metals in the soils, while lime application decreased the bioavailability of heavy metals in sludge-amended soils. The content of organic carbon showed positive correlation with all metals except Zn, Cr and Pb. CEC also showed a strong positive correlation (R2>0.7) with Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Cd. Though wheat plants are not accumulators, the translocation efficiency was appreciably high. The translocation factor from shoot to grain was found smaller than that of root to shoot of wheat plants. This makes an implication that the heavy metal accumulation was proportionally lesser in grain than in shoot. In, 10% sludge with 0.5% lime-amended soils; each of these toxic heavy metals was found to be within permissible range (USEPA). Hence, on the basis of present study, the best possible treatment may be recommended.

  20. Development of a ceramic primer with higher bond durability for resin cement.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui

    2010-07-01

    To increase the bond durability of resin to the CAD/CAM ceramic surface, two types of two-bottle type ceramic primers, consisting of Primer A1 or A2 and Primer B, were designed. Primer A1 was prepared by dissolving 25, 50, or 100 mg of gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane in 1 mL of ethanol. Primer A2 was prepared by dissolving 50 mg of mixed silanes, consisting of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane to gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, in 1 mL of ethanol. Mole fractions of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane to gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mol%. Primer B was prepared after dissolving 0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid in ethanol by 50 vol%. Ceramic surface was silanated with a mixture of Primers A1 and B or Primers A2 and B for 1 min, and then air-dried. Commercial GC ceramic primer and Porcelain Liner M were utilized. Thereafter, dual-curing type resin cement was bonded to silanated ceramic surface through visible-light irradiation. Shear bond strength of resin to the ceramic surface was measured, before and after thermo-cycling. Addition of 0.01 or 0.05 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid to the gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane allowed for significant increases in the bond strength. However, thermo-cycling resulted in significant decreases of approximately 5 MPa in the bond strength. Conversely, when the mixed silane, where 30 mol% of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane dissolved in gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, was utilized with 0.05 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid, the reduction in the bond strength decreased to approximately 2 MPa. The designed ceramic primers exhibited higher ceramic bond durability than commercial ceramic primers.

  1. Efficacy of methuselah gene mutation toward tolerance of dichlorvos exposure in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Khatoon, Rehana; Saini, Sanjay; Vimal, Divya; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Narayan, Gopeshwar; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar

    2015-06-01

    Adverse reports on the exposure of organisms to dichlorvos (DDVP; an organophosphate insecticide) necessitate studies of organismal resistance/tolerance by way of pharmacological or genetic means. In the context of genetic modulation, a mutation in methuselah (mth; encodes a class II G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)) is reported to extend (~35%) the life span of Drosophila melanogaster and enhance their resistance to oxidative stress induced by paraquat exposure (short term, high level). A lack of studies on organismal tolerance of DDVP by genetic modulation prompted us to examine the protective efficacy of mth mutation in exposed Drosophila. Flies were exposed to 1.5 and 15.0 ng/ml DDVP for 12-48 h to examine oxidative stress endpoints and chemical resistance. After prolonged exposure of flies to DDVP, antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress, glutathione content, and locomotor performance were assayed at various days (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50) of age. Flies with the mth mutation (mth(1)) showed improved chemical resistance and rescued redox impairment after acute DDVP exposure. Exposed mth(1) flies exhibited improved life span along with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and rescued oxidative perturbations and locomotor insufficiency up to middle age (~20 days) over similarly exposed w(1118) flies. However, at late (≥30 days) age, these benefits were undermined. Further, similarly exposed mth-knockdown flies showed effects similar to those observed in mth(1) flies. This study provides evidence of tolerance in organisms carrying a mth mutation against prolonged DDVP exposure and further warrants examination of similar class II GPCR signaling facets toward better organismal health.

  2. BaCO3 mediated modifications in structural and magnetic properties of natural nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widanarto, W.; Jandra, M.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Effendi, M.; Cahyanto, W. T.

    2015-04-01

    Preparing M-type barium hexaferrite and improving the magnetic response of natural ferrites by incorporating barium carbonate (BaCO3) is ever-demanding. Series of barium carbonate doped ferrites with composition (100-x)Fe3O4·xBaCO3 (x=0, 10, 20, 30 wt%) are prepared through solid state reaction method and sintered gradually at temperatures of 800 and 1000 °C. Nanoparticles of natural ferrite and commercial BaCO3 are used as raw materials. Impacts of BaCO3 on structural and magnetic properties of these synthesized ferrites are inspected. The obtained ferrites are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature. Uniform barium hexaferrite particles in terms of both morphology and size are not achieved. The average crystallite size of BaFe12O19 is observed to be within 30-600 nm. The sintering process results phase transformation from Fe3O4 (magnetite) to α-Fe2O3 (hematite) and the formation of hexagonal barium ferrite crystals. The occurrence of barium crystal is found to enhance with the increase of BaCO3 concentrations up to 20 wt% and suddenly drop at 30 wt%. Saturation and remanent magnetization of the doped ferrites are significantly augmented up to 16.37 and 8.92 emu g-1, respectively compared to their pure counterpart. Furthermore, the coercivity field is slightly decreased as BaCO3 concentrations are increased. BaCO3 mediated improvements in the magnetic response of natural ferrites are demonstrated.

  3. Carbon storage potential in size-density fractions from semi-natural grassland ecosystems with different productivities over varying soil depths.

    PubMed

    Breulmann, Marc; Boettger, Tatjana; Buscot, François; Gruendling, Ralf; Schulz, Elke

    2016-03-01

    Researchers have increasingly recognised a profound need for more information on SOC stocks in the soil and the factors governing their stability and dynamics. Many questions still remain unanswered about the interplay between changes in plant communities and the extent to which changes in aboveground productivity affect the carbon dynamics in soils through changes in its quantity and quality. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to examine the SOC accumulation potential of semi-natural grasslands of different productivities and determine the distribution of SOM fractions over varying soil depth intervals (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 30-50 50-80 and 80+cm). SOM fractionation was considered as a relative measure of stability to separate SOM associated with clay minerals from SOM of specific light densities less than 2 g cm(-3) (size-density fractionation). Two clay-associated fractions (CF1, <1 μm; and CF2, 1-2 μm) and two light fractions (LF1, <1.8 g cm(-3); and LF2, 1.8-2.0 g cm(-3)) were separated. The stability of these fractions was characterised by their carbon hot water extractability (CHWE) and stable carbon isotope composition. In the semi-natural grasslands studied, most OC was stored in the top 30 cm, where turnover is rapid. Effects of low productivity grasslands became only significantly apparent when fractional OC contributions of total SOM was considered (CF1 and LF1). In deeper soil depths OC was largely attributed to the CF1 fraction of low productivity grasslands. We suggest that the majority of OM in deeper soil depth intervals is microbially-derived, as evidenced by decreasing C/N ratios and decreasing δ(13)C values. The hot water extraction and natural δ(13)C abundance, employed here allowed the characterisation of SOM stabilisation properties, however how climatic changes affect the fate of OM within different soil depth intervals is still unknown.

  4. Elemental quantification, chemistry, and source apportionment in golf course facilities in a semi-arid urban landscape using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udeigwe, T. K.; Young, J.; Kandakji, T.; Weindorf, D. C.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Stietiya, M. H.

    2015-04-01

    This study extends the application of the portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry to the examination of elements in semi-arid urban landscapes of the Southern High Plains (SHP) of the United States, focusing on golf courses. The complex environmental challenges of this region and the unique management practices at golf course facilities could lead to differences in concentration and in the chemistry of elements between managed (irrigated) and non-managed (non-irrigated) portions of these facilities. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm from managed and non-managed areas of seven different facilities in the city of Lubbock, Texas, and analyzed for a suite of soil properties. Total elemental quantification was conducted using a PXRF spectrometer. Findings mostly indicated no significant differences in the concentration of examined elements between the managed and non-managed areas of the facilities. However, strong positive relationships (R = 0.82-0.91, p < 0.001) were observed among elements (e.g., Fe on the one hand and Cr, Mn, Ni, and As on the other; Cu and Zn; As and Cr) and between these elements and soil constituents or properties such as clay, calcium carbonate, organic matter, and pH. The strengths of these relationships were mostly higher in the non-managed areas, suggesting a possible alteration in the chemistry of these elements by anthropogenic influences in the managed areas. Principal component and correlation analyses within the managed areas suggested that As, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Ni could be of lithogenic origin, while Cu, Pb, and Zn could have anthropogenic influences. Only one possible, likely lithogenic, source of the elements was identified within the non-managed areas. As evidenced by the study, the PXRF spectrometer can be a valuable tool for elemental quantification and rapid investigation of elemental interaction and source apportionment in semi-arid climates.

  5. Evaluating management-induced soil salinization in golf courses in semi-arid landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J.; Udeigwe, T. K.; Weindorf, D. C.; Kandakji, T.; Gautam, P.; Mahmoud, M. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Site-specific information on land management practices are often desired to make better assertions of their environmental impacts. A study was conducted in Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains of the United States, an area characterized by semi-arid climatic conditions, to (1) examine the potential management-induced alteration in soil salinity indicators in golf course facilities and (2) develop predictive relationships for a more rapid soil salinity examination within these urban landscape soils using findings from portable x-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from the managed (well irrigated) and non-managed (non irrigated) areas of seven golf course facilities at 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depths, and analyzed for a suite of chemical properties. Among the extractable cations, sodium (Na) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the managed zones of all the golf facilities. Soil electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), parameters often used in characterizing soil salinity and sodicity, were in most part significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the managed areas. Water quality report collected over a 22-year period (1991-2013, all years not available) indicated a gradual increase in pH, EC, SAR, total alkalinity, and extractable ions, thus, supporting the former findings. Findings from the PXRF suggested possible differences in chemical species and sources that contribute to salinity between the managed and non-managed zones. PXRF quantified Cl and S, and to a lesser extent Ca, individually and collectively explained 23-85% of the variability associated with soil salinity at these facilities.

