Science.gov

Sample records for 0-15 cm depth

  1. Magnetic field penetration depth of La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO4 measured by muon spin relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kossler, W. J.; Kempton, J. R.; Yu, X. H.; Schone, H. E.; Uemura, Y. J.

    1987-01-01

    Muon-spin-relaxation measurements have been performed on a high-Tc superconductor La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO4. In an external transverse magnetic field of 500 G, a magnetic field penetration depth of 2000 A at T = 10 K has been determined from the muon-spin-relaxation rate which increased with decreasing temperature below Tc. From this depth and the Pauli susceptibility, the superconducting carrier density is estimated at 3 x 10 to the 21st per cu cm. The zero-field relaxation rates above and below Tc were equal, which suggests that the superconducting state in this sample is not associated with detectable static magnetic ordering.

  2. Muon and neutrino results from KGF experiment at a depth of 7000 hg/square cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Menon, M. G. K.; Mondal, N. K.; Narasimham, V. S.; Streekantan, B. V.; Hayashi, Y.; Ito, N.; Kawakami, S.; Miyake, S.

    1985-01-01

    The KGF nucleon decay experiment at a depth of 7000 hg/sq cm has provided valuable data on muons and neutrinos. The detector comprised of 34 crossed layers of proportional counters (cross section 10 x 10 sq cm; lengths 4m and 6m) sandwiched between 1.2 cm thick iron plates can record tracks of charged particles to an accuracy of 1 deg from tracks that traverse the whole of the detector. A special two-fold coincidence system enables the detector to record charged particles that enter at very large zenith angles. In a live time of 3.6 years about 2600 events have been recorded. These events include atmospheric muons, neutrino induced muons from rock, stopping muons, showers and events which have their production vertex inside the detectors. The results on atmospheric muons and neutrino events are presented.

  3. A case study demonstration of the soil temperature extrema recovery rates after precipitation cooling at 10-cm soil depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Jean Edward

    1991-01-01

    Since the invention of maximum and minimum thermometers in the 18th century, diurnal temperature extrema have been taken for air worldwide. At some stations, these extrema temperatures were collected at various soil depths also, and the behavior of these temperatures at a 10-cm depth at the Tifton Experimental Station in Georgia is presented. After a precipitation cooling event, the diurnal temperature maxima drop to a minimum value and then start a recovery to higher values (similar to thermal inertia). This recovery represents a measure of response to heating as a function of soil moisture and soil property. Eight different curves were fitted to a wide variety of data sets for different stations and years, and both power and exponential curves were fitted to a wide variety of data sets for different stations and years. Both power and exponential curve fits were consistently found to be statistically accurate least-square fit representations of the raw data recovery values. The predictive procedures used here were multivariate regression analyses, which are applicable to soils at a variety of depths besides the 10-cm depth presented.

  4. Precise Measurement of the Reionization Optical Depth from the Global 21 cm Signal Accounting for Cosmic Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    As a result of our limited data on reionization, the total optical depth for electron scattering, τ, limits precision measurements of cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). It was recently shown that the predicted 21 cm signal of neutral hydrogen contains enough information to reconstruct τ with sub-percent accuracy, assuming that the neutral gas was much hotter than the CMB throughout the entire epoch of reionization (EoR). Here we relax this assumption and use the global 21 cm signal alone to extract τ for realistic X-ray heating scenarios. We test our model-independent approach using mock data for a wide range of ionization and heating histories and show that an accurate measurement of the reionization optical depth at a sub-percent level is possible in most of the considered scenarios even when heating is not saturated during the EoR, assuming that the foregrounds are mitigated. However, we find that in cases where heating sources had hard X-ray spectra and their luminosity was close to or lower than what is predicted based on low-redshift observations, the global 21 cm signal alone is not a good tracer of the reionization history.

  5. Estimation of CO2 diffusion coefficient at 0-10 cm depth in undisturbed and tilled soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diffusion coefficients (D) of CO2 at 0 – 10 cm layers in undisturbed and tilled soil conditions were estimated using Penman, Millington-Quirk, Ridgwell et al. (1999), Troeh et al., and Moldrup et al. models. Soil bulk density and volumetric soil water content ('v) at 0 – 10 cm were measured on April...

  6. Depth

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space—a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues. PMID:23145244

  7. Depth.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space-a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues.

  8. Droplet size spectra and water-vapor concentration of laboratory water clouds: inversion of Fourier transform infrared (500-5000 cm(-1)) optical-depth measurement.

    PubMed

    Arnott, W P; Schmitt, C; Liu, Y; Hallett, J

    1997-07-20

    Infrared extinction optical depth (500-5000 cm(-1)) has been measured with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for clouds produced with an ultrasonic nebulizer. Direct measurement of the cloud droplet size spectra agree with size spectra retrieved from inversion of the extinction measurements. Both indicate that the range of droplet sizes is 1-14 mum. The retrieval was accomplished with an iterative algorithm that simultaneously obtains water-vapor concentration. The basis set of droplet extinction functions are computed once by using numerical integration of the Lorenz-Mie theory over narrow size bins, and a measured water-vapor extinction curve was used. Extinction and size spectra are measured and computed for both steady-state and dissipating clouds. It is demonstrated that anomalous diffraction theory produces relatively poor droplet size and synthetic extinction spectra and that extinction measurements are helpful in assessing the validity of various theories. Calculations of cloud liquid-water content from retrieved size distributions agree with a parameterization based on optical-depth measurements at a wave number of 906 cm(-1) for clouds that satisfy the size spectral range assumptions of the parameterization. Significance of droplet and vapor contribution to the total optical depth is used to evaluate the reliability of spectral inversions. PMID:18259335

  9. Droplet size spectra and water-vapor concentration of laboratory water clouds: inversion of Fourier transform infrared (500-5000 cm(-1)) optical-depth measurement.

