Science.gov

Sample records for 0-100 cm soil

  1. Estimation of CO2 diffusion coefficient at 0-10 cm depth in undisturbed and tilled soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diffusion coefficients (D) of CO2 at 0 – 10 cm layers in undisturbed and tilled soil conditions were estimated using Penman, Millington-Quirk, Ridgwell et al. (1999), Troeh et al., and Moldrup et al. models. Soil bulk density and volumetric soil water content ('v) at 0 – 10 cm were measured on April...

  2. Biocrusts serve as biomarkers for the upper 30 cm soil water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidron, Giora J.; Benenson, Itzhak

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge regarding the spatial distribution of moisture in soil is of great importance especially in arid regions where water is scarce. Following a previous research that showed a significant relationship between daylight surface wetness duration and the average chlorophyll content of 5 biocrusts in the Negev Desert (Israel), and the resultant outcome that pointed to the possible use of biocrusts as biomarkers for surface wetness duration, we hypothesize that biocrusts may also serve as biomarkers for the moisture content of the upper soil layer. Toward this end, daylight surface wetness duration was measured at 5 crust types following rain events during 1993-1995 along with periodical soil sampling of the upper 30 cm (at 5 cm intervals) of the soil profiles underlying these biocrusts. The findings showed a positive linear relationship between daylight surface wetness duration and the chlorophyll content of the crusts (r2 = 0.96-0.97). High correlations were also found between daylight surface wetness duration and the available water content (r2 = 0.96) and duration (r2 = 0.85-0.88) of the upper 30 cm soil and between the chlorophyll content of the crust and the available water content (r2 = 0.93-0.96) and duration (r2 = 0.78-0.84). Topography-induced shading and slope position (which determined additional water either by runoff or subsurface flow) are seen responsible for the clear link between subsurface moisture content, daylight surface wetness duration and chlorophyll content of the crust. This link points to the possible use of biocrusts as biomarkers for subsurface water content and highlights the importance of crust typology and mapping for the study of the spatial distribution of water and their potential use for the study of ecosystem structure and function.

  3. A case study demonstration of the soil temperature extrema recovery rates after precipitation cooling at 10-cm soil depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Jean Edward

    1991-01-01

    Since the invention of maximum and minimum thermometers in the 18th century, diurnal temperature extrema have been taken for air worldwide. At some stations, these extrema temperatures were collected at various soil depths also, and the behavior of these temperatures at a 10-cm depth at the Tifton Experimental Station in Georgia is presented. After a precipitation cooling event, the diurnal temperature maxima drop to a minimum value and then start a recovery to higher values (similar to thermal inertia). This recovery represents a measure of response to heating as a function of soil moisture and soil property. Eight different curves were fitted to a wide variety of data sets for different stations and years, and both power and exponential curves were fitted to a wide variety of data sets for different stations and years. Both power and exponential curve fits were consistently found to be statistically accurate least-square fit representations of the raw data recovery values. The predictive procedures used here were multivariate regression analyses, which are applicable to soils at a variety of depths besides the 10-cm depth presented.

  4. Effects of modified soil water-heat physics on RegCM4 simulations of climate over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuejia; Pang, Guojin; Yang, Meixue; Wan, Guoning

    2016-06-01

    To optimize the description of land surface processes and improve climate simulations over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), a modified soil water-heat parameterization scheme (SWHPS) is implemented into the Community Land Model 3.5 (CLM3.5), which is coupled to the regional climate model 4 (RegCM4). This scheme includes Johansen's soil thermal conductivity scheme together with Niu's groundwater module. Two groups of climate simulations are then performed using the original RegCM4 and revised RegCM4 to analyze the effects of the revised SWHPS on regional climate simulations. The effect of the revised RegCM4 on simulated air temperature is relatively small (with mean biases changing by less than 0.1°C over the TP). There are overall improvements in the simulation of winter and summer air temperature but increased errors in the eastern TP. It has a significant effect on simulated precipitation. There is also a clear improvement in simulated annual and winter precipitation, particularly over the northern TP, including the Qilian Mountains and the source region of the Yellow River. There are, however, increased errors in precipitation simulation in parts of the southern TP. The precipitation difference between the two models is caused mainly by their convective precipitation difference, particularly in summer. Overall, the implementation of the new SWHPS into the RegCM4 has a significant effect not only on land surface variables but also on the overlying atmosphere through various physical interactions.

  5. Thermal emission measurements 2000-400/cm (5-25 micrometers) of Hawaiian palagonitic soils and their implications for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; Bell, James F., III

    1995-01-01

    The thermal emision of two palagonitic soils, common visible and near infrared spectral analogs for bright soils on Mars, was measured over the wavelength range of 5 to 25 micrometers (2000 to 400/cm) for several partical size separates. All spectra exhibit emissivity features due to vibrations associated with H2O and SiO. The maximum variability of emissivity is approximately 20% in the short wavelength region (5 to 6.5 mirometers, 2000 to 1500/cm), and is more subdued, less than 4%, at longer wavelengths. The strengths of features present in the infrared spectra of Mars cannot be solely provided by emissivity variations of palagonite; some other material or mechanism must provide additional absorptions(s).

  6. Assessing potential of vertical average soil moisture (0-40cm) estimation for drought monitoring using MODIS data: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianwei; Huang, Shifeng; Li, Jiren; Li, Xiaotao; Song, Xiaoning; Leng, Pei; Sun, Yayong

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important parameter in the research of hydrology, agriculture, and meteorology. The present study is designed to produce a near real time soil moisture estimation algorithm by linking optical/IR measurements to ground measured soil moisture, and then used to monitoring region drought. It has been found that the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) are related to surface soil moisture. Therefore, a relationship between ground measurement soil moisture and NDVI and LST can be developed. Six days' NDVI and LST data calculated from Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) of Shandong province during October in 2009 to May in 2010 were combined with ground measured volumetric soil moisture in different depth (10cm, 20cm, 40cm, and mean in vertical (0-40cm)) and different soil type to determine regression relationships at a 1 km scale. Based on the regression relationships, mean volumetric soil moisture in vertical (0-40cm) at 1 km resolution can be calculated over the Shandong province, and then drought maps were obtained. The result shows that significantly relationship exists between the NDVI and LST and soil moisture at different soil depths, and regression relationships are soil type dependent. What is more, the drought monitoring results agree well with actual situation.

  7. Thermal emission measurements 2000-400 cm(exp -1) (5-25 microns) of Hawaiian palagonitic soils and their implications for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; Bell, James F., III

    1995-01-01

    The thermal emission of two palagonitic soils, common visible and near infrared spectral analogs for bright soils on Mars, was measured over the wavelength range of 5 to 25 microns (2000 to 400 cm(exp -1) for several particle size separates. All spectra exhibit emissivity features due to vibrations associated with H2O and SiO. The maximum variability of emissivity is approx. = 20% in the short wavelength region (5 to 6.5 microns, 2000 to 1500 cm(exp -1)), and is more subdued, < 4%, at longer wavelengths. The strengths of features present in infrared spectra of Mars cannot be solely provided by emissivity variations of palagonite; some other material or mechanism must provide additional absorption(s).

  8. A CM chondrite cluster and CM streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, R. T.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    An elongate year-day concentration of CM meteoroid falls between 1921 and 1969 is inconsistent with a random flux of CM meteoroids and suggests that most or all such meteorites, and perhaps the Kaidun C-E chondrite breccia, resulted from streams of meteoroids in nearly circular, Earth-like orbits. To establish whether the post-1920 cluster might have arisen from random sampling, we determined the year-day distribution of 14 falls between 1879 and 1969 by treating each as the corner of a cell of specified dimensions (e.g. 30 years x 30 days) and calculated how many falls occurred in that cell. We then compared the CM cell distribution with random distributions over the same range of years. The results show that for 30 x 30 and 45 x 45 cells, fewer than 5 percent of random sets match the CM distribution with respect to maximum cell content and number of one-fall cells.

  9. Longitudinal changes in young children's 0-100 to 0-1000 number-line error signatures.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Robert A; Paul, Jacob M; Butterworth, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We use a latent difference score (LDS) model to examine changes in young children's number-line (NL) error signatures (errors marking numbers on a NL) over 18 months. A LDS model (1) overcomes some of the inference limitations of analytic models used in previous research, and in particular (2) provides a more reliable test of hypotheses about the meaning and significance of changes in NL error signatures over time and task. The NL error signatures of 217 6-year-olds' (on test occasion one) were assessed three times over 18 months, along with their math ability on two occasions. On the first occasion (T1) children completed a 0-100 NL task; on the second (T2) a 0-100 NL and a 0-1000 NL task; on the third (T3) occasion a 0-1000 NL task. On the third and fourth occasions (T3 and T4), children completed mental calculation tasks. Although NL error signatures changed over time, these were predictable from other NL task error signatures, and predicted calculation accuracy at T3, as well as changes in calculation between T3 and T4. Multiple indirect effects (change parameters) showed that associations between initial NL error signatures (0-100 NL) and later mental calculation ability were mediated by error signatures on the 0-1000 NL task. The pattern of findings from the LDS model highlight the value of identifying direct and indirect effects in characterizing changing relationships in cognitive representations over task and time. Substantively, they support the claim that children's NL error signatures generalize over task and time and thus can be used to predict math ability. PMID:26029152

  10. Chernobyl fallout in the uppermost (0-3 cm) humus layer of forest soil in Finland, North East Russia and the Baltic countries in 2000--2003.

    PubMed

    Ylipieti, J; Rissanen, K; Kostiainen, E; Salminen, R; Tomilina, O; Täht, K; Gilucis, A; Gregorauskiene, V

    2008-12-15

    The situation resulting from the Chernobyl fallout in 1987 was compared to that in 2000--2001 in Finland and NW Russia and that in 2003 in the Baltic countries. 786 humus (0-3 cm layer) samples were collected during 2000--2001 in the Barents Ecogeochemistry Project, and 177 samples in the Baltic countries in 2003. Nuclides emitting gamma-radiation in the 0-3 cm humus layer were measured by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK in Finland. In 1987 the project area was classified by the European Commission into four different fallout classes. 137Cs inventory Bg/m2 levels measured in 2000--2003 were compared to the EU's class ranges. Fitting over the whole project area was implemented by generalizing the results for samples from the Baltic countries, for which Bq/m2 inventories could be calculated. A rough estimation was made by comparing the mass of organic matter and humus with 137Cs concentrations in these two areas. Changes in 137Cs concentration levels are illustrated in both thematic maps and tables. Radionuclide 137Cs concentrations (Bq/kg d.w.) were detected in the humus layer at all the 988 sampling sites. 134Cs was still present in 198 sites 15 years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. No other anthropogenic nuclides emitting gamma-radiation were detected, but low levels of 60Co, 125Sb and 154Eu isotopes were found in 14 sites. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive nuclide 137Cs was and still is the most significant fallout radionuclide in the environment and in food chains. The results show that the fallout can still be detected in the uppermost humus layer in North East Europe.

  11. Ubiquitous CM and DM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    Ubiquitous is a real word. I thank a former Total Quality Coach for my first exposure some years ago to its existence. My version of Webster's dictionary defines ubiquitous as "present, or seeming to be present, everywhere at the same time; omnipresent." While I believe that God is omnipresent, I have come to discover that CM and DM are present everywhere. Oh, yes; I define CM as Configuration Management and DM as either Data or Document Management. Ten years ago, I had my first introduction to the CM world. I had an opportunity to do CM for the Space Station effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center. I learned that CM was a discipline that had four areas of focus: identification, control, status accounting, and verification. I was certified as a CMIl graduate and was indoctrinated about clear, concise, and valid. Off I went into a world of entirely new experiences. I was exposed to change requests and change boards first hand. I also learned about implementation of changes, and then of technical and CM requirements.

  12. Halogens in CM Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, J. M.; Caron, B.; Jambon, A.; Michel, A.; Villemant, B.

    2013-09-01

    We set up an extraction line of halogens (fluorine, chlorine) by pyrohydrolysis with 50 mg of rock. We analyzed 7 CM2 chondrites found in Antarctica and found that the Cl content of meteorites with an intact fusion crust is higher than those without.

  13. PAH-concentrations and compositions in the top 2 cm of forest soils along a 120 km long transect through agricultural areas, forests and the city of Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Henning; Reimann, Clemens; Finne, Tor Erik; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Arnoldussen, Arnold

    2007-02-01

    The top 2 cm of forest soils were collected along a 120 km long south-north transect running through Norway's largest city Oslo. Forty samples were analysed for their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH(16) as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) concentrations and compositions. Local variations in the PAH values are high and the reported concentrations are in general low (maximum sumPAH16: 2.6 mg/kg). The transect shows distinct differences of sumPAH16 values from south to north. PAH concentrations are substantially lower in the less populated areas at the north end of the transect than at the urbanised and much more populated south end. Several high values occur in a forested area to the north of Oslo, used for recreation purposes. The PAH distribution patterns point towards a predominantly pyrogenic origin. Local Cambrian carbon-rich black shales can be excluded as sources for PAHs in the forest soils. PMID:16787690

  14. A simple model of carbon in the soil profile for agricultural soils in Northwestern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Hutchings, Nicholas J.; Vejlin, Jonas; Christensen, Bent T.; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2014-05-01

    World soil carbon (C) stocks are second to those in the ocean, and represent three times as much C as currently present in the atmosphere. The amount of C in soil may play a significant role in carbon exchanges between the atmosphere and the terrestrial environment. The C-TOOL model is a three-pool linked soil organic carbon (SOC) model in well-drained mineral soils under agricultural land management to allow generalized parameterization for estimating effects of management measures at medium to long time scales for the entire soil profile (0-100 cm). C-TOOL has been developed to enable simulations of SOC turnover in soil using temperature dependent first order kinetics for describing decomposition. Compared with many other SOC models, C-TOOL applies a less complicated structure, which facilitates easier calibration, and it requires only few inputs (i.e., average monthly air temperature, soil clay content,soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and C inputs to the soil from plants and other sources). C-TOOL was parameterized using SOC and radiocarbon data from selected long-term field treatments in United Kingdom, Sweden and Denmark. However, less data were available for evaluation of subsoil C (25-100 cm) from the long-term experiments applied. In Denmark a national 7×7 km grid net was established in 1986 for soil C monitoring down to 100 cm depth. The results of SOC showed a significant decline from 1997 to 2009 in the 0-50 cm soil layer. This was mainly attributed to changes in the 25-50 cm layer, where a decline in SOC was found for all soil texture types. Across the period 1986 to 2009 there was clear tendency for increasing SOC on the sandy soils and reductions on the loamy soils. This effect is linked to land use, since grasslands and dairy farms are more abundant in the western parts of Denmark, where most of the sandy soils are located. The results and the data from soil monitoring have been used to validate the C-TOOL modelling approach used for accounting of

  15. [Characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in red soil profile under different vegetation types].

    PubMed

    Ji, Gang; Xu, Ming-gang; Wen, Shi-lin; Wang, Bo-ren; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in soil profile under different vegetation types were studied in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China. The soil samples from red soil profiles within 0-100 cm depth at fertilized plots and unfertilized plots were collected and analyzed to understand the profile distribution of soil pH and exchangeable acidity. The results showed that, pH in 0-60 cm soil from the fertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: citrus orchard > Arachis hypogaea field > tea garden. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was A. hypogaea field ≤ citrus orchard < tea garden. After tea tree and A. hypogaea were planted for long time, acidification occurred in surface soil (0-40 cm), compared with the deep soil (60-100 cm), and soil pH decreased by 0.55 and 0.17 respectively, but such changes did not occur in citrus orchard. Soil pH in 0-40 cm soil from the natural recovery vegetation unfertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: Imperata cylindrica land > Castanea mollissima garden > Pinus elliottii forest ≥ Loropetalum chinensis forest. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was L cylindrica land < C. mollissima garden < L. chinensis forest ≤ P. elliottii forest. Soil pH in surface soil (0-20 cm) from natural forest plots, secondary forest and Camellia oleifera forest were significantly lower than that from P. massoniana forest, decreased by 0.34 and 0.20 respectively. For exchangeable acidity content in 0-20 cm soil from natural forest plot, P. massoniana forest and secondary forest were significantly lower than C. oleifera forest. Compared with bare land, surface soil acidification in unfertilized plots except I. cylindrica land had been accelerated, and the natural secondary forest was the most serious among them, with surface soil pH decreasing by 0.52. However, the pH increased in deep soils from unfertilized plots except natural secondary forest, and I. cylindrica

  16. [Characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in red soil profile under different vegetation types].

    PubMed

    Ji, Gang; Xu, Ming-gang; Wen, Shi-lin; Wang, Bo-ren; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in soil profile under different vegetation types were studied in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China. The soil samples from red soil profiles within 0-100 cm depth at fertilized plots and unfertilized plots were collected and analyzed to understand the profile distribution of soil pH and exchangeable acidity. The results showed that, pH in 0-60 cm soil from the fertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: citrus orchard > Arachis hypogaea field > tea garden. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was A. hypogaea field ≤ citrus orchard < tea garden. After tea tree and A. hypogaea were planted for long time, acidification occurred in surface soil (0-40 cm), compared with the deep soil (60-100 cm), and soil pH decreased by 0.55 and 0.17 respectively, but such changes did not occur in citrus orchard. Soil pH in 0-40 cm soil from the natural recovery vegetation unfertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: Imperata cylindrica land > Castanea mollissima garden > Pinus elliottii forest ≥ Loropetalum chinensis forest. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was L cylindrica land < C. mollissima garden < L. chinensis forest ≤ P. elliottii forest. Soil pH in surface soil (0-20 cm) from natural forest plots, secondary forest and Camellia oleifera forest were significantly lower than that from P. massoniana forest, decreased by 0.34 and 0.20 respectively. For exchangeable acidity content in 0-20 cm soil from natural forest plot, P. massoniana forest and secondary forest were significantly lower than C. oleifera forest. Compared with bare land, surface soil acidification in unfertilized plots except I. cylindrica land had been accelerated, and the natural secondary forest was the most serious among them, with surface soil pH decreasing by 0.52. However, the pH increased in deep soils from unfertilized plots except natural secondary forest, and I. cylindrica

  17. A global analysis of soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Thornton, Peter E; Post, Wilfred M

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbes play a pivotal role in regulating land-atmosphere interactions; the soil microbial biomass carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and C:N:P stoichiometry are important regulators for soil biogeochemical processes; however, the current knowledge on magnitude, stoichiometry, storage, and spatial distribution of global soil microbial biomass C, N, and P is limited. In this study, 3087 pairs of data points were retrieved from 281 published papers and further used to summarize the magnitudes and stoichiometries of C, N, and P in soils and soil microbial biomass at global- and biome-levels. Finally, global stock and spatial distribution of microbial biomass C and N in 0-30 cm and 0-100 cm soil profiles were estimated. The results show that C, N, and P in soils and soil microbial biomass vary substantially across biomes; the fractions of soil nutrient C, N, and P in soil microbial biomass are 1.6% in a 95% confidence interval of (1.5%-1.6%), 2.9% in a 95% confidence interval of (2.8%-3.0%), and 4.4% in a 95% confidence interval of (3.9%-5.0%), respectively. The best estimates of C:N:P stoichiometries for soil nutrients and soil microbial biomass are 153:11:1, and 47:6:1, respectively, at global scale, and they vary in a wide range among biomes. Vertical distribution of soil microbial biomass follows the distribution of roots up to 1 m depth. The global stock of soil microbial biomass C and N were estimated to be 15.2 Pg C and 2.3 Pg N in the 0-30 cm soil profiles, and 21.2 Pg C and 3.2 Pg N in the 0-100 cm soil profiles. We did not estimate P in soil microbial biomass due to data shortage and insignificant correlation with soil total P and climate variables. The spatial patterns of soil microbial biomass C and N were consistent with those of soil organic C and total N, i.e. high density in northern high latitude, and low density in low latitudes and southern hemisphere.

  18. [Characteristics and Inputs of Cd Contamination in Paddy Soils in Typical Mining and Industrial Areas in Youxian County, Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wang Mei-e; Chen, Wei-ping; Niu, Jun-jie

    2015-04-01

    In order to explore input pathways and pollution characteristics of Cd contamination in paddy soil in Youxian, Hunan Province, Cd contents in paddy soils, sediments of irrigation canals, typical mineral and industrial products such as coal, gangue and cement were analyzed. It was suggested that the average contents of Cd both in surface paddy soil and the corresponding natural soil were higher than the soil quality standard 0.3 mg x kg(-1). Cd contents in gangue and cement were similar as those in the corresponding natural soils. The atmosphere deposition of Cd was the highest in factory area. The profiles of Cd in 0-100 cm paddy soil and 0-40 cm in natural soils varied significantly from the upper to the lower layer. Cd contents in 0-40 cm layer in paddy soil were much higher than those in corresponding natural soils in mineral and mineral-factory areas. The potentiality for downward movement of Cd in soils in mineral area was the highest among the three studied areas. It suggested Cd contents in surface paddy soil were higher in upwind areas than those in downwind areas in mineral-factory and factory areas. It could be concluded that the main input pathways of Cd in mineral and mineral-factory. areas were from irrigation water, while contribution of atmosphere deposition in mineral-factory and factory areas was also very significant. PMID:26164922

  19. [Characteristics and Inputs of Cd Contamination in Paddy Soils in Typical Mining and Industrial Areas in Youxian County, Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wang Mei-e; Chen, Wei-ping; Niu, Jun-jie

    2015-04-01

    In order to explore input pathways and pollution characteristics of Cd contamination in paddy soil in Youxian, Hunan Province, Cd contents in paddy soils, sediments of irrigation canals, typical mineral and industrial products such as coal, gangue and cement were analyzed. It was suggested that the average contents of Cd both in surface paddy soil and the corresponding natural soil were higher than the soil quality standard 0.3 mg x kg(-1). Cd contents in gangue and cement were similar as those in the corresponding natural soils. The atmosphere deposition of Cd was the highest in factory area. The profiles of Cd in 0-100 cm paddy soil and 0-40 cm in natural soils varied significantly from the upper to the lower layer. Cd contents in 0-40 cm layer in paddy soil were much higher than those in corresponding natural soils in mineral and mineral-factory areas. The potentiality for downward movement of Cd in soils in mineral area was the highest among the three studied areas. It suggested Cd contents in surface paddy soil were higher in upwind areas than those in downwind areas in mineral-factory and factory areas. It could be concluded that the main input pathways of Cd in mineral and mineral-factory. areas were from irrigation water, while contribution of atmosphere deposition in mineral-factory and factory areas was also very significant.

  20. [Characteristics of ammonium N and nitrate N accumulation in dryland soil in relation with wheat yield].

    PubMed

    Miao, Yan-Fang; Li, Sheng-Xiu; Fu, Yan-Yan; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Luo, Lai-Chao

    2014-04-01

    A total of eleven field trials in Yongshou, Shaanxi Province and seven in Luoyang, Henan Province were conducted with two treatments (without N as control and with 150 kg N x hm(-2) addition). The wheat biomass and seed yield were determined, and so were the nitrate and ammonium N concentrations in five layers (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100 cm) at each trial site. Results showed that soil ammonium concentrations in the two provinces were very low while nitrate N concentrations were relatively high. Soil nitrate N occupied 91% of the total mineral N, and exhibited the same trend as the total mineral N in reflecting soil N supplying capacity. Without N application, the cumulative nitrate N amounts in the 0-40, 0-60, 0-80 and 0-100 cm layers in Yongshou were significantly correlated with wheat biomass and seed yield while no such correlation existed in Luoyang. With N addition, the relations of cumulative nitrate N of the different layers to wheat biomass and yield were greatly declined in Yongshou whereas those of Luoyang were changed to be negative. The yield increases were significantly correlated with the amount of nitrate N accumulated in the 0-80 and 0-100 cm layers of the two sites under N addition. Wheat mainly depended on nitrate N from the 0-20 cm layer at seedling stage, 0-40 cm at reviving, and 0-60 cm at elongation stages, and could utilize 0-100 cm nitrate N at maturity. After wheat harvest, the concentration of ammonium N was not significantly different from the initial value while that of nitrate N greatly decreased. PMID:25011293

  1. Serpentine Nanotubes in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    The CM chondrites are primitive meteorites that formed during the early solar system. Although they retain much of their original physical character, their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained aqueous alteration early in their histories [1- 3]. Serpentine-group minerals are abundant products of such alteration, and information regarding their structures, compositions, and spatial relationships is important for determining the reactions that produced them and the conditions under which they formed. Our recent work on FGRs and matrices of the CM chondrites has revealed new information on the structures and compositions of serpentine-group minerals [4,5] and has provided insights into the evolution of these primitive meteorites. Here we report on serpentine nanotubes from the Mighei and Murchison CM chondrites [6].

  2. 344 cm x 86 cm low mass vacuum window

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, R.M.; Porter, J.; Meneghetti, J.; Wilde, S.; Miller, R.

    1983-08-01

    The LBL Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) superconducting magnet contains a 1 m x 3.45 m x 2 m vacuum tank in its gap. A full aperture thin window was needed to minimize background as the products of nuclear collisions move from upstream targets to downstream detectors. Six windows were built and tested in the development process. The final window's unsupported area is 3m/sup 2/ with a 25 cm inward deflection. The design consists of a .11 mm Nylon/aluminum/polypropylene laminate as a gas seal and .55 mm woven aramid fiber for strength. Total mass is 80 milligrams per cm/sup 2/. Development depended heavily on past experience and testing. Safety considerations are discussed.

  3. Application of a soil moisture diagnostic equation for estimating root-zone soil moisture in arid and semi-arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Feifei; Nieswiadomy, Michael; Qian, Shuan

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture in the root zone is critical for crop growth estimation and irrigation scheduling. In this study, a soil moisture diagnostic equation is applied to estimate soil moisture at depths of 0-100 cm (because the majority of crop roots are in the top 100 cm of soil) at four USDA Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) sites in arid and semi-arid regions: TX2105 in northwest Texas, NM2015 and NM2108 in east New Mexico, and AZ2026 in southeast Arizona. At each site, a dataset of 5-6 years of records of daily soil moisture, daily mean air temperature, precipitation and downward solar radiation is compiled and processed. Both the sinusoidal wave function of day of year (DOY) and a linear function of the potential evapotranspiration (PET) are used to approximate the soil moisture loss coefficient. The first four years of data are used to derive the soil moisture loss function and the empirical parameters in the soil moisture diagnostic equation. The derived loss function and empirical parameters are then applied to estimate soil moisture in the last fifth or sixth year at each site. Root mean square errors (RMSEs) of the estimated volumetric soil moistures in five different soil columns (i.e., 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 or 30 cm, 50 cm, and 100 cm) are less than 3.2 (%V/V), and the accuracy of the estimated soil moistures using the sinusoidal soil moisture loss function is slightly better than the PET-based loss functions. In addition to the three advantages of this soil moisture diagnostic equation, i.e., (1) non-cumulative errors in the estimated soil moisture, (2) no regular recalibration is required to correct the cumulative errors, and (3) no numerical iteration and initial moisture inputs are needed since only precipitation data are required, this study also demonstrates that the soil moisture diagnostic equation not only can be used to estimate surface soil moisture, but also the entire root-zone soil moisture.

  4. [Effects of scale-like pit and mulching measures on soil moisture of dryland jujube orchard in North Shaanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Chen; Zhao, Xi-Ning; Gao, Xiao-Ding; Wang, Jia-Wen; Shi, Yin-Guang

    2014-08-01

    Soil moisture is a key factor affecting jujube growth in the semiarid Northern Shaanxi Province. The impacts of different engineering and mulching measures on soil moisture were investigated via in situ measurements in a typical dryland jujube orchard. The results showed that the mean soil moistures (0-180 cm) of scale-like pit + branch mulching, scale-like scale + straw mulching, and soil moisture of scale-like pit with no mulching were increased by 14.2%, 9.4%, and 4.8% than control, respectively. Different measures, especially for the scale-like pit + branch mulching, significantly increased the soil moisture in the soil surface (0-20 cm) and the main root zone layer (20-100 cm) during the jujube growth stage. Individual precipitation events had great impacts on soil moisture in the 0-100 cm, while its effect on soil moisture in deep layers was not apparent. There was no significant difference among the soil moistures in different soil depths of scale-like pit with no mulching when compared with the control under high, medium, and low soil humidity conditions. This study indicated that using the clipped jujube branches as mulching could both save materials cost and achieve the goal of reserving more water in dryland jujube orchard in north Shaanxi Province.

  5. [Effects of scale-like pit and mulching measures on soil moisture of dryland jujube orchard in North Shaanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Chen; Zhao, Xi-Ning; Gao, Xiao-Ding; Wang, Jia-Wen; Shi, Yin-Guang

    2014-08-01

    Soil moisture is a key factor affecting jujube growth in the semiarid Northern Shaanxi Province. The impacts of different engineering and mulching measures on soil moisture were investigated via in situ measurements in a typical dryland jujube orchard. The results showed that the mean soil moistures (0-180 cm) of scale-like pit + branch mulching, scale-like scale + straw mulching, and soil moisture of scale-like pit with no mulching were increased by 14.2%, 9.4%, and 4.8% than control, respectively. Different measures, especially for the scale-like pit + branch mulching, significantly increased the soil moisture in the soil surface (0-20 cm) and the main root zone layer (20-100 cm) during the jujube growth stage. Individual precipitation events had great impacts on soil moisture in the 0-100 cm, while its effect on soil moisture in deep layers was not apparent. There was no significant difference among the soil moistures in different soil depths of scale-like pit with no mulching when compared with the control under high, medium, and low soil humidity conditions. This study indicated that using the clipped jujube branches as mulching could both save materials cost and achieve the goal of reserving more water in dryland jujube orchard in north Shaanxi Province. PMID:25509081

  6. Cloud Properties Derived From GOES-7 for Spring 1994 ARM Intensive Observing Period Using Version 1.0.0 of ARM Satellite Data Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L., Jr.; Garber, Donald P.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Doelling, David R.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the initial formulation (Version 1.0.0) of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program satellite data analysis procedures. Techniques are presented for calibrating geostationary satellite data with Sun synchronous satellite radiances and for converting narrowband radiances to top-of-the-atmosphere fluxes and albedos. A methodology is documented for combining geostationary visible and infrared radiances with surface-based temperature observations to derive cloud amount, optical depth, height, thickness, temperature, and albedo. The analysis is limited to two grids centered over the ARM Southern Great Plains central facility in north-central Oklahoma. Daytime data taken during 5 Apr. - 1 May 1994, were analyzed on the 0.3 deg and 0.5 deg latitude-longitude grids that cover areas of 0.9 deg x 0.9 deg and 10 deg x 14 deg, respectively. Conditions ranging from scattered low cumulus to thin cirrus and thick cumulonimbus occurred during the study period. Detailed comparisons with hourly surface observations indicate that the mean cloudiness is within a few percent of the surface-derived sky cover. Formats of the results are also provided. The data can be accessed through the World Wide Web computer network.

  7. Soil organic carbon stock changes in the contiguous United States from 1920s to 2010s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, B.; Grunwald, S.; Ferguson, H. J.; Hempel, J. W.; Xiong, X.; Patarasuk, R.; Ross, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks is of great importance to understand soil carbon dynamics and develop greenhouse gas mitigation and adaptation strategies. There are research gaps in understanding how natural environmental and anthropogenic factors (such as socio-cultural and political/legislative) have provided positive and negative feedbacks on SOC stocks since the 1920s at continental scale. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the temporal trends in SOC storage across the contiguous U.S.; 2) explore the factors that can explain if soils have acted as a carbon source or sink during the period from 1920s to 2010. We used two soil datasets: 1) National Characterization Soil Survey Database (NCSS) from 1924 to 2010, which includes a total of 14,493 site observations with mutiple soil horizons within 0-100 cm; 2) The data from the Rapid Carbon Assessment (RaCA) Project, containing a total of 6,409 site observations to the maximum depth of 100 cm (2010-2012). We also extracted environmental covariates (space-time layers) covering the U.S. from various sources (remote sensing, National Elevation Dataset, climate data from PRISM project, etc.) to those sites. Results show a fluctuating trend of SOC stocks from 4 kg m-2 in 1920-1930 to 6 kg m-2 in 2010 in the 0-20 cm profile, and from 9 kg m-2 in 1920-1930 to 17 kg m-2 in 2010 in the 0-100 cm profile, respectively. However, there had been a decrease of SOC stock from 1975 to 1985 in both the 0-20 cm and 0-100 cm profiles. Our analysis reveals relationships between SOC storage and major pivotal political/legislative and socio-cultural events as well as environmental factors. The variation of SOC across the contiguous U.S. was affected in some periods by environmental legislation while in others natural effects predominated. The SOC stock change assessment can be used to infer on the magnitude and past trends; and thus, allows some insight how past natural and anthropogenic

  8. [Using 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) to trace the impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon at a slope farmland in the black soil region].

    PubMed

    Fang, Hai-Yan; Sheng, Mei-Ling; Sun, Li-Ying; Cai, Qiang-Guo

    2013-07-01

    Soil cores were collected from a 28.5 hm2 slope farmland in the black soil region of Northeast China. Based on the sampled data of 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC, the potentials of applying 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) for assessing SOC redistribution were evaluated, aimed to approach the impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon (SOC) in black soil region. At both planar and vertical directions, the 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC in the farmland had similar distribution patterns. Although there were large planar variations in the 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) areal activities and the SOC stock as affected by soil erosion and deposition, the 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC had similar changing trends over the landscape. Two depth distribution profiles were also used to study the relations of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) with SOC. At eroded site, the radioactivities of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) and the SOC mass fraction did not show large variations in 0-25 cm soil layer, but decreased sharply below 25 cm. For the deposition sample, the radioactivities of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) in 0-100 cm soil increased firstly and then decreased. The SOC mass fraction also had similar depth distribution pattern in this soil layer. The 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) presented positive linear correlations with the SOC, indicating that 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC moved with the same physical mechanism in the farmland, and fallout 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) could be used to study spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of SOC in the black soil region under the condition of soil erosion.

  9. [Storages and distributed patterns of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen during the succession of artificial sand-binding vegetation in arid desert ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao-Hong; Li, Xin-Rong; Zhou, Yu-Yan; Li, Yuan-Shou

    2012-03-01

    Soil carbon pool acts as the largest one of carbon pools in the terrestrial ecosystem. The storages and distributed patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) evaluated accurately are helpful to predict the feedback between the terrestrial ecosystem and climate changes. Based on the data about bulk density, content of SOC and TN at 0-100 cm soil profile, the density of SOC and TN at the temporal (chronosequence of artificial vegetation) and spatial (vertical) distributed patterns have been estimated. The results indicated that storages of SOC and TN at 0-100 cm depth increased with the chronosequence of artificial vegetation. The storages of SOC and TN showed the same tendency with the succession time of artificial vegetation. Storages of SOC and TN significantly increased at the early stage of banding sand by artificially vegetation (< 16 a), then piled up at the mid-stage (16-25 a), and markedly increased at the late stage (> 25 a). The variation of storages mainly occurred in the 0-20 cm depth. The storages decreased with the soil vertical depth. At the early stage of banding sand, increase in storage included every depth (0-100 cm). Whereas, at the later stage, increase in storage at 0-20 cm depth was main, and increase in the 20-100 cm was inconspicuous. The accumulation of storage at the shallow soil depth was more notability with the succession of artificial vegetation. The distributed pattern of storage in SOC and TN has been confirmed in arid desert regions below 200 mm annual precipitation. This was beneficial to understand the carbon cycle and to predict the feedback relationship between desert ecosystem and climate changes.

  10. Effect of land use on microbial biomass and enzyme activities in tropical soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharjan, Menuka; Sanaullah, Muhammad; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Land use change especially from forest to intensive agriculture for sustaining livelihood causing severe consequence on soil quality. Soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities are very sensitive to change in environment. The objective was to assess effects of three land uses i.e. forest, organic and conventional farming on microbial biomass C and N and enzymes involved in C-cycle (β-glucosidase), N-cycle (leucine-aminopeptidase), P-cycle (Phosphatase) and S-cycle (Sulphatase) at different depth (0-100 cm with 10 cm in interval) of soil in Chitwan, Nepal. The result showed that both carbon and nitrogen content (%) was significantly higher in organic farming than conventional farming and forest. However, the trend decreased in lower depth. Significantly high microbial biomass C and N (μg C and N g-1 soil) were found in organic farming than conventional farming and forest at 0-10 cm but the trend was inconsistent in lower depth. β-glucosidase, leucine-aminopeptidase and sulphatase (nmol g-1 soil) activities were higher in organic and conventional farming compared to forest at 0-20 cm. Phosphatase activity was higher in conventional farming than forest and organic farming at 0-20cm. The activities were inconsistent below 20 cm. Application of farmyard manure and organic matter from the vegetation contributes the higher microbial biomass and enzyme activities in organic farming.

  11. [Effects of no-tillage on soil water content and physical properties of spring corn fields in semiarid region of northern China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Ying; Peng, Wen-Ying; Ma, Xiu; Zhang, Ke-Li

    2011-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2006-2008 to study the effects of no-tillage on the spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water content and related soil physical properties in spring corn fields in Beijing region during growth season. In study period, the water storage in 0-100 cm soil layer in tillage and no-tillage treatments had the same variation trend with time and precipitation, but the water storage at different time periods and under different precipitations was 2.7%-30.3% higher in no-tillage treatment than in tillage treatment. When the precipitation was relatively abundant, the increment of soil water storage was somewhat increased, but no-tillage was still worth to be popularized in the regions relatively deficit in precipitation. Under no-tillage, the average water storage in 0-100 cm soil layer during the three growth seasons in 2006-2008 was 3.4%-12.8% higher than that under conventional tillage, and the increment of the water storage in 0-20 cm and 80-100 cm soil layers under no-tillage was higher than that in intermediate layer, with the highest increment reached 22.2%. No-tillage improved soil water-holding capacity and water use efficiency via decreasing soil bulk density, increasing soil porosity, and promoting the formation of soil water-stable aggregates, and thereby, promoted crop yielding. After 3 years no-tillage, the soil water use efficiency and spring corn yield were increased by 13.3% and 16.4%, respectively, compared with those under conventional tillage.

  12. "Lou soil", a fertile anthropogenic soil with thousands of years of cultivating history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Liang, B.; Yan, J.; Zhao, W.

    2012-12-01

    Chinese farmers have a very long history of using manures in their fields. Owing to the long-term addition of manures, an anthropogenic layer was formed on the top of original soil profile (drab soil) in Guanzhong Plains on the south edge of the Loess Plateau, North China. This soil is named the Manural Loessial soil (or Lou soil, "Lou" means the different stories of a building in Chinese). The depth of anthropogenic layer is in range of about 30 to 100 cm depth, which has a close relationship with the soil productivity. This fertile agricultural soil has sustained the agriculture in the region for millenniums. We had determined the organic carbon (SOC) in 7 soil profiles, and found that the depths of anthropogenic layer of were in range of 40 to 71 cm (averaging 59 cm). And the anthropogenic layer became shallower as the profile was far from the village due to less manure application. The organic C stocks in this layer accounted for 69% of organic C stocks in 0-100 cm soil profiles. Organic C stocks in Lou soil was higher than that in the newly cultivated soil developed from loess parent materials. Our 30-day incubation experiment found that addition of synthetic N fertilizer significantly increased the decomposition of SOC in the soils. However, The decomposition rate of SOC in the soil added with manure and inorganic fertilizers for 18-yr (MNPK soil) was significantly lower than in the soils added without fertilizer or inorganic fertilizers (NF soil, and NPK soils). The half-life of the organic C in MNPK soils was also slower than the NF soil, and NPK soil. It indicates that long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves the stabilization of soil organic C. Long-term cultivation has not only increased organic C stocks, but also stabilization of organic C in soil profile. It provides us a unique sample to study the mechanism of accumulation and stabilization of organic C in soil to balance agricultural production and C sequestration

  13. [Distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon under different forest restoration modes on opencast coal mine dump].

    PubMed

    Wen, Yue-rong; Dang, Ting-hui; Tang, Jun; Li, Jun-chao

    2016-01-01

    The content and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) were compared in six wood restoration modes and adjacent abandoned land on opencast coal mine dump, and the mechanisms behind the differences and their influencing factors were analyzed. Results showed that the contents of SOC in six wood lands were significantly higher (23.8%-53.2%) than that of abandoned land (1.92 g · kg⁻¹) at 0-10 cm soil depth, the index were significantly higher (5.8%-70.4%) at 10-20 cm soil depth than the abandoned land (1.39 g · kg⁻¹), and then the difference of the contents of SOC in the deep soil (20-100 cm) were not significant. The contents of SOC decreased with increase of soil depth, but the decreasing magnitude of the topsoil (0-20 cm) was higher than that of the deep soil (20-100 cm). Compared with the deep soil, the topsoil significant higer storage of SOC in different woods, the SOC storage decreased with the soil depth. Along the 0-100 cm soil layer, the storage of SOC in six wood lands higher (18.1%-42.4%) than that of the abandoned land (17.52 t · hm⁻²). The SOC storage of Amorpha fruticosa land (24.95 t · hm⁻²) was obviously higher than that in the other wood lands. The SOC storage in the shrub lands was 12.4% higher than that of the arbor woods. There were significantly positive correlations among forest litter, fine root biomass, soil water content and SOC on the dump. Consequently, different plantation restorations significantly improved the SOC level on the dump in 0-100 cm soil, especially the topsoil. But there was still a big gap about SOC level between the wood restoration lands and the original landform. To improve the SOC on opencast coal mine dump, A. fruticosa could be selected as the main wood vegetation.

  14. [Vertical Distribution Characteristics of Typical Forest Soil Organic Nitrogen in Dawei Mountain].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xian-qing; Ma, Hui-jing; Zhu, Xiao-long; Chen, Shan; Hou, Hong-bo; Peng, Pei-qin

    2015-10-01

    To clarify altitudinal gradient of subtropical forest soil total nitrogen and organic nitrogen, soil samples were collected per 10 cm on soil profile (0-100 cm) in Dawei Mountain, researched the variation of soil organic nitrogen and correlation with soil physical and chemical properties. The results showed that: (1) Total nitrogen, acid hydrolysable organic nitrogen and soluble organic nitrogen decreased with the increase of depth, content of each component in mountain granite yellow-brown soils was much higher affected by altitude; (2) The average percentage of soil organic nitrogen to total nitrogen was 97.39% ± 1.17%, and soil acid hydrolysable organic nitrogen was 64.38% ± 10.68%, each component decreased with the increase of soil depth; (3) Soil soluble organic nitrogen content was 9.92- 23.45 mg x kg(-1), free amino acids (1.62 - 12.02 mg x kg(-1)) accounted for about 27.36% ± 9.95% of soluble organic nitrogen; (4) Soil acid hydrolysable organic nitrogen and soluble organic nitrogen were significantly positively correlated with total nitrogen, total soluble nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen (P < 0.05), were highly significantly correlated with soil bulk density, organic carbon, and total phosphorus (P < 0.01). Organic nitrogen was the main body of soil nitrogen in typical subtropical forest, each component showed a downward trend increase with soil depth affected by altitude and soil physical and chemical properties. There was a close conversion relationship between soil organic nitrogen and other nitrogen forms, the characteristics of soil organic nitrogen will have profound impact on nitrogen cycling of forest ecological system. PMID:26841616

  15. [Vertical Distribution Characteristics of Typical Forest Soil Organic Nitrogen in Dawei Mountain].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xian-qing; Ma, Hui-jing; Zhu, Xiao-long; Chen, Shan; Hou, Hong-bo; Peng, Pei-qin

    2015-10-01

    To clarify altitudinal gradient of subtropical forest soil total nitrogen and organic nitrogen, soil samples were collected per 10 cm on soil profile (0-100 cm) in Dawei Mountain, researched the variation of soil organic nitrogen and correlation with soil physical and chemical properties. The results showed that: (1) Total nitrogen, acid hydrolysable organic nitrogen and soluble organic nitrogen decreased with the increase of depth, content of each component in mountain granite yellow-brown soils was much higher affected by altitude; (2) The average percentage of soil organic nitrogen to total nitrogen was 97.39% ± 1.17%, and soil acid hydrolysable organic nitrogen was 64.38% ± 10.68%, each component decreased with the increase of soil depth; (3) Soil soluble organic nitrogen content was 9.92- 23.45 mg x kg(-1), free amino acids (1.62 - 12.02 mg x kg(-1)) accounted for about 27.36% ± 9.95% of soluble organic nitrogen; (4) Soil acid hydrolysable organic nitrogen and soluble organic nitrogen were significantly positively correlated with total nitrogen, total soluble nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen (P < 0.05), were highly significantly correlated with soil bulk density, organic carbon, and total phosphorus (P < 0.01). Organic nitrogen was the main body of soil nitrogen in typical subtropical forest, each component showed a downward trend increase with soil depth affected by altitude and soil physical and chemical properties. There was a close conversion relationship between soil organic nitrogen and other nitrogen forms, the characteristics of soil organic nitrogen will have profound impact on nitrogen cycling of forest ecological system.

  16. [Effects of irrigation quota on moisture and salt redistribution in apple orchard soil in arid region].

    PubMed

    Guo, Quan-En; Wang, Yi-Quan; Nan, Li-Li; Cao, Shi-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Taking the salinized apple orchard soil in Qin'an County of Gansu Province, Northwest China as test object, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation quota (0, 900, 1800, 2700, and 3600 m3 x hm(-2)) on the redistribution of moisture and salt in 0-100 cm soil profile on the 10, 20, and 30 d during apple florescence stage. With the increase of irrigation quota, the leached depth of Na+ increased and its hysteretic effect of redistribution was more obvious, "the zero flux plane" of Ca2+ disappeared gradually, the scope of "the zero flux plane" of Mg2+ increased gradually, the leaching-migration mode of Cl- changed from "fluctuation" to "straight-line" and the evaporation-migration changed from "fluctuation" to "ladder", the redistribution pattern of SO4(2-) showed "point", and the position of redistribution and accumulation of HCO3- shifted gradually from the bottom to upper layer in soil profile. In the middle of the soil profile with deeper groundwater table, there existed a "zero flux plane" of salt, which shifted gradually from the upper layer to the bottom during the redistribution of moisture in soil profile, embodying the characteristics of moisture depletion in upland soils. When the irrigation quota was between 2700 and 3600 m3 x hm(-2), irrigation was helpful to the leaching of salt and water-soluble Na+ in the 0-100 cm soil profile. However, when the irrigation quota was < 1800 m3 x hm(-2), irrigation accelerated the salt accumulation in surface soil. Therefore, from the viewpoints of salt leaching and water-saving, an irrigation quota of 1800-2700 m3 x hm(-2) in spring would be more appropriate for the salinized apple orchard soil in arid regions. PMID:24175515

  17. [Effects of irrigation quota on moisture and salt redistribution in apple orchard soil in arid region].

    PubMed

    Guo, Quan-En; Wang, Yi-Quan; Nan, Li-Li; Cao, Shi-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Taking the salinized apple orchard soil in Qin'an County of Gansu Province, Northwest China as test object, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation quota (0, 900, 1800, 2700, and 3600 m3 x hm(-2)) on the redistribution of moisture and salt in 0-100 cm soil profile on the 10, 20, and 30 d during apple florescence stage. With the increase of irrigation quota, the leached depth of Na+ increased and its hysteretic effect of redistribution was more obvious, "the zero flux plane" of Ca2+ disappeared gradually, the scope of "the zero flux plane" of Mg2+ increased gradually, the leaching-migration mode of Cl- changed from "fluctuation" to "straight-line" and the evaporation-migration changed from "fluctuation" to "ladder", the redistribution pattern of SO4(2-) showed "point", and the position of redistribution and accumulation of HCO3- shifted gradually from the bottom to upper layer in soil profile. In the middle of the soil profile with deeper groundwater table, there existed a "zero flux plane" of salt, which shifted gradually from the upper layer to the bottom during the redistribution of moisture in soil profile, embodying the characteristics of moisture depletion in upland soils. When the irrigation quota was between 2700 and 3600 m3 x hm(-2), irrigation was helpful to the leaching of salt and water-soluble Na+ in the 0-100 cm soil profile. However, when the irrigation quota was < 1800 m3 x hm(-2), irrigation accelerated the salt accumulation in surface soil. Therefore, from the viewpoints of salt leaching and water-saving, an irrigation quota of 1800-2700 m3 x hm(-2) in spring would be more appropriate for the salinized apple orchard soil in arid regions.

  18. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and its influencing factors in desert grasslands of the Hexi Corridor, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Su, Yongzhong; Yang, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) and factors that influence these patterns is crucial for understanding the carbon cycle. The objectives of this study were to determine the spatial distribution pattern of soil organic carbon density (SOCD) and the controlling factors in arid desert grasslands of northwest China. The above- and belowground biomass and SOCD in 260 soil profiles from 52 sites over 2.7×10(4) km2 were investigated. Combined with a satellite-based dataset of an enhanced vegetation index during 2011-2012 and climatic factors at different sites, the relationships between SOCD and biotic and abiotic factors were identified. The results indicated that the mean SOCD was 1.20 (SD:+/- 0.85), 1.73 (SD:+/- 1.20), and 2.69 (SD:+/- 1.91) kg m(-2) at soil depths of 0-30 cm, 0-50 cm, and 0-100 cm, respectively, which was smaller than other estimates in temperate grassland, steppe, and desert-grassland ecosystems. The spatial distribution of SOCD gradually decreased from the southeast to the northwest, corresponding to the precipitation gradient. SOCD increased significantly with vegetation biomass, annual precipitation, soil moisture, clay and silt content, and decreased with mean annual temperature and sand content. The correlation between BGB and SOCD was closer than the correlation between AGB and SOCD. Variables could together explain about 69.8%, 74.4%, and 78.9% of total variation in SOCD at 0-30 cm, 0-50 cm, and 0-100 cm, respectively. In addition, we found that mean annual temperature is more important than other abiotic factors in determining SOCD in arid desert grasslands in our study area. The information obtained in this study provides a basis for accurately estimating SOC stocks and assessing carbon (C) sequestration potential in the desert grasslands of northwest China.

  19. 77 FR 8877 - ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M) Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M... Standards Staff, announces the following meeting. Name: ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M... attend the ICD- 9-CM C&M meeting on March 5, 2012, must submit their name and organization by February...

  20. Land-use conversion and changing soil carbon stocks in China's 'Grain-for-Green' Program: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lei; Liu, Guo-Bin; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2014-11-01

    The establishment of either forest or grassland on degraded cropland has been proposed as an effective method for climate change mitigation because these land use types can increase soil carbon (C) stocks. This paper synthesized 135 recent publications (844 observations at 181 sites) focused on the conversion from cropland to grassland, shrubland or forest in China, better known as the 'Grain-for-Green' Program to determine which factors were driving changes to soil organic carbon (SOC). The results strongly indicate a positive impact of cropland conversion on soil C stocks. The temporal pattern for soil C stock changes in the 0-100 cm soil layer showed an initial decrease in soil C during the early stage (<5 years), and then an increase to net C gains (>5 years) coincident with vegetation restoration. The rates of soil C change were higher in the surface profile (0-20 cm) than in deeper soil (20-100 cm). Cropland converted to forest (arbor) had the additional benefit of a slower but more persistent C sequestration capacity than shrubland or grassland. Tree species played a significant role in determining the rate of change in soil C stocks (conifer < broadleaf, evergreen < deciduous forests). Restoration age was the main factor, not temperature and precipitation, affecting soil C stock change after cropland conversion with higher initial soil C stock sites having a negative effect on soil C accumulation. Soil C sequestration significantly increased with restoration age over the long-term, and therefore, the large scale of land-use change under the 'Grain-for-Green' Program will significantly increase China's C stocks.

  1. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  2. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C-120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  3. [Relationships of soil organic carbon with its active and non-active components under different land use types in the middle reaches of Heihe River, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Hua; Li, Guo-Dong; Wang, Yan-Song; Nan, Zhong-Ren; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2012-12-01

    Taking the seven typical land use types (paddy field, dry land, medium coverage grassland, saline-alkali field, bare land, desert, and sandlot) in the middle reaches of Heihe River as test objects, this paper studied the relationships of soil organic carbon content with its components. In the 0-100 cm soil profile, the contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC) , active organic carbon (AOC), and non-active organic carbon (NOC) decreased with increasing depth. The soil TOC, AOC, and NOC contents differed with land use type. Land use change induced the increase or decrease of soil organic carbon content. The tillage in paddy field was an available way to increase the contents of soil TOC, AOC, and NOC. After land use change, soil NOC rather than AOC contributed more to soil TOC content. For the same land use types, soil AOC and NOC contents increased together with increasing soil TOC content, and the NOC content increased faster than the AOC content. The soil TOC content corresponding to the crossing point of the variation trend lines of soil AOC and NOC contents could be considered as the boundary point of TOC accumulation or loss, and the saturation capacities of soil AOC and NOC could be obtained by the variation trend lines of the AOC and NOC.

  4. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ -- Thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G.; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2008-12-08

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O](M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+](M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO]= 6.4+-0.2 eV; IE[CmO+]= 15.8+-0.4 eV; D[Cm-O]= 710+-45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O]= 670+-40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O]= 342+-55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O]and D[OC-O]--i.e., 167 kJ mol-1< D[M2+-O]< 532 kJ mol-1 -- such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic O-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+ and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2+ ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled -- although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2+ is a stable species.

  5. 28 CFR 0.100 - General functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, as amended. This will include functions which may be vested in the Attorney General in subsequent amendments to the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug...

  6. 28 CFR 0.100 - General functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, as amended. This will include functions which may be vested in the Attorney General in subsequent amendments to the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug...

  7. ROMPIO v 1.0.0

    2007-04-16

    ROMPIO is a software-based test designed to measure MPI collective, independent, asynchronous, and POSIX file I/O perfomance, synthesizing how applications utilize file systems in the LANL ASC computing environment. File layouts include N processors to N files and N processors to 1 file. Write access patterns include non-strided and strided. Pure network performance measure can also be obtained for relevant MPI collective calls.

  8. Integrating a mini catchment with mulching for soil water management in a sloping jujube orchard on the semiarid Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongchen; Zhao, Xining; Gao, Xiaodong

    2015-04-01

    Conserving more soil water is of great importance to the success of arid and semiarid orchards. On the hilly areas of the Loess Plateau of China, mini catchments, named fish-scale pits, are widely used in orchards for collecting surface runoff to infiltrate more soil water. However, the flat surface inside fish-scale pits would increase soil evaporation during non-rainfall periods. Here we integrated fish-scale pits with mulching, a popular meanings to reduce soil evaporation, to test whether this integration could improve soil water conservation. To this end, we observed soil water in the 0-180 cm in a typical rain fed jujube orchard in the hilly region of the Loess Plateau. Four different treatments with three replicates of each were established including fish-scale pit with branch mulching (FB), fish-scale pit with straw mulching (FS), fish-scale pit without mulching (F) and no fish-scale pit and no mulching (CK). The results showed that the treatments FB, FS, and F increased soil water storages (SWS) in the 0-180 cm by 14.23%, 9.35% and 4.82%, respectively, compared to the CK during the growing season. It is noteworthy that the increases of SWS were mainly in the 0-100cm indicating relatively low levels of water was supplied by rainfall infiltration beneath. During the dry season (June), an apparent soil water deficit was observed for all treatments. Throughout the wet season (July and August) soil water was greatly compensated. However, soil water deficit occurred again in the dry month of September. An index was used to represent the soil water supply from rainfall infiltration denoted WS. During the growing season the FB and FS treatments showed positive WS in the whole profile while the F treatment showed positive values only in the 0-100 cm. However, positive WS values were only found in the 0-40 cm for the CK treatment. In conclusion, integrating fish-scale pits with branch/straw mulching could conserve significantly more soil water by increasing

  9. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0-30 and the 0-100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km(2) and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m(-2), respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock.

  10. Evaluation of soil moisture sensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the measurement accuracy and repeatability of the EC-5 and 5TM soil volumetric water content (SVWC) sensors, MPS-2 and 200SS soil water potential (SWP) sensors, and 200TS soil temperature sensor. Six 183cm x 183cm x 71cm wooden compartments were built inside a greenhouse, and e...

  11. Long-term effect of agricultural reclamation on soil chemical properties of a coastal saline marsh in Bohai Rim, northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yidong; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Feng, Xiaoping; Guo, Changcheng; Chen, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Over the past six decades, coastal wetlands in China have experienced rapid and extensive agricultural reclamation. In the context of saline conditions, long-term effect of cultivation after reclamation on soil chemical properties has not been well understood. We studied this issue using a case of approximately 60-years cultivation of a coastal saline marsh in Bohai Rim, northern China. The results showed that long-term reclamation significantly decreased soil organic carbon (SOC) (-42.2%) and total nitrogen (TN) (-25.8%) at surface layer (0-30 cm) as well as their stratification ratios (SRs) (0-5 cm:50-70 cm and 5-10 cm:50-70 cm). However, there was no significant change in total phosphorus (TP) as well as its SRs under cultivation. Cultivation markedly reduced ratios of SOC to TN, SOC to TP and TN to TP at surface layer (0-30 cm) and their SRs (0-5 cm:50-70 cm). After cultivation, electrical conductivity and salinity significantly decreased by 60.1% and 55.3% at 0-100 cm layer, respectively, suggesting a great desalinization. In contrast, soil pH at 20-70 cm horizons notably increased as an effect of reclamation. Cultivation also changed compositions of cations at 0-10 cm layer and anions at 5-100 cm layer, mainly decreasing the proportion of Na+, Cl- and SO4(2-). Furthermore, cultivation significantly reduced the sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage in plow-layer (0-20 cm) but not residual sodium carbonate, suggesting a reduction in sodium harm.

  12. Long-term effect of agricultural reclamation on soil chemical properties of a coastal saline marsh in Bohai Rim, northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yidong; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Feng, Xiaoping; Guo, Changcheng; Chen, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Over the past six decades, coastal wetlands in China have experienced rapid and extensive agricultural reclamation. In the context of saline conditions, long-term effect of cultivation after reclamation on soil chemical properties has not been well understood. We studied this issue using a case of approximately 60-years cultivation of a coastal saline marsh in Bohai Rim, northern China. The results showed that long-term reclamation significantly decreased soil organic carbon (SOC) (-42.2%) and total nitrogen (TN) (-25.8%) at surface layer (0-30 cm) as well as their stratification ratios (SRs) (0-5 cm:50-70 cm and 5-10 cm:50-70 cm). However, there was no significant change in total phosphorus (TP) as well as its SRs under cultivation. Cultivation markedly reduced ratios of SOC to TN, SOC to TP and TN to TP at surface layer (0-30 cm) and their SRs (0-5 cm:50-70 cm). After cultivation, electrical conductivity and salinity significantly decreased by 60.1% and 55.3% at 0-100 cm layer, respectively, suggesting a great desalinization. In contrast, soil pH at 20-70 cm horizons notably increased as an effect of reclamation. Cultivation also changed compositions of cations at 0-10 cm layer and anions at 5-100 cm layer, mainly decreasing the proportion of Na+, Cl- and SO4(2-). Furthermore, cultivation significantly reduced the sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage in plow-layer (0-20 cm) but not residual sodium carbonate, suggesting a reduction in sodium harm. PMID:24695526

  13. Evaluation of bottom ash and composted manure blends as a soil amendment material.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, S; Kenimer, A L; Sadaka, S S; Mathis, J G

    2003-09-01

    The long-term goal of this project was to find alternative uses for bottom ash (BA) and composted dairy manure (CM), by-products of coal combustion and livestock production, respectively. The study discussed in this paper focused on potential water quality impacts associated with using blended BA and CM as a soil amendment. The constituents of BA and CM include heavy metals and other chemicals that, while essential nutrients for plant growth, also pose a potential threat to water quality. Four blends (BA:CM, v/v) namely, B1 (100%:0%), B2 (70%:30%), B3 (50%:50%) and B4 (0%:100%), were subjected to flow-through water table management and two blends, B2 (70%:30%) and B3 (50%:50%), were subjected to constant head water table management using de-ionized water. Leachate and standing water from saturated and flooded blends of BA and CM were examined for total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), COD, pH, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), NO(3)-N, total P, total K as well as selected metals over a 5 and 7 week period for flow-through and constant head watertables, respectively. The results showed that higher CM content resulted in higher TS, VS, TKN, P and K concentrations in the leachate and standing water. Concentrations of these constituents were higher in leachate than in the standing water. Even though, marked reductions of most chemicals in the leachate and standing water were realized within one to three weeks, initially high concentrations of chemicals in leachate and standing water from these particular blends made them unsuitable as soil amendment material. Based upon these results, it was concluded that additional column studies of BA and CM blends with reduced CM content (5%, 10% and 20%) should be performed to further assess the feasibility of BA and CM blends as an environmentally safe soil amendment material.

  14. Evaluation of bottom ash and composted manure blends as a soil amendment material.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, S; Kenimer, A L; Sadaka, S S; Mathis, J G

    2003-09-01

    The long-term goal of this project was to find alternative uses for bottom ash (BA) and composted dairy manure (CM), by-products of coal combustion and livestock production, respectively. The study discussed in this paper focused on potential water quality impacts associated with using blended BA and CM as a soil amendment. The constituents of BA and CM include heavy metals and other chemicals that, while essential nutrients for plant growth, also pose a potential threat to water quality. Four blends (BA:CM, v/v) namely, B1 (100%:0%), B2 (70%:30%), B3 (50%:50%) and B4 (0%:100%), were subjected to flow-through water table management and two blends, B2 (70%:30%) and B3 (50%:50%), were subjected to constant head water table management using de-ionized water. Leachate and standing water from saturated and flooded blends of BA and CM were examined for total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), COD, pH, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), NO(3)-N, total P, total K as well as selected metals over a 5 and 7 week period for flow-through and constant head watertables, respectively. The results showed that higher CM content resulted in higher TS, VS, TKN, P and K concentrations in the leachate and standing water. Concentrations of these constituents were higher in leachate than in the standing water. Even though, marked reductions of most chemicals in the leachate and standing water were realized within one to three weeks, initially high concentrations of chemicals in leachate and standing water from these particular blends made them unsuitable as soil amendment material. Based upon these results, it was concluded that additional column studies of BA and CM blends with reduced CM content (5%, 10% and 20%) should be performed to further assess the feasibility of BA and CM blends as an environmentally safe soil amendment material. PMID:12798111

  15. Influence of soil moisture on soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fer, Miroslav; Kodesova, Radka; Nikodem, Antonin; Klement, Ales; Jelenova, Klara

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to describe an impact of soil moisture on soil respiration. Study was performed on soil samples from morphologically diverse study site in loess region of Southern Moravia, Czech Republic. The original soil type is Haplic Chernozem, which was due to erosion changed into Regosol (steep parts) and Colluvial soil (base slope and the tributary valley). Soil samples were collected from topsoils at 5 points of the selected elevation transect and also from the parent material (loess). Grab soil samples, undisturbed soil samples (small - 100 cm3, and large - 713 cm3) and undisturbed soil blocks were taken. Basic soil properties were determined on grab soil samples. Small undisturbed soil samples were used to determine the soil water retention curves and the hydraulic conductivity functions using the multiple outflow tests in Tempe cells and a numerical inversion with HYDRUS 1-D. During experiments performed in greenhouse dry large undisturbed soil samples were wetted from below using a kaolin tank and cumulative water inflow due to capillary rise was measured. Simultaneously net CO2 exchange rate and net H2O exchange rate were measured using LCi-SD portable photosynthesis system with Soil Respiration Chamber. Numerical inversion of the measured cumulative capillary rise data using the HYDRUS-1D program was applied to modify selected soil hydraulic parameters for particular conditions and to simulate actual soil water distribution within each soil column in selected times. Undisturbed soil blocks were used to prepare thin soil sections to study soil-pore structure. Results for all soil samples showed that at the beginning of soil samples wetting the CO2 emission increased because of improving condition for microbes' activity. The maximum values were reached for soil column average soil water content between 0.10 and 0.15 cm3/cm3. Next CO2 emission decreased since the pore system starts filling by water (i.e. aggravated conditions for microbes

  16. Belowground carbon responses to experimental warming regulated by soil moisture change in an alpine ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xian; Peng, Fei; You, Quangang; Xu, Manhou; Dong, Siyang

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies found that the largest uncertainties in the response of the terrestrial carbon cycle to climate change might come from changes in soil moisture under the elevation of temperature. Warming-induced change in soil moisture and its level of influence on terrestrial ecosystems are mostly determined by climate, soil, and vegetation type and their sensitivity to temperature and moisture. Here, we present the results from a warming experiment of an alpine ecosystem conducted in the permafrost region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau using infrared heaters. Our results show that 3 years of warming treatments significantly elevated soil temperature at 0-100 cm depth, decreased soil moisture at 10 cm depth, and increased soil moisture at 40-100 cm depth. In contrast to the findings of previous research, experimental warming did not significantly affect NH 4 (+)-N, NO 3 (-)-N, and heterotrophic respiration, but stimulated the growth of plants and significantly increased root biomass at 30-50 cm depth. This led to increased soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and liable carbon at 30-50 cm depth, and increased autotrophic respiration of plants. Analysis shows that experimental warming influenced deeper root production via redistributed soil moisture, which favors the accumulation of belowground carbon, but did not significantly affected the decomposition of soil organic carbon. Our findings suggest that future climate change studies need to take greater consideration of changes in the hydrological cycle and the local ecosystem characteristics. The results of our study will aid in understanding the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change and provide the regional case for global ecosystem models. PMID:26445659

  17. Chilled Mirror Dew Point Hygrometer (CM) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2005-01-01

    The CM systems have been developed for the ARM Program to act as a moisture standard traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are three CM systems that are each fully portable, self-contained, and require only 110 V AC power. The systems include a CM sensor, air sampling and filtration system, a secondary reference (Rotronic HP043 temperature and relative humidity sensor) to detect system malfunctions, a data acquisition system, and data storage for more than one month of 1-minute data. The CM sensor directly measures dew point temperature at 1 m, air temperature at 2 m, and relative humidity at 2 m. These measurements are intended to represent self-standing data streams that can be used independently or in combinations.