  6. Elemental quantification, chemistry, and source apportionment in golf course facilities in semi-arid urban landscape using portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udeigwe, T. K.; Young, J.; Kandakji, T.; Weindorf, D. C.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Stietiya, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study extends the application of the portable x-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry to examination of elements in semi-arid urban landscapes of the Southern High Plains (SHP) of the United States (US), focusing on golf courses. The complex environmental challenges of this region and the unique management practices at golf course facilities could lead to differences in concentration and chemistry of elements between managed (irrigated) and non-managed (non-irrigated) portions of these facilities. Soil samples were collected at the depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm from managed and non-managed areas of seven different facilities in the city of Lubbock, Texas, and analyzed for a suite of soil properties. Total elemental quantification was conducted using PXRF. Findings mostly indicated no significant differences in concentration of examined elements between the managed and non-managed areas of the facilities. However, strong positive relationships (R2 = 0.82-0.91, p < 0.001) were observed among elements (e.g. Fe and each of Cr, Mn, Ni, and As; Cu and Zn; As and Cr) and between these elements and soil constituents or properties such as clay, calcium carbonate, organic matter, and pH. The strengths of these relationships were mostly higher in the non-managed areas, suggesting possible alteration in the chemistry of these elements by anthropogenic influences. Principal component analyses (PCA) and correlation analyses within the managed areas suggested that As, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Ni could be of lithogenic origin, while Cu, Pb, and Zn were attributed to anthropogenic influences. Only one possible source of element, likely lithogenic, was identified within non-managed areas. As evidenced from the study, the PXRF can be a valuable tool for elemental quantification, and rapid investigation of elemental interaction and source apportionment in semi-arid climates.

  7. Assessing the subsequent effect of nitrogen released from tobacco-waste on maize crop using a ¹⁵N isotope technique.

    PubMed

    Karaman, M Rüştü; Brohi, A Reşit

    2013-06-01

    The investigation of the residual effect of nitrogen (N) released from tobacco-waste (TW) using isotope techniques will provide valuable data for sustainable organic farming. For this aim, a pot experiment was conducted using the (15)N isotope technique. The experiment was based on a completely randomised design with four replications and was conducted on a calcareous ustochrepts soil. TW at levels of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 t ha(-1) and N fertiliser as (NH₄)₂SO₂ at levels of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg N ha(-1) were used for the Bezostaja-1 wheat variety. Concerning mineral N fertilisation with 20 and 80 kg N ha(-1), additional treatments with (15)N-labelled (NH₄)₂SO₂ (10 at.% exc.) have been applied. Following harvesting wheat plants, the Pioneer 3377 maize variety was used to see the residual effect of TW. After harvesting, dry matter yields were recorded and total N concentrations were determined. (15)N determinations and calculations were also made for (15)N treatments separately. TW had a significant residual effect on the growth of corn plant under the pot condition. Increasing rates of TW significantly increased the dry matter yield of corn plant following wheat from 3.31 t ha(-1) (at control) to 7.89 t ha(-1) (at the TW treatment of 40 t ha(-1)). The (15)N values derived from the (15)N fertiliser decreased with increasing TW application. The average values of N derived from N fertiliser (Ndff) varied from 2.14 to 3.09% at the rates of 20 and 80 kg N ha(-1), respectively. However, N derived from TW (Ndftw) significantly increased from 16.93 to 24.59% (at 20 kg N ha(-1)), and it also increased from 23.06 to 28.15% (at 80 kg N ha(-1)) with increasing TW applications from 20 to 40 t ha(-1), respectively.

  8. Will inundation and salinity levels associated with projected sea level rise reduce the survival, growth, and reproductive capacity of Sarcocornia pacifica (pickleweed)?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woo, I.; Takekawa, J.Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the San Francisco Bay Estuary, CA, USA, sea level rise (SLR) is projected to increase by 1.4 m during the next 90 years resulting in increased inundation and salt water intrusion up-estuary. Since inundation and salinity are critical factors that drive vegetation structure and composition in coastal wetlands, we asked whether inundation and salinity levels associated with SLR would reduce the survival, growth, and reproductive capacity of a dominant halophyte, Sarcocornia pacifica (pickleweed). We conducted a 4 × 4 factorial greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of a range of inundation periods (25, 50, 75, and 100%) and water salinities (0, 10, 20, 30 psu) on individual S. pacifica adults and seedlings. We found that inundation and salinity treatments affected the height of adults and seedlings combined. When examined separately, adult height was negatively affected by inundation ≥75%, while seedling height was affected by the interaction of both inundation and salinity. Adult belowground biomass was negatively affected by complete inundation. Seedling aboveground biomass decreased 46% at the highest salinity (30 psu) and belowground biomass decreased at salinities ≥20 psu. Adult flower production was not affected by treatments but was reduced by 38% at 30 psu salinity for seedlings. While adult survival was 99%, seedling survival was 56% with greatest mortality at low (25%) inundation, possibly because their roots were more susceptible to desiccation. Vegetation structure of the marsh platform comprised of S. pacifica adults will be susceptible to greater inundation rates associated with SLR. Our results suggest that adults may grow less tall, thus altering the vegetation structure and likely the tidal marsh wildlife that rely on these habitats.

  9. Biodiversity of termite (Insecta: Isoptera) in tropical peat land cultivated with oil palms.

    PubMed

    Kon, Thian-Woei; Bong, Choon-Fah J; King, Jie-Hung P; Leong, Chan-Teck S

    2012-02-01

    Termites are the major decomposers in tropical region but yet their occurrences in oil palm plantation especially in peat soil are generally treated as pest. Study of termite species in peat land was conducted in selected oil palm plantations in North Sarawak with 5-7 years old palms and South Sarawak with 13-15 years old palms with two sites in each area. Results of quadrate (25 x 25 x 30 cm) sampling showed termite was significantly higher in relative density with increasing depth of soil (0-10 = 21.23, 10-20 = 42.52 and 20-30 cm = 81.12%) which could be advantaged from being predated by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) which were higher in density from soil surface to 10 cm soil depth with relative density of 31.84%. Modified transect sampling (50x6 m) had successfully sampled 18 species of termites from 2 families (Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae), 5 subfamilies (Rhinotermitinae, Coptotermitinae, Termitinae, Macrotermitinae and Nasutitermitinae) and 11 genera (Coptotermes, Schedorhinotermes, Termes, Macrotermes, Nasutitermes, Globitermes, Amitermes, Parrhinotermes, Pericapritermes, Havilanditermes and Prohamitermes). Both plantation sites have termite dominantly feeding on rotten wood as a result of abundant dead woods. However, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren was identified to feed on the living tissues of oil palm causing damage or death of the tree. Study showed higher encounter of soil-feeding termite in longer established plantation. It indicates the gradually shifting of soil condition towards a stabilized environment which favors the successful settlement of soil feeder termite species. Termite control should be more targets specific to avoid harming beneficial termites.

  10. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  11. White light simulation and luminescence studies on Dy3+ doped Zinc borophosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Venkataiah, G.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Dy3+ doped Zinc borophosphate glasses with the chemical composition (79-x)B2O3+xP2O5+10Li2O+10ZnO+1Dy2O3 (where x=0, 10, 20, 30 and 50 in wt%) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The prepared glass samples were characterized through optical absorption, emission and decay measurements. The bonding parameters, optical band gap and Urbach's energy values were calculated from the optical absorption spectra to explore the bonding nature of the Dy-O metal ligand and electronic band structure of the studied glasses. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters were calculated from the absorption spectra by using the JO theory and it gives information about symmetry of the ligand environment around the Dy3+ ion site. The Y/B intensity ratio and radiative properties were obtained from the emission spectra and the results were compared with the reported literature. The x, y chromaticity color coordinates of the studied glasses were analyzed using a CIE 1931 color chromaticity diagram and found that the x, y coordinates lie in the white light region. The decay curve measurements of the prepared glasses exhibit non-exponential behavior and are well fitted to Inokuti-Hirayama (IH) model to understand the energy transfer mechanism between Dy3+ ions. The Q, R0 and CDA values of the prepared Dy3+ doped glasses were obtained from the IH model and the results were discussed and compared with the reported literature.

  12. A comparison of adrenal gland function in lactating dairy cows with or without ovarian follicular cysts.

    PubMed

    Silvia, William J; McGinnis, Angela S; Hatler, T Ben

    2005-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if adrenal secretion of steroids differed between cows that formed ovarian follicular cysts and normal cycling cows. In experiment 1, lactating Jersey and Holstein cows were diagnosed as having ovarian follicular cysts (follicle diameter >or=20 mm) by rectal palpation. Following diagnosis, ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasonography three times weekly to detect subsequent ovulation (n=8) or new cyst formation (n=9). Venous blood samples were collected daily to quantify circulating concentrations of cortisol and progesterone. The average concentration of cortisol during the 10-day period prior to ovulation was not different from the concentration prior to the formation of a new cyst. In experiment 2, secretion of cortisol and progesterone was examined in cows with ovarian follicular cysts (n=4) and cyclic, control cows in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle (n=4). An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was administered to cystic cows 4-7 days after new cyst formation and to cyclic cows in the follicular phase of the cycle (36 h after induction of luteolysis). Jugular venous blood samples were collected at -60, -30, 0, +10, +20, +30, +60, +90, +120, +180, +240, +300 and +360 minutes relative to ACTH administration. A rapid increase in both cortisol and progesterone was observed immediately following administration of ACTH in each treatment group. Peak concentrations of both steroids were achieved within 60 minutes after administration of ACTH. Concentrations of cortisol and progesterone did not differ between cystic and cyclic cows. In summary, no differences in adrenal function were detected between normal cycling cows and cows with ovarian follicular cysts.