    PubMed

    Arnott, W P; Schmitt, C; Liu, Y; Hallett, J

    1997-07-20

    Infrared extinction optical depth (500-5000 cm(-1)) has been measured with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for clouds produced with an ultrasonic nebulizer. Direct measurement of the cloud droplet size spectra agree with size spectra retrieved from inversion of the extinction measurements. Both indicate that the range of droplet sizes is 1-14 mum. The retrieval was accomplished with an iterative algorithm that simultaneously obtains water-vapor concentration. The basis set of droplet extinction functions are computed once by using numerical integration of the Lorenz-Mie theory over narrow size bins, and a measured water-vapor extinction curve was used. Extinction and size spectra are measured and computed for both steady-state and dissipating clouds. It is demonstrated that anomalous diffraction theory produces relatively poor droplet size and synthetic extinction spectra and that extinction measurements are helpful in assessing the validity of various theories. Calculations of cloud liquid-water content from retrieved size distributions agree with a parameterization based on optical-depth measurements at a wave number of 906 cm(-1) for clouds that satisfy the size spectral range assumptions of the parameterization. Significance of droplet and vapor contribution to the total optical depth is used to evaluate the reliability of spectral inversions.

  10. 28 CFR 0.15 - Deputy Attorney General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 0.15, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding..., or political opinion. (2) Review cases decided by the Board of Immigration Appeals pursuant to 8 CFR... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deputy Attorney General. 0.15 Section...

  11. Depth Matters: Soil pH and dilution effects in the northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the northern Great Plans (NGP), surface sampling depths of 0-15.2 cm or 0-20.3 cm are suggested for testing soil characteristics such as pH. However, acidification is often most pronounced near-surface (e.g., <10 cm). Thus, sampling deeper can potentially dilute (increase) pH measurements and the...

  12. UNIFORM INFALL TOWARD THE COMETARY H II REGION IN THE G34.26+0.15 COMPLEX?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei E-mail: ywu@pku.edu.cn

    2013-10-10

    Gas accretion is a key process in star formation. However, gas infall detections in high-mass, star-forming regions with high spatial resolution observations are rare. Here, we report the detection of gas infall toward a cometary ultracompact H II region ({sup C)} in the G34.26+0.15 complex. The observations were made with the IRAM 30 m, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope 15 m telescope, and the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The hot core associated with 'C' has a mass of ∼76 ± 11 M{sub ☉} and a volume density of (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 8} cm{sup –3}. The HCN (3-2) and HCO{sup +} (1-0) lines observed by single dishes and the CN (2-1) lines observed by the SMA show redshifted absorption features, indicating gas infall. We found a linear relationship between the line width and optical depth of the CN (2-1) lines. Those transitions with larger optical depths and line widths have larger absorption areas. However, the infall velocities measured from different lines seem to be constant, indicating that the gas infall is uniform. We also investigated the evolution of gas infall in high-mass, star-forming regions. A tight relationship was found between the infall velocity and the total dust/gas mass. At stages prior to the hot core phase, the typical infall velocity and mass infall rate are ∼1 km s{sup –1} and ∼10{sup –4} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, respectively. While in more evolved regions, the infall velocity and mass infall rates can reach as high as several km s{sup –1} and ∼10{sup –3}-10{sup –2} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, respectively. Accelerated infall has been detected toward some hypercompact H II and ultracompact H II regions. However, the acceleration phenomenon is not seen in more evolved ultracompact H II regions (e.g., G34.26+0.15)

  13. Optical determination of the superconducting energy gap in electron-doped Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homes, C. C.; Lobo, R. P. S. M.; Fournier, P.; Zimmers, A.; Greene, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    The optical properties of single crystal Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4 have been measured over a wide frequency range above and below the critical temperature (Tc≃20K) . In the normal state the coherent part of the conductivity is described by the Drude model, from which the scattering rate just above Tc is determined to be 1/τ≃80cm-1 . The condition that ℏ/τ≈2kBT near Tc appears to be a general result in many of the cuprate superconductors. Below Tc the formation of a superconducting energy gap is clearly visible in the reflectance, from which the gap maximum is estimated to be Δ0≃35cm-1 (4.3meV) . The ability to observe the superconducting energy gap in the optical properties favors the nonmonotonic over the monotonic description of the d -wave gap. The penetration depth for T≪Tc is λ≃2000Å , which when taken with the estimated value for the dc conductivity just above Tc of σdc≃35×103Ω-1cm-1 places this material on the general scaling line for the cuprates defined by 1/λ2∝σdc(T≃Tc)•Tc . These results are consistent with the observation that 1/τ≈2Δ0 , which implies that the material is not in the clean limit.

  14. Synthesis and Hydrogen Desorption Properties of Mg1.7Al0.15Ti0.15Ni-CNT Nanocomposite Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enayati, M. H.; Karimzadeh, F.; Jafari, M.; Sabooni, S.

    2015-03-01

    In this research, the effects of nanocrystallization and incorporation of aluminum, titanium, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on hydrogen desorption behavior of Mg2Ni alloy were investigated. Toward this purpose, nanocrystalline Mg2Ni intermetallic compound with average grain size of 20 nm was prepared by ball milling of elemental magnesium and nickel powders. Mg2Ni powder was then ball milled with aluminum and titanium powders for 20 h to dissolve these elements into the Mg2Ni structure, leading to the formation of Mg1.7Al0.15Ti0.15Ni compound. The elemental x-ray mapping analysis revealed the uniform dissolution of aluminum and titanium inside the Mg2Ni structure. Mg2Ni and Mg1.7Al0.15Ti0.15Ni compounds were further ball milled with 3 wt.% CNT for 5 h. The high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that CNTs have retained their tubular shape after ball-milling process. The hydrogen desorption properties of the samples were identified using a Sieverts-type apparatus at 473 K. The Mg2Ni, Mg2Ni-CNT, and Mg1.7Ti0.15Al0.15-CNT samples showed the desorbed hydrogen of 0.17, 0.25, and 0.28 wt.% after 1 h, respectively, indicating 47 and 65% increase in the hydrogen desorption capability of Mg2Ni via CNT addition and co-presence of aluminum-titanium-CNT. The direct hydrogen diffusion through CNTs and development of local atomic distortion due to substitution of magnesium atoms by aluminum and titanium appears to be responsible for enhancement of desorption behavior of Mg1.7Al0.15Ti0.15-3 wt.% CNT.