  18. [Fluorine speciation and its distribution characteristics in selected agricultural soils of North China Plain].

    PubMed

    Yi, Chun-Yao; Wang, Bing-Guo; Jin, Meng-Gui

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to study fluorine speciation and its distribution characteristics in the cultivated soils of wheat-corn fields at the typical areas, the North China Plain. The fluorine contents in cultivated soils and profile soils were measured by consecutive extraction. The results showed that the soil total fluorine (T-F) content at typical areas in the North China Plain ranged from 338.31 mg x kg(-1) to 781.67 mg x kg(-1), with a mean of 430.46 mg x kg(-1). The soil fluorine speciation with the highest content was Residual-Fluorine (Res-F), with a mean of 402.73 mg x kg(-1). The average content of Water soluble Fluorine (Ws-F) was 14.39 mg x kg(-1). The result indicated that the cultivated soil in the study area was at a relatively high fluoride pollution level, which may be harmful to human health and the ecological environment. The contents of Organic Fluorine (Or-F) and Fe/Mn Oxide-Fluorine (Fe/ Mn-F) were also quite high, with a mean of 8.90 mg x kg(-1) and 4.10 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The exchangeable fluorine (Ex-F) only had a very small amount of 0.33 mg x kg(-1). Soil Ws-F was positively correlated with soil pH and CEC, while it was negatively correlated with the percentage of soil clay. The content of soil Fe/Mn-F was positively correlated with soil pH, CEC and the sand grain content percentage, while it was negatively correlated with the clay grain content percentage. The soil pH value had the most significant influence on the water soluble fluorine (Ws-F) and Fe/Mn Oxide-Fluorine (Fe/Mn-F), and the soil CEC had the most significant influence on the soil total fluorine (T-F) and residual-Fluorine (Res-F) by stepwise regression analysis. In the soil profiles, the T-F content appeared as peaks and valleys representing the change of the soil lithology in the vadose zone. The Ws-F in the soil profiles mainly changed in the depth of 0-100 cm near the surface soil and was little influenced by the soil lithology. But it was strongly

  19. [Effect of soil texture in unsaturated zone on soil nitrate accumulation and groundwater nitrate contamination in a marginal oasis in the middle of Heihe River basin].

    PubMed

    Su, Yong-Zhong; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Rong

    2014-10-01

    In irrigated agricultural ecosystems, the accumulation, distribution and transfer of nitrate nitrogen (NO(3-)-N) in soil profile and groundwater nitrate pollution were influenced by irrigation and fertilization, and were closely related to soil textural characteristics. In this study, a monitoring section with 10 groundwater observation wells along Heihe River flood land-old oasis croplands-newly cultivated sandy croplands-fixed sandy land outside oasis was established in Pingchuan desert-oasis in Linze county in the middle of Heihe river basin, and groundwater NO(3-)-N concentration was continuously monitored. Soil texture and NO(3-)-N concentration in the unsaturated zone at different landscape locations were determined. The NO(3-)-N transfer change in soil profile, nitrate leaching of soils with different texture and fertility levels in the 0-100 cm layer were analyzed. The results indicated that the vertical distribution of soil texture was sandy loam in the 0-130 cm depth, loam in the 130-190 cm and clay loam in the 190-300 cm for the old oasis croplands. For newly cultivated sandy croplands, sand content was more than 80% in each soil layer of the 0-300 cm profile, although a thin clay layer occurred in the 140-160 cm depth. The clay layer occurred 160 cm below the sand-fixing zone outside oasis. There were significant correlations between soil NO(3-)-N concentration and silt + clay content, and the order of significant degree was the natural soils of sandy lands > the newly cultivated sandy croplands > the old oasis croplands. The loss of N leaching was closely correlated to the silt + caly content in the 0-100 cm soil depth. The groundwater NO(3-)-N concentration varied from 1.01 to 5.17 mg · L(-1), with a mean value of 2.65 mg · L(-1) and from 6.6 to 29.5 mg · L(-1), with an average of 20.8 mg · L(-1) in the area of old oasis croplands and the newly cultivated croplands, respectively. The averaged groundwater NO(3-)-N concentration in the area of newly

  20. [Effect of soil texture in unsaturated zone on soil nitrate accumulation and groundwater nitrate contamination in a marginal oasis in the middle of Heihe River basin].

    PubMed

    Su, Yong-Zhong; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Rong

    2014-10-01

    In irrigated agricultural ecosystems, the accumulation, distribution and transfer of nitrate nitrogen (NO(3-)-N) in soil profile and groundwater nitrate pollution were influenced by irrigation and fertilization, and were closely related to soil textural characteristics. In this study, a monitoring section with 10 groundwater observation wells along Heihe River flood land-old oasis croplands-newly cultivated sandy croplands-fixed sandy land outside oasis was established in Pingchuan desert-oasis in Linze county in the middle of Heihe river basin, and groundwater NO(3-)-N concentration was continuously monitored. Soil texture and NO(3-)-N concentration in the unsaturated zone at different landscape locations were determined. The NO(3-)-N transfer change in soil profile, nitrate leaching of soils with different texture and fertility levels in the 0-100 cm layer were analyzed. The results indicated that the vertical distribution of soil texture was sandy loam in the 0-130 cm depth, loam in the 130-190 cm and clay loam in the 190-300 cm for the old oasis croplands. For newly cultivated sandy croplands, sand content was more than 80% in each soil layer of the 0-300 cm profile, although a thin clay layer occurred in the 140-160 cm depth. The clay layer occurred 160 cm below the sand-fixing zone outside oasis. There were significant correlations between soil NO(3-)-N concentration and silt + clay content, and the order of significant degree was the natural soils of sandy lands > the newly cultivated sandy croplands > the old oasis croplands. The loss of N leaching was closely correlated to the silt + caly content in the 0-100 cm soil depth. The groundwater NO(3-)-N concentration varied from 1.01 to 5.17 mg · L(-1), with a mean value of 2.65 mg · L(-1) and from 6.6 to 29.5 mg · L(-1), with an average of 20.8 mg · L(-1) in the area of old oasis croplands and the newly cultivated croplands, respectively. The averaged groundwater NO(3-)-N concentration in the area of newly

  1. Detection of Thermal 2 cm and 1 cm Formaldehyde Emission in NGC 7538

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang; Araya, E. D.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Pihlstrom, Y.

    2011-05-01

    Formaldehyde is a tracer of high density gas in massive star forming regions. The K-doublet lines from the three lowest rotational energy levels of ortho-formaldehyde correspond to wavelengths of 6, 2 and 1 cm. Thermal emission of these transitions is rare, and maser emission has only been detected in the 6 cm line. NGC 7538 is an active site of massive star formation in the Galaxy, and one of only a few regions known to harbor 6 cm formaldehyde (H2CO) masers. Using the NRAO 100 m Green Bank Telescope (GBT), we detected 2 cm H2CO emission toward NGC 7538 IRS1. The velocity of the 2 cm H2CO line is very similar to the velocity of one of the 6 cm H2CO masers but the linewidth is greater. To investigate the nature of the 2 cm emission, we conducted observations of the 1 cm H2CO transition, and obtained a cross-scan map of the 2 cm line. We detected 1 cm emission and found that the 2 cm emission is extended (greater than 30"), which implies brightness temperatures of ˜0.2 K. Assuming optically thin emission, LTE, and that the 1 cm and 2 cm lines originate from the same volume of gas, both these detections are consistent with thermal emission of gas at ˜30 K. We conclude that the 1 cm and 2 cm H2CO lines detected with the GBT are thermal, which implies molecular densities above ˜105 cm-3. LY acknowledges support from WIU. PH acknowledges partial support from NSF grant AST-0908901.

  2. Soil process-oriented modelling of within-field variability based on high-resolution 3D soil type distribution maps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bönecke, Eric; Lück, Erika; Gründling, Ralf; Rühlmann, Jörg; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    (SOC), as essential input variable, was predicted by measured soil samples and associated to STD of the upper 30 cm. The comprehensive and high-resolution (4x4 m) soil profile information (up to 2 m soil depth) were then used to initialise a soil process model (Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics - CANDY) for soil functional modelling (daily steps of matter fluxes, soil temperature and water balances). Our study was conducted on a practical field (~32,000 m²) of an agricultural farm in Central Germany with Chernozem soils under arid conditions (average rainfall < 550 mm). This soil region is known to have differences in soil structure mainly occurring within the subsoil, since topsoil conditions are described as homogenous. The modelled soil functions considered local climate information and practical farming activities. Results show, as expected, distinguished functional variability, both on spatial and temporal resolution for subsoil evident structures, e.g. visible differences for available water capacity within 0-100 cm but homogenous conditions for the topsoil.

  3. [Influencing factors of soil organic carbon in deeper soil layers at a small watershed on tableland region of the Loess Plateau, China].

    PubMed

    Che, Sheng-guo; Guo, Sheng-li

    2010-05-01

    Analyzing and estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and changes in deep layers under different land uses and landforms may play a pivotal role in comprehending the balance and cycle mechanisms of C cycling, and comprehending the capacity of C sequestration in the terrestrial ecosystem. The study mainly emphasized on effects of landforms and land uses on vertical distribution characteristic of SOC sampled to a depth of 200 cm at the Wangdonggou watershed on the tableland region of Loess Plateau, China. For the top soil of 0-20 cm, the order of SOC contents was gully (10.0 g x kg(-1)) > tableland (7.8 g x kg(-1)) and slopeland (8.2 g x kg(-1)). For the subsoil, SOC in tableland was higher than that in gully and slopeland. For slopeland and gully, SOC decreased with increasing depth, while for tableland, SOC decreased initially, then increased, lastly decreased. Meanwhile, for tableland, the order of SOC appeared approximately manmade grassland > cropland > orchard with the effecting depth of land uses for 40 cm, and for slopeland the order was native grassland (4.3 g x kg(-1)) > manmade woodland (3.8 g x kg(-1)) > manmade grassland (3.3 g x kg(-1)) > orchard (3.3 g x kg(-1)) with the depth for 100 cm, while for gully, there was no significantly difference (p > 0.05) among different land uses. SOC storage in the profile of 20-200 cm accounted for 67.6% sampled to a depth of 100 cm, while for 100-200cm, SOC storage accounted 37.3% in 0-200 cm equaled to 63.8% of the SOC storage in 0-100 cm. The results revealed that landforms and land uses highly significantly (p < 0.05) affected the vertical distribution of SOC at a small watershed scale and considerable amounts of C were stored at deeper depths. PMID:20623879

  4. Probing lepton asymmetry with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the issue of how accurately we can constrain the lepton number asymmetry ξ{sub ν}=μ{sub ν}/T{sub ν} in the Universe by using future observations of 21 cm line fluctuations and cosmic microwave background (CMB). We find that combinations of the 21 cm line and the CMB observations can constrain the lepton asymmetry better than big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Additionally, we also discuss constraints on ξ{sub ν} in the presence of some extra radiation, and show that the 21 cm line observations can substantially improve the constraints obtained by CMB alone, and allow us to distinguish the effects of the lepton asymmetry from the ones of extra radiation.

  5. CV and CM chondrite impact melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunning, Nicole G.; Corrigan, Catherine M.; McSween, Harry Y.; Tenner, Travis J.; Kita, Noriko T.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Volatile-rich and typically oxidized carbonaceous chondrites, such as CV and CM chondrites, potentially respond to impacts differently than do other chondritic materials. Understanding impact melting of carbonaceous chondrites has been hampered by the dearth of recognized impact melt samples. In this study we identify five carbonaceous chondrite impact melt clasts in three host meteorites: a CV3red chondrite, a CV3oxA chondrite, and a regolithic howardite. The impact melt clasts in these meteorites respectively formed from CV3red chondrite, CV3oxA chondrite, and CM chondrite protoliths. We identified these impact melt clasts and interpreted their precursors based on their texture, mineral chemistry, silicate bulk elemental composition, and in the case of the CM chondrite impact melt clast, in situ measurement of oxygen three-isotope signatures in olivine. These impact melts typically contain euhedral-subhedral olivine microphenocrysts, sometimes with relict cores, in glassy groundmasses. Based on petrography and Raman spectroscopy, four of the impact melt clasts exhibit evidence for volatile loss: these melt clasts either contain vesicles or are depleted in H2O relative to their precursors. Volatile loss (i.e., H2O) may have reduced the redox state of the CM chondrite impact melt clast. The clasts that formed from the more oxidized precursors (CV3oxA and CM chondrites) exhibit phase and bulk silicate elemental compositions consistent with higher intrinsic oxygen fugacities relative to the clast that formed from a more reduced precursor (CV3red chondrite). The mineral chemistries and assemblages of the CV and CM chondrite impact melt clasts identified here provide a template for recognizing carbonaceous chondrite impact melts on the surfaces of asteroids.

  6. Characterization of 8-cm engineering model thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    Development of 8 cm ion thruster technology which was conducted in support of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) flight contract (Contract NAS3-21055) is discussed. The work included characterization of thruster performance, stability, and control; a study of the effects of cathode aging; environmental qualification testing; and cyclic lifetesting of especially critical thruster components.

  7. The Multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidergor, Hava E.

    2010-01-01

    The multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM) helps teachers to better prepare gifted and able students for our changing world, acquiring much needed skills. It is influenced by general learning theory of constructivism, notions of preparing students for 21st century, Teaching the Future Model, and current comprehensive curriculum models for…

  8. Connecting soil organic carbon and root biomass with land-use and vegetation in temperate grassland.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, Devan Allen; Daigh, Aaron L; Veenstra, Jessica J; Engle, David M; Miller, James R; Debinski, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Soils contain much of Earth's terrestrial organic carbon but are sensitive to land-use. Rangelands are important to carbon dynamics and are among ecosystems most widely impacted by land-use. While common practices like grazing, fire, and tillage affect soil properties directly related to soil carbon dynamics, their magnitude and direction of change vary among ecosystems and with intensity of disturbance. We describe variability in soil organic carbon (SOC) and root biomass--sampled from 0-170 cm and 0-100 cm, respectively--in terms of soil properties, land-use history, current management, and plant community composition using linear regression and multivariate ordination. Despite consistency in average values of SOC and root biomass between our data and data from rangelands worldwide, broad ranges in root biomass and SOC in our data suggest these variables are affected by other site-specific factors. Pastures with a recent history of severe grazing had reduced root biomass and greater bulk density. Ordination suggests greater exotic species richness is associated with lower root biomass but the relationship was not apparent when an invasive species of management concern was specifically tested. We discuss how unexplained variability in belowground properties can complicate measurement and prediction of ecosystem processes such as carbon sequestration. PMID:25401142

  9. Connecting soil organic carbon and root biomass with land-use and vegetation in temperate grassland.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, Devan Allen; Daigh, Aaron L; Veenstra, Jessica J; Engle, David M; Miller, James R; Debinski, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Soils contain much of Earth's terrestrial organic carbon but are sensitive to land-use. Rangelands are important to carbon dynamics and are among ecosystems most widely impacted by land-use. While common practices like grazing, fire, and tillage affect soil properties directly related to soil carbon dynamics, their magnitude and direction of change vary among ecosystems and with intensity of disturbance. We describe variability in soil organic carbon (SOC) and root biomass--sampled from 0-170 cm and 0-100 cm, respectively--in terms of soil properties, land-use history, current management, and plant community composition using linear regression and multivariate ordination. Despite consistency in average values of SOC and root biomass between our data and data from rangelands worldwide, broad ranges in root biomass and SOC in our data suggest these variables are affected by other site-specific factors. Pastures with a recent history of severe grazing had reduced root biomass and greater bulk density. Ordination suggests greater exotic species richness is associated with lower root biomass but the relationship was not apparent when an invasive species of management concern was specifically tested. We discuss how unexplained variability in belowground properties can complicate measurement and prediction of ecosystem processes such as carbon sequestration.

  10. Laboratory Studies to Examine the Impact of Polyacrylamide (PAM) on Soil Hydraulic Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, E. A.; Young, M. H.; Yu, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a long-chain synthetic polymer made of the monomer acrylamide (AMD). PAM has numerous uses ranging from food processing to drilling to wastewater treatment. More recently it has been proposed as a canal sealant in the western US to improve water conservation. To support a larger field-based experimental program being implemented in Grand Junction, CO, soil column experiments are being conducted to evaluate the mechanisms of how, and to what extent, PAM reduces soil hydraulic conductivity. The goal of the experiments is to find the optimum concentration and application method of PAM that reduces hydraulic conductivity to the greatest extent. Column tests were conducted, in triplicate, using a constant head method in acrylic columns of 15 cm length and 6.4 cm diameter. An unbalanced multi-factorial design was used with experimental variables including soil type (medium silica sand, locally-derived sand, and locally-derived loam), PAM concentration (11, 22, 44, 88 kg/canal-ha), turbidity (0, 100, 350 NTU), and application method (hydrated PAM on dry soil and powdered PAM applied to water column above saturated soil). Non-crosslinked anionic PAM with a molecular weight of 12 to 24 Mg/mol was used for all experiments. Additional experiments were conducted in graduated cylinders to evaluate interactions between PAM, turbidity and water chemistry. Results of the laboratory tests will be presented and discussed in the context of water conservation in the western US.

  11. Are soils of Iowa USA currently a carbon sink or source? Simulated changes in SOC stock from 1972 to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, S.; Tan, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhao, S.; Yuan, W.

    2011-01-01

    Upscaling the spatial and temporal changes in carbon (C) stocks and fluxes from sites to regions is a critical and challenging step toward improving our understanding of the dynamics of C sources and sinks over large areas. This study simulated soil organic C (SOC) dynamics within 0-100cm depth of soils across the state of Iowa in the USA from 1972 to 2007 using the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS). The model outputs with variation coefficient were analyzed and assembled from simulation unit to the state scale based upon major land use types at annual step. Results from this study indicate that soils (within a depth of 0-100cm) in Iowa had been a SOC source at a rate of 190??380kg Cha-1yr-1. This was likely caused by the installation of a massive drainage system which led to the release of SOC from deep soil layers previously protected under poor drainage conditions. The annual crop rotation was another major force driving SOC variation and resulted in spatial variability of annual budgets in all croplands. Annual rate of change of SOC stocks in all land types depended significantly on the baseline SOC levels; soils with higher SOC levels tended to be C sources, and those with lower levels tended to be C sinks. Management practices (e.g., conservation tillage and residue management practices) slowed down the C emissions from Iowa soils, but could not reverse the general trend of net SOC loss in view of the entire state due mainly to a high level of baseline SOC stocks. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Measurements of Output Factors For Small Photon Fields Up to 10 cm x 10 cm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacala, Angelina

    Field output factors (OF) for photon beams from a 6 MV medical accelerator were measured using five different detectors in a scanning water phantom. The measurements were taken for square field sizes of integral widths ranging from 1 cm to 10 cm for two reference source-to-surface distances (SSD) and depths in water. For the diode detectors, square field widths as small as 2.5 mm were also studied. The photon beams were collimated by using either the jaws or the multileaf collimators. Measured OFs are found to depend upon the field size, SSD, depth and also upon the type of beam collimation, size and type of detector used. For field sizes larger than 3 cm x 3 cm, the OF measurements agree to within 1% or less. The largest variation in OF occurs for jawsshaped field of size 1 cm x 1cm, where a difference of more than 18% is observed.

  13. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation

  14. Balloon observations of the radiance of the earth between 2100 cm(-1) and 2700 cm(-1).

    PubMed

    Shaw, J H; McClatchey, R A; Schaper, P W

    1967-02-01

    A grating spectrometer capable of measuring small radiation fluxes with a spectral resolution of 95 at 4.3 micro is described. Bands of CO(2), N(2)O, and O(3) are identified in spectra between 2100 cm(-1) and 2700 cm(-1) of the earth and lower atmosphere obtained from an altitude of 30 km with this instrument. Scattering of solar radiation by clouds was observed between 2400 cm(-1) and 2700 cm(-1). A temperature profile of the atmosphere to 30 km determined from an analysis of the measurements in the region of the 4.3 micro CO(2) band is compared with radiosonde observations made during the flight.

  15. Hydrogen-Broadened Water from 50 to 300 cm-1 and 1300 to 4000 cm-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L.; Peterson, D.; Plymate, C.

    1995-01-01

    To support remote sensing of the outer planets, absorption spectra of H2O broadened by H2 were recorded at room temperature using two Fourier transform spectrometers. The data from 1300 to 4000 cm-1 were obtained at 0.012 cm-1 resolution with the McMath FTS located at Kitt Peak National Observatory/National Solar Observatory. The remainder of the spectral data from 55 to 320 cm-1 were taken at 0.0056 cm-1 with the Bruker FTS.

  16. Magnetic susceptibility of curium pnictides. [/sup 248/CmP, /sup 248/CmSb

    SciTech Connect

    Nave, S.E.; Huray, P.G.; Peterson, J.R.; Damien, D.A.; Haire, R.G.

    1981-09-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of microgram quantities of /sup 248/CmP and /sup 248/CmSb has been determined with the use of a SQUID micromagnetic susceptometer over the temperature range 4.2 to 340 K and in the applied magnetic field range of 0.45 to 1600 G. The fcc (NaCl-type) samples yield magnetic transitions at 73K and 162 K for the phosphide and antimonide, respectively. Together with published magnetic data for CmN and CmAs, these results indicate spatially extended exchange interactions between the relatively localized 5f electrons of the metallic actinide atoms.

  17. Extended Performance 8-cm Mercury Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A slightly modified 8-cm Hg ion thruster demonstrated significant increase in performance. Thrust was increased by almost a factor of five over that of the baseline thruster. Thruster operation with various three grid ion optics configurations; thruster performance as a function of accelerator grid open area, cathode baffle, and cathode orifice size; and a life test of 614 hours at a beam current of 250 mA (17.5 mN thrust) are discussed. Highest thruster efficiency was obtained with the smallest open area accelerator grid. The benefits in efficiency from the low neutral loss grids were mitigated, however, by the limitation such grids place on attainable ion beam current densities. The thruster components suffered negligible weight losses during a life test, which indicated that operation of the 8-cm thruster at extended levels of thrust and power is possible with no significant loss of lifetime.

  18. 15 cm multipole gas ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacson, G. C.; Kaufman, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    A 15-cm multipole thruster was operated on argon and xenon. The multipole approach used has been shown capable of low discharge losses and flat ion beam profiles with a minimum of redesign. This approach employs low magnetic field strengths and flat or cylindrical sheet-metal parts, hence is suited to rapid optimization and scaling. Only refractory metal cathodes were used in this investigation.

  19. Late type close binary system CM Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalomeni, Belinda

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present new observations of the close binary system CM Dra. We analyzed all the available data of the system and estimated the physical parameters of the system stars highly accurately. Using the newly obtained parameters the distance of the system is determined to be 11.6 pc. A possible giant planet orbiting the close binary system has been detected. This orbital period would likely make it one of the longest known orbital period planet.

  20. Constraining dark matter through 21-cm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, M.; Ferrara, A.; Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.

    2007-05-01

    Beyond reionization epoch cosmic hydrogen is neutral and can be directly observed through its 21-cm line signal. If dark matter (DM) decays or annihilates, the corresponding energy input affects the hydrogen kinetic temperature and ionized fraction, and contributes to the Lyα background. The changes induced by these processes on the 21-cm signal can then be used to constrain the proposed DM candidates, among which we select the three most popular ones: (i) 25-keV decaying sterile neutrinos, (ii) 10-MeV decaying light dark matter (LDM) and (iii) 10-MeV annihilating LDM. Although we find that the DM effects are considerably smaller than found by previous studies (due to a more physical description of the energy transfer from DM to the gas), we conclude that combined observations of the 21-cm background and of its gradient should be able to put constrains at least on LDM candidates. In fact, LDM decays (annihilations) induce differential brightness temperature variations with respect to the non-decaying/annihilating DM case up to ΔδTb = 8 (22) mK at about 50 (15) MHz. In principle, this signal could be detected both by current single-dish radio telescopes and future facilities as Low Frequency Array; however, this assumes that ionospheric, interference and foreground issues can be properly taken care of.

  1. Polyhedral Serpentine Grains in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    CM chondrites are primitive rocks that experienced aqueous alteration in the early solar system. Their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained the effects of alteration, and the minerals within them hold clues to the aqueous reactions. Sheet silicates are an important product of alteration, and those of the serpentine group are abundant in the CM2 chondrites. Here we expand on our previous efforts to characterize the structure and chemistry of serpentines in CM chondrites and report results on a polyhedral form that is structurally similar to polygonal serpentine. Polygonal serpentine consists of tetrahedral (T) sheets joined to M(2+)-centered octahedral (O) sheets (where (M2+) is primarily Mg(2+) and Fe(2+)), which give rise to a 1:1 (TO) layered structure with a 0.7-nm layer periodicity. The structure is similar to chrysotile in that it consists of concentric lizardite layers wrapped around the fiber axis. However, unlike the rolled-up chrysotile, the tetrahedral sheets of the lizardite layers are periodically inverted and kinked, producing sectors. The relative angles between sectors result in 15- and 30-sided polygons in terrestrial samples.

  2. Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP): evaluation of the main 243Cm and 245Cm decay characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chechev, Valery P

    2012-09-01

    The results of new decay data evaluations are presented for (243)Cm (α) decay to nuclear levels in (239)Pu and (245)Cm (α) decay to nuclear levels in (241)Pu. These evaluated data have been obtained within the Decay Data Evaluation Project using information published up to 2011.

  3. Translating aboveground cosmic-ray neutron intensity to high-frequency soil moisture profiles at sub-kilometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, R.; Hoar, T.; Arellano, A.; Anderson, J. L.; Shuttleworth, W. J.; Zeng, X.; Franz, T. E.

    2014-11-01

    Above-ground cosmic-ray neutron measurements provide an opportunity to infer soil moisture at the sub-kilometer scale. Initial efforts to assimilate those measurements have shown promise. This study expands such analysis by investigating (1) how the information from aboveground cosmic-ray neutrons can constrain the soil moisture at distinct depths simulated by a land surface model, and (2) how changes in data availability (in terms of retrieval frequency) impact the dynamics of simulated soil moisture profiles. We employ ensemble data assimilation techniques in a "nearly-identical twin" experiment applied at semi-arid shrubland, rainfed agricultural field, and mixed forest biomes in the USA. The performance of the Noah land surface model is compared with and without assimilation of observations at hourly intervals, as well as every 2 days. Synthetic observations of aboveground cosmic-ray neutrons better constrain the soil moisture simulated by Noah in root-zone soil layers (0-100cm), despite the limited measurement depth of the sensor (estimated to be 12-20cm). The ability of Noah to reproduce a "true" soil moisture profile is remarkably good, regardless of the frequency of observations at the semi-arid site. However, soil moisture profiles are better constrained when assimilating synthetic cosmic-ray neutron observations hourly rather than every 2 days at the cropland and mixed forest sites. This indicates potential benefits for hydrometeorological modeling when soil moisture measurements are available at a relatively high frequency. Moreover, differences in summertime meteorological forcing between the semi-arid site and the other two sites may indicate a possible controlling factor to soil moisture dynamics in addition to differences in soil and vegetation properties.

  4. An engineering model 30 cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; King, H. J.; Schnelker, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    Thruster development at Hughes Research Laboratories and NASA Lewis Research Center has brought the 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thruster to the state of an engineering model. This thruster has been designed to have sufficient internal strength for direct mounting on gimbals, to weigh 7.3 kg, to operate with a corrected overall efficiency of 71%, and to have 10,000 hours lifetime. Subassemblies, such as the ion optical system, isolators, etc., have been upgraded to meet launch qualification standards. This paper presents a summary of the design specifications and performance characteristics which define the interface between the thruster module and the remainder of the propulsion system.

  5. Long-term manure amendment increases organic C storage and stabilization in Loess soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, B.; Zhao, W.; Yang, X.; Zhou, J.

    2011-12-01

    Soil is the largest terrestrial pool for organic carbon in the biosphere. Therefore, sequestration of C in soils is often seen as a 'win-win' proposition. The long-term combined application of manure with chemical fertilizers had increased the accumulation of organic carbon in soil (SOC); and the results from the application of chemical fertilizers on the stock of SOC in soil were inconsistent. Furthermore, less studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of different fertilization, especially the application of N fertilizer, on the stabilization of SOC in the different fertilized soils. In this study, we hypothesized that the long-term different fertilization not only affect organic C storage, but also its stabilization in soil. Therefore, we conducted an incubation experiment with the soils from a long-term fertilization trials. Soil samples were collected from the three fertilized plots, ((1) no fertilizer, NF soil, (2) inorganic NPK fertilizers, NPK soil; and (3) Manure + NPK fertilizers, MNPK soil) of a long-term fertilization experiment initiated in 1990 in Shaanxi, China. The soils were incubated at 28o C for 30 days with the different treatments, i.e., (1) control with no addition (CK), (2) added 200 mg N kg-1 soil (+ NH4-N), (3) added 1000 mg C kg-1 soil (+ glucose), and (4) added 200 mg N kg-1 soil + 1000 mg C kg-1 soil (+glucose + NH4-N). The evolved CO2 was determined by titration of the excess NaOH with 0.1 M HCl. Decomposition of SOC in the different soils was evaluate with the accumulation of released CO2-C based on dry soil (in mg C kg-1 soil), and the decomposition rate of SOC during the incubation (in % of total organic C in soil). Long-term different fertilization treatments (NPK, and MNPK soil) significantly increased the organic C storage in 0-100 cm soil profile. SOC storage in MNPK soil (83.0 t ha-1) was significantly higher than NPK soil (80.8 t ha-1), and both were significantly higher than the no fertilizer soil. The decomposition

  6. Redundant Array Configurations for 21 cm Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Parsons, Aaron R.

    2016-08-01

    Realizing the potential of 21 cm tomography to statistically probe the intergalactic medium before and during the Epoch of Reionization requires large telescopes and precise control of systematics. Next-generation telescopes are now being designed and built to meet these challenges, drawing lessons from first-generation experiments that showed the benefits of densely packed, highly redundant arrays—in which the same mode on the sky is sampled by many antenna pairs—for achieving high sensitivity, precise calibration, and robust foreground mitigation. In this work, we focus on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an interferometer with a dense, redundant core designed following these lessons to be optimized for 21 cm cosmology. We show how modestly supplementing or modifying a compact design like HERA’s can still deliver high sensitivity while enhancing strategies for calibration and foreground mitigation. In particular, we compare the imaging capability of several array configurations, both instantaneously (to address instrumental and ionospheric effects) and with rotation synthesis (for foreground removal). We also examine the effects that configuration has on calibratability using instantaneous redundancy. We find that improved imaging with sub-aperture sampling via “off-grid” antennas and increased angular resolution via far-flung “outrigger” antennas is possible with a redundantly calibratable array configuration.

  7. THE METALLICITY OF THE CM DRACONIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Fleming, Scott W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Feiden, Gregory A.

    2012-11-20

    The CM Draconis system comprises two eclipsing mid-M dwarfs of nearly equal mass in a 1.27 day orbit. This well-studied eclipsing binary has often been used for benchmark tests of stellar models, since its components are among the lowest mass stars with well-measured masses and radii ({approx}< 1% relative precision). However, as with many other low-mass stars, non-magnetic models have been unable to match the observed radii and effective temperatures for CM Dra at the 5%-10% level. To date, the uncertain metallicity of the system has complicated comparison of theoretical isochrones with observations. In this Letter, we use data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility to measure the metallicity of the system during primary and secondary eclipses, as well as out of eclipse, based on an empirical metallicity calibration in the H and K near-infrared (NIR) bands. We derive an [Fe/H] = -0.30 {+-} 0.12 that is consistent across all orbital phases. The determination of [Fe/H] for this system constrains a key dimension of parameter space when attempting to reconcile model isochrone predictions and observations.

  8. Combining galaxy and 21-cm surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, J. D.; White, Martin; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Holder, Gil; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Doré, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic waves travelling through the early Universe imprint a characteristic scale in the clustering of galaxies, QSOs and intergalactic gas. This scale can be used as a standard ruler to map the expansion history of the Universe, a technique known as baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). BAO offer a high-precision, low-systematics means of constraining our cosmological model. The statistical power of BAO measurements can be improved if the `smearing' of the acoustic feature by non-linear structure formation is undone in a process known as reconstruction. In this paper, we use low-order Lagrangian perturbation theory to study the ability of 21-cm experiments to perform reconstruction and how augmenting these surveys with galaxy redshift surveys at relatively low number densities can improve performance. We find that the critical number density which must be achieved in order to benefit 21-cm surveys is set by the linear theory power spectrum near its peak, and corresponds to densities achievable by upcoming surveys of emission line galaxies such as eBOSS and DESI. As part of this work, we analyse reconstruction within the framework of Lagrangian perturbation theory with local Lagrangian bias, redshift-space distortions, {k}-dependent noise and anisotropic filtering schemes.

  9. The Metallicity of the CM Draconis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Fleming, Scott W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Feiden, Gregory A.; Bender, Chad F.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    2012-11-01

    The CM Draconis system comprises two eclipsing mid-M dwarfs of nearly equal mass in a 1.27 day orbit. This well-studied eclipsing binary has often been used for benchmark tests of stellar models, since its components are among the lowest mass stars with well-measured masses and radii (lsim 1% relative precision). However, as with many other low-mass stars, non-magnetic models have been unable to match the observed radii and effective temperatures for CM Dra at the 5%-10% level. To date, the uncertain metallicity of the system has complicated comparison of theoretical isochrones with observations. In this Letter, we use data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility to measure the metallicity of the system during primary and secondary eclipses, as well as out of eclipse, based on an empirical metallicity calibration in the H and K near-infrared (NIR) bands. We derive an [Fe/H] = -0.30 ± 0.12 that is consistent across all orbital phases. The determination of [Fe/H] for this system constrains a key dimension of parameter space when attempting to reconcile model isochrone predictions and observations.

  10. Fuel elements of research reactor CM

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.V.; Morozov, A.V.; Vatulin, A.V.; Ershov, S.A.

    2013-07-01

    In 1961 the CM research reactor was commissioned at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Dimitrovgrad, Russia), it was intended to carry on investigations and the production of transuranium nuclides. The reactor is of a tank type. Original fuel assembly contained plate fuels that were spaced with vanes and corrugated bands. Nickel was used as a cladding material, fuel meat was produced from UO{sub 2} + electrolytic nickel composition. Fuel plates have been replaced by self-spacing cross-shaped dispersion fuels clad in stainless steel. In 2005 the reactor was updated. The purpose of this updating was to increase the quantity of irradiation channels in the reactor core and to improve the neutron balance. The updating was implemented at the expense of 20 % reduction in the quantity of fuel elements in the core which released a space for extra channels and decreased the mass of structural materials in the core. The updated reactor is loaded with modified standard fuel elements with 20 % higher uranium masses. At the same time stainless steel in fuel assembly shrouds was substituted by zirconium alloy. Today in progress are investigations and work to promote the second stage of reactor updating that involve developments of cross-shaped fuel elements having low neutron absorption matrix materials. This article gives an historical account of the design and main technical changes that occurred for the CM reactor since its commissioning.

  11. Aliphatic amines in Antarctic CR2, CM2, and CM1/2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte, José C.; McLain, Hannah L.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2016-09-01

    Meteoritic water-soluble organic compounds provide a unique record of the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system and the chemistry preceding the origins of life on Earth. We have investigated the molecular distribution, compound-specific δ13C isotopic ratios and enantiomeric compositions of aliphatic monoamines present in the hot acid-water extracts of the carbonaceous chondrites LAP 02342 (CR2), GRA 95229 (CR2), LON 94101 (CM2), LEW 90500 (CM2), and ALH 83100 (CM1/2). Analyses of the concentration of monoamines in these meteorites revealed: (a) the CR2 chondrites studied here contain higher concentrations of monoamines relative to the analyzed CM2 chondrites; (b) the concentration of monoamines decreases with increasing carbon number; and (c) isopropylamine is the most abundant monoamine in these CR2 chondrites, while methylamine is the most abundant amine species in these CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. The δ13C values of monoamines in CR2 chondrite do not correlate with the number of carbon atoms; however, in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites, the 13C enrichment decreases with increasing monoamine carbon number. The δ13C values of methylamine in CR2 chondrites ranged from -1 to +10‰, while in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites the δ13C values of methylamine ranged from +41 to +59‰. We also observed racemic compositions of sec-butylamine, 3-methyl-2-butylamine, and sec-pentylamine in the studied carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we compared the abundance and δ13C isotopic composition of monoamines to those of their structurally related amino acids. We found that monoamines are less abundant than amino acids in CR2 chondrites, with the opposite being true in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. We used these collective data to evaluate different primordial synthetic pathways for monoamines in carbonaceous chondrites and to understand the potential common origins these molecules may share with meteoritic amino acids.

  12. Effect of vegetation rehabilitation on soil carbon and its fractions in Mu Us Desert, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Bin; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Wu, Bin; Qin, Shu-Gao; Jia, Xin; Fa, Ke-Yu; Feng, Wei; Lai, Zong-Rui

    2015-01-01

    Although vegetation rehabilitation on semi-arid and arid regions may enhance soil carbon sequestration, its effects on soil carbon fractions remain uncertain. We carried out a study after planting Artemisia ordosica (AO, 17 years), Astragalus mongolicum (AM, 5 years), and Salix psammophila (SP, 16 years) on shifting sand land (SL) in the Mu Us Desert, northwest China. We measured total soil carbon (TSC) and its components, soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and soil organic carbon (SOC), as well as the light and heavy fractions within soil organic carbon (LF-SOC and HF-SOC), under the SL and shrublands at depths of 100 cm. TSC stock under SL was 27.6 Mg ha(-1), and vegetation rehabilitation remarkably elevated it by 40.6 Mgha(-1), 4.5 Mgha(-1), and 14.1 Mgha(-1) under AO, AM and SP land, respectively. Among the newly formed TSC under the three shrublands, SIC, LF-SOC and HF-SOC accounted for 75.0%, 10.7% and 13.1% for AO, respectively; they made up 37.0%, 50.7% and 10.6% for AM, respectively; they occupied 68.6%, 18.8% and 10.0% for SP, respectively. The accumulation rates of TSC within 0-100 cm reached 238.6 g m(-2) y(-1), 89.9 g m(-2) y(-1) and 87.9 g m(-2) y(-1) under AO, AM and SP land, respectively. The present study proved that the accumulation of SIC considerably contributed to soil carbon sequestration, and vegetation rehabilitation on shifting sand land has a great potential for soil carbon sequestration.

  13. Overcoming the Challenges of 21cm Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, Jonathan

    The highly-redshifted 21cm line of neutral hydrogen is one of the most promising and unique probes of cosmology for the next decade and beyond. The past few years have seen a number of dedicated experiments targeting the 21cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) begin operation, including the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR), the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER). For these experiments to yield cosmological results, they require new calibration and analysis algorithms which will need to achieve unprecedented levels of separation between the 21cm signal and contaminating foreground emission. Although much work has been spent developing these algorithms over the past decade, their success or failure will ultimately depend on their ability to overcome the complications associated with real-world systems and their inherent complications. The work in this dissertation is closely tied to the late-stage commissioning and early observations with PAPER. The first two chapters focus on developing calibration algorithms to overcome unique problems arising in the PAPER system. To test these algorithms, I rely on not only simulations, but on commissioning observations, ultimately tying the success of the algorithm to its performance on actual, celestial data. The first algorithm works to correct gain-drifts in the PAPER system caused by the heating and cooling of various components (the amplifiers and above ground co-axial cables, in particular). It is shown that a simple measurement of the ambient temperature can remove ˜ 10% gain fluctuations in the observed brightness of calibrator sources. This result is highly encouraging for the ability of PAPER to remove a potentially dominant systematic in its power spectrum and cataloging measurements without resorting to a complicated system overhaul. The second new algorithm developed in this dissertation solves a major calibration challenge not

  14. 70-cm radar observations of 433 Eros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Pettengill, G. H.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1976-01-01

    Radar observations of 433 Eros were made at the Arecibo Observatory using a wavelength of 70 cm during the close approach of Eros to earth in mid-January, 1975. A peak radar cross section of plus or minus 15 sq km was observed. The spectral broadening obtained was approximately 30 Hz, which is consistent with a value of 16 km for the maximum radius of the asteroid. The surface of Eros appears to be relatively rough at the scale of a wavelength as compared to the surfaces of the terrestrial planets and the moon. The composition of the surface is not well determined, except that it cannot be a highly conducting metal. A single measurement each of round-trip echo times delay and Doppler shift was made.

  15. NASA 30 Cm Ion Thruster Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster is under development at NASA to provide an ion propulsion option for missions of national interest and it is an element of the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) program established to validate ion propulsion for space flight applications. The thruster has been developed to an engineering model level and it incorporates innovations in design, materials, and fabrication techniques compared to those employed to conventional ion thrusters. The performance of both functional and engineering model thrusters has been assessed including thrust stand measurements, over an input power range of 0.5-2.3 kW. Attributes of the engineering model thruster include an overall mass of 6.4 kg, and an efficiency of 65 percent and thrust of 93 mN at 2.3 kW input power. This paper discusses the design, performance, and lifetime expectations of the functional and engineering model thrusters under development at NASA.

  16. 21 Cm Tomography With the Alfalfa Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Alexander B.; Boutan, C.; Carroll, P. A.; Hazelton, B.; Morales, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen (HI) 21cm intensity mapping, or HI tomography is a promising technique being utilized by several upcoming experiments (LOFAR, MWA, SKA). The measurement of volume averaged neutral hydrogen mass density in synoptic sky surveys can be applied to the study of the HI mass function, the distribution of large scale structure, the reionization of the universe, and the expansion history of the universe through such standard rulers as baryonic acoustic oscillations. In order to prepare for future experiments, in particular the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), we analyze the Arecbo Legacy Fast ALFA (Arecibo L-Band Feed Array) Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey data to probe the spatial density variations of HI in our local universe (z <0.06) where data is currently available. We address challenges unique to data of this kind, such as identifying and subtracting out signal from RFI and local galactic sources, and characterizing the ALFA array beam pattern which dictates sensitivity and resolution.

  17. The 30-cm ion thruster power processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, B. G.; Hopper, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A power processor unit for powering and controlling the 30 cm Mercury Electron-Bombardment Ion Thruster was designed, fabricated, and tested. The unit uses a unique and highly efficient transistor bridge inverter power stage in its implementation. The system operated from a 200 to 400 V dc input power bus, provides 12 independently controllable and closely regulated dc power outputs, and has an overall power conditioning capacity of 3.5 kW. Protective circuitry was incorporated as an integral part of the design to assure failure-free operation during transient and steady-state load faults. The implemented unit demonstrated an electrical efficiency between 91.5 and 91.9 at its nominal rated load over the 200 to 400 V dc input bus range.

  18. Evaluation of Argonne 9-cm and 10-cm Annular Centrifugal Contactors for SHINE Solution Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, Kent E.; Pereira, Candido; Vandegrift, George

    2015-02-01

    Work is in progress to evaluate the SHINE Medical Technologies process for producing Mo-99 for medical use from the fission of dissolved low-enriched uranium (LEU). This report addresses the use of Argonne annular centrifugal contactors for periodic treatment of the process solution. In a letter report from FY 2013, Pereira and Vandegrift compared the throughput and physical footprint for the two contactor options available from CINC Industries: the V-02 and V-05, which have rotor diameters of 5 cm and 12.7 cm, respectively. They suggested that an intermediately sized “Goldilocks” contactor might provide a better balance between throughput and footprint to meet the processing needs for the uranium extraction (UREX) processing of the SHINE solution to remove undesired fission products. Included with the submission of this letter report are the assembly drawings for two Argonne-design contactors that are in this intermediate range—9-cm and 10-cm rotors, respectively. The 9-cm contactor (drawing number CE-D6973A, stamped February 15, 1978) was designed as a single-stage unit and built and tested in the late 1970s along with other size units, both smaller and larger. In subsequent years, a significant effort to developed annular centrifugal contactors was undertaken to support work at Hanford implementing the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process. These contactors had a 10-cm rotor diameter and were fully designed as multistage units with four stages per assembly (drawing number CMT-E1104, stamped March 14, 1990). From a technology readiness perspective, these 10-cm units are much farther ahead in the design progression and, therefore, would require significantly less re-working to make them ready for UREX deployment. Additionally, the overall maximum throughput of ~12 L/min is similar to that of the 9-cm unit (10 L/min), and the former could be efficiently operated over much of the same range of throughput. As a result, only the 10-cm units are considered here

  19. ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM Codes: What? Why? How?

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Donna J.

    2013-01-01

    The wound care industry will gain many benefits when International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10-Clinical Modification (CM) is implemented. One of the main benefits is that the disease classifications will be consistent with current clinical practice and medical technology advances. The new classification codes will be very granular, which means the level of specificity will greatly improve. Numerous new codes will represent more specific anatomic sites, etiologies, comorbidities, and complications, and will improve the ability to demonstrate severity of illness. For instance, the new feature of laterality is directly built into the new codes: separate codes will distinguish right, left, and bilateral, where needed. The increased granularity will provide better analysis of disease patterns and outbreak of disease. Additionally, the United States will finally be using the same diagnosis coding system as the rest of the world. This article will describe what the ICD-9-CM/ICD-10-CM codes are, why they are so important, and how clinicians and researchers will convert from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM effective October 1, 2014. PMID:24761333

  20. The 15 cm diameter ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The startup reliability of a 15 cm diameter mercury bombardment ion thruster which employs a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode on the main and neutralizer cathodes is examined. Startup of the thruster is achieved 100% of the time on the main cathode and 98.7% of the time on the neutralizer cathode over a 3640 cycle test. The thruster was started from a 20 C initial condition and operated for an hour at a 600 mA beam current. An energy efficiency of 75% and a propellant utilization efficiency of 77% was achieved over the complete cycle. The effect of a single cusp magnetic field thruster length on its performance is discussed. Guidelines are formulated for the shaping of magnetic field lines in thrusters. A model describing double ion production in mercury discharges is presented. The production route is shown to occur through the single ionic ground state. Photographs of the interior of an operating-hollow cathode are presented. A cathode spot is shown to be present if the cathode is free of low work-function surfaces. The spot is observed if a low work-function oxide coating is applied to the cathode insert. Results show that low work-function oxide coatings tend to migrate during thruster operation.

  1. Engineering model 8-cm thruster subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, B. G.; Hyman, J.; Hopper, D. J.; Williamson, W. S.; Dulgeroff, C. R.; Collett, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    An Engineering Model (EM) 8 cm Ion Thruster Propulsion Subsystem was developed for operation at a thrust level 5 mN (1.1 mlb) at a specific impulse 1 sub sp = 2667 sec with a total system input power P sub in = 165 W. The system dry mass is 15 kg with a mercury-propellant-reservoir capacity of 8.75 kg permitting uninterrupted operation for about 12,500 hr. The subsystem can be started from a dormant condition in a time less than or equal to 15 min. The thruster has a design lifetime of 20,000 hr with 10,000 startup cycles. A gimbal unit is included to provide a thrust vector deflection capability of + or - 10 degrees in any direction from the zero position. The EM subsystem development program included thruster optimization, power-supply circuit optimization and flight packaging, subsystem integration, and subsystem acceptance testing including a cyclic test of the total propulsion package.

  2. A sub-cm micromachined electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinerman, A. D.; Crewe, D. A.; Perng, D. C.; Shoaf, S. E.; Crewe, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for fabricating macroscopic (approximately 10x10x10 mm(exp 3)) structures with micron accuracy has been developed. This approach combines the precision of semiconductor processing and fiber optic technologies. A (100) silicon wafer is anisotropically etched to create four orthogonal v-grooves and an aperture on each 10x12 mm die. Precision 308 micron optical fibers are sandwiched between the die to align the v-grooves. The fiber is then anodically bonded to the die above and below it. This procedure is repeated to create thick structures and a stack of 5 or 6 die will be used to create a miniature scanning electron microscope (MSEM). Two die in the structure will have a segmented electrode to deflect the beam and correct for astigmatism. The entire structure is UHV compatible. The performance of an SEM improves as its length is reduced and a sub-cm 2 keV MSEM with a field emission source should have approximately 1 nm resolution. A low voltage high resolution MSEM would be useful for the examination of biological specimens and semiconductors with a minimum of damage. The first MSEM will be tested with existing 6 micron thermionic sources. In the future a micromachined field emission source will be used. The stacking technology presented in this paper can produce an array of MSEMs 1 to 30 mm in length with a 1 mm or larger period. A key question being addressed by this research is the optimum size for a low voltage MSEM which will be determined by the required spatial resolution, field of view, and working distance.

  3. Assimilation of near-surface cosmic-ray neutrons improves summertime soil moisture profile estimates at three distinct biomes in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, R.; Hoar, T.; Arellano, A.; Anderson, J. L.; Shuttleworth, W. J.; Zeng, X.; Franz, T. E.

    2014-05-01

    Aboveground cosmic-ray neutron measurements provide an opportunity to infer soil moisture at the sub-kilometer scale. Initial efforts to assimilate those measurements have shown promise. This study expands such analysis by investigating (1) how the information from aboveground cosmic-ray neutrons can constrain the soil moisture at distinct depths simulated by a land surface model, and (2) how changes in data availability (in terms of retrieval frequency) impact the dynamics of simulated soil moisture profiles. We employ ensemble data assimilation techniques in a "nearly-identical twin" experiment applied at semi-arid shrubland, rainfed agricultural field, and mixed forest biomes in the USA The performance of the Noah land surface model is compared without and with assimilation of observations at hourly intervals and every 2 days Synthetic observations of aboveground cosmic-ray neutrons better constrain the soil moisture simulated by Noah in root zone soil layers (0-100 cm) despite the limited measurement depth of the sensor (estimated to be 12-20 cm). The ability of Noah to reproduce a "true" soil moisture profile is remarkably good regardless of the frequency of observations at the semi-arid site. However, soil moisture profiles are better constrained when assimilating synthetic cosmic-ray neutrons observations hourly rather than every 2 days at the cropland and mixed forest sites. This indicates potential benefits for hydrometeorological modeling when soil moisture measurements are available at relatively high frequency. Moreover, differences in summertime meteorological forcing between the semi-arid site and the other two sites may indicate a possible controlling factor to soil moisture dynamics in addition to differences in soil and vegetation properties.

  4. Long-term effect of manure and fertilizer on soil organic carbon pools in dryland farming in northwest China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enke; Yan, Changrong; Mei, Xurong; Zhang, Yanqing; Fan, Tinglu

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) as affected by farming practices is imperative for maintaining soil productivity and mitigating global warming. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term fertilization on SOC and SOC fractions for the whole soil profile (0-100 cm) in northwest China. The study was initiated in 1979 in Gansu, China and included six treatments: unfertilized control (CK), nitrogen fertilizer (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (P) fertilizers (NP), straw plus N and P fertilizers (NP+S), farmyard manure (FYM), and farmyard manure plus N and P fertilizers (NP+FYM). Results showed that SOC concentration in the 0-20 cm soil layer increased with time except in the CK and N treatments. Long-term fertilization significantly influenced SOC concentrations and storage to 60 cm depth. Below 60 cm, SOC concentrations and storages were statistically not significant between all treatments. The concentration of SOC at different depths in 0-60 cm soil profile was higher under NP+FYM follow by under NP+S, compared to under CK. The SOC storage in 0-60 cm in NP+FYM, NP+S, FYM and NP treatments were increased by 41.3%, 32.9%, 28.1% and 17.9%, respectively, as compared to the CK treatment. Organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer application also increased labile soil organic carbon pools in 0-60 cm depth. The average concentration of particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer treatments (NP+S and NP+FYM) in 0-60 cm depth were increased by 64.9-91.9%, 42.5-56.9%, and 74.7-99.4%, respectively, over the CK treatment. The POC, MBC and DOC concentrations increased linearly with increasing SOC content. These results indicate that long-term additions of organic manure have the most beneficial effects in building carbon pools among the investigated types of fertilization.

  5. PROCESS OF PRODUCING Cm$sup 244$ AND Cm$sup 24$$sup 5$

    DOEpatents

    Manning, W.M.; Studier, M.H.; Diamond, H.; Fields, P.R.

    1958-11-01

    A process is presented for producing Cm and Cm/sup 245/. The first step of the process consists in subjecting Pu/sup 2339/ to a high neutron flux and subsequently dissolving the irradiated material in HCl. The plutonium is then oxidized to at least the tetravalent state and the solution is contacted with an anion exchange resin, causing the plutonium values to be absorbed while the fission products and transplutonium elements remain in the effluent solution. The effluent solution is then contacted with a cation exchange resin causing the transplutonium, values to be absorbed while the fission products remain in solution. The cation exchange resin is then contacted with an aqueous citrate solution and tbe transplutonium elements are thereby differentially eluted in order of decreasing atomic weight, allowing collection of the desired fractions.

  6. [Profile variability of soil properties in check dam on the Loess Plateau and its functions].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-qiang; Zhang, Xing-chang; Han, Feng-peng

    2008-04-01

    To understand the profile variability of soil properties of check dam and its possibility of engineering control over non-point source pollution, we used classical statistics to characterize the profile change of soil properties of a 5.20 m depth soil profile in the typical check dam on the Loess Plateau. The roles of check dam as organic carbon storage and available nutrients storage were discussed. The results showed that: 1) The bulk density and sand content of dam-head were lower than dam-tail, while, soil water content, silt, loam, organic carbon, available P, NO3(-) -N and NH4+ -N were higher than dam-tail. The bulk density for both dam-head and dam-tail showed weak variability while other properties showed moderate variability. All variables followed a normal distribution except sand in dam-head and soil moisture in dam-tail. 2) The change pattern of soil moisture on the soil profile for both dam-head and dam-tail was saw-tooth type. The change trends of soil organic carbon, available P and NH4+ -N were comparable to that of soil moisture. 3) The correlations among soil water content, organic carbon, bulk density, silt, loam, sand, available P, NO3(-) -N and NH4+ -N were significant (p < 0.05) except the relationship between bulk density and NO3(-) -N, NH4+ -N and relationship between available P and NH4+ -N in dam-tail. The positive or negative correlation of soil properties both in dam-head and dam-tail were coincident. 4) The check dam can be an important carbon storage on the Loess Plateau, and the organic carbon storage in dam-head was higher than dam-tail. The storage of organic carbon in 400-520 cm depth was the biggest for dam-head, in 0-100 cm depths for dam-tail. 5) The check dam is an enrichment sink of available nutrients. The storage of available P, NO3(-) -N and NH4+ -N in dam-head were higher than dam-tail, and the range of storage was: NH4+ -N > available P > NO3(-) -N. The coefficient of enrichment for NH4+ -N and NO3(-) -N were 1.132 and 1

  7. Uptake of 244Cm, 238Pu and other radionuclides by trees inhabiting a contaminated flood plain.

    PubMed

    Pinder, J E; McLeod, K W; Alberts, J J; Adriano, D C; Corey, J C

    1984-09-01

    The plant uptake of 244Cm, 137Cs, 238Pu and 90Sr was measured for trees in a flood plain forest whose soils were contaminated by aqueous discharges from a nuclear-fuel chemical separations facility. Uptake of the naturally occurring radionuclide 226Ra was also measured. The relative availability of the nuclides was 238Pu less than 244Cm less than 137Cs less than 226Ra less than or equal to 90Sr. The concentration ratios for 238Pu and 244Cm, 3 X 10(-4) and 3.6 X 10(-3), respectively, were similar to those reported for other plant-soil systems. The ratios for 137Cs and 90Sr, 0.11 and 3.9, were similar to those reported for other southeastern soils. However, the ratio for 226Ra, 2.1, was greater than that normally reported. These ratios, which were determined in the field, were generally similar to those reported for greenhouse studies on the same soil.

  8. Soil carbon sequestration and land use change associated with biofuel production: Empirical evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Zhangcai; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Kwon, Hoyoung; Mueller, Steffen; Wander, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) change can be a major impact of land use change (LUC) associated with biofuel feedstock production. By collecting and analyzing data from worldwide field observations with major LUCs from cropland, grassland and forest to lands producing biofuel crops (i.e., corn, switchgrass, Miscanthus, poplar and willow), we were able to estimate SOC response ratios and sequestration rates and evaluate the effects of soil depth and time scale on SOC change. Both the amount and rate of SOC change were highly dependent on the specific land transition. Irrespective of soil depth or time horizon, cropland conversions resulted in an overall SOC gain of 6-14% relative to initial SOC level, while conversion from grassland or forest to corn (without residue removal) or poplar caused significant carbon loss (9-35%). No significant SOC changes were observed in land converted from grasslands or forests to switchgrass, Miscanthus or willow. The SOC response ratios were similar in both 0-30 and 0-100 cm soil depths in most cases, suggesting SOC changes in deep soil and that use of top soil only for SOC accounting in biofuel life cycle analysis (LCA) might underestimate total SOC changes. Soil carbon sequestration rates varied greatly among studies and land transition types. Generally, the rates of SOC change tended to be the greatest during the 10 years following land conversion, and had declined to approach 0 within about 20 years for most LUCs. Observed trends in SOC change were generally consistent with previous reports. Soil depth and duration of study significantly influence SOC change rates and so should be considered in carbon emission accounting in biofuel LCA. High uncertainty remains for many perennial systems, field trials and modeling efforts are needed to determine the site- and system-specific rates and direction of change associated with their production.

  9. Effect of land-use change on soil organic carbon stocks in the Eastern Usambara Mountain (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsten, Maximilian; Kaaya, Abel; Klinger, Thomas; Feger, Karl-Heinz

    2014-05-01

    A soil organic carbon (SOC) inventory, covering 10 sites with 5 different land-use systems (primary forest, secondary forest, tea plantation, home garden, and cropland) was conducted in the tropical monsoonal Eastern Usambara Mountains (EUM), NE Tanzania. At all sites the environmental factors such as climate and parent material, for soil formation (gneiss), as well as elevation and slope position are highly comparable. The evergreen submontane primary rain forest, which still exists in vast areas in the EUM and the well-known land-use history there provide nearly optimal conditions for the assessment of land-use change effects on soil properties, notably the SOC stocks. We collected horizon-wise samples from soil pit profiles. In addition, samples from fixed depth-intervals were taken from 8 augering points located systematically around each soil pit. The sampling scheme yielded a unique set of soil information (pedological, chemical, and physical) that favours a reliable assessment of SOC stocks and future analytical work on SOM quality and binding mechanisms. The investigated soils are characterized by high clay contents, which increase with depth. Soil pH varies between 3.5 and 5.4 over all land-use systems and horizons, higher pH values could be detected for the agricultural systems in the topsoil, the differences between agricultural and forest systems decrease in the subsoil. The potential cation exchange capacity is in most cases < 24 cmolc kg-1, furthermore the base saturation is always < 50 % in the subsoil. Thus, based on that analytical data all soils can be classified as Acrisols revealing the high comparability of the investigated sites. This is an excellent prerequisite for the 'false chronosequence' approach applied. Organic carbon (C) stocks in the soils from the investigated land-use systems cover a wide range between 17.1 and 24.2 kg m-2 (0-100 cm). Variability is even high in the subset of the 3 primary forests. Statistically significant

  10. Characterization of Soil Heterogeneity Across Scales in an Intensively Investigated Soil Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Matthew; Gimenez, Daniel; Nemes, Attila; Dathe, Annette; French, Helen; Bloem, Esther; Koestel, John; Jarvis, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous water flow in undisturbed soils is a natural occurrence that is complex to model due to potential changes in hydraulic properties in soils over changes in space. The use of geophysical methods, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), can provide a minimally-invasive approximation of the spatial heterogeneity of the soil. This spatial distribution can then be combined with measured hydraulic properties to inform a model. An experiment was conducted on an Intensively Investigated Soil Volume (IISV), with dimensions of 2m x 1m x 0.8m, located in an agricultural field that is part of the Gryteland catchment in Ås, Norway. The location of the IISV was determined through surface ERT runs at two sequential resolutions. The first run was used to find an area of higher apparent electrical resistivity in a 23.5 x 11.5 m area with 0.5 m spacing. The second run measured apparent electrical resistivity in a 4.7 x 1 m area with 0.1 m spacing, from which the final IISV volume was derived. Distinct features found in the higher resolution run of the IISV, including a recent tire track from a harvester, were used as a spatial reference point for the installation of 20 pairs of TDR probes and tensiometers. The instruments measured water content, temperature and pressure potential at 10 minute intervals and ran continuously for a period of two weeks. After completion of the data collection the IISV was intensively sampled, with 30 samples taken for bulk density, 62 for hydraulic property measurements, and 20 to be used for both CT scanning and hydraulic property measurements. The measurement of hydraulic properties is ongoing and retention will be measured in the 0 - 100 cm range on a sand table, and from 100 - approx. 900 cm with an automated evaporation method. The formation of spatial clusters to represent the soil heterogeneity as relatively homogeneous units based on mesoscale properties like apparent electrical resistivity, bulk density, texture, in

  11. Drug Resistance of Enteric Bacteria VI. Introduction of Bacteriophage P1CM into Salmonella typhi and Formation of P1dCM and F-CM Elements

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Eiko; Mitsuhashi, Susumu

    1966-01-01

    Kondo, Eiko (Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan), and Susumu Mitsuhashi. Drug resistance of enteric bacteria. VI. Introduction of bacteriophage P1CM into Salmonella typhi and formation of P1dCM and F-CM elements. J. Bacteriol. 91:1787–1794. 1966.—Bacteriophage P1CM was introduced into Salmonella typhi by means of both phage infection and conjugation with Escherichia coli F+ lysogenic for the phage. Upon incubation with a P1CM phage lysate, S. typhi and S. abony yield CMr cells which are lysogenic for P1CM, but S. typhimurium LT2 does not. The P1CM phage is adsorbed slightly to S. typhi, but no infectious centers are formed when the phage is plated on this strain. Tests on P1CM-adsorbing capacity of the S. typhi P1CM+ strain and on plaque formation and transduction ability of the recovered phage from this strain indicated that the cell and the phage population did not have any special advantage over the original cell and phage population. Conjugation of S. typhi with E. coli F+ carrying P1CM+ gave three types of S. typhi CMr clones: those which carry the whole P1CM phage, those with the P1dCM element, and those with nontransferable CMr. The second type has the F factor and is sensitive to f phages in spite of its typical behavior, serologically and biochemically, as S. typhi. It can donate the P1dCM and F+ characters to E. coli F− or F−/P1 strains. As a consequence of conjugation with the E. coli F+ strain, the CMr character of the third type of S. typhi, the nontransferable CMr element, acquired conjugational transferability, owing to the formation of the element, F-CM. This element can be transferred to an E. coli F− strain at a very high frequency (ca. 100). Both the F and CMr determinants are jointly transduced with P1 phage and are jointly eliminated by acridine dye treatment. PMID:5327907

  12. Assessment of the soil organic carbon sink in a project for the conversion of farmland to forestland: a case study in Zichang county, Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Mu, Lan; Liang, Yinli; Han, Ruilian

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of farmland to forestland not only changes the ecological environment but also enriches the soil with organic matter and affects the global carbon cycle. This paper reviews the influence of land use changes on the soil organic carbon sink to determine whether the Chinese "Grain-for-Green" (conversion of farmland to forestland) project increased the rate of SOC content during its implementation between 1999 and 2010 in the hilly and gully areas of the Loess Plateau in north-central China. The carbon sink was quantified, and the effects of the main species were assessed. The carbon sink increased from 2.26×106 kg in 1999 to 8.32×106 kg in 2010 with the sustainable growth of the converted areas. The black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) soil increased SOC content in the top soil (0-100 cm) in the initial 7-yr period, while the sequestration occurred later (>7 yr) in the 100-120 cm layer after the "Grain-for-Green" project was implemented. The carbon sink function measured for the afforested land provides evidence that the Grain-for-Green project has successfully excavated the carbon sink potential of the Shaanxi province and served as an important milestone for establishing an effective organic carbon management program.