  13. Vertical distribution of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidising bacteria in natural freshwater wetland soils.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-dong; Huang, Qian; He, Zhan-fei; Lian, Xu; Liu, Shuai; He, Yun-feng; Lou, Li-ping; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Bao-lan

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is a recently discovered process that is catalysed by "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera". In the present study, the vertical distribution (0-10, 20-30, 50-60 and 90-100 cm) of M. oxyfera-like bacteria was investigated in Xiazhuhu wetland, the largest natural wetland on the southern Yangtze River (China). Phylogenetic analyses showed that group A of M. oxyfera-like bacteria and pmoA genes occurred primarily at depths of 50-60 and 90-100 cm. Quantitative PCR further confirmed the presence of M. oxyfera-like bacteria in soil cores from different depths, with the highest abundance of 5.1 × 10(7) copies g(-1) dry soil at depth of 50-60 cm. Stable isotope experiments demonstrated that the n-damo process occurred primarily at depths of 50-60 and 90-100 cm, with the potential rates ranging from 0.2 to 14.5 nmol CO2 g(-1) dry soil d(-1). It was estimated that the methane flux may increase by approximately 2.7-4.3% in the examined wetland in the absence of n-damo. This study shows that the deep wetland soils (50-60 and 90-100 cm) are the preferred habitats for M. oxyfera-like bacteria. The study also highlights the potential importance of these bacteria in the methane and nitrogen cycles in deep wetland soils.

  14. The relationship of parthenogenesis in virgin Chinese Painted quail (Coturnix chinensis) hens with embryonic mortality and hatchability following mating.

    PubMed

    Parker, H M; Kiess, A S; Robertson, M L; Wells, J B; McDaniel, C D

    2012-06-01

    Unfertilized chicken, turkey, and quail eggs are capable of developing embryos by parthenogenesis. However, it is unknown if the physiological mechanisms regulating parthenogenesis in virgin hens may actually work against fertilization, embryonic development, and hatchability of eggs from these same hens following mating. Additionally, because most parthenogenic development closely resembles early embryonic mortality in fertilized eggs during the first 2 to 3 d of incubation, it is possible that many unhatched eggs classified as containing early embryonic mortality may actually be unfertilized eggs that contain parthenogens. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the relationship of parthenogenesis before mating with embryonic development and hatchability characteristics after mating. Based upon their ability to produce unfertilized eggs that contain parthenogens, 372 virgin Chinese Painted quail hens were divided into 7 groups, according to their incidence of parthenogenesis: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and greater than 50% parthenogenesis. Males were then placed with these hens so that fertility, embryonic mortality, and hatchability could be evaluated for each hen. Hatchability of eggs set, hatchability of fertile eggs, and late embryonic mortality declined dramatically as the incidence of parthenogenesis increased. On the other hand, early embryonic mortality increased as parthenogenesis increased. Fertility was not different across the 7 parthenogenesis hen groups, perhaps because unfertilized eggs that exhibited parthenogenesis resembled and were therefore classified as early embryonic mortality. In conclusion, virgin quail hens that exhibit parthenogenesis appear to have impaired embryonic development and hatchability following mating. Additional sperm-egg interaction and embryonic research is needed to determine if a large portion of the early embryonic mortality experienced by mated hens that exhibit parthenogenesis as virgin hens is in fact

  15. Organoleptic properties and perception of maize, African yam bean, and defatted coconut flour-based breakfast cereals served in conventional forms.

    PubMed

    Usman, Grace Ojali; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi

    2016-09-01

    Breakfast cereals were produced by roasting (t = 280°C) - a dry heat treatment process to gelatinize and semidextrinize the starch - in order to generate dry ready-to-eat products from blends of African yam bean (AYB), maize (M), and defatted coconut (DC) flour. Six samples were generated by mixing AYB and maize composite flour with graded levels of DC flour (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) to obtain the following ratios; 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50 that were added equal quantities of sugar, salt, sorghum malt extract, and water. The obtained products were served dry (without added fluid), with water, milk, and warm milk to 15 panelists along with Weetabix Original (commercial control) to evaluate color, consistency, flavor, taste, aftertaste, mouth feel, and overall acceptability using a nine-point hedonic scale (1 = dislike extremely, 9 = like extremely). The results revealed that the samples were acceptable to the panelists. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences, between the control (Weetabix) and the formulated samples in terms of overall acceptability, when served with water, whereas significant differences (P < 0.05) existed when served dry, with milk or warm milk. This new roasting process for producing breakfast cereals offers huge potentials for production of acceptable breakfast cereals enriched with protein and fiber-rich sources that could be consumed dry, with water, milk, or warm milk.

  16. Assessment of the Performance of the Near-Bottom Hydrophones of the U.S. Navy Southern California Offshore Range in Detecting, Localizing and Reconstructing 10-20 kHz Odontocete Whistles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    eigenrays ” shown in Figure 8; the direct path ray, the surface reflected ray, the bottom reflected ray, and the bottom and surface reflected ray. Given...bottom reflections. The eigenray amplitude, na , accounted for bottom, surface and absorption losses. Bottom and surface reflection losses were...Identification of four specific eigenrays at incremental depth and range increments then allows for construction of arrival structure as a function of

  17. Violation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff: a tempest in a (magnetic) Teapot? Why cosmic ray energies above 10(20) eV may not require new physics.

    PubMed

    Farrar, G R; Piran, T

    2000-04-17

    The apparent lack of suitable astrophysical sources for the observed highest energy cosmic rays within approximately 20 Mpc is the "Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) paradox." We constrain representative models of the extragalactic magnetic field structure by Faraday rotation measurements; limits are at the microG level rather than the nG level usually assumed. In such fields, even the highest energy cosmic rays experience large deflections. This allows nearby active galactic nuclei (possibly quiet today) or gamma ray bursts to be the source of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays without contradicting the GZK distance limit.

  18. How Can Botnets Cause Storms? Understanding the Evolution and Impact of Mobile Botnets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Hadoop 10 20 30 40 50 0 20...40 60 80 Cloud Load P ro c e s s in g D e la y [ s ] M=1 M=4 M=8 (b) Storm Fig. 10. The processing delay versus constant cloud load L in Hadoop ...popular Hadoop [26] and Storm [27] platforms. We set up a small-scale cloud consisting of up to 8 com- puters with Intel Core i5 2.67GHz. The cloud

  19. BitValue Inference: Detecting and Exploiting Narrow Bitwidth Computations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    10% 10% 10% 10% 20%20%20% 20% 20% 20% 30%30%30% 30% 30% 30% 40%40%40% 40% 40% 40% 50%50%50% 50% 50% 50% 60%60%60% 60% 60% 60% 70%70%70% 70% 70% 70% 80 ... 80 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 90%90%90% 90% 90% 90% 100%100%100% 100% 100% 100% 132.ijpeg mpeg2_e base range bitvalue both base range bitvalue both base

  20. 16 CFR 1209.6 - Test procedures for critical radiant flux.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be calibrated over the black body temperature range of 490-510 °C (914-950 °F) in accordance with the... with 2.7±0.1 cm (11/16±1/32 in) diameter holes centered on and along the centerline at the 10, 20, 30... apparent black body temperature as measured by the radiation pyrometer, of approximately 500 °C (932...

  1. 16 CFR 1209.6 - Test procedures for critical radiant flux.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be calibrated over the black body temperature range of 490-510 °C (914-950 °F) in accordance with the... with 2.7±0.1 cm (11/16±1/32 in) diameter holes centered on and along the centerline at the 10, 20, 30... apparent black body temperature as measured by the radiation pyrometer, of approximately 500 °C (932...

  2. 16 CFR 1209.6 - Test procedures for critical radiant flux.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be calibrated over the black body temperature range of 490-510 °C (914-950 °F) in accordance with the... with 2.7±0.1 cm (11/16±1/32 in) diameter holes centered on and along the centerline at the 10, 20, 30... apparent black body temperature as measured by the radiation pyrometer, of approximately 500 °C (932...

  3. Seismic Surveillance - Nuclear Test Ban Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-27

    companies: BP Norway Ltd., Conoco Norway Inc., Elf Acquitaine Norge, Esso Norge A/S, Mobile Development Norway, Norsk Hydro A/S, A/S Norske Shell...with Drs. A. Dainty (M.I.T.) and D. Lokshtanov (Norsk Hydro , Bergen) are hereby acknowledged. Our sincere thanks to the many colleagues who provided...10 20 30 40 Events numbers ranked due to wrF values A -msctassified exrplosions *-niisclassified earthquakes Fig. 8a. Event discriminatlion with

  4. Evaluation of European District Heating Systems for Application to Army Installations in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    57 29 Renovation cycle of customer installations basing on a Boltzmann distribution...lack, a model approach was developed based of renovation cy- cles, which shows that a customer station is operated at least 30 years be- fore it is...99 percent after 80 years. This results in a renovation cycle in form of an exchange probability (Figure 29). 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0

  5. Defense Technology Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    current F-22, F/A-18 F• technology baselines are: YEAR Fighter/Attack 2000 2005 2010 Lift/ Drag Increase 10% 20% 30% Signature Reduction 30% 40% 50...performance- - reductions in weight, volume, and fuel-and decreases in cost and supportability requirements will have a large impact on the affordability...include: a 100 percent increase in mission radius or a 35 percent reduction in take-off gross weight of a strike aircraft; a 45 percent reduction in

  6. [Effect of stevia on the picture of peripheral blood under exposure to vibration].