  15. Unconventional superconductivity in CaFe0.85Co0.15AsF evidenced by torque measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hong; Li, X. J.; Mu, G.; Hu, T.

    Out-of-plane angular dependent torque measurements were performed on CaFe0.85Co0.15AsF single crystals. Abnormal superconducting fluctuation, featured by enhanced diamagnetism with magnetic field, is detected up to about 1.5 times superconducting transition temperature Tc. Compared to cuprate superconductors, the fluctuation effect in iron-based superconductor is less pronounced. Anisotropy parameter γ is obtained from the mixed state torque data and it is found that γ shows both magnetic field and temperature depenence, pointing to multiband superconductivity. The temperature dependence of penetration depth λ (T) suggests unconventional superconductivity in CaFe0.85Co0.15AsF.

  16. Experimental observation on a temperature-induced decoupling between the surface states in topological insulator nanoplates Bi2-0.15(TeSe)3+0.15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haoran; Zhang, Kang; Pan, Haiyang; Zeng, Junwen; Chen, Taishi; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Xuefeng; Miao, Feng; Zhang, Rong

    2016-04-01

    We report on the temperature-induced quantum decoupling between the surface states, demonstrated by weak antilocalization measurements, in the topological insulator Bi2-0.15(TeSe)3+0.15 nanoplates. The samples are prepared by a catalyst-free vapor-solid process with the dimension of 10 μm and the thickness of 20 nm. The channel indicator is extracted from the weak antilocalization, which presents a transition from 0.5 to 1 with the increasing temperature. This reveals the coherent decoupling between the two surface states, during which the dephasing length reaches the plate thickness. A bulk-mediated intersurface coupling model interprets the transition.

  17. Ganciclovir ophthalmic gel, 0.15%: a valuable tool for treating ocular herpes

    PubMed Central

    Colin, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Ocular herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection remains a major cause of corneal blindness. Several topical and oral antiviral medications have been used to treat herpetic keratitis. Advances in topical ophthalmic antivirals have been made over the past several decades. The first antivirals that were discovered were cytotoxic, while the antivirals developed more recently, such as acyclovir and ganciclovir, have exceeded these drugs in both efficacy and tolerability. Commercially available outside of the US since 1996, ganciclovir ophthalmic gel, 0.15% (GCV 0.15%, European tradename: Virgan®) is sold in more than 30 countries and has become the standard of care in treating acute herpetic keratitis. GCV 0.15% has been studied in animal models of ocular herpes, in healthy volunteers, and in several clinical studies. It has been found to be safe and effective at treating acute superficial herpetic keratitis. Previous preclinical studies of ganciclovir have shown activity against several common adenovirus strains and one recent clinical study demonstrated clinical effect against adenoviral conjunctivitis. This review is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the GCV 0.15%, including a brief summary of the etiology and available treatments for ocular HSV, an explanation of GCV 0.15% mechanism of action, a compendium of preclinical and clinical GCV 0.15% studies, and an introduction into new areas of interest involving this drug. PMID:19668521

  18. A CM chondrite cluster and CM streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, R. T.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    An elongate year-day concentration of CM meteoroid falls between 1921 and 1969 is inconsistent with a random flux of CM meteoroids and suggests that most or all such meteorites, and perhaps the Kaidun C-E chondrite breccia, resulted from streams of meteoroids in nearly circular, Earth-like orbits. To establish whether the post-1920 cluster might have arisen from random sampling, we determined the year-day distribution of 14 falls between 1879 and 1969 by treating each as the corner of a cell of specified dimensions (e.g. 30 years x 30 days) and calculated how many falls occurred in that cell. We then compared the CM cell distribution with random distributions over the same range of years. The results show that for 30 x 30 and 45 x 45 cells, fewer than 5 percent of random sets match the CM distribution with respect to maximum cell content and number of one-fall cells.

  19. Variations in the depth distribution of phosphorus in soil profiles and implications for model-based catchment-scale predictions of phosphorus delivery to surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, P. N.; Deeks, L. K.; Wood, G. A.; Betson, M. J.; Lord, E. I.; Davison, P. S.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryThe PSYCHIC process-based model for predicting sediment and phosphorus (P) transfer within catchments uses spatial data on soil-P derived from the National Soil Inventory (NSI) data set. These soil-P values are based on bulked 0-15 cm depth and do not account for variations in soil-P with depth. We describe the depth distribution of soil-P (total and Olsen) in grassland and arable soils for the dominant soil types in the two PSYCHIC study catchments: the Avon and the Wye, UK. There were clear variations in soil-P (particularly Olsen-P) concentrations with depth in untilled grassland soils while concentrations of total-P were broadly constant within the plough layer of arable soils. Concentrations of Olsen-P in arable soils, however, exhibited maximum values near the soil surface reflecting surface applications of fertilisers and manures between consecutive ploughing events. When the soil-P concentrations for the surface soil (0-5 cm average) were compared to both the profile-averaged (0-15 cm) and the NSI (0-15 cm) values, those for the surface soil were considerably greater than those for the average 0-15 cm depth. Modelled estimates of P loss using the depth-weighted average soil-P concentrations for the 0-5 cm depth layer were up to 14% greater than those based on the NSI data set due to the preferential accumulation of P at the soil surface. These findings have important implications for the use of soil-P data (and other data) in models to predict P losses from land to water and the interpretation of these predictions for river basin management.