  13. Dryland soil microbial communities display spatial biogeographic patterns associated with soil depth and soil parent material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common to drylands worldwide. We employed replicated, spatially nested sampling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the soil microbial communities in three soils derived from different parent material (sandstone, shale, and gypsum). For each soil type, two depths (biocrusts, 0–1 cm; below-crust soils, 2–5 cm) and two horizontal spatial scales (15 cm and 5 m) were sampled. In all three soils, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria demonstrated significantly higher relative abundance in the biocrusts, while Chloroflexi and Archaea were significantly enriched in the below-crust soils. Biomass and diversity of the communities in biocrusts or below-crust soils did not differ with soil type. However, biocrusts on gypsum soil harbored significantly larger populations of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and lower populations of Cyanobacteria. Numerically dominant operational taxonomic units (OTU; 97% sequence identity) in the biocrusts were conserved across the soil types, whereas two dominant OTUs in the below-crust sand and shale soils were not identified in the gypsum soil. The uniformity with which small-scale vertical community differences are maintained across larger horizontal spatial scales and soil types is a feature of dryland ecosystems that should be considered when designing management plans and determining the response of biocrusts to environmental disturbances.

  14. Enhancement of carbon sequestration in soil in the temperature grasslands of northern China by addition of nitrogen and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    He, Nianpeng; Yu, Qiang; Wang, Ruomeng; Zhang, Yunhai; Gao, Yang; Yu, Guirui

    2013-01-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) deposition is common worldwide. Questions of where, how, and if reactive N-input influences soil carbon (C) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems are of great concern. To explore the potential for soil C sequestration in steppe region under N and phosphorus (P) addition, we conducted a field experiment between 2006 and 2012 in the temperate grasslands of northern China. The experiment examined 6 levels of N (0-56 g N m(-2) yr(-1)), 6 levels of P (0-12.4 g P m(-2) yr(-1)), and a control scenario. Our results showed that addition of both N and P enhanced soil total C storage in grasslands due to significant increases of C input from litter and roots. Compared with control plots, soil organic carbon (SOC) in the 0-100 cm soil layer varied quadratically, from 156.8 to 1352.9 g C m(-2) with N addition gradient (R(2) = 0.99, P < 0.001); and logarithmically, from 293.6 to 788.6 g C m(-2) with P addition gradient (R(2) = 0.56, P = 0.087). Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) decreased quadratically with N addition. The net C sequestration on grassland (including plant, roots, SIC, and SOC) increased linearly from -128.6 to 729.0 g C m(-2) under N addition (R(2) = 0.72, P = 0.023); and increased logarithmically, from 248.5 to 698 g C m(-2)under P addition (R(2) = 0.82, P = 0.014). Our study implies that N addition has complex effects on soil carbon dynamics, and future studies of soil C sequestration on grasslands should include evaluations of both SOC and SIC under various scenarios.

  15. Effect of Supplementary Irrigation Water Quality on Some Soil Chemical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, José Luis; Aparicio, Virginia

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of different combinations of irrigation water (demineralized and artificially salinized on the laboratory) on the electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), pH, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and percent base saturation of two petrocalcic paleudols of Argentina. An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using soil columns of 30 cm long, which were seeded with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Five water treatments were established: W2 (50% water of low SAR and 50 % distilled water), W0 ( 100 % distilled water), W1 (30% water with low RAS and 70 % distilled water), W3 (30% water of high RAS and 70 % distilled water), and W4 ( 50% water with high RAS and 50 % distilled water). As artificially salinized water proportion was greater than the demineralized water, the EC and ESP values increased principally at surface level (10cm). The artificial water SAR=12.5 produced a significant increase in ESP=19.8 compared with the control treatment. Considering the dilution effect of rain,it was possible to establish an equation to estimate the value of soil ESP for a given quality of irrigation water value.

  16. Lessons Learned From CM-2 Modal Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Carney, Kelly S.; Otten, Kim D.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS-107 in the SPACEHAB Double Research Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is installed into SPACEHAB single and double racks. The CM-2 flight hardware was vibration tested in the launch configuration to characterize the structure's modal response. Cross-orthogonality between test and analysis mode shapes were used to assess model correlation. Lessons learned for pre-test planning and model verification are discussed.

  17. Energy Levels of the Nitrate Radical Below 2000 CM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, J. F.; Simmons, C. S.

    2012-06-01

    Highly sophisticated quantum chemistry techniques have been employed to build a three-state diabatic Hamiltonian for the nitrate radical (NO_3). Eigenvalues of this Hamiltonian (which includes effects beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation) are consistent with the known ``vibrational'' levels of NO_3 up to ca. 2100 cm-1 above the zero-point level; with a small empirical adjustment of the diabatic coupling strength, calculated levels are within 20 cm-1 of the measured level positions for those that have been observed experimentally. Of the eleven states with e' symmetry calculated below 2000 cm-1, nine of these have been observed either in the gas phase by Hirota and collaborators as well as Neumark and Johnston, or in frozen argon by Jacox. However, the Hamiltonian produces two levels that have not been seen experimentally: one calculated to lie at 1075 cm-1 (which is the third e' state, above ν_4 and 2ν_4) and another at 1640 cm-1 which is best assigned as one of the two e' sublevels of 4ν_4. A significant result is that the state predicted at 1075 cm-1 is not far enough above the predicted 2ν_4 level (777 cm-1 v. ca. 760 cm-1 from experiment) to be plausibly assigned as 3ν_4 (which is at 1155 cm-1: experimental position: 1173 cm-1), nor is its nodal structure consistent with such an idea. Rather, it is quite unambiguously the ν_3 level. Given the fidelity of the results generated by this model Hamiltonian as compared to experiment, it can safely be concluded that the prominent infrared band seen at 1492 cm-1 (corresponding to a calculated level at 1500 cm-1) is not ν_3, but rather a multiquantum state best viewed as a sublevel of the ν_3 + ν_4 combination.

  18. Effects of electron irradiation and temperature on 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicoletta, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    One OHM-cm and 10 OHM-cm silicon solar cells were exposed to 1.0 MeV electrons at a fixed flux of 10 to the 11th power e/sq cm/sec and fluences of 10 to the 13th power, 10 to the 14th power and 10 to the 15th power e/sq.cm. 1-V curves of the cells were made at room temperature, - 63 C and + or - 143 C after each irradiation. A value of 139.5 mw/sq cm was used as AMO incident energy rate per unit area. The 10 OHM-cm cells appear more efficient than 1 OHM-cm cells after exposure to a fluence greater than 10 to the 14th power e/sq cm. The 1.0 MeV electron damage coefficients for both 1 OHM-cm and 10 OHM-cm cells are somewhat less than those for previously irradiated cells at room temperature. The values of the damage coefficients increase as the cell temperatures decrease. Efficiencies pertaining to maximum power output are about the same as those of n on p silicon cells evaluated previously.

  19. The amino acid composition of the Sutter's Mill CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    We determined the abundances and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids in Sutter's Mill fragment #2 (designated SM2) recovered prior to heavy rains that fell April 25-26, 2012, and two other meteorite fragments, SM12 and SM51, that were recovered postrain. We also determined the abundance, enantiomeric, and isotopic compositions of amino acids in soil from the recovery site of fragment SM51. The three meteorite stones experienced terrestrial amino acid contamination, as evidenced by the low D/L ratios of several proteinogenic amino acids. The D/L ratios were higher in SM2 than in SM12 and SM51, consistent with rain introducing additional L-amino acid contaminants to SM12 and SM51. Higher percentages of glycine, β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid were observed in free form in SM2 and SM51 compared with the soil, suggesting that these free amino acids may be indigenous. Trace levels of D+L-β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIB) observed in all three meteorites are not easily explained as terrestrial contamination, as β-AIB is rare on Earth and was not detected in the soil. Bulk carbon and nitrogen and isotopic ratios of the SM samples and the soil also indicate terrestrial contamination, as does compound-specific isotopic analysis of the amino acids in the soil. The amino acid abundances in SM2, the most pristine SM meteorite analyzed here, are approximately 20-fold lower than in the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. This may be due to thermal metamorphism in the Sutter's Mill parent body at temperatures greater than observed for other aqueously altered CM2 meteorites.

  20. Effect of DTPA on concentration ratios of /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm in vegetative parts of bush bean and barley

    SciTech Connect

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Mueller, R.T.; Cha, J.W.; Wood, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    We grew bush beans, barley, and rice in two different soils in a glasshouse with /sup 237/Np or /sup 244/Cm mixed into separate containers of the soil. The chelating agent DTPA at 100 ..mu..g/g soil was added to half of the containers. The concentration ratio (CR) for /sup 237/Np without DTPA was two orders of magnitude higher than for /sup 244/Cm without DTPA for all three plant species. The DTPA increased the CR of /sup 244/Cm by two to three orders of magnitude, but had no influence on that for /sup 237/Np. In bush beans, both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm CRs were higher in primary leaves than in trifoliate leaves, which were higher than for stems. The CRs for bush beans were generally higher for both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm than for either barley or rice, especially without DTPA.

  1. "The 5 cm Rule": Biopower, Sexuality and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores "the 5 cm rule", a regulation around student contact discovered during an investigation of the sexual culture of schooling with 16-19-year-olds in New Zealand. Implemented to stem "inappropriate and unwanted" touching, it stipulates that students must maintain a physical distance of 5 cm at all times. It is argued this rule…

  2. Design and Performance of 40 cm Ion Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2001-01-01

    A 40 cm ion thruster is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to obtain input power and propellant throughput capabilities of 10 kW and 550 kg. respectively. The technical approach here is a continuation of the "derating" technique used for the NSTAR ion thruster. The 40 cm ion thruster presently utilizes the NSTAR ion optics aperture geometry to take advantage of the large database of lifetime and performance data already available. Dome-shaped grids were chosen for the design of the 40 cm ion optics because this design is naturally suited for large-area ion optics. Ion extraction capabilities and electron backstreaming limits for the 40 cm ion optics were estimated by utilizing NSTAR 30 cm ion optics data. A preliminary service life assessment showed that the propellant throughput goal of 550 kg of xenon may be possible with molybdenum 40 cm ion optics. One 40 cm ion optics' set has been successfully fabricated to date. Additional ion optics' sets are presently being fabricated. Preliminary performance tests were conducted on a laboratory model 40 cm ion thruster.

  3. Effects of proton irradiation and temperature on 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicoletta, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells were exposed to 1.0 MeV protons at a fixed flux of 10 to the 9th power P/sq cm-sec and fluences of 10 to the 10th power, 10 to the 11th power, 10 to the 12th power and 3 X 10 to the 12th power P/sq cm. I-V curves of the cells were made at room temperature, 65 C and 165 C after each irradiation. A value of 139.5 mw/sq cm was taken as AMO incident energy rate per unit area. Degradation occurred for both uncovered 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm cells. Efficiencies are generally higher than those of comparable U.S. cells tested earlier. Damage (loss in maximum power efficiency) with proton fluence is somewhat higher for 10 ohm-cm cells, measured at the three temperatures, for fluences above 2 X 10 to the 11th power P/sq cm. Cell efficiency, as expected, changes drastically with temperature.

  4. Modeling the effect of active layer deepening on stocks of soil organic carbon in the Pechora River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, P.; Hugelius, G.; Marchenko, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates how much of the estimated mass of surface permafrost (1 m deep) soil organic carbon stored in soils of the northern Pechora River Basin (Russian Arctic) could be affected due to active layer deepening for the time period 1980 to 2099. The study estimates how much of the upper permafrost soil organic carbon (1-100 cm depth range) will be affected by active layer deepening due to climate warming, on what timescale the deepening will take place and if the estimated changes differ depending on the extent of permafrost in the region. A model developed in a Geographic Information System combines datasets from The Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (Hugelius, in press), field data of soil organic carbon content (SOCC) in different permafrost soil horizons in the Usa basin (Hugelius et al., 2011) and data of recent (observed) and future (projected) active layer depth from a spatially distributed permafrost dynamics model in the Pechora River Basin (GIPL2 model; Marchenko et al., 2008). For the simulation of permafrost dynamics we used output from the regional climate model HIRHAM5 with the physical parameterization of ECHAM5 with a doubling gradual increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration by the end of the current century (Stendel et al., 2010). According to this specific climate scenario, projections of future changes in permafrost suggest that by the end of the 21st century, permafrost in the Russian North may be actively thawing at many locations of the Pechora River watershed. The results show that in 1980, 75% of the available 0-100 cm Gelisol SOCC is affected by seasonal thawing (Figure 1). In 2050 the proportion is increased to 86% and by 2090 almost the whole study area has an active layer deeper than 1 meter (98%). This indicates an increase from approximately 0.64% to 0.84% of the total 1-100 cm soil organic carbon mass in the northern permafrost region. The change is more gradual in the isolated and the sporadic permafrost zones

  5. [Pharmacological effects of CM6912 and its main metabolites].

    PubMed

    Morishita, H; Kushiku, K; Furukawa, T; Yamaki, Y; Izawa, M; Shibazaki, Y; Shibata, U

    1985-07-01

    Pharmacodynamic effects of ethyl 7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1H-1,4- benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate (CM6912), a new benzodiazepine derivative, and its main metabolites (CM6913 = M1, CM7116 = M2) on the peripheral systems were investigated in several species of animals. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits, CM6912 and M2 (1 or 5 mg/kg, i.v.) had little effect on blood pressure, heart rate and ECG, but it slightly reduced the respiration rate. M1 decreased the heart rate without affecting respiration, blood pressure and ECG. In conscious rabbits, CM6912 and M2 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) did not affect respiration, blood pressure, heart rate and ECG, but M1 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) increased the heart rate. CM6912 (5 or 30 mg/kg), when administered orally, also increased heart rate. In pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs, CM6912 and its metabolites (5 mg/kg, i.v.) decreased respiration and heart rate without affecting blood pressure and ECG. CM 6912 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) did not affect cardiovascular responses to the carotid occlusion, vagus stimulation, and pre- and post-ganglionic stimulation of cardiac ganglion in anesthetized dogs. CM6912 and its metabolites affected neither the spontaneous contraction nor the heart rate of isolated rabbit atria. These compounds also had no action on isolated aortic strips from rabbits. CM6912 and its metabolites did not affect the muscle tone of isolated guinea pig intestine, and it had no effects on the contractile responses to acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin and barium chloride. In isolated rabbit intestine, CM6912 and M2 slightly reduced the amplitude of contraction, while M1 had no effect. CM6912 and its metabolites did not affect the spontaneous motility of isolated non-pregnant and pregnant rat uteri as well as in situ non-pregnant rat uterus and isolated guinea pig vas deferens, including the contractile response to adrenaline. CM6912 and M2 relaxed isolated guinea pig trachea strips only at high concentrations. CM6912 and its

  6. Evaluation of CM5 Charges for Condensed-Phase Modeling.

    PubMed

    Vilseck, Jonah Z; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Jorgensen, William L

    2014-07-01

    The recently developed Charge Model 5 (CM5) is tested for its utility in condensed-phase simulations. The CM5 approach, which derives partial atomic charges from Hirshfeld population analyses, provides excellent results for gas-phase dipole moments and is applicable to all elements of the periodic table. Herein, the adequacy of scaled CM5 charges for use in modeling aqueous solutions has been evaluated by computing free energies of hydration (ΔG hyd) for 42 neutral organic molecules via Monte Carlo statistical mechanics. An optimal scaling factor for the CM5 charges was determined to be 1.27, resulting in a mean unsigned error (MUE) of 1.1 kcal/mol for the free energies of hydration. Testing for an additional 20 molecules gave an MUE of 1.3 kcal/mol. The high precision of the results is confirmed by free energy calculations using both sequential perturbations and complete molecular annihilation. Performance for specific functional groups is discussed; sulfur-containing molecules yield the largest errors. In addition, the scaling factor of 1.27 is shown to be appropriate for CM5 charges derived from a variety of density functional methods and basis sets. Though the average errors from the 1.27*CM5 results are only slightly lower than those using 1.14*CM1A charges, the broader applicability and easier access to CM5 charges via the Gaussian program are additional attractive features. The 1.27*CM5 charge model can be used for an enormous variety of applications in conjunction with many fixed-charge force fields and molecular modeling programs. PMID:25061445

  7. Managing compost stability and amendment to soil to enhance soil heating during soil solarization.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Christopher W; Guo, Hongyun; Claypool, Joshua T; Marshall, Megan N; Perano, Kristen M; Stapleton, James J; Vandergheynst, Jean S

    2013-05-01

    Soil solarization is a method of soil heating used to eradicate plant pathogens and weeds that involves passive solar heating of moist soil mulched (covered) with clear plastic tarp. Various types of organic matter may be incorporated into soil prior to solarization to increase biocidal activity of the treatment process. Microbial activity associated with the decomposition of soil organic matter may increase temperatures during solarization, potentially enhancing solarization efficacy. However, the level of organic matter decomposition (stability) necessary for increasing soil temperature is not well characterized, nor is it known if various amendments render the soil phytotoxic to crops following solarization. Laboratory studies and a field trial were performed to determine heat generation in soil amended with compost during solarization. Respiration was measured in amended soil samples prior to and following solarization as a function of soil depth. Additionally, phytotoxicity was estimated through measurement of germination and early growth of lettuce seedlings in greenhouse assays. Amendment of soil with 10%(g/g) compost containing 16.9 mg CO2/gdry weight organic carbon resulted in soil temperatures that were 2-4 °C higher than soil alone. Approximately 85% of total organic carbon within the amended soil was exhausted during 22 days of solarization. There was no significant difference in residual respiration with soil depth down to 17.4 cm. Although freshly amended soil proved highly inhibitory to lettuce seed germination and seedling growth, phytotoxicity was not detected in solarized amended soil after 22 days of field solarization.

  8. Managing compost stability and amendment to soil to enhance soil heating during soil solarization.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Christopher W; Guo, Hongyun; Claypool, Joshua T; Marshall, Megan N; Perano, Kristen M; Stapleton, James J; Vandergheynst, Jean S

    2013-05-01

    Soil solarization is a method of soil heating used to eradicate plant pathogens and weeds that involves passive solar heating of moist soil mulched (covered) with clear plastic tarp. Various types of organic matter may be incorporated into soil prior to solarization to increase biocidal activity of the treatment process. Microbial activity associated with the decomposition of soil organic matter may increase temperatures during solarization, potentially enhancing solarization efficacy. However, the level of organic matter decomposition (stability) necessary for increasing soil temperature is not well characterized, nor is it known if various amendments render the soil phytotoxic to crops following solarization. Laboratory studies and a field trial were performed to determine heat generation in soil amended with compost during solarization. Respiration was measured in amended soil samples prior to and following solarization as a function of soil depth. Additionally, phytotoxicity was estimated through measurement of germination and early growth of lettuce seedlings in greenhouse assays. Amendment of soil with 10%(g/g) compost containing 16.9 mg CO2/gdry weight organic carbon resulted in soil temperatures that were 2-4 °C higher than soil alone. Approximately 85% of total organic carbon within the amended soil was exhausted during 22 days of solarization. There was no significant difference in residual respiration with soil depth down to 17.4 cm. Although freshly amended soil proved highly inhibitory to lettuce seed germination and seedling growth, phytotoxicity was not detected in solarized amended soil after 22 days of field solarization. PMID:23422041

  9. Peak Doctor v 1.0.0 Labview Version

    2014-05-29

    PeakDoctor software works interactively with its user to analyze raw gamma-ray spectroscopic data. The goal of the software is to produce a list of energies and areas of all of the peaks in the spectrum, as accurately as possible. It starts by performing an energy calibration, creating a function that describes how energy can be related to channel number. Next, the software determines which channels in the raw histogram are in the Compton continuum andmore » which channels are parts of a peak. Then the software fits the Compton continuum with cubic polynomials. The last step is to fit all of the peaks with Gaussian functions, thus producing the list.« less

  10. Peak Doctor v 1.0.0 Labview Version

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, Scott

    2014-05-29

    PeakDoctor software works interactively with its user to analyze raw gamma-ray spectroscopic data. The goal of the software is to produce a list of energies and areas of all of the peaks in the spectrum, as accurately as possible. It starts by performing an energy calibration, creating a function that describes how energy can be related to channel number. Next, the software determines which channels in the raw histogram are in the Compton continuum and which channels are parts of a peak. Then the software fits the Compton continuum with cubic polynomials. The last step is to fit all of the peaks with Gaussian functions, thus producing the list.

  11. Scalable Object Store v. 1.0.0

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-23

    SOS is software that stores data values in a set of structured flat files. The data is organized in the files based upon functions specified by the user in order to enable fast insertion and retrieval of data.

  12. Thermodynamic modeling of atmospheric aerosols: 0-100% relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutcher, Cari S.; Ge, Xinlei; Asato, Caitlin; Wexler, Anthony S.; Clegg, Simon L.

    2013-05-01

    Accurate models of water and solute activities in aqueous atmospheric aerosols are central to predicting aerosol size, optical properties and cloud formation. A powerful method has been recently developed (Dutcher et al. JPC 2011, 2012, 2013) for representing the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent aerosols at low and intermediate levels of RH (< 90%RH) by applying the principles of multilayer sorption to ion hydration in solutions. In that work, statistical mechanics was used to model sorption of a solvent (water), onto each solute or ion in solution as n energetically distinct layers. This corresponds to n hydration layers surrounding each solute molecule. Here, we extend the model to the 100% RH limit and reduce the number of adjustable model parameters, allowing for a unified thermodynamic treatment for a wider range of atmospheric systems. The long-range interactions due to electrostatic screening of ions in solution are included as a mole fraction based Pitzer-Debye-Hückel (PDH) term. Equations for the Gibbs free energy, solvent and solute activity, and solute concentration are derived, yielding remarkable agreement between measured and fitted solute concentration and osmotic coefficients for solutions over the entire 0 to 100% RH range. By relating the values of the energy of sorption in each hydration layer to known short-range Coulombic electrostatic relationships governed by the size and dipole moment of the solute and solvent molecules, it may be possible to reduce the number of parameters for each solute. Modified equations for mixtures that take into account the long range PDH term will also be presented; these equations include no additional parameters.

  13. Ion accelerator systems for high power 30 cm thruster operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two and three-grid accelerator systems for high power ion thruster operation were investigated. Two-grid translation tests show that over compensation of the 30 cm thruster SHAG grid set spacing the 30 cm thruster radial plasma density variation and by incorporating grid compensation only sufficient to maintain grid hole axial alignment, it is shown that beam current gains as large as 50% can be realized. Three-grid translation tests performed with a simulated 30 cm thruster discharge chamber show that substantial beamlet steering can be reliably affected by decelerator grid translation only, at net-to-total voltage ratios as low as 0.05.

  14. Eight-cm mercury ion thruster system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The technology status of 8 cm diameter electron bombardment ion thrusters is presented. Much of the technology resulting from the 5 cm diameter thruster has been adapted and improved upon to increase the reliability, durability, and efficiency of the 8 cm thruster. Technology discussed includes: dependence of neutralizer tip erosion upon neutralizer flow rate; impregnated and rolled-foil insert cathode performance and life testing; neutralizer position studies; thruster ion beam profile measurements; high voltage pulse ignition; high utilization ion machined accelerator grids; deposition internal and external to the thruster; thruster vectoring systems; thruster cycling life testing and thruster system weights for typical mission applications.

  15. CM Process Improvement and the International Space Station Program (ISSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Ginny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Configuration Management (CM) process improvements planned and undertaken for the International Space Station Program (ISSP). It reviews the 2004 findings and recommendations and the progress towards their implementation.

  16. Benchmarking and performance analysis of the CM-2. [SIMD computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David W.; Adams, George B., II

    1988-01-01

    A suite of benchmarking routines testing communication, basic arithmetic operations, and selected kernel algorithms written in LISP and PARIS was developed for the CM-2. Experiment runs are automated via a software framework that sequences individual tests, allowing for unattended overnight operation. Multiple measurements are made and treated statistically to generate well-characterized results from the noisy values given by cm:time. The results obtained provide a comparison with similar, but less extensive, testing done on a CM-1. Tests were chosen to aid the algorithmist in constructing fast, efficient, and correct code on the CM-2, as well as gain insight into what performance criteria are needed when evaluating parallel processing machines.

  17. Spectral reflectance properties of carbonaceous chondrites: 2. CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E. A.; Hudon, P.; Hiroi, T.; Gaffey, M. J.; Mann, P.

    2011-11-01

    We have examined the spectral reflectance properties and available modal mineralogies of 39 CM carbonaceous chondrites to determine their range of spectral variability and to diagnose their spectral features. We have also reviewed the published literature on CM mineralogy and subclassification, surveyed the published spectral literature and added new measurements of CM chondrites and relevant end members and mineral mixtures, and measured 11 parameters and searched pair-wise for correlations between all quantities. CM spectra are characterized by overall slopes that can range from modestly blue-sloped to red-sloped, with brighter spectra being generally more red-sloped. Spectral slopes, as measured by the 2.4:0.56 μm and 2.4 μm:visible region peak reflectance ratios, range from 0.90 to 2.32, and 0.81 to 2.24, respectively, with values <1 indicating blue-sloped spectra. Matrix-enriched CM spectra can be even more blue-sloped than bulk samples, with ratios as low as 0.85. There is no apparent correlation between spectral slope and grain size for CM chondrite spectra - both fine-grained powders and chips can exhibit blue-sloped spectra. Maximum reflectance across the 0.3-2.5 μm interval ranges from 2.9% to 20.0%, and from 2.8% to 14.0% at 0.56 μm. Matrix-enriched CM spectra can be darker than bulk samples, with maximum reflectance as low as 2.1%. CM spectra exhibit nearly ubiquitous absorption bands near 0.7, 0.9, and 1.1 μm, with depths up to 12%, and, less commonly, absorption bands in other wavelength regions (e.g., 0.4-0.5, 0.65, 2.2 μm). The depths of the 0.7, 0.9, and 1.1 μm absorption features vary largely in tandem, suggesting a single cause, specifically serpentine-group phyllosilicates. The generally high Fe content, high phyllosilicate abundance relative to mafic silicates, and dual Fe valence state in CM phyllosilicates, all suggest that the phyllosilicates will exhibit strong absorption bands in the 0.7 μm region (due to Fe 3+-Fe 2+ charge

  18. [Soil organic carbon storage changes with land reclamation under vegetation reconstruction on opencast coal mine dump].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Chao; Dang, Ting-Hui; Guo, Sheng-Li; Xue, Jiang; Tang, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation reconstruction was an effective solution to reclaim the opencast coal mine dump which was formed in the process of mining. To understand the impact of the vegetation reconstruction patterns' on the mine soil organic carbon (SOC) storage was essential for selecting the methods of vegetation restoration and also important for accurately estimating the potential of the soil carbon sequestration. The study area was on the Heidaigou opencast coal mine, which was 15 years reclaimed coal mine dump in Zhungeer, Inner Mongolia autonomous region, we selected 5 vegetation reconstruction patterns (natural recovery land, grassland, bush land, mixed woodland of arbor and bush, arbor land), and 16 vegetation types, 408 soil samples (0-100 m), to study the effect of the vegetation reconstruction patterns on the SOC storage. The results were showed as follows: (1) on the reclaimed coal mine dump, the vegetation reconstruction patterns significantly affected the SOC content and its distribution in the soil profile (P < 0.05). The surface 0-10 cm SOC content was grassland > shrub land > arbor forest > mixed forest of arbor and shrub > natural recovery land, in which the grassland, shrub land and arbor forest were about 2.2, 1.3, and 1.3 times of natural recovery land (2.14 g · kg(-1)) respectively. The total nitrogen (TN) showed the similar trends. (2) Among the vegetation types, Medicago sativa had the highest surface SOC content (5.71 g · kg(-1)) and TN content (0.49 g · kg(-1)), that were 171.3% and 166.7% higher than the natural recovery land, and two times of Hippophae rhamnoides, Amorpha fruticosa + Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. (3) The effect of vegetation types on SOC mainly concentrated in the 0-20 cm depth, and the effect on TN accounted for 40 cm. (4) For the SOC storage, the order was original landform area > reclaimed dump > new dump and grassland > woodland (including arbor and shrub land). After 15 years revegetation, the soil carbon

  19. [Soil organic carbon storage changes with land reclamation under vegetation reconstruction on opencast coal mine dump].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Chao; Dang, Ting-Hui; Guo, Sheng-Li; Xue, Jiang; Tang, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation reconstruction was an effective solution to reclaim the opencast coal mine dump which was formed in the process of mining. To understand the impact of the vegetation reconstruction patterns' on the mine soil organic carbon (SOC) storage was essential for selecting the methods of vegetation restoration and also important for accurately estimating the potential of the soil carbon sequestration. The study area was on the Heidaigou opencast coal mine, which was 15 years reclaimed coal mine dump in Zhungeer, Inner Mongolia autonomous region, we selected 5 vegetation reconstruction patterns (natural recovery land, grassland, bush land, mixed woodland of arbor and bush, arbor land), and 16 vegetation types, 408 soil samples (0-100 m), to study the effect of the vegetation reconstruction patterns on the SOC storage. The results were showed as follows: (1) on the reclaimed coal mine dump, the vegetation reconstruction patterns significantly affected the SOC content and its distribution in the soil profile (P < 0.05). The surface 0-10 cm SOC content was grassland > shrub land > arbor forest > mixed forest of arbor and shrub > natural recovery land, in which the grassland, shrub land and arbor forest were about 2.2, 1.3, and 1.3 times of natural recovery land (2.14 g · kg(-1)) respectively. The total nitrogen (TN) showed the similar trends. (2) Among the vegetation types, Medicago sativa had the highest surface SOC content (5.71 g · kg(-1)) and TN content (0.49 g · kg(-1)), that were 171.3% and 166.7% higher than the natural recovery land, and two times of Hippophae rhamnoides, Amorpha fruticosa + Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. (3) The effect of vegetation types on SOC mainly concentrated in the 0-20 cm depth, and the effect on TN accounted for 40 cm. (4) For the SOC storage, the order was original landform area > reclaimed dump > new dump and grassland > woodland (including arbor and shrub land). After 15 years revegetation, the soil carbon

  20. CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Yinjie; Li, Xiran; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI) data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly. PMID:26600125

  1. New results on the ternary fission of 243Cm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyse, J.; Wagemans, C.; Vermote, S.; Serot, O.; Geltenbort, P.; Soldner, T.; Van Gils, J.

    2005-11-01

    Ternary fission is an important source of He and tritium gas in nuclear reactors and used fuel elements. Therefore a systematic study of the ternary fission yields for 4He and tritons (t) is being performed. In recent years the influence of the excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus on the triton emission probability (t/B) has been investigated for different Cm and Cf isotopes. In this paper we report on new results on the neutron induced fission of 243Cm.

  2. CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Yinjie; Li, Xiran; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI) data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly. PMID:26600125

  3. Soil carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbore, Susan; Barbosa de Camargo, Plínio

    The amount of organic carbon (C) stored in the upper meter of mineral soils in the Amazon Basin (˜40 Pg C) represents ˜3% of the estimated global store of soil carbon. Adding surface detrital C stocks and soil carbon deeper than 1 m can as much as quadruple this estimate. The potential for Amazon soil carbon to respond to changes in land use, climate, or atmospheric composition depends on the form and dynamics of soil carbon. Much (˜30% in the top ˜10 cm but >85% in soils to 1 m depth) of the carbon in mineral soils of the Oxisols and Ultisols that are the predominant soil types in the Amazon Basin is in forms that are strongly stabilized, with mean ages of centuries to thousands of years. Measurable changes in soil C stocks that accompany land use/land cover change occur in the upper meter of soil, although the presence of deep roots in forests systems drives an active C cycle at depths >1 m. Credible estimates of the potential for changes in Amazon soil C stocks with future land use and climate change are much smaller than predictions of aboveground biomass change. Soil organic matter influences fertility and other key soil properties, and thus is important independent of its role in the global C cycle. Most work on C dynamics is limited to upland soils, and more is needed to investigate C dynamics in poorly drained soils. Work is also needed to relate cycles of C with water, N, P, and other elements.

  4. CM Carbonaceous Chondrite Lithologies and Their Space Exposure Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Gregory, Timothy; Takenouchi, Atsushi; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Trieman, Alan; Berger, Eve; Le, Loan; Fagan, Amy; Velbel, Michael; Imae, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The CMs are the most commonly falling C chondrites, and therefore may be a major component of C-class asteroids, the targets of several current and future space missions. Previous work [1] has concluded that CM chondrites fall into at least four distinct cosmic ray space exposure (CRE) age groups (0.1 million years, 0.2 million years, 0.6 million years and greater than 2.0 million years), an unusually large number, but the meaning of these groupings is unclear. It is possible that these meteorites came from different parent bodies which broke up at different times, or instead came from the same parent body which underwent multiple break-up events, or a combination of these scenarios, or something else entirely. The objective of this study is to investigate the diversity of lithologies which make up CM chondrites, in order to determine whether the different exposure ages correspond to specific, different CM lithologies, which permit us to constrain the history of the CM parent body(ies). We have already reported significant petrographic differences among CM chondrites [2-4]. We report here our new results.

  5. CM-2 Environmental / Modal Testing of Spacehab Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Farkas, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Combined environmental/modal vibration testing has been implemented at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The benefits of combined vibration testing are that it facilitates test article modal characterization and vibration qualification testing. The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS 107 in the SPACEHAB Research Double Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is integrated into a SPACEHAB single and double rack. CM-2 rack level combined vibration testing was recently completed on a shaker table to characterize the structure's modal response and verify the random vibration response. Control accelerometers and limit force gauges, located between the fixture and rack interface, were used to verify the input excitation. Results of the testing were used to verify the loads and environments for flight on the Shuttle.

  6. VLA observations of Uranus at 1. 3-20 cm

    SciTech Connect

    De Pater, I.; Gulkis, S.

    1988-08-01

    Observations of Uranus, obtained with resolution 0.5-1.2 arcsec at wavelengths 1.3, 2, 6, and 20 cm using the A and B configurations of the VLA in June-July 1982, October 1983, and February 1984, are reported. The disk-averaged brightness temperatures (DABTs) are determined by model fitting, and the results are presented in extensive graphs and contour maps and characterized in detail. Findings discussed include: (1) an overall spectrum which is relatively flat above 6 cm, (2) 1.3-6-cm brightness which is concentrated nearer to the pole than to the subsolar point, and (3) small changes in DABT from 1982 to 1983/1984 (consistent with an explanation based on a pole-equator temperature gradient). 16 references.

  7. Soil water repellency of Antarctic soils (Elephant Point). First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Oliva, Marc; Ruiz Fernández, Jesus

    2015-04-01

    Hydrophobicity it is a natural properties of many soils around the world. Despite the large body of research about soil water hydrophobicity (SWR) in many environments, little information it is available about Antarctic soils and their hydro-geomorphological consequences. According to our knowledge, no previous work was carried out on this environment. Soil samples were collected in the top-soil (0-5 cm) and SWR was analysed according to the water drop penetration test. The preliminary results showed that all the soils collected were hydrophilic, however further research should be carried out in order to understand if SWR changes with soil depth and if have implications on soil infiltration during the summer season.

  8. Profiling soil water content sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A waveguide-on-access-tube (WOAT) sensor system based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) principles was developed to sense soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity in 20-cm (8 inch) deep layers from the soil surface to depths of 3 m (10 ft) (patent No. 13/404,491 pending). A Cooperative R...

  9. Evidence for live Cm-247 in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatsumoto, M.; Shimamura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Variations of the U-238/U-235 ratio in the Allende meteorite, ranging from -35% to +19% are interpreted as evidence of live Cm-247 in the early solar system. The amounts of these and other r-products in the solar system indicate values of (9000 + or - 3000) million years for the age of the Galaxy and approximately 8 million years for the time between the end of nucleosynthesis and the formation of meteoritic grains. Three possible explanations are presented for the different values of the latter time period which are indicated by the decay of products of Cm-247, Al-27, Pu-244, and I-129.

  10. WSRC Am/Cm Stabilization Program - Cylindrical Induction Melter Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, W.A.

    1999-02-17

    1.1.1 Kilogram quantities of Americium and Curium isotopes (Am/Cm) have been produced at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina. These highly radioactive isotopes have both government and commercial value and are currently stored as a nitric acid solution at the Savannah River Site. The material represents the largest source term in the F canyon at SRS. It is proposed that the Am/Cm material be vitrified to stabilize the material for long term, recoverable storage. This paper reviews the progress made during the process development phase of this program using the Cylindrical Induction Melter.

  11. Precise measurements of primordial power spectrum with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the issue of how precisely we can measure the primordial power spectrum by using future observations of 21 cm fluctuations and cosmic microwave background (CMB). For this purpose, we investigate projected constraints on the quantities characterizing primordial power spectrum: the spectral index n{sub s}, its running α{sub s} and even its higher order running β{sub s}. We show that future 21 cm observations in combinations with CMB would accurately measure above mentioned observables of primordial power spectrum. We also discuss its implications to some explicit inflationary models.

  12. Evidence for live 247Cm in the early solar system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Shimamura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Variations of the 238U/235U ratio in the Allende meteorite, ranging from -35% to + 19%, are interpreted as evidence of live 247Cm in the early Solar System. The amounts of these and other r-products in the Solar System indicate values of (9,000??3,000) Myr for the age of the Galaxy and ??? 8 Myr for the time between the end of nucleosynthesis and the formation of meteoritic grains. Three possible explanations are presented for the different values of the latter time period which are indicated by the decay products of 247Cm, 26Al, 244Pu and 129I. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Carbon Product calibration and validation using eddy covariance observations across North America, Australia and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavros, E. N.; Kimball, J. S.; Jones, L. A.; Colliander, A.; Glassy, J. M.; Reichle, R. H.; Schimel, D.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Beringer, J.; Cleverly, J. R.; Desai, A. R.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Hutley, L. B.; Isaac, P. R.; Law, B. E.; Macfarlane, C.; Oechel, W. C.; Prober, S. M.; Jouni, P.; Scott, R. L.; Wheater, H. S.; Zona, D.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) mission was successfully launched January 31st 2015, inaugurating global operational low frequency (L-band) microwave observations of land surface soil moisture and freeze-thaw dynamics with 3-day mean temporal fidelity. The novelty of SMAP is in the high quality of the geophysical observations, global monitoring of dynamic landscape freeze-thaw (FT) and soil moisture (SM) conditions, and the model-enhanced estimation of root zone soil moisture (0-100 cm) and terrestrial carbon fluxes (constrained by environmental controls). The SMAP Level 4 Carbon Product (L4_C) uses lower-level geophysical data to constrain estimates of terrestrial net CO2 exchange and addresses a key science objective of the SMAP mission, which is to understand processes that link the terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, particularly in boreal landscapes. Here we present the L4_C calibration and validation infrastructure, which uses eddy covariance tower flux observations. A metric of L4_C product success is to estimate NEE in northern (≥45°N) boreal and arctic biomes to within 30 gCm-2yr-1 or ~1.6 gCm-2 d-1 RMSE, similar to the level of uncertainty for tower observations. We present initial L4_C product comparisons against independent observations from a global network of 33 in situ tower sites, 8 of which are considered primary sites in the high latitudes (≥45°N). Although only primary sites are used to determine product success, all sites are integrated into diagnostic plots to evaluate land cover heterogeneity between local tower footprints and overlying L4_C grid cells, algorithm handling and data quality, thus providing a framework for evaluating environmental constraints on ecosystem productivity and respiration. In addition to mission success, we examine the added value of including FT and SM to constrain terrestrial carbon flux estimates.

  14. Spatial distributions and sequestrations of organic carbon and black carbon in soils from the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Changlin; Cao, Junji; Han, Yongming; Huang, Shaopeng; Tu, Xiaming; Wang, Ping; An, Zhisheng

    2013-11-01

    Concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC), black carbon (BC), char, and soot in topsoils (0-20 cm) and vertical soil profiles (0-100 cm) from the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) were investigated. Objectives of the study were to establish the spatial distributions and estimate the sequestrations of these substances. The SOC, BC, char and soot concentrations were higher in the eastern and southeastern parts of the plateau and lower in the north, which is consistent with the patterns of economic development and energy consumption. The highest average SOC concentration was found in the clayey loess zone, followed by the loess and sandy loess zones. Similar trends were observed for BC, char and soot, suggesting interactions with clay and silt are potentially important influences on OC and BC. The SOC contents in topsoils varied from 0.31 to 51.81 g kg(-1), with a mean value of 6.54 g kg(-1), while BC and char concentrations were 0.02 to 5.5 g kg(-1) and 0.003 to 4.19 g kg(-1), respectively, and soot ranged from 0.01 to 1.32 g kg(-1). Unlike SOC, both BC and char decreased with soil depth, whereas soot showed little variation with depth. BC and char were correlated in the topsoils, and both correlated moderately well with SOC (R(2)=0.60) and soot (R(2)=0.53). The SOC pools sequestered in the 0 to 20 cm and 0 to 100 cm depths were estimated to be 0.741 and 3.63 Pg, respectively, and the BC pools sequestered in the 0 to 20 cm and 0 to 100 cm depths were 0.073 and 0.456 Pg, respectively. Therefore the quantity of carbon stored in the sediments of the CLP evidently exceeds 10(9) tons. The char contained in the upper 20 cm layer was 0.053 Pg, which amounted to 72.5% of the BC in that layer.

  15. [Soil moisture dynamics of apple orchard in Loess Plateau dryland].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Fan, Ting-lu; Li, Shang-zhong; Zhang, Jian-jun; Wang, Yong; Dang, Yi; Wang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    The soil moisture of 0-500 cm soil layer in a dryland orchard at its full fruit period was measured from 2009 to 2013 to explore the soil moisture dynamics. Results indicated that soil water consumption mainly occurred in the soil layer of 0-300 cm in normal rainfall year and below the 300 cm soil layer when the annual rainfall was less than 400 mm. The soil moisture in the 200-300 cm soil layer fluctuated most and was affected by rainfall and apple consumption. Seasonal drought usually happened between April and late June, while the accumulation of soil moisture mainly occurred in the rainy season from July to mid-October to alleviate the drought effectively in next spring.

  16. The Complexity and Challenges of the ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM Transition in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Krive, Jacob; Patel, Mahatkumar; Gehm, Lisa; Mackey, Mark; Kulstad, Erik; Li, Jianrong ‘John’; Lussier, Yves A.; Boyd, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning October 2015, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) will require medical providers to utilize the vastly expanded ICD-10-CM system. Despite wide availability of information and mapping tools for the next generation of the ICD classification system, some of the challenges associated with transition from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM are not well understood. To quantify the challenges faced by emergency physicians, we analyzed a subset of a 2010 Illinois Medicaid database of emergency department ICD-9-CM codes, seeking to determine the accuracy of existing mapping tools in order to better prepare emergency physicians for the change to the expanded ICD-10-CM system. We found that 27% of 1,830 codes represented convoluted multidirectional mappings. We then analyzed the convoluted transitions and found 8% of total visit encounters (23% of the convoluted transitions) were clinically incorrect. The ambiguity and inaccuracy of these mappings may impact the work flow associated with the translation process and affect the potential mapping between ICD codes and CPT (Current Procedural Codes) codes, which determine physician reimbursement. PMID:25863652

  17. Microwave remote sensing of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing of soils to determine water content was considered. A layered water balance model was developed for determining soil water content in the upper zone (top 30 cm), while soil moisture at greater depths and near the surface during the diurnal cycle was studied using experimental measurements. Soil temperature was investigated by means of a simulation model. Based on both models, moisture and temperature profiles of a hypothetical soil were generated and used to compute microwave soil parameters for a clear summer day. The results suggest that, (1) soil moisture in the upper zone can be predicted on a daily basis for 1 cm depth increments, (2) soil temperature presents no problem if surface temperature can be measured with infrared radiometers, and (3) the microwave response of a bare soil is determined primarily by the moisture at and near the surface. An algorithm is proposed for monitoring large areas which combines the water balance and microwave methods.

  18. Search for Cm-248 in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavielle, B.; Marti, K.; Pellas, P.; Perron, C.

    1992-01-01

    Possible evidence for the presence of Cm-248 in the early solar system was reported from fission gas studies (Rao and Gopalan, 1973) and recently from studies of very high nuclear track densities (not less than 5 x 10 exp 8/sq cm) in the merrillite of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale (F.V.) (Pellas et al., 1987). We report here an analysis of the isotopic abundances of xenon in F.V. phosphates and results of track studies in phosphate/pyroxene contacts. The fission xenon isotopic signature clearly identifies Pu-244 as the extinct progenitor. We calculate an upper limit Cm-248/Pu-244 to be less than 0.0015 at the beginning of Xe retention in F.V. phosphates. This corresponds to an upper limit of the ratio Cm-248/U-235 of not greater than 5 x 10 exp -5 further constraining the evidence for any late addition of freshly synthesized actinide elements just prior to solar system formation. The fission track density observed after annealing the phosphates at 290C (1 hr, which essentially erases spallation recoil tracks) is also in agreement with the Pu-244 abundance inferred from fission Xe. The spallation recoil tracks produced during the 76 Ma cosmic-ray exposure account for the very high track density in merrillites.

  19. Retrofit and acceptance test of 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Six 30 cm mercury thrusters were modified to the J-series design and evaluated using standardized test procedures. The thruster performance meets the design objectives (lifetime objective requires verification), and documentation (drawings, etc.) for the design is completed and upgraded. The retrofit modifications are described and the test data for the modifications are presented and discussed.

  20. Preparing for ICD-10-CM in physician practices.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Lynn

    2009-08-01

    What will change under CD-10-CM, and what must be done to prepare? This is the year for physician practices to get their ducks in a row: become informed, assess their IT and training needs, and make a plan that leads to the October 1, 2013, deadline.

  1. Calorimetric determination of kQ factors for NE 2561 and NE 2571 ionization chambers in 5 cm × 5 cm and 10 cm × 10 cm radiotherapy beams of 8 MV and 16 MV photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Achim; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter

    2007-10-01

    The relative uncertainty of the ionometric determination of the absorbed dose to water, Dw, in the reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams is in the order of 1.5% and is dominated by the uncertainty of the calculated chamber- and energy-dependent correction factors kQ. In the present investigation, kQ values were determined experimentally in 5 cm × 5 cm and 10 cm × 10 cm radiotherapy beams of 8 MV and 16 MV bremsstrahlung by means of a water calorimeter operated at 4 °C. Ionization chambers of the types NE 2561 and NE 2571 were calibrated directly in the water phantom of the calorimeter. The measurements were carried out at the linear accelerator of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. It is shown that the kQ factor of a single ionization chamber can be measured with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.3%. No significant variations of kQ were found for the different lateral sizes of the radiation fields used in this investigation.

  2. The 21 cm signature of a cosmic string loop

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, Michael; Brandenberger, Robert E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca

    2012-05-01

    Cosmic string loops lead to nonlinear baryon overdensities at early times, even before the time which in the standard LCDM model corresponds to the time of reionization. These overdense structures lead to signals in 21 cm redshift surveys at large redshifts. In this paper, we calculate the amplitude and shape of the string loop-induced 21 cm brightness temperature. We find that a string loop leads to a roughly elliptical region in redshift space with extra 21 cm emission. The excess brightness temperature for strings with a tension close to the current upper bound can be as high as 1deg K for string loops generated at early cosmological times (times comparable to the time of equal matter and radiation) and observed at a redshift of z+1 = 30. The angular extent of these predicted 'bright spots' is x{sup '}. These signals should be detectable in upcoming high redshift 21 cm surveys. We also discuss the application of our results to global monopoles and primordial black holes.

  3. Adaptation of California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Hasan Fehmi; Demirtasli, Nükhet Çikrikçi

    2015-01-01

    Education without doubt, plays a vital role for individuals to gain the essential personal traits of the 21st century, also known as "knowledge age". One of the most important skills among these fundamental qualities which the individuals should be equipped with is critical thinking. California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3 was…

  4. Maribo—A new CM fall from Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Henning; Grau, Thomas; Bischoff, Addi; Horstmann, Marian; Wasson, John; Sørensen, Anton; Laubenstein, Matthias; Ott, Ulrich; Palme, Herbert; Gellissen, Marko; Greenwood, Richard C.; Pearson, Victoria K.; Franchi, Ian A.; Gabelica, Zelimir; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Maribo is a new Danish CM chondrite, which fell on January 17, 2009, at 19:08:28 CET. The fall was observed by many eye witnesses and recorded by a surveillance camera, an all sky camera, a few seismic stations, and by meteor radar observatories in Germany. A single fragment of Maribo with a dry weight of 25.8 g was found on March 4, 2009. The coarse-grained components in Maribo include chondrules, fine-grained olivine aggregates, large isolated lithic clasts, metals, and mineral fragments (often olivine), and rare Ca,Al-rich inclusions. The components are typically rimmed by fine-grained dust mantles. The matrix includes abundant dust rimmed fragments of tochilinite with a layered, fishbone-like texture, tochilinite-cronstedtite intergrowths, sulfides, metals, and carbonates often intergrown with tochilinite. The oxygen isotopic composition: (δ17O = -1.27‰; δ18O = 4.96‰; Δ17O = -3.85‰) plots at the edge of the CM field, close to the CCAM line. The very low Δ17O and the presence of unaltered components suggest that Maribo is among the least altered CM chondrites. The bulk chemistry of Maribo is typical of CM chondrites. Trapped noble gases are similar in abundance and isotopic composition to other CM chondrites, stepwise heating data indicating the presence of gas components hosted by presolar diamond and silicon carbide. The organics in Maribo include components also seen in Murchison as well as nitrogen-rich components unique to Maribo.

  5. The impact of soil compaction and freezing-thawing cycles on soil structure and yield in Mollisol region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Enheng; Zhao, Yusen; Chen, Xiangwei

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural machinery tillage and alternating freezing and thawing are two critical factors associated with soil structure change and accelerates soil erosion in the black soil region of Northeast China. Combining practical machinery operation and natural freeze-thaw cycles with artificial machinery compaction in the field and artificial freeze-thaw cycles in the lab, the plus and minus benefits of machinery tillage, characterization of seasonal freeze-thaw cycles, and their effects on soil structure and yield were studied. Firstly,the effects of machinery type and antecedent water content on soil structure and soil available nutrient were investigated by measuring soil bulk density, soil strength, soil porosity, soil aggregate distribution and stability, and three soil phases. The results showed that: Machinery tillage had positive and negative influence on soil structure, soil in top cultivated layer can be loosened and ameliorated however the subsoil accumulation of compaction was resulted. For heavy and medium machinery, subsoil compaction formed in the soil depth of 41~60cm and 31~40cm, respectively; however during the soil depth of 17.5~30cm under medium machinery operation there was a new plow pan produced because of the depth difference between harvesting and subsoiling. Antecedent water content had a significant effect on soil structure under machinery operations. Higher water antecedent resulted in deeper subsoil compaction at 40cm,which was deeper by 10cm than lower water content and soil compaction accumulation occurred at the first pass under higher water content condition. Besides water content and bulk density, soil organic matter is another key factor for affecting compressive-resilient performance of tillage soil. Secondly, based on the soils sampled from fields of the black soil region, the effects of freeze-thaw cycles on soil structure at different soil depths (0 -- 40 cm, 40 -- 80 cm, 120 -- 160 cm) and size scales (field core sampling

  6. Prediction of soil organic carbon concentration and soil bulk density of mineral soils for soil organic carbon stock estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putku, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Ritz, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Soil monitoring networks provide a powerful base for estimating and predicting nation's soil status in many aspects. The datasets of soil monitoring are often hierarchically structured demanding sophisticated data analyzing methods. The National Soil Monitoring of Estonia was based on a hierarchical data sampling scheme as each of the monitoring site was divided into four transects with 10 sampling points on each transect. We hypothesized that the hierarchical structure in Estonian Soil Monitoring network data requires a multi-level mixed model approach to achieve good prediction accuracy of soil properties. We used this database to predict soil bulk density and soil organic carbon concentration of mineral soils in arable land using different statistical methods: median approach, linear regression and mixed model; additionally, random forests for SOC concentration. We compared the prediction results and selected the model with the best prediction accuracy to estimate soil organic carbon stock. The mixed model approach achieved the best prediction accuracy in both soil organic carbon (RMSE 0.22%) and bulk density (RMSE 0.09 g cm-3) prediction. Other considered methods under- or overestimated higher and lower values of soil parameters. Thus, using these predictions we calculated the soil organic carbon stock of mineral arable soils and applied the model to a specific case of Tartu County in Estonia. Average estimated SOC stock of Tartu County is 54.8 t C ha-1 and total topsoil SOC stock 1.8 Tg in humus horizon.

  7. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…

  8. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  9. Orion Landing Simulation Eight Soil Model Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    LS-DYNA finite element simulations of a rigid Orion Crew Module (CM) were used to investigate the CM impact behavior on eight different soil models. Ten different landing conditions, characterized by the combination of CM vertical and horizontal velocity, hang angle, and roll angle were simulated on the eight different soils. The CM center of gravity accelerations, pitch angle, kinetic energy, and soil contact forces were the outputs of interest. The simulation results are presented, with comparisons of the CM behavior on the different soils. The soils analyzed in this study can be roughly categorized as soft, medium, or hard, according to the CM accelerations that occur when landing on them. The soft group is comprised of the Carson Sink Wet soil and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Low Density Dry Sand. The medium group includes Carson Sink Dry, the KSC High Density In-Situ Moisture Sand and High Density Flooded Sand, and Cuddeback B. The hard soils are Cuddeback A and the Gantry Unwashed Sand. The softer soils were found to produce lower peak accelerations, have more stable pitch behavior, and to be less sensitive to the landing conditions. This investigation found that the Cuddeback A soil produced the highest peak accelerations and worst stability conditions, and that the best landing performance was achieved on the KSC Low Density Dry Sand.

  10. The Paris meteorite, the least altered CM chondrite so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, Roger H.; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Zanda, Brigitte; Leroux, Hugues; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Humayun, Munir; Göpel, Christa; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Pont, Sylvain; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Cournède, Cécile; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Rochette, Pierre; Kuga, Maïa; Marrocchi, Yves; Marty, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The Paris chondrite provides an excellent opportunity to study CM chondrules and refractory inclusions in a more pristine state than currently possible from other CMs, and to investigate the earliest stages of aqueous alteration captured within a single CM bulk composition. It was found in the effects of a former colonial mining engineer and may have been an observed fall. The texture, mineralogy, petrography, magnetic properties and chemical and isotopic compositions are consistent with classification as a CM2 chondrite. There are ∼45 vol.% high-temperature components mainly Type I chondrules (with olivine mostly Fa0-2, mean Fa0.9) with granular textures because of low mesostasis abundances. Type II chondrules contain olivine Fa7 to Fa76. These are dominantly of Type IIA, but there are IIAB and IIB chondrules, II(A)B chondrules with minor highly ferroan olivine, and IIA(C) with augite as the only pyroxene. The refractory inclusions in Paris are amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) and fine-grained spinel-rich Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). The CAI phases formed in the sequence hibonite, perovskite, grossite, spinel, gehlenite, anorthite, diopside/fassaite and forsterite. The most refractory phases are embedded in spinel, which also occurs as massive nodules. Refractory metal nuggets are found in many CAI and refractory platinum group element abundances (PGE) decrease following the observed condensation sequences of their host phases. Mn-Cr isotope measurements of mineral separates from Paris define a regression line with a slope of 53Mn/55Mn = (5.76 ± 0.76) × 106. If we interpret Cr isotopic systematics as dating Paris components, particularly the chondrules, the age is 4566.44 ± 0.66 Myr, which is close to the age of CAI and puts new constraints on the early evolution of the solar system. Eleven individual Paris samples define an O isotope mixing line that passes through CM2 and CO3 falls and indicates that Paris is a very fresh sample, with variation explained

  11. The 12 micron band of ethane: A spectral catalog from 765 cm(-1) to 900 cm(-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atakan, A. K.; Blass, W. E.; Brault, J. W.; Daunt, S. J.; Halsey, G. W.; Jennings, D. E.; Reuter, D. C.; Susskind, J.

    1983-01-01

    The high resolution laboratory absorption spectrum of the 12 micro band of ethane gas is studied. The data were obtained using the McMath Solar Telescope 1 meter Fourier Transform interferometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory and tunable diode laser spectrometers at the University of Tennessee and NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Over 200 individual vibration rotation transitions were analyzed taking into account many higher order effects including torsional splitting. Line positions were reproduced to better than 0.001/cm. Both ground and upper state molecular constants were determined in the analysis. The experimental details, the analysis procedures and the results are addressed. A list of ethane transitions occurring near (14)CO2 laser lines needed for heterodyne searches for C2H6 in extraterrestrial sources is also included. A spectral catalog of the ethane nu sub g fundamental from 765/cm to 900/cm is provided. A high dispersion (1/cm 12 in.) plot of both the Kitt Peak interferometric data and a simulated spectrum with Doppler limited resolution, a table of over 8500 calculated transitions listed quantum number assignments, frequencies and intensities are provided.

  12. Remote sensing of soil moisture - Recent advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advancements in microwave remote sensing of soil moisture include a method for estimating the dependence of the soil dielectric constant on its texture, the use of a percent of field capacity to express soil moisture magnitudes independently of soil texture, methods of estimating soil moisture sampling depth, and models for describing the effect of surface roughness on microwave response in terms of surface height variance and horizontal correlation length, as well as the verification of radiative transfer model predictions of microwave emission from soils and methods for the estimation of vegetation effects on the microwave response to soil moisture. Such researches have demonstrated that it is possible to remotely sense soil moisture in the 0-5 cm soil surface layer, and simulation studies have indicated how remotely sensed surface soil moisture may be used to estimate evapotranspiration rates and root-zone soil moisture.

  13. Development of a 60 cm Magnetic Suspension System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Hideo; Kunimasu, Tetsuya

    A 60cm Magnetic Suspension Balance System (MSBS), which has been developed in the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL), is described in detail. Magnetic field in the MSBS is evaluated analytically and is compared with measured one. Available magnet kinds for the MSBS are selected analytically. The optimum ratio of diameter to length of cylindrical magnet for the MSBS is also evaluated. A model position sensing and the control systems are described with calibration test results. A model holding system is also shown, which is necessary for worker’s safety at suspending a large and massive model. The control system is presented and the measured model position during suspension is examined. The balance accuracy is examined and its error of drag force can be improved by restricting the calibration test to an expected drag range. Flow of the 60cm low-speed wind tunnel equipped with the MSBS is examined to be available for wind tunnel tests.

  14. Precision measurement of cosmic magnification from 21 cm emitting galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengjie; Pen, Ue-Li; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.

    2005-04-01

    We show how precision lensing measurements can be obtained through the lensing magnification effect in high redshift 21cm emission from galaxies. Normally, cosmic magnification measurements have been seriously complicated by galaxy clustering. With precise redshifts obtained from 21cm emission line wavelength, one can correlate galaxies at different source planes, or exclude close pairs to eliminate such contaminations. We provide forecasts for future surveys, specifically the SKA and CLAR. SKA can achieve percent precision on the dark matter power spectrum and the galaxy dark matter cross correlation power spectrum, while CLAR can measure an accurate cross correlation power spectrum. The neutral hydrogen fraction was most likely significantly higher at high redshifts, which improves the number of observed galaxies significantly, such that also CLAR can measure the dark matter lensing power spectrum. SKA can also allow precise measurement of lensing bispectrum.

  15. Lensing of 21-cm fluctuations by primordial gravitational waves.

    PubMed

    Book, Laura; Kamionkowski, Marc; Schmidt, Fabian

    2012-05-25

    Weak-gravitational-lensing distortions to the intensity pattern of 21-cm radiation from the dark ages can be decomposed geometrically into curl and curl-free components. Lensing by primordial gravitational waves induces a curl component, while the contribution from lensing by density fluctuations is strongly suppressed. Angular fluctuations in the 21-cm background extend to very small angular scales, and measurements at different frequencies probe different shells in redshift space. There is thus a huge trove of information with which to reconstruct the curl component of the lensing field, allowing tensor-to-scalar ratios conceivably as small as r~10(-9)-far smaller than those currently accessible-to be probed. PMID:23003237

  16. Intensity Mapping During Reionization: 21 cm and Cross-correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, James E.; HERA Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The first generation of 21 cm epoch of reionization (EoR) experiments are now reaching the sensitivities necessary for a detection of the power spectrum of plausible reionization models, and with the advent of next-generation capabilities (e.g. the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and the Square Kilometer Array Phase I Low) will move beyond the power spectrum to imaging of the EoR intergalactic medium. Such datasets provide context to galaxy evolution studies for the earliest galaxies on scales of tens of Mpc, but at present wide, deep galaxy surveys are lacking, and attaining the depth to survey the bulk of galaxies responsible for reionization will be challenging even for JWST. Thus we seek useful cross-correlations with other more direct tracers of the galaxy population. I review near-term prospects for cross-correlation studies with 21 cm and CO and CII emission, as well as future far-infrared misions suchas CALISTO.

  17. POLYSHIFT Communications Software for the Connection Machine System CM-200

    DOE PAGES

    George, William; Brickner, Ralph G.; Johnsson, S. Lennart

    1994-01-01

    We describe the use and implementation of a polyshift function PSHIFT for circular shifts and end-offs shifts. Polyshift is useful in many scientific codes using regular grids, such as finite difference codes in several dimensions, and multigrid codes, molecular dynamics computations, and in lattice gauge physics computations, such as quantum chromodynamics (QCD) calculations. Our implementation of the PSHIFT function on the Connection Machine systems CM-2 and CM-200 offers a speedup of up to a factor of 3–4 compared with CSHIFT when the local data motion within a node is small. The PSHIFT routine is included in the Connection Machine Scientificmore » Software Library (CMSSL).« less

  18. 21 cm cosmology in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jonathan R; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-08-01

    Imaging the Universe during the first hundreds of millions of years remains one of the exciting challenges facing modern cosmology. Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line of atomic hydrogen offer the potential of opening a new window into this epoch. This will transform our understanding of the formation of the first stars and galaxies and of the thermal history of the Universe. A new generation of radio telescopes is being constructed for this purpose with the first results starting to trickle in. In this review, we detail the physics that governs the 21 cm signal and describe what might be learnt from upcoming observations. We also generalize our discussion to intensity mapping of other atomic and molecular lines.