    PubMed

    Adamyan, Ts I; Gevorkyan, E S

    2014-01-01

    There were investigated changes in the peripheral blood of rabbits under prolonged exposure to vibration (5, 10, 20, 30 days). In a separate series of experiments, the nature of changes in the peripheral blood was investigated under the combined action of vibration and stevia leaves. Contained in stevia biologically active substances were found to accelerate metabolism in bone marrow stem cells, promote the compensatory ability of the organism, thereby providing the resistance of the body to the vibration factor.

  7. Protocols for Cognitive Task Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    LIFESPAN 10 20 30 40 50 60 Novice Learning an commence at any age    (e.g., the school child who is avid about dinosaurs ; the adult...anonymous and confidential. That is, no one’s name will be associated with particular results. Please be open , honest, and candid. Compared to...were observed on any other day, they would have already had a mental model of the current weather situation when they walked in the door . Furthermore

  8. [Characteristics of the rat nystagmic reaction after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Shipov, A A; Tabakova, L A

    1982-01-01

    The vestibular nystagmus of rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-1129 was examined with reference to the latent period, number of beats, duration and the average velocity. The nystagmus was elicited by increasing angular acceleration of 10, 20, 30 degrees/sec2. As compared to the controls, the flown animals showed a significant inhibition of the nystagmic reaction (P less than less than 0.001). The inhibition can be attributed to the desynchronosis which developed inflight.

  9. Freestream Effects on Boundary Layer Disturbances for HIFiRE-5 (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    a . REPORT Unclassified b . ABSTRACT Unclassified...centerline for all of these conditions and streamwise stations. The Pitot sensor was a Kulite XCEL-100-5A with a B screen and had a resonant frequency...4.5 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Re (×10 6 /m) R M S ( P a ) ACE BAM6QT ( b ) RMS in the ACE and the BAM6QT Figure 8: Mach 5.8, PSDs and RMS

  10. Temperature and water loss affect ADH activity and gene expression in grape berry during postharvest dehydration.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Marco; Bellincontro, Andrea; De Santis, Diana; Botondi, Rinaldo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Muleo, Rosario; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2012-05-01

    Clusters of Aleatico wine grape were picked at 18°Brix and placed at 10, 20, or 30°C, 45% relative humidity (RH) and 1.5m/s of air flow to dehydrate the berries up to 40% of loss of initial fresh weight. Sampling was done at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% weight loss (wl). ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene expression, enzyme activity, and related metabolites were analysed. At 10°C, acetaldehyde increased rapidly and then declined, while ethanol continued to rise. At 20°C, acetaldehyde and ethanol increased significantly with the same pattern and declined at 40%wl. At 30°C, acetaldehyde did not increase but ethanol increased rapidly already at 10%wl. At the latter temperature, a significant increase in acetic acid and ethyl acetate occurred, while at 10°C their values were low. At 30°C, the ADH activity (ethanol to acetaldehyde direction), increased rapidly but acetaldehyde did not rise because of its oxidation to acetic acid, which increased together with ethyl acetate. At 10°C, the ADH activity increased at 20%wl and continued to rise even at 40%wl, meaning that ethanol oxidation was delayed. At 20°C, the behaviour was intermediate to the other temperatures. The relative expression of the VvAdh2 gene was the highest at 10°C already at 10%wl in a synchrony with the ADH activity, indicating a rapid response likely due to low temperature. The expression subsequently declined. At 20 and 30°C, the expression was lower and increased slightly during dehydration in combination with the ADH activity. This imbalance between gene expression and ADH activity at 10°C, as well as the unexpected expression of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) gene, opens the discussion on the stress sensitivity and transcription event during postharvest dehydration, and the importance of carefully monitoring temperature during dehydration.

  11. Effects of growth hormone-releasing factor on growth hormone response, growth and feed conversion efficiency in buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Haldar, A; Prakash, B S

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the benefits of growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) on growth and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in buffaloes. Twelve Murrah buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis) of mean age 24.8 months and mean body weight 302.4kg were divided into two groups (treatment and control) with six animals in each group. The buffaloes were given intravenous injections of bovine GRF (bGRF) at a dose rate of 10microg/100kg body weight or an equal volume of saline at 15-day intervals for a period of 9 months. Plasma growth hormone (GH) responses to bGRF challenge were measured in blood samples collected at 90-day intervals on days 1, 90, 180 and 270 and samples were taken at -60, -30, 0, +10, +20, +30, +60, +120 and +180min relative to bGRF injection. Blood samples were also collected weekly by jugular venepuncture for the quantification of plasma GH. The average growth rate (AGR) and FCE of all animals were recorded at 15-day intervals. Plasma GH concentrations increased (P=0.001) steadily following bGRF challenge, peaking 10-20min after challenge and declining to baseline by 180min. In the treatment group, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in either the peak heights of the GH response or the area under the curve (AUC) of the GH response after bGRF challenge on any of the four occasions of intensive bleeding. There were overall increases in plasma GH concentrations (P<0.01), AGR (P<0.01) and FCE (P=0.05) in the treatment group compared with the control animals. The study showed that GH responsiveness to administration of bGRF at 15-day intervals over 9 months of treatment remained unchanged in buffalo heifers. Exogenous bGRF treatment for a long period can therefore enhance GH release leading to higher growth rates and better feed conversion efficiency in buffalo heifers.

  12. 76 FR 3182 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... A Tier 5 N/A ......... 0.75% 100 =>2% 98 Tape B Tier 2 0.25% 80 1% 90 Tape B Tier 3 0.10% 50 0.35% 70 Tape B Tier 4 0.10% 10 Tape B Tier 5 N/A ......... 0.75% 100 =>2% 98 Tape C Tier 2 0.25% 80 1% 95 Tape C Tier 3 0.10% 50 0.50% 75 Tape C Tier 4 0.10% 20 Tape C Tier 5 N/A ......... Use the...

  13. Partial-Discharge Tests of Multiwinding High-Voltage Transformers for Space TWTAs (Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifiers).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-23

    6420 5697 26898 0 0 10:18:30 1.06 4420 18019 11092 0 0 10:20:07 1.06 3420 14879 1115 0 0 10:21:4 1.06 2700 5674 0 0 0 10:23:21 1.08 2300 5739 1264 0 0...for Detection and Measurement of Discharge (Corona) Pulses in Evaluation of Insulation Systems," ASTM D1868-73. 5. R. J. Densley, "Partial Discharge...under Direct-Voltage Conditions," Ch. 11 in Engineering Dielectrics, Vol. 1: Corona Measurement and Interpretation, ASTM 669, eds. R. Bartnikas and E. J

  14. Changes in soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus due to land-use changes in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppo, J. D.; Lins, S. R. M.; Camargo, P. B.; Assad, E. D.; Pinto, H. S.; Martins, S. C.; Salgado, P. R.; Evangelista, B.; Vasconcellos, E.; Sano, E. E.; Pavão, E.; Luna, R.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and stocks were investigated in agricultural and natural areas in 17 plot-level paired sites and in a regional survey encompassing more than 100 pasture soils In the paired sites, elemental soil concentrations and stocks were determined in native vegetation (forests and savannas), pastures and crop-livestock systems (CPSs). Nutrient stocks were calculated for the soil depth intervals 0-10, 0-30, and 0-60 cm for the paired sites and 0-10, and 0-30 cm for the pasture regional survey by sum stocks obtained in each sampling intervals (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-60 cm). Overall, there were significant differences in soil element concentrations and ratios between different land uses, especially in the surface soil layers. Carbon and nitrogen contents were lower, while phosphorus contents were higher in the pasture and CPS soils than in native vegetation soils. Additionally, soil stoichiometry has changed with changes in land use. The soil C : N ratio was lower in the native vegetation than in the pasture and CPS soils, and the carbon and nitrogen to available phosphorus ratio (PME) decreased from the native vegetation to the pasture to the CPS soils. In the plot-level paired sites, the soil nitrogen stocks were lower in all depth intervals in pasture and in the CPS soils when compared with the native vegetation soils. On the other hand, the soil phosphorus stocks were higher in all depth intervals in agricultural soils when compared with the native vegetation soils. For the regional pasture survey, soil nitrogen and phosphorus stocks were lower in all soil intervals in pasture soils than in native vegetation soils. The nitrogen loss with cultivation observed here is in line with other studies and it seems to be a combination of decreasing organic matter inputs, in cases where crops replaced native forests, with an increase in soil organic matter decomposition that leads to a decrease in the long

  15. [Effects of the different land use on soil labile organic matter and carbon management index in Junyun Mountain].