  20. Commensurate magnetic structure of CeRhIn4.85 Hg0.15

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Wei C; Ronning, Filip; Bauer, Eric D; Thompson, Joe D; Gasparovic, Y; Lynn, J; Fisk, Z

    2008-01-01

    We show using neutron diffraction that the magnetic structure of CrRhIn{sub 4.85}Hg{sub 0.15} is characterized by a commensurate propagation vector (1,2,1/2,1/2). This is different from the magnetic structure in the parent compound CeRhIn{sub 5}, which orders with an incommensurate propagation vector (1/2,1/2,0.297). The special relation between the commensurate magnetic mode and unconventional superconductivity has been shown previously for this class of heavy fermion superconductors. This work provides further evidence for the ubiquity of this antiferromagnetic mode.

  1. Ubiquitous CM and DM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    Ubiquitous is a real word. I thank a former Total Quality Coach for my first exposure some years ago to its existence. My version of Webster's dictionary defines ubiquitous as "present, or seeming to be present, everywhere at the same time; omnipresent." While I believe that God is omnipresent, I have come to discover that CM and DM are present everywhere. Oh, yes; I define CM as Configuration Management and DM as either Data or Document Management. Ten years ago, I had my first introduction to the CM world. I had an opportunity to do CM for the Space Station effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center. I learned that CM was a discipline that had four areas of focus: identification, control, status accounting, and verification. I was certified as a CMIl graduate and was indoctrinated about clear, concise, and valid. Off I went into a world of entirely new experiences. I was exposed to change requests and change boards first hand. I also learned about implementation of changes, and then of technical and CM requirements.

  2. Electronic structure of (Ca0.85La0.15)FeAs2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.-H.; Kim, T. K.; Sala, A.; Ogino, H.; Shimoyama, J.; Büchner, B.; Borisenko, S. V.

    2015-02-01

    We report a comprehensive study of orbital character and tridimensional nature of the electronic structure of (Ca0.85La0.15)FeAs2 from recently discovered "112" family of Iron-based superconductors (IBS), with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observed that the band structure is similar to that of "122" family, namely, there are three hole-like bands at the Brillouin zone (BZ) center and two electron-like bands at the BZ corner. The bands near the Fermi level (EF) are mainly derived from the Fe t2g orbitals. On the basis of our present and earlier studies, we classify IBS into the three types according to their crystal structures. We show that although the bands near EF mainly originate from Fe 3d electrons, they are significantly modified by the interaction between the superconducting slabs and the intermediate atoms.

  3. High Curie temperature Bi(1.85)Mn(0.15)Te3 nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lina; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Ma, Song; Zhang, Zhi-dong; Wang, Yong; Xu, Hong-Yi; Yang, Lei; Han, Guang; Jack, Kevin; Lu, Gaoqing Max; Zou, Jin

    2012-11-21

    Bi(1.85)Mn(0.15)Te(3) hexagonal nanoplates with a width of ~200 nm and a thickness of ~20 nm were synthesized using a solvothermal method. According to the structural characterization and compositional analysis, the Mn(2+) and Mn(3+) ions were found to substitute Bi(3+) ions in the lattice. High-level Mn doping induces significant lattice distortion and decreases the crystal lattice by 1.07% in the a axis and 3.18% in the c axis. A high ferromagnetic state with a Curie temperature of ~45 K is observed in these nanoplates due to Mn(2+) and Mn(3+) ion doping, which is a significant progress in the field of electronics and spintronics.

  4. Optical constraints of kerogen from 0.15 to 40 microns: Comparison with meteoritic organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E. T.; Meisse, C.; Gilmour, I.

    1990-01-01

    Kerogens are dark, complex organic materials produced on the Earth primarily by geologic processing of biologic materials, but kerogens have chemical and spectral similarities to some classes of highly processed extraterrestrial organic materials. Kerogen-like solids were proposed as constitutents of the very dark reddish surfaces of some asteroids and are also spectrally similar to some carbonaceous organic residues and the Iapetus dark material. Kerogen can thus serve as a useful laboratory analog to very dark, spectrally red extraterrestrial materials; its optical constants can be used to investigate the effects of particle size, void space and mixing of bright and dark components in models of scattering by dark asteroidal, cometary, and satellite surfaces. Measurements of the optical constants of both Type 2 kerogen and of macromolecular organic residue from the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite via transmission and reflection measurements on thin films are reported. The real part of the refractive index, n, is determined by variable incidence-angle reflectance to be 1.60 + or - 0.05 from 0.4 to 2.0 micrometers wavelength. Work extending the measurement of n to longer wavelengths is in progress. The imaginary part of the refractive index, k, shows substantial structure from 0.15 to 40 micrometers. The values are accurate to + or - 20 percent in the UV and IR regions and to + or - 30 percent in the visible. The k values of organic residues were also measured from the Murchison meteorite. Comparison of the kerogen and Murchison data reveals that between 0.15 and 40 microns, Murchison has a similar structure but no bands as sharp as in kerogen, and that the k values for Murchison are significantly higher than those of kerogen.

  5. Halogens in CM Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, J. M.; Caron, B.; Jambon, A.; Michel, A.; Villemant, B.

    2013-09-01

    We set up an extraction line of halogens (fluorine, chlorine) by pyrohydrolysis with 50 mg of rock. We analyzed 7 CM2 chondrites found in Antarctica and found that the Cl content of meteorites with an intact fusion crust is higher than those without.

  6. Anomalous Hall study of magnetic topological insulator Cr0.15(Bi0.1Sb0.9)1.85Te3 microflakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Zhaoguo; Pan, Xingchen; Wang, Xuefeng; Song, Fengqi

    2015-12-01

    We report on the anomalous Hall studies in magnetic topological insulator Cr0.15(Bi0.1Sb0.9)1.85Te3 microflakes. Using the reversible magnetic field, both the resistance and Hall measurements unveil strong ferromagnetic loops with the Curie temperature of ~13 K. The ferromagnetism is believed to be mediated by the bulk p-type carriers of 1020 cm-3. The temperature-dependent and resistance-dependent scaling behaviors of the anomalous Hall resistance are analyzed, which indicates obvious suppression due to the electron-phonon interaction.