  19. 21 cm cosmology in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jonathan R; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-08-01

    Imaging the Universe during the first hundreds of millions of years remains one of the exciting challenges facing modern cosmology. Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line of atomic hydrogen offer the potential of opening a new window into this epoch. This will transform our understanding of the formation of the first stars and galaxies and of the thermal history of the Universe. A new generation of radio telescopes is being constructed for this purpose with the first results starting to trickle in. In this review, we detail the physics that governs the 21 cm signal and describe what might be learnt from upcoming observations. We also generalize our discussion to intensity mapping of other atomic and molecular lines. PMID:22828208

  20. OH 18 cm TRANSITION AS A THERMOMETER FOR MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Ebisawa, Yuji; Inokuma, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sakai, Nami; Menten, Karl M.; Maezawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-10

    We have observed the four hyperfine components of the 18 cm OH transition toward the translucent cloud eastward of Heiles Cloud 2 (HCL2E), the cold dark cloud L134N, and the photodissociation region of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. We have found intensity anomalies among the hyperfine components in all three regions. In particular, an absorption feature of the 1612 MHz satellite line against the cosmic microwave background has been detected toward HCL2E and two positions of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud. On the basis of statistical equilibrium calculations, we find that the hyperfine anomalies originate from the non-LTE population of the hyperfine levels, and can be used to determine the kinetic temperature of the gas over a wide range of H{sub 2} densities (10{sup 2}–10{sup 7} cm{sup −3}). Toward the center of HCL2E, the gas kinetic temperature is determined to be 53 ± 1 K, and it increases toward the cloud peripheries (∼60 K). The ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} is determined to be 3.5 ± 0.9 from the averaged spectrum for the eight positions. In L134N, a similar increase of the temperature is also seen toward the periphery. In the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud, the gas kinetic temperature decreases as a function of the distance from the exciting star HD 147889. These results demonstrate a new aspect of the OH 18 cm line that can be used as a good thermometer of molecular cloud envelopes. The OH 18 cm line can be used to trace a new class of warm molecular gas surrounding a molecular cloud, which is not well traced by the emission of CO and its isotopologues.

  1. OH 18 cm Transition as a Thermometer for Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, Yuji; Inokuma, Hiroshi; Sakai, Nami; Menten, Karl M.; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    We have observed the four hyperfine components of the 18 cm OH transition toward the translucent cloud eastward of Heiles Cloud 2 (HCL2E), the cold dark cloud L134N, and the photodissociation region of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. We have found intensity anomalies among the hyperfine components in all three regions. In particular, an absorption feature of the 1612 MHz satellite line against the cosmic microwave background has been detected toward HCL2E and two positions of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud. On the basis of statistical equilibrium calculations, we find that the hyperfine anomalies originate from the non-LTE population of the hyperfine levels, and can be used to determine the kinetic temperature of the gas over a wide range of H2 densities (102-107 cm-3). Toward the center of HCL2E, the gas kinetic temperature is determined to be 53 ± 1 K, and it increases toward the cloud peripheries (˜60 K). The ortho-to-para ratio of H2 is determined to be 3.5 ± 0.9 from the averaged spectrum for the eight positions. In L134N, a similar increase of the temperature is also seen toward the periphery. In the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud, the gas kinetic temperature decreases as a function of the distance from the exciting star HD 147889. These results demonstrate a new aspect of the OH 18 cm line that can be used as a good thermometer of molecular cloud envelopes. The OH 18 cm line can be used to trace a new class of warm molecular gas surrounding a molecular cloud, which is not well traced by the emission of CO and its isotopologues.

  2. Control of a 30 cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terdan, F. F.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Control logic functions were established for three automatic modes of operation of a 30-cm thruster using a power conditioner console with flight-like characteristics. The three modes provide: (1) automatic startup to reach thermal stability, (2) steady-state closed-loop control, and (3) the reliable recycling of the high voltages following an arc breakdown to reestablish normal operation. Power supply impedance characteristics necessary for stable operation and the effect of the magnetic baffle on the reliable recycling was studied.

  3. Semi-Lagrangian shallow water modeling on the CM-5

    SciTech Connect

    Nadiga, B.T.; Margolin, L.G.; Smolarkiewicz, P.K.

    1995-09-01

    We discuss the parallel implementation of a semi-Lagrangian shallow-water model on the massively parallel Connection Machine CM-5. The four important issues we address in this article are (i) two alternative formulations of the elliptic problem and their relative efficiencies, (ii) the performance of two successive orders of a generalized conjugate residual elliptic solver, (iii) the time spent in unstructured communication -- an unavoidable feature of semi-Lagrangian schemes, and (iv) the scalability of the algorithm.

  4. The future of primordial features with 21 cm tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xingang; Meerburg, P. Daniel; Münchmeyer, Moritz

    2016-09-01

    Detecting a deviation from a featureless primordial power spectrum of fluctuations would give profound insight into the physics of the primordial Universe. Depending on their nature, primordial features can either provide direct evidence for the inflation scenario or pin down details of the inflation model. Thus far, using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) we have only been able to put stringent constraints on the amplitude of features, but no significant evidence has been found for such signals. Here we explore the limit of the experimental reach in constraining such features using 21 cm tomography at high redshift. A measurement of the 21 cm power spectrum from the Dark Ages is generally considered as the ideal experiment for early Universe physics, with potentially access to a large number of modes. We consider three different categories of theoretically motivated models: the sharp feature models, resonance models, and standard clock models. We study the improvements on bounds on features as a function of the total number of observed modes and identify parameter degeneracies. The detectability depends critically on the amplitude, frequency and scale-location of the features, as well as the angular and redshift resolution of the experiment. We quantify these effects by considering different fiducial models. Our forecast shows that a cosmic variance limited 21 cm experiment measuring fluctuations in the redshift range 30 <= z <= 100 with a 0.01-MHz bandwidth and sub-arcminute angular resolution could potentially improve bounds by several orders of magnitude for most features compared to current Planck bounds. At the same time, 21 cm tomography also opens up a unique window into features that are located on very small scales.

  5. The 21 cm signature of cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Danos, Rebecca J.; Hernández, Oscar F.; Holder, Gilbert P. E-mail: rjdanos@physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: holder@physics.mcgill.ca

    2010-12-01

    We discuss the signature of a cosmic string wake in 21cm redshift surveys. Since 21cm surveys probe higher redshifts than optical large-scale structure surveys, the signatures of cosmic strings are more manifest in 21cm maps than they are in optical galaxy surveys. We find that, provided the tension of the cosmic string exceeds a critical value (which depends on both the redshift when the string wake is created and the redshift of observation), a cosmic string wake will generate an emission signal with a brightness temperature which approaches a limiting value which at a redshift of z+1 = 30 is close to 400 mK in the limit of large string tension. The signal will have a specific signature in position space: the excess 21cm radiation will be confined to a wedge-shaped region whose tip corresponds to the position of the string, whose planar dimensions are set by the planar dimensions of the string wake, and whose thickness (in redshift direction) depends on the string tension. For wakes created at z{sub i}+1 = 10{sup 3}, then at a redshift of z+1 = 30 the critical value of the string tension μ is Gμ = 6 × 10{sup −7}, and it decreases linearly with redshift (for wakes created at the time of equal matter and radiation, the critical value is a factor of two lower at the same redshift). For smaller tensions, cosmic strings lead to an observable absorption signal with the same wedge geometry.

  6. [Effect of Biochar Application on Soil Aggregates Distribution and Moisture Retention in Orchard Soil].

    PubMed

    An, Yan; Ji, Qiang; Zhao, Shi-xiang; Wang, Xu-dong

    2016-01-15

    Applying biochar to soil has been considered to be one of the important practices in improving soil properties and increasing carbon sequestration. In order to investigate the effects of biochar application on soil aggregates distribution and its organic matter content and soil moisture constant in different size aggregates, various particle-size fractions of soil aggregates were obtained with the dry-screening method. The results showed that, compared to the treatment without biochar (CK), the application of biochar reduced the mass content of 5-8 mm and < 0.25 mm soil aggregates at 0-10 cm soil horizon, while increased the content of 1-2 mm and 2-5 mm soil aggregates at this horizon, and the content of 1-2 mm aggregates significantly increased along with the rates of biochar application. The mean diameter of soil aggregates was reduced by biochar application at 0-10 cm soil horizon. However, the effect of biochar application on the mean diameter of soil aggregates at 10-20 cm soil horizon was not significant. Compared to CK, biochar application significantly increased soil organic carbon content in aggregates, especially in 1-2 mm aggregates which was increased by > 70% compared to CK. Both the water holding capacity and soil porosity were significantly increased by biochar application. Furthermore, the neutral biochar was more effective than alkaline biochar in increasing soil moisture. PMID:27078970

  7. [Effect of Biochar Application on Soil Aggregates Distribution and Moisture Retention in Orchard Soil].

    PubMed

    An, Yan; Ji, Qiang; Zhao, Shi-xiang; Wang, Xu-dong

    2016-01-15

    Applying biochar to soil has been considered to be one of the important practices in improving soil properties and increasing carbon sequestration. In order to investigate the effects of biochar application on soil aggregates distribution and its organic matter content and soil moisture constant in different size aggregates, various particle-size fractions of soil aggregates were obtained with the dry-screening method. The results showed that, compared to the treatment without biochar (CK), the application of biochar reduced the mass content of 5-8 mm and < 0.25 mm soil aggregates at 0-10 cm soil horizon, while increased the content of 1-2 mm and 2-5 mm soil aggregates at this horizon, and the content of 1-2 mm aggregates significantly increased along with the rates of biochar application. The mean diameter of soil aggregates was reduced by biochar application at 0-10 cm soil horizon. However, the effect of biochar application on the mean diameter of soil aggregates at 10-20 cm soil horizon was not significant. Compared to CK, biochar application significantly increased soil organic carbon content in aggregates, especially in 1-2 mm aggregates which was increased by > 70% compared to CK. Both the water holding capacity and soil porosity were significantly increased by biochar application. Furthermore, the neutral biochar was more effective than alkaline biochar in increasing soil moisture.

  8. A box corer 30 cm square and 4 m long

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster Johnson, Richard

    1988-08-01

    To collect long, large-volume cores of diatomaceous sediment on the continental shelf off Namibia, we built a box corer that is 30 cm square and 4 m long. This paper describes the corer and the tools and procedures for sampling the covers. In terms of volume of sediment recovered in a single penetration, the corer may be among the largest ever used. The corer itself consists of a barrel with segments 20 cm long, a release mechanism at top and a thin fiberglass curtain at bottom. To support the large load of sediment without distortion, the curtain follows a semi-circular track, concave upward. During assembly and disassembly, the corer hangs vertically over the side, enabling it to operate from a relatively small ship. To sample the core, an extruding device pushes the sediment from each segment into boxes made of polyurethane foam. Ashore a specially designed jig helps slice these boxes into vertical slabs as thin as 1 cm. In the 6 days at sea that we had to test the corer and collect samples for the project, we took 9 cores, the longest of which was 3 m.

  9. Am/Cm Vitrification Process: Vitrification Material Balance Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G.

    2000-08-15

    This report documents material balance calculations for the Americium/Curium vitrification process and describes the basis used to make the calculations. The material balance calculations reported here start with the solution produced by the Am/Cm pretreatment process as described in ``Material Balance Calculations for Am/Cm Pretreatment Process (U)'', SRT-AMC-99-0178 [1]. Following pretreatment, small batches of the product will be further treated with an additional oxalic acid precipitation and washing. The precipitate from each batch will then be charged to the Am/Cm melter with glass cullet and vitrified to produce the final product. The material balance calculations in this report are designed to provide projected compositions of the melter glass and off-gas streams. Except for decanted supernate collected from precipitation and precipitate washing, the flowsheet neglects side streams such as acid washes of empty tanks that would go directly to waste. Complete listings of the results of the material balance calculations are provided in the Appendices to this report.

  10. The wedge bias in reionization 21-cm power spectrum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Hannes; Majumdar, Suman; Mellema, Garrelt; Lidz, Adam; Iliev, Ilian T.; Dixon, Keri L.

    2016-02-01

    A proposed method for dealing with foreground emission in upcoming 21-cm observations from the epoch of reionization is to limit observations to an uncontaminated window in Fourier space. Foreground emission can be avoided in this way, since it is limited to a wedge-shaped region in k∥, k⊥ space. However, the power spectrum is anisotropic owing to redshift-space distortions from peculiar velocities. Consequently, the 21-cm power spectrum measured in the foreground avoidance window - which samples only a limited range of angles close to the line-of-sight direction - differs from the full redshift-space spherically averaged power spectrum which requires an average over all angles. In this paper, we calculate the magnitude of this `wedge bias' for the first time. We find that the bias amplifies the difference between the real-space and redshift-space power spectra. The bias is strongest at high redshifts, where measurements using foreground avoidance will overestimate the redshift-space power spectrum by around 100 per cent, possibly obscuring the distinctive rise and fall signature that is anticipated for the spherically averaged 21-cm power spectrum. In the later stages of reionization, the bias becomes negative, and smaller in magnitude (≲20 per cent).

  11. Distinct Distribution of Purines in CM and CR Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Smith, Karen E.; Martin, Mildred G.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of organic molecules and delivered pre biotic organic compounds, including purines and pyrimidines, to the early Earth (and other planetary bodies), seeding it with the ingredients likely required for the first genetic material. We have investigated the distribution of nucleobases in six different CM and CR type carbonaceous chondrites, including fivc Antarctic meteorites never before analyzed for nucleobases. We employed a traditional formic acid extraction protocol and a recently developed solid phase extraction method to isolate nucleobases. We analyzed these extracts by high performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV -MS/MS) targeting the five canonical RNAIDNA bases and hypoxanthine and xanthine. We detected parts-per-billion levels of nucleobases in both CM and CR meteorites. The relative abundances of the purines found in Antarctic CM and CR meteorites were clearly distinct from each other suggesting that these compounds are not terrestrial contaminants. One likely source of these purines is formation by HCN oligomerization (with other small molecules) during aqueous alteration inside the meteorite parent body. The detection of the purines adenine (A), guanine (0), hypoxanthine (HX), and xanthine (X) in carbonaceous meteorites indicates that these compounds should have been available on the early Earth prior to the origin of the first genetic material.

  12. BRIGHT SOURCE SUBTRACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR REDSHIFTED 21 cm MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, A.; Bowman, J. D.; Carilli, C. L.

    2010-11-20

    The H I 21 cm transition line is expected to be an important probe into the cosmic dark ages and epoch of reionization. Foreground source removal is one of the principal challenges for the detection of this signal. This paper investigates the extragalactic point source contamination and how accurately bright sources ({approx}>1 Jy) must be removed in order to detect 21 cm emission with upcoming radio telescopes such as the Murchison Widefield Array. We consider the residual contamination in 21 cm maps and power spectra due to position errors in the sky model for bright sources, as well as frequency-independent calibration errors. We find that a source position accuracy of 0.1 arcsec will suffice for detection of the H I power spectrum. For calibration errors, 0.05% accuracy in antenna gain amplitude is required in order to detect the cosmic signal. Both sources of subtraction error produce residuals that are localized to small angular scales, k{sub perpendicular} {approx}> 0.05 Mpc{sup -1}, in the two-dimensional power spectrum.

  13. [Effect of fertilization levels on soil microorganism amount and soil enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Ling; Du, Jun-Bo; Xu, Fu-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2013-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Shangluo pharmaceutical base in Shaanxi province to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in different fertilization levels on Platycodon grandiflorum soil microorganism and activities of soil enzyme, using three-factor D-saturation optimal design with random block design. The results showed that N0P2K2, N2P2K0, N3P1K3 and N3P3K1 increased the amount of bacteria in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 144.34%, 39.25%, 37.17%, 53.58%, respectively. The amount of bacteria in 2040 cm of soil of N3P1K3 increased by 163.77%, N0P0K3 increased the amount of soil actinomycetes significantly by 192.11%, while other treatments had no significant effect. N2P0K2 and N3P1K3 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0, increased by 35.27% and 92.21%, respectively. N3P0K0 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 20-40 cm of soil by 165.35%, while other treatments had no significant effect. All treatments decrease soil catalase activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil except for N2P0K2, and while N2P2K0 and NPK increased catalase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil. Fertilization regime increased invertase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil, and decreased phosphatase activity inordinately in 0-20 cm of soil, while increased phosphatase activity in 2040 cm of soil other than N1P3K3. N3P0K0, N0P0K3, N2P0K2, N2P2K0 and NPK increased soil urease activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 18.22%, 14.87%,17.84%, 27.88%, 24.54%, respectively. Fertilization regime increased soil urease activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil other than N0P2K2. PMID:24558863

  14. Soil CO₂ dynamics in a tree island soil of the Pantanal: the role of soil water potential.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto, Osvaldo B; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S; Messias, Indira A M; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2013-01-01

    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO₂ research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO₂ dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO₂ concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO₂ efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO₂ efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m⁻² y⁻¹. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0-20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO₂ concentrations, with high CO₂ values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO₂ efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO₂ dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO₂ efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO₂ concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO₂ efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above. PMID:23762259

  15. Soil CO₂ dynamics in a tree island soil of the Pantanal: the role of soil water potential.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto, Osvaldo B; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S; Messias, Indira A M; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2013-01-01

    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO₂ research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO₂ dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO₂ concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO₂ efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO₂ efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m⁻² y⁻¹. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0-20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO₂ concentrations, with high CO₂ values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO₂ efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO₂ dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO₂ efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO₂ concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO₂ efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above.

  16. Soil CO2 Dynamics in a Tree Island Soil of the Pantanal: The Role of Soil Water Potential

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark S.; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto Jr, Osvaldo B.; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S.; Messias, Indira A. M.; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2013-01-01

    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO2 research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO2 dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO2 concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO2 efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO2 efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m−2 y−1. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0–20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO2 concentrations, with high CO2 values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO2 efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO2 dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO2 efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO2 concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO2 efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above. PMID:23762259

  17. 10 cm x 10 cm Single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) X-ray Fluorescence Detector for Dilute Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, E. H.; Siddons, D. P.; Seifu, D.

    2014-03-01

    We have built and tested a 10 cm × 10 cm single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) X-ray detector to probe dilute amounts of Fe in a prepared sample. The detector uses Argon/Carbon Dioxide (75/25) gas mixture flowing at a slow rate through a leak proof Plexi-glass enclosure held together by O-rings and screws. The Fluorescence X-ray emitted by the element under test is directed through a Mylar window into the drift region of the detector where abundant gas is flowing. The ionized electrons are separated, drifted into the high electric field of the GEM, and multiplied by impact ionization. The amplified negatively charged electrons are collected and further amplified by a Keithley amplifier to probe the absorption edge of the element under test using X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique. The results show that the GEM detector provided good results with less noise as compared with a Silicon drift detector (SDD).

  18. The GLOBE Soil Moisture Campaign's Light Bulb Oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, M. P.; Tietema, D.; Ferre, T. P.; Nijssen, B.; Washburne, J.

    2003-12-01

    The GLOBE Soil Moisture Campaign (SMC) (www.hwr.arizona.edu/globe/sci/SM/SMC) has developed a light bulb oven to provide a low budget, low-technology method for drying soil samples. Three different soils were used to compare the ability of the light bulb oven to dry soils against a standard laboratory convection oven. The soils were: 1) a very fine sandy loam (the "Gila" soil); 2) a silty clay (the "Pima" soil); and 3) a sandy soil (the "Sonoran" soil). A large batch of each soil was wetted uniformly in the laboratory. Twelve samples of each soil were placed in the light bulb oven and twelve samples were placed in the standard oven. The average gravimetric soil moisture of the Gila soil was 0.214 g/cm3 for both ovens; the average Pima soil moisture was 0.332 g/cm3 and 0.331 g/cm3 for the traditional and light bulb ovens, respectively; and the Sonoran soil moisture was 0.077 g/cm3 for both ovens. These results demonstrate that the low technology light-bulb oven was able to dry the soil samples as well as a standard laboratory oven, offering the ability to make gravimetric water content measurements when a relatively expensive drying oven is not available.

  19. Downscaling Satellite Data for Predicting Catchment-scale Root Zone Soil Moisture with Ground-based Sensors and an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Baldwin, D. C.; Smithwick, E. A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting root zone (0-100 cm) soil moisture (RZSM) content at a catchment-scale is essential for drought and flood predictions, irrigation planning, weather forecasting, and many other applications. Satellites, such as the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), can estimate near-surface (0-5 cm) soil moisture content globally at coarse spatial resolutions. We develop a hierarchical Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) data assimilation modeling system to downscale satellite-based near-surface soil moisture and to estimate RZSM content across the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory at a 1-m resolution in combination with ground-based soil moisture sensor data. In this example, a simple infiltration model within the EnKF-model has been parameterized for 6 soil-terrain units to forecast daily RZSM content in the catchment from 2009 - 2012 based on AMSRE. LiDAR-derived terrain variables define intra-unit RZSM variability using a novel covariance localization technique. This method also allows the mapping of uncertainty with our RZSM estimates for each time-step. A catchment-wide satellite-to-surface downscaling parameter, which nudges the satellite measurement closer to in situ near-surface data, is also calculated for each time-step. We find significant differences in predicted root zone moisture storage for different terrain units across the experimental time-period. Root mean square error from a cross-validation analysis of RZSM predictions using an independent dataset of catchment-wide in situ Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurements ranges from 0.060-0.096 cm3 cm-3, and the RZSM predictions are significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with TDR measurements [r = 0.47-0.68]. The predictive skill of this data assimilation system is similar to the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Modeling (PIHM) system. Uncertainty estimates are significantly (p < 0.05) correlated to cross validation error during wet and dry conditions, but more so in dry summer seasons. Developing an

  20. The Transition to ICD-10-CM: Challenges for Pediatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Jeffrey; Nam, Hannah; Chae, Sae-Rom; Williams, Lauren; Mathew, Gina; Burton, Michael; Li, Jiarong “John”; Lussier, Yves A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic codes are used widely within health care for billing, quality assessment, and to measure clinical outcomes. The US health care system will transition to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM), in October 2015. Little is known about how this transition will affect pediatric practices. The objective of this study was to examine how the transition to ICD-10-CM may result in ambiguity of clinical information and financial disruption for pediatricians. METHODS: Using a statewide data set from Illinois Medicaid specified for pediatricians, 2708 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, diagnosis codes were identified. Diagnosis codes were categorized into 1 of 5 categories: identity, class-to-subclass, subclass-to-class, convoluted, and no translation. The convoluted and high-cost diagnostic codes (n = 636) were analyzed for accuracy and categorized into “information loss,” “overlapping categories,” “inconsistent,” and “consistent.” Finally, reimbursement by Medicaid was calculated for each category. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of pediatric diagnosis codes are convoluted, which represents 21% of Illinois Medicaid pediatric patient encounters and 16% of reimbursement. The diagnosis codes represented by information loss (3.6%), overlapping categories (3.2%), and inconsistent (1.2%) represent 8% of Medicaid pediatric reimbursement. CONCLUSIONS: The potential for financial disruption and administrative errors from 8% of reimbursement diagnosis codes necessitates special attention to these codes in preparing for the transition to ICD-10-CM for pediatric practices. PMID:24918217

  1. Multiple precursors of secondary mineralogical assemblages in CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Marrocchi, Yves; Vacher, Lionel. G.; Delon, RéMi; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    We report a petrographic and mineralogical survey of tochilinite/cronstedtite intergrowths (TCIs) in Paris, a new CM chondrite considered to be the least altered CM identified to date. Our results indicate that type-I TCIs consist of compact tochilinite/cronstedtite rims surrounding Fe-Ni metal beads, thus confirming kamacite as the precursor of type-I TCIs. In contrast, type-II TCIs are characterized by complex compositional zoning composed of three different Fe-bearing secondary minerals: from the outside inwards, tochilinite, cronstedtite, and amakinite. Type-II TCIs present well-developed faces that allow a detailed morphological analysis to be performed in order to identify the precursors. The results demonstrate that type-II TCIs formed by pseudomorphism of the anhydrous silicates, olivine, and pyroxene. Hence, there is no apparent genetic relationship between type-I and type-II TCIs. In addition, the complex chemical zoning observed within type-II TCIs suggests that the alteration conditions evolved dramatically over time. At least three stages of alteration can be proposed, characterized by alteration fluids with varying compositions (1) Fe- and S-rich fluids; (2) S-poor and Fe- and Si-rich fluids; and (3) S- and Si-poor, Fe-rich fluids. The presence of unaltered silicates in close association with euhedral type-II TCIs suggests the existence of microenvironments during the first alteration stages of CM chondrites. In addition, the absence of Mg-bearing secondary minerals in Paris TCIs suggests that the Mg content increases during the course of alteration.

  2. [Carbon source utilization characteristics of microbial communities in a petroleum-contaminated soil in Daqing Oil Field, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Yue, Bing-Bing; Li, Xin; Ren, Fang-Fei; Meng, Fan-Juan; Yin, Peng-Da; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Sun, Guang-Yu

    2011-12-01

    By using Biolog technique, this paper studied the carbon source utilization characteristics of microbial communities in different layers (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-30 cm) of a petroleum-contaminated soil near an oil well having exploited for 36 years in Daqing Oil Field. Petroleum contamination enhanced the metabolic activity of the soil microbial communities obviously. In the three layers of the petroleum-contaminated soil, the metabolic activity of the microbes was higher than that of the control, and there existed significant differences between different layers of the petroleum-contaminated soil. The carbon source metabolic capacity of the microbes in different layers of the petroleum-contaminated soil was in the order of 20-30 cm > 10-20 cm > 0-10 cm. Petroleum contamination made the kinds of soil carbon source and the metabolic diversity of soil microbes increased, being more obvious in 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm soil layers but less change in 0-10 cm soil layer. In the contaminated soil, the majority of the carbon sources utilized by the microbes in 10-20 cm soil layer were carbohydrates instead of the carboxylic acids in non-contaminated soil, whereas the majority of the carbon substrates utilized in 20-30 cm soil layer were carboxylic acids. All the results suggested that petroleum-contaminated soil had its unique microbial community structure and peculiar microbial carbon source utilization characteristics.

  3. Performance of 30-cm ion thrusters with dished accelerator grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five different 30-cm diameter bombardment thrustors to evaluate the effects of grid geometry variations on thrustor discharge chamber performance. The dished grid parameters varied were: grid-to-grid spacing, screen and accelerator grid hole-diameter, screen and accelerator open area fraction, compensation for beam divergence losses, and accelerator grid thickness. Also investigated were the effects on discharge chamber performance of main magnetic field changes, magnetic baffle current cathode pole piece length and cathode position.

  4. Performance of 30-cm ion thrusters with dished accelerator grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen sets of dished accelerator grids were treated on five different 30 cm diameter bombardment thrusters to evaluate the effects of grid geometry variations on thruster discharge chamber performance. The dished grid parameters varied were: grid-to-grid spacing, screen and accelerator grid hole diameter, screen and accelerator open area fraction, compensation for beam divergence losses, and accelerator grid thickness. The effects on discharge chamber performance of main magnetic field changes, magnetic baffle current, cathode pole piece length and cathode position were also investigated.

  5. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Eighteen geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  6. Affordable échelle spectroscopy with a 60 cm telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribulla, T.; Garai, Z.; Hambálek, L.; Kollár, V.; Komžík, R.; Kundra, E.; Nedoroščík, J.; Sekeráš, M.; Vaňko, M

    2015-09-01

    A new fiber-fed spectrograph was installed at the 60 cm telescope of the Stará Lesná Observatory. The article presents tests of its performance (spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, radial-velocity stability) and reports observations of selected variable stars and exoplanet host stars. First test observations show that the spectrograph is an ideal tool to observe bright eclipsing and spectroscopic binaries but also symbiotic and nova-like stars. The radial-velocity stability (60-80 ms-1) is sufficient to study spectroscopic binaries and to detect easily the orbital motion of hot-Jupiter extrasolar planets around bright stars.

  7. The 8-CM ion thruster characterization. [mercury ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessel, F. J.; Williamson, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    The performance capabilities of the 8 cm diameter mercury ion thruster were increased by modifying the thruster operating parameters and component hardware. The initial performance levels, representative of the Hughes/NASA Lewis Research Center Ion Auxiliary Propulsion Subsystem (IAPS) thruster, were raised from the baseline values of thrust, T = 5 mN, and specific impulse, I sub sp = 2,900s, to thrust, T = 25 mN and specific impulse, I sub sp = 4,300 s. Performance characteristics including estmates of the erosion rates of various component surfaces are presented.

  8. Performance documentation of the engineering model 30-cm diameter thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Rawlin, V. K.

    1976-01-01

    The results of extensive testing of two 30-cm ion thrusters which are virtually identical to the 900 series Engineering Model Thruster in an ongoing 15,000-hour life test are presented. Performance data for the nominal fullpower (2650 W) operating point; performance sensitivities to discharge voltage, discharge losses, accelerator voltage, and magnetic baffle current; and several power throttling techniques (maximum Isp, maximum thrust/power ratio, and two cases in between are included). Criteria for throttling are specified in terms of the screen power supply envelope, thruster operating limits, and control stability. In addition, reduced requirements for successful high voltage recycles are presented.

  9. Performance capabilities of the 8-cm mercury ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary characterization of the performance capabilities of the 8-cm thruster in order to initiate an evaluation of its application to LSS propulsion requirements is presented. With minor thruster modifications, the thrust was increased by about a factor of four while the discharge voltage was reduced from 39 to 22 volts. The thruster was operated over a range of specific impulse of 1950 to 3040 seconds and a maximum total efficiency of about 54 percent was attained. Preliminary analysis of component lifetimes, as determined by temperature and spectroscopic line intensity measurements, indicated acceptable thruster lifetimes are anticipated at the high power level operation.

  10. Status of 30 cm mercury ion thruster development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; King, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two engineering model 30-cm ion thrusters were assembled, calibrated, and qualification tested. This paper discusses the thruster design, performance, and power system. Test results include documentation of thrust losses due to doubly charged mercury ions and beam divergence by both direct thrust measurements and beam probes. Diagnostic vibration tests have led to improved designs of the thruster backplate structure, feed system, and harness. Thruster durability is being demonstrated over a thrust range of 97 to 113 mN at a specific impulse of about 2900 seconds. As of August 15, 1974, the thruster has successfully operated for over 4000 hours.

  11. Recycle Requirements for NASA's 30 cm Xenon Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical breakdowns have been observed during ion thruster operation. These breakdowns, or arcs, can be caused by several conditions. In flight systems, the power processing unit must be designed to handle these faults autonomously. This has a strong impact on power processor requirements and must be understood fully for the power processing unit being designed for the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness program. In this study, fault conditions were investigated using a NASA 30 cm ion thruster and a power console. Power processing unit output specifications were defined based on the breakdown phenomena identified and characterized.

  12. Control of a 30 cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terdan, F. F.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Increased thruster performance has made closed-loop automatic control more difficult than previously. Specifically, high perveance optics tend to make reliable recycling more difficult. Control logic functions were established for three automatic modes of operation of a 30-cm thruster using a power conditioner console with flight-like characteristics. The three modes provide (1) automatic startup to reach thermal stability, (2) steady-state closed-loop control, and (3) the reliable recycling of the high voltages following an arc breakdown to reestablish normal operation. Power supply impedance characteristics necessary for stable operation and the effect of the magnetic baffle on the reliable recycling was studied.

  13. Radiated and conducted EMI from a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittlesey, A. C.; Peer, W.

    1981-01-01

    In order to properly assess the interaction of a spacecraft with the EMI environment produced by an ion thruster, the EMI environment was characterized. Therefore, radiated and conducted emissions were measured from a 30-cm mercury ion thruster. The ion thruster beam current varied from zero to 2.0 amperes and the emissions were measured from 5 KHz to 200 MHz. Several different types of antennas were used to obtain the measurements. The various measurements that were made included: magnetic field due to neutralizer/beam current loop; radiated electric fields of thruster and plume; and conducted emissions on arc discharge, neutralizer keeper and magnetic baffle lines.

  14. Long lifetime hollow cathodes for 30-cm mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation of hollow cathodes for 30-cm Hg bombardment thrusters was carried out. Both main and neutralizer cathode configurations were tested with both rolled foil inserts coated with low work function material and impregnated porous tungsten inserts. Temperature measurements of an impregnated insert at various positions in the cathode were made. These, along with the cathode thermal profile are presented. A theory for rolled foil and impregnated insert operation and lifetime in hollow cathodes is developed. Several endurance tests, as long as 18000 hours at emission currents of up to 12 amps were attained with no degradation in performance.

  15. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to the dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  16. Performance mapping of a 30 cm engineering model thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Vahrenkamp, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A 30 cm thruster representative of the engineering model design has been tested over a wide range of operating parameters to document performance characteristics such as electrical and propellant efficiencies, double ion and beam divergence thrust loss, component equilibrium temperatures, operational stability, etc. Data obtained show that optimum power throttling, in terms of maximum thruster efficiency, is not highly sensitive to parameter selection. Consequently, considerations of stability, discharge chamber erosion, thrust losses, etc. can be made the determining factors for parameter selection in power throttling operations. Options in parameter selection based on these considerations are discussed.

  17. The 100 cm solar telescope primary mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The manufacturing impact of primary mirror configuration on the performance of a 100 cm aperture solar telescope was studied. Three primary mirror configurations were considered: solid, standard lightweight, and mushroom. All of these are of low expansion material. Specifically, the study consisted of evaluating the mirrors with regard to: manufacturing metrology, manufacturing risk factors and ultimate quality assessment. As a result of this evaluation, a performance comparison of the configurations was made, and a recommendation of mirror configuration is the final output. These evaluations, comparisons and recommendations are discussed in detail. Other investigations were completed and are documented in the appendices.

  18. Human Being Imaging with cm-Wave UWB Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarovoy, A.; Zhuge, X.; Savelyev, T.; Matuzas, J.; Levitas, B.

    Possibilities of high-resolution human body imaging and concealed weapon detection using centimeter-wave microwave frequencies are investigated. Dependencies of the cross-range resolution of different imaging techniques on operational bandwidth, center frequency, imaging aperture size, and imaging topology have been studied. It has been demonstrated that the cross-range resolution of 2 cm can be achieved using frequencies below 10 GHz. These findings have been verified experimentally by producing high-resolution images of a foil-covered doll and some weapons.

  19. Passive microwave soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The AgRISTARS Soil Moisture Project has made significant progress in the quantification of microwave sensor capabilities for soil moisture remote sensing. The 21-cm wavelength has been verified to be the best single channel for radiometric observations of soil moisture. It has also been found that other remote sensing approaches used in conjunction with L-band passive data are more successful than multiple wavelength microwave radiometry in this application. AgRISTARS studies have also improved current understanding of noise factors affecting the interpretability of microwave emission data. The absorption of soil emission by vegetation has been quantified, although this effect is less important than absorption effects for microwave radiometry.

  20. Vertical distribution of soil removed by four species of burrowing rodents in disturbed and undisturbed soils.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, T D; Laundré, J W

    1988-04-01

    Burrow volumes were determined in disturbed and undisturbed soils for four species of rodents in southeastern Idaho. Comparisons were made between soil types for the average volume and the proportion of the total volume of soil excavated from 10-cm increments for each species, and the relative number of burrows and proportion of total soil removed from beneath the minimum thickness of soil covers over buried low-level radioactive wastes. Burrows of montane voles (Microtus montanus) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) rarely extended below 50 cm and neither volumes nor depths were influenced by soil disturbance. Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) had the deepest and most voluminous burrows that, along with Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) burrows, were more prevalent beneath 50 cm in disturbed soils.

  1. Vertical distribution of soil removed by four species of burrowing rodents in disturbed and undisturbed soils

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T.D.; Laundre, J.W.

    1988-04-01

    Burrow volumes were determined in disturbed and undisturbed soils for four species of rodents in southeastern Idaho. Comparisons were made between soil types for the average volume and the proportion of the total volume of soil excavated from 10-cm increments for each species, and the relative number of burrows and proportion of total soil removed from beneath the minimum thickness of soil covers over buried low-level radioactive wastes. Burrows of montane voles (Microtus montanus) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) rarely extended below 50 cm and neither volumes nor depths were influenced by soil disturbance. Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) had the deepest and most voluminous burrows that, along with Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) burrows, were more prevalent beneath 50 cm in disturbed soils.

  2. Soil and Surface Runoff Phosphorus Relationships for Five Typical USA Midwest Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessively high soil P can increase P loss with surface runoff. This study used indoor rainfall simulations to characterize soil and runoff P relationships for five Midwest soils (Argiudoll, Calciaquaoll, Hapludalf, and two Hapludolls). Topsoil (15-cm depth, 241–289 g clay kg–1 and pH 6.0–8.0) was ...

  3. Measuring the Cosmological 21 cm Monopole with an Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presley, Morgan E.; Liu, Adrian; Parsons, Aaron R.

    2015-08-01

    A measurement of the cosmological 21 {cm} signal remains a promising but as-of-yet unattained ambition of radio astronomy. A positive detection would provide direct observations of key unexplored epochs of our cosmic history, including the cosmic dark ages and reionization. In this paper, we concentrate on measurements of the spatial monopole of the 21 {cm} brightness temperature as a function of redshift (the “global signal”). Most global experiments to date have been single-element experiments. In this paper, we show how an interferometer can be designed to be sensitive to the monopole mode of the sky, thus providing an alternate approach to accessing the global signature. We provide simple rules of thumb for designing a global signal interferometer and use numerical simulations to show that a modest array of tightly packed antenna elements with moderately sized primary beams (FWHM of ∼ 40^\\circ ) can compete with typical single-element experiments in their ability to constrain phenomenological parameters pertaining to reionization and the pre-reionization era. We also provide a general data analysis framework for extracting the global signal from interferometric measurements (with analysis of single-element experiments arising as a special case) and discuss trade-offs with various data analysis choices. Given that interferometric measurements are able to avoid a number of systematics inherent in single-element experiments, our results suggest that interferometry ought to be explored as a complementary way to probe the global signal.

  4. Power processor for a 20CM ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Schoenfeld, A. D.; Cohen, E.

    1973-01-01

    A power processor breadboard for the JPL 20CM Ion Engine was designed, fabricated, and tested to determine compliance with the electrical specification. The power processor breadboard used the silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) series resonant inverter as the basic power stage to process all the power to the ion engine. The breadboard power processor was integrated with the JPL 20CM ion engine and complete testing was performed. The integration tests were performed without any silicon-controlled rectifier failure. This demonstrated the ruggedness of the series resonant inverter in protecting the switching elements during arcing in the ion engine. A method of fault clearing the ion engine and returning back to normal operation without elaborate sequencing and timing control logic was evolved. In this method, the main vaporizer was turned off and the discharge current limit was reduced when an overload existed on the screen/accelerator supply. After the high voltage returned to normal, both the main vaporizer and the discharge were returned to normal.

  5. Probing patchy reionization through τ-21 cm correlation statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Meerburg, P. Daniel; Spergel, David N.; Dvorkin, Cora E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-12-20

    We consider the cross-correlation between free electrons and neutral hydrogen during the epoch of reionization (EoR). The free electrons are traced by the optical depth to reionization τ, while the neutral hydrogen can be observed through 21 cm photon emission. As expected, this correlation is sensitive to the detailed physics of reionization. Foremost, if reionization occurs through the merger of relatively large halos hosting an ionizing source, the free electrons and neutral hydrogen are anticorrelated for most of the reionization history. A positive contribution to the correlation can occur when the halos that can form an ionizing source are small. A measurement of this sign change in the cross-correlation could help disentangle the bias and the ionization history. We estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of the cross-correlation using the estimator for inhomogeneous reionization τ-hat {sub ℓm} proposed by Dvorkin and Smith. We find that with upcoming radio interferometers and cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, the cross-correlation is measurable going up to multipoles ℓ ∼ 1000. We also derive parameter constraints and conclude that, despite the foregrounds, the cross-correlation provides a complementary measurement of the EoR parameters to the 21 cm and CMB polarization autocorrelations expected to be observed in the coming decade.

  6. Characterization of an 8-cm Diameter Ion Source System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhongmin; Hawk, C. W.; Hawk, Clark W.; Buttweiler, Mark S.; Williams, John D.; Buchholtz, Brett

    2005-01-01

    Results of tests characterizing an 8-cm diameter ion source are presented. The tests were conducted in three separate vacuum test facilities at the University of Alabama-Huntsville, Colorado State University, and L3 Communications' ETI division. Standard ion optics tests describing electron backstreaming and total-voltage-limited impingement current behavior as a function of beam current were used as guidelines for selecting operating conditions where more detailed ion beam measurements were performed. The ion beam was profiled using an in-vacuum actuating probe system to determine the total ion current density and the ion charge state distribution variation across the face of the ion source. Both current density and ExB probes were utilized. The ion current density data were used to obtain integrated beam current, beam flatness parameters, and general beam profile shapes. The ExB probe data were used to determine the ratio of doubly to singly charged ion current. The ion beam profile tests were performed at over six different operating points that spanned the expected operating range of the DAWN thrusters being developed at L3. The characterization tests described herein reveal that the 8-cm ion source is suitable for use in (a) validating plasma diagnostic equipment, (b) xenon ion sputtering and etching studies of spacecraft materials, (c) plasma physics research, and (d) the study of ion thruster optics at varying conditions.

  7. Presolar grains in the CM2 chondrite Sutter's Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuchao; Lin, Yangting; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zhang, Jianchao; Hao, Jialong; Zolensky, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The Sutter's Mill (SM) carbonaceous chondrite is a regolith breccia, composed predominantly of CM2 clasts with varying degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. An investigation of presolar grains in four Sutter's Mill sections, SM43, SM51, SM2-4, and SM18, was carried out using NanoSIMS ion mapping technique. A total of 37 C-anomalous grains and one O-anomalous grain have been identified, indicating an abundance of 63 ppm for presolar C-anomalous grains and 2 ppm for presolar oxides. Thirty-one silicon carbide (SiC), five carbonaceous grains, and one Al-oxide (Al2O3) were confirmed based on their elemental compositions determined by C-N-Si and O-Si-Mg-Al isotopic measurements. The overall abundance of SiC grains in Sutter's Mill (55 ppm) is consistent with those in other CM chondrites. The absence of presolar silicates in Sutter's Mill suggests that they were destroyed by aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. Furthermore, SM2-4 shows heterogeneous distributions of presolar SiC grains (12-54 ppm) in different matrix areas, indicating that the fine-grained matrix clasts come from different sources, with various thermal histories, in the solar nebula.

  8. Altimeter error sources at the 10-cm performance level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Error sources affecting the calibration and operational use of a 10 cm altimeter are examined to determine the magnitudes of current errors and the investigations necessary to reduce them to acceptable bounds. Errors considered include those affecting operational data pre-processing, and those affecting altitude bias determination, with error budgets developed for both. The most significant error sources affecting pre-processing are bias calibration, propagation corrections for the ionosphere, and measurement noise. No ionospheric models are currently validated at the required 10-25% accuracy level. The optimum smoothing to reduce the effects of measurement noise is investigated and found to be on the order of one second, based on the TASC model of geoid undulations. The 10 cm calibrations are found to be feasible only through the use of altimeter passes that are very high elevation for a tracking station which tracks very close to the time of altimeter track, such as a high elevation pass across the island of Bermuda. By far the largest error source, based on the current state-of-the-art, is the location of the island tracking station relative to mean sea level in the surrounding ocean areas.

  9. Electric prototype power processor for a 30cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Schoenfeld, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical prototype power processor unit was designed, fabricated and tested with a 30 cm mercury ion engine for primary space propulsion. The power processor unit used the thyristor series resonant inverter as the basic power stage for the high power beam and discharge supplies. A transistorized series resonant inverter processed the remaining power for the low power outputs. The power processor included a digital interface unit to process all input commands and internal telemetry signals so that electric propulsion systems could be operated with a central computer system. The electrical prototype unit included design improvement in the power components such as thyristors, transistors, filters and resonant capacitors, and power transformers and inductors in order to reduce component weight, to minimize losses, and to control the component temperature rise. A design analysis for the electrical prototype is also presented on the component weight, losses, part count and reliability estimate. The electrical prototype was tested in a thermal vacuum environment. Integration tests were performed with a 30 cm ion engine and demonstrated operational compatibility. Electromagnetic interference data was also recorded on the design to provide information for spacecraft integration.

  10. Combined deep sampling and mass-based approaches to assess soil carbon and nitrogen losses due to land-use changes in karst area of southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yecui; Du, Zhangliu; Wang, Qibing; Li, Guichun

    2016-07-01

    The conversion of natural vegetation to human-managed ecosystems, especially the agricultural systems, may decrease soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) stocks. The objective of present study was to assess SOC and TN stocks losses by combining deep sampling with mass-based calculations upon land-use changes in a typical karst area of southwestern China. We quantified the changes from native forest to grassland, secondary shrub, eucalyptus plantation, sugarcane and corn fields (both defined as croplands), on the SOC and TN stocks down to 100 cm depth using fixed-depth (FD) and equivalent soil mass (ESM) approaches. The results showed that converting forest to cropland and other types significantly led to SOC and TN losses, but the extent depended on both sampling depths and calculation methods selected (i.e., FD or ESM). On average, the shifting from native forest to cropland led to SOC losses by 19.1, 25.1, 30.6, 36.8 and 37.9 % for the soil depths of 0-10, 0-20, 0-40, 0-60 and 0-100 cm, respectively, which highlighted that shallow sampling underestimated SOC losses. Moreover, the FD method underestimated SOC and TN losses for the upper 40 cm layer, but overestimated the losses in the deeper layers. We suggest that the ESM together with deep sampling should be encouraged to detect the differences in SOC stocks. In conclusion, the conversion of forest to managed systems, in particular croplands significantly decreased in SOC and TN stocks, although the effect magnitude to some extent depended on sampling depth and calculation approach selected.

  11. Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in forest soils depending on light conditions and tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselinovic, Bojana; Hager, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Climate change mitigation actions under the Kyoto Protocol apply among other decreases of CO2-emissions and/or increases of carbon (C) stocks. As soils represent the second biggest C-reservoir on Earth, an exact estimation of the stocks and reliable knowledge on C-dynamics in forest soils is of high importance. Anyhow, here, the accurate GHG-accounting, emission reductions and increase in C stocks is hampered due to lack of reliable data and solid statistical methods for the factors which influence C-sequestration in and its release from these systems. In spite of good progress in the scientific research, these factors are numerous and diverse in their interactions. This work focuses on influence of the economically relevant tree species - Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. - and light conditions on forest floor and mineral soil C and N dynamics in forest soils. Spruce monocultures have been widely used management practices in central European forests during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes and on heavy and water logged soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially to windthrows. We hypothesize that windthrow areas loose C & N and that the establishment of the previous nutrient stocks is, if at all, only possible to be reached over the longer periods of time. We research also how the increased OM depletion affects the change of C & N stocks in forest floor vs. mineral soil. Conversion of such secondary spruce monocultures to site adequate beech and oak forests may enable higher stocks allocated predominantly as stable organic carbon and as plant available nitrogen. For this purpose sites at 300-700 m altitude with planosols were chosen in the region of the Northern Alpine Foothills. A false chronosequence approach was used in order to evaluate the impacts of the tree species and change in light conditions on dynamic of C & N in the forest floor and mineral soil, over the period 0-100 (for oak 120 y.) years. The C- and N

  12. P-O-rich sulfide phase in CM chondrites: Constraints on its origin on the CM parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-Cheng; Itoh, Shoichi; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Hsu, Wei-Biao; Wang, Ru-Cheng; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    CM chondrites are a group of primitive meteorites that have recorded the alteration history of the early solar system. We report the occurrence, chemistry, and oxygen isotopic compositions of P-O-rich sulfide phase in two CM chondrites (Grove Mountains [GRV] 021536 and Murchison). This P-O-rich sulfide is a polycrystalline aggregate of nanometer-size grains. It occurs as isolated particles or aggregates in both CM chondrites. These grains, in the matrix and in type-I chondrules from Murchison, were partially altered into tochilinite; however, grains enclosed by Ca-carbonate are much less altered. This P-O-rich sulfide in Murchison is closely associated with magnetite, FeNi phosphide, brezinaite (Cr3S4), and eskolaite (Cr2O3). In addition to sulfur as the major component, this sulfide contains ~6.3 wt% O, ~5.4 wt% P, and minor amounts of hydrogen. Analyses of oxygen isotopes by SIMS resulted in an average δ18O value of -22.5 ‰ and an average Δ17O value of 0.2 ± 9.2 ‰ (2σ). Limited variations in both chemical compositions and electron-diffraction patterns imply that the P-O-rich sulfide may be a single phase rather than a polyphase mixture. Several features indicate that this P-O-rich sulfide phase formed at low temperature on the parent body, most likely through the alteration of FeNi metal (a) close association with other low-temperature alteration products, (b) the presence of hydrogen, (c) high Δ17O values and the presence in altered mesostasis of type-I chondrules and absence in type-II chondrules. The textural relations of the P-O-rich sulfide and other low-temperature minerals reveal at least three episodic-alteration events on the parent body of CM chondrites (1) formation of P-O-rich sulfide during sulfur-rich aqueous alteration of P-rich FeNi metal, (2) formation of Ca-carbonate during local carbonation, and (3) alteration of P-O-rich sulfide and formation of tochilinite during a period of late-stage intensive aqueous alteration.

  13. Biochemical activities in soil overlying Paraho processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Microbial activity development in soil materials placed over processed oil shale is vital to the plant litter decomposition, cycling of nutrients, and soil organic matter accumulation and maintenance. Samples collected in the summers of 1979, 1980, and 1981 from revegetated soil 30-, 61-, and 91-cm deep overlying spent oil shale in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado were assayed for dehydrogenease activity with glucose and without glucose, for phosphatase activity, and for acetylene reduction activity. Initial ammonium and nitrite nitrogen oxidation rates and potential denitrification rates were determined in 1981. Zymogenous dehydrogenase activity, phosphatase activity, nitrogenase activity, potential denitrification rates, and direct microscopic counts were lower in surface soil 30 cm deep, and were frequently lower in surface soil 61 cm deep over processed shale than in a surface-disturbed control area soil. Apparently, microbial activities are stressed in these more shallow replaced soils. Soil 61 cm deep over a coarse-rock capillary barrier separating the soil from the spent shale, frequently had improved biochemical activity. Initial ammonium and nitrite nitrogen oxidation rates were lower in all replaced soils than in the disturbed control soil. Soil core samples taken in 1981 were assayed for dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities, viable bacteria, and viable fungal propagules. In general, microbial activity decreased quickly below the surface. At depths greater than 45 cm, microbial activities were similar in buried spent shale and surface-disturbed control soil.

  14. 15 cm cusped magnetic field mercury ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The importance of achieving a uniform current density in the exhaust beam of an electrostatic ion thruster is discussed in terms of thrust level and accelerator grid lifetime. A neutral residence time approach is used to propose a magnetic field geometry which should produce a highly uniform beam current density. The discharge chamber length to diameter ratio is shown to be an important optimization parameter and experimental evaluation of the cusped field thruster over a wide range of this parameter is presented. Beam profile measurements 5 cm downstream of the accelerator grid indicate a beam profile flatness parameter which is 25% greater than the SERT II value. Flatness parameters extrapolated to the plane of the accelerator grid are demonstrated to be as high as 0.9.

  15. Gravitational-wave detection using redshifted 21-cm observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Somnath; Guha Sarkar, Tapomoy

    2009-06-15

    A gravitational-wave traversing the line of sight to a distant source produces a frequency shift which contributes to redshift space distortion. As a consequence, gravitational waves are imprinted as density fluctuations in redshift space. The gravitational-wave contribution to the redshift space power spectrum has a different {mu} dependence as compared to the dominant contribution from peculiar velocities. This, in principle, allows the two signals to be separated. The prospect of a detection is most favorable at the highest observable redshift z. Observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation from neutral hydrogen hold the possibility of probing very high redshifts. We consider the possibility of detecting primordial gravitational waves using the redshift space neutral hydrogen power spectrum. However, we find that the gravitational-wave signal, though present, will not be detectable on superhorizon scales because of cosmic variance and on subhorizon scales where the signal is highly suppressed.

  16. Translation Optics for 30 cm Ion Engine Thrust Vector Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Data were obtained from a 30 cm xenon ion thruster in which the accelerator grid was translated in the radial plane. The thruster was operated at three different throttle power levels, and the accelerator grid was incrementally translated in the X, Y, and azimuthal directions. Plume data was obtained downstream from the thruster using a Faraday probe mounted to a positioning system. Successive probe sweeps revealed variations in the plume direction. Thruster perveance, electron backstreaming limit, accelerator current, and plume deflection angle were taken at each power level, and for each accelerator grid position. Results showed that the thruster plume could easily be deflected up to six degrees without a prohibitive increase in accelerator impingement current. Results were similar in both X and Y direction.

  17. An H I 21-cm line survey of evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, E.; Le Bertre, T.; Libert, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The HI line at 21 cm is a tracer of circumstellar matter around AGB stars, and especially of the matter located at large distances (0.1-1 pc) from the central stars. It can give unique information on the kinematics and on the physical conditions in the outer parts of circumstellar shells and in the regions where stellar matter is injected into the interstellar medium. However this tracer has not been much used up to now, due to the difficulty of separating the genuine circumstellar emission from the interstellar one. With the Nançay Radiotelescope we are carrying out a survey of the HI emission in a large sample of evolved stars. We report on recent progresses of this long term programme, with emphasis on S-type stars.

  18. Autumn at Titan's South Pole: The 220 cm-1 Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Achterberg, R. K.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; de Kok, R. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.

    2015-10-01

    Beginning in 2012 an atmospheric cloud known by its far-infrared emission has formed rapidly at Tit an's South Pole [1, 2]. The build-up of this condensate is a result of deepening temperatures and a gathering of gases as Winter approaches. Emission from the cloud in the south has been doubling each year since 2012, in contrast to the north where it has halved every 3.8 years since 2004. The morphology of the cloud in the south is quite different from that in the north. In the north, the cloud has extended over the whole polar region beyond 55 N, whereas in the south the cloud has been confined to within about 10 degrees of the pole. The cloud in the north has had the form of a uniform hood, whereas the southern cloud has been much more complex. A map from December 2014,recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini, showed the 220 cm-1 emission coming from a distinct ring with a maximum at about 80 S. In contrast, emissions from the gases HC3N, C4H2 and C6H6 peaked near the pole and had a ring at 70 S. The 220 cm-1 ring at 80 S coincided with the minimum in the gas emission pattern. The80 S condensate ring encompassed the vortex cloud seen by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS)[3, 4]. Both the 220 cm-1 ring and the gas "bull's-eye" pattern were centered on a point that was shifted from the geographic South Pole by 4 degrees in the direction of the Sun. This corresponds to the overall tilt of Titan's atmosphere discovered from temperature maps early in the Cassini mission by Achterberg et al. [5]. The tilt may be reinforced by the presumably twice-yearly (north and south) spin-up of the atmosphere at the autumnal pole. The bull's-eye pattern of the gas emissions can be explained by the retrieved abundance distributions, which are maximum near the pole and decrease sharply toward lower latitudes, together with temperatures that are minimum at the pole and increase toward lower latitudes

  19. Rb-Sr studies of CI and CM chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Wetherill, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    Rb-Sr whole rock analyses have been performed on 2 CI and 3 CM chondrites. Four of these stones (Ivuna, Orgueil, Cold Bokkeveld and Erakot) were previously studied in this laboratory and were shown to be discordant from a 4.6 Gyr isochron. The fifth, Murchison, was not previously studied. The new data support the discordance of the first four stones, and indicate that Murchison is also discordant. Studies of Sr isotope ratios in unspiked Orgueil show that the discordance is not due to inhomogeneities in the Sr-84/Sr-86 ratio caused by incomplete mixing of nucleosynthesis products. In order to gauge the effects of weathering, two leaching experiments were performed on fresh, interior samples of Murchison; one for a period of 1.5 hr and the other for 117 hr. The results indicate that the relative solubility of nonradiogenic Sr is approximately twice that of Rb and radiogenic Sr is more soluble than the nonradiogenic Sr.

  20. The Murchison Widefield Array 21 cm Power Spectrum Analysis Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Daniel C.; Hazelton, B. J.; Trott, C. M.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Pindor, B.; Sullivan, I. S.; Pober, J. C.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, HS; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Thyagarajan, N.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tegmark, M.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-07-01

    We present the 21 cm power spectrum analysis approach of the Murchison Widefield Array Epoch of Reionization project. In this paper, we compare the outputs of multiple pipelines for the purpose of validating statistical limits cosmological hydrogen at redshifts between 6 and 12. Multiple independent data calibration and reduction pipelines are used to make power spectrum limits on a fiducial night of data. Comparing the outputs of imaging and power spectrum stages highlights differences in calibration, foreground subtraction, and power spectrum calculation. The power spectra found using these different methods span a space defined by the various tradeoffs between speed, accuracy, and systematic control. Lessons learned from comparing the pipelines range from the algorithmic to the prosaically mundane; all demonstrate the many pitfalls of neglecting reproducibility. We briefly discuss the way these different methods attempt to handle the question of evaluating a significant detection in the presence of foregrounds.

  1. Viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions and anomalous CM diffusion in polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Hendrik

    We have recently discovered that anomalous center-of-mass (CM) diffusion occurring on intermediate time scales in polymer melts can be explained by the interplay of viscoelastic and hydrodynamic interactions (VHI). The theory has been solved for unentangled melts in 3D and 2D and excellent agreement between theory and simulation is found, also for alkanes with a force field optimized from neutron scattering. The physical mechanism considers that hydrodynamic interactions are not screened: they are time dependent because of increasing viscosity before the terminal relaxation time. The VHI are generally active in melts of any topology. They are most important at early times well before the terminal relaxation time and thus affect the nanosecond time range typically observable in dynamic neutron scattering experiments. We illustrate the effects with recent molecular dynamics simulations of linear, ring and star polymers. Work performed with A.N. Semenov and J. Farago.

  2. A young region on Enceladus revealed by 2 cm radiometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, P.; Janssen, M.

    2014-04-01

    On 5 November 2011, the Cassini spacecraft had a flyby of Enceladus dedicated to its synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instrument. In the course of that flyby, approximately 80% of Enceladus' surface was also observed serendipitously with the microwave radiometer operating concurrently at 2.2 cm. The radiometry data is analyzed and shown to drop sharply in the leading hemisphere's smooth terrain. This drop is also demonstrated in a series of unresolved distant radiometry measurements spread out over the ten years of the Cassini mission. However, the anomaly is absent from distant unresolved RADAR measurements and not visible in SAR imaging. The anomaly is most likely caused by a young surface (<100MYr in age) which has not yet been processed by micrometeoroid impacts below the electromagnetic skin depth (3 m).

  3. Direct thrust measurement of a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B.; Rawlin, V.; Weigand, A.; Walker, J.

    1975-01-01

    A direct thrust measurement of a 30-cm diameter ion thruster was accomplished by means of a laser interferometer thrust stand. The thruster was supported in a pendulum manner by three 3.65-m long wires. Electrical power was provided by means of 18 mercury filled pots. A movable 23-button planar probe rake was used to determine thrust loss due to ion beam divergence. Values of thrust, thrust loss due to ion beam divergence, and thrust loss due to multiple ionization were measured for ion beam currents ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 A. Measured thrust values indicate an accuracy of approximately 1% and are in good agreement with thrust values calculated by indirect measurements.

  4. Hollow cathode restartable 15 cm diameter ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of substituting high perveance dished grids for low perveance flat ones on performance variables and plasma properties within a 15 cm modified SERT II thruster are discussed. Results suggest good performance may be achieved as an ion thruster is throttled if the screen grid transparency is decreased with propellant flow rate. Thruster startup tests, which employ a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode between the keeper and the cathode to initiate the discharge, are described. High startup reliability at cathode tip temperatures of about 500 C without excessive component wear over 2000 startup cycles is demonstrated. Testing of a single cusp magnetic field concept of discharge plasma containment is discussed. A theory which explains the observed behavior of the device is presented and proposed thruster modifications and future testing plans are discussed.

  5. HIBAYES: Global 21-cm Bayesian Monte-Carlo Model Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwart, Jonathan T. L.; Price, Daniel; Bernardi, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    HIBAYES implements fully-Bayesian extraction of the sky-averaged (global) 21-cm signal from the Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization in the presence of foreground emission. User-defined likelihood and prior functions are called by the sampler PyMultiNest (ascl:1606.005) in order to jointly explore the full (signal plus foreground) posterior probability distribution and evaluate the Bayesian evidence for a given model. Implemented models, for simulation and fitting, include gaussians (HI signal) and polynomials (foregrounds). Some simple plotting and analysis tools are supplied. The code can be extended to other models (physical or empirical), to incorporate data from other experiments, or to use alternative Monte-Carlo sampling engines as required.

  6. Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

  7. Very Large Array observations of Uranus at 2. 0 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, G.L.; Muhleman, D.O.; Linfield, R.P.

    1988-07-01

    Radio observations of Uranus obtained at 2.0 cm with the B configuration of the VLA during April 1985 are reported. The calibration and data-reduction procedures are described in detail, and the results are presented in tables, maps, and graphs and compared with IRIS 44-micron observations (Hanel et al., 1986). Features discussed include highest brightness centered on the pole rather than on the subearth point, a decrease in brightness temperature (by up to 9 K) at latitudes between -20 and -50 deg (well correlated with the IRIS data), and disk-center position (corrected for the observed radio asymmetry) in good agreement with that found on the basis of the outer contours of the image. 15 references.

  8. Cosmic (Super)String Constraints from 21 cm Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Khatri, Rishi; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2008-03-07

    We calculate the contribution of cosmic strings arising from a phase transition in the early Universe, or cosmic superstrings arising from brane inflation, to the cosmic 21 cm power spectrum at redshifts z{>=}30. Future experiments can exploit this effect to constrain the cosmic string tension G{mu} and probe virtually the entire brane inflation model space allowed by current observations. Although current experiments with a collecting area of {approx}1 km{sup 2} will not provide any useful constraints, future experiments with a collecting area of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} km{sup 2} covering the cleanest 10% of the sky can, in principle, constrain cosmic strings with tension G{mu} > or approx. 10{sup -10}-10{sup -12} (superstring/phase transition mass scale >10{sup 13} GeV)

  9. Cosmic (Super)String Constraints from 21 cm Radiation.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Rishi; Wandelt, Benjamin D

    2008-03-01

    We calculate the contribution of cosmic strings arising from a phase transition in the early Universe, or cosmic superstrings arising from brane inflation, to the cosmic 21 cm power spectrum at redshifts z > or =30. Future experiments can exploit this effect to constrain the cosmic string tension G mu and probe virtually the entire brane inflation model space allowed by current observations. Although current experiments with a collecting area of approximately 1 km2 will not provide any useful constraints, future experiments with a collecting area of 10(4)-10(6) km2 covering the cleanest 10% of the sky can, in principle, constrain cosmic strings with tension G mu > or = 10(-10)-10(-12) (superstring/phase transition mass scale >10(13) GeV). PMID:18352691

  10. Direct thrust measurement of a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B.; Rawlin, V.; Weigand, A. J.; Walker, J.

    1975-01-01

    A direct thrust measurement of a 30-cm diameter ion thruster was accomplished by means of a laser interferometer thrust stand. The thruster was supported in a pendulum manner by three 3.65-m long wires. Electrical power was provided by means of 18 mercury filled pots. A movable 23-button planar probe rake was used to determine thrust loss due to ion beam divergence. Values of thrust, thrust loss due to ion beam divergence, and thrust loss due to multiple ionization were measured for ion beam currents ranging from 0.5 A to 2.5 A. Measured thrust values indicate an accuracy of approximately 1% and are in good agreement with thrust values calculated by indirect measurements.

  11. A dual frequency 10 cm Doppler weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, K. M.; Armstrong, G. M.; Bishop, A. W.; Banis, K. J.

    A summary is given of the design concepts underlying a new 10-cm band dual frequency Doppler weather radar under development at the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. Primary emphasis in the design is placed on the system performance in a clutter environment, and the technique used to extend the radar's unambiguous range and velocity span is an important, but secondary, consideration. The design includes the use of fault tolerance and/or fault location methods at critical locations in the system and automated calibration techniques for quasi-continuous monitoring of system performance. The approach followed for minimizing range and velocity ambiguities used in this radar is a uniform pulse train version of the Doviak et al. (1978) dual sampling (batch) technique.

  12. Soil carbon stock and soil characteristics at Tasik Chini Forest Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Aqlili Riana, R.; Sahibin A., R.