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Hao, Qing-Ju; Zhu, Tao

    2013-10-01

    The impacts of different land use on soil organic matter (SOM), soil labile organic matter (SLOM) and their efficiency ratios (ER), and soil carbon management index (CMI) were studied in this study. Subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (abbreviation: forest) , sloping farmland, orchard and abandoned land were selected and soils at the depths of 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50 and 50-60 cm were sampled in the spring of 2011 to determine the contents of soil organic matter and labile organic matter. The results showed that the contents of soil organic matter and soil labile organic matter both decreased with the increase of soil depth under all four land use types; however, forest and orchard enriched SOM and SLOM contents in the 0-10 cm and 0-20 cm soil layers, respectively, while the contents of SOM and SLOM decreased evenly in sloping farmland and abandoned land. In the whole soil layer (0-60 cm) , the order of SOM and SLOM contents was abandoned land > forest > orchard > sloping farmland, indicating that at the conversion from forest into orchard or sloping farmland, SOM was reduced by 21.56% (P >0.05) and 55.90% (P <0.05), respectively, and at the conversion from sloping farmland into abandoned land, the low SLOM, middle SLOM and high SLOM increased by 144.2% (P<0.05) , 153.3% (P <0.05) and 242.7% (P <0.05), respectively. There was no significant difference in low ER, middle ER and high ER among the four land uses as suggested by ANOVA which showed that SRs were not sensible to the change of land use. All three CMis were in the order of abandoned land > forest > orchard > sloping farmland, revealing that forest reclamation resulted in the reduction of soil organic carbon storage and the decline of soil quality, and the abandonment of sloping farmland would increase soil carbon sink and improve soil quality. Three kinds of SLOM were all positively correlated with soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium, while negatively correlated

  16. Soil Microbial Communities associated to Plant Rhizospheres in an Organic Farming System in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microbial communities under different organic crop rhizospheres (0-10 and 10-20 cm) were characterized using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and pyrosequencing techniques. The soil was a silt loam (12.8% clay, 71.8% silt and15.4% sand). Soils at this site are characterized as having pH of ~6.53,...

  17. Soil microbial communities associated to plant rhizospheres in an organic farming system in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microbial communities under different organic crop rhizospheres (0-10 and 10-20 cm) were characterized using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and pyrosequencing techniques. The soil was a silt loam (12.8% clay, 71.8% silt and15.4% sand). Soils at this site are characterized as having pH of ~6.53, ...

  18. CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON FINE ROOT LENGTH, PRODUCTION, AND MORTALITY: A 4-YEAR PONDEROSA PINE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a 4-year study of Pinus ponderosa fine root (<2 mm) responses to atmospheric CO2 and N-fertilization. Seedlings were grown in open-top chambers at 3 CO2 levels (ambient, ambient+175 mol/mol, ambient+350 mol/mol) and 3 N-fertilization levels (0, 10, 20 g?m-2?yr-1). ...

  19. Precooked Bran-Enriched Wheat Flour Using Extrusion: Dietary Fiber Profile and Sensory Characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of precooking by extrusion processing on the on the dietary fiber profile of wheat flour substituted with 0%,10%,20%,and 30% wheat bran was evaluated. Depending on the level of bran,total dietary fiber(TDF)and soluble dietary fiber(SDF)in uncooked flours ranged from 4.2% to 17.2% and 1.5%...

  20. Evidence that activation of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) modulates sleep homeostasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Guzmán, Khalil; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria; Salas-Crisóstomo, Mireille; Jiménez-Moreno, Ramsés; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that has been suggested as a modulator of several physiological functions. The PPARα recognizes as an endogenous ligand the anorexic lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA) which displays wake-inducing properties. Despite that recent evidence indicates that activation of PPARα by synthetic agonists such as Wy14643 enhances waking as well as the extracellular contents of wake-related neurotransmitters, the role of PPARα in sleep recovery after prolonged waking has not been fully described. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize if PPARα regulates sleep rebound after total sleep deprivation (TSD). We report that after 6h of TSD activation of PPARα by pharmacological systemic administration of OEA (10, 20 or 30mg/Kg, i.p.) promoted alertness by blocking the sleep rebound after TSD. Besides, wake-linked compounds such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, or adenosine collected from nucleus accumbens were enhanced after TSD in OEA-treated animals. These sleep and neurochemical results were mimicked after injection of PPARα agonist Wy14643 (10, 20, 30mg/Kg, i.p.). However, similar findings from the sham of vehicle groups were observed if PPARα antagonist MK-886 was administered to rats (10, 20, 30mg/Kg, i.p.). Our results strengthened the hypothesis that PPARα might modulate sleep and neurochemical homeostasis after sleep deprivation.

  1. A Study on the Role of Grain-Boundary Engineering in Promoting High-Cycle Fatigue Resistance and Improving Reliability in Metallic Alloys for Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-30

    10I I I I I I I 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 STRESS-INTENSITY RANGE _K (MPa\\ m) Fig. 3: Fatigue-crack propagation rates, daldN, at 25’C for...aj e crack 110-11 L _J _L r II t 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 20 30 40 50 60 70 STRESS-INTENSITY RANGE -K (MPa\\.m) Fig. 12: Variation in fatigue-crack...tr s * stress intensity range (AK) 2 crack growth rate (da’dN) 1 6 ,-0 A K 1N- - 1.6x l01 -12 *, * . 2x4OW 8 8X1., 5 xO i 4 , 0, :. 41 0 a .. go

  2. Resource Recovery Technology Application Document.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    0.2 Utilities (water, electrical, fuel, steam) 1.7 10 20 30 40 SO Engineering 9.6 TPO I0N.0 Capital Costs- (Maximum Value) 350 Tpd - $ x 103 (1980) 1980...concrete 58.0 94.1 141.6 I0 Shifts/Week- Incinerator/boiler 100 Capacity ID fan, pollution 25 so 7S 100 125 control, ash sys. 493.7 682.9 1,027.7 TPo ...Shifts/Week- 1001 Capacity 0. u Note:25 1-% a Fuel cost 15 •not Included 5sShifts/Week- _0 100% Capacity 40 20 30 40 50 25 50 75 100 125 TPO TPO IV-13

  3. Effects of NASA-Fluid Loading Protocol on Cardiovascular Responses to Orthostatic Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, Anna; Edgell, Heather; Gagne, Nathalie; Beavers, Keith; Hughson, Richard L.

    Fluid volume depletion is suspected to be a major contributor to orthostatic hypotension during prolonged bed-rest and spaceflight. Significant reductions in blood and plasma volumes are known to occur with spaceflight and bed-rest. The reductions are attributed to the hormonal responses reacting to a whole-body fluid shift resulting from the removal of the gravity vector seen in upright posture. NASA's proposed fluid loading protocol seeks to replace lost plasma volume by ingestion of salt tablets and water. The dosage is 15 ml/kg water with one 1-g salt tablet for each 125 ml of water over 2 hours. To examine the physiological effects of this fluid loading protocol on blood pressure regulation, seven subjects completed a 4-hour seated period with fluid loading occurring between 1.5 and 3.5 hours. Their responses to orthostatic stress were examined before and after fluid loading by simulating orthostasis in a lower-body negative-pressure (LBNP) box during a progressive test (0, -10, -20, -30, and -40 mmHg). Physiological variables such as heart rate, mean arterial pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, compliance, peripheral resistance, central venous pressure, and plasma volume were monitored. Data were analyzed using a twoway ANOVA, examining the effects of fluid loading and different levels of LBNP. Fluid loading did not influence cardiovascular variables as there were no significant differences in measured values between preand post-fluid loading conditions at each level of LBNP. This indicates that fluid loading does not increase plasma volume during four hour seated tests. The ingested water does not occupy the vascular bed, instead it may be mobilized to the extracellular space or the bladder. Fluid loading did not significantly affect responses to orthostatic stress, as there were no improvements in central venous pressure, stroke volume, and cardiac output during progressive levels of LBNP, and

  4. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on the activity and diversity of methane oxidising bacteria in the littoral zone of a boreal lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, A.; Siljanen, H. M. P.; Hämäläinen, S.; Bodrossy, L.; Martikainen, P. J.

    2009-04-01

    Freshwater lakes are generally net sources of CH4 and in boreal lakes a major part of the CH4 emissions originates from the littoral zone during the ice-free season. Aerobic CH4 oxidising bacteria, methanotrophs, significantly limit the flux of CH4 to the atmosphere from sediments. Increased N load causes eutrophication and subsequent anoxia, which probably enhances CH4 production. In addition, inorganic nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) can inhibit CH4 oxidation. Our study belongs to the research consortium METHECO (Eurodiversity programme of European Science Foundation), where the activity and diversity of methane oxidising bacteria are studied in various European ecosystems. We studied with in situ manipulation the effects of eutrophication (added nitrogen) on the activity and diversity of methanotrophs in a littoral wetland of a small and shallow hyper-eutrophic lake in east-central Finland. We established in the area growing sedges (7-10 m from the shore line) three sampling plots (1.2 m x 1.2 m), which were irrigated four times (from 4th July to 9th August) with ammonium nitrate solution giving 10 g N m-2for the total additional nitrogen load during the growing season. Three control plots were irrigated with equivalent amount of distilled water. The amount of added ammonium nitrate solution or water did not exceed 10% of the long-term (30 years) average rainfall in the area during the growing season. Sediment samples were taken from the depths of 0-2 cm, 2-10cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm before, during and after the N treatment. Methane oxidation potential was studied in 550-ml flasks with sediment slurries and initial headspace CH4 concentration of 0.1%. The diversity of methanotrophs was studied with pmoA-microarray. Methane oxidation was most active in the organic surface sediment layer of 0-10 cm and the activity decreased with depth. Nitrogen addition in situ did not affect significantly the potential CH4 oxidation rates, although nitrate inhibited CH4

  5. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: metabolic response to glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Broadway, P R; Hughes, H D; Roberts, S L; Richeson, J T; Schmidt, T B; Vann, R C