  7. Pulsed Laser Deposition of BaCe(sub 0.85)Y(sub 0.15)0(sub 3) FILMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, F. W.; Sayir, A.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to grow nanostructured BaCe(sub 0.85)Y(sub 0.15)0(sub 3) films. The objective is to enhance protonic conduction by reduction of membrane thickness. Sintered samples and laser targets were prepared by sintering BaCe(sub 0.85)Y(sub 0.15)O(sub 3) powders derived by solid state synthesis. Films 2 to 6 m thick were deposited by KrF excimer laser on Si and porous Al2O3 substrates. Nanocrystalline films were fabricated at deposition temperatures of 600-800 C deg at O2 pressure of 30 mTorr and laser fluence of 1.2 J/cm square. Films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrical impedance spectroscopy. Dense single phase BaCe(sub 0.85)Y((sub 0.15) 0(sub 3) films with a columnar growth morphology is observed, preferred crystal growth was found to be dependent upon deposition temperature and substrate type. Electrical conductivity of bulk samples produced by solid state sintering and thin film samples were measured over a temperature range of 100 C deg to 900 C deg in moist argon. Electrical conduction of the fabricated films was 1 to 4 orders of magnitude lower than the sintered bulk samples. With respect to the film growth direction, activation energy for electrical conduction is 3 times higher in the perpendicular direction than the parallel direction.

  8. Measurements of Output Factors For Small Photon Fields Up to 10 cm x 10 cm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacala, Angelina

    Field output factors (OF) for photon beams from a 6 MV medical accelerator were measured using five different detectors in a scanning water phantom. The measurements were taken for square field sizes of integral widths ranging from 1 cm to 10 cm for two reference source-to-surface distances (SSD) and depths in water. For the diode detectors, square field widths as small as 2.5 mm were also studied. The photon beams were collimated by using either the jaws or the multileaf collimators. Measured OFs are found to depend upon the field size, SSD, depth and also upon the type of beam collimation, size and type of detector used. For field sizes larger than 3 cm x 3 cm, the OF measurements agree to within 1% or less. The largest variation in OF occurs for jawsshaped field of size 1 cm x 1cm, where a difference of more than 18% is observed.

  9. Sub-cm Particles in Saturn's Rings from VIMS, UVIS, and RSS occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerousek, Richard Gregory; Colwell, Josh E.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Marouf, Essam A.; Esposito, Larry W.; Nicholson, Philip D.; French, Richard G.

    2016-10-01

    Particles sizes in Saturn's rings roughly follow a truncated power law. One way to determine the governing parameters of the size distribution is through the analysis of differential optical depths (Zebker et al. 1983). Non-axisymmetric self-gravity wakes complicate this approach when optical depth measurements at different wavelengths are not made at same viewing geometry. Using occultations spanning a wide range of viewing angles and from multiple instruments onboard Cassini (the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS), the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), and the Radio Science Subsystem (RSS)), we forward-model the properties of the self-gravity wakes in Saturn's A and B rings while simultaneously constraining the parameters of the cm – sub-cm particle size distribution. In the absence of wakes, and in regions where particles smaller than ~ 8.86 mm are present, VIMS stellar occultations measure larger optical depths than UVIS stellar occultations due to the diffraction of 2.9 μm light out of the small (0.25 × 0.5 mrad) VIMS field of view compared with UVIS which measures shorter wavelength (0.15 μm) light over a much larger (6.4 × 6.0 mrad) field of view. This excess optical depth combined with RSS X-band (λ = 3.6 cm) optical depths provides a way to probe both the power law slope and the minimum particle size. In the A and B rings where self-gravity wakes are prevalent, we use the wake model of Colwell et al. (2006, 2007) with an additional free parameter representing the excess optical depth which would be measured through the gaps between opaque wakes, by VIMS compared to UVIS. In the B ring and inner A ring we find and absence of sub-cm particles and power law slopes of q ~ 2.8. In the trans-Encke region, where there are a multitude of satellite driven resonances, we find an increasing abundance of sub-cm particles as the outer edge of the A ring is approached. In the C Ring and the Cassini Division, where self-gravity wakes are absent

  10. Metallic Nonsuperconducting Phase and D -Wave Superconductivity in Zn-Substituted La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Karpinska, K.; Cieplak, Marta Z.; Guha, S.; Malinowski, A.; Skoskiewicz, T.; Plesiewicz, W.; Berkowski, M.; Boyce, B.; Lemberger, Thomas R.; Lindenfeld, P.

    2000-01-03

    Measurements of the resistivity, magnetoresistance, and penetration depth were made on films of La{sub 1.85} Sr{sub 0.15} CuO{sub 4} , with up to 12 at. % of Zn substituted for the Cu. The results show that the quadratic temperature dependence of the inverse square of the penetration depth, indicative of d -wave superconductivity, is not affected by doping. The suppression of superconductivity leads to a metallic nonsuperconducting phase, as expected for a pairing mechanism related to spin fluctuations. The metal-insulator transition occurs in the vicinity of k{sub F}l{approx_equal}1 , and appears to be disorder driven, with the carrier concentration unaffected by doping. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  11. Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) emergence in relation to burial depth of brood logs.