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine soil carbon stock and soil characteristic at Tasik Chini Forest Reserve (TCFR), Pahang. A total of 10 (20 m x 25 m) permanent sampling plot was selected randomly within the area of TCFR. Soil samples were taken from all subplots using dutch auger based on soil depth of 0-20cm, 20-40cm, 40-60cm. Soil parameters determined were size distribution, soil water content, bulk density, organic matter, organic carbon content, pH and electrical conductivity. All parameters were determined following their respective standard methods. Results obtained showed that the soil in TCFR was dominated by clay texture (40%), followed by sandy clay loam (30%), loam (20%). Silty clay, clay loam and sandy loam constitutes about 10% of the soil texture. Range of mean percentage of organic matter and bulk density are from 2.42±0.06% to 11.64±0.39% and 1.01 to 1.04 (gcm-ł), respectively. Soil pH are relatively very acidic and mean of electrical conductivity is low. Soil carbon content ranged from 0.83±0.03 to 1.87±0.41%. All soil parameter showed a decreasing trend with depth except electrical conductivity. ANOVA test of mean percentage of organic matter, soil water content, soil pH and electrical conductivity showed a significant difference between plot (p<0.05). However there are no significant difference of mean bulk density between plots (p>0.05). There are no significant difference in mean percentage of soil water content, organic matter and bulk density between three different depth (p>0.05). There were a significant difference on percentage of soil carbon organic between plots and depth. The mean of soil organic carbon stock in soil to a depth of 60 cm calculated was 35.50 t/ha.

  13. Estimating toxic damage to soil ecosystems from soil organic matter profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of particulate and total organic matter were measured in upper soil profiles at 26 sites as a potential means to identify toxic damage to soil ecosystems. Because soil organic matter plays a role in cycling nutrients, aerating soil, retaining water, and maintaining tilth, a significant reduction in organic matter content in a soil profile is not just evidence of a change in ecosystem function, but of damage to that soil ecosystem. Reference sites were selected for comparison to contaminated sites, and additional sites were selected to illustrate how variables other than environmental contaminants might affect the Soil organic matter profile. The survey was undertaken on the supposition that environmental contaminants and other stressors reduce the activity of earthworms and other macrofauna, inhibiting the incorporation of organic matter into the soil profile. The profiles of the unstressed soils showed a continuous decrease in organic matter content from the uppermost mineral soil layer (0-2.5 cm) down to 15 cm. Stressed soils showed an abrupt decrease in soil organic matter content below a depth of 2.5 cm. The 2.5-5.0 cm layer of stressed soils--such as found in a pine barren, an orchard, sites contaminated with zinc, and a site with compacted soil--had less than 4% total organic matter and less than 1% particulate organic matter. However, damaged soil ecosystems were best identified by comparison of their profiles to the profiles of closely matched reference soils, rather than by comparison to these absolute values. The presence or absence of earthworms offered a partial explanation of observed differences in soil organic matter profiles.

  14. Performance tests for the NASA Ames Research Center 20 cm x 40 cm oscillating flow wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.; Giddings, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of initial tests conducted to assess the performance of the NASA Ames 20 cm x 40 cm oscillating flow wind tunnel. The features of the tunnel are described and two aspects of tunnel operation are discussed. The first is an assessment of the steady mainstream and boundary layer flows and the second deals with oscillating mainstream and boundary layer flows. Experimental results indicate that in steady flow the test section mainstream velocity is uniform in the flow direction and in cross section. The freestream turbulence intensity is about 0.2 percent. With minor exceptions the steady turbulent boundary layer generated on the top wall of the test section exhibits the characteristics of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer generated on a flat plate. The tunnel was designed to generate sinusoidal oscillating mainstream flows. Experiments confirm that the tunnel produces sinusoidal mainstream velocity variations for the range of frequencies (up to 15 Hz). The results of this study demonstrate that the tunnel essentially produces the flows that it was designed to produce.

  15. Long-term effects of deep soil loosening on root distribution and soil physical parameters in compacted lignite mine soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badorreck, Annika; Krümmelbein, Julia; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil compaction is a major problem of soils on dumped mining substrates in Lusatia, Germany. Deep ripping and cultivation of deep rooting plant species are considered to be effective ways of agricultural recultivation. Six years after experiment start, we studied the effect of initial deep soil loosening (i.e. down to 65 cm) on root systems of rye (Secale cereale) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and on soil physical parameters. We conducted a soil monolith sampling for each treatment (deep loosened and unloosened) and for each plant species (in three replicates, respectively) to determine root diameter, length density and dry mass as well as soil bulk density. Further soil physical analysis comprised water retention, hydraulic conductivity and texture in three depths. The results showed different reactions of the root systems of rye and alfalfa six years after deep ripping. In the loosened soil the root biomass of the rye was lower in depths of 20-40 cm and the root biomass of alfalfa was also decreased in depths of 20-50 cm together with a lower root diameter for both plant species. Moreover, total and fine root length density was higher for alfalfa and vice versa for rye. The soil physical parameters such as bulk density showed fewer differences, despite a higher bulk density in 30-40cm for the deep loosened rye plot which indicates a more pronounced plough pan.

  16. Soil adherence to human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, J.H.; Konz, J.J.; Whitmyre, G.K. )

    1989-12-01

    Dermal exposure to soils contaminated with toxic chemicals represents a potential public health hazard. These soils, contaminated with chemicals such as PCBs and dioxins, may be found at various locations throughout the US. Furthermore, dermal contact with pesticide-containing particles and contaminated soil particles is of importance for exposures to agricultural workers who reenter fields after pesticide application. With respect to dermal exposure to pesticide-contaminated particulate matter, several occurrences of human toxicity to ethyl parathion in citrus groves have been reported. These exposures resulted from dermal contact with high concentrations of the toxic transformation product paraoxon in soil dust contaminated as a result of application of pesticide to the overhead foliage of trees. To assess dermal exposure to chemically-contaminated soil at sites of concern, dermal adherence of soil must be determined prior to the assessment of dermal absorption. The purpose of the experiment reported herein was to determine the amount of soil (mg/cm{sup 2}) that adheres to adult hands under various soil conditions. These conditions include the type of soil, the organic content of the soil, and the particle size of the soil.

  17. [Effects of coated controlled release urea combined with conventional urea on winter wheat growth and soil NO3- -N].

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen-ping; Sun, Zhe; Wu, Liang; Shi, Gui-fang; Zhu, Guo-liang; Li, Ya-xing; Gu, Jia-lin; Xu, Qiu-ming

    2011-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of different dosages coated controlled release urea (PCU60, 60 d release duration) combined with conventional urea (U) used as basal on the winter wheat grain yield, nitrogen (N) recovery rate, and soil NO3- -N content, etc. Five treatments were installed, i.e., U (CK), 10% PCU60+90% U (PU1), 20% PCU60+80% U (PU2), 30% PCU60+70% U (PU3), and 40% PCU60+60% U (PU4). In the meantime, a comparative analysis was also carried out on the PCU60 N release characteristics under field condition and in 25 "C static water. At the same N dosage, all the test indices in treatment PU4 were significantly higher, with the grain yield, N recovery rate, total N accumulation amount, total tiller number and aboveground biomass at ripening stage, and economic benefit increased by 5.6%, 14.6%, 7.2%, 2.6%, 7.5%, and 984.3 yuan x hm(-2), respectively, compared with those in treatment U. The accumulation amount of NO3- -N in 0-100 cm soil layer in all treatments ranged in 39.70-49.93 kg x hm-2, and was the lowest (39.70 kg x hm(-2)) in treatment PU4. The N release pattern of PCU60 under field condition better fitted the N absorption characteristics of winter wheat. PMID:21657025

  18. [Effects of coated controlled release urea combined with conventional urea on winter wheat growth and soil NO3- -N].

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen-ping; Sun, Zhe; Wu, Liang; Shi, Gui-fang; Zhu, Guo-liang; Li, Ya-xing; Gu, Jia-lin; Xu, Qiu-ming

    2011-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of different dosages coated controlled release urea (PCU60, 60 d release duration) combined with conventional urea (U) used as basal on the winter wheat grain yield, nitrogen (N) recovery rate, and soil NO3- -N content, etc. Five treatments were installed, i.e., U (CK), 10% PCU60+90% U (PU1), 20% PCU60+80% U (PU2), 30% PCU60+70% U (PU3), and 40% PCU60+60% U (PU4). In the meantime, a comparative analysis was also carried out on the PCU60 N release characteristics under field condition and in 25 "C static water. At the same N dosage, all the test indices in treatment PU4 were significantly higher, with the grain yield, N recovery rate, total N accumulation amount, total tiller number and aboveground biomass at ripening stage, and economic benefit increased by 5.6%, 14.6%, 7.2%, 2.6%, 7.5%, and 984.3 yuan x hm(-2), respectively, compared with those in treatment U. The accumulation amount of NO3- -N in 0-100 cm soil layer in all treatments ranged in 39.70-49.93 kg x hm-2, and was the lowest (39.70 kg x hm(-2)) in treatment PU4. The N release pattern of PCU60 under field condition better fitted the N absorption characteristics of winter wheat.

  19. Soil 13C Dynamics in Aggregates Across a Soil Profile Under an Established Miscanthus System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondini, M.; Groenigen, K. J.; Jones, M.

    2008-12-01

    Soils are the largest pool of terrestrial organic carbon (C), containing nearly three times the amount of C as the atmosphere. Environmental changes that affect soil C dynamics could slow down the rise in atmospheric CO2 and associated warming by promoting soil C storage. Our capacity to predict the consequences for global change therefore depends on a better understanding of the distribution and controls of soil organic C and how vegetation change may affect SOC distributions. One land cover change of particular interest involves the establishment of bio energy crop stands. The full mitigation potential of bio energy crops cannot be considered without taking into account their effect on soil C dynamics. Miscanthus, a perennial C4 grass from Eastern Asia, has recently received considerable interest as a bio-energy crop. For that reason, we analyzed the C content and the 13C signatures across the soil profile in a 14 year old Miscanthus system, established on former arable land. We combined SOM fractionation techniques by size and density, allowing us to investigate small shifts in soil C stores that would be significant in the long term, but that might not be detected by conventional methodologies. The 13C signal of the various SOM fractions allowed us to distinguish between Miscanthus-derived vs. native soil organic C. Soils under Miscanthus contained 796 g C/m2 in the 0-15 cm layer, and 1233g C/m2 in the 15- 30 cm layer. These values are significantly higher than soil C contents in the arable land. Macroaggregates under Miscanthus contain more than twice as much C compared to arable land, showing a decrease in soil C content with decreasing aggregate size. These differences are largely caused by soil C storage in the microaggregate within macroaggregates fraction. Under Miscanthus, this fraction contains 440 g C/m2 and 488 g C/m2 at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm respectively, while under the arable land it has mean values of 174 g C/m2 and 353 g C/m2. Our data suggest a

  20. Herbicide sorption coefficients in relation to soil properties and terrain attributes on a cultivated prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sorption of the herbicides 2,4-D and glyphosate in soil was quantified for 286 surface soil samples (0-15 cm) collected in a 10 m X 10 m grid across a heavily-eroded undulating calcareous prairie landscape. At each sampling point soil organic carbon content, soil carbonate content, soil pH, till...

  1. A 1.3 cm line survey toward IRC +10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Henkel, C.; Spezzano, S.; Thorwirth, S.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Mao, R. Q.; Klein, B.

    2015-02-01

    Context. IRC +10216 is the prototypical carbon star exhibiting an extended molecular circumstellar envelope. Its spectral properties are therefore the template for an entire class of objects. Aims: The main goal is to systematically study the λ ~ 1.3 cm spectral line characteristics of IRC +10216. Methods: We carried out a spectral line survey with the Effelsberg-100 m telescope toward IRC +10216. It covers the frequency range between 17.8 GHz and 26.3 GHz (K-band). Results: In the circumstellar shell of IRC +10216, we find 78 spectral lines, among which 12 remain unidentified. The identified lines are assigned to 18 different molecules and radicals. A total of 23 lines from species known to exist in this envelope are detected for the first time outside the solar system and there are additional 20 lines first detected in IRC +10216. The potential orgin of "U" lines is also discussed. Assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), we then determine rotational temperatures and column densities of 17 detected molecules. Molecular abundances relative to H2 are also estimated. A non-LTE analysis of NH3 shows that the bulk of its emission arises from the inner envelope with a kinetic temperature of 70 ± 20 K. Evidence for NH3 emitting gas with higher kinetic temperature is also obtained, and potential abundance differences between various 13C-bearing isotopologues of HC5N are evaluated. Overall, the isotopic 12C/13C ratio is estimated to be 49 ± 9. Finally, a comparison of detected molecules in the λ ~ 1.3 cm range with the dark cloud TMC-1 indicates that silicate-bearing molecules are more predominant in IRC +10216. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgSpectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A56

  2. Modeling Soil Pore Oxygen in Restored Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubol, S.; Loecke, T.; Burgin, A. J.; Franz, T.

    2015-12-01

    Soil pore oxygen (O2) is usually modeled indirectly as a function of soil moisture. However, using soil moisture to describe the oxic /anoxic status of a soil may not be sufficient accurate, especially when soil pore O2 rapidly changes, as following hydrological forcing. As first step, we use the dataset collected in the constructed wetland near Dayton, OH, by Loecke and Burgin, to reconstruct the environmental functions and re-aeration status of the soil. The dataset consist of 24 Apogee sensors and 24 soil moisture and temperature sensors located at 10 cm depth in upland, transitional and submerged zone (see Figure 1). Data were recorded over two years at temporal interval of 30 minutes. Then, we explore the capability of existing biogeochemical models to predict metabolic activity and the soil pore O2. Figure1: Restored wetland field site with soil O2 sensors (yellow stars) in upland (red), transitional (green) and submerged (blue) zones.

  3. Conjugate 18 cm OH satellite lines at a cosmological distance.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, Nissim; Chengalur, Jayaram N; Ghosh, Tapasi

    2004-07-30

    We have detected the two 18 cm OH satellite lines from the z approximately 0.247 source PKS1413+135, the 1720 MHz line in emission and the 1612 MHz line in absorption. The 1720 MHz luminosity is L(OH) approximately 354L (center dot in circle), more than an order of magnitude larger than that of any other known 1720 MHz maser. The profiles of the two satellite lines are conjugate, implying that they arise in the same gas. This allows us to test for any changes in the values of fundamental constants without being affected by systematic uncertainties arising from relative motions between the gas clouds in which the different lines arise. Our data constrain changes in G identical with g(p)[alpha(2)/y](1.849), where y identical with m(e)/m(p); we find DeltaG/G=2.2+/-3.8 x 10(-5), consistent with no changes in alpha, g(p), and y.

  4. Piezo-Operated Shutter Mechanism Moves 1.5 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Robert; Bamford, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The figure shows parts of a shutter mechanism designed to satisfy a number of requirements specific to its original intended application as a component of an atomic clock to be flown in outer space. The mechanism may also be suitable for use in laboratory and industrial vacuum systems on Earth for which there are similar requirements. The requirements include the following: a) To alternately close, then open, a 1.5-cm-diameter optical aperture twice per second, with a stroke time of no more than 15 ms, during a total operational lifetime of at least a year; b) To attenuate light by a factor of at least 1012 when in the closed position; c) To generate little or no magnetic field; d) To be capable of withstanding bakeout at a temperature of 200 C to minimize outgassing during subsequent operation in an ultrahigh vacuum; and e) To fit within a diameter of 12 in. (=305 mm) a size limit dictated by the size of an associated magnetic shield. The light-attenuation requirement is satisfied by use of overlapping shutter blades. The closure of the aperture involves, among other things, insertion of a single shutter blade between a pair of shutter blades. The requirement to minimize the magnetic field is satisfied by use of piezoelectric actuators. Because piezoelectric actuators cannot withstand bakeout, they must be mounted outside the vacuum chamber, and, hence, motion must be transmitted from the actuators to the shutter levers via a vacuum-chamber-wall diaphragm.

  5. Microbiological study of the Murchison CM2 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2012-10-01

    In 1864, Louis Pasteur attempted to cultivate living microorganisms from pristine samples of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorite. His results were negative and never published, but recorded it in his laboratory notebooks. At that time, only aerobic liquid or agar-based organic reach media were used, as his research on anaerobes had just started. In our laboratory the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous meteorite was selected to expand on these studies for microbiological study by cultivation on anaerobic mineral media. Since the surface could have been more easily contaminated, interior fragments of a sample of the Murchison meteorite were extracted and crushed under sterile conditions. The resulting powder was then mixed in anoxic medium and injected into Hungate tubes containing anaerobic media with various growth substrates at different pH and salinity and incubated at different temperatures. The goal of the experiments was to determine if living cells would grow from the material of freshly fractured interior fragments of the stone. If any growth occurred, work could then be carried out to assess the nature of the environmental contamination by observations of the culture growth (rates of speed and biodiversity); live/dead fluorescent staining to determine contamination level and DNA analysis to establish the microbial species present. In this paper we report the results of that study.

  6. Sensing and characterization of explosive vapors near 700 cm -1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Alan R.; Reeve, Scott W.

    2007-04-01

    One of the technological challenges associated with trace vapor detection of explosive materials are the relatively low vapor pressures exhibited by most energetic materials under ambient conditions. For example, the vapor pressure for TNT is ~10 ppbv at room temperature, a concentration near the Limit of Detection for many of the technologies currently being deployed. In the case of improvised explosive devices, the clandestine nature of the device further serves to exacerbate the vapor pressure issue. Interestingly, the gold standard in explosives detection remains the trained canine nose. While there is still some debate as to what the dog actually smells, recent studies have indicated the alert response is triggered, not by the vapor presence of a specific explosive compound but, by a characteristic bouquet of odors from chemical impurities used to manufacture and process the explosives. Here we present high resolution infrared data for several of these volatile organic compounds in the 700 cm -1 region required for real time optical sensing of energetic materials.

  7. CM and DM in an ISO R and D Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    ISO 9000 - a common buzz word in industry is making inroads to government agencies. The National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) achieved ISO 9001 certification at each of its nine (9) Centers and Headquarters in 1998-1999. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) was recommended for certification in September 1999. Since then, each of the Centers has been going through the semi-annual surveillance audits. Growing out of the manufacturing industry, successful application of the international quality standard to a research and development (R&D) environment has had its challenges. This paper will address how GRC applied Configuration Management (CM) and Data (or Document) Management (DM) to meet challenges to achieve ISO certification. One of the first challenges was to fit the ISO 9001-1994 elements to the GRC environment. Some of the elements fit well-Management Responsibility (4.1), Internal Audits (4.17), Document and Data Control (4.5). Other elements were not suited or applied easily to the R&D environment-Servicing (4.19), Statistical Techniques (4.20). Since GRC "builds" only one or two items at a time, these elements were considered not applicable to the environment.

  8. Ion thruster system (8-cm) cyclic endurance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Beattie, J. R.; Poeschel, R. L.; Hyman, J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the qualification test of an Engineering-Model 5-mN-thrust 8-cm-diameter mercury ion thruster which is representative of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) thrusters. Two of these thrusters are scheduled for future flight test. The cyclic endurance test described herein was a ground-based test performed in a vacuum facility with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled cryo-surface and a frozen mercury target. The Power Electronics Unit, Beam Shield, Gimal, and Propellant Tank that were used with the thruster in the endurance test are also similar to those of the IAPS. The IAPS thruster that will undergo the longest beam-on-time during the actual space test will be subjected to 7,055 hours of beam-on-time and 2,557 cycles during the flight test. The endurance test was successfully concluded when the mercury in the IAPS Propellant Tank was consumed. At that time, 8,471 hours of beam-on-time and 599 cycles had been accumulated. Subsequent post-test-evaluation operations were performed (without breaking vacuum) which extended the test values to 652 cycles and 9,489 hours of beam-on-time. The Power Electronic Unit (PEU) and thruster were in the same vacuum chamber throughout the test. The PEU accumulated 10,268 hr of test time with high voltage applied to the operating thruster or dummy load.

  9. The 15 cm mercury ion thruster research 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Doubly charged ion current measurements in the beam of a SERT II thruster are shown to introduce corrections which bring its calculated thrust into close agreement with that measured during flight testing. A theoretical model of doubly charged ion production and loss in mercury electron bombardment thrusters is discussed and is shown to yield doubly-to-singly charged ion density ratios that agree with experimental measurements obtained on a 15 cm diameter thruster over a range of operating conditions. Single cusp magnetic field thruster operation is discussed and measured ion beam profiles, performance data, doubly charged ion densities, and discharge plasma characteristics are presented for a range of operating conditions and thruster geometries. Variations in the characteristics of this thruster are compared to those observed in the divergent field thruster and the cusped field thruster is shown to yield flatter ion beam profiles at about the same discharge power and propellant utilization operating point. An ion optics test program is described and the measured effects of grid system dimensions on ion beamlet half angle and diameter are examined. The effectiveness of hollow cathode startup using a thermionically emitting filament within the cathode is examined over a range of mercury flow rates and compared to results obtained with a high voltage tickler startup technique. Results of cathode plasma property measurement tests conducted within the cathode are presented.

  10. Changes in the properties of soils in a solonetz soil complex thirty years after reclamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichenko, V. P.; Sharshak, V. K.; Mironchenko, S. F.; Chernenko, V. V.; Ladan, E. P.; Genev, E. D.; Illarionov, V. V.; Udalov, A. V.; Udalov, V. V.; Kippel, E. V.

    2014-04-01

    The long-term (30 year) dynamics of a solonetz soil complex composed of solonetzic light chestnut soils and chestnut solonetzes under standard conditions and with the application of agromeliorative measures are considered. When the standard zonal agricultural practice is used, the soils of the solonetzic complex have unfavorable agrophysical, chemical, and physicochemical properties and low productivity. After 30 years of the standard three-level tillage of the soils to a depth of 40-45 cm, the productivity of the biogeocenosis decreased. Thirty years after a single rotary-milling subsoil treatment of the 20- to 45-cm soil layer using a milling tool FS-1.3, there were no morphological features pointing to the restoration of the solonetzic process. The humus content in the 0-to 20-cm and 20-to 40-cm soil layers was 2.3 and 1.7%, respectively; the content of adsorbed Na+ in the 20-to 30-cm layer was 11.6% of the total exchange capacity, or 38% lower than its content in the reference soil. The additional yield reached 30-70% and more of that obtained with the standard agricultural technology used during the whole period under investigation. The method of systems biogeotechnology (systems bio-geo engineering) is proposed as a method for the preventive control of soil evolution and the maintenance of the stability and high productivity of the soil cover.

  11. Soil Organic Carbon Inventory and Permafrost Mapping in Tarfala Valley, Northern Sweden. A first estimation of the belowground soil organic carbon storage in a sub-arctic high alpine permafrost environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, M.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost regions in the Northern Hemisphere store large amounts of organic carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. Due to a sustained warming of the climate, strongest in the northern high latitudes, permafrost thaws and organic carbon could be released in significant amounts which should not be neglected. This study investigates the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in the Tarfala Valley (600 - 2,100 m a.s.l.), Northern Sweden, and aims to give a first estimation of the total carbon stock in a sub-arctic high alpine permafrost environment. Further the study describes the actual extent of permafrost in the Tarfala Valley. To achieve these aims, two field studies were carried out, one in summer to collect soil samples and one in winter to measure the bottom temperature of snow (BTS). In addition, the soil samples were analysed in the laboratory for bulk density, loss on ignition and elemental analyses. The estimated total SOC in the Tarfala catchment area of 31.2 km2 is 23.0 kt C for 0 - 30 cm and 28.2 kt C for 0 - 100 cm, which is on average 0.9 kg C m-2 for the upper meter of soil in the study area. Even though the soil organic carbon values are relatively low, these results contribute to the on-going soil organic carbon inventories in the circum-arctic. In Tarfala Valley, permafrost can be considered as continuous at an altitude above 1,561 m a.s.l., discontinuous above 1,218 m a.s.l. and sporadic above 875 m a.s.l. based on a logistic regression model with the altitude as single independent variable. This implies that most of the permafrost affected ground is at an altitude where only sparse or no vegetation is present and only low amounts of organic carbon is stored. In brief, Tarfala Valley cannot be considered as a permafrost carbon hotspot, because this sub-arctic alpine environment does not have the potential to release large amounts of carbon as a result of climate warming and permafrost thawing.

  12. Bearing strength of lunar soil.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1971-01-01

    Bearing load vs penetration curves have been measured on a 1.3 g sample of lunar soil from the scoop of the Surveyor 3 soil mechanics surface sampler, using a circular indentor 2 mm in diameter. Measurements were made in an Earth laboratory, in air. This sample provided a unique opportunity to evaluate earlier, remotely controlled, in-situ measurements of lunar surface bearing properties. Bearing capacity, measured at a penetration equal to the indentor diameter, varied from 0.02-0.04 N/sq cm at bulk densities of 1.15 g/cu cm to 30-100 N/sq cm at 1.9 g/cu cm. Deformation was by compression directly below the indentor at bulk densities below 1.61 g/cu cm, by outward displacement at bulk densities over 1.62 g/cu cm. Preliminary comparison of in-situ remote measurements with those on returned material indicates good agreement if the lunar regolith at Surveyor 3 has a bulk density of 1.6 g/cu cm at 2.5 cm depth.

  13. Soil warming affects soil organic matter chemistry of all density fractions of a mountain forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wanek, Wolfgang; Borken, Werner; Schindlbacher, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Rising temperatures enhance microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and increase thereby the soil CO2 efflux. Elevated microbial activity might differently affect distinct SOM pools, depending on their stability and accessibility. Soil fractions derived from density fractionation have been suggested to represent SOM pools with different turnover times and stability against microbial decomposition. We here investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk soil and three different density fractions of forest soils from a long term warming experiment in the Austrian Alps. At the time of sampling the soils in this experiment had been warmed during the snow-free period for 8 consecutive years. During that time no thermal adaptation of the microbial community could be identified and CO2 release from the soil continued to be elevated by the warming treatment. Our results which included organic C content, total N content, δ13C, δ 14C, δ 15N and the chemical composition, identified by pyrolysis-GC/MS, showed no significant differences in bulk soil between warming treatment and control. The differences in the three individual fractions (free particulate organic matter, occluded particulate organic matter and mineral associated organic matter) were mostly small and the direction of warming induced change was variable with fraction and sampling depth. We did however find statistically significant effects of warming in all density fractions from 0-10 cm depth, 10-20 cm depth or both. Our results also including significant changes in the supposedly more stable mineral associated organic matter fraction where δ 13C values decreased at both sampling depths and the relative proportion of N-bearing compounds decreased at a sampling depth of 10-20 cm. All the observed changes can be attributed to an interplay of enhanced microbial decomposition of SOM and increased root litter input. This study suggests that soil warming destabilizes all density fractions of

  14. Remediating munitions contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, P.J.; Comfort, S.D.

    1995-10-01

    The former Nebraska Ordnance Plant (NOP) at Mead, NE was a military loading, assembling, and packing facility that produced bombs, boosters and shells during World War II and the Korean War (1942-1945, 1950-1956). Ordnances were loaded with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), amatol (TNT and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}), tritonal (TNT and Al) and Composition B (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine [RDX] and TNT). Process waste waters were discharged into wash pits and drainage ditches. Soils within and surrounding these areas are contaminated with TNT, RDX and related compounds. A continuous core to 300 cm depth obtained from an NOP drainage ditch revealed high concentrations of TNT in the soil profile and substantial amounts of monoamino reduction products, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT) and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT). Surface soil contained TNT in excess of 5000 mg kg{sup -1} and is believed to contain solid phase TNT. This is supported by measuring soil solution concentrations at various soil to solution ratios (1:2 to 1:9) and obtaining similar TNT concentrations (43 and 80 mg L{sup -1}). Remediating munitions-contaminated soil at the NOP and elsewhere is of vital interest since many of the contaminants are carcinogenic, mutagenic or otherwise toxic to humans and the environment. Incineration, the most demonstrated remediation technology for munitions-containing soils, is costly and often unacceptable to the public. Chemical and biological remediation offer potentially cost-effective and more environmentally acceptable alternatives. Our research objectives are to: (a) characterize the processes affecting the transport and fate of munitions in highly contaminated soil; (b) identify effective chemical and biological treatments to degrade and detoxify residues; and (c) integrate these approaches for effective and practical remediation of soil contaminated with TNT, RDX, and other munitions residues.

  15. Effects of composite soil with feldspathic sandstone and sand on soil aggregates and organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Han, J. C.; Zhang, Y.; Lei, G. Y.; Wang, H. Y.; Zhu, D. W.

    2016-08-01

    The case was to study the effects of soils with different proportions of feldspathic sandstone and sand on soil stability and organic carbon at 0-30 cm soil depth with four different ratios(C1, C2, C3 and C4), They were used to prepare the composite soil in Fu Ping, Shaanxi Province of China, then the soil aggregates distribution, WASR, MWD, GMD, D valueand and organic carbon content were measured and analysed.The results showed : the soil stability of C1, C2 and C3 was better than C4, i.e., the composition could improve the soil stability. With the increasing of the planting years, the contents of soil aggregates with the size >0.25 mm and MWD, GMD and SOC increased for each treatment at 0- 30 cm soil depth, which was contrary to D values. WASR of C2 was significantly higher than others (p<0.05) after 3-year planting. The significant logarithmic relationships were found between the D values and the ratios in C1, C2 and C3. Besides C1 and C2 could increase the stability and content of large soil aggregates to improve soil structure; C2 could significantly increase the SOC than others at 0- 30 cm soil depth.

  16. Formation of asteroids from mm-cm sized grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, D.; Johansen, A.; Davies, M. B.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Asteroids and comets are intricately connected to life in the universe. Asteroids are the building blocks of terrestrial planets; water-rich asteroids and comets are likely to be the primary source of water for Earth's oceans and other volatiles (Morbidelli et al. 2000; Hartogh et al. 2011); and they may play role in mass extinctions. Yet, the formation of these objects is poorly understood. There is mounting evidence that the traditional picture of the formation of asteroids must be revised. The size distribution of asteroids is hard to reconcile with a traditional bottomup formation scenario. Instead, asteroids may form top-down, with large 100 - 1000 km sized objects forming first by the gravitational collapse of dense clumps of small particles. Experiments and simulations suggest that dust grains cannot grow to sizes larger than mm-cm in protoplanetary disks (Zsom et al. 2010). Also, primitive meteorites from the asteroid belt contain a large mass fraction in chondrules of sizes from 0.1 mm to a few mm. Hence, it is desirable to find a model for asteroid formation from mm-sized particles. Aims. In this work, we model the dynamics of mm-cm sized grains in dust-enriched inner regions of protoplanetary disks. We model the dust-gas interaction to determine whether dust grains of this size can form dense, self-gravitating clouds that can collapse to form asteroids. Methods. We perform shearing box simulations of the inner disk using the Pencil Code (Brandenburg & Dobler 2002). The simulations start with a Solar-type solids-to-gas ratio of 0.01 and we gradually increase the particle concentration. In a real protoplanetary disk, solid particles are expected to migrate from the outer regions and concentrate in the inner disk. Results. Our simulations show that mm-sized particles can form very dense clumps, driven by a run-away convergence in the radial-drift flow of these particles - this dynamic is known as the streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005

  17. A 1.3 cm line survey toward Orion KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Henkel, C.; Thorwirth, S.; Spezzano, S.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Mao, R. Q.; Klein, B.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The nearby Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula is one of the most prolific sources of molecular line emission. It has served as a benchmark for spectral line searches throughout the (sub)millimeter regime. Aims: The main goal is to systematically study the spectral characteristics of Orion KL in the λ ~ 1.3 cm band. Methods: We carried out a spectral line survey with the Effelsberg-100 m telescope toward Orion KL. It covers the frequency range between 17.9 GHz and 26.2 GHz, i.e., the radio "K band". We also examined ALMA maps to address the spatial origin of molecules detected by our 1.3 cm line survey. Results: In Orion KL, we find 261 spectral lines, yielding an average line density of about 32 spectral features per GHz above 3σ (a typical value of 3σ is 15 mJy). The identified lines include 164 radio recombination lines (RRLs) and 97 molecular lines. The RRLs, from hydrogen, helium, and carbon, stem from the ionized material of the Orion Nebula, part of which is covered by our beam. The molecular lines are assigned to 13 different molecular species including rare isotopologues. A total of 23 molecular transitions from species known to exist in Orion KL are detected for the first time in the interstellar medium. Non-metastable (J>K) 15NH3 transitions are detected in Orion KL for the first time. Based on the velocity information of detected lines and the ALMA images, the spatial origins of molecular emission are constrained and discussed. A narrow feature is found in SO2 (81,7 - 72,6), but not in other SO2 transitions, possibly suggesting the presence of a maser line. Column densities and fractional abundances relative to H2 are estimated for 12 molecules with local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) methods. Rotational diagrams of non-metastable 14NH3 transitions with J = K + 1 to J = K + 4 yield different results; metastable (J = K) 15NH3 is found to have a higher excitation temperature than non-metastable 15NH3, also indicating that they may trace different

  18. Seasonal Evolution of Titan's South Pole 220 cm-1 Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald

    2016-06-01

    A cloud of ices that had been seen only in Titan's north during winter began to emerge at the south pole in 2012. Discovered by Voyager IRIS as an emission feature at 220 cm-1, the cloud has been studied extensively in both the north and south by Cassini CIRS. The spectral feature acts as a tracer of the seasonal changes at Titan's poles, relating to evolving composition, temperature structure and dynamics. Although candidates have been proposed, the chemical makeup of the cloud has never been identified. The cloud is composed of condensates derived from gases created at high altitude and transported to the cold, shadowed pole. In the north the cloud has diminished gradually over the Cassini mission as Titan has transitioned from winter to spring. The southern cloud, on the other hand, grew rapidly after 2012. By late 2014 it had developed a complex ring structure that was confined to latitudes poleward of 70°S within the deep temperature well that had formed at the south pole [1]. The location of the cloud coincides in latitude with the HCN cloud reported by ISS and VIMS [2,3]. CIRS also saw enhanced gas emissions at those latitudes [4]. When it first formed, the cloud was abundant at altitudes as high as 250 km, while later it was found mostly at 100-150 km, suggesting that the material that had been deposited from above had gathered at the lower altitudes. Radiance from the southern cloud increased until mid-2015 and since then has decreased. The cloud may be transitioning to the more uniform hood morphology familiar in the north. Taking the north and south together, by the end of the Cassini mission in 2017 we will have observed almost an entire seasonal cycle of the ice cloud.

  19. Soil Property Influences on Xiphinema americanum Populations as Related to Maturity of Loess-Derived Soils.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D P

    1973-10-01

    Field populations of Xiphinerna americanum around roots of Syringa vulgaris 'President Lincoln' were larger in Marshall silty clay loam, a medially developed loess soil, than in Monona silt loam, a minimally developed loess soil. Most X. amerieanum occurred in the top 15 cm of soil, with few below 30 cm. Maximum numbers occurred in August of both years in the Marshall soil, and in August 1969 and June 1970 in the Monona soil. Population fluctuations during the growing season were coincident with changes in soil moisture content. Although the population fluctuation pattern was the same at each depth tested, the adult-to-juvenile ratio increased in one soil while it decreased in the other. Numbers of X. americanum decreased as root weights decreased within a soil profile, but they were not correlated with root weights over all soils and depths. More X. americanum were recovered from the Marshall than from the Monona soil, but fibrous root weights were greater in the Monona soil. Survival of X. americanum in soil columns in growth chamber experiments was better in the Marshall than in the Monona soil. Movement and survival were different in identically textured Monona A and B horizon soils. Factors related to the ion exchange sites may affect X. americanum.

  20. Bacterial community structure and soil properties of a subarctic tundra soil in Council, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Min; Jung, Ji Young; Yergeau, Etienne; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Hinzman, Larry; Nam, Sungjin; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ok-Sun; Chun, Jongsik; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-08-01

    The subarctic region is highly responsive and vulnerable to climate change. Understanding the structure of subarctic soil microbial communities is essential for predicting the response of the subarctic soil environment to climate change. To determine the composition of the bacterial community and its relationship with soil properties, we investigated the bacterial community structure and properties of surface soil from the moist acidic tussock tundra in Council, Alaska. We collected 70 soil samples with 25-m intervals between sampling points from 0-10 cm to 10-20 cm depths. The bacterial community was analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and the following soil properties were analyzed: soil moisture content (MC), pH, total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3-). The community compositions of the two different depths showed that Alphaproteobacteria decreased with soil depth. Among the soil properties measured, soil pH was the most significant factor correlating with bacterial community in both upper and lower-layer soils. Bacterial community similarity based on jackknifed unweighted unifrac distance showed greater similarity across horizontal layers than through the vertical depth. This study showed that soil depth and pH were the most important soil properties determining bacterial community structure of the subarctic tundra soil in Council, Alaska.

  1. Soil organic carbon mining versus priming - controls of soil organic carbon stocks along a management gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanes, M. Carmen; Reinsch, Sabine; Glanville, Helen C.; Jones, Davey L.; Carreira, José A.; Pastrana, David N.; Emmett, Bridget A.

    2015-04-01

    Soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) are assumed to be connected stoichiometrically and C:N(:P) ratios are frequently used to interpret the soils nutrient status. However, plants are capable of initiating the supply of nutrients by releasing rhizodeposits into the soil, thereby stimulating soil organic matter decomposition mediated by the rhizosphere microbial community. To test the relative importance of the two mechanisms across a fertility gradient in the UK we carried out a laboratory experiment. Intact soil cores from two depths (0-15 cm and 85-100 cm) were incubated and C, N and P were added in all possible combinations resulting in a total of 216 soil cores. Soil respiration was measured (1 h incubation, 10 oC) nine times over a 2 week period. Preliminary results indicate that all soils were C limited at the surface as measured as increased soil CO2 efflux. N additions increased soil respiration only marginally, whereas C+N stimulated microbial activity on the surface, and was even more pronounced in the deeper soil layer. Belowground responses to C+P were small and even smaller for N+P but similar for both soil depths. Our results indicate nutrient controls on soil organic matter turnover differ not only across a management/fertility gradient but also vertically down the soil profile.

  2. Conserving Soil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Designed as enrichment materials for grades six through nine, this program is an interdisciplinary study of soils. As part of the program students: (1) examine soil organisms; (2) research history of local Native Americans to see how they and others have used the land and its soils; (3) investigate how soils are degraded and how they are conserved…

  3. [Effects of soil surface mulching on solar greenhouse grafted and own-rooted cucumber growth and soil environment].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Sheng; Liang, Yinli; Wang, Juyuan

    2005-12-01

    The study on the effects of different soil surface mulching models, including wheat straw mulching (WS), plastic film mulching (PF), and wheat straw plus plastic film mulching (WP), on the growth of solar greenhouse grafted and own-rooted cucumber and on soil environment showed that soil surface mulching not only increased the individuals of pistillate flower, improved its differentiation and development, shortened fruit-developing period, increased fruit weight, reduced fruit malformation percentage, but also raised total yield. Among the test mulching models, WP was better than WS and PF, and the effects were superior on grafted than on own-rooted cucumber. Soil surface mulching also had considerable effects on soil environment, but the effects varied with different modules. For example, under field condition, the diurnal change of soil temperature was a single-peak curve, with its peak higher and appeared at 14:30 in 5 cm and 10 cm soil depth, but lower and appeared later in deeper soil layers. In this study, WS lowered the maximum soil temperature and raised the minimum soil temperature, making soil temperature quite stable, while PF raised the maximum soil temperature much higher and enhanced the minimum soil temperature less than WS and WP, making the largest variation range of soil temperature. WP played a role of raising soil temperature and kept it stable. Similar to the diurnal change of soil temperature at 5 cm and 10 cm depth, that of soil respiration rate was also a single-peak curve. The soil respiration rate in all treatmentg was significantly higher than that of CK, and WP had a higher soil respiration rate than PF and WS. There was a significant positive correlation between soil respiration rate and soil temperature at 5 cm and 10 cm depth. By the end of the experiment, soil bulk density at the depth of 0-20 cm was measured, which was significantly lower in WS and WP than in CK and PF. The difference in soil bulk density was gradually inconspicuous

  4. First measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production at E{sub cm} = 91.55 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Rowson, P.C.; The SLD Collaboration

    1992-11-01

    The left-right cross section asymmetry for Z boson production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation (A{sub LR}) has been measured at E{sub cm} = 91.55 GeV with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) using a longitudinally polarized electron beam. The electron polarization was continually monitored with a Compton scattering polarimeter, and was typically 22%. We have accumulated a sample of {approximately}10,200 Z events. We find that A{sup LR} = 0.100 {plus_minus} 0.044 {plus_minus} 0.003 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. From this measurement, we determine the weak mixing angle defined at the Z boson pole to be sin{sup 2}{theta}(lept/w) = 0.2378 {plus_minus} 0.0056.

  5. First measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production at E[sub cm] = 91. 55 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Rowson, P.C. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-11-01

    The left-right cross section asymmetry for Z boson production in e[sup +]e[sup -] annihilation (A[sub LR]) has been measured at E[sub cm] = 91.55 GeV with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) using a longitudinally polarized electron beam. The electron polarization was continually monitored with a Compton scattering polarimeter, and was typically 22%. We have accumulated a sample of [approximately]10,200 Z events. We find that A[sup LR] = 0.100 [plus minus] 0.044 [plus minus] 0.003 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. From this measurement, we determine the weak mixing angle defined at the Z boson pole to be sin[sup 2][theta](lept/w) = 0.2378 [plus minus] 0.0056.

  6. Electrical methods of determining soil moisture content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, L. F.; Schultz, F. V.; Zalusky, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    The electrical permittivity of soils is a useful indicator of soil moisture content. Two methods of determining the permittivity profile in soils are examined. A method due to Becher is found to be inapplicable to this situation. A method of Slichter, however, appears to be feasible. The results of Slichter's method are extended to the proposal of an instrument design that could measure available soil moisture profile (percent available soil moisture as a function of depth) from a surface measurement to an expected resolution of 10 to 20 cm.

  7. Measuring Soil Hydraulic Conductivity With Microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.; Oneill, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    Soil mapping for large or small areas done rapidly. Technique requires simple radiometric measurements of L-band (15 to 30 cm) and thermal infrared emissions from ground within 2 days after saturation of surface. Technique based on observation that correlation exists between L-band emissivity and hydraulic conductivity of soil.

  8. Passive microwave soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    During the four years of the AgRISTARS Program, significant progress was made in quantifying the capabilities of microwave sensors for the remote sensing of soil moisture. In this paper, a discussion is provided of the results of numerous field and aircraft experiments, analysis of spacecraft data, and modeling activities which examined the various noise factors such as roughness and vegetation that affect the interpretability of microwave emission measurements. While determining that a 21-cm wavelength radiometer was the best single sensor for soil moisture research, these studies demonstrated that a multisensor approach will provide more accurate soil moisture information for a wider range of naturally occurring conditions.

  9. Phosphorus Release to Floodwater from Calcareous Surface Soils and Their Corresponding Subsurface Soils under Anaerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Jayarathne, P D K D; Kumaragamage, D; Indraratne, S; Flaten, D; Goltz, D

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced phosphorus (P) release from soils to overlying water under flooded, anaerobic conditions has been well documented for noncalcareous and surface soils, but little information is available for calcareous and subsurface soils. We compared the magnitude of P released from 12 calcareous surface soils and corresponding subsurface soils to overlying water under flooded, anaerobic conditions and examined the reasons for the differences. Surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) soils were packed into vessels and flooded for 8 wk. Soil redox potential and concentrations of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and total dissolved Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn in floodwater and pore water were measured weekly. Soil test P was significantly smaller in subsurface soils than in corresponding surface soils; thus, the P release to floodwater from subsurface soils was significantly less than from corresponding surface soils. Under anaerobic conditions, floodwater DRP concentration significantly increased in >80% of calcareous surface soils and in about 40% of subsurface soils. The increase in floodwater DRP concentration was 2- to 17-fold in surface soils but only 4- to 7-fold in subsurface soils. With time of flooding, molar ratios of Ca/P and Mg/P in floodwater increased, whereas Fe/P and Mn/P decreased, suggesting that resorption and/or reprecipitation of P took place involving Fe and Mn. Results indicate that P release to floodwater under anaerobic conditions was enhanced in most calcareous soils. Surface and subsurface calcareous soils in general behaved similarly in releasing P under flooded, anaerobic conditions, with concentrations released mainly governed by initial soil P concentrations. PMID:27380087

  10. Experimental shock metamorphism of the Murchison CM carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomeoka, Kazushige; Yamahana, Yasuhiro; Sekine, Toshimori

    1999-11-01

    A series of shock-recovery experiments were carried out on the Murchison CM carbonaceous chondrite by using a single-stage propellant gun. The Murchison samples were shocked in nine experiments at peak pressures from 4 to 49 GPa. The recovered samples were studied in detail by using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope and an electron-probe microanalyzer. Chondrules are flattened in the plane of the shock front at 4 to 30 GPa. The mean aspect ratio of chondrules increases from 1.17 to 1.57 roughly in proportion to the intensity of shock pressure up to ˜25 GPa. At 25 to 30 GPa, the mean aspect ratio does not increase further, and chondrules show increasingly more random orientations and degrade their preferred orientations, and at ˜35 GPa, they are extensively disrupted. Most coarse grains of olivine and pyroxene are irregularly fractured, fracture density increases with increasing shock pressure and at ˜30 GPa almost all are thoroughly fractured with subgrains of <1 to 5 μm in size. At ˜20 GPa, subparallel fractures begin to form in the matrix in directions roughly perpendicular to the compression axis and their densities increase with pressure, especially dramatically at 25 to 30 GPa; thus, the sample is increasingly comminuted and becomes fragile. Local shock melting occurs as melt veins and pockets at 20 to 30 GPa. Fracture-filling veins of fine grains of matrix are also produced at 25 to 30 GPa. The melts and the fine grains seem to result mainly from frictional heating due to displacement along fractures. At ˜35 GPa, melting occurs pervasively throughout the matrix. The melts are mainly produced from the matrix; however, they are consistently more enriched in Fe, S, and Ca, which indicates that these elements are selectively incorporated into the melts. The melts contain tiny spherules of Fe-Ni metal, Fe sulfide, and numerous vesicles. At 49 GPa, the matrix is totally melted and coarse grains of olivine are partially melted. The melts

  11. Efficacy of 1,3-Dichloropropene in Soil Amended with Compost and Unamended Soil

    PubMed Central

    Riegel, C.; Nelson, S. D.; Dickson, D. W.; Allen, L. H.; Peterson, L. G.

    2001-01-01

    1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) is a likely alternative soil fumigant for methyl bromide. The objective was to determine root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, survival in microplots after exposure to 1,3-D for various periods of time in soil that have previously been amended with compost. The treatments were 1,3-D applied broadcast at 112 liters/ha and untreated controls in both compost-amended and unamended soil. Soil samples were collected from each microplot at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after fumigation at three depths (0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 cm). One week after fumigation, six tomato seedlings were transplanted into each microplot and root galling was recorded 6 weeks later. Plants grown in fumigated compost-amended soil had more galls than plants from fumigated unamended soil at P ≤ 0.1. Gall indices from roots in fumigated soil amended with compost were not different from nonfumigated controls. Based on soil bioassays, the number of galls decreased with increasing time after fumigation in both compost-amended and unamended soil at 0-to-15 and 15-to-30 cm depths, but not at 30 to 45 cm deep. Higher soil water content due to the elevated levels of organic matter in the soil at these depths may have interfered with 1,3-D movement, thus reducing its efficacy. PMID:19265889

  12. A simple procedure for estimating soil porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Holden, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Soil degradation from mismanagement is of international concern. Simple, accessible tools for rapidly assessing impacts of soil management are required. Soil structure is a key component of soil quality and porosity is a useful indicator of structure. We outline a version of a procedure described by Piwowarczyk et al. (2011) used to estimate porosity of samples taken during a soil quality survey of 38 sites across Ireland as part of the Government funded SQUARE (Soil Quality Assessment Research) project. This required intact core (r = 2.5 cm, H = 5cm) samples taken at 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, to be covered with muslin cloth at one end and secured with a jubilee clip. Samples were saturated in sealable water tanks for ≈ 64 hours, then allowed to drain by gravity for 24 hours, at which point Field Capacity (F.C.) was assumed to have been reached, followed by oven drying with weight determined at each stage. This allowed the calculation of bulk density and the estimation of water content at saturation and following gravitational drainage, thus total and functional porosity. The assumption that F.C. was reached following 24 hours of gravitational drainage was based on the Soil Moisture Deficit model used in Ireland to predict when soils are potentially vulnerable to structural damage and used nationally as a management tool. Preliminary results indicate moderately strong, negative correlations between estimated total porosity at 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth (rs = -0.7, P < 0.01 in both cases) and soil quality scores of the Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) method which was conducted at each survey site. Estimated functional porosity at 5-10 cm depth was found to moderately, negatively correlate with VESS scores (rs = - 0.5, P < 0.05). This simple procedure requires inexpensive equipment and appears useful in indicating porosity of a large quantity of samples taken at numerous sites or if done periodically, temporal changes in porosity at a field scale

  13. The effect of soil on cork quality.

    PubMed

    Pestana, Miguel N; Gomes, Alberto A

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to contribute for a better knowledge regarding soil features as cork quality indicators for stoppers. Cork sampling was made in eight Cork oak stands (montados de sobreiro) located in the Plio-Plistocene sedimentary formations of Península de Setúbal in southern Tagus River region. The samples used to classify the cork as stopper for wine bottles were obtained in eight cork oak stands, covering soils of different types of sandstones of the Plio-plistocene. In each stand, we randomly chose five circular plots with 30 m radius and five trees per plot with same stripping conditions determined by: dendrometric features (HD- height stipping, PBH- perimeter at breaster height), trees vegetative condition (defoliation degree); stand features (density, percentage canopy cover); site conditions (soil type and orientation). In the center of each plot a pit was open to characterize the soil profile and to classify the soil. Cork quality for stoppers was evaluated according to porosity, pores/per cm(2) and cork boards thickness. The soil was characterized according to morphological soil profile features (lithology, soil profound, and soil horizons) and chemical soil surface horizon features (organic matter, pH, macro, and micronutrients availability). Based on the variables studied and using the numerical taxonomy, we settled relationships between the cork quality and some soil features. The results indicate: (1) high correlation between the cork caliber and boron, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchange acidity, and exchangeable magnesium, potassium, calcium, and sodium in soils of theirs cork oaks; (2) the cork porosity is correlated with the number of pores/cm(2) and magnesium soil content; (3) the other soil features have a lower correlation with the caliber, porosity, and the number of pores per cm(2). PMID:25353015

  14. The effect of soil on cork quality

    PubMed Central

    Pestana, Miguel N.; Gomes, Alberto A.

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to contribute for a better knowledge regarding soil features as cork quality indicators for stoppers. Cork sampling was made in eight Cork oak stands (montados de sobreiro) located in the Plio-Plistocene sedimentary formations of Península de Setúbal in southern Tagus River region. The samples used to classify the cork as stopper for wine bottles were obtained in eight cork oak stands, covering soils of different types of sandstones of the Plio-plistocene. In each stand, we randomly chose five circular plots with 30 m radius and five trees per plot with same stripping conditions determined by: dendrometric features (HD- height stipping, PBH- perimeter at breaster height), trees vegetative condition (defoliation degree); stand features (density, percentage canopy cover); site conditions (soil type and orientation). In the center of each plot a pit was open to characterize the soil profile and to classify the soil. Cork quality for stoppers was evaluated according to porosity, pores/per cm2 and cork boards thickness. The soil was characterized according to morphological soil profile features (lithology, soil profound, and soil horizons) and chemical soil surface horizon features (organic matter, pH, macro, and micronutrients availability). Based on the variables studied and using the numerical taxonomy, we settled relationships between the cork quality and some soil features. The results indicate: (1) high correlation between the cork caliber and boron, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchange acidity, and exchangeable magnesium, potassium, calcium, and sodium in soils of theirs cork oaks; (2) the cork porosity is correlated with the number of pores/cm2 and magnesium soil content; (3) the other soil features have a lower correlation with the caliber, porosity, and the number of pores per cm2. PMID:25353015

  15. The effect of soil on cork quality.

    PubMed

    Pestana, Miguel N; Gomes, Alberto A

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to contribute for a better knowledge regarding soil features as cork quality indicators for stoppers. Cork sampling was made in eight Cork oak stands (montados de sobreiro) located in the Plio-Plistocene sedimentary formations of Península de Setúbal in southern Tagus River region. The samples used to classify the cork as stopper for wine bottles were obtained in eight cork oak stands, covering soils of different types of sandstones of the Plio-plistocene. In each stand, we randomly chose five circular plots with 30 m radius and five trees per plot with same stripping conditions determined by: dendrometric features (HD- height stipping, PBH- perimeter at breaster height), trees vegetative condition (defoliation degree); stand features (density, percentage canopy cover); site conditions (soil type and orientation). In the center of each plot a pit was open to characterize the soil profile and to classify the soil. Cork quality for stoppers was evaluated according to porosity, pores/per cm(2) and cork boards thickness. The soil was characterized according to morphological soil profile features (lithology, soil profound, and soil horizons) and chemical soil surface horizon features (organic matter, pH, macro, and micronutrients availability). Based on the variables studied and using the numerical taxonomy, we settled relationships between the cork quality and some soil features. The results indicate: (1) high correlation between the cork caliber and boron, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchange acidity, and exchangeable magnesium, potassium, calcium, and sodium in soils of theirs cork oaks; (2) the cork porosity is correlated with the number of pores/cm(2) and magnesium soil content; (3) the other soil features have a lower correlation with the caliber, porosity, and the number of pores per cm(2).

  16. Soil experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

    1987-01-01

    An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

  17. Effect of Thickness of a Water Repellent Soil Layer on Soil Evaporation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, S.; Im, S.; Doerr, S.

    2012-04-01

    A water repellent soil layer overlying wettable soil is known to affect soil evaporation. This effect can be beneficial for water conservation in areas where water is scarce. Little is known, however, about the effect of the thickness of the water repellent layer. The thickness of this layer can vary widely, and particularly after wildfire, with the soil temperature reached and the duration of the fire. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of thickness of a top layer of water repellent soil on soil evaporation rate. In order to isolate the thickness from other possible factors, fully wettable standard sand (300~600 microns) was used. Extreme water repellency (WDPT > 24 hours) was generated by 'baking' the sand mixed with oven-dried pine needles (fresh needles of Pinus densiflora) at the mass ratio of 1:13 (needle:soil) at 185°C for 18 hours. The thicknesses of water repellent layers were 1, 2, 3 and 7 cm on top of wettable soil. Fully wettable soil columns were prepared as a control. Soil columns (8 cm diameter, 10 cm height) were covered with nylon mesh. Tap water (50 ml, saturating 3 cm of a soil column) was injected with hypoderm syringes from three different directions at the bottom level. The injection holes were sealed with hot-melt adhesive immediately after injection. The rate of soil evaporation through the soil surface was measured by weight change under isothermal condition of 40°C. Five replications were made for each. A trend of negative correlation between the thickness of water repellent top layer and soil evaporation rate is discussed in this contribution.

  18. Imidacloprid movement in soils and impacts on soil microarthropods in southern Appalachian eastern hemlock stands.

    PubMed

    Knoepp, Jennifer D; Vose, James M; Michael, Jerry L; Reynolds, Barbara C

    2012-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide effective in controlling the exotic pest (hemlock woolly adelgid) in eastern hemlock () trees. Concerns over imidacloprid impacts on nontarget species have limited its application in southern Appalachian ecosystems. We quantified the movement and adsorption of imidacloprid in forest soils after soil injection in two sites at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in western North Carolina. Soils differed in profile depth, total carbon and nitrogen content, and effective cation exchange capacity. We injected imidacloprid 5 cm into mineral soil, 1.5 m from infested trees, using a Kioritz soil injector. We tracked the horizontal and vertical movement of imidacloprid by collecting soil solution and soil samples at 1 m, 2 m, and at the drip line from each tree periodically for 1 yr. Soil solution was collected 20 cm below the surface and just above the saprolite, and acetonitrile-extractable imidacloprid was determined through the profile. Soil solution and extractable imidacloprid concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Soil solution and extractable imidacloprid concentrations were greater in the site with greater soil organic matter. Imidacloprid moved vertically and horizontally in both sites; concentrations generally declined downward in the soil profile, but preferential flow paths allowed rapid vertical movement. Horizontal movement was limited, and imidacloprid did not move to the tree drip line. We found a negative relationship between adsorbed imidacloprid concentrations and soil microarthropod populations largely in the low-organic-matter site; however, population counts were similar to other studies at Coweeta. PMID:22370410

  19. Antimony release from contaminated mine soils and its migration in four typical soils using lysimeter experiments.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Yu-Xian; Zhao, Long; Qin, Yusheng; Hou, Hong; Zhang, Naiming

    2016-11-01

    Antimony (Sb) can pose great risks to the environment in mining and smelting areas. The migration of Sb in contaminated mine soil was studied using lysimeter experiments. The exchangeable concentration of soil Sb decreased with artificial leaching. The concentrations of Sb retained in the subsoil layers (5-25cm deep) were the highest for Isohumosol and Ferrosol and the lowest for Sandy soil. The Sb concentrations in soil solutions decreased with soil depth, and were adequately simulated using a logarithmic function. The Sb migration pattern in Sandy soil was markedly different from the patterns in the other soils which suggested that Sb may be transported in soil colloids. Environmental factors such as water content, soil temperature, and oxidation-reduction potential of the soil had different effects on Sb migration in Sandy soil and Primosol. The high Fe and Mn contents in Ferrosol and Isohumosol significantly decreased the mobility of Sb in these soils. The Na and Sb concentrations in soils used in the experiments positively correlated with each other (P<0.01). The Sb concentrations in soil solutions, the Sb chemical fraction patterns, and the Sb/Na ratios decreased in the order Sandy soil>Primosol>Isohumosol>Ferrosol, and we concluded that the Sb mobility in the soils also decreased in that order. PMID:27395817

  20. Antimony release from contaminated mine soils and its migration in four typical soils using lysimeter experiments.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Yu-Xian; Zhao, Long; Qin, Yusheng; Hou, Hong; Zhang, Naiming

    2016-11-01

    Antimony (Sb) can pose great risks to the environment in mining and smelting areas. The migration of Sb in contaminated mine soil was studied using lysimeter experiments. The exchangeable concentration of soil Sb decreased with artificial leaching. The concentrations of Sb retained in the subsoil layers (5-25cm deep) were the highest for Isohumosol and Ferrosol and the lowest for Sandy soil. The Sb concentrations in soil solutions decreased with soil depth, and were adequately simulated using a logarithmic function. The Sb migration pattern in Sandy soil was markedly different from the patterns in the other soils which suggested that Sb may be transported in soil colloids. Environmental factors such as water content, soil temperature, and oxidation-reduction potential of the soil had different effects on Sb migration in Sandy soil and Primosol. The high Fe and Mn contents in Ferrosol and Isohumosol significantly decreased the mobility of Sb in these soils. The Na and Sb concentrations in soils used in the experiments positively correlated with each other (P<0.01). The Sb concentrations in soil solutions, the Sb chemical fraction patterns, and the Sb/Na ratios decreased in the order Sandy soil>Primosol>Isohumosol>Ferrosol, and we concluded that the Sb mobility in the soils also decreased in that order.

  1. CONSTRUCTION, MONITORING, AND PERFORMANCE OF TWO SOIL LINERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype soil liner and a field-scale soil liner were constructed to test whether compacted soil barrier systems could be built to meet the standard set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for saturated hydraulic conductivity (< 1 x 10'7 cm/s). In situ ponded inf...

  2. Changes in quantity and spectroscopic properties of water-extractable organic matter during soil aquifer treatment.

    PubMed

    Xue, S; Zhao, Q L; Wei, L L; Ma, X P; Tie, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify qualitative and quantitative changes in the character of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) in soils as a consequence of soil aquifer treatment (SAT). Soil samples were obtained from a soil-column system with a 2-year operation, and divided into seven layers from top to bottom: CS1 (0-12.5 cm), CS2 (12.5-25 cm), CS3 (25-50 cm), CS4 (50-75 cm), CS5 (75-100 cm), CS6 (100-125 cm) and CS7 (125-150 cm). A sample of the original soil used to pack the columns was also analysed to determine the effects of SAT. Following 2 years of SAT operation, both soil organic carbon and water-extractable organic carbon were shown to accumulate in the top soil layer (0-12.5 cm), and to decrease in soil layers deeper than 12.5 cm. The WEOM in the top soil layer was characterized by low aromaticity index (AI), low emission humification index (HIX) and low fluorescence efficiency index (F(eff)). On the other hand, the WEOM in soil layers deeper than 12.5 cm had increased values of HIX and F(eff), as well as decreased AI values relative to the original soil before SAT. In all soil layers, the percentage of hydrophobic and transphilic fractions decreased, while that of the hydrophilic fraction increased, as a result of SAT. The production of the amide-2 functional groups was observed in the top soil layer. SAT operation also led to the enrichment of hydrocarbon and amide-1 functional groups, as well as the depletion of oxygen-containing functional groups in soil layers deeper than 12.5 cm.

  3. Airflow dispersion in unsaturated soil.

    PubMed

    Gidda, T; Cann, D; Stiver, W H; Zytner, R G

    2006-01-01

    Dispersion data is abundant for water flow in the saturated zone but is lacking for airflow in unsaturated soil. However, for remediation processes such as soil vapour extraction, characterization of airflow dispersion is necessary for improved modelling and prediction capabilities. Accordingly, gas-phase tracer experiments were conducted in five soils ranging from uniform sand to clay at air-dried and wetted conditions. The disturbed soils were placed in one-dimensional stainless steel columns, with sulfur hexafluoride used as the inert tracer. The tested interstitial velocities were typical of those present in the vicinity of a soil vapour extraction well, while wetting varied according to the water-holding capacity of the soils. Results gave dispersivities that varied between 0.42 and 2.6 cm, which are typical of values in the literature. In air-dried soils, dispersion was found to increase with the pore size variability of the soil. For wetted soils, particle shape was an important factor at low water contents, while at high water contents, the proportion of macroporous space filled with water was important. The relative importance of diffusion decreased with increasing interstitial velocity and water content and was, in general, found to be minor compared to mechanical mixing across all conditions studied. PMID:16246460

  4. Sensitivity of soil organic matter in anthropogenically disturbed organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Säurich, Annelie; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Bechtold, Michel; Don, Axel; Freibauer, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Drained peatlands are hotspots of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from agriculture. However, the variability of CO2 emissions increases with disturbance, and little is known on the soil properties causing differences between seemingly similar sites. Furthermore the driving factors for carbon cycling are well studied for both genuine peat and mineral soil, but there is a lack of information concerning soils at the boundary between organic and mineral soils. Examples for such soils are both soils naturally relatively high in soil organic matter (SOM) such as Humic Gleysols and former peat soils with a relative low SOM content due to intensive mineralization or mixing with underlying or applied mineral soil. The study aims to identify drivers for the sensitivity of soil organic matter and therefore for respiration rates of anthropogenically disturbed organic soils, especially those near the boundary to mineral soils. Furthermore, we would like to answer the question whether there are any critical thresholds of soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations beyond which the carbon-specific respiration rates change. The German agricultural soil inventory samples all agricultural soils in Germany in an 8x8 km² grid following standardized protocols. From this data and sample base, we selected 120 different soil samples from more than 80 sites. As reference sites, three anthropogenically undisturbed peatlands were sampled as well. We chose samples from the soil inventory a) 72 g kg-1 SOC and b) representing the whole range of basic soil properties: SOC (72 to 568 g kg-1), total nitrogen (2 to 29 g kg-1), C-N-ratio (10 to 80) bulk density (0.06 to 1.41 g/cm³), pH (2.5 to 7.4), sand (0 to 95 %) and clay (2 to 70 %) content (only determined for samples with less than 190 g kg-1 SOC) as well as the botanical origin of the peat (if determinable). Additionally, iron oxides were determined for all samples. All samples were sieved (2 mm) and incubated at standardized water content and

  5. Soil Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killham, Ken

    1994-04-01

    Soil Ecology is designed to meet the increasing challenge faced by today's environmental scientists, ecologists, agriculturalists, and biotechnologists for an integrated approach to soil ecology. It emphasizes the interrelations among plants, animals, and microbes, by first establishing the fundamental physical and chemical properties of the soil habitat and then functionally characterizing the major components of the soil biota and some of their most important interactions. The fundamental principles underpinning soil ecology are established and this then enables an integrated approach to explore and understand the processes of soil nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) cycling and the ecology of extreme soil conditions such as soil-water stress. Two of the most topical aspects of applied soil ecology are then selected. First, the ecology of soil pollution is examined, focusing on acid deposition and radionuclide pollution. Second, manipulation of soil ecology through biotechnology is discussed, illustrating the use of pesticides and microbial inocula in soils and pointing toward the future by considering the impact of genetically modified inocula on soil ecology.