    2016-07-01

    Cattle temperament, defined as the reactivity of cattle to humans or novel environments, can greatly influence several physiological systems in the body, including immunity, stress, and most recently discovered, metabolism. Greater circulating concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) found in temperamental cattle suggest that temperamental cattle are metabolically different than calm cattle. Further, elevated NEFA concentrations have been reported to influence insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether cattle temperament would influence the metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin sensitivity test (IST). Angus-cross steers (16 calm and 15 temperamental; 216 ± 6 kg BW) were selected based on temperament score measured at weaning. On day 1, steers were moved into indoor stanchions to allow measurement of individual ad libitum feed intake. On day 6, steers were fitted with indwelling rectal temperature probes and jugular catheters. At 9 AM on day 7, steers received the GTT (0.5-mL/kg BW of a 50% dextrose solution), and at 2 PM on day 7, steers received the IST (2.5 IU bovine insulin/kg BW). Blood samples were collected and serum isolated at -60, -45, -30, -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min relative to each challenge. Serum was stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol, glucose, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. All variables changed over time (P < 0.01). For the duration of the study, temperamental steers maintained greater (P < 0.01) serum NEFA and less (P ≤ 0.01) serum blood urea nitrogen and insulin sensitivity (calculated using Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index) compared with calm steers. During the GTT, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum glucose, yet decreased (P = 0.03) serum insulin and (P < 0.01) serum insulin: serum glucose compared to calm cattle. During the IST, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum

  6. Uptake and distribution of the abused inhalant 1,1-difluoroethane in the rat.

    PubMed

    Avella, Joseph; Kunaparaju, Naveen; Kumar, Sunil; Lehrer, Michael; Zito, S William; Barletta, Michael

    2010-09-01

    1,1-Difluoroethane (DFE) is a halogenated hydrocarbon used as a propellant in products designed for dusting electronic equipment and air brush painting. When abused, inhaled DFE produces intoxication and loss of muscular coordination. To investigate DFE toxicokinetics, groups (n = 3) of Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 30 s of 20 L/min DFE. The experimental model was designed to mimic exposure during abuse, a protocol which has not been conducted. Tissue collection (blood, brain, heart, liver, and kidney) occurred at 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 120, 240, 480, and 900 s. Average peak DFE levels were blood 352, brain 519, heart 338, liver 187, and kidney 364 mg/L or mg/kg. The total percent uptake of the administered dose was 4.0%. Uptake into individual compartments was 2.72, 0.38, 0.15, 0.41, and 0.32% for blood, brain, heart, liver, and kidney, respectively. All animals showed signs of intoxication within 20 s manifested as lethargy, prostration and loss of righting reflex. Marked intoxication continued for about 4 min when DFE averaged 21 mg/L in blood and 17 mg/kg in brain. Between 4 and 8 min, animals continued to show signs of sedation as evidenced by reduced aggression and excitement during handling. No discernable intoxication was evident after 8 min and blood and brain levels had fallen to 10 and 6 mg/L or kg, respectively. Plots of concentration (log) versus time were consistent with a two compartment model. Initial distribution was rapid with average half life (t((1/2))) during the alpha phase of 9 s for blood, 18 s for brain and 27 s in cardiac tissue. During beta slope elimination average t((1/2)) was 86 s in blood, 110 s in brain and 168 s in heart. Late elimination half lives were longer with blood gamma = 240 s, brain gamma = 340 s, and heart gamma = 231 s. Following acute exposure the Vd = 0.06 L, beta = 0.48 min(-1), AUC = 409.8 mg.min L(-1), and CL from blood was 0.03 L min(-1). The calculated toxicokinetic data may underestimate these parameters if

  7. [Effects of water-salt stresses on seedling growth and activities of antioxidative enzyme of Suaeda salsa in coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta].

    PubMed

    Guan, Bo; Yu, Jun-Bao; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xue-Hong

    2011-08-01

    The halophyte Suaeda salsa is the pioneer plant and is used for the degraded coastal wetland in Yellow River Delta. The water-salt stress is the most important factor for ecological restoration to degraded coastal wetland. To understand the adaptive mechanism of Suaeda salsa to water-salt stresses, the induced effects of different groundwater table depths (0, -10, -20, -30 cm) and salt stress (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%) on seedlings of Suaeda salsa plant were characterized by the growth parameters of plant height, branch number and biomass of different organs and biological indices of leaf chlorophyll content, the activities of SOD, CAT, the leaf content of MDA and protein. The results showed the significantly (p < 0.001) decreased height of the seedlings from -30 cm to 0 cm of groundwater table depth, together with the decreased the number of branches, the biomass of leaf, shoot and root. The highest total biomass of single plant was (1.09 +/- 0.15) g under the condition of -30 cm water table depth and 0% salt stress. However, the combination of 0 cm water table depth and 3% NaCl resulted in the biomass of (0.23 +/- 0.01) g, which was ca. 21% compared with the highest biomass. Similarly, the contents of leaf chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid were the highest under the condition of -30 cm water table depth and 0% salt stress and lowest under the condition of 0 cm water table depth combined with 3% NaCl. The activities of SOD, CAT were increased significantly (p < 0.05) depending on the increase of salt stress. At 0 cm water table depth, the activities of SOD were 55.00 U/mg with 0% NaCl and 151.58 U/mg with 3% NaCl, respectively. The activities of SOD were decreased when the water table depth increased. However, the activities of CAT achieved the highest level at -30 cm water table depth. At 0 and -10 cm water table depth, the MDA content increased with the increase of salt stress. The MDA content was 0.26 mmol/g at -30 cm water table depth with 3% NaCl, which was approx. 28

  8. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: System Fitness of Grazeable Home-grown Forages, Land Areas and Walking Distances

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. R.; Garcia, S. C.; Clark, C. E. F.; Kerrisk, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    To maintain a predominantly pasture-based system, the large herd milked by automatic milking rotary would be required to walk significant distances. Walking distances of greater than 1-km are associated with an increased incidence of undesirably long milking intervals and reduced milk yield. Complementary forages can be incorporated into pasture-based systems to lift total home grown feed in a given area, thus potentially ‘concentrating’ feed closer to the dairy. The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the total land area required and associated walking distance for large automatic milking system (AMS) herds when incorporating complementary forage rotations (CFR) into the system. Thirty-six scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as moderate; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as high) and 6 rates of replacement of each of these pastures by grazeable CFR (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) were investigated. Results showed that AMS cows were required to walk greater than 1-km when the farm area was greater than 86 ha. Insufficient pasture could be produced within a 1 km distance (i.e. 86 ha land) with home-grown feed (HGF) providing 43%, 29%, and 22% of the metabolisable energy (ME) required by 400, 600, and 800 cows, respectively from pastures. Introduction of pasture (moderate): CFR in AMS at a ratio of 80:20 can feed a 400 cow AMS herd, and can supply 42% and 31% of the ME requirements for 600 and 800 cows, respectively with pasture (moderate): CFR at 50:50 levels. In contrast to moderate pasture, 400 cows can be managed on high pasture utilisation (provided 57% of the total ME requirements). However, similar to the scenarios conducted with moderate pasture, there was insufficient feed produced within 1-km distance of the dairy for 600 or 800 cows. An 800 cow herd required 140 and 130 ha on moderate and high pasture-based AMS

  9. Evaluation of serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and nitric oxide (NO) during the estrous cycle, early pregnancy and abortion in goats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youwang; Lv, Wenting; Jia, Jingliang; Wang, Jiantao; Yang, Jianhui

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the serum concentrations, ranges, and trends of Th1 type cytokine (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-2), Th2 type cytokine (IL-10), and nitric oxide (NO) during the estrous cycle, early pregnancy and abortion in goats. Boer goats (n=25) having symptoms of normal estrous cycles were selected, 20 were mated and 15 conceived a pregnancy, and the remaining five were not mated and served as estrous controls. On the Day 60 of pregnancy, all 15 pregnant goats were induced to abort the pregnancy by intramuscular injection of prostaglandin (PG). Serum samples were collected on Days 1, 7, 14, and 19 of the estrous cycle, at Days 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 of pregnancy, and at Days 1, 3, 8, 10 over the period when abortion were occurring. Results of the present study indicated that during the estrous cycle the balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines slightly shifted toward Th1 cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-2). The NO may have a direct positive role in inducing a Th1 response. During early pregnancy, TNF-α and IL-2 serum concentrations markedly increased from Days 0 to 10, and gradually decreased from Days 10 to 60, while IL-10 and NO serum concentrations remained elevated from Days 0 to 60. The increased concentrations of IL-10 and decreased concentrations of TNF-α and IL-2 are characteristic of a Th2-enhanced response, which may be related to increased concentrations of NO. These changes may be essential to maintain a normal pregnancy. In addition, the serum concentrations of TNF-α, IL-2 and NO at Days 1, 3, 8 and 10 of the period of induced abortion were markedly greater than that on Day 60 of pregnancy. Conversely, IL-10 concentrations at these four time points of abortion were markedly less than that on Day 60 of pregnancy. After abortion, the Th2 response shifted to a Th1-enhanced response. Thus, NO concentrations increase and the Th1-enhanced response may function synergistically to be involved in

  10. SU-E-J-184: Volumetric Indices to Aid Definition of Respiratory Gates with Particular Reference to Lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, H; Gomez, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Conventional definition of respiratory gates relies on tumor motion determination in limited planes. We are proposing a new method to define the RPM gates in a consistent manner ensuring that the tumor motion is restricted to 4 mm in 3D for lung SBRT patients. The method relies on studying the ratio of volumes obtained by GTVnn intersection with GTV50+2mm margin and GTVnn where GTVnn is the GTV volume in phase nn (=0,10,30.) while GTV50+2mm is a pseudo structure created by adding an isotropic margin of 2mm to GTV50. If for any phase nn, above ratio equals 1, it ensures that the tumor motion is ≤ ±2 mm in 3D from GTV50. Methods: This method was tested for 50 patients (14-Central, 36-peripheral) to determine the RPM gates which were then compared with the gates used clinically. The minimum cut-off value of the above coefficient for its inclusion of a phase in RPM gate was taken as 0.97 for central and 0.95 for peripheral tumors. Results: 15 (30%) of the patients did not require any change in the RPM gates w.r.t. gates defined using conventional motion assessment methods. In 15(30%) cases, the RPM gates could have been smaller while in remaining 20 patients, gates could have been larger. 5(/14) patient’s central tumors and 10 (/36) peripheral tumors did not need any gate change. 8(/50) patients could have RPM gate change of 30% while 10(/50) could have a gate change of up to 20%. 10, 20 & 30% RPM gate change could have happened for 11, 10 & 9 patients, respectively. Conclusion: Proposed volumetric indices based method allows a consistent, scientific and objective method to decide optimal RPM gates which is free from any inter or intra person variability and satisfies the tumor motion limits as defined by AAPM TG-76 in totality.