    PubMed

    Haack, R A; Petrice, T R; Poland, T M

    2000-04-01

    The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.), is an exotic pest of pines, Pinus spp., that was first found in the United States in 1992. A federal quarantine currently regulates movement of pine Christmas trees and pine nursery stock from infested to uninfested counties. The current national Pine Shoot Beetle Compliance Management Program requires T. piniperda-infested brood material to be disposed of by burning, chipping, or burial. The burial option requires that the infested pine material be buried at a depth of at least 30 cm. We tested this requirement by burying logs with similar levels of infestation at 0, 15, 30, 45, 61 and 76 cm and then monitoring for T. piniperda emergence. Logs were buried at two times during larval development (early and late) and in two soil types (sandy loam and loam). Emergence patterns from the two soil types were similar. Overall, 1,747 T. piniperda adults were collected from the 24 exposed control logs, but only 34 adults from the 120 buried logs, including 24 adults from logs buried at 15 cm, eight adults from 30 cm, one adult from 45 cm, and one adult from 61 cm. In comparing mean emergence density from buried logs with that of exposed logs, 98.6% mortality occurred at 15 cm, 99.5% at 30 cm, and > 99.9% at > or = 45 cm. Mean date of T. piniperda emergence to the soil surface was affected by burial depth and burial date, but not soil type.

  12. Perovskite Sr₁-xCexCoO₃-δ (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) as superior cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Hong, Tao; Li, Shuai; Ma, Zhaohui; Sun, Chunwen; Xia, Changrong; Chen, Liquan

    2013-02-01

    Perovskite Sr(1-x)Ce(x)CoO(3-δ) (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) have been prepared by a sol-gel method and studied as cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. As SOFC cathodes, Sr(1-x)Ce(x)CoO(3-δ) materials have sufficiently high electronic conductivities and excellent chemical compatibility with SDC electrolyte. The peak power density of cells with Sr(0.95)Ce(0.05)CoO(3-δ) is 0.625 W cm(-2) at 700 °C. By forming a composite cathode with an oxygen ion conductor SDC, the peak power density of the cell with Sr(0.95)Ce(0.05)CoO(3-δ)-30 wt %SDC composite cathode, reaches 1.01 W cm(-2) at 700 °C, better than that of Sm(0.5)Sr(0.5)CoO(3)-based cathode. All these results demonstrates that Sr(1-x)Ce(x)CoO(3-δ) (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.15)-based materials are promising cathodes for an IT-SOFC. PMID:23336216

  13. Electronic and multiferroic properties of Zn{sub 0.85}Mg{sub 0.15}O thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Devi, Vanita Joshi, B. C.; Kumar, Manish; Wadikar, A. D.; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2015-06-24

    Thin film sample of Zn{sub 0.85}Mg{sub 0.15}O was prepared on Si (100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition and its structural, electronic, magnetic and ferroelectric properties were investigated. The Zn{sub 0.85}Mg{sub 0.15}O thin film sample is found to show room temperature multiferroic properties; suitable for device fabrication.

  14. Transparent magnetic state in single crystal Nd(1.85)Ce(0.15)CuO(4-y) superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuo, F.

    1995-01-01

    Several experimental studies have been reported as evidence of Josephson coupling between the superconducting layers in the highly anisotropic oxide such as the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 and Tl2Ba2CuO6 systems. These include the large penetration depth of 100 mu m measured, ac and dc Josephson effects. Recently two critical temperatures corresponding to Josephson coupling in between the layers and the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in the ab-plane have been directly observed in the transport measurements. If the field is applied parallel to the superconducting layers, the magnetic excitation is not the conventional Abrikosov vortices, but the Josephson vortices which extend lambda(sub ab) in the c-axis direction and lambda(sub J) = gamma s in the plane (s is the interlayer distance, gamma is the anisotropy constant). Because of the weak screening effect associated with the Josephson vortices, there have been predictions of magnetic transparent states at magnetic field above a characteristic field H(sub J), a behavior distinctively different from that of the type-II superconductors. In this paper, we report an experimental result which illustrates a transition from the Meissner state to the magnetic transparent state in single crystal of Nd(1.85)Ce(0.15)CuO(4-y). Magnetization has been measured as a function of temperature and field in the magnetic field parallel or close to ab-plane geometry. For a fixed magnetic field, the magnetization shows a two-step transition in M(T); for a fixed temperature, the magnetization shows an abrupt change to almost zero value above a characteristic field H(sub J), an indication of magnetic transparent state. The data of magnetization as a function of field clearly deviates from the behavior predicted by the Abrikosov theory for type-II superconductors. Instead, the data fit well into the picture of Josephson decoupling between the CuO2 layers.

  15. Apparent Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar, Antonio B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a well-known optical refraction problem where the depth of an object in a liquid is determined. Proposes that many texts incorrectly solve the problem. Provides theory, equations, and diagrams. (MVL)

  16. Magnetotransport and thermal properties characterization of 55 K superconductor SmFeAsO0.85F0.15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Amit; Pal, Anand; Singh, Saurabh; Shekhar, C.; Singh, H. K.; Awana, V. P. S.; Srivastava, O. N.

    2013-09-01

    This report fairly underlines the magneto-transport, thermal properties characterization and bulk superconductivity in the FeAs-based SmFeAsO0.85F0.1. The phase formation and structure are confirmed by Rietveld analysis of room temperature powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. Electron microscopy was employed to unravel the micro structural details, such as perfection of the lattice and the grain morphology including size and boundaries. The electrical and magnetic measurements have been carried out to confirm the bulk superconductivity and understand the nature of electrical transport in the normal and superconducting state. The intra-grain critical current density (Jc) with applied magnetic field is calculated from isothermal DC magnetization (MH) plots using conventional Bean critical state model. Superconductivity is observed at transition temperature (Tc) above 55 K without HPHT (high pressure high temperature) synthesis route. The value of Jc is found to be around 5.26 × 104 A/cm2 at 5 K in zero field. The dependence of thermally activated flux flow energy (U/kB) on the applied magnetic field has been observed. AC susceptibility measurements were performed for 55 K superconducting SmFeAsO0.85F0.15 sample at various amplitude of applied AC drive field and its granular nature is confirmed. The parent compound SmFeAsO is found to be magnetic with Fe spin density wave (SDW) like order below 150 K, on the other hand the F doped SmFeAsO0.85F0.15 sample is bulk superconducting at below 55 K. Both Fe (SDW) at 150 K for SmFeAsO and 55 K superconductivity in case of SmFeAsO0.85F0.15 sample has confirmed by Specific heat [Cp(T)] measurement too. Further Sm orders anti-ferro-magnetically at 4.5 K for non-superconducting and at 3.5 K for superconducting samples, also the entropy change is reduced significantly for the later than the former. Summarily complete physical property characterization for both non-superconducting SmFeAsO and 55 K superconductor SmFeAsO0.85F0.15

  17. Disorder - driven phase transition in La{sub 0.37}Bi{sub 0.15}Sm{sub 0.15}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Ramesh; Singh, R.