  6. Clumped isotopes in soil carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quade, J.; Eiler, J. M.; Daeron, M.

    2011-12-01

    We are monitoring soil temperature and measuring clumped isotopes from modern soil carbonate in North and South America, Hawaii, and Tibet. Clumped isotopes from 50-200 cm soil depth show a strong and systematic bias toward formation in the warmest summer months. For example, soil carbonate as these depths exceed local mean annual temperature by 10-15°C in soils from India and Tibet. Clumped isotope temperatures from modern carbonate increase very regularly (r2 = 0.90) with elevation gain from lowland India to Tibet. Here carbonate forms largely in May-June, just prior to the arrival of the soil-cooling monsoon rains. In this regard, clumped isotopes hold great promise as a paleoaltimeter on the plateau. The question is whether these patterns from a monsoonal climate can be generalized (and they probably can't be) to other climate regimes when soil carbonate forms at a different time of year than the pre-monsoon. For example, in winter-dominated rainfall regimes soil carbonate may form as soils dewater in the spring and soil temperature is closer to mean annual temperature. These are open questions. Diurnal temperature information is also archived in the upper 30 cm of soils. Modern carbonate in Tibet appears to form in very late morning through afternoon, when the surface soil is warmest. Shade and aspect also strongly influence measured soil and clumped isotope temperatures. Both variables will have to be controlled for to correctly interpret clumped isotopes from the paleosol record. Clumped isotope values correlate with δ13C values in soil carbonate from shallowly buried (<1 km) paleosols from Nepal and Pakistan. This makes sense since δ13C values in the sub-tropics are determined the fraction of tree (C3) to grass (C4) cover, and soils under tree-covered areas are cooler. Finally, clumped isotopes from carbonates are reset to higher temperatures at burial depths roughly >2-3 km or >50-75°C. This was reproduced from paleosol and lake carbonates from three

  7. Zinc movement in sewage-sludge-treated soils as influenced by soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, J.E.; Lund, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A soil column study was conducted to assess the movement of Zn in sewage-sludge-amended soils. Varables investigated were soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level. Bulk samples of the surface layer of six soil series were packed into columns, 10.2 cm in diameter and 110 cm in length. An anaerobically digested municipal sewage sludge was incorporated into the top 20 cm of each column at a rate of 300 mg ha-1. The columns were maintained at moisture levels of saturation and unsaturation and were leached with two waters of different quality. At the termination of leaching, the columns were cut open and the soil was sectioned and analyzed. Zinc movement was evaluated by mass balance accounting and correlation and regression analysis. Zinc movement in the unsaturated columns ranged from 3 to 30 cm, with a mean of 10 cm. The difference in irrigation water quality did not have an effect on Zn movement. Most of the Zn applied to the unsaturated columns remained in the sludge-amended soil layer (96.1 to 99.6%, with a mean of 98.1%). The major portion of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer accumulated in the 0- to 3-cm depth (35.7 to 100%, with a mean of 73.6%). The mean final soil pH values decreased in the order: saturated columns = sludge-amended soil layer > untreated soils > unsaturated columns. Total Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.85). Depth of Zn movement was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.91). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the final pH accounted for 72% of the variation in the total amounts of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer of the unsaturated columns and accounted for 82% of the variation in the depth of Zn movement among the unsaturated columns. A significant correlation was not found between Zn and organic carbon in soil solutions, but a negative correlation significant at P = 0.001 was found

  8. Cloning of chrysanthemum high-affinity nitrate transporter family (CmNRT2) and characterization of CmNRT2.1.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chunsun; Song, Aiping; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Haibin; Li, Ting; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Chen, Sumei

    2016-01-01

    The family of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 2 (NRT2) proteins belongs to the high affinity transport system (HATS) proteins which acts at low nitrate concentrations. The relevant gene content of the chrysanthemum genome was explored here by isolating the full length sequences of six distinct CmNRT2 genes. One of these (CmNRT2.1) was investigated at the functional level. Its transcription level was inducible by low concentrations of both nitrate and ammonium. A yeast two hybrid assay showed that CmNRT2.1 interacts with CmNAR2, while a BiFC assay demonstrated that the interaction occurs at the plasma membrane. Arabidopsis thaliana plants heterologously expressing CmNRT2.1 displayed an enhanced rate of labeled nitrogen uptake, suggesting that CmNRT2.1 represents a high affinity root nitrate transporter. PMID:27004464

  9. The effect of soil on cork quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestana, Miguel; Gomes, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    The present work aimed to contribute for a better knowledge regarding soil features as cork quality indicators for stoppers. Cork sampling was made in eight Cork oak stands (montados de sobreiro) located in different Plio-Plistocene sedimentary formations of Península de Setúbal and Carbonic shistes from paleozoic periods in Saw Grândola, both in southern Tagus River region The samples used to classify the cork as stopper for wine bottles were obtained in eight cork oak stands located in “Península de Setúbal”, south of the River Tagus, covering soils of different types of sandstones of the Plio-plistocene In each stand, we randomly chose five circular plots with 30 m radius. Five trees with same stripping conditions determined by the dendrometric features: HD (height stipping, PBH (perimeter at breaster height), and percentage canopy cover, trees vegetative condition (defoliation degree) stand features (density), and site conditions (soil type and orientation). In the center of each plot a pit was open to characterize the soil profile and to classify the soil of each plot sampling. Cork quality for stoppers was evaluated according to porosity, pores/per cm 2 and thickness. The soil was characterized according to morphological soil profile features (lithology, soil profound and soil horizons) and chemical soil surface horizon features (organic matter, pH, macro and micronutrients availability). Based on the variables studied and using the numerical taxonomy, we settled relationships between the cork quality and some soil features. The results indicate: (1) high correlation between the cork caliber and boron, caption exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchange acidity and exchangeable magnesium, potassium, calcium and sodium in soils of theirs cork oaks; (2) the cork porosity is correlated with the number of pores/cm2 and magnesium; (3) the other soil features have a lower correlation with the caliber, porosity and the number of pores per cm2.

  10. [Effects of mulching patterns on soil water, broomcorn millet growth, photosynthetic charac- teristics and yield in the dryland of Loess Plateau in China].

    PubMed

    Su, Wang; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Qu, Yang; Li, Cui; Miao, Jia-Yuan; Gao, Xiao-Li; Liu, Jian-Hua; Feng, Bai-Li

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of mulching patterns on soil water, growth, photosynthetic characteristics, grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of broomcorn millet in the dryland of Loess Plateau in China. In a three-year field experiment from 2011 to 2013, we compared four different mulching patterns with traditional plat planting (no mulching) as the control (CK). The mulching patterns included W ridge covered with common plastic film + intredune covered with straw (SG), common ridge covered with common plastic film + intredune covered with straw (LM), double ridges covered with common plastic film + intredune covered with straw (QM), and the traditional plat planting covered with straw (JG). The results showed that the soil water storage in 0-100 cm layer was significantly higher in all mulching patterns than in CK, particularly in SG then followed by LM, QM and JG, and the differences among the mulching patterns reached a significant level at the different growth stages of broomcorn millet. Among all mulching patterns, SG had the greatest effect on the growth and photosynthesis of broomcorn millet, respectively increasing the yield and WUE by 55.9% and 64.9% over CK, and the differences among the mulching patterns also reached a significant level. Therefore, SG was recommended as an efficient planting pattern for broomcorn millet production in the dryland of Loess Plateau in China.

  11. [Microelement contents of litter, soil fauna and soil in Pinus koraiensis and broad-leaved mixed forest].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-qin; Li, Jin-xia; Dong, Wei-hua

    2007-02-01

    The analysis on the Mn, Zn and Cu contents of litter, soil fauna and soil in Pinus korazenszis and broad-leaved mixed forest in Liangshui Natural Reserve of Xiaoxing' an Mountains showed that the test microelement contents in the litter, soil fauna and soil all followed the sequence of Mn > Zn > Cu, but varied with these environmental components, being in the sequence of soil > litter > soil fauna for Mn, soil fauna > litter and soil for Zn, and soil fauna > soil > litter for Cu. The change range of test microelement contents in litter was larger in broad-leaved forest than in coniferous forest. Different soil fauna differed in their microelement-enrichment capability, e. g. , earthworm, centipede, diplopod had the highest content of Mn, Zn and Cu, respectively. The contents of test microelements in soil fauna had significant correlations with their environmental background values, litter decomposition rate, food habit of soil fauna, and its absorbing selectivity and enrichment to microelements. The microelements contained in 5-20 cm soil layer were more than those in 0-5 cm soil layer, and their dynamics differed in various soil layers.

  12. Dynamics of Soil Heat Flux in Lowland Area: Estimating the Soil Thermal Conductivy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, T.; Silveira, M. V.; Roberti, D. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this work, it is shown soil thermal conductivity estimates in a flooded irrigated rice culture located at the Paraíso do Sul city for two distinct periods. The thermal conductivity is higher when the heat storage is higher and the soil surface temperature is lower. The soil thermal conductivity is also dependant on the soil texture, porosity and moisture. Therefore, it varies from soil to soil and in the same soil, depending on its soil moisture. For approximately 80% of its growing season, lowland flooded irrigated rice ecosystems stay under a 5 - 10 cm water layer. It affects the partitioning of the energy and water balance components. Furthermore this planting technique differs substantially from any other upland non-irrigated or irrigated crop ecosystems where the majority of observational studies have been conducted. In the present work, the dynamic of soil heat flux (G) is analyzed and the soil thermal conductivity (Ks) is estimated using experimental data form soil heat flux and soil temperature in a rice paddy farm in a subtropical location in Southern Brazil. In this region, rice grows once a year at river lowlands and wetlands while the ground is kept bare during the remaining of the year. The soil type is Planossolo Hidromórfico Distrófico, characterized as a mix between sandy and clay soil. The soil heat flux (G) was experimentally estimated with the sensor Hukseflux (HFP01SC-L) at 7 cm bellow the soil surface. The soil temperature at 5 cm and 10 cm was experimentally estimated using the sensor STP01. The experimental soil heat flux was compared with estimated soil heat flux by two forms: (1) using a know Ks from literature for this type of soil in saturated conditions (Ks=1.58); (2) using Ks estimated using the inversion of the equation Qg=-ks* ((T10-T5)/ (Z2-Z1)), where T10 and T5 are the temperature in 10 and 5 cm above the soil and Z2-Z1 is the difference between the positions in temperature measurement. The study period for estimating the Ks

  13. Soil penetrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, E. A.; Hotz, G. M.; Bryson, R. P. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    An auger-type soil penetrometer for burrowing into soil formations is described. The auger, while initially moving along a predetermined path, may deviate from the path when encountering an obstruction in the soil. Alterations and modifications may be made in the structure so that it may be used for other purposes.

  14. Diffusion of iodine and Technetium-99 through waste encasement concrete and unsaturated soil fill material

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Wood, Marcus I.; John M. Hanchar, Simcha Stores-Gascoyne, Lauren Browning

    2004-10-30

    An assessment of long-term performance of low level waste-enclosing cement grouts requires diffusivity data for radionuclide species such as, 129I and 99Tc. The diffusivity of radionuclides in soil and concrete media was collected by conducting soil-soil and concrete-soil half-cell experiments. The soil diffusivity coefficients for iodide were 7.03 x 10-8 cm2/s and 2.42 x 10-7 cm2/s for soils at 4% and 7% moisture contents, respectively. Iodide diffusivity in soil is a function of moisture content and is about an order of magnitude slower at lower moisture content. The soil diffusivity coefficients for 99Tc were 5.89 {+-} 0.80 x 10-8 cm2/s (4% moisture content) and 2.04 {+-} 0.57 x 10-7 cm2/s (7% moisture content), respectively. The soil diffusivity of iodide and 99Tc were similar in magnitude at both water contents, indicating that these ions have similar diffusion mechanisms in unsaturated coarse-textured Hanford soil. The diffusivity of iodide in concrete ranged from 2.07 x 10-14 cm2/s (4% soil moisture content) to 1.31 x 10-12 cm2/s (7% soil moisture content), indicating that under unsaturated soil moisture conditions, iodide diffusivity is highly sensitive to changing soil moisture conditions. Depending on the soil moisture content, the diffusivity of 99Tc in concrete ranged from 4.54 x 10-13 cm2/s to 8.02 x 10-12 cm2/s. At 4% soil moisture content, iodide diffused about 20 times more slowly than 99Tc, and at 7% soil moisture content, iodide in concrete diffused about 6 times slower than 99Tc.

  15. Effect of integrating straw into agricultural soils on soil infiltration and evaporation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiansheng; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Wanjun; Guo, Yunlong

    2012-01-01

    Soil water movement is a critical consideration for crop yield in straw-integrated fields. This study used an indoor soil column experiment to determine soil infiltration and evaporation characteristics in three forms of direct straw-integrated soils (straw mulching, straw mixing and straw inter-layering). Straw mulching is covering the land surface with straw. Straw mixing is mixing straw with the top 10 cm surface soil. Then straw inter-layering is placing straw at the 20 cm soil depth. There are generally good correlations among the mulch integration methods at p < 0.05, and with average errors/biases <10%. Straw mixing exhibited the best effect in terms of soil infiltration, followed by straw mulching. Due to over-burden weight-compaction effect, straw inter-layering somehow retarded soil infiltration. In terms of soil water evaporation, straw mulching exhibited the best effect. This was followed by straw mixing and then straw inter-layering. Straw inter-layering could have a long-lasting positive effect on soil evaporation as it limited the evaporative consumption of deep soil water. The responses of the direct straw integration modes to soil infiltration and evaporation could lay the basis for developing efficient water-conservation strategies. This is especially useful for water-scarce agricultural regions such as the arid/semi-arid regions of China.

  16. Effect of integrating straw into agricultural soils on soil infiltration and evaporation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiansheng; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Wanjun; Guo, Yunlong

    2012-01-01

    Soil water movement is a critical consideration for crop yield in straw-integrated fields. This study used an indoor soil column experiment to determine soil infiltration and evaporation characteristics in three forms of direct straw-integrated soils (straw mulching, straw mixing and straw inter-layering). Straw mulching is covering the land surface with straw. Straw mixing is mixing straw with the top 10 cm surface soil. Then straw inter-layering is placing straw at the 20 cm soil depth. There are generally good correlations among the mulch integration methods at p < 0.05, and with average errors/biases <10%. Straw mixing exhibited the best effect in terms of soil infiltration, followed by straw mulching. Due to over-burden weight-compaction effect, straw inter-layering somehow retarded soil infiltration. In terms of soil water evaporation, straw mulching exhibited the best effect. This was followed by straw mixing and then straw inter-layering. Straw inter-layering could have a long-lasting positive effect on soil evaporation as it limited the evaporative consumption of deep soil water. The responses of the direct straw integration modes to soil infiltration and evaporation could lay the basis for developing efficient water-conservation strategies. This is especially useful for water-scarce agricultural regions such as the arid/semi-arid regions of China. PMID:22643418

  17. Impact of alpine meadow degradation on soil hydraulic properties over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Fan

    2015-04-01

    Alpine meadow is one of widespread vegetation types of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. It is undergoing degradation under the background of global climate change, human activities and overgrazing. Soil moisture is important to alpine meadow ecology for its water and energy transfer processes, therefore soil hydraulic properties become key parameters for local eco-hydrological processes studies. However, little research focus on the changes and it's mechanisms of soil hydraulic properties during the degradation processes. In this study, soil basic and hydraulic properties at 0-10 cm and 40-50 cm soil layer depths under different degraded alpine meadow were analyzed. Pearson correlations were adopted to study the relationships among the investigated factors and principal component analysis was performed to identify the dominant factor. Results show that with increasing degree of degradation, soil sand content increased while soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) as well as soil clay content, soil porosity decreased in the 0-10 cm soil layers, and organic matter and root gravimetric density decreased in both the 0-10 cm and 40-50 cm soil layers. For soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, it reduced more slowly with decreasing pressure head under degraded conditions than non-degraded conditions. However, soil moisture showed no significant changes with increasing degradation. Soil Ks was significantly correlated (P = 0.01) with bulk density, soil porosity, soil organic matter and root gravimetric density. Among these, soil porosity is the dominant factor explaining about 90% of the variability in total infiltration flow. Under non-degraded conditions, the infiltration flow principally depended on the presence of macropores. With increasing degree of degradation, soil macropores quickly changed to mesopores or micropores. The proportion of total infiltration flow through macropores and mesopores significantly decreased with the most substantial decrease observed for

  18. Pyromineralization of soil phosphorus in savanna ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartshorn, A.; Coetsee, C.; Chadwick, O.

    2007-12-01

    The weathering of rock supplies phosphorus (P) to ecosystems. Phosphorus limitation of ecosystems can be severe in thicker or older soils, where soil production rates from rock and therefore release of P is slower than in thinner or younger soils. Limitation may be especially pronounced in drier ecosystems that are experiencing increasing N deposition. Our savanna field sites in Kruger National Park, South Africa meet all three of these criteria: soil residence times average 250 ky, the climate is semiarid, and N inputs average 20 kg ha-1 y-1. Not all soil P is plant-available, and because our field sites experience occasional fires, our objectives were to quantify the importance of pyromineralization of soil P, the transfer by fire of soil P from recalcitrant to labile (HCO3- extractable) pools. We quantified these soil P pools using a modified Hedley scheme (an array of chemical extractants). Three sets of soils were fractionated: 1. soils from 10 profiles along an intensively studied hillslope, bracketing a pronounced structural and functional ecotone; 2. surface soils from these 10 profiles after a simulated burn; and 3. surface soils from the Shabeni Experimental Plots, where 4 fire treatments have been maintained for decades: no fire, annual fire in the dry season, triennial fire in the dry season, and triennial fire in the wet season. Total P for hillslope soils ranged from 45 to 135 g m-2 (to 50 cm depth) and from 8 to 15 g m-2 (to 5 cm depth). Total soil P was lowest in midslope soils, where upslope sandy soils dominated by broad-leafed vegetation shift abruptly to downslope clayey soils with fine-leafed vegetation. Simulated fire for the hillslope soils reduced total P slightly, but boosted labile P by 1.7 g m-2 (to 5 cm), representing 17% of total P in the surface 5 cm. This pyromineralization effect was not uniform across the hillslope: downslope soils gained about 50% more labile P than midslope soils with simulated burning. With a fire return interval

  19. Isotopic Pu, Am and Cm signatures in environmental samples contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Sakaguchi, A; Ochiai, S; Takada, T; Hamataka, K; Murakami, T; Nagao, S

    2014-06-01

    Dust samples from the sides of roads (black substances) have been collected together with litter and soil samples at more than 100 sites contaminated heavily in the 20-km exclusion zones around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) (Minamisoma City, and Namie, Futaba and Okuma Towns), in Iitate Village located from 25 to 45 km northwest of the plant and in southern areas from the plant. Isotopes of Pu, Am and Cm have been measured in the samples to evaluate their total releases into the environment from the FDNPP and to get the isotopic compositions among these nuclides. For black substances and litter samples, in addition to Pu isotopes, (241)Am, (242)Cm and (243,244)Cm were determined for most of samples examined, while for soil samples, only Pu isotopes were determined. The results provided a coherent data set on (239,240)Pu inventories and isotopic composition among these transuranic nuclides. When these activity ratios were compared with those for fuel core inventories in the FDNPP accident estimated by a group at JAEA, except (239,240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios, fairly good agreements were found, indicating that transuranic nuclides, probably in the forms of fine particles, were released into the environment without their large fractionations. The obtained data may lead to more accurate information about the on-site situation (e.g., burn-up, conditions of fuel during the release phase, etc.), which would be difficult to get otherwise, and more detailed information on the dispersion and deposition processes of transuranic nuclides and the behavior of these nuclides in the environment. PMID:24531259

  20. Radar reflectivity of bare and vegetation-covered soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Dobson, M. C.; Bradley, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    Radar sensitivity to soil moisture content has been investigated experimentally for bare and vegetation-covered soil using detailed spectral measurements obtained by a truck-mounted radar spectrometer in the 1-8 GHz band and by airborne scatterometer observations at 1.6, 4.75, and 13.3 GHz. It is shown that radar can provide quantitative information on the soil moisture content of both bare and vegetation-covered soil. The observed soil moisture is in the form of the soil matric potential or a related quantity such as the percent of field capacity. The depth of the monitored layer varies from 1 cm for very wet soil to about 15 cm for very dry soil.

  1. soil organic matter fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osat, Maryam; Heidari, Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    Carbon is essential for plant growth, due to its effects on other soil properties like aggregation. Knowledge of dynamics of organic matter in different locations in the soil matrix can provide valuable information which affects carbon sequestration and soil the other soil properties. Extraction of soil organic matter (SOM) fractions has been a long standing approach to elucidating the roles of soil organic matter in soil processes. Several kind fractionation methods are used and all provide information on soil organic matter function. Physical fractionation capture the effects on SOM dynamics of the spatial arrangement of primary and secondary organomineral particles in soil while chemical fractionation can not consider the spatial arrangement but their organic fractions are suitable for advanced chemical characterization. Three method of physical separation of soil have been used, sieving, sedimentation and densitometry. The distribution of organic matter within physical fractions of the soil can be assessed by sieving. Sieving separates soil particles based strictly on size. The study area is located on north central Iran, between 35° 41'- 36° 01' N and 50° 42'- 51° 14' E. Mean annual precipitation about 243.8 mm and mean annual air temperature is about 14.95 °C. The soil moisture and temperature regime vary between aridic-thermic in lower altitudes to xeric-mesic in upper altitudes. More than 36 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected according to land-use map units. After preliminary analyzing of samples 10 samples were selected for further analyses in five size fractions and three different time intervals in September, January and April 2008. Fractionation carried out by dry sieving in five classes, 1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm, 270 μm-0.5mm, 53-270 μm and <53 μm. Organic matter and C/N ratio were determined for all fractions at different time intervals. Chemical fractionation of organic matter also carried out according to Tan (2003), also Mineralogical

  2. Application of Data Assimilation with the Root Zone Water Quality Model for Soil Moisture Profile Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), a popular data assimilation technique for non-linear systems was applied to the Root Zone Water Quality Model. Measured soil moisture data at four different depths (5cm, 20cm, 40cm and 60cm) from two agricultural fields (AS1 and AS2) in northeastern Indiana were us...

  3. Impact of land management on soil structure and soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, Radka; Jirku, Veronika; Nikodem, Antonin; Muhlhanselova, Marcela; Zigova, Anna

    2010-05-01

    Study is focused on a comparison of a soil structure and soil hydraulic properties within soil profiles of a same soil type under different land management. Study was performed in Haplic Luvisol in Hnevceves the Czech Republic. Two soil profiles, which were in close distance from each other, were chosen: 1. under the conventional tillage, 2. under the permanent (30 years) grass cover. Soil sampling and field experiments were carried out immediately after the harvest of winter barley in 2008. The micromorphological images were used to evaluate the soil structure of all Ap, Bt1, Bt2 and C diagnostic horizons. The hydraulic properties of the diagnostic horizons were studied in the laboratory using multistep outflow experiments performed on the undisturbed 100-cm3 soil samples. A tension disc infiltrometer (with a disc radius of 10 cm) and minidisc tension infiltrometers (with a disc radius of 2.2 cm) were used to measure cumulative water infiltration under unsaturated conditions created using a pressure head of -2 cm. Measurements were performed at a depths of 5, 45, 75 and 110 cm, which corresponded to the Ap, Bt1, Bt2 and C horizons of studied Haplic Luvisol at both locations. The Guelph permeameter was used to measure cumulative water flux under surface ponding conditions. The depth of the drilled well was 10, 50, 80 and 115 cm, the well radius was 3 cm, and the well ponding depth was 5 cm. Both tests were used to evaluate hydraulic conductivity (K for h=-2cm, and Ks) values. Results showed, that while properties in the Bt2 and C horizons of both soil profiles were relatively similar, properties in the Ap and Bt1 horizons were different. The fraction of gravitational pores (which may cause preferential flow) in the Ap and Bt1 horizons of the soil profile under the convectional tillage was large than those in the Ap and Bt1 horizons of the soil profile under the permanent grass. This influenced for instance the Ks values measured using the Guelph permeametr. The Ks

  4. Key soil functional properties affected by soil organic matter - evidence from published literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Brian

    2015-07-01

    The effect of varying the amount of soil organic matter on a range of individual soil properties was investigated using a literature search of published information largely from Australia, but also included relevant information from overseas. Based on published pedotransfer functions, soil organic matter was shown to increase plant available water by 2 to 3 mm per 10 cm for each 1% increase in soil organic carbon, with the largest increases being associated with sandy soils. Aggregate stability increased with increasing soil organic carbon, with aggregate stability decreasing rapidly when soil organic carbon fell below 1.2 to 1.5 5%. Soil compactibility, friability and soil erodibility were favourably improved by increasing the levels of soil organic carbon. Nutrient cycling was a major function of soil organic matter. Substantial amounts of N, P and S become available to plants when the soil organic matter is mineralised. Soil organic matter also provides a food source for the microorganisms involved in the nutrient cycling of N, P, S and K. In soils with lower clay contents, and less active clays such as kaolinites, soil organic matter can supply a significant amount of the cation exchange capacity and buffering capacity against acidification. Soil organic matter can have a cation exchange capacity of 172 to 297 cmol(+)/kg. As the cation exchange capacity of soil organic matter varies with pH, the effectiveness of soil organic matter to contribute to cation exchange capacity below pH 5.5 is often minimal. Overall soil organic matter has the potential to affect a range of functional soil properties.

  5. Effect of moisture on efficiency of microwaves to control plant--parasitic nematodes in soil.

    PubMed

    Rahi, Gurcharan S; Rich, Jimmy R

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate effect of microwave irradiation of sandy loam soil on thermal energy absorption and control of plant-parasitic nematodes when air dry soil layers were placed on top of less moist, moist, and wet soil layers. The soil was packed in 12 cm high and 10 cm dia columns to a bulk density of 1.4 g/cm3. Moisture contents of air dry, less moist, moist, and wet soils were 0.75, 4.50, 6.00, and 10.30%, respectively, on dry mass basis. The top air dry soil was 4.0 cm thick and the bottom layer was 8.0 cm thick. Temperature measurements and thermal radiation absorption data were monitored in both soil layers and showed that the use of a top dry soil both increased depth of penetration of microwave radiation and it provided insulation for better absorption of thermal energy in the lower layer of soil. An exposure of 65 seconds resulted in soil temperatures high enough to cause significant decrease in nematode population in soil infested with Rotylenchulus reniformis nematodes. No such effect was observed in combination where dry soil layer was placed over dry soil at the bottom. These results are helpful in sterilizing soil used for greenhouses and nurseries.

  6. [Effects of solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation on soil physical quality].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Yi-quan; Liu, Jun; Xia, Fa-sheng; Wang, Jin-gui; Li, Jian-bo

    2011-08-01

    Taking the solar greenhouse heavy loam soil having been planted vegetables for different years at Yunyang Town in Jingyang County of Shaanxi Province as test objects, and with the uncovered vegetable soil adjacent to the greenhouse as the control, this paper studied the effects of solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation on soil physical quality. Solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation had greater effects on the bulk density of 0-30 cm soil layer (an increase in 0-10 cm soil layer and a decrease in 10-30 cm soil layer), but little effects on that of 30-40 cm soil layer. In 0-40 cm solar greenhouse soil profile, the contents of < 0.01 mm physical clay and < 0.001 mm clay were lower in upper layer than in deeper layer, indicating their downward movement, and this phenomenon was more obvious with increasing year of solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation. Within the first 5 years of solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation, soil field water capacity decreased significantly, with a decrement of 13.8%, but remained relatively stable after then.

  7. Root Patterns in Heterogeneous Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dara, A.; Moradi, A. B.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Heterogeneous water availability is a typical characteristic of soils in which plant roots grow. Despite the intrinsic heterogeneity of soil-plant water relations, we know little about the ways how plants respond to local environmental quality. Furthermore, increasing use of soil amendments as partial water reservoirs in agriculture calls for a better understanding of plant response to soil heterogeneity. Neutron radiography is a non-invasive imaging that is highly sensitive to water and root distribution and that has high capability for monitoring spatial and temporal soil-plant water relations in heterogeneous systems. Maize plants were grown in 25 x 30 x 1 cm aluminum slabs filled with sandy soil. On the right side of the compartments a commercial water absorbent (Geohumus) was mixed with the soil. Geohumus was distributed with two patterns: mixed homogeneously with the soil, and arranged as 1-cm diameter aggregates (Fig. 1). Two irrigation treatments were applied: sufficient water irrigation and moderate water stress. Neutron radiography started 10 days after planting and has been performed twice a day for one week. At the end of the experiment, the containers were opened, the root were removed and dry root weight in different soil segments were measured. Neutron radiography showed root growth tendency towards Geohumus treated parts and preferential water uptake from Geohumus aggregates. Number and length of fine lateral roots were lower in treated areas compared to the non-treated zone and to control soil. Although corn plants showed an overall high proliferation towards the soil water sources, they decreased production of branches and fine root when water was more available near the main root parts. However there was 50% higher C allocation in roots grown in Geohumus compartments, as derived by the relative dry weight of root. The preferential C allocation in treated regions was higher when plants grew under water stress. We conclude that in addition to the

  8. Effect of soil coarseness on soil base cations and available micronutrients in a semi-arid sandy grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyou; Wang, Ruzhen; Liu, Heyong; Yin, Jinfei; Xiao, Jiangtao; Wang, Zhengwen; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Guoqing; Han, Xingguo; Jiang, Yong

    2016-04-01

    Soil coarseness is the main process decreasing soil organic matter and threatening the productivity of sandy grasslands. Previous studies demonstrated negative effect of soil coarseness on soil carbon storage, but less is known about how soil base cations (exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and Na) and available micronutrients (available Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn) response to soil coarseness. In a semi-arid grassland of Northern China, a field experiment was initiated in 2011 to mimic the effect of soil coarseness on soil base cations and available micronutrients by mixing soil with different mass proportions of sand: 0 % coarse elements (C0), 10 % (C10), 30 % (C30), 50 % (C50), and 70 % (C70). Soil coarseness significantly increased soil pH in three soil depths of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm with the highest pH values detected in C50 and C70 treatments. Soil fine particles (smaller than 0.25 mm) significantly decreased with the degree of soil coarseness. Exchangeable Ca and Mg concentrations significantly decreased with soil coarseness degree by up to 29.8 % (in C70) and 47.5 % (in C70), respectively, across three soil depths. Soil available Fe, Mn, and Cu significantly decreased with soil coarseness degree by 62.5, 45.4, and 44.4 %, respectively. As affected by soil coarseness, the increase of soil pH, decrease of soil fine particles (including clay), and decline in soil organic matter were the main driving factors for the decrease of exchangeable base cations (except K) and available micronutrients (except Zn) through soil profile. Developed under soil coarseness, the loss and redistribution of base cations and available micronutrients along soil depths might pose a threat to ecosystem productivity of this sandy grassland.

  9. Soil Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, T. J.; Holmes, J. W.; Rose, C. W.

    1996-06-01

    Now in its third edition, this textbook gives a comprehensive account of soil physics with emphasis on field applications for students and research workers engaged in water resources studies, soil sciences, and plant sciences. The authors have added chapters on soil erosion, conservation, and the role of soil in affecting water quality to this new edition. The book gives an account of how water influences the structure and strength of soil; how plants absorb water from soils; how water from rain and irrigation enters the soil and flows through it to contribute to stream flow and flow in artificial drains; how soluble salts and chemical pollutants are transported; how soils are eroded by water and wind; and how the evaporation rate from the land surface is influenced by soil water supply, the nature of the plant cover and the evaporative power of the atmosphere. This book will be useful to students and research workers in environmental sciences, hydrology, agriculture, soil science, and civil engineering.

  10. Using 137 Cs measurements to investigate the influence of erosion and soil redistribution on soil properties.

    PubMed

    Du, P; Walling, D E

    2011-05-01

    Information on the interaction between soil erosion and soil properties is an important requirement for sustainable management of the soil resource. The relationship between soil properties and the soil redistribution rate, reflecting both erosion and deposition, is an important indicator of this interaction. This relationship is difficult to investigate using traditional approaches to documenting soil redistribution rates involving erosion plots and predictive models. However, the use of the fallout radionuclide (137)Cs to document medium-term soil redistribution rates offers a means of overcoming many of the limitations associated with traditional approaches. The study reported sought to demonstrate the potential for using (137)Cs measurements to assess the influence of soil erosion and redistribution on soil properties (particle size composition, total C, macronutrients N, P, K and Mg, micronutrients Mn, Mo, Fe, Cu and Zn and other elements, including Ti and As). (137)Cs measurements undertaken on 52 soil cores collected within a 7 ha cultivated field located near Colebrooke in Devon, UK were used to establish the magnitude and spatial pattern of medium-term soil redistribution rates within the field. The soil redistribution rates documented for the individual sampling points within the field ranged from an erosion rate of -12.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) to a deposition rate of 19.2 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Composite samples of surface soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately adjacent to each coring point and these samples were analysed for a range of soil properties. Individual soil properties associated with these samples showed significant variability, with CV values generally lying in the range 10-30%. The relationships between the surface soil properties and the soil redistribution rate were analysed. This analysis demonstrated statistically significant relationships between some soil properties (total phosphorus, % clay, Ti and As) and the soil redistribution rate, but for

  11. Global climate changes and the soil cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudeyarov, V. N.; Demkin, V. A.; Gilichinskii, D. A.; Goryachkin, S. V.; Rozhkov, V. A.

    2009-09-01

    The relationships between climate changes and the soil cover are analyzed. The greenhouse effect induced by the rising concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O, and many other trace gases in the air has been one of the main factors of the global climate warming in the past 30-40 years. The response of soils to climate changes is considered by the example of factual data on soil evolution in the dry steppe zone of Russia. Probable changes in the carbon cycle under the impact of rising CO2 concentrations are discussed. It is argued that this rise may have an effect of an atmospheric fertilizer and lead to a higher productivity of vegetation, additional input of organic residues into the soils, and activation of soil microflora. Soil temperature and water regimes, composition of soil gases, soil biotic parameters, and other dynamic soil characteristics are most sensitive to climate changes. For the territory of Russia, in which permafrost occupies more than 50% of the territory, the response of this highly sensitive natural phenomenon to climate changes is particularly important. Long-term data on soil temperatures at a depth of 40 cm are analyzed for four large regions of Russia. In all of them, except for the eastern sector of Russian Arctic, a stable trend toward the rise in the mean annual soil temperature. In the eastern sector (the Verkhoyansk weather station), the soil temperature remains stable.

  12. [Effects of nitrogen addition on soil physico-chemical properties and enzyme activities in desertified steppe].

    PubMed

    Su, Jie-Qiong; Li, Xin-Rong; Bao, Jing-Ting

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N) enrichment on soil physico-chemical property and soil enzyme activities in desert ecosystems, a field experiment by adding N at 0, 1.75, 3.5, 7, or 14 g N x m(-2) a(-1) was conducted in a temperate desert steppe in the southeastern fringe of the Tengger Desert. The results showed that N addition led to accumulations of total N, NO(3-)-N, NH(4+)-N, and available N in the upper soil (0-10 cm) and subsoil (10-20 cm), however, reductions in soil pH were observed, causing soil acidification to some extent. N addition pronouncedly inhibited soil enzyme activities, which were different among N addition levels, soil depths, and years, respectively. Soil enzyme activities were significantly correlated with the soil N level, soil pH, and soil moisture content, respectively.

  13. Cm-scale Heterogeneity in Degradation - Potential Impact on Leaching of MCPA through a Variably-Saturated Macroporous Clayey Till

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbom, A. E.; Johnsen, A. R.; Aamand, J.; Binning, P. J.; Dechesne, A.; Smets, B. F.; "Cream-Spatial Heterogeneity"-Team

    2011-12-01

    Recent research has revealed a large variation in pesticide mineralization potentials, but little is known about the scale at which these heterogeneities impact the spreading of contaminants. A modeling study aiming at quantifying how heterogeneous degradation potentials in agricultural soil will affect MCPA degradation and leaching was conducted. 2D-distributions (96-well micro plate mineralization assay) of the mineralization potentials of phenoxy acid herbicides (MCPA, 2,4-D) representing layers in the upper meter of variably-saturated clayey till were applied. The rapid mineralization measured was represented by Monod mineralization kinetics, whereas the rest were either represented by slow 0-order mineralization kinetics or no degradation. Five 3D-modelling scenarios were set up using the COMSOL Multiphysics 4.1 toolbox (COMSOL Inc., Burlington, MA, USA): 1) simple matrix flow of water with no biodegradation of the MCPA at all nodes; 2) preferential flow (including a wormhole) of water with no biodegradation of the MCPA at all nodes; 3) simple matrix flow of water with average biodegradation of the MCPA at all nodes, which corresponds to results derived from a conventional homogenized soil sample; 4) simple matrix flow of water with the observed high variation in biodegradation of the MCPA corresponding to random variation in degradation; and 5) vertical structure in water flow combined with vertically structured degradation (defined hot spots and cold spots), which corresponds to a situation where both flow and degradation are associated with macropores/wormholes. Results show that cm-scale heterogeneity in degradation potential with simple matrix flow has a negligible effect on MCPA leaching at one meter below soil surface. By introducing a wormhole in the low-permeable 3D-soil modeling domain, however, the risk of MCPA-leaching below one meter depth increase drastically with low degradation potential along the wall of macropores/wormholes.

  14. Measurements of the half-life of 246Cm and the alpha-decay emission probabilities of 246Cm and 250Cf.

    PubMed

    Kondev, F G; Ahmad, I; Greene, J P; Kellett, M A; Nichols, A L

    2007-03-01

    The alpha-decay half-life of Cm246 has been measured to be T(1/2)=4706 (40)yr by means of the alpha-counting of ingrowth activity following the decay of a mass separated source of the Cf250 parent nuclide. The alpha-decay emission probabilities of Cm246 and Cf250 have also been determined with high precision and have been compared with results from previous measurements. A new alpha-decay branch of Cm246 to the 4(+) level of the ground-state band of the Pu242 daughter nucleus has been identified and characterized.

  15. Comparison of electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Lepkova, Katarina; Kubal, Martin

    2006-09-01

    Electrokinetic remediation methods for removal of heavy metals from polluted soils have been subjected for quite intense research during the past years since these methods are well suitable for fine-grained soils where other remediation methods fail. Electrodialytic remediation is an electrokinetic remediation method which is based on applying an electric dc field and the use of ion exchange membranes that ensures the main transport of heavy metals to be out of the pollutes soil. An experimental investigation was made with electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil under the same operational conditions (constant current density 0.2 mA/cm(2) and duration 28 days). The results of the present paper show that caution must be taken when generalising results obtained in spiked kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils, as it was shown that the removal rate was higher in kaolinite than in both spiked soil and industrial polluted soil. The duration of spiking was found to be an important factor too, when attempting to relate remediation of spiked soil or kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils. Spiking for 2 days was too short. However, spiking for 30 days resulted in a pattern that was more similar to that of industrially polluted soils with similar compositions both regarding sequential extraction and electrodialytic remediation result, though the remediation still progressed slightly faster in the spiked soil. Generalisation of remediation results to a variety of soil types must on the other hand be done with caution since the remediation results of different industrially polluted soils were very different. In one soil a total of 76% Cu was removed and in another soil no Cu was removed only redistributed within the soil. The factor with the highest influence on removal success was soil pH, which must be low in order to mobilize Cu, and thus the buffering capacity against acidification was

  16. Effect of soil structure on the growth of bacteria in soil quantified using CARD-FISH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juyal, Archana; Eickhorst, Thilo; Falconer, Ruth; Otten, Wilfred

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that compaction of soil due to use of heavy machinery has resulted in the reduction of crop yield. Compaction affects the physical properties of soil such as bulk density, soil strength and porosity. This causes an alteration in the soil structure which limits the mobility of nutrients, water and air infiltration and root penetration in soil. Several studies have been conducted to explore the effect of soil compaction on plant growth and development. However, there is scant information on the effect of soil compaction on the microbial community and its activities in soil. Understanding the effect of soil compaction on microbial community is essential as microbial activities are very sensitive to abrupt environmental changes in soil. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil structure on growth of bacteria in soil. The bulk density of soil was used as a soil physical parameter to quantify the effect of soil compaction. To detect and quantify bacteria in soil the method of catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) was used. This technique results in high intensity fluorescent signals which make it easy to quantify bacteria against high levels of autofluorescence emitted by soil particles and organic matter. In this study, bacterial strains Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and Bacillus subtilis DSM10 were used. Soils of aggregate size 2-1mm were packed at five different bulk densities in polyethylene rings (4.25 cm3).The soil rings were sampled at four different days. Results showed that the total number of bacteria counts was reduced significantly (P

  17. Silicification of holocene soils in northern Monitor Valley, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chadwick, O. A.; Hendricks, D. M.; Nettleton, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical, physical, and microscopic data for three soils in the northern Monitor Valley are analyzed. The soils ranked in order of increasing age are: Mule, Rotinom, and Nayped. The procedures and techniques used to obtain and study that data are described. It is observed that: (1) redistribution of carbonate is detectable in all soils; (2) clay illuviation is insignificant in the Mule soil, weak but identifiable in the Rotinom soil, and significant in the Nayped soil; and (3) the maximum sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) for the Mule soil is between 64-89 cm, for the Rotinom soil the values are below 100 cm, and for Nayped the maximum SAR values range from 51-117 cm and maximum EC values are between 117-152 cm. The relationship between volcanic glass weathering and the amount of silica cementation in the soils is studied. It is noted that silicification of Monitor Valley holocene soils is due to there being enough moisture to release silica from volcanic glass, but not enough to leach the weathering products from the profile.

  18. Silicification of holocene soils in northern Monitor Valley, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, O. A.; Hendricks, D. M.; Nettleton, W. D.

    1989-02-01

    Chemical, physical, and microscopic data for three soils in the northern Monitor Valley are analyzed. The soils ranked in order of increasing age are: Mule, Rotinom, and Nayped. The procedures and techniques used to obtain and study that data are described. It is observed that: (1) redistribution of carbonate is detectable in all soils; (2) clay illuviation is insignificant in the Mule soil, weak but identifiable in the Rotinom soil, and significant in the Nayped soil; and (3) the maximum sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) for the Mule soil is between 64-89 cm, for the Rotinom soil the values are below 100 cm, and for Nayped the maximum SAR values range from 51-117 cm and maximum EC values are between 117-152 cm. The relationship between volcanic glass weathering and the amount of silica cementation in the soils is studied. It is noted that silicification of Monitor Valley holocene soils is due to there being enough moisture to release silica from volcanic glass, but not enough to leach the weathering products from the profile.

  19. Influence of surface and subsurface tillage on soil physical properties and soil/plant relationships of planted loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Kelting; H. L. Allen

    2000-05-01

    Soil tillage can improve tree survival and growth by reducing competing vegetation, increasing nutrient availability, improving planting quality, and improving soil physical properties. The authors conducted a tillage study with competition control and nutrient amendments to isolate the physical effects of tillage on tree growth. The objectives of this study were to understand: (1) how tillage affects soil physical properties; (2) the relationships between these properties and root growth; (3) linkages between root growth response and aboveground growth; and (4) tillage effects on aboveground growth. Four replicates of a 2x2 factorial combination of surface (disking) and subsurface (subsoiling) were installed on a well-drained, clay-textured subsoil, soil located on the Piedmont of North Carolina. Disking improved soil physical properties (reduced bulk density and increased aeration porosity) in the surface 20-cm of soil. Subsoiling improved soil physical properties at all depths in the planting row, with improvements still noted at 60-cm from the planting row in the surface 10-cm of soil. Rooting patterns followed the changes in soil physical properties. Despite improvements in soil physical properties and changes in rooting patterns, aboveground tree growth was not affected by tillage. The results of this study point to the need for better diagnostics for identifying sites were tillage is appropriate in situations where fertilization and vegetation control are planned. Potential factors to consider are presence and abundance of old root channels, soil shrink/swell capacity, soil structure, presence and depth to root restricting layers, and historical precipitation records.

  20. [Construction effect of fertile cultivated layer in black soil].

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-zeng; Zou, Wen-xiu; Wang, Feng-xian; Wang, Feng-ju

    2009-12-01

    The clayey farmland soil in black soil region of Northeast China, due to the existence of thicker plough pan created by unreasonable tillage, is a main limiting factor for local agricultural production. In this paper, a field experiment was conducted to study the construction effect of fertile cultivated layer on crop yield, soil physical properties, soil moisture content, and soil microbial number. After the construction of fertile cultivated layer, the soil had a thicker cultivated layer, and the crop yield was increased. Comparing with traditional tillage, applying straw and organic manure into 20-35 cm soil layer decreased soil bulk density by 9.88% and 6.20%, increased soil porosity by 9.58% and 6.02%, and enhanced soil saturated hydraulic conductivity by 167.99 and 73.78%, respectively, indicating that the construction of fertile cultivated layer could improve soil aeration and water permeability, and enhance the infiltration of rainfall. The soil moisture content and water use efficiency under the application of straw and organic manure into plough pan were higher than those under traditional tillage, and a positive correlation was observed between the moisture content in 0-35 cm soil layer and the emergence of maize seedlings. Due to the increased organic carbon source and aeration in the constructed fertile cultivated layer, soil microbial number was also increased.

  1. Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Bogdan, Ileana; Ioan Pop, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Soil tillage system and its intensity modify by direct and indirect action soil temperature, moisture, bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance and soil structural condition. Minimum tillage and no-tillage application reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first years of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. All this physicochemical changes affect soil biology and soil respiration. Soil respiration leads to CO2 emissions from soil to the atmosphere, in significant amounts for the global carbon cycle. Soil respiration is one measure of biological activity and decomposition. Soil capacity to produce CO2 varies depending on soil, season, intensity and quality of agrotechnical tillage, soil water, cultivated plant and fertilizer. Our research follows the effects of the three tillage systems: conventional system, minimum tillage and no-tillage on soil respiration and finally on soil organic carbon on rotation soybean - wheat - maize, obtained on an Argic Faeoziom from the Somes Plateau, Romania. To quantify the change in soil respiration under different tillage practices, determinations were made for each crop in four vegetative stages (spring, 5-6 leaves, bean forming, harvest). Soil monitoring system of CO2 and O2 included gradient method, made by using a new generation of sensors capable of measuring CO2 concentration in-situ and quasi-instantaneous in gaseous phase. At surface soil respiration is made by using ACE Automated Soil CO2 Exchange System. These areas were was our research presents a medium multi annual temperature of 8.20C medium of multi annual rain drowns: 613 mm. The experimental variants chosen were: i). Conventional system: reversible plough (22-25 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); ii). Minimum tillage system: paraplow (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); iii). No-tillage. The experimental design was a split-plot design with three

  2. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia

    2015-04-01

    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  3. The effects of land use change on soil properties and organic carbon at Dagdami river catchment in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gol, Ceyhun

    2009-09-01

    This research was carried out in Dagdami river catchment located in the highlands of the Black sea region of Turkey. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of representative land-use and land-cover types of largely deforested areas of Black sea region on soil properties. We measured these effects by quantifying some soil analyses were done on soil samples were taken at two depths (0-5 and 5-15 cm) and two aspects (N and S). According to the results of statistical analysis, satured hydraulic conductivity (K(sat)), bulk density (BD), water stable aggregates (WSA), soil organic matter (SOM), soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen significantly change with land use type and aspect. Results have shown significantly higher values of saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(sat)) in natural forest top soil (82.4 cm3 x h(-1) on average) compared to grasslands soils (8.4 cm3 h(-1)) and hazelnut garden soils (11.5 cm3 h(-1)) and corn field soils (30.0 cm3 x h(-1)). It was determined that WSA was greater in the pasture and forest soils than in cultivated soils. In addition, K(sat) was found the highest value in the forest soils at all aspects while, SOM and SOC of forest soils are higher than other land use types. On the other hand, amount of SOM and SOC of soils of grassland, hazelnut garden and corn field are low level and close to each other Soils under hazelnut garden (1.1 g cm(-3)) and grassland (1.1 g cm(-3)) have higher bulk density than the adjacent soils under forests (0.7 g cm(-3)) and corn field (1.0 g cm(-3)) for two different aspects. Furthermore, after long-term continuous cultivation of the natural forest soil, it was determined that some physical and chemical characteristics of it has been significantly changed.

  4. Switchgrass cultivars differentially affect soil carbon stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, J.; Jastrow, J. D.; Wullschleger, S. D.; De Graaff, M.

    2012-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage depends on the amount and quality of plant-derived carbon (C) inputs to soil, which is largely regulated by plant roots via the processes of root turnover and exudation. While we know that plant roots mediate SOC stabilization, we do not fully understand which root characteristics specifically promote soil C storage. With this study we asked whether roots with coarse root systems versus roots with finely branched root systems differentially affect soil C stabilization. In order to answer this question, we collected soil cores (4.8 cm diameter, to a depth of 30 cm) from directly over the crown of six switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars that differed in root architecture. Specifically, three cultivars had fibrous root systems (i.e. high specific root length) and three had coarse root systems (i.e. low specific root length). The cultivars (C4 species) were grown in a C3 grassland for four years, allowing us to use isotopic fractionation techniques to assess differences in soil C input and stabilization. The cores were divided into depth increments of 10 cm and the soils were sieved (2mm). Soil from each depth increment was dispersed by shaking for 16 hours in a NaHMP solution to isolate coarse particulate organic matter (C-POM), fine particulate organic matter (F-POM), silt, and clay-sized fractions. Samples of soil fractions across all depths were analyzed for C and N contents as well as δ13C signature. We found that the relative abundance of the different soil fractions and associated δ13C signatures differed significantly among cultivars. These results indicate that switchgrass cultivars can differentially impact soil carbon inputs and stabilization. We hypothesize that these differences may be driven by variability in root architectures.

  5. Effect of soil moisture on chlorine deposition.

    PubMed

    Hearn, John; Eichler, Jeffery; Hare, Christopher; Henley, Michael

    2014-02-28

    The effect of soil moisture on chlorine (Cl(2)) deposition was examined in laboratory chamber experiments at high Cl(2) exposures by measuring the concentration of chloride (Cl(-)) in soil columns. Soil mixtures with varying amounts of clay, sand, and organic matter and with moisture contents up to 20% (w/w) were exposed to ≈3×10(4)ppm Cl(2) vapor. For low water content soils, additional water increased the reaction rate as evidenced by higher Cl(-) concentration at higher soil moisture content. Results also showed that the presence of water restricted transport of Cl(2) into the soil columns and caused lower overall deposition of Cl(2) in the top 0.48-cm layer of soil when water filled ≈60% or more of the void space in the column. Numerical solutions to partial differential equations of Fick's law of diffusion and a simple rate law for Cl(2) reaction corroborated conclusions derived from the data. For the soil mixtures and conditions of these experiments, moisture content that filled 30-50% of the available void space yielded the maximum amount of Cl(2) deposition in the top 0.48cm of soil.

  6. Global distribution of plant-extractable water capacity of soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, K.A.; Willmott, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. It is often assumed to be spatially invariant in large-scale computations of the soil-water balance. Empirical evidence, however, suggests that this assumption is incorrect. In this paper, we estimate the global distribution of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil. A representative soil profile, characterized by horizon (layer) particle size data and thickness, was created for each soil unit mapped by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)/Unesco. Soil organic matter was estimated empirically from climate data. Plant rooting depths and ground coverages were obtained from a vegetation characteristic data set. At each 0.5?? ?? 0.5?? grid cell where vegetation is present, unit available water capacity (cm water per cm soil) was estimated from the sand, clay, and organic content of each profile horizon, and integrated over horizon thickness. Summation of the integrated values over the lesser of profile depth and root depth produced an estimate of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil. The global average of the estimated plant-extractable water capacities of soil is 8??6 cm (Greenland, Antarctica and bare soil areas excluded). Estimates are less than 5, 10 and 15 cm - over approximately 30, 60, and 89 per cent of the area, respectively. Estimates reflect the combined effects of soil texture, soil organic content, and plant root depth or profile depth. The most influential and uncertain parameter is the depth over which the plant-extractable water capacity of soil is computed, which is usually limited by root depth. Soil texture exerts a lesser, but still substantial, influence. Organic content, except where concentrations are very high, has relatively little effect.

  7. Global Distribution of Plant-Extractable Water Capacity of Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, K. A.; Willmott, Cort J.

    1996-08-01

    Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. It is often assumed to be spatially invariant in large-scale computations of the soil-water balance. Empirical evidence, however, suggests that this assumption is incorrect. In this paper, we estimate the global distribution of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil.A representative soil profile, characterized by horizon (layer) particle size data and thickness, was created for each soil unit mapped by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)/Unesco. Soil organic matter was estimated empirically from climate data. Plant rooting depths and ground coverages were obtained from a vegetation characteristic data set. At each 0.5°×0.5° grid cell where vegetation is present, unit available water capacity (cm water per cm soil) was estimated from the sand, clay, and organic content of each profile horizon, and integrated over horizon thickness. Summation of the integrated values over the lesser of profile depth and root depth produced an estimate of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil.The global average of the estimated plant-extractable water capacities of soil is 86cm (Greenland, Antarctica and bare soil areas excluded). Estimates are less than 5, 10 and 15 cm - over approximately 30, 60, and 89 per cent of the area, respectively. Estimates reflect the combined effects of soil texture, soil organic content, and plant root depth or profile depth. The most influential and uncertain parameter is the depth over which the plant- extractable water capacity of soil is computed, which is usually limited by root depth. Soil texture exerts a lesser, but still substantial, influence. Organic content, except where concentrations are very high, has relatively little effect.

  8. Interactions between soil structure and excess water formation on chernozem soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gál, N.; Farsang, A.

    2012-04-01

    The main natural resource of Hungary is soil therefore its protection is a fundamental obligation for the state and the farmers too. The frequency of the weather extremeties have increased due to the global climate change which takes effect also on the soil properties. The hungarian agriculture was stricken with drought in the 1990's, whereas excess water has caused damages in the previous decade. According to multi-variable correlation tests, pedological parameters influence on the formation of excess water besides hydrometeorological, geological or relief factors. But not only the soil parameters can take effect on the formation of excess water, but also excess water can modify the soil parameters - causing appearance of hydromorfical characteristics or physical degradation. In our research the interactions between soil structure, excess water and land use were investigated in the aspects of changes in the structure of the upper soil, on a cultivated study area (located on the South Hungarian Great Plain). Three excess water patches were appointed with analysis of multitemporal Landsat images in the study area and were connected a southwest-west-nordeast-east line, forming a 700 meter-long catena. In July, 2011 soil samples were collected along this catena at each 50 meters from the depth of 0-5 cm, 10-15 cm and 20-25 cm to compare the agronomical structure and aggregates stability of soils covered temporally by excess water and without it. Furthermore, penetration resistance and relative moisture of soil were determined at the deep of 60 cm in definite points of a 25x25 m grid on the 45 hectares study field using 3T System hand penetrometer in order to create a multilayer-map from the soil compaction datas. The results call the attention both to the physical soil degradation caused by excess water and to the risk of erosion due to inadequate tillage or cultivation.

  9. (Contaminated soil)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-08

    The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

  10. Heavy actinide production from the interactions of sup 40 Ar with sup 248 Cm and a comparison with the sup 44 Ca- sup 248 Cm system

    SciTech Connect

    Leyba, J.D.; Henderson, R.A.; Hall, H.L.; Gannett, C.M.; Chadwick, R.B.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Kadkhodayan, B.A.; Kreek, S.A.; Haynes, G.R.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.M.; Nurmia, M.J.; Hoffman, D.C. Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720)

    1990-05-01

    Excitation functions have been measured for isotopes of Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm produced from the interactions of 207- to 286-MeV {sup 40}Ar ions with {sup 248}Cm. The measured isotopic distributions were found to be essentially symmetric with full widths at half maximum between 2.0 and 3.5 mass units. These results are comparable to those obtained in previous studies using {sup 40,44,48}Ca with {sup 248}Cm. The maxima of the isotopic distributions from the {sup 40}Ar-{sup 248}Cm system show shifts, to both heavier and lighter mass numbers, of 0 to 2 mass units relative to the corresponding maxima of the isotopic distributions from the {sup 40,44,48}Ca-{sup 248}Cm systems.

  11. 8.5 percent efficient screen-printed CdS/CdTe solar cell produced on a 5-cm x 10-cm glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Nakano, A.; Komatsu, Y.; Uda, H.; Kuribayashi, K.; Ikegami, S.

    1983-02-01

    The preparation conditions of CdS sintered film for 5-cm x 10-cm screen-printed CsS/CdTe solar cells were investigated. Increasing the belt speed of the belt furnace increased the residual amount of Cl ions in the CdS sintered film and lowered the efficiency of the cell. The optimum belt speed was 2 cm/min, corresponding to a sintering time of 90 min. The thickness of the CdS film was changed by changing the screen thickness. Increasing the thickness of the CdS film lowered its surface resistivity and improved the fill factor of a cell. A solar cell of 8.5 percent intrinsic efficiency was obtained from CdS film printed by an 80 mesh screen and sintered at 690 C at a belt speed of 2 cm/min.

  12. 137Cs Results and Interpretation of Cesium Soil Data on the Upper Fortymile Wash Alluvial Fan, Amargosa Valley, Nevada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, C.

    2004-12-01

    of: (a) 0.019 cm/yr predicted to occur on farmland in Amargosa Valley (obtained from BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459], Section 6.4.2 by converting 0.19 kg/m2-yr using ash bulk density of 1 g/cm3; (b) 0.02 cm/yr estimated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to have occurred on non-cultivated cropland and pastureland in Nevada (obtained from USDA 2000 [160548], Table 11 and calculated using 1 ton/acre-yr x 907 kg/ton x 2.47 x 10-4 acre/m x 0.001 m3/kg [bulk density] x 100 cm/m = 0.02 cm/yr). Overbank deposits on the interchannel divide areas indicative of periodic flooding are uncommon and restricted to narrow strips along the channel banks. The overbank and channel deposit samples have similar 137Cs signatures (the 3 to 6 cm layers and the 6 to 9 cm layers have nearly the same values in the 0.100-0.200 pCi/g range), indicating that the material from each environ was mixed during transport and deposited as a homogeneous sediment. The absence of many overbank deposits along the channel margins today indicates that flows sufficient to form extensive overbank flooding down Fortymile Wash and its distributary channels have not occurred in more than 50 years. Therefore, the channels currently transport most of their sediment load across the fan until it reaches the toe of the fan, where deposition occurs on the broad flats to the south or into the channel of the Amargosa River.

  13. The NEON Soil Archive - A community resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, E.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a 30-year National Science Foundation-funded facility for understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, and ecohydrology. NEON will measure a wide range of properties at 60 terrestrial and 36 aquatic sites throughout the US using in situ sensors, sample collection/lab analysis, and remote sensing, and all data will be made freely available. The Observatory is currently under construction and will be fully operational by 2017, however, limited data collection and release will begin in 2013. In addition, NEON is archiving large numbers of samples, including surface soils (top ~30 cm) collected from locations across each site, and soils collected by horizon to 2 m deep from a single soil pit at each site. Here I present information about the latter, focusing on sampling and processing, metadata, and currently available samples. At each terrestrial site the soil pit is dug in the locally dominant soil type and soil is collected by horizon, mixed, and ~4-8 liters soil is sent for processing. Soil samples are air-dried and sieved (mineral soil) or air-dried (organic soil) and 1.2 kg is split between 4 glass jars for archiving (protocol available upon request). To date 15 soil pits have been sampled, representing 7 soil orders, and soils from 110 horizons have been archived or are being processed. Metadata associated with each archive sample include a soil profile description, photos, and soil properties (total C, N, S, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, Sr, Ti, Zr, bulk density, pH, and texture). The procedure for requesting samples from the archive is under development and I encourage scientists to use the archive in their future research. Collecting and processing samples for the NEON Soil Archive

  14. Observation of soil moisture variability in agricultural and grassland field soils using a wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priesack, Eckart; Schuh, Max

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture dynamics is a key factor of energy and matter exchange between land surface and atmosphere. Therefore long-term observation of temporal and spatial soil moisture variability is important in studying impacts of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems and their possible feedbacks to the atmosphere. Within the framework of the network of terrestrial environmental observatories TERENO we installed at the research farm Scheyern in soils of two fields (of ca. 5 ha size each) the SoilNet wireless sensor network (Biogena et al. 2010). The SoilNet in Scheyern consists of 94 sensor units, 45 for the agricultural field site and 49 for the grassland site. Each sensor unit comprises 6 SPADE sensors, two sensors placed at the depths 10, 30 and 50 cm. The SPADE sensor (sceme.de GmbH, Horn-Bad Meinberg Germany) consists of a TDT sensor to estimate volumetric soil water content from soil electrical permittivity by sending an electromagnetic signal and measuring its propagation time, which depends on the soil dielectric properties and hence on soil water content. Additionally the SPADE sensor contains a temperature sensor (DS18B20). First results obtained from the SoilNet measurements at both fields sites will be presented and discussed. The observed high temporal and spatial variability will be analysed and related to agricultural management and basic soil properties (bulk density, soil texture, organic matter content and soil hydraulic characteristics).

  15. Characteristics of soil moisture in relation to microtopography in the Loess region of Northern Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Bo, Yaojun; Zhu, Qingke; Zhao, Weijun

    2014-07-01

    Soil moisture is the primary factor limiting plant growth and vegetation rehabilitation in the loess region of northern Shaanxi, China. This 5-year (2008-2012) study investigated methods of selecting appropriate microsites for vegetation restoration based on efficient use of soil moisture; 5-year data were compared with 56 years of precipitation data using standardized precipitation index. In addition, the effects of microtopography on the spatiotemporal variations of soil moisture were analyzed at the Wuqi Ecological Station of Beijing Forestry University. Results showed that average annual precipitation during last 5 years fell by 12.4% during the growing season compared with 1957-2012 data and soil moisture content at depth of 0-160 cm under went dramatic changes and became relatively low in July and August. Soil moisture content varied in different microtopographical units as follows: gullies > gently-sloped terraces > collapsed soils > undisturbed slopes (control) > furrows > escarpments. The vertical distribution of soil moisture content in different microtopographical units showed dramatic changes at depth of 0-40 cm. Soil moisture content of gently-sloped terraces, gullies, collapsed areas, furrows, and undisturbed slopes was highest at depth of 80-160 cm with a level of instability at depth of 40-80 cm. For gently-sloped terraces and gullies, soil moisture content followed the order of 40-80 cm > 0-40 cm; for collapsed areas, furrows, and undisturbed slopes, soil moisture content follows the order of 0-40 cm > 40-80 cm. For escarpments, soil moisture content varied with depth in a different pattern: 0-40 cm > 80-160 cm > 40-80 cm. This study is of theoretical significance and will help guide the sustainable development of ecological restoration and vegetation rehabilitation in the Loess region.