  11. Fast changes in seasonal forest communities due to soil moisture increase after damming.

    PubMed

    do Vale, Vagner Santiago; Schiavini, Ivan; Araújo, Glein Monteiro; Gusson, André Eduardo; Lopes, Sérgio de Faria; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; do Prado-Júnior, Jamir Afonso; Arantes, Carolina de Silvério; Dias-Neto, Olavo Custodio

    2013-12-01

    Local changes caused by dams can have drastic consequences for ecosystems, not only because they change the water regime but also the modification on lakeshore areas. Thus, this work aimed to determine the changes in soil moisture after damming, to understand the consequences of this modification on the arboreal community of dry forests, some of the most endangered systems on the planet. We studied these changes in soil moisture and the arboreal community in three dry forests in the Araguari River Basin, after two dams construction in 2005 and 2006, and the potential effects on these forests. For this, plots of 20 m x 10 m were distributed close to the impoundment margin and perpendicular to the dam margin in two deciduous dry forests and one semi-deciduous dry forest located in Southeastern Brazil, totaling 3.6 ha sampled. Besides, soil analysis were undertaken before and after impoundment at three different depths (0-10, 20-30 and 40-50 cm). A tree (minimum DBH of 4.77 cm) community inventory was made before (TO) and at two (T2) and four (T4) years after damming. Annual dynamic rates of all communities were calculated, and statistical tests were used to determine changes in soil moisture and tree communities. The analyses confirmed soil moisture increases in all forests, especially during the dry season and at sites closer to the reservoir; besides, an increase in basal area due to the fast growth of many trees was observed. The highest turnover occurred in the first two years after impoundment, mainly due to the higher tree mortality especially of those closer to the dam margin. All forests showed reductions in dynamic rates for subsequent years (T2-T4), indicating that these forests tended to stabilize after a strong initial impact. The modifications were more extensive in the deciduous forests, probably because the dry period resulted more rigorous in these forests when compared to semideciduous forest. The new shorelines created by damming increased soil

  12. Long term impact of different tillage practices on soil C sequestration potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valboa, Giuseppe; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Papini, Rossella; Brandi, Giorgio; Elio Agnelli, Alessandro; Simoncini, Stefania; Vignozzi, Nadia; Pellegrini, Sergio

    2013-04-01

    Long-term experiments provide important information on the impact of agricultural management practices on soil quality. In 1994, a trial was started to investigate the effects of four different tillage systems on organic carbon and physical properties of a Calcari Fluvic Cambisol loam soil under continuous maize. The tillage practices compared were: conventional tillage by mould-board ploughing to 40 cm depth (DP); ripper sub-soiling to 40-45 cm (RS); shallow tillage by mould-board ploughing to 20 cm depth (SP); minimum tillage by disk harrowing to 10-15 cm (DH). Soil carbon pool, bulk density, macroporosity and aggregate stability were studied at different depth increments (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm) and by two repeated samplings (in 1999 and 2011), in order to evaluate their temporal evolution under the different tillage systems. For a better understanding of mechanisms leading to C sequestration, a qualitative characterization of soil organic matter (OM) was performed by acid hydrolysis (HCl 6N), in order to separate the labile and the recalcitrant fractions. After 18 years of treatments we hypothesized changes in OM content and quality, as well as in its vertical distribution, due to tillage practices. At the end of the trial, soil total organic carbon (TOC) stock increased in the surface layers under DH (to 10 cm depth), RS (to 20 cm depth) and SP (to 10 cm depth), while it was unchanged under DP. When considering the whole 0-40 cm layer, all tillage treatments resulted in no significant variation in TOC stock. OM quality and its evolution over time showed well defined differences among treatments: the OM recalcitrant fraction increased under RS (up to 30 cm depth), decreased under DP (up to 40 cm depth) and showed no significant changes under DH and SP. The negative impact of DP on C stabilization was confirmed by a significant decrease of the recalcitrant to TOC ratio in the whole sampled layer. In conclusion, DP showed the worst impact on C storage

  13. Effect of Stress from Cadmium Combined with Different Levels of Molybdenum on Serum Free Radical and Expression of Related Apoptosis Genes in Goat Livers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huabin; Xing, Chenghong; Zhuang, Yu; Gu, Xiaolong; Luo, Junrong; Guo, Xiaoquan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Caiying; Hu, Guoliang

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential element for human beings and animals; however, high dietary intake of Mo can lead to adverse reactions. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major transitional metals which have toxic effects in animals. The toxicity of simple Cd or Mo has been researched frequently. However, the toxicity of Mo combined with Cd was rarely studied. To investigate the toxicity of Mo combined with Cd in liver of goats, 36 Boer goats were randomly divided into four groups and assigned with one of the three oral treatments of CdCl2 (0.5 mg kg(-1) Cd) and [(NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O] (15 mg kg(-1) Mo, group I; 30 mg kg(-1) Mo, group II; 45 mg kg(-1) Mo, group III), while the control group received deionized water. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 to determine antioxidant indices in serum. In addition, liver tissues were collected on days 0, 25, and 50 for detecting the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax. Moreover, liver tissues at 50 days were subjected to histopathological analysis with the optical microscope. The results revealed a significant increase (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) in the levels of nitric oxide (NO), malonaldehyde (MDA), and the activity of nitrix oxide synthase (NOS) and a significant decline (P < 0.05) in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC). The mRNA expression level of Bcl-2 was suppressed (P < 0.05), while the expression of Bax was increased (P < 0.05) in liver. The histopathological changes were observed in the liver of goats including a small amount of erythrocyte, the unclear structure of hepatic cord and hepatic sinusoid, granular degeneration, vacuolar degeneration, and steatosis. In conclusion, combined chronic toxicity of Cd with different levels of Mo might induce goat liver cell apoptosis and cause oxidative stress in serum, and it showed a possible synergistic relationship between the two elements.

  14. MO-G-304-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION: Expanding the Knowledge Base for Data-Driven Treatment Planning: Incorporating Patient Outcome Models

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, SP; Quon, H; Cheng, Z; Moore, JA; Bowers, M; McNutt, TR

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To extend the capabilities of knowledge-based treatment planning beyond simple dose queries by incorporating validated patient outcome models. Methods: From an analytic, relational database of 684 head and neck cancer patients, 372 patients were identified having dose data for both left and right parotid glands as well as baseline and follow-up xerostomia assessments. For each existing patient, knowledge-based treatment planning was simulated for by querying the dose-volume histograms and geometric shape relationships (overlap volume histograms) for all other patients. Dose predictions were captured at normalized volume thresholds (NVT) of 0%, 10%, 20, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 85% and were compared with the actual achieved doses using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Next, a logistic regression model was used to predict the maximum severity of xerostomia up to three months following radiotherapy. Baseline xerostomia scores were subtracted from follow-up assessments and were also included in the model. The relative risks from predicted doses and actual doses were computed and compared. Results: The predicted doses for both parotid glands were significantly less than the achieved doses (p < 0.0001), with differences ranging from 830 cGy ± 1270 cGy (0% NVT) to 1673 cGy ± 1197 cGy (30% NVT). The modelled risk of xerostomia ranged from 54% to 64% for achieved doses and from 33% to 51% for the dose predictions. Relative risks varied from 1.24 to 1.87, with maximum relative risk occurring at 85% NVT. Conclusions: Data-driven generation of treatment planning objectives without consideration of the underlying normal tissue complication probability may Result in inferior plans, even if quality metrics indicate otherwise. Inclusion of complication models in knowledge-based treatment planning is necessary in order to close the feedback loop between radiotherapy treatments and patient outcomes. Future work includes advancing and validating complication models in the context

  15. Abundance and stratification of soil macroarthropods in a Caatinga Forest in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, V F P; Bandeira, A G; Vasconcellos, A

    2010-10-01

    In arid and semiarid environments, seasonality usually exerts a strong influence on the composition and dynamics of the soil community. The soil macroarthropods were studied in a Caatinga forest located in the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN) Fazenda Almas, São José dos Cordeiros, Paraíba, Brazil. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons following the method proposed by the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Program (TSBF), with minor modifications. At each station, 15 soil blocks (20 × 20 × 30 cm: 12 L) were extracted and divided into three layers: A (0-10 cm), B (10-20 cm), and C (20-30 cm). In the rainy and dry seasons 1,306 ± 543(se) and 458 ± 212 ind.m-2 macroarthropods were found, respectively, with 35 and 18 respective taxa recorded. The abundance of individuals and taxa were significantly higher in the rainy season. Isoptera (57.8%) was the most abundant taxon, followed by Hymenoptera: Formicidae (17.2%), Coleoptera larvae (7.3%), and Araneae (3.5%). In the rainy season, abundance in layer A (576 ± 138 ind.m-2) was significantly higher than that of layer C (117 ± 64 ind.m-2), but was not different from layer B (613 ± 480 ind.m-2). There was also no difference between the layer B and C abundances. In the dry season, abundance in layer B (232 ± 120 ind.m-2) was not significantly different compared to layer A (182 ± 129 ind.m-2), but was significantly higher than abundance in layer C (44 ± 35 ind.m-2). During the rainy season, layer A (34 taxa) was significantly richer in taxa than layers B (19 taxa) and C (11 taxa). On the other hand, during the dry season the richness of layers A (12 taxa) and B (12 taxa) was equal, but significantly higher than that of layer C (6 taxa). Richness of taxa and abundance were positively correlated with soil organic matter and negatively correlated with soil temperature. The community of soil macroarthropods in the area of Caatinga studied has taxonomic and functional structures that

  16. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: System Fitness of Grazeable Home-grown Forages, Land Areas and Walking Distances.