    2015-06-24

    We report the effect of disorder on the properties of La{sub 0.37}Bi{sub 0.15}Sm{sub 0.15}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} manganite synthesized by sol – gel method. The critical properties were investigated through various techniques such as modified - Arrott plot, Kouvel - Fisher method and critical isotherm analysis. The sample show second- order phase transition near critical point. The decrease in magnetization (M), Curie temperature (T{sub C}), evolution of spin or cluster glass behavior and the nature of phase transition compared to first - order transition in La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} are ascribed to the disorder caused by the size mismatch of the A-site cations with Bi and Sm doping at La- site.

  18. Thermal and electric properties of Nd(1.85)Ce(0.15)CuO(4-y) and Pr(1.85)Ce(0.15)CuO(4-y)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Z. S.; Han, K. H.; Lee, Sung-Ik; Jeong, Yoon H.; Song, Y. S.; Park, Y. W.

    1991-01-01

    Electric resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, thermoelectric power, and Hall coefficient of Nd(1.85)Ce(0.15)CuO(4-y) and Pr(1.85)Ce(0.15)CuO(4-y) whose onset temperature of the superconductivity are 24 and 23 K were measured. Experimental results show many interesting features. In particular, the Hall coefficients are negative and relatively flat as a function of temperature. However, the temperature dependence of the thermoelectric power (TEP) for these two samples shows the positive sign for both samples in contrast to the previous results. Moreover, TEP for both samples remains flat in the normal state below 250 K, but decreases rapidly above 250 K. TEP of only Pr(1.85)Ce(0.15)CuO(4-y) shows a peak near 50 K. Finally, onset temperatures of sudden drop of TEP are higher than those of resistance drop. The physical properties of these samples produced at different conditions such as different heat treatment temperatures, atmospheres were also measured. TEP and resistance measurement show that oxygen deficiency is essential to produce better superconducting samples. Correlation between TEP and superconductivity for these different samples are discussed.

  19. Thermal and electric properties of Nd(1.85)Ce(0.15)CuO(4-y) and Pr(1.85)Ce(0.15)CuO(4-y)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Z. S.; Han, K. H.; Lee, Sung-Ik; Jeong, Yoon H.; Song, Y. S.; Park, Y. W.

    1990-01-01

    Electric resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, thermoelectric power, and Hall coefficient of Nd(1.85)Ce(0.15)CuO(4-y) and Pr(1.85)Ce(0.15)CuO(4-y) whose onset temperature of the superconductivity are 24 K and 23 K were measured. Experimental results show many interesting features. In particular, the Hall coefficients are negative and relatively flat as a function of temperature. However, the temperature dependence of the thermoelectric power (TEP) for these two samples shows the positive sign for both samples in contrast to the previous results. Moreover TEP for both samples remains flat in the normal state below 250 K, but decreases rapidly above 250 K. TEP of only Pr(1.85)Ce(0.15)CuO(4-y) shows a peak near 50 K. Finally onset temperatures of sudden drop of TEP are higher than those of resistance drop. The physical properties of these samples produced at different conditions such as different heat treatment temperatures, atmospheres were also measured. TEP and resistance measurement show that oxygen deficiency is essential to produce better superconducting samples. Correlation between TEP and superconductivity for these different samples will be discussed.

  20. Influence of variable topsoil replacement depths on soil chemical parameters within a coal mine in northeastern Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Schladweiler, B.K.; Vance, G.F.; Legg, D.E.; Munn, L.C.; Haroian, R.

    2004-10-15

    Uniform topsoil replacement depths on coal mine reclaimed areas have been mandated by USA federal and state regulations; however, soils of the premine landscape are not naturally uniform in depth and vary in physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. In addition, uniform topsoil depths may actually hinder the development of diverse reclaimed plant communities. We studied the effect of varying topsoil replacement depth treatments (15, 30, and 56 cm) on soil and backfill pH, electrolytic conductivity (EC), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) within a reclaimed coal mine study area. Backfill material (also known as spoil) at this site did not possess levels of pH, EC, and SAR that were detrimental to plant growth. There was only a slight reduction in pH, EC, and SAR within the upper 15 cm depth in the reclaimed topsoil treatments with a general increase of EC and SAR in the lower portion of the replaced soil profile. Some downward movement of soluble salts within the reclaimed treatments was evident despite low precipitation. For examples, SAR in the 0-15 cm depth over all reclaimed treatments was lower in 2002 than 2000-2001, and the 0-30 cm portion of the reclaimed soil profile had reduced pH and EC, while the 30-60 cm portion had increased EC and SAR. It is anticipated that soil quality differences in terms of pH, EC, and SAR between topsoil depth treatments will be enhanced with time. Comparison of the reclaimed area to the native reference areas suggested numerous depth differences as a result of homogeneity of the replaced topsoil vs. undisturbed soil profiles.