  16. Soil Tillage Management Affects Maize Grain Yield by Regulating Spatial Distribution Coordination of Roots, Soil Moisture and Nitrogen Status

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinbing; Zhou, Baoyuan; Sun, Xuefang; Yue, Yang; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the root system through the soil profile has an impact on moisture and nutrient uptake by plants, affecting growth and productivity. The spatial distribution of the roots, soil moisture, and fertility are affected by tillage practices. The combination of high soil density and the presence of a soil plow pan typically impede the growth of maize (Zea mays L.).We investigated the spatial distribution coordination of the root system, soil moisture, and N status in response to different soil tillage treatments (NT: no-tillage, RT: rotary-tillage, SS: subsoiling) and the subsequent impact on maize yield, and identify yield-increasing mechanisms and optimal soil tillage management practices. Field experiments were conducted on the Huang-Huai-Hai plain in China during 2011 and 2012. The SS and RT treatments significantly reduced soil bulk density in the top 0–20 cm layer of the soil profile, while SS significantly decreased soil bulk density in the 20–30 cm layer. Soil moisture in the 20–50 cm profile layer was significantly higher for the SS treatment compared to the RT and NT treatment. In the 0-20 cm topsoil layer, the NT treatment had higher soil moisture than the SS and RT treatments. Root length density of the SS treatment was significantly greater than density of the RT and NT treatments, as soil depth increased. Soil moisture was reduced in the soil profile where root concentration was high. SS had greater soil moisture depletion and a more concentration root system than RT and NT in deep soil. Our results suggest that the SS treatment improved the spatial distribution of root density, soil moisture and N states, thereby promoting the absorption of soil moisture and reducing N leaching via the root system in the 20–50 cm layer of the profile. Within the context of the SS treatment, a root architecture densely distributed deep into the soil profile, played a pivotal role in plants’ ability to access nutrients and water. An

  17. Soil Tillage Management Affects Maize Grain Yield by Regulating Spatial Distribution Coordination of Roots, Soil Moisture and Nitrogen Status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinbing; Zhou, Baoyuan; Sun, Xuefang; Yue, Yang; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the root system through the soil profile has an impact on moisture and nutrient uptake by plants, affecting growth and productivity. The spatial distribution of the roots, soil moisture, and fertility are affected by tillage practices. The combination of high soil density and the presence of a soil plow pan typically impede the growth of maize (Zea mays L.).We investigated the spatial distribution coordination of the root system, soil moisture, and N status in response to different soil tillage treatments (NT: no-tillage, RT: rotary-tillage, SS: subsoiling) and the subsequent impact on maize yield, and identify yield-increasing mechanisms and optimal soil tillage management practices. Field experiments were conducted on the Huang-Huai-Hai plain in China during 2011 and 2012. The SS and RT treatments significantly reduced soil bulk density in the top 0-20 cm layer of the soil profile, while SS significantly decreased soil bulk density in the 20-30 cm layer. Soil moisture in the 20-50 cm profile layer was significantly higher for the SS treatment compared to the RT and NT treatment. In the 0-20 cm topsoil layer, the NT treatment had higher soil moisture than the SS and RT treatments. Root length density of the SS treatment was significantly greater than density of the RT and NT treatments, as soil depth increased. Soil moisture was reduced in the soil profile where root concentration was high. SS had greater soil moisture depletion and a more concentration root system than RT and NT in deep soil. Our results suggest that the SS treatment improved the spatial distribution of root density, soil moisture and N states, thereby promoting the absorption of soil moisture and reducing N leaching via the root system in the 20-50 cm layer of the profile. Within the context of the SS treatment, a root architecture densely distributed deep into the soil profile, played a pivotal role in plants' ability to access nutrients and water. An optimal

  18. Soil Tillage Management Affects Maize Grain Yield by Regulating Spatial Distribution Coordination of Roots, Soil Moisture and Nitrogen Status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinbing; Zhou, Baoyuan; Sun, Xuefang; Yue, Yang; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the root system through the soil profile has an impact on moisture and nutrient uptake by plants, affecting growth and productivity. The spatial distribution of the roots, soil moisture, and fertility are affected by tillage practices. The combination of high soil density and the presence of a soil plow pan typically impede the growth of maize (Zea mays L.).We investigated the spatial distribution coordination of the root system, soil moisture, and N status in response to different soil tillage treatments (NT: no-tillage, RT: rotary-tillage, SS: subsoiling) and the subsequent impact on maize yield, and identify yield-increasing mechanisms and optimal soil tillage management practices. Field experiments were conducted on the Huang-Huai-Hai plain in China during 2011 and 2012. The SS and RT treatments significantly reduced soil bulk density in the top 0-20 cm layer of the soil profile, while SS significantly decreased soil bulk density in the 20-30 cm layer. Soil moisture in the 20-50 cm profile layer was significantly higher for the SS treatment compared to the RT and NT treatment. In the 0-20 cm topsoil layer, the NT treatment had higher soil moisture than the SS and RT treatments. Root length density of the SS treatment was significantly greater than density of the RT and NT treatments, as soil depth increased. Soil moisture was reduced in the soil profile where root concentration was high. SS had greater soil moisture depletion and a more concentration root system than RT and NT in deep soil. Our results suggest that the SS treatment improved the spatial distribution of root density, soil moisture and N states, thereby promoting the absorption of soil moisture and reducing N leaching via the root system in the 20-50 cm layer of the profile. Within the context of the SS treatment, a root architecture densely distributed deep into the soil profile, played a pivotal role in plants' ability to access nutrients and water. An optimal

  19. [Profile distribution and storage of soil organic carbon in a black soil as affected by land use types].

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiang-xiang; Han, Xiao-zeng; Li, Lu-jun; Zou, Wen-xiu; Lu, Xin-chun; Qiao, Yun-fa

    2015-04-01

    Taking soils in a long-term experimental field over 29 years with different land uses types, including arable land, bare land, grassland and larch forest land as test materials, the distribution and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the profile (0-200 cm) in typical black soil (Mollisol) region of China were investigated. The results showed that the most significant differences in SOC content occurred in the 0-10 cm surface soil layer among all soils with the order of grassland > arable land > larch forest land > bare land. SOC contents at 10-120 cm depth were lower in arable land as compared with the other land use types. Compared with arable land, grassland could improve SOC content obviously. SOC content down to a depth of 60 cm in grassland was significantly higher than that in arable land. The content of SOC at 0-10 cm in bare land was significantly lower than that in arable land. Although there were no significant differences in SOC content at 0-20 cm depth between larch forestland and arable land, the SOC contents at 20-140 cm depth were generally higher in larch forestland than that in arable land. In general, SOC content showed a significantly negative relationship with soil pH, bulk density, silt and clay content and an even stronger significantly positive relationship with soil total N content and sand content. The SOC storage in arable land at 0-200 cm depth was significantly lower than that in the other three land use types, which was 13.6%, 11.4% and 10.9% lower than in grassland, bare land and larch forest land, respectively. Therefore, the arable land of black soil has a great potential for sequestering C in soil and improving environmental quality.

  20. [Characteristics of soil water movement using stable isotopes in red soil hilly region of northwest Hunan].

    PubMed

    Tian, Ri-Chang; Chen, Hong-Song; Song, Xian-Fang; Wang, Ke-Lin; Yang, Qing-Qing; Meng, Wei

    2009-09-15

    Stable isotope techniques provide a new approach to study soil water movement. The process of water movement in soils under two kinds of plant types (oil tea and corn) were studied based on the observed values of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of precipitation and soil water at different depths in red-soil sloping land. The results showed that stable isotopes of precipitation in this area had obvious seasonal effect and rainfall effect. The stable isotopes at 0-50 cm depth in oil tea forestland and at 0-40 cm depth in corn cropland increased with the increase in depth, respectively, but they had the opposite tendency after rainfall in arid time. The stable isotopes decreased with the increase in depth below 50 cm depth in oil tea forestland and below 40 cm depth in corn cropland where evaporation influence was weak. The infiltrate rate of soil in oil tea land was affected by precipitation obviously, and it was about 50-100 mm/d after 2-3 days in heavy rain, slowed sharply later, and soil water at 50 cm depth often became a barrier layer. The permeability of soil in corn land was poor and the infiltration rate was lower. The change of stable isotopes in soil water in red soil hilly region was mainly affected by the mixing water which was formed by the antecedent precipitation, and evaporation effect took the second place. The evaporation intensity in oil tea land was lower than that in corn land, but the evaporation depth was higher.

  1. Fate and transport of carbamazepine in soil aquifer treatment (SAT) infiltration basin soils.

    PubMed

    Arye, Gilboa; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The transport and fate of the pharmaceutical carbamazepine (CBZ) were investigated in the Dan Region Reclamation Project (SHAFDAN), Tel-Aviv, Israel. Soil samples were taken from seven subsections of soil profiles (150 cm) in infiltration basins of a soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. The transport characteristics were studied from the release dynamics of soil-resident CBZ and, subsequently, from applying a pulse input of wastewater containing CBZ. In addition, a monitoring study was performed to evaluate the fate of CBZ after the SAT. Results of this study indicate adsorption, and consequently retardation, in CBZ transport through the top soil layer (0-5 cm) and to a lesser extent in the second layer (5-25 cm), but not in deeper soil layers (25-150 cm). The soluble and adsorbed fractions of CBZ obtained from the two upper soil layers comprised 45% of the total CBZ content in the entire soil profile. This behavior correlated to the higher organic matter content observed in the upper soil layers (0-25 cm). It is therefore deduced that when accounting for the full flow path of CBZ through the vadose zone to the groundwater region, the overall transport of CBZ in the SAT system is essentially conservative. The monitoring study revealed that the average concentration of CBZ decreased from 1094 ± 166 ng L⁻¹ in the recharged wastewater to 560 ± 175 ng L⁻¹ after the SAT. This reduction is explained by dilution of the recharged wastewater with resident groundwater, which may occur as it flows to active reclamation wells. PMID:20947124

  2. Determining soil moisture and soil properties in vegetated areas by assimilating soil temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jianzhi; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Ochsner, Tyson E.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-06-01

    observation depths at all locations. The proposed method resulted in soil moisture estimates in the top 10 cm with RMSE values typically <0.04 m3/m3. This demonstrates the potential of detecting the spatial variability of soil moisture and properties in vegetated areas from Passive DTS data.

  3. Soil water characteristics of two soil catenas in Illinois: Implications for irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Schaetzl, R.J. ); Kirsch, S.W. ); Hendrie, L.K.

    1989-10-01

    Soil water was monitored by neutron scattering in six soils, three each within two drainage catenas in east-central Illinois, over a 15-month time span. The prairie soils have formed in: (1) 76-152 cm of silt loam, eolian sediments (loess) over glacial till (Catlin-Flanagan-Drummer catena), and (2) loess greater than 152 cm in thickness (Tama-Ipava-Sable catena). The authors characterized the water content of these soils over the total time span and for wet and dry climatic subsets, as an aid to potential irrigation decisions. Soils of the thin loess, C-F-D catena dried out to lower water contents and had greater soil water variability than did the thick loess soils. Under wet conditions, soil water contents in the two catenas were quite similar. Alleviation of surface and subsurface drying via irrigation would thus be more advantageous to yields on the C-F-D soils than on the T-I-S soils.

  4. SoilGrids1km — Global Soil Information Based on Automated Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Hengl, Tomislav; de Jesus, Jorge Mendes; MacMillan, Robert A.; Batjes, Niels H.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Ribeiro, Eloi; Samuel-Rosa, Alessandro; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Gonzalez, Maria Ruiperez

    2014-01-01

    Background Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We present SoilGrids1km — a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution — containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths): soil organic carbon (g kg−1), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg m−3), cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), soil organic carbon stock (t ha−1), depth to bedrock (cm), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles), and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images), lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database). Prediction accuracies assessed using 5–fold cross-validation were between 23–51%. Conclusions/Significance SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1) weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2) difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3) low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the Soil

  5. Mineralization of soil organic matter in biochar amended agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintala, R.; Clay, D. E.; Schumacher, T. E.; Kumar, S.; Malo, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Pyrogenic biochar materials have been identified as a promising soil amendment to enhance climate resilience, increase soil carbon recalcitrance and achieve sustainable crop production. A three year field study was initiated in 2013 to study the impact of biochar on soil carbon and nitrogen storage on an eroded Maddock soil series - Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) and deposition Brookings clay loam (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) landscape positions. Three biochars produced from corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were incorporated at 9.75 Mg ha-1 rate (≈7.5 cm soil depth and 1.3 g/cm3 soil bulk density) with a rototiller. The changes in chemical fractionation of soil carbon (soluble C, acid hydrolyzable C, total C, and δ13 C) and nitrogen (soluble N, acid hydrolyzable N, total N, and δ14 N) were monitored for two soil depths (0-7.5 and 7.5 - 15 cm). Soluble and acid hydrolyzable fractions of soil C and N were influenced by soil series and were not significantly affected by incorporation of biochars. Based on soil and plant samples to be collected in the fall of 2015, C and N budgets are being developed using isotopic and non-isotopic techniques. Laboratory studies showed that the mean residence time for biochars used in this study ranged from 400 to 666 years. Laboratory and field studies will be compared in the presentation.

  6. [Effect of long-term fertilization on microbial community functional diversity in black soil].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-xin; Chi, Feng-qin; Xu, Xiu-hong; Kuang, En-jun; Zhang, Jiu-ming; Su, Qing-rui; Zhou, Bao-ku

    2015-10-01

    In order to study the effects of long-term different fertilization on microbial community functional diversity in arable black. soil, we examined microbial metabolic activities in two soil la- yers (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm) under four treatments (CK, NPK, M, MNPK) from a 35-year continuous fertilization field at the Ministry of Agriculture Key Field Observation Station of Harbin Black Soil Ecology Environment using Biolog-ECO method. The results showed that: in the 0-20 cm soil layer, combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer(MNPK) increased the rate of soil microbial carbon source utilization and community metabolism richness, diversity and dominance; In the 20-40 cm layer, these indices of the MNPK treatment was lower than that of the NPK treat- ment; while NPK treatment decreased soil microbial community metabolism evenness in both layers. Six groups of carbon sources used by soil microbes of all the treatments were different between the two soil layers, and the difference was significant among all treatments in each soil layer (P < 0.05) , while the variations among treatments were different in the two soil layers. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that soil microbial community metabolic function of all the treatments was different between the two soil layers, and there was difference among all treatments in each soil layer, while the influences of soil nutrients on soil microbial community metabolic function of all treatments were similar in each soil layer. It was concluded that long-term different fertilization affected soil microbial community functional diversity in both tillage soil layer and down soil layers, and chemical fertilization alone had a larger influence on the microbial community functional diversity in the 20-40 cm layer. PMID:26995915

  7. [Effect of long-term fertilization on microbial community functional diversity in black soil].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-xin; Chi, Feng-qin; Xu, Xiu-hong; Kuang, En-jun; Zhang, Jiu-ming; Su, Qing-rui; Zhou, Bao-ku

    2015-10-01

    In order to study the effects of long-term different fertilization on microbial community functional diversity in arable black. soil, we examined microbial metabolic activities in two soil la- yers (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm) under four treatments (CK, NPK, M, MNPK) from a 35-year continuous fertilization field at the Ministry of Agriculture Key Field Observation Station of Harbin Black Soil Ecology Environment using Biolog-ECO method. The results showed that: in the 0-20 cm soil layer, combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer(MNPK) increased the rate of soil microbial carbon source utilization and community metabolism richness, diversity and dominance; In the 20-40 cm layer, these indices of the MNPK treatment was lower than that of the NPK treat- ment; while NPK treatment decreased soil microbial community metabolism evenness in both layers. Six groups of carbon sources used by soil microbes of all the treatments were different between the two soil layers, and the difference was significant among all treatments in each soil layer (P < 0.05) , while the variations among treatments were different in the two soil layers. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that soil microbial community metabolic function of all the treatments was different between the two soil layers, and there was difference among all treatments in each soil layer, while the influences of soil nutrients on soil microbial community metabolic function of all treatments were similar in each soil layer. It was concluded that long-term different fertilization affected soil microbial community functional diversity in both tillage soil layer and down soil layers, and chemical fertilization alone had a larger influence on the microbial community functional diversity in the 20-40 cm layer.

  8. Hydrologically transported dissolved organic carbon influences soil respiration in a tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Lu, Hua-Zheng; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Sha, Li-Qing; Schaefer, Douglas Allen; Song, Qing-Hai; Deng, Yun; Deng, Xiao-Bao

    2016-10-01

    To better understand the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) transported by hydrological processes (rainfall, throughfall, litter leachate, and surface soil water; 0-20 cm) on soil respiration in tropical rainforests, we detected the DOC flux in rainfall, throughfall, litter leachate, and surface soil water (0-20 cm), compared the seasonality of δ13CDOC in each hydrological process, and δ13C in leaves, litter, and surface soil, and analysed the throughfall, litter leachate, and surface soil water (0-20 cm) effect on soil respiration in a tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna, south-west China. Results showed that the surface soil intercepted 94.4 ± 1.2 % of the annual litter leachate DOC flux and is a sink for DOC. The throughfall and litter leachate DOC fluxes amounted to 6.81 and 7.23 % of the net ecosystem exchange respectively, indicating that the DOC flux through hydrological processes is an important component of the carbon budget, and may be an important link between hydrological processes and soil respiration in a tropical rainforest. Even the variability in soil respiration is more dependent on the hydrologically transported water than DOC flux insignificantly, soil temperature, and soil-water content (at 0-20 cm). The difference in δ13C between the soil, soil water (at 0-20 cm), throughfall, and litter leachate indicated that DOC is transformed in the surface soil and decreased the sensitivity indices of soil respiration of DOC flux to water flux, which suggests that soil respiration is more sensitive to the DOC flux in hydrological processes, especially the soil-water DOC flux, than to soil temperature or soil moisture.

  9. Tracing soil erosion impacts on soil organisms using 137Cs and soil nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Craig; Rowan, John S.; McKenzie, Blair M.; Neilson, Roy

    2014-05-01

    The application of environmental radionuclides in soil tracing and erosion studies is now well established in geomorphology. Sediment and erosion-tracing studies are undertaken for a range of purposes in the earth sciences but until now few studies have used the technique to answer biological questions. An experiment was undertaken to measure patterns of soil loss and gain over 50 years, effectively calculating a field-scale sediment budget, to investigate soil erosion relationships between physical and biological soil components. Soil nematodes were identified as a model organism, a ubiquitous and abundant group sensitive to disturbance and thus useful indicator taxa of biological and physico-chemical changes. A field site was selected at the James Hutton Institute's experimental Balruddery Farm in NE Scotland. 10 metre-resolution topographical data was collected with differential GPS. Based on these data, a regular 30 m-resolution sampling grid was constructed in ArcGIS, and a field-sampling campaign undertaken. 104 soil cores (~50 cm-deep) were collected with a percussion corer. Radio-caesium (137Cs) activity concentrations were measured using high-purity germainum gamma-ray spectroscopy, and 137Cs areal activities derived from these values. Organic matter content by loss on ignition and grain-size distribution by laser granulometry were also measured. Additional samples were collected to characterise the soil nematode community, both for abundance and functional (trophic) composition using a combination of low-powered microscopy and molecular identification techniques (dTRFLP). Results were analysed with ArcGIS software using the Spatial Analyst package. Results show that spatial relationships between physical, chemical and biological parameters were complex and interrelated. Previous field management was found to influence these relationships. The results of this experiment highlight the role that soil erosion processes play in medium-term restructuring of the

  10. Effects of topsoil and subsoil thickness on soil water content and crop production on a disturbed soil

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J.F.; Sandoval, F.M.; Ries, R.E.; Merrill, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    Data which can quantify effects of soil depth upon productivity from controlled experiments are essentially lacking for semiarid regions. In connection with mined land-reclamation research in North Dakota, an experiment was established in which soil was reconstructed by building a wedge with productive subsoil (B and upper C horizon) on top of leveled sodic mine spoils derived from shale. Thickness of the subsoil wedge ranged from 0 to 210 cm. Topsoil (A horizon) was then spread over the subsoil wedge to provide a topsoil either 0, 20, or 60 cm thick. A fourth treatment consisted of mixing subsoil and topsoil within the wedge in a 3:1 ratio (no topsoil on the surface). Four crops - alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum), native warm-season grasses (Bouteloua gracilis and Bouteloua curtipendula), and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) - were grown each year on these plots from 1975 through 1979. Yields of all crops increased as total soil thickness (topsoil plus subsoil) increased to the 90- to 150-cm range. Highest yields equaled or exceeded yields that would be expected in these years on similar undisturbed soil types under good management in the same county. Water was extracted from the upper 30 to 90 cm of spoils when the soil-spoil interface was within 90 cm of the soil surface. Thickness of topsoil had no influence on depth of water extraction. There was no evidence of any accumulation of soil water just above the soil-spoil interface under any situation.

  11. Prognostic factors after hepatic resection for the single hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 5 cm

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine which factors affect the prognosis of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) larger than 5 cm, including the prognostic difference between tumor sizes from 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm. Methods The medical records of 114 patients who underwent hepatectomy for single HCC larger than 5 cm were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Results In the analysis of the entire cohort of 114 patients, the 5-year overall and diseases-free survival rates were 50% and 29%, respectively. In a comparison of survival rates between groups, tumor sizes of 5 to 10 cm and larger than 10 cm, the overall and disease-free survival rates were not significantly different, respectively (54% vs. 41%, P = 0.433 and 33% vs. 23%, P = 0.083). On multivariate analysis, positive hepatitis B, high prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II levels over 200 mIU/mL, and vascular invasion (micro- and macrovascular invasion) were independent prognostic factors for recurrence after hepatic resection. However, tumor size larger than 10 cm was not significant for recurrence after resection. Conclusion This study shows that surgical resection of solitary HCC larger than 5 cm showed favorable overall survival. And there is no survival difference with tumors between 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm. PMID:27617250

  12. Prognostic factors after hepatic resection for the single hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 5 cm

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine which factors affect the prognosis of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) larger than 5 cm, including the prognostic difference between tumor sizes from 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm. Methods The medical records of 114 patients who underwent hepatectomy for single HCC larger than 5 cm were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Results In the analysis of the entire cohort of 114 patients, the 5-year overall and diseases-free survival rates were 50% and 29%, respectively. In a comparison of survival rates between groups, tumor sizes of 5 to 10 cm and larger than 10 cm, the overall and disease-free survival rates were not significantly different, respectively (54% vs. 41%, P = 0.433 and 33% vs. 23%, P = 0.083). On multivariate analysis, positive hepatitis B, high prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II levels over 200 mIU/mL, and vascular invasion (micro- and macrovascular invasion) were independent prognostic factors for recurrence after hepatic resection. However, tumor size larger than 10 cm was not significant for recurrence after resection. Conclusion This study shows that surgical resection of solitary HCC larger than 5 cm showed favorable overall survival. And there is no survival difference with tumors between 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm.

  13. Impacts of Soil Warming and Plant Rhizosphere on Root Litter Decomposition at Different Soil Depths in a Mediterranuan Grassland Lysimeter Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, B.; Hicks Pries, C.; Castanha, C.; Curtis, J. B.; Porras, R. C.; Torn, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate understanding of soil carbon cycling is critical for predicting climate-ecosystem feedbacks. Decomposition of root litter and its transformation into soil organic matter (SOM) are critical processes of soil carbon cycling. We aim to study the impacts of soil warming and plant rhizosphere on the fate of 13C-labeled roots buried at two soil depths using a field lysimeter facility at Hopland, California. The lysimeters contain soil columns of 38-cm diameter and 48-cm depth (0-15 cm A-horizon, and 15-48 cm B-horizon, Laughlin soil series) sown with annual grasses dominated by Avena barbata. The experiment has three treatments (planted-ambient, planted-warming (+4°C), and unplanted-ambient). In February 2014, 13C-labeled A. fatua roots were added to two depths (8-12 and 38-42 cm). We measured root-derived 13C in respired CO2 collected at the soil surface and in leachate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) collected from the lysimeters during the growing season and in soil harvested in August 2014. We found (1) soil temperature at two depths (10- and 40-cm) have been elevated by 4±0.2°C in the warmed compared to the ambient lysimeters; (2) surface (10-cm) volumetric soil moisture followed this order (unplanted-ambient > planted-ambient > planted-warming), while subsurface (40-cm) soil moisture showed little variation among treatments; (3) ecosystem respiration was enhanced by soil warming during the early growing season (March 15th and April 5th) when soil moisture was not limiting (>20%), while it was suppressed by soil warming during the late growing season (May 7th) when soil moisture was limiting (<20%), and was not significantly different among treatments towards the end of growing season (May 20th); and (4) aboveground plant biomass increased 25% with soil warming. More data including 13C values of ecosystem respiration, DOC loss, and harvested soil samples, as well as soil nutrient supply rates, microbial biomass and community structure will be presented

  14. Manure and nitrogen application enhances soil phosphorus mobility in calcareous soil in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengjuan; Chen, Shuo; Li, Junliang; Alva, Ashok; Chen, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Over many years, high phosphorus (P) loading for intensive vegetable cropping in greenhouses of North China has contributed to excessive P accumulation, resulting in environmental risk. In this study, the influences of manure and nitrogen (N) application on the transformation and transport of soil P were investigated after nine years in a greenhouse tomato double cropping system (winter-spring and autumn-winter seasons). High loading of manure significantly increased the soil inorganic P (Pi), inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP), mobile P and P saturation ratio (PSR, >0.7 in 0-30 cm depth soil; PSR was estimated from P/(Fe + Al) in an oxalate extract of the soil). The high rate of N fertilizer application to the studied calcareous soil with heavy loading of manure increased the following: (i) mobile organic P (Po) and Pi fractions, as evidenced by the decrease in the ratio of monoesters to diesters and the proportion of stable Pi (i.e., HCl-Pi) in total P (Pt) in 0-30 cm depth soil; (ii) relative distribution of Po in the subsoil layer; and (iii) P leaching to soil depths below 90 cm and the proportion of Po in Pt in the leachate. More acidic soil due to excessive N application increased P mobility and leaching. The increase in Ox-Al (oxalate-extractable Al) and the proportion of microbe-associated Po related to N application at soil depths of 0-30 cm suggested decrease in the net Po mineralization, which may contribute to downward transport of Po in the soil profile. PMID:27300290

  15. Intercropping enhances soil carbon and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wen-Feng; Hoffland, Ellis; Li, Long; Six, Johan; Sun, Jian-Hao; Bao, Xing-Guo; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Van Der Werf, Wopke

    2015-04-01

    Intercropping, the simultaneous cultivation of multiple crop species in a single field, increases aboveground productivity due to species complementarity. We hypothesized that intercrops may have greater belowground productivity than sole crops, and sequester more soil carbon over time due to greater input of root litter. Here, we demonstrate a divergence in soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content over 7 years in a field experiment that compared rotational strip intercrop systems and ordinary crop rotations. Soil organic C content in the top 20 cm was 4% ± 1% greater in intercrops than in sole crops, indicating a difference in C sequestration rate between intercrop and sole crop systems of 184 ± 86 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1). Soil organic N content in the top 20 cm was 11% ± 1% greater in intercrops than in sole crops, indicating a difference in N sequestration rate between intercrop and sole crop systems of 45 ± 10 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). Total root biomass in intercrops was on average 23% greater than the average root biomass in sole crops, providing a possible mechanism for the observed divergence in soil C sequestration between sole crop and intercrop systems. A lowering of the soil δ(15) N signature suggested that increased biological N fixation and/or reduced gaseous N losses contributed to the increases in soil N in intercrop rotations with faba bean. Increases in soil N in wheat/maize intercrop pointed to contributions from a broader suite of mechanisms for N retention, e.g., complementary N uptake strategies of the intercropped plant species. Our results indicate that soil C sequestration potential of strip intercropping is similar in magnitude to that of currently recommended management practises to conserve organic matter in soil. Intercropping can contribute to multiple agroecosystem services by increased yield, better soil quality and soil C sequestration.

  16. Intercropping enhances soil carbon and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wen-Feng; Hoffland, Ellis; Li, Long; Six, Johan; Sun, Jian-Hao; Bao, Xing-Guo; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Van Der Werf, Wopke

    2015-04-01

    Intercropping, the simultaneous cultivation of multiple crop species in a single field, increases aboveground productivity due to species complementarity. We hypothesized that intercrops may have greater belowground productivity than sole crops, and sequester more soil carbon over time due to greater input of root litter. Here, we demonstrate a divergence in soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content over 7 years in a field experiment that compared rotational strip intercrop systems and ordinary crop rotations. Soil organic C content in the top 20 cm was 4% ± 1% greater in intercrops than in sole crops, indicating a difference in C sequestration rate between intercrop and sole crop systems of 184 ± 86 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1). Soil organic N content in the top 20 cm was 11% ± 1% greater in intercrops than in sole crops, indicating a difference in N sequestration rate between intercrop and sole crop systems of 45 ± 10 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). Total root biomass in intercrops was on average 23% greater than the average root biomass in sole crops, providing a possible mechanism for the observed divergence in soil C sequestration between sole crop and intercrop systems. A lowering of the soil δ(15) N signature suggested that increased biological N fixation and/or reduced gaseous N losses contributed to the increases in soil N in intercrop rotations with faba bean. Increases in soil N in wheat/maize intercrop pointed to contributions from a broader suite of mechanisms for N retention, e.g., complementary N uptake strategies of the intercropped plant species. Our results indicate that soil C sequestration potential of strip intercropping is similar in magnitude to that of currently recommended management practises to conserve organic matter in soil. Intercropping can contribute to multiple agroecosystem services by increased yield, better soil quality and soil C sequestration. PMID:25216023

  17. Beyond the CM-5: A case study in performance analysis for the CM-5, T3D, and high performance RISC workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Beazley, D.M.; Lomdahl, P.S.

    1995-03-22

    We present a comprehensive performance evaluation of our molecular dynamics code SPaSM on the CM-5 in order to devise optimization strategies for the CM-5, T3D, and RISC workstations. In this analysis, we focus on the effective use of the SPARC microprocessor by performing measurements of instruction set utilization, cache effects, memory access patterns, and pipeline stall cycles. We then show that we can account for more than 99% of observed execution time of our program. Optimization strategies are devised and we show that our highly optimized ANSI C program running only on the SPARC microprocessor of the CM-5 is only twice as slow as our Gordon-Bell prize winning code that utilized the CM-5 vector units. On the CM-5E, we show that this optimized code run faster than the vector unit version. We then apply these techniques to the Cray T3D and measure resulting speedups. Finally, we show that simple optimization strategies are effective on a wide variety of high performance RISC workstations.

  18. Environmental Controls of Soil Organic Carbon in Soils Across Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Paz, Claudia; Phillips, Oliver; Nonato Araujo Filho, Raimundo; Lloyd, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Amazonian forests store and cycle a significant amount of carbon on its soils and vegetation. Yet, Amazonian forests are now subject to strong environmental pressure from both land use and climate change. Some of the more dramatic model projections for the future of the Amazon predict a major change in precipitation followed by savanization of most currently forested areas, resulting in major carbon losses to the atmosphere. However, how soil carbon stocks will respond to climatic and land use changes depend largely on how soil carbon is stabilized. Amazonian soils are highly diverse, being very variable in their weathering levels and chemical and physical properties, and thus it is important to consider how the different soils of the Basin stabilize and store soil organic carbon (SOC). The wide variation in soil weathering levels present in Amazonia, suggests that soil groups with contrasting pedogenetic development should differ in their predominant mechanism of SOC stabilization. In this study we investigated the edaphic, mineralogical and climatic controls of SOC concentration in 147 pristine forest soils across nine different countries in Amazonia, encompassing 14 different WRB soil groups. Soil samples were collected in 1 ha permanent plots used for forest dynamics studies as part of the RAINFOR project. Only 0-30 cm deep averages are reported here. Soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen and for their chemical (exchangeable bases, phosphorus, pH) and physical properties, (particle size, bulk density) and mineralogy through standard selective dissolution techniques (Fe and Al oxides) and by semi-quantitative X-Ray diffraction. In Addition, selected soils from each soil group had SOC fractionated by physical and chemical techniques. Our results indicate that different stabilization mechanisms are responsible for SOC stabilization in Amazonian soils with contrasting pedogenetic level. Ferralsols and Acrisols were found to have uniform mineralogy

  19. Single application of Sewage Sludge to an Alluvial Agricultural Soil - impacts on Soil Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhadolc, M.; Graham, D. B.; Hagn, A.; Doerfler, U.; Schloter, M.; Schroll, R.; Munch, J. C.; Lobnik, F.

    2009-04-01

    Limited information exists on the effects of sewage sludge on soil quality with regard to their ability to maintain soil functions. We studied effects of sewage sludge amendment on soil chemical properties, microbial community structure and microbial degradation of the herbicide glyphosate. Three months soil column leaching experiment has been conducted using alluvial soils (Eutric Fluvisol) with no prior history of sludge application. The soil was loamy with pH 7,4 and organic matter content of 3,5%. Soil material in the upper 2 cm of columns was mixed with dehydrated sewage sludge which was applied in amounts corresponding to the standards governing the use of sewage sludge for agricultural land. Sludge did increase some nutrients (total N, NH4+, available P and K, organic carbon) and some heavy metals contents (Zn, Cu, Pb) in soil. However, upper limits for heavy metals in agricultural soils were not exceeded. Results of heavy metal availability in soil determined by sequential extraction will be also presented. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of 16s/18s rDNA, using universal fungal and bacterial primers, revealed clear shifts in bacterial and fungal community structure in the upper 2 cm of soils after amendment. Fungal fingerprints showed greater short term effects of sewage sludge, whereas sewage sludge seems to have prolonged effects on soil bacteria. Furthermore, sewage sludge amendment significantly increased glyphosate degradation from 21.6±1% to 33.6±1% over a 2 months period. The most probable reasons for shifts in microbial community structure and increased degradation of glyphosate are beneficial alterations to the physical-chemical characteristics of the soil. Negative effects of potentially toxic substances present in the sewage sludge on soil microbial community functioning were not observed with the methods used in our study.

  20. Soil biochemical properties in brown and gray mine soils with and without hydroseeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-09-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with a herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After 6 years, the average tree volume index was nearly 10 times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray mine soils (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  1. Modern state of soil salinity in solonetzic soil complexes at the Dzhanybek Research Station in the North Caspian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabchenko, M. V.

    2008-03-01

    Variations in the salinity of virgin soils of solonetzic soil complexes at the Dzhanybek Research Station are characterized on the basis of field materials obtained by the author in 2002-2004. The soil salinity is characterized with respect to the depth of the upper boundary of salt-bearing horizons, the total amount of salts, the content of toxic salts, and the chemical composition of salts. Changes in the soil salinity under dry farming conditions are estimated for the following soil management practices: (1) agroforest amelioration with additional moistening of virgin soils owing to snow retention by the adjacent shelterbelts and forest plantations, (2) intense grazing, (3) soil fallowing after normal tillage to a depth of 20-25 cm, and (4) soil fallowing after deep tillage to a depth of 40-50 cm. It is shown that normal tillage and considerable grazing pressure do not affect the salinity of the studied soils. No definite effect of the shelterbelts on the salt status of the adjacent virgin soils of the solonetzic complex has been revealed. Deep soil tillage strongly affects the salt status of solonetzes: the content of toxic salts in the upper meter considerably decreases. Virgin solonetzes are usually moderately or strongly saline soils, whereas deeply tilled solonetzes are slightly or moderately saline soils.

  2. Considerations for applying VARSKIN mod 2 to skin dose calculations averaged over 10 cm2.

    PubMed

    Durham, James S

    2004-02-01

    VARSKIN Mod 2 is a DOS-based computer program that calculates the dose to skin from beta and gamma contamination either directly on skin or on material in contact with skin. The default area for calculating the dose is 1 cm2. Recently, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued new guidelines for calculating shallow dose equivalent from skin contamination that requires the dose be averaged over 10 cm2. VARSKIN Mod 2 was not filly designed to calculate beta or gamma dose estimates averaged over 10 cm2, even though the program allows the user to calculate doses averaged over 10 cm2. This article explains why VARSKIN Mod 2 overestimates the beta dose when applied to 10 cm2 areas, describes a manual method for correcting the overestimate, and explains how to perform reasonable gamma dose calculations averaged over 10 cm2. The article also describes upgrades underway in Varskin 3. PMID:14744063

  3. Experimental determination of kQ factors for cylindrical ionization chambers in 10 cm × 10 cm and 3 cm × 3 cm photon beams from 4 MV to 25 MV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, A.; Kapsch, R. P.

    2014-08-01

    For the ionometric determination of absorbed dose to water, Dw, in megavoltage photon beams from a linear accelerator, beam-quality-dependent correction factors, kQ, are used for the ionization chambers. By using a water calorimeter, these factors can be determined experimentally and with substantially lower standard uncertainties compared to calculated values of the kQ, which are published in various dosimetry protocols. In this investigation, kQ for different types of cylindrical ionization chambers (NE 2561, NE 2571, FC 65 G) were determined experimentally in 10 cm × 10 cm photon beams from 4 MV to 25 MV (corresponding beam quality index TPR20,10 from 0.64 to 0.80). The measurements were carried out at the linear accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. It is shown that the kQ factors for a single ionization chamber in 10 cm × 10 cm photon beams can be measured with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.31%. In addition to these measurements in 10 cm × 10 cm fields, kQ factors for the NE 2561 chamber were also determined in smaller 3 cm × 3 cm photon beams between 6 MV and 25 MV. In this case, relative standard uncertainties between 0.35 % and 0.38 % are achieved for the kQ factors. It is found for this ionization chamber, that the ratio of the kQ factors in 3 cm × 3 cm and in 10 cm × 10 cm beams increases with increasing TPR20,10 to reach a value of 1.0095 at TPR20,10 = 0.8 with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.4 %.

  4. Intensity of the hydrogen peroxide v6/b/ band around 1266 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, F. P. J.; Goorvitch, D.; Boese, R. W.; Bonomo, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory spectra of the V6(b) band of H2O2 at 1266/cm have been obtained at a resolution of 0.06/cm and at temperatures ranging from 278 to 294 K. A total band intensity of 375 + or - 17 per sq cm per amagat is determined from the spectra. Special techniques to handle the H2O2 samples in a way that minimizes abundance determination errors are discussed.

  5. The wettability of selected organic soils in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Całka, A.; Hajnos, M.

    2009-04-01

    The wettability was measured in the laboratory by means of two methods: Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test and Thin Column Wicking (TCW) method. WDPT is fast and simple method and was used to investigate potential water repellency of analyzed samples. TCW is an indirect method and was used to determine contact angles and surface free energy components. The measurement was performed in horizontal teflon chambers for thin-layer chromatography, adapted for tubes 10 cm long. The experiment was carried out on muck soils (samples were taken from two levels of soil profile: 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) and peat soils. There were two types of peats: low-moor peats and high moor peats. Samples of low-moor peats were taken from level 25-75 cm (alder peat) and 75-125cm (sedge peat) and 25-75 cm (peloid peat). Samples of high moor peats from level 25-175 cm (sphagnum peat) and 175-225 cm (sphagnum peat with Eriophorum). There was found no variability in persistence of potential water repellency but there were differences in values of contact angles of individual soil samples. Both muck and peat samples are extremely water repellent soils. Water droplets persisted on the surface of soils for more than 24 hours. Contact angles and surface free energy components for all samples were differentiated. Ranges of water contact angles for organic soils are from 27,54o to 96,50o. The highest values of contact angles were for sphagnum peats, and the lowest for muck soil from 20-40 cm level. It means, that there are differences in wettability between these samples. Muck soil is the best wettable and sphagnum peats is the worst wettable soil. If the content of organic compounds in the soil exceeds 40% (like in peats), the tested material displays only dispersion-type interactions. Therefore for peat soils, the technique of thin column wicking could only be used to determine the dispersive component γiLW. For muck soils it was also determined electron-acceptor (Lewis acid) γ+ and

  6. Influence of Soil Tillage Systems on Soil Respiration and Production on Wheat, Maize and Soybean Crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraru, P. I.; Rusu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Soil respiration leads to CO2 emissions from soil to the atmosphere, in significant amounts for the global carbon cycle. Soil capacity to produce CO2 varies depending on soil, season, intensity and quality of agrotechnical tillage, soil water, cultivated plant, fertilizer etc. The data presented in this paper were obtained on argic-stagnic Faeoziom (SRTS, 2003). These areas were was our research, presents a medium multiannual temperature of 8.20C, medium of multiannual rain drowns: 613 mm. The experimental variants chosen were: A. Conventional system (CS): V1-reversible plough (22-25 cm)+rotary grape (8-10 cm); B. Minimum tillage system (MT): V2 - paraplow (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); V3 - chisel (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm);V4 - rotary grape (10-12 cm); C. No-Tillage systems (NT): V5 - direct sowing. The experimental design was a split-plot design with three replications. In one variant the area of a plot was 300 m2. The experimental variants were studied in the 3 years crop rotation: maize - soy-bean - autumn wheat. To soil respiration under different tillage practices, determinations were made for each crop in four vegetative stages (spring, 5-6 leaves, bean forming, harvest) using ACE Automated Soil CO2 Exchange System. Soil respiration varies throughout the year for all three crops of rotation, with a maximum in late spring (1383 to 2480 mmoli m-2s-1) and another in fall (2141 to 2350 mmoli m-2s-1). The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration, the daily average is lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1), followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Productions obtained at MT and NT don't have significant differences at wheat and are higher at soybean. The differences in crop yields are recorded at maize and can be a direct consequence of loosening, mineralization and intensive mobilization of soil fertility. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by CNCSIS

  7. Improving the detection of chronic migraine: Development and validation of Identify Chronic Migraine (ID-CM)

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Daniel; Buse, Dawn C; Pavlovic, Jelena M; Blumenfeld, Andrew M; Dodick, David W; Aurora, Sheena K; Becker, Werner J; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Vincent, Maurice B; Hindiyeh, Nada A; Starling, Amaal J; Gillard, Patrick J; Varon, Sepideh F; Reed, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Background Migraine, particularly chronic migraine (CM), is underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide. Our objective was to develop and validate a self-administered tool (ID-CM) to identify migraine and CM. Methods ID-CM was developed in four stages. (1) Expert clinicians suggested candidate items from existing instruments and experience (Delphi Panel method). (2) Candidate items were reviewed by people with CM during cognitive debriefing interviews. (3) Items were administered to a Web panel of people with severe headache to assess psychometric properties and refine ID-CM. (4) Classification accuracy was assessed using an ICHD-3β gold-standard clinician diagnosis. Results Stages 1 and 2 identified 20 items selected for psychometric validation in stage 3 (n = 1562). The 12 psychometrically robust items from stage 3 underwent validity testing in stage 4. A scoring algorithm applied to four symptom items (moderate/severe pain intensity, photophobia, phonophobia, nausea) accurately classified most migraine cases among 111 people (sensitivity = 83.5%, specificity = 88.5%). Augmenting this algorithm with eight items assessing headache frequency, disability, medication use, and planning disruption correctly classified most CM cases (sensitivity = 80.6%, specificity = 88.6%). Discussion ID-CM is a simple yet accurate tool that correctly classifies most individuals with migraine and CM. Further testing in other settings will also be valuable. PMID:26002700

  8. Study on CM-chitosan/activated carbon hybrid gel films formed with EB irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Long; Luo, Fang; Zhai, Maolin; Mitomo, Hiroshi; Yoshii, Fumio

    2008-05-01

    A series of novel hybrid gel films were prepared from carboxymethylated chitosan (CM-chitosan) and activated carbon (AC) by irradiation of compression-molded CM-chitosan/AC mixture in physical gel state with electron beam (EB) at room temperature. The formation, properties and structure of CM-chitosan/AC hybrid gel films were discussed in terms of gel fraction, swelling, mechanical property, SEM image and XPS spectra. Compared with pure crosslinked CM-chitosan gel, the gel fraction and mechanical property of the hybrid sample were obviously improved after adding AC into CM-chitosan film. The morphology analyses indicated that the hybrid gel films exhibited a rough and folded surface and a relatively interior uniform structure was sustained between CM-chitosan and AC. XPS revealed that the content of protonated amino groups of CM-chitosan macromolecule was promoted by AC. In addition, the adsorptive property of the gel films against humic acid was investigated by batch adsorption method. It was found that the adsorption efficiency of CM-chitosan is significantly improved by adding AC. These preliminary evaluations suggest that the CM-chitosan/AC gel films have great potential for applications in industrial field and biomedical field.

  9. 76 FR 51985 - ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Implantable meshes. ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Topics Aggressive periodontitis. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Chronic periodontitis. Gingival recession. Agenda items are subject to change as priorities dictate. Note: CMS and...

  10. Effects of snow accumulation on soil temperature and change of salinity in frozen soil from laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, K.; Sato, E.; Ishii, M.; Nemoto, M.; Mochizuki, S.

    2008-12-01

    In order to clarify the effect of snow depth on the ground temperature, snowfalls were occurred on soil samples using an artificial snowfall machine in the laboratory and variations of soil temperatures up to 30cm were measured during snowfall. The snow types used here were dendrites (type A) and sphere (type B). The snow depths on the soil surface were 10cm and 30cm for each snow type, so four deferent experimental results were obtained. At each experiment, two samples with deferent initial volumetric water content were prepared, about 10% and 20%. The initial soil temperature was set to 5°C and temperature in the laboratory was kept at -10°C. Soil temperatures were measured at the depths of 0cm, 10cm, 20cm and 30cm during the snowfall, and continuous measurements were conducted for ten hours after the stop of snowfall. From the experiments, it is confirmed that the soil temperature strongly depended on the depths of snow on the surface, density and water content. The soil sample using the type A with the depth of 30cm snow accumulation had the highest temperature at the surface, followed by the type A with 10cm snow, type B with 30cm snow and type B with 10cm snow. It was also pointed that temperature of the high water content samples showed the high temperature decrease compared with the low water one due to the high heat capacity except for the sample using type A with 10cm snow. Numerical calculation will be needed to explain these results. In addition, another experiment will be carried out to clarify the change of salinity during soil freezing with snow accumulation. The method to measure the salinity of soil is to measure the electrical conductivity of soil and volumetric water content at the same depth. The temperature condition in the cooling bath is ranged between -10 and 5°C and changed in 24 hours. Firstly, the temperature profiles will be measured to detect the frozen front, then measurements will start and discuss the results.

  11. Pore space statistics from the X-ray CT of large undisturbed soil columns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large soil columns need to be studied to infer geometric properties of macropores and their role in flow and transport phenomena, especially when colloid or colloid-facilitated transport is of interest. We have sampled and studied undisturbed columns (7.5 cm ID, 20 cm length) of the Taylor soil from...

  12. Phylogenetic changes in soil bacterial communities as CRP land is converted back to cropland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the impacts of conversion of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land to continuous cropland on soil bacterial communities. Soil samples (0-10cm and 10-30cm) were collected from 3 long-term (>20 y) CRP fields and 3 fields recently (within 1-2 y in 2012) converted from CRP (>20 y) to dryla...

  13. Mechanisms of soil carbon storage in experimental grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbeiss, S.; Temperton, V. M.; Gleixner, G.

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the fate of root and litter derived carbon into soil organic matter and dissolved organic matter in soil profiles, in order to explain unexpected positive effects of plant diversity on carbon storage. A time series of soil and soil solution samples was investigated at the field site of The Jena Experiment. In addition to the main biodiversity experiment with C3 plants, a C4 species (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) naturally labeled with 13C was grown on an extra plot. Changes in organic carbon concentration in soil and soil solution were combined with stable isotope measurements to follow the fate of plant carbon into the soil and soil solution. A split plot design with plant litter removal versus double litter input simulated differences in biomass input. After 2 years, the no litter and double litter treatment, respectively, showed an increase of 381 g C m-2 and 263 g C m-2 to 20 cm depth, while 71 g C m-2 and 393 g C m-2 were lost between 20 and 30 cm depth. The isotopic label in the top 5 cm indicated that 11 and 15% of soil organic carbon were derived from plant material on the no litter and the double litter treatment, respectively. Without litter, this equals the total amount of carbon newly stored in soil, whereas with double litter this corresponds to twice the amount of stored carbon. Our results indicate that litter input resulted in lower carbon storage and larger carbon losses and consequently accelerated turnover of soil organic carbon. Isotopic evidence showed that inherited soil organic carbon was replaced by fresh plant carbon near the soil surface. Our results suggest that primarily carbon released from soil organic matter, not newly introduced plant organic matter, was transported in the soil solution and contributed to the observed carbon storage in deeper horizons.

  14. Photodissolution of soil organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayer, L.M.; Thornton, K.R.; Schick, L.L.; Jastrow, J.D.; Harden, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Sunlight has been shown to enhance loss of organic matter from aquatic sediments and terrestrial plant litter, so we tested for similar reactions in mineral soil horizons. Losses of up to a third of particulate organic carbon occurred after continuous exposure to full-strength sunlight for dozens of hours, with similar amounts appearing as photodissolved organic carbon. Nitrogen dissolved similarly, appearing partly as ammonium. Modified experiments with interruption of irradiation to include extended dark incubation periods increased loss of total organic carbon, implying remineralization by some combination of light and microbes. These photodissolution reactions respond strongly to water content, with reaction extent under air-dry to fully wet conditions increasing by a factor of 3-4 fold. Light limitation was explored using lamp intensity and soil depth experiments. Reaction extent varied linearly with lamp intensity. Depth experiments indicate that attenuation of reaction occurs within the top tens to hundreds of micrometers of soil depth. Our data allow only order-of-magnitude extrapolations to field conditions, but suggest that this type of reaction could induce loss of 10-20% of soil organic carbon in the top 10. cm horizon over a century. It may therefore have contributed to historical losses of soil carbon via agriculture, and should be considered in soil management on similar time scales. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil.

    PubMed

    Moll, Julia; Hoppe, Björn; König, Stephan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a) ploughed soil in 0-10 cm, b) rooted soil in 40-50 cm, c) root-free soil in 60-70 cm soil depth and d) maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit), occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment. PMID:26840453

  16. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Julia; Hoppe, Björn; König, Stephan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a) ploughed soil in 0–10 cm, b) rooted soil in 40–50 cm, c) root-free soil in 60–70 cm soil depth and d) maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit), occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment. PMID:26840453

  17. Hydric soils in a southeastern Oregon vernal pool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clausnitzer, D.; Huddleston, J.H.; Horn, E.; Keller, Michael; Leet, C.

    2003-01-01

    Vernal pools on the High Lava Plain of the northern Great Basin become ponded in most years, but their soils exhibit weak redoximorphic features indicative of hydric conditions. We studied the hydrology, temperature, redox potentials, soil chemistry, and soil morphology of a vernal pool to determine if the soils are hydric, and to evaluate hydric soil field indicators. We collected data for 3 yr from piezometers, Pt electrodes, and thermocouples. Soil and water samples were analyzed for pH, organic C, and extractable Fe and Mn. Soils were ponded from January through April or May, but subsurface saturation was never detected. Soil temperatures 50 cm below the surface rose above 5??C by March. Clayey Bt horizons perched water and limited saturation to the upper 10 cm. Redox potentials at a 5-cm depth were often between 200 and 300 mV, indicating anaerobic conditions, but producing soluble Fe2+ concentrations <1 mg L-1. Extractable soil Fe contents indicated Fe depletion from pool surface horizons and accumulation at or near the upper Bt1 horizon. Depletions and concentrations did not satisfy the criteria of any current hydric soil indicators. We recommend development of new indicators based on acceptance of fewer, less distinct redox concentrations for recognition of a depleted A horizon, and on presence of a thin zone containing redox concentrations located in the upper part of the near-surface perching horizon.

  18. [Characteristics of soil moisture in artificial impermeable layers].

    PubMed

    Suo, Gai-Di; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Tian, Fei; Chuai, Jun-Feng; Jing, Min-Xiao

    2014-09-01

    For the problem of low water and fertilizer use efficiency caused by nitrate nitrogen lea- ching into deep soil layer and soil desiccation in dryland apple orchard, characteristics of soil moisture were investigated by means of hand tamping in order to find a new approach in improving the water and fertilizer use efficiency in the apple orchard. Two artificial impermeable layers of red clay and dark loessial soil were built in soil, with a thickness of 3 or 5 cm. Results showed that artificial impermeable layers with the two different thicknesses were effective in reducing or blocking water infiltration into soil and had higher seepage controlling efficiency. Seepage controlling efficiency for the red clay impermeable layer was better than that for the dark loessial soil impermeable layer. Among all the treatments, the red clay impermeable layer of 5 cm thickness had the highest bulk density, the lowest initial infiltration rate (0.033 mm · min(-1)) and stable infiltration rate (0.018 mm · min(-1)) among all treatments. After dry-wet alternation in summer and freezing-thawing cycle in winter, its physiochemical properties changed little. Increase in years did not affect stable infiltration rate of soil water. The red clay impermeable layer of 5 cm thickness could effectively increase soil moisture content in upper soil layer which was conducive to raise the water and nutrient use efficiency. The approach could be applied to the apple production of dryland orchard.

  19. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil.

    PubMed

    Moll, Julia; Hoppe, Björn; König, Stephan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a) ploughed soil in 0-10 cm, b) rooted soil in 40-50 cm, c) root-free soil in 60-70 cm soil depth and d) maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit), occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment.

  20. Radiometric Study of Soil Profiles in the Infrared Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, T. V.; Ponomarev, E. I.

    2016-02-01

    The applicability of radiometric survey of soil profiles in the infrared range for the analysis of soil physical properties was studied. Radiometric data were obtained for different dates of the growing season for a number of soil profiles. The specificity of temperature profiles of texture-differentiated soils (Luvisols and Retisols) as related to weather conditions of the growing season was examined. The correlation analysis showed a close relationship between the air and surface soil temperatures and between the radiometric and thermodynamic soil temperatures in the upper 10 cm. In the studied profiles, the gradient of radiometric temperatures reached 0.5-0.8°C/cm in the humus horizons and sharply decreased at the depth of more than 15-20 cm. The gradient analysis of radiometric images made it possible to outline the boundaries of soil horizons. For the texture-differentiated soils, the most distinct boundaries were established between the gray-humus AY horizon and the underlying eluvial EL horizon in podzolic soils and between the AY horizon and the underlying humus-eluvial AEL horizon in gray soils.

  1. Seasonal and vertical distribution of Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser)(Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) in the soil profile.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lenita J; Farias, José R B; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B; Amaral, Maria L B do; Garcia, Maria A

    2009-01-01

    Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) temporal and vertical distribution patterns were evaluated in the soil profile, in order to subsidize methodology for population sampling, aiming at its management. In insect surveys carried out during three years, in Boa Esperança County, State of Parana, Brazil, Phyllophaga cuyabana was univoltine, with little overlap of the larval stages. Population peaked during December-February, but declined during the colder months, when larvae were in diapause. Different developmental stages exploited distinct soil depths. Eggs and early first instars tended to concentrate between 5 cm and 10 cm deep, but they spread more uniformly through the soil profile, reaching depths up to 30 cm, as they developed. Adults and eggs occurred in the spring (October to December) when active larvae also started to be observed; feeding larvae occurred up to late-April between 0 to 15 cm deep. Diapausing larvae and pupae were observed from early fall to early spring, mostly from 15 cm to 30 cm deep. Throughout the year, the number of insects in the soil (up to 40 cm deep) showed a positive functional relationship with air temperature and evapotranspiration. The relationship of percent distribution of larvae in the soil profile and soil temperature, however, was positive only above 10 cm. To estimate the insect population from November to April, samples can be collected until 20 cm deep; from May to October, however, samplings should be deeper, up to 30 cm.

  2. Factors Regulating Soil Organic Matter Chlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, T.; Gustavsson, M.; Reyier, H.; Rietz, K.; Karlsson, S.; Göransson, C.; Andersson, M.; Öberg, G.; Bastviken, D.

    2013-12-01

    Natural chlorination of organic matter is a common process in various soils. Despite the widespread abundance of soil organic chlorine, knowledge on the processes and regulation of soil organic matter chlorination are modest. The purpose of this study is to elucidate how environmental factors may influence chlorination of organic matter in soil. Four factors were chosen for this study; water content, and nitrogen, organic carbon, and chloride concentrations. The variables are all known in different ways as important for microbes and transformation of chlorine in soil. The soil was collected from 5-15 cm depth in a coniferous forest southeast of Sweden. To test how the selected factors influenced chlorination of organic matter, we used soil laboratory incubations using 36Cl-chloride as a radioisotopic marker. A multivariate factorial design with two levels of i) soil moisture, ii) chloride amendment, iii) nitrogen amendment, and iv) glucose and maltose addition was used to simultaneously test for possible combination effects for all factors. A known radioactivity of 36chloride was added to the soil samples and incubated with four different factor treatments during an incubation period of 15 and 60 days. This presentation will discuss the results of this study including what combination of factors enhanced or hampered chlorination and thereby discuss previous observed variability of organic chlorine and chloride in soil.

  3. Vertical profile of 137Cs in soil.

    PubMed

    Krstić, D; Nikezić, D; Stevanović, N; Jelić, M

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a vertical distribution of 137Cs in undisturbed soil was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Soil samples were taken from the surroundings of the city of Kragujevac in central Serbia during spring-summer of 2001. The sampling locations were chosen in such a way that the influence of soil characteristics on depth distribution of 137Cs in soil could be investigated. Activity of 137Cs in soil samples was measured using a HpGe detector and multi-channel analyzer. Based on vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil which was measured for each of 10 locations, the diffusion coefficient of 137Cs in soil was determined. In the next half-century, 137Cs will remain as the source of the exposure. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, and more than 30 years after nuclear probes, the largest activity of 137Cs is still within 10 cm of the upper layer of the soil. This result confirms that the penetration of 137Cs in soil is a very slow process. Experimental results were compared with two different Green functions and no major differences were found between them. While both functions fit experimental data well in the upper layer of soil, the fitting is not so good in deeper layers. Although the curves obtained by these two functions are very close to each other, there are some differences in the values of parameters acquired by them. PMID:15388151

  4. Irrigation Practice Affects Soil Phosphorus Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ippolito, J.; Bjorneberg, D.

    2011-12-01

    It is expected, given the same water source applied to the same soil, that changes in soil chemistry would be subtle when comparing furrow and sprinkler irrigation practices. From four paired fields, we collected soil (after similar crops were harvested in September) from the 0-5 cm depth. Samples were analyzed for changes in soil P chemistry due to sprinkler or furrow irrigation using: 1) the Olsen soil test P extraction; 2) the alkaline phosphatase enzyme assay; 3) a sequential extraction technique which fractionated inorganic and organic soil P pools; and 4) a measure of the amorphous soil Al and Fe mineral phases. Olsen-extractable soil P was lower under sprinkler irrigation; however, this was not due to a reduction in microbial phosphatase activity. Soils under sprinkler irrigation contained lower inorganic P concentrations in soluble/Al-bound/Fe-bound and in the occluded phases, lesser amounts of organic P present in the moderately labile and non-labile fractions, and contained lower amorphous Fe concentrations. These results indicate that the method of water application affects soil chemistry and nutrient cycling.

  5. Investigation of factors affecting gaseous mercury concentrations in soils.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher W; Castro, Mark S

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of soil temperature, soil moisture, redox potential (Eh) and soil organic matter (SOM) on the total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in background soils. Our measurements were made in a grass field and deciduous forest at the Piney Reservoir Ambient Air Monitoring Station (PRAAMS) in Garrett County, Maryland. Three plots in each area were sampled every third week from July 2009 to June 2010 at the Oe-A soil horizon interface, the A-E soil horizon interface, and 5 and 10 cm into the E soil horizon. The mean soil TGM concentration for all depths in the forest (2.3 ± 2.2 ng m(-3)) was significantly higher than the mean soil TGM concentration in the grass field (1.5 ± 1.9 ng m(-3)). Soil TGM at all depths was most strongly and consistently correlated to soil temperature. The soil TGM concentrations were highest and most variable at the forest Oe-A soil horizon interface (4.1 ± 2.0 ng m(-3)), ranging from 1.5 to 8.4 ng m(-3). This soil horizon interface had 11 to 26% more SOM and the soil Eh was 100 to 400 mV lower than the other soil depths. Our results suggest that soil temperature, soil Eh and SOM are significant factors affecting TGM concentrations in forest soils. Future studies of TGM dynamics in background soils may benefit from closely monitoring the organic soil horizon.

  6. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0–10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0–10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05; for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10–20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0–10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  7. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N(NH4+(-N)), P < 0.05; for nitrate N(NO3-(-N)), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for NO3-(-N), P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  8. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05 for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  9. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-24

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N(NH4+(-N)), P < 0.05; for nitrate N(NO3-(-N)), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for NO3-(-N), P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  10. [Humus composition and stable carbon isotope natural abundance in paddy soil under long-term fertilization].

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Yang, Lin-Zhang; Ci, En; Wang, Yan; Yin, Shi-Xue; Shen, Ming-Xing

    2008-09-01

    Soil samples were collected from an experimental paddy field with long-term (26 years) fertilization in Taihu Lake region of Jiangsu Province to study the effects of different fertilization on the organic carbon distribution and stable carbon isotope natural abundance (delta 13C) in the soil profile, and on the humus composition. The results showed that long-term fertilization increased the organic carbon content in top soil significantly, and there was a significantly negative exponential correlation between soil organic carbon content and soil depth (P < 0.01). The organic carbon content in 10-30 cm soil layer under chemical fertilizations and in 20-40 cm soil layer under organic fertilizations was relatively stable. Soil delta 13C increased gradually with soil depth, its variation range being from -24% per thousand to -28 per thousand, and had a significantly negative linear correlation with soil organic carbon content (P < 0.05). In 0-20 cm soil layer, the delta 13C in treatments organic manure (M), M + NP, M + NPK, M + straw (R) + N, and R + N decreased significantly; while in 30-50 cm soil layer, the delta 13C in all organic fertilization treatments except R + N increased significantly. Tightly combined humus (humin) was the main humus composition in the soil, occupying 50% or more, and the rest were loosely and stably combined humus. Long-term fertilization increased the content of loosely combined humus and the ratio of humic acid (HA) to fulvic acid (FA).

  11. Morphological Evidence for Nebular Formation of Fine-Grained Rims in CM Murchison with Subsequent Deformation on the CM Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2016-08-01

    We measure the 3D morphology of FGRs and enclosed chondrule cores and find that their size relationship is consistent with nebular FGR formation. After accretion onto the CM parent body, the rims were deformed by impacts that foliated the chondrules.

  12. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM BI-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELLS OPERATED IN BOTH FUEL CELL AND STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODES

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. O'Brien; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; X. Zhang; S. C. Farmer; T. L. Cable; J. A. Setlock

    2011-11-01

    A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology, test apparatus and performance analysis is also provided. The INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis laboratory has developed significant test infrastructure in support of single cell and stack performance analyses. An overview of the single cell test apparatus is presented. The test data presented in this paper is representative of a first batch of NASA's prototypic 5 cm by 5 cm SOEC single cells. Clearly a significant relationship between the operational current density and cell degradation rate is evident. While the performance of these cells was lower than anticipated, in-house testing at NASA Glenn has yielded significantly higher performance and lower degradation rates with subsequent production batches of cells. Current post-test microstructure analyses of the cells tested at INL will be published in a future paper. Modification to cell compositions and cell reduction techniques will be altered in the next series of cells to be delivered to INL with the aim to decrease the cell degradation rate while allowing for higher operational current densities to be sustained. Results from the testing of new batches of single cells will be presented in a future paper.

  13. [Effects of different tillage methods and straw-returning on soil organic carbon content in a winter wheat field].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shen-Zhong; Ning, Tang-Yuan; Wang, Yu; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhong, Wei-Lei; Li, Zeng-Jia

    2010-02-01

    A two growth seasons experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage methods, straw-returning, and their interaction on the dynamic change of organic carbon content in 0-20 cm soil layer during the whole growth period of winter wheat. An obvious change was observed in the soil organic carbon content. Treatments with straw-returning had higher soil organic carbon content than treatments with no straw-returning, and conservation tillage induced higher soil organic carbon content than conventional tillage. In all treatments except conventional tillage, the organic carbon content in 0-10 cm soil layer was higher than that in 10-20 cm soil layer. In treatments with straw-returning, the organic carbon content in 0-10 cm soil layer decreased in order of deep soiling (PS) > rotary tillage (PR) > no tillage (PZ) > normal ploughing (PH) > conventional tillage (PC), while that in 10-20 cm soil layer was PC > PS > PR > PH > PZ, suggesting that conservation tillage could improve the organic carbon content in 0-10 cm soil layer. Multi factor variance analysis showed that tillage method, straw-returning, and their interaction had significant effects on the organic carbon content in 0-20 cm soil layer at various growth stages of winter wheat.