    PubMed

    Islam, M R; Garcia, S C; Clark, C E F; Kerrisk, K L

    2015-06-01

    To maintain a predominantly pasture-based system, the large herd milked by automatic milking rotary would be required to walk significant distances. Walking distances of greater than 1-km are associated with an increased incidence of undesirably long milking intervals and reduced milk yield. Complementary forages can be incorporated into pasture-based systems to lift total home grown feed in a given area, thus potentially 'concentrating' feed closer to the dairy. The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the total land area required and associated walking distance for large automatic milking system (AMS) herds when incorporating complementary forage rotations (CFR) into the system. Thirty-six scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as moderate; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as high) and 6 rates of replacement of each of these pastures by grazeable CFR (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) were investigated. Results showed that AMS cows were required to walk greater than 1-km when the farm area was greater than 86 ha. Insufficient pasture could be produced within a 1 km distance (i.e. 86 ha land) with home-grown feed (HGF) providing 43%, 29%, and 22% of the metabolisable energy (ME) required by 400, 600, and 800 cows, respectively from pastures. Introduction of pasture (moderate): CFR in AMS at a ratio of 80:20 can feed a 400 cow AMS herd, and can supply 42% and 31% of the ME requirements for 600 and 800 cows, respectively with pasture (moderate): CFR at 50:50 levels. In contrast to moderate pasture, 400 cows can be managed on high pasture utilisation (provided 57% of the total ME requirements). However, similar to the scenarios conducted with moderate pasture, there was insufficient feed produced within 1-km distance of the dairy for 600 or 800 cows. An 800 cow herd required 140 and 130 ha on moderate and high pasture-based AMS

  17. Structural and spectroscopic studies on Er3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraju, K.; Marimuthu, K.

    2012-04-01

    Er3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (69-x)B2O3-xTeO2-15MgO-15K2O-1Er2O3 (where x=0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) have been prepared and their structural and spectroscopic behavior were studied and reported. The varying tellurium dioxide content in the host matrix that results, changes in structural and spectroscopic behavior around Er3+ ions are explored through XRD, FTIR, UV-VIS-NIR and luminescence measurements. The XRD pattern confirms the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses and the FTIR spectra explore the fundamental groups and the local structural units in the prepared boro-tellurite glasses. The bonding parameters (βbar and δ) have been calculated from the observed band positions of the absorption spectra to claim the ionic/covalent nature of the prepared glasses. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) were determined through experimental and calculated oscillator strengths obtained from the absorption spectra and their results are studied and compared with reported literature. The variation in the JO parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) with the change in chemical composition have been discussed in detail. The JO parameters have also been used to derive the important radiative properties like transition probability (A), branching ratio (βR) and peak stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) for the excited state transitions 2H9/2→4I15/2 and 2H11/2 and 4S3/2→4I15/2 of the Er3+ ions and the results were studied and reported. Using Davis and Mott theory, optical band gap energy (Eopt) values for the direct and indirect allowed transitions have been calculated and discussed along with the Urbach energy values for the prepared Er3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses in the present study. The optical properties of the prepared glasses with the change in tellurium dioxide have been studied and compared with similar results.

  18. Newly Shaped Intra‐Aortic Balloons Improve the Performance of Counterpulsation at the Semirecumbent Position: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kolyva, Christina; Pepper, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The major hemodynamic benefits of intra‐aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation are augmentation in diastolic aortic pressure (P aug) during inflation, and decrease in end‐diastolic aortic pressure (ΔedP) during deflation. When the patient is nursed in the semirecumbent position these benefits are diminished. Attempts to change the shape of the IAB in order to limit or prevent this deterioration have been scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hemodynamic performance of six new IAB shapes, and compare it to that of a traditional cylindrical IAB. A mock circulation system, featuring an artificial left ventricle and an aortic model with 11 branches and physiological resistance and compliance, was used to test one cylindrical and six newly shaped IABs at angles 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40°. Pressure was measured continuously at the aortic root during 1:1 and 1:4 IABP support. Shape 2 was found to consistently achieve, in terms of absolute magnitude, larger ΔedP at angles than the cylindrical IAB. Although ΔedP was gradually diminished with angle, it did so to a lesser degree than the cylindrical IAB; this diminishment was only 53% (with frequency 1:1) and 40% (with frequency 1:4) of that of the cylindrical IAB, when angle increased from 0 to 40°. During inflation Shape 1 displayed a more stable behavior with increasing angle compared to the cylindrical IAB; with an increase in angle from 0 to 40°, diastolic aortic pressure augmentation dropped only by 45% (with frequency 1:1) and by 33% (with frequency 1:4) of the drop reached with the cylindrical IAB. After compensating for differences in nominal IAB volume, Shape 1 generally achieved higher P aug over most angles. Newly shaped IABs could allow for IABP therapy to become more efficient for patients nursed at the semirecumbent position. The findings promote the idea of personalized rather than generalized patient therapy for the achievement of higher IABP therapeutic efficiency

  19. Influence of dietary manganese on performance, lipid metabolism, and carcass composition of growing and finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Legleiter, L R; Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E

    2005-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary Mn on performance of growing and finishing steers, and to evaluate the effect of pharmacological concentrations of Mn on lipid metabolism and subsequent carcass quality in steers. One hundred twenty Angus cross steers were blocked by BW and origin and assigned randomly to one of six treatments (four replicate pens per treatment) providing 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, 120, or 240 mg of supplemental Mn/kg of DM from MnSO4. Steers were fed a corn silage-based growing diet for 84 d, and then switched to a corn-based finishing diet for an average of 112 d. The control growing diet analyzed 29 mg of Mn/kg of DM, whereas the control finishing diet analyzed 8 mg of Mn/kg of DM. Jugular blood samples were obtained on d 56 of the growing and finishing phase for plasma Mn and glucose analysis. Final BW, DMI, ADG, and G:F did not differ (P = 0.38 to P = 0.98) across treatments during growing and finishing phases. Plasma Mn concentrations were not affected by treatment; however, liver and LM Mn at slaughter increased linearly (P = 0.02 and 0.002, respectively) with increasing dietary Mn. Plasma glucose concentrations did not differ (P = 0.90) among treatments. Serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations tended (P = 0.10) to decrease linearly with increasing dietary Mn on d 56 of the finishing phase. Longissimus muscle lipid concentration was affected quadratically (P = 0.08) by dietary Mn. Muscle lipid seemed to increase slightly when steers were fed 30 or 120 mg of Mn/kg of DM, but decreased with the addition of 240 mg of Mn/kg of DM. Carcass characteristics were not affected by dietary Mn. Manganese concentrations of 29 and 8 mg/kg of DM in the growing and finishing diets, respectively, were adequate for maximizing performance of growing and finishing steers in this experiment. Supplementing physiological or pharmacological concentrations of Mn affected lipid metabolism; however, this did not result in altered carcass

  20. Impact of chronic lead exposure on selected biological markers.

    PubMed

    Jangid, Ambica P; John, P J; Yadav, D; Mishra, Sandhya; Sharma, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Lead poisoning remains a major problem in India due to the lack of awareness of its ill effects among the clinical community. Blood lead, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations are widely used as biomarkers for lead toxicity The present study was designed to determine the impact of chronic lead exposure on selected biological markers. A total of 250 subjects, of both sexes, ranging in age from 20 to 70 years, were recruited. On the basis of BLLs, the subjects were categorized into four groups: Group A (BLL: 0-10 μg/dl), Group B (BLL: 10-20 μg/dl). Group C (BLL: 20-30 μg/dl) and Group D (BLL: 30-40 μg/dl) having BLLs of 3.60 ± 2.71 μg/dl, 15.21 ± 2.65 μg/dl, 26.82 ± 2.53 μg/dl and 36.38 ± 2.83 μg/dl, respectively. Significant changes in biological markers due to elevated BLLs were noted. The relation of BLL and biological markers to demographic characteristics such as sex, habits, diet and substances abuse (smoking effect) were also studied in the present investigation. Males, urban population, non-vegetarians, and smokers had higher blood lead levels. δ-ALAD activity was found to be significantly lower with increased BLL (P < 0.001), while the ZPP level was significantly higher with increased BLL (P < 0.001). Further, BLL showed a negative correlation with δ-ALAD (r = -0.425, P < 0.001, N = 250) and a positive correlations with ZPP (r = 0.669, P < 0.001, N = 250). Chronic lead exposure affects the prooxidant-antioxidant equilibrium leading to cellular oxidative stress.