  14. Depth-Dependent Mineral Soil CO2 Production Processes: Sensitivity to Harvesting-Induced Changes in Soil Climate.

    PubMed

    Kellman, Lisa; Myette, Amy; Beltrami, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Forest harvesting induces a step change in the climatic variables (temperature and moisture), that control carbon dioxide (CO2) production arising from soil organic matter decomposition within soils. Efforts to examine these vertically complex relationships in situ within soil profiles are lacking. In this study we examined how the climatic controls on CO2 production change within vertically distinct layers of the soil profile in intact and clearcut forest soils of a humid temperate forest system of Atlantic Canada. We measured mineral soil temperature (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 cm depth) and moisture (0-15 cm and 30-60 cm depth), along with CO2 surface efflux and subsurface concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 35, 50, 75 and 100 cm depth) in 1 m deep soil pits at 4 sites represented by two forest-clearcut pairs over a complete annual cycle. We examined relationships between surface efflux at each site, and soil heat, moisture, and mineral soil CO2 production. Following clearcut harvesting we observed increases in temperature through depth (1-2°C annually; often in excess of 4°C in summer and spring), alongside increases in soil moisture (30%). We observed a systematic breakdown in the expected exponential relationship between CO2 production and heat with mineral soil depth, consistent with an increase in the role moisture plays in constraining CO2 production. These findings should be considered in efforts to model and characterize mineral soil organic matter decomposition in harvested forest soils. PMID:26263510

  15. Depth-Dependent Mineral Soil CO2 Production Processes: Sensitivity to Harvesting-Induced Changes in Soil Climate

    PubMed Central

    Kellman, Lisa; Myette, Amy; Beltrami, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Forest harvesting induces a step change in the climatic variables (temperature and moisture), that control carbon dioxide (CO2) production arising from soil organic matter decomposition within soils. Efforts to examine these vertically complex relationships in situ within soil profiles are lacking. In this study we examined how the climatic controls on CO2 production change within vertically distinct layers of the soil profile in intact and clearcut forest soils of a humid temperate forest system of Atlantic Canada. We measured mineral soil temperature (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 cm depth) and moisture (0–15 cm and 30–60 cm depth), along with CO2 surface efflux and subsurface concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 35, 50, 75 and 100 cm depth) in 1 m deep soil pits at 4 sites represented by two forest-clearcut pairs over a complete annual cycle. We examined relationships between surface efflux at each site, and soil heat, moisture, and mineral soil CO2 production. Following clearcut harvesting we observed increases in temperature through depth (1–2°C annually; often in excess of 4°C in summer and spring), alongside increases in soil moisture (30%). We observed a systematic breakdown in the expected exponential relationship between CO2 production and heat with mineral soil depth, consistent with an increase in the role moisture plays in constraining CO2 production. These findings should be considered in efforts to model and characterize mineral soil organic matter decomposition in harvested forest soils. PMID:26263510

  16. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of estimated soil hydraulic parameters for simulating soil water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manika; Garg, Naveen Kumar; Srivastava, Prashant K.

    2014-05-01

    The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis has been carried out for the scalar parameters (soil hydraulic parameters (SHPs)), which govern the simulation of soil water content in the unsaturated soil zone. The study involves field experiments, which were conducted in real field conditions for wheat crop in Roorkee, India under irrigated conditions. Soil samples were taken for the soil profile of 60 cm depth at an interval of 15 cm in the experimental field to determine soil water retention curves (SWRCs). These experimentally determined SWRCs were used to estimate the SHPs by least square optimization under constrained conditions. Sensitivity of the SHPs estimated by various pedotransfer functions (PTFs), that relate various easily measurable soil properties like soil texture, bulk density and organic carbon content, is compared with lab derived parameters to simulate respective soil water retention curves. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using the monte carlo simulations and the one factor at a time approach. The different sets of SHPs, along with experimentally determined saturated permeability, are then used as input parameters in physically based, root water uptake model to ascertain the uncertainties in simulating soil water content. The generalised likelihood uncertainty estimation procedure (GLUE) was subsequently used to estimate the uncertainty bounds (UB) on the model predictions. It was found that the experimentally obtained SHPs were able to simulate the soil water contents with efficiencies of 70-80% at all the depths for the three irrigation treatments. The SHPs obtained from the PTFs, performed with varying uncertainties in simulating the soil water contents. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, Uncertainty estimation, Pedotransfer functions, Soil hydraulic parameters, Hydrological modelling

  17. Soil biochemical properties after six years in amended brown and gray mine soils in West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-06-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River Mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with an herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After six years, average tree volume index was nearly ten times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  18. The Unified North American Soil Map and Its Implication on the Soil Organic Carbon Stock in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shishi; Wei, Yaxing; Post, Wilfred M; Cook, Robert B; Schaefer, Kevin; Thornton, Michele M

    2013-01-01

    The Unified North American Soil Map (UNASM) was developed to provide more accurate regional soil information for terrestrial biosphere modeling. The UNASM combines information from state-of-the-art U.S. STATSGO2 and Soil Landscape of Canada (SLCs) databases. The area not covered by these datasets is filled with the Harmonized World Soil Database version 1.1 (HWSD1.1). The UNASM contains maximum soil depth derived from the data source as well as seven soil attributes (including sand, silt, and clay content, gravel content, organic carbon content, pH, and bulk density) for the top soil layer (0-30 cm) and the sub soil layer (30-100 cm) respectively, of the spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees in latitude and longitude. There are pronounced differences in the spatial distributions of soil properties and soil organic carbon between UNASM and HWSD, but the UNASM overall provides more detailed and higher-quality information particularly in Alaska and central Canada. To provide more accurate and up-to-date estimate of soil organic carbon stock in North America, we incorporated Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD) into the UNASM. The estimate of total soil organic carbon mass in the upper 100 cm soil profile based on the improved UNASM is 347.70 Pg, of which 24.7% is under trees, 14.2% is under shrubs, and 1.3% is under grasses and 3.8% under crops. This UNASM data will provide a resource for use in land surface and terrestrial biogeochemistry modeling both for input of soil characteristics and for benchmarking model output.

  19. The Unified North American Soil Map and its implication on the soil organic carbon stock in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Wei, Y.; Post, W. M.; Cook, R. B.; Schaefer, K.; Thornton, M. M.

    2012-10-01

    The Unified North American Soil Map (UNASM) was developed to provide more accurate regional soil information for terrestrial biosphere modeling. The UNASM combines information from state-of-the-art US STATSGO2 and Soil Landscape of Canada (SLCs) databases. The area not covered by these datasets is filled with the Harmonized World Soil Database version 1.1 (HWSD1.1). The UNASM contains maximum soil depth derived from the data source as well as seven soil attributes (including sand, silt, and clay content, gravel content, organic carbon content, pH, and bulk density) for the top soil layer (0-30 cm) and the sub soil layer (30-100 cm) respectively, of the spatial resolution of 0.25° in latitude and longitude. There are pronounced differences in the spatial distributions of soil properties and soil organic carbon between UNASM and HWSD, but the UNASM overall provides more detailed and higher-quality information particularly in Alaska and Central Canada. To provide more accurate and up-to-date estimate of soil organic carbon stock in North America, we incorporated Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD) into the UNASM. The estimate of total soil organic carbon mass in the upper 100 cm soil profile based on the improved UNASM is 347.70 Pg, of which 24.7% is under trees, 14.2% is under shrubs, and 1.3% is under grasses and 3.8% under crops. This UNASM data will provide a resource for use in land surface and terrestrial biogeochemistry modeling both for input of soil characteristics and for benchmarking model output.

  20. Using soil oxygen sensors to inform understanding of soil greenhouse gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarecke, K. M.; Loecke, T.; Burgin, A. J.; Franz, T. E.; Rubol, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hot spots and hot moments of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes can contribute significantly to overall GHG budgets. Hot spots and hot moments occur when dynamic soil hydrology triggers important shifts in soil biogeochemical and physical processes that control GHG emissions. Soil oxygen (O2), a direct control on biogenic GHG production (i.e., nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO2 and methane-CH4), may serve as both an important proxy for determining sudden shifts in subsurface biogenic GHG production, as well as the physical transport of soil GHG to the atmosphere. Recent technological advancements offer opportunities to link in-situ, near-continuous measurements of soil O2 concentration to soil biogeochemical processes and soil gas transport. Using high frequency data, this study asked: Do soil O2 dynamics correspond to changes in soil GHG concentrations and GHG surface fluxes? We addressed this question using precipitation event-based and weekly sampling (19 months in duration) data sets from a restored riparian wetland in Ohio, USA. During and after precipitation events, changes in subsurface (10 and 20 cm) CO2 and N2O concentrations were inversely related to short-term (< 48 h) changes in soil O2 concentrations. Subsurface CH4 concentrations changes during precipitation events, however, did not change in response to soil O2 dynamics. Changing subsurface GHG concentrations did not necessarily translate into altered surface (soil to atmosphere) GHG fluxes; soil O2 dynamics at 10 cm did not correspond with changes in surface N2O and CH4 fluxes. However, changes in soil O2 concentration at 10 cm had a significant positive linear relationship with change in surface CO2­ flux. We used a random forest approach to identify the soil sensor data (O2, temperature, moisture) which contribute the most to predicting weekly GHG fluxes. Our study suggests that monitoring near-continuous soil O2 concentration under dynamic soil hydrology may lead to greater understanding of GHG

  1. Soil Carbon Transformation in Heterogeneous Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveros-Iregui, D.; Liang, L.; Emanuel, R. E.; McGlynn, B. L.; Dore, J. E.; Kaiser, K.; Seybold, E. C.; Covino, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding critical belowground carbon processes (e.g., soil carbon turnover, root and microbial dynamics, and greenhouse gas generation and flux) requires examination of coupled physical and biological processes. The spatial patterns of first-order controls such as soil water content, soil temperature, substrate, and vegetation cover has been shown to impose spatial and temporal organization of soil CO2 efflux to the atmosphere. We examined the spatial and temporal variability of soil CO2 ([CO2]) and soil CH4 ([CH4]) concentrations and flux, and the stable isotope composition of CO2 (δ13CCO2) across two watersheds of differing topographic complexity and vegetation cover, including both forested and harvested areas. Samples were collected at 5cm, 20cm, and 50cm at multiple sites (6-10) along seven transects in the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), central Montana. Our results show that [CO2] increases with depth while [CH4] decreases with depth in all dry sites, meaning that dry sites simultaneously act as a source for CO2 and a sink for CH4. Wet sites, however, had pronounced differences in their [CO2] and [CH4] profiles, depending on soil water content and water table depth. Isotopically, deep soil layers had systematically more negative δ13CCO2 values, but the difference between shallow and deep δ13CCO2 values varied as a function of landscape position and vegetation cover. Our results suggest that belowground processes and rates of soil carbon transformation vary across the landscape as a function of environmental gradients.

  2. Soil heating and impact of prescribed burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Prescribed burning is highly uncommon in the Netherlands, where wildfire awareness is increasing but its risk management does not yet include fuel management strategies. A major exception is on two military bases, that need to burn their fields in winter and spring to prevent wildfires during summer shooting practice. Research on these very frequent burns has so far been limited to effects on biodiversity, yet site managers and policy makers have questions regarding the soil temperatures reached during these burns because of potential impact on soil properties and soil dwelling fauna. In March 2015, I therefore measured soil and litter temperatures under heath and grass vegetation during a prescribed burn on military terrain in the Netherlands. Soil and litter moisture were sampled pre- and post-fire, ash was collected, and fireline intensity was estimated from flame length. While standing vegetation was dry (0.13 g water/g biomass for grass and 0.6 g/g for heather), soil and litter were moist (0.21 cm3/cm3 and 1.6 g/g, respectively). Soil heating was therefore very limited, with maximum soil temperature at the soil-litter interface remaining being as low as 6.5 to 11.5°C, and litter temperatures reaching a maximum of 77.5°C at the top of the litter layer. As a result, any changes in physical properties like soil organic matter content and bulk density were not significant. These results are a first step towards a database of soil heating in relation to fuel load and fire intensity in this temperate country, which is not only valuable to increase understanding of the relationships between fire intensity and severity, but also instrumental in the policy debate regarding the sustainability of prescribed burns.

  3. Soil pore structure and substrate C mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleutel, Steven; Maenhout, Peter; Vanhoorebeke, Luc; Cnudde, Veerle; De Neve, Stefaan

    2014-05-01

    Our aim was to investigate the complex interactions between soil pore structure, soil biota and decomposition of added OM substrates. We report on a lab incubation experiment in which CO2 respiration from soil cores was monitored (headspace GC analysis) and an X-ray CT approach yielded soil pore size distributions. Such combined use of X-ray CT with soil incubation studies was obstructed, until now, by many practical constraints such as CT-volume quality, limited resolution, scanning time and complex soil pore network quantification, which have largely been overcome in this study. We incubated a sandy loam soil (with application of ground grass or sawdust) in 18 small aluminium rings (Ø 1 cm, h 1 cm). Bulk density was adjusted to 1.1 or 1.3 Mg m-3 (compaction) and 6 rings were filled at a coarser Coarse Sand:Fine Sand:Silt+Clay ratio. While compaction induced a strong reduction in the cumulative C mineralization for both grass and sawdust substrates, artificial change to a coarser soil texture only reduced net C mineralization from the added sawdust. There thus appears to be a strong interaction effect between soil pore structure and substrate type on substrate decomposition. Correlation coefficients between the C mineralization rates and volumes of 7 pore size classes (from the X-ray CT data) also showed an increasing positive correlation with increasing pore size. Since any particulate organic matter initially present in the soil was removed prior to the experiment (sieving, ashing the >53µm fraction and recombining with the <53µm fraction), the added OM can be localized by means of X-ray CT. Through on-going image analysis the surrounding porosity of the added grass or sawdust particles is being quantified to further study the interaction between the soil pore structure and substrate decomposition.

  4. Titan: 13 cm Arecibo Radar Observations and Comparisons with Cassini Radar Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Black, G. J.; Carter, L. M.; Nolan, M.

    2008-03-01

    Arecibo 13 cm radar observations planned for February 2008 will have sub-Earth locations in the T8 and T13 Cassini radar swaths allowing the first detailed comparison of 13 cm normal incident radar properties with terrain types from the Cassini radar imagery.

  5. Study of the high-j states in {sup 249}Cm.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1998-07-16

    The authors have performed the reaction {sup 248}Cm({sup 4}He, {sup 3}He) using 98.5-MeV alpha particles from the IUCF cyclotron to populate high-j states in {sup 249}Cm. A tentative assignment of the K{sub 17/2} component of the 1/2{sup +}[880] Nilsson state has been made.

  6. CM 40907: a structurally novel anticonvulsant in mice, rats and baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, J.P.; Brochard, J.; Hallot, A.; Heaulme, M.; Brodin, R.; Roncucci, R.; Biziere, K.

    1985-06-01

    CM 40907 (3-(4-hydroxypiperidyl)-6-(2'-chlorophenyl)-pyridazine) is a chemically original compound which possesses the pharmacological properties of a potent, p.o. active anticonvulsant. The anticonvulsant activity of CM 40907 was examined in mice, rats and photosensitive Papio-papio baboons and compared to that of phenobarbital, diphenylhydantoin, carbamazepine, sodium valproate and ethosuximide. In mice, CM 40907 antagonized electroconvulsive shock and chemically induced seizures with an overall potency comparable to that of carbamazepine and a therapeutic ratio (ED50 rotorod/ED50 electroshock) superior to that of ethosuximide, sodium valproate, phenobarbital and carbamazepine. In the rat CM 40907 suppressed completed kindled amygdaloid seizures and was approximately as active as phenobarbital. In naturally photosensitive Senegalese Papio-papio baboons CM 40907 antagonized myoclonus and cortical paroxysmal discharges. In this model CM 40907 was approximately one-fourth as potent as phenobarbital, twice as potent as carbamazepine and 6 times more potent than sodium valproate. In mice CM 40907, at anticonvulsant doses, increased the affinity of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam for its central receptor site. Based on these results it is postulated that CM 40907 is a potent and relatively nonsedative anticonvulsant and may be of therapeutic benefit in epileptic disorders.

  7. A golden SNP in CmOr governs fruit flesh color of melon (cucumis melo)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon (Cucumis melo) flesh color is genetically determined and can be white, light green or orange with B-carotene being the predominant pigment. We associated carotenoid accumulation in melon fruit flesh with polymorphism within CmOr, a homolog of the cauliflower BoOr gene, and identified CmOr as t...

  8. Performance Evaluation of 40 cm Ion Optics for the NEXT Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The results of performance tests with two 40 cm ion optics sets are presented and compared to those of 30 cm ion optics with similar aperture geometries. The 40 cm ion optics utilized both NSTAR and TAG (Thick-Accelerator-Grid) aperture geometries. All 40 cm ion optics tests were conducted on a NEXT (NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster) laboratory model ion engine. Ion optics performance tests were conducted over a beam current range of 1.20 to 3.52 A and an engine input power range of 1.1 to 6.9 kW. Measured ion optics' performance parameters included near-field radial beam current density profiles, impingement-limited total voltages, electron backstreaming limits, screen grid ion transparencies, beam divergence angles, and start-up transients. Impingement-limited total voltages for 40 cm ion optics with the NSTAR aperture geometry were 60 to 90 V lower than those with the TAG aperture geometry. This difference was speculated to be due to an incomplete burn-in of the TAG ion optics. Electron backstreaming limits for the 40 cm ion optics with the TAG aperture geometry were 8 to 19 V higher than those with the NSTAR aperture geometry due to the thicker accelerator grid of the TAG geometry. Because the NEXT ion engine provided beam flatness parameters that were 40 to 63 percent higher than those of the NSTAR ion engine, the 40 cm ion optics outperformed the 30 cm ion optics.

  9. Angular 21 cm power spectrum of a scaling distribution of cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández, Oscar F.; Wang, Yi; Brandenberger, Robert; Fong, José E-mail: wangyi@physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: jose.fong@ens-lyon.fr

    2011-08-01

    Cosmic string wakes lead to a large signal in 21 cm redshift maps at redshifts larger than that corresponding to reionization. Here, we compute the angular power spectrum of 21 cm radiation as predicted by a scaling distribution of cosmic strings whose wakes have undergone shock heating.

  10. Effect of disturbed soil thickness on soil water use and movement under perennial grass

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, S.D.; Smith, S.J.; Power, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Soil water storage and use were measured in each of three growing seasons under crested wheatgrass (Agrophyron desertorum) grown on 0.25-, 0.5-, 0.75-, and 1.0-m thicknesses of disturbed soil. Soil profiles were constructed from Haploboroll topsoil (0.2 m for all treatments), placed over varying thicknesses of subsoil (B and C horizon materials), which in turn was placed over sodic (Sodium adsorption ratio = 30) drag-line spoil at a semiarid, steppe-land site in western North Dakota. Forage yield was 2- to 3.5-fold greater on 1.0 m soil thickness than on 0.25 m. Both total soil water potentials and root weight densities were similar in minespoil and in subsoil at the same profile depths. Root water uptake was much less from the minespoil (mean saturated hydraulic conductivity (HC) = 1 x 10 T cm/d) than from subsoil (mean HC = 0.2 cm/d). Low HC per se appeared to be the dominant factor limiting sodic minespoil as a plant growth medium because low HC resulted in less use of stored soil water from minespoil compared to subsoil. Depletion from a 120-cm profile was 0.2, 3.3, 7.9 and 9.8 cm for 0.25-, 0.50-, 0.75- and 1.0-m soil thickness, respectively. Relative differences in evapotranspiration (ET) between the 0.25-m and 1.0-m soil thickness treatments were much less than yield differences, reflecting progressively reduced water use efficiency with less soil thickness.

  11. [Soil Microorganism Characteristics and Soil Nutrients of Different Wetlands in Sanjinag Plain, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ye; Huang, Zhi-gang; Wu, Hai-tao; Lü, Xian-guo

    2015-05-01

    Four typical wetland types (i.e. wetlands with the following dominant plant species: Calamagrostis angustifolia + Salix brachypoda, Calamagrostis angustifolia, Carex lasiocarpa and Phragmites australis) of the Honghe reserve in Sanjiang Plain were studied to investigate the distribution of soil microorganism quantity and enzyme activity and their relationships with soil nutrients. The results showed that in 0-30 cm soil layer of these four wetlands: (1) Contents of soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus decreased with the increase of soil depth, while available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium did not exhibit regularly changes. Moreover, there were significantly different for soil nutrient contents among different wetland types (P < 0.05). (2) The number of soil microorganism was bacteria > actinomycetes > fungi, furthermore, the number of three microbial colonies all decreased with the increase of soil depth. Total soil microbial number of C. angustifolia wetland was the highest and that of C. lasiocarpa wetland was the lowest. (3) Soil invertase and cellulase activities decreased with soil depth, while soil catalase activity showed no consistent changes. Three kinds of enzyme activities in C. angustifolia + S. brachypoda and C. angustifolia wetlands were significantly higher than those of C. lasiocarpa and P. australis wetlands (P < 0.05). (4) The correlation analysis showed that soil bacteria, fungi and cellulose activity had a significant correlation with indicators of soil nutrients. But there was no correlation between actinomyces, invertase and available potassium, as well as between catalase and available potassium, available phosphorus. Overall, soil microorganism and enzyme activities are important indicators for reflecting the status of soil nutrients.

  12. [Soil Microorganism Characteristics and Soil Nutrients of Different Wetlands in Sanjinag Plain, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ye; Huang, Zhi-gang; Wu, Hai-tao; Lü, Xian-guo

    2015-05-01

    Four typical wetland types (i.e. wetlands with the following dominant plant species: Calamagrostis angustifolia + Salix brachypoda, Calamagrostis angustifolia, Carex lasiocarpa and Phragmites australis) of the Honghe reserve in Sanjiang Plain were studied to investigate the distribution of soil microorganism quantity and enzyme activity and their relationships with soil nutrients. The results showed that in 0-30 cm soil layer of these four wetlands: (1) Contents of soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus decreased with the increase of soil depth, while available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium did not exhibit regularly changes. Moreover, there were significantly different for soil nutrient contents among different wetland types (P < 0.05). (2) The number of soil microorganism was bacteria > actinomycetes > fungi, furthermore, the number of three microbial colonies all decreased with the increase of soil depth. Total soil microbial number of C. angustifolia wetland was the highest and that of C. lasiocarpa wetland was the lowest. (3) Soil invertase and cellulase activities decreased with soil depth, while soil catalase activity showed no consistent changes. Three kinds of enzyme activities in C. angustifolia + S. brachypoda and C. angustifolia wetlands were significantly higher than those of C. lasiocarpa and P. australis wetlands (P < 0.05). (4) The correlation analysis showed that soil bacteria, fungi and cellulose activity had a significant correlation with indicators of soil nutrients. But there was no correlation between actinomyces, invertase and available potassium, as well as between catalase and available potassium, available phosphorus. Overall, soil microorganism and enzyme activities are important indicators for reflecting the status of soil nutrients. PMID:26314138

  13. [Effects of land use change on soil active organic carbon in deep soils in Hilly Loess Plateau region of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Wang, Chao-Hua; Chen, Gai

    2015-02-01

    Response of soil active organic carbon to land-use change has become a hot topic in current soil carbon and nutrient cycling study. Soil active organic carbon distribution characteristics in soil profile under four land-use types were investigated in Ziwuling forest zone of the Hilly Loess Plateau region. The four types of land-use changes included natural woodland converted into artificial woodland, natural woodland converted into cropland, natural shrubland converted into cropland and natural shrubland converted into revegetated grassland. Effects of land-use changes on soil active organic carbon in deep soil layers (60-200 cm) were explored by comparison with the shallow soil layers (0-60 cm). The results showed that: (1) The labile organic carbon ( LOC) and microbial carbon (MBC) content were mainly concentrated in the shallow 0-60 cm soil, which accounted for 49%-66% and 71%-84% of soil active organic carbon in the profile (0-200 cm) under different land-use types. Soil active organic carbon content in shallow soil was significantly varied for the land-use changes types, while no obvious difference was observed in soil active organic carbon in deep soil layer. (2) Land-use changes exerted significant influence on soil active organic carbon, the active organic carbon in shallow soil was more sensitive than that in deep soil. The four types of land-use changes, including natural woodland to planted woodland, natural woodland to cropland, natural shrubland to revegetated grassland and natural shrubland to cropland, LOC in shallow soil was reduced by 10%, 60%, 29%, 40% and LOC in the deep layer was decreased by 9%, 21%, 12%, 1%, respectively. MBC in the shallow soil was reduced by 24% 73%, 23%, 56%, and that in the deep layer was decreased by 25%, 18%, 8% and 11%, respectively. (Land-use changes altered the distribution ratio of active organic carbon in soil profile. The ratio between LOC and SOC in shallow soil increased when natural woodland and shrubland were

  14. High redshift signatures in the 21 cm forest due to cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Silk, Joseph E-mail: toyokazu.sekiguchi@nagoya-u.jp

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic strings induce minihalo formation in the early universe. The resultant minihalos cluster in string wakes and create a ''21 cm forest'' against the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum. Such a 21 cm forest can contribute to angular fluctuations of redshifted 21 cm signals integrated along the line of sight. We calculate the root-mean-square amplitude of the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings and show that these fluctuations can dominate signals from minihalos due to primordial density fluctuations at high redshift (z∼>10), even if the string tension is below the current upper bound, Gμ < 1.5 × 10{sup −7}. Our results also predict that the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can potentially detect the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings with Gμ ≈ 7.5 × 10{sup −8} for the single frequency band case and 4.0 × 10{sup −8} for the multi-frequency band case.

  15. High redshift signatures in the 21 cm forest due to cosmic string wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Silk, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic strings induce minihalo formation in the early universe. The resultant minihalos cluster in string wakes and create a ``21 cm forest'' against the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum. Such a 21 cm forest can contribute to angular fluctuations of redshifted 21 cm signals integrated along the line of sight. We calculate the root-mean-square amplitude of the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings and show that these fluctuations can dominate signals from minihalos due to primordial density fluctuations at high redshift (zgtrsim10), even if the string tension is below the current upper bound, Gμ < 1.5 × 10-7. Our results also predict that the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can potentially detect the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings with Gμ ≈ 7.5 × 10-8 for the single frequency band case and 4.0 × 10-8 for the multi-frequency band case.

  16. CM chondrites exhibit the complete petrologic range from type 2 to 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Lipschutz, Michael E.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Grady, Monica M.; Pillinger, Colin; Barber, David

    1997-12-01

    The most phyllosilicate-rich members of the CM chondrite group were characterized. The possibility that the so-called C1 lithologic units in highly brecciated CM2 chondrites such as Cold Bokkeveld are actually completely hydrated CM2 chondrites is investigated. Accordingly, all sections of CMs available to the researchers were searched in order to locate additional highly processed lithologies. Several CM chondrites are briefly described which have greater proportions of matrix and phyllosilicates and smaller quantities of olivines and pyroxenes than is typical. Three completely hydrated CMs have also been identified and are called CM1s. These include EET 83334, ALH 88045, and a peculiar lithology in Kaidun (Zolensky et al., 1996b). How these lithologies further constrain physicochemical conditions on hydrous asteroids is described.

  17. Nuclear track and compositional studies of olivines in CI and CM chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goswami, J. N.; Macdougall, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    The CI and CM chondrites, with bulk chemical compositions closely resembling solar values, are important for the study of early solar system processes. Noble gas and particle track studies have revealed that a majority of the CI and CM chondrites contain precompaction solar wind and solar flare irradiation records. A quantitative understanding of these records is important because it would allow constraints to be placed on the environment in which the irradiation occurred, and, therefore, on the mode of evolution of the CI and CM chondrites. The present investigation is concerned primarily with fossil track evidence, taking into account selected specimens of several CI and CM chondrites. In addition, the results are presented of extensive studies of the angular distributions of tracks in irradiated grains from four CM chondrites. The results provide information on the exposure geometry of the grains.

  18. Biodegradation of leuco derivatives of triphenylmethane dyes by Sphingomonas sp. CM9.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Li, Liguan; Du, Hongwei; Jiang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qiong; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Lin; Yang, Liuyan

    2011-09-01

    A leuco derivatives of triphenylmethane dyes degrading bacterium, strain CM9, was isolated from an aquafarm field. Based on morphology, physiologic tests, 16S rDNA sequence, and phylogenetic characteristics, it was identified as Sphingomonas sp. This strain was capable of degrading leucomalachite green (LMG), leucocrystal violet and leucobasic fuchsin completely. The relationship between bacterium growth and LMG degradation suggested that strain CM9 could use LMG as the sole source of carbon. The most LMG degradation activity of CM9 crude extract was observed at pH 7.0 and at 30°C. Many metal ions had little inhibition effect on the degradation activity of the crude extract. CM9 also showed strong decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes to their leuco derivatives. GC/MS analysis detected two novel metabolic products, methylbenzene and 4-aminophenol, during the LMG degradation by CM9.

  19. A Doppler-limited rubidium atlas in ascii format, 9500-12 300 cm -1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Amanda J.; Bertrand, Victor; Harker, Heather; Crozet, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    We present a Doppler-limited transmission spectrum of the rubidium dimer, suitable for frequency calibration of near infrared (e.g. Ti:sapphire) excitation experiments in the region 9500-12 300 cm -1. It provides an abundant source of reference peaks that can be used in a graphic environment to calibrate short (<1 cm -1) scans of excitation spectrum. This is a sequel to an iodine atlas in ascii format [1] that we routinely use for the same purpose in the visible spectrum. The rubidium spectrum was recorded at an instrumental resolution of 0.018 cm -1. Absolute precision is expected to be ˜0.005 cm -1, and relative precision ˜0.003 cm -1. The Rb 2 A-X transmission spectrum is available in ascii format, as supplementary material.

  20. CT dose equilibration and energy absorption in polyethylene cylinders with diameters from 6 to 55 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: ICRU Report No. 87 Committee and AAPM Task Group 200 designed a three-sectional polyethylene phantom of 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in length for evaluating the midpoint dose D{sub L}(0) and its rise-to-the-equilibrium curve H(L) = D{sub L}(0)/D{sub eq} from computed tomography (CT) scanning, where D{sub eq} is the equilibrium dose. To aid the use of the phantom in radiation dose assessment and to gain an understanding of dose equilibration and energy absorption in polyethylene, the authors evaluated the short (20 cm) to long (60 cm) phantom dose ratio with a polyethylene diameter of 30 cm, assessed H(L) in polyethylene cylinders of 6–55 cm in diameters, and examined energy absorption in these cylinders. Methods: A GEANT4-based Monte Carlo program was used to simulate the single axial scans of polyethylene cylinders (diameters 6–55 cm and length 90 cm, as well as diameter 30 cm and lengths 20 and 60 cm) on a clinical CT scanner (Somatom Definition dual source CT, Siemens Healthcare). Axial dose distributions were computed on the phantom central and peripheral axes. An average dose over the central 23 or 100 mm region was evaluated for modeling dose measurement using a 0.6 cm{sup 3} thimble chamber or a 10 cm long pencil ion chamber, respectively. The short (20 cm) to long (90 cm) phantom dose ratios were calculated for the 30 cm diameter polyethylene phantoms scanned at four tube voltages (80–140 kV) and a range of beam apertures (1–25 cm). H(L) was evaluated using the dose integrals computed with the 90 cm long phantoms. The resultant H(L) data were subsequently used to compute the fraction of the total energy absorbed inside or outside the scan range (E{sub in}/E or E{sub out}/E) on the phantom central and peripheral axes, where E = LD{sub eq} was the total energy absorbed along the z axis. Results: The midpoint dose in the 60 cm long polyethylene phantom was equal to that in the 90 cm long polyethylene phantom. The short-to-long phantom dose

  1. Assessment of capacity sensors for monitoring soil water content in ecological orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrícia Prazeres Marques, Karina; Horcajo, Daniel; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Water is an important element for soil tillage and crop development. Its proper management is essential for the development of plants, by preventing excess or shortage in water application. Soil water content is affected by the soil-water-plant system and its monitoring is a required within a sustainable agriculture framework respectful with the natural environment. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of capacitive sensors in monitoring soil moisture from organic orchards. An experimental text was carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory of the Agricultural Engineering School in the Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain). Soil samples were collected within the 0-20 cm depth layers from the university organic orchard. The samples were air dried and subsequently sieved in a 2 mm mesh sieve, removing roots and coarse fractions and keeping the fine soil. The amount of fine soil was calculated from the soil density and the soil samples were compacted to obtain the relative volume that corresponded to their density. The measurements were carried out in dry and in saturated soil and, also in samples where soil was stirring with: 150 cm³, 300 cm³ and 450 cm³ of water. A 1890 ml container was used to hold the fine soil and the soil moisture sensor ECH2O, type 10 HS (Decagon Devices, Inc.) was placed horizontally at 5 cm depth. Soil water readings were recorded on a datalogger Em5b from the same manufacturer. The results showed that the capacitive sensor has a linear response to soil moisture content. Its value was overestimated in comparison to the volumetric values and the largest errors (about 8%) were observed in the soils with high moisture contents. Overall, these results point out that the ECH2O sensor, model 10 HS, could determine with sufficient accuracy the volumetric soil water content from organic orchards although it could be further improved by "in situ" calibration.

  2. Impact of repeated chlorotoluron application on its degradation in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocarek, Martin; Kodesova, Radka; Drabek, Ondrej; Kozak, Josef

    2010-05-01

    The effect of repeated chlorotoluron application on its degradation was studied under the field condition in Haplic Chernozem. Chlorotoluron was applied repeatedly (dose of 0.025 mg.m-2) on the top of the soil profile in years 2006, 2008 and 2009. Climatic data as a daily minimal and maximal temperature and daily rainfall were collected during the experiment. Pressure heads at 4 depths (10, 25, 50, 80 cm) were measured using tensiometers. Soil-water contents and temperatures at 5 depths (5, 10, 25, 50, 80 cm) were monitored using the ECH20 EC-TE sensors. The suction cups were used to take soil-water samples at various depths (5, 10, 25, 50 cm) to indentify presence of the herbicide during 140 days period. In addition, soil samples were taken from layers 2 cm thick (to the depth of 50 cm) 35, 50 and 140 day after the herbicide application to measure a total content of the applied herbicide in each layer within the soil profile. Herbicide concentrations in soil extracts and soil water samples were analyzed using the HPLC technology. The total chlorotoluron content within the monitored soil profile was evaluated, and the herbicide field degradation rate and half-life were calculated. Chlorotoluron was not detected below the depth of 32 cm during the entire experimental periods. Chlorotoluron field half-lives estimated in this study were 28.4, 33.4 and 32.3 days in 2006, 2008 and 2009, respectively. The herbicide half-lives were also measured in the laboratory under the controlled soil-water content and temperature conditions: 20.6 days (28 C, 40% soil-water content per mass), 33.16 days (28 C, 20% soil-water content per mass); 27.76 days (20 C, 40% soil-water content per mass); 39.85 days (20 C, 20% soil-water content per mass); 32.27 days (10 C, 40% soil-water content per mass); 45.7 days (10 C, 20% soil-water content per mass). The field herbicide half-lives (obtained under the similar average temperature and soil-water content conditions) corresponded to half

  3. Role of the CM2 Protein in the Influenza C Virus Replication Cycle ▿

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Takatoshi; Muraki, Yasushi; Noda, Takeshi; Takashita, Emi; Sho, Ri; Sugawara, Kanetsu; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Shimotai, Yoshitaka; Hongo, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    CM2 is the second membrane protein of influenza C virus. Although its biochemical characteristics, coding strategy, and properties as an ion channel have been extensively studied, the role(s) of CM2 in the virus replication cycle remains to be clarified. In order to elucidate this role, in the present study we generated CM2-deficient influenza C virus-like particles (VLPs) and examined the VLP-producing 293T cells, VLPs, and VLP-infected HMV-II cells. Quantification of viral RNA (vRNA) in the VLPs by real-time PCR revealed that the CM2-deficient VLPs contain approximately one-third of the vRNA found in wild-type VLPs although no significant differences were detected in the expression levels of viral components in VLP-producing cells or in the number and morphology of the generated VLPs. This finding suggests that CM2 is involved in the genome packaging process into VLPs. Furthermore, HMV-II cells infected with CM2-deficient VLPs exhibited significantly reduced reporter gene expression. Although CM2-deficient VLPs could be internalized into HMV-II cells as efficiently as wild-type VLPs, a smaller amount of vRNA was detected in the nuclear fraction of CM2-deficient VLP-infected cells than in that of wild-type VLP-infected cells, suggesting that the uncoating process of the CM2-deficient VLPs in the infected cells did not proceed in an appropriate manner. Taken together, the data obtained in the present study indicate that CM2 has a potential role in the genome packaging and uncoating processes of the virus replication cycle. PMID:21106743

  4. European GEMAS mapping of agricultural soils: Arsenic results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, Timo; Reimann, Clemens; Albanese, Stefano; Birke, Manfred; Poňavič, Michal; Ladenberger, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The GEMAS data set provides a homogenised overview of arsenic distribution in agricultural (Ap horizon, 0-20 cm) and grazing land soil (Gr, 0-10 cm) of Europe. The GEMAS mapping project covers western Europe at a sample density of 1 site/2500 km2. Arsenic concentrations are reported for the

  5. TCE TRANSPORT AND DEGRADATION IN SOIL USING ELECTROOSMOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were used to characterize the transport and chemical transformation of TCE in undisturbed soil cores. Electroosmotic fluid flow was vertically downwards from anode to cathode. A voltage of 1.4 V/cm was applied to the soil for 4 weeks. More than 95% of the T...

  6. Summer soil moisture spatiotemporal variability in southeastern Arizona

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture is important for many applications, but its measurements are lacking globally and even regionally. The Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in southeastern Arizona has measured nearsurface 5-cm soil moisture with 19 in situ probes since 2002 within its 150km2 area. Using various ...

  7. Benchmarking the inelastic neutron scattering soil carbon method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The herein described inelastic neutron scattering (INS) method of measuring soil carbon was based on a new procedure for extracting the net carbon signal (NCS) from the measured gamma spectra and determination of the average carbon weight percent (AvgCw%) in the upper soil layer (~8 cm). The NCS ext...

  8. Deep Soil: Quantifying and Modeling Subsurface Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, J. N.; Devine, W.; Harrison, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Some soil carbon datasets that are spatially rich, such as the USDA Forest Service Inventory and Analysis National Program dataset, sample soil to only 20 cm (8 inches), despite evidence that substantial stores of soil C can be found deeper in the soil profile. The maximum extent of tree rooting is typically many meters deep and provides: direct exchange with the soil solution; redistribution of water from deep horizons toward the surface during times of drought; resources for active microbial communities in deep soil around root channels; and direct carbon inputs through exudates and root turnover. This study examined soil carbon to a depth of 2.5 meters across 22 soils in Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forests. Excavations at 20 additional sites took place in summer 2014, greatly expanding the spatial coverage and extent of the data set. Forest floor and mineral soil bulk density samples were collected at depths of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 meters. Pool estimates from systematic sampling depths shallower than 1.5 m yielded significantly smaller estimates than the total soil stock to 2.5 meters (P<0.01). On average, only 5% of soil C was found in the litter layer, 35% was found below 0.5 meter, and 21% was found below 1.0 meter. Due to the difficulty of excavating and measuring deep soil carbon, a series of nonlinear mixed effect models were fit to the data to predict deep soil carbon stocks given sampling to 1.0 meter. A model using an inverse polynomial function predicted soil carbon to 2.5 meters with -5.6% mean error. The largest errors occurred in Andisols with non-crystalline minerals, which can adsorb large quantities of carbon on mineral surfaces and preserve it from decomposition. An accurate spatial dataset of soil depth to bedrock would be extremely useful to constrain models of the vertical distribution of soil carbon. Efforts to represent carbon in spatial models would benefit from considering the vertical distribution of carbon in soil. Sampling

  9. Potential of microwaves to control plant-parasitic nematodes in soil.

    PubMed

    Rahi, Gurcharan S; Rich, Jimmy R

    2008-01-01

    Microwave radiation of 2450 MHz frequency was used to irradiate sandy loam soil placed in 12 cm high and 10 cm dia columns as a function of exposure times of 30, 45, 60, and 120 s. This was done to evaluate the effect of radiation on the highest soil temperature attained and subsequent temperature patterns in relation to time. Soil columns were packed to a field bulk density of approximately 1.4 g/cm3, and treatments consisted of moist soil, dry soil, and layers of moist and dry soil of varying thicknesses. Moisture contents of moist and dry soil were 10% and 2%, respectively, on a dry mass basis. An exposure time of 45 seconds was the most efficient in yielding soil temperatures high enough to kill plant-parasitic nematodes. Irradiation of soil infested with Rotylenchulus reniform nematodes for 45 seconds resulted in a 99% extermination of the organisms in all treatments. However, radiation proved to be most effective in nematode control with 6.0 cm dry soil placed over 6.0 cm moist soil.

  10. Potential of microwaves to control plant-parasitic nematodes in soil.

    PubMed

    Rahi, Gurcharan S; Rich, Jimmy R

    2008-01-01

    Microwave radiation of 2450 MHz frequency was used to irradiate sandy loam soil placed in 12 cm high and 10 cm dia columns as a function of exposure times of 30, 45, 60, and 120 s. This was done to evaluate the effect of radiation on the highest soil temperature attained and subsequent temperature patterns in relation to time. Soil columns were packed to a field bulk density of approximately 1.4 g/cm3, and treatments consisted of moist soil, dry soil, and layers of moist and dry soil of varying thicknesses. Moisture contents of moist and dry soil were 10% and 2%, respectively, on a dry mass basis. An exposure time of 45 seconds was the most efficient in yielding soil temperatures high enough to kill plant-parasitic nematodes. Irradiation of soil infested with Rotylenchulus reniform nematodes for 45 seconds resulted in a 99% extermination of the organisms in all treatments. However, radiation proved to be most effective in nematode control with 6.0 cm dry soil placed over 6.0 cm moist soil. PMID:19227078

  11. Can ethyl glucuronide in hair be determined only in 3 cm hair strands?

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Ferreira, Liliane Martins; Yegles, Michel

    2012-05-10

    This paper addresses the suitability of ethyl glucuronide in hair (EtGH) strands other than 3cm for alcohol consumption. This issue will be addressed (a) by statistically comparing the distribution of EtGH results for 3cm hair strands to other hair strands analysed from 4126 cases and (b) by examining the stability of EtGH in an 8cm hair strand and two 12cm hair samples of two volunteers and a post-mortem case using 1cm segmental analysis. For 3464 driving license re-granting Medical and Psychological Assessment (MPA) cases, the detection of alcohol consumption using hair lengths longer than 3cm was never significantly less than for 3cm hair lengths, even up to 12cm hair lengths analysed non-segmented. For 662 non-MPA cases, where, in contrast to MPA cases, generally no abstinence was required, an increase in the EtGH positivity rate was observed with increasing hair length analysed up to 9cm, indicating that EtG-washout effects seem to play a minor role if any. For both MPA and non-MPA hair samples less than 3cm, a drastic, significant increase in the number of positive EtGH samples were observed, compared to 3cm hair lengths, strongly supportive of EtGH incorporation from sweat after a recent alcohol consumption. Segmental studies indicated that EtG is stable in the hair matrix up to 12cm long, hence supporting the above results. Even though both the statistical and the stability studies are preliminary results which need to be confirmed by other studies, they both provide evidence for the determination of alcohol consumption using EtGH in hair lengths longer than 3cm. Amendments to the Consensus of the Society of Hair Testing, the German driving license re-granting guidelines and EWDTS hair guidelines with respect to testing for abstinence and/or alcoholism are proposed for the benefit of the donors. PMID:22019395

  12. Evaluation of HCMM data for assessing soil moisture and water table depth. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Heilman, J. L.; Tunheim, J. A.; Westin, F. C.; Heilman, W. E.; Beutler, G. A.; Ness, S. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Soil moisture in the 0-cm to 4-cm layer could be estimated with 1-mm soil temperatures throughout the growing season of a rainfed barley crop in eastern South Dakota. Empirical equations were developed to reduce the effect of canopy cover when radiometrically estimating the soil temperature. Corrective equations were applied to an aircraft simulation of HCMM data for a diversity of crop types and land cover conditions to estimate the soil moisture. The average difference between observed and measured soil moisture was 1.6% of field capacity. Shallow alluvial aquifers were located with HCMM predawn data. After correcting the data for vegetation differences, equations were developed for predicting water table depths within the aquifer. A finite difference code simulating soil moisture and soil temperature shows that soils with different moisture profiles differed in soil temperatures in a well defined functional manner. A significant surface thermal anomaly was found to be associated with shallow water tables.

  13. Invariant Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Respiration with Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks Pries, C.; Torn, M. S.; Castanha, C.; Porras, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Over half of global soil organic carbon (SOC) is stored in subsurface soils (>30 cm), but little is known about the vulnerability of this deep SOC to climate change. Most soil warming experiments have only warmed surface soils, so the temperature sensitivity of deeper SOC and its potential to generate a positive feedback to climate change is undetermined. We are currently investigating how SOC down to 1 m deep responds to experimental in situ soil warming (+4°C). Our field site is a coniferous forest in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada in California, USA, whose soils are sandy, mixed, mesic Ultic Haploxeralfs. Our objectives are to understand (1) how the mechanisms controlling SOC turnover differ with depth and (2) how the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration differs by depth. Warming began in October 2013, and we have successfully warmed 1 m of the soil profile to 4°C (±0.5) above ambient temperatures at each depth and maintained this warming throughout different seasons. We have taken monthly surface CO2 flux measurements and monthly gas samples from stainless steel tubes at 15, 30, 50, 70, and 90 cm depths. We have collected soil water from tension lysimeters at 30 and 70 cm after large rain events. Warming has increased CO2 production at all depths of the warmed plots. Warming has also significantly increased soil respiration from the surface by 39% relative to the control and increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in soil water at both depths. The apparent Q10 of surface soil respiration and CO2 production at all depths is greater than 2, indicating that decomposition is similarly temperature sensitive at all depths. This study is one of the first to test whole-profile SOC responses to warming and shows that deep soil carbon is equally vulnerable to climate change in these upland mineral soils.

  14. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated by cadmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watai, H.; Miyazaki, T.; Fujikawa, T.; Mizoguchi, M.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a technique to clean up soils contaminated with heavy metals. Advantages of this method are that (1) This technique is suitable to cleanup soils slightly contaminated with heavy metals in relatively wide area. (2) The expense for clean up is lower than civil engineering techniques. (3) This method can remove heavy metals fundamentally from contaminated. (4) The heavy metals are able to recycle by ashing of plants. Many researches have been done on the phytoremediation up to now, but almost all these researches were devoted to clarify the phytoremediation from the view point of plants themselves. However, few efforts have been devoted to analyze the migrations of heavy metals in soils during the phytoremediation process. The objective of this study is to clarify the features of Cd migration when plant roots are absorbing Cd from the ambient soils. Especially, we focused on finding the Cd migration pattern by changing the soil condition such as plant growing periods, planting densities, and the initial Cd concentration in soils. We planted sunflowers in columns filled with Cd contaminated soils because sunflower is a well-known hyperaccumulator of Cd from soils. By cutting the shoots of plants at the soil surface, and by keeping the plant roots in the soils without disturbance, the Cd concentrations, moisture contents, pH distributions, EC distributions, and dry weight of residual roots in the soils were carefully analyzed. The experimental results showed that (1)The growth of the planted sunflowers were suffered by applying of Cd. (2)The decrease of suction was affected by water uptake by roots at the depth from 0 to 5 cm. Water contents with plants in soils decrease more than without plants. (3)Cd adsorption by roots was predominant within 5cm from soil surface. In addition, it was also shown that there was an optimal Cd concentration where Cd is most effectively adsorbed by the plant. In this experiment we found that 40 to 60 mg kg-1 was the

  15. Distributions and concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H B; Luo, Y M; Wong, M H; Zhao, Q G; Zhang, G L

    2006-05-01

    Surface soil (0-10 cm) samples from 53 sampling sites including rural and urban areas of Hong Kong were collected and analyzed for 16 EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total PAH concentrations were in the range of 7.0-410 microg kg(-1) (dry wt), with higher concentrations in urban soils than that in rural soils. The three predominant PAHs were Fluoranthene, Naphthalene and Pyrene in rural soils, while Fluoranthene, Naphthalene and Benzo(b + k)fluoranthene dominated the PAHs of urban soils. The values of PAHs isomer indicated that biomass burning might be the major origin of PAHs in rural soils, but vehicular emission around the heavy traffic roads might contribute to the soil PAHs in urban areas. A cluster analysis was performed and grouped the detectable PAHs under 4 clusters, which could be indicative of the PAHs with different origins and PAHs affected by soil organic carbon contents respectively. PMID:16242223

  16. Glucosinolates in collard greens grown under three soil management practices.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs, β-D-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfates) are polar compounds present in varying amounts in members of the Brassicaceae family. They suppress soil-borne pests due to the biofumigant properties of the highly toxic isothiocyanates present in Brassica vegetables. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) assess variation in GSLs concentrations among collard plants grown under three soil management practices: sewage sludge (SS) mixed with native soil, chicken manure (CM) mixed with native soil, and no-mulch (NM) native soil, (2) quantify GSLs concentrations in collard roots, leaves, and stems at harvest for potential use of their crude extracts in plant protection, and (3) assess myrosinase activity in soil amended with CM and SS mixed with native soil. Separation of GSLs was accomplished by adsorption on a DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange resin using disposable pipette tips filled with DEAE, a weak base, with a net positive charge when ionized and exchange anions such as GSLs (hydrophilic plant secondary metabolites). Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of collard endogenous myrosinase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSLs molecule by addition of standardized myrosinase and colorimetric determination of the liberated glucose moiety. Across all treatments, SS and CM increased soil organic matter content from 2.2% in native soil to 4.2 and 6.5%, respectively. GSLs concentrations were significantly greater in collard leaves (30.9 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight) compared to roots and stems (7.8 and 1.2 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight), respectively. Leaves of collard grown in soil amended with SS contained the greatest concentrations of GSLs compared to leaves of plants grown in CM and NM treatments. Accordingly, leaves of collard plants grown in soil amended with SS could play a significant role in sustainable agriculture as alternative tools for soil-borne disease management in conventional and organic agriculture. PMID

  17. Glucosinolates in collard greens grown under three soil management practices.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs, β-D-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfates) are polar compounds present in varying amounts in members of the Brassicaceae family. They suppress soil-borne pests due to the biofumigant properties of the highly toxic isothiocyanates present in Brassica vegetables. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) assess variation in GSLs concentrations among collard plants grown under three soil management practices: sewage sludge (SS) mixed with native soil, chicken manure (CM) mixed with native soil, and no-mulch (NM) native soil, (2) quantify GSLs concentrations in collard roots, leaves, and stems at harvest for potential use of their crude extracts in plant protection, and (3) assess myrosinase activity in soil amended with CM and SS mixed with native soil. Separation of GSLs was accomplished by adsorption on a DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange resin using disposable pipette tips filled with DEAE, a weak base, with a net positive charge when ionized and exchange anions such as GSLs (hydrophilic plant secondary metabolites). Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of collard endogenous myrosinase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSLs molecule by addition of standardized myrosinase and colorimetric determination of the liberated glucose moiety. Across all treatments, SS and CM increased soil organic matter content from 2.2% in native soil to 4.2 and 6.5%, respectively. GSLs concentrations were significantly greater in collard leaves (30.9 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight) compared to roots and stems (7.8 and 1.2 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight), respectively. Leaves of collard grown in soil amended with SS contained the greatest concentrations of GSLs compared to leaves of plants grown in CM and NM treatments. Accordingly, leaves of collard plants grown in soil amended with SS could play a significant role in sustainable agriculture as alternative tools for soil-borne disease management in conventional and organic agriculture.

  18. Impact of alpine meadow degradation on soil hydraulic properties over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Quanjiu; Chen, Yingying; Joswiak, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryAlpine meadow soil is an important ecosystem component of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, the alpine meadow soil is undergoing serious degradation mainly due to global climate change, overgrazing, human activities and rodents. In this paper, spatial sequencing was chosen over time succession sequencing to study the changes of soil hydraulic properties under different degrees of alpine meadow degradation. Soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and Gardner α both at the surface and at 40-50 cm depth were investigated in the field using tension infiltrometers. Soil physical and chemical properties, together with the root index at 0-10 cm and 40-50 cm soil layer depths were also analyzed. Pearson correlations were adopted to study the relationships among the investigated factors and principal component analysis was performed to identify the dominant factor. Results show that with increasing degree of degradation, soil sand content increased while soil Ks and Gardner α as well as soil clay content, soil porosity decreased in the 0-10 cm soil layers, and organic matter and root gravimetric density decreased in both the 0-10 cm and 40-50 cm soil layers. However, soil moisture showed no significant changes with increasing degradation. With decreasing pressure head, soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity reduced more slowly under degraded conditions than non-degraded conditions. Soil Ks and Gardner α were significantly correlated (P = 0.01) with bulk density, soil porosity, soil organic matter and root gravimetric density. Among these, soil porosity is the dominant factor explaining about 90% of the variability in total infiltration flow. Under non-degraded conditions, the infiltration flow principally depended on the presence of macropores. With increasing degree of degradation, soil macropores quickly changed to mesopores or micropores. The proportion of total infiltration flow through macropores and mesopores significantly decreased with the most

  19. Detection of Tuber melanosporum DNA in soil.

    PubMed

    Suz, Laura M; Martín, María P; Colinas, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Our objectives were (i) to develop a molecular method to detect mycelia of Tuber melanosporum (black truffle) in soil and (ii) to test for mycelial distribution around two truffle-bearing Quercus ilex trees in a truffle orchard. Isolation of total DNA from soil was performed, followed by PCR amplification with T. melanosporum-specific primers and restriction analysis. To address the detection sensitivity level, soil samples were inoculated with known amounts of gleba of T. melanosporum. The detection limit was >/=11.4 mug of hyphae g(-1) of soil. Mycelium was detected primarily within the area defined by the truffle burn and within the top 35 cm of the soil in all directions from the trees.

  20. Designing a stencil compiler for the Connection Machine model CM-5

    SciTech Connect

    Brickner, R.G.; Holian, K.; Thiagarajan, B.; Johnsson, S.L. |

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the authors present the design of a stencil compiler for the Connection Machine system CM-5. The stencil compiler will optimize the data motion between processing nodes, minimize the data motion within a node, and minimize the data motion between registers and local memory in a node. The compiler will natively support two-dimensional stencils, but stencils in three dimensions will be automatically decomposed. Lower dimensional stencils are treated as degenerate stencils. The compiler will be integrated as part of the CM Fortran programming system. Much of the compiler code will be adapted from the CM-2/200 stencil compiler, which is part of CMSSL (the Connection Machine Scientific Software Library) Release 3.1 for the CM-2/200, and the compiler will be available as part of the Connection Machine Scientific Software Library (CMSSL) for the CM-5. In addition to setting down design considerations, they report on the implementation status of the stencil compiler. In particular, they discuss optimization strategies and status of code conversion from CM-2/200 to CM-5 architecture, and report on the measured performance of prototype target code which the compiler will generate.

  1. [Protective effect and mechanism of β-CM7 on renin angiotensin system & diabetic cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Han, Dongning; Zhang, Yujuan; Rong, Chao; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2016-02-01

    This article aimed at exploring the effects and protective mechanism of β-CM7 on renin angiotensin system (RAS) in diabetic rats myocardial tissue. We divided 32 male SD rats into 4 groups: control group, diabetic model control group, insulin (3.7x10(-8) mol/d) treatment group and β-CM7 (7.5x10(-8) mol/d) treatment group. After 30 days, all rats were decapitated and myocardical tissues were collected immediately. After injection, β-CM7 could decrease the content of Ang II, increase the content of Angl-7. And β-CM7 could improve the mRNA of AT1 receptor and Mas receptor. β-CM7 also could improve the mRNA of ACE and ACE2, enhance the activity of ACE and ACE2. These data confirmed tli β-CM7 could activate ACE2-Angl-7-Mas axis, negative passage in RAS, to inhibit the expression ACE mnRiJA and protein in rat myocardium, alleviate the myocardial tissue damage induced by Ang II. The effect of β-CM7 on inhibiting myocardium damage might be related to ACE/ACE2 passageway. PMID:27382769

  2. Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (CmSPI) in Potyviruses Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Chung, Chien-Hung; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2015-07-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are ubiquitous proteins that block the active center or interact allosterically with proteinases and are involved in plant physiological processes and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The CmSPI gene identified from Cucumis metuliferus encodes a serine type PI (8 kDa) that belongs to potato I type family. To evaluate the effect of silencing CmSPI gene on Papaya ringspot virus resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) with an inter-space hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct was introduced into a PRSV-resistant C. metuliferus line. CmSPI was down-regulated in CmSPI RNAi transgenic lines in which synchronously PRSV symptoms were evident at 21 day post inoculation. Alternatively, heterogeneous expression of CmSPI in Nicotiana benthamiana was also conducted and showed that CmSPI can provide resistance to Potato virus Y, another member of Potyvirus, in transgenic N. benthamiana lines. This study demonstrated that CmSPI plays an important role in resistant function against potyviruses in C. metuliferus and N. benthamiana. PMID:26184285

  3. Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (CmSPI) in Potyviruses Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Chung, Chien-Hung; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are ubiquitous proteins that block the active center or interact allosterically with proteinases and are involved in plant physiological processes and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The CmSPI gene identified from Cucumis metuliferus encodes a serine type PI (8 kDa) that belongs to potato I type family. To evaluate the effect of silencing CmSPI gene on Papaya ringspot virus resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) with an inter-space hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct was introduced into a PRSV-resistant C. metuliferus line. CmSPI was down-regulated in CmSPI RNAi transgenic lines in which synchronously PRSV symptoms were evident at 21 day post inoculation. Alternatively, heterogeneous expression of CmSPI in Nicotiana benthamiana was also conducted and showed that CmSPI can provide resistance to Potato virus Y, another member of Potyvirus, in transgenic N. benthamiana lines. This study demonstrated that CmSPI plays an important role in resistant function against potyviruses in C. metuliferus and N. benthamiana. PMID:26184285

  4. Fe-Ni metal and sulfide minerals in CM chondrites: An indicator for thermal history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimura, M.; Grossman, J.N.; Weisberg, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    CM chondrites were subjected to aqueous alteration and, in some cases, to secondary metamorphic heating. The effects of these processes vary widely, and have mainly been documented in silicate phases. Herein, we report the characteristic features of Fe-Ni metal and sulfide phases in 13 CM and 2 CM-related chondrites to explore the thermal history of these chondrites. The texture and compositional distribution of the metal in CM are different from those in unequilibrated ordinary and CO chondrites, but most have similarities to those in highly primitive chondrites, such as CH, CR, and Acfer 094. We classified the CM samples into three categories based on metal composition and sulfide texture. Fe-Ni metal in category A is kamacite to martensite. Category B is characterized by pyrrhotite grains always containing blebs or lamellae of pentlandite. Opaque mineral assemblages of category C are typically kamacite, Ni-Co-rich metal, and pyrrhotite. These categories are closely related to the degree of secondary heating and are not related to degree of the aqueous alteration. The characteristic features of the opaque minerals can be explained by secondary heating processes after aqueous alteration. Category A CM chondrites are unheated, whereas those in category B experienced small degrees of secondary heating. CMs in category C were subjected to the most severe secondary heating process. Thus, opaque minerals can provide constraints on the thermal history for CM chondrites. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2011.

  5. Multielectron ultrastrong laser field ionization of Arn+, Krm+ and Xel+ (n <= 9, m <= 9, l <= 12) at intensities from 1015 W cm-2 to 1018 W cm-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniyappan, S.; Di Chiara, A.; Ghebregziabher, I.; Huskins, E. L.; Falkowski, A.; Pajerowski, D.; Walker, B. C.

    2006-07-01

    Ionization yields are reported for Ar, Kr and Xe in ultrastrong fields from 1015 W cm-2 to 1018 W cm-2. Non-sequential ionization (NSI) is shown to be a robust and general feature in ultrahigh field ionization. NSI yields measured are consistent with the trends predicted by a rescattering model, but as one proceeds to higher Z atoms more NSI is observed than predicted theoretically. Additional recollision mechanisms that may need to be considered in future theories of ultrastrong field-atom interactions include 'chain' NSI, NSI from excited states of the atom (e.g. Rydberg states or inner-shell holes) and the possibility of ultrastrong field enhanced recollision/impact processes.

  6. Challenges and remediation for Patient Safety Indicators in the transition to ICD-10-CM

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Andrew D; Yang, Young Min; Li, Jianrong; Kenost, Colleen; Burton, Mike D; Becker, Bryan; Lussier, Yves A

    2015-01-01

    Reporting of hospital adverse events relies on Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The US transition to ICD-10-CM in 2015 could result in erroneous comparisons of PSIs. Using the General Equivalent Mappings (GEMs), we compared the accuracy of ICD-9-CM coded PSIs against recommended ICD-10-CM codes from the Centers for Medicaid/Medicare Services (CMS). We further predict their impact in a cohort of 38 644 patients (1 446 581 visits and 399 hospitals). We compared the predicted results to the published PSI related ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. We provide the first report of substantial hospital safety reporting errors with five direct comparisons from the 23 types of PSIs (transfusion and anesthesia related PSIs). One PSI was excluded from the comparison between code sets due to reorganization, while 15 additional PSIs were inaccurate to a lesser degree due to the complexity of the coding translation. The ICD-10-CM translations proposed by CMS pose impending risks for (1) comparing safety incidents, (2) inflating the number of PSIs, and (3) increasing the variability of calculations attributable to the abundance of coding system translations. Ethical organizations addressing ‘data-, process-, and system-focused’ improvements could be penalized using the new ICD-10-CM Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality PSIs because of apparent increases in PSIs bearing the same PSI identifier and label, yet calculated differently. Here we investigate which PSIs would reliably transition between ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM, and those at risk of under-reporting and over-reporting adverse events while the frequency of these adverse events remain unchanged. PMID:25186492

  7. Rock fraction effects on the interpretation of microwave emission from soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Kostov, Kosta G.; Saatchi, Sasan S.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the rock fraction of soil on emissivity is presently investigated through a combination of laboratory dielectric measurements and field observation of emissivity from soils with and without rocks. The rock fraction reduced the range of emissivity; beyond this, it appears to be important only in determining the moisture in the soil component. Data gathered at 6 cm indicate that the presence of rocks renders this and shorter wavelengths useless as soil-moisture sensors. Modeling of the 21-cm case suggest that rock-fraction effects on soil dielectric properties can be compensated for by the greater surface roughness.

  8. Stress calculations for RTNS-iI 50-cm targets. [Rotating target neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, B.J.; House, P.A.

    1981-04-01

    Structural calculations made during design of a 50-cm target for the Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-II) are detailed. The limited ability of the current 23-cm diameter target to dissipate the additional beam power required for a yield increase from 2 x 10/sup 13/ to 4 x 10/sup 13/ neutrons/second has resulted in the need for a larger target. The stresses of several design configurations for a 50-cm target were calculated. The stress contours that would occur in several different target designs with and without various types of structural reinforcement that reduce stress and deflection are presented.

  9. Multigene families of Cellulomonas flavigena encoding endo-beta-1,4-glucanases (CM-cellulases).

    PubMed

    Akhtar, M W; Duffy, M; Dowds, B C; Sheehan, M C; McConnell, D J

    1988-12-30

    Multiple genes coding for endo-beta-1,4-glucanases (CM-cellulases) have been isolated from a newly discovered highly cellulolytic strain of Cellulomonas flavigena. Clones of C. flavigena DNA were isolated in Escherichia coli and screened for gene expression on CM-cellulose plates staining with congo red. Six clones produced CM-cellulase activity as detected in liquid assays, and on activity gels. They fell into three groups within which the sequences cross-hybridised. There were small differences in the pH and temperature optima of the enzymes encoded by representatives of the three groups of clones.

  10. Rock fragments induce patchy distribution of soil water repellency in burned soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel; García-Moreno, Jorge; Bárcenas-Moreno, Gema; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.

    2013-04-01

    %). Soil WR was assessed in soil samples (0-10 cm) collected monthly during 6 monhts after burning. In the second case, a fire-affected forest soil from Calañas (Huelva, southweastern Spain) was studied. Soil plots under different fire severities (low, medium and high severity burning) and rock fragment cover classes (20-40 and 60-80%) were analyzed. Soil WR was assessed in the soil surface immediately under the vertical projection of randomly selected stones and in the middle point between these and the nearest stones. Unburned adjacent soils under similar rock fragment cover classes were used as control. All soil WR assessments were carried out using the WDPT method. RESULTS In both cases, soil WR was induced in the soil surface contacting rock fragments after bur