  1. Lithium-Rich Layered Oxide Li1.18 Ni0.15 Co0.15 Mn0.52 O2 as the Cathode Material for Hybrid Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhixuan; Gao, Yu; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Chaoyang; Bian, Xiaofei; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Chunzhong; Wei, Yingjin; Du, Fei; Chen, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Li-rich layered oxide Li1.18 Ni0.15 Co0.15 Mn0.52 O2 (LNCM) is, for the first time, examined as the positive electrode for hybrid sodium-ion battery and its Na(+) storage properties are comprehensively studied in terms of galvanostatic charge-discharge curves, cyclic voltammetry and rate capability. LNCM in the proposed sodium-ion battery demonstrates good rate capability whose discharge capacity reaches about 90 mA h g(-1) at 10 C rate and excellent cycle stability with specific capacity of about 105 mA h g(-1) for 200 cycles at 5 C rate. Moreover, ex situ ICP-OES suggests interesting mixed-ions migration processes: In the initial two cycles, only Li(+) can intercalate into the LNCM cathode, whereas both Li(+) and Na(+) work together as the electrochemical cycles increase. Also the structural evolution of LNCM is examined in terms of ex situ XRD pattern at the end of various charge-discharge scans. The strong insight obtained from this study could be beneficial to the design of new layered cathode materials for future rechargeable sodium-ion batteries.

  2. Lithium-Rich Layered Oxide Li1.18 Ni0.15 Co0.15 Mn0.52 O2 as the Cathode Material for Hybrid Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhixuan; Gao, Yu; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Chaoyang; Bian, Xiaofei; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Chunzhong; Wei, Yingjin; Du, Fei; Chen, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Li-rich layered oxide Li1.18 Ni0.15 Co0.15 Mn0.52 O2 (LNCM) is, for the first time, examined as the positive electrode for hybrid sodium-ion battery and its Na(+) storage properties are comprehensively studied in terms of galvanostatic charge-discharge curves, cyclic voltammetry and rate capability. LNCM in the proposed sodium-ion battery demonstrates good rate capability whose discharge capacity reaches about 90 mA h g(-1) at 10 C rate and excellent cycle stability with specific capacity of about 105 mA h g(-1) for 200 cycles at 5 C rate. Moreover, ex situ ICP-OES suggests interesting mixed-ions migration processes: In the initial two cycles, only Li(+) can intercalate into the LNCM cathode, whereas both Li(+) and Na(+) work together as the electrochemical cycles increase. Also the structural evolution of LNCM is examined in terms of ex situ XRD pattern at the end of various charge-discharge scans. The strong insight obtained from this study could be beneficial to the design of new layered cathode materials for future rechargeable sodium-ion batteries. PMID:27320123

  3. Unusual magnetoresistance in cubic B20 Fe0.85Co0.15Si chiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. X.; Chen, Fei; Kang, Jian; Zang, Jiadong; Shu, G. J.; Chou, F. C.; Chien, C. L.

    2016-06-01

    The B20 chiral magnets with broken inversion symmetry and C4 rotation symmetry have attracted much attention. The broken inversion symmetry leads to the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya that gives rise to the helical and Skyrmion states. We report the unusual magnetoresistance (MR) of B20 chiral magnet Fe0.85Co0.15Si that directly reveals the broken C4 rotation symmetry and shows the anisotropic scattering by Skyrmions with respect to the current directions. The intimacy between unusual MR and broken symmetry is well confirmed by theoretically studying an effective Hamiltonian with spin–orbit coupling. The unusual MR serves as a transport signature for the Skyrmion phase.

  4. A 0.15-scale study of configuration effects on the aerodynamic interaction between main rotor and fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trept, Ted

    1984-01-01

    Hover and forward flight tests were conducted to investigate the mutual aerodynamic interaction between the main motor and fuselage of a conventional helicopter configuration. A 0.15-scale Model 222 two-bladed teetering rotor was combined with a 0.15-scale model of the NASA Ames 40x80-foot wind tunnel 1500 horsepower test stand fairing. Configuration effects were studied by modifying the fairing to simulate a typical helicopter forebody. Separation distance between rotor and body were also investigated. Rotor and fuselage force and moment as well as pressure data are presented in graphical and tabular format. Data was taken over a range of thrust coefficients from 0.002 to 0.007. In forward flight speed ratio was varied from 0.1 to 0.3 with shaft angle varying from +4 to -12 deg. The data show that the rotors effect on the fuselage may be considerably more important to total aircraft performance than the effect of the fuselage on the rotor.

  5. Remarkable magnetostructural coupling around the magnetic transition in CeCo0.85Fe0.15Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, V. F.; Betancourth, D.; Sereni, J. G.; Caroca Canales, N.; Geibel, C.

    2016-09-01

    We report a detailed study of the magnetic properties of CeCo0.85Fe0.15Si under high magnetic fields (up to 16 Tesla) measuring different physical properties such as specific heat, magnetization, electrical resistivity, thermal expansion and magnetostriction. CeCo0.85Fe0.15Si becomes antiferromagnetic at {{T}N}≈ 6.7 K. However, a broad tail (onset at {{T}X}≈ 13 K) in the specific heat precedes that second order transition. This tail is also observed in the temperature derivative of the resistivity. However, it is particularly noticeable in the thermal expansion coefficient where it takes the form of a large bump centered at T X . A high magnetic field practically washes out that tail in the resistivity. But surprisingly, the bump in the thermal expansion coefficient becomes a well pronounced peak fully split from the magnetic transition at T N . Concurrently, the magnetoresistance also switches from negative to positive above T N . The magnetostriction is considerable and irreversible at low temperature (\\frac{Δ L}{L}(16~T)∼ 4× {{10}-4} at 2 K) when the magnetic interactions dominate. A broad jump in the field dependence of the magnetostriction observed at low T may be the signature of a weak ongoing metamagnetic transition. Taking altogether the results indicate the importance of the lattice effects on the development of the magnetic order in these alloys.

  6. Remarkable magnetostructural coupling around the magnetic transition in CeCo0.85Fe0.15Si.

    PubMed

    Correa, V F; Betancourth, D; Sereni, J G; Caroca Canales, N; Geibel, C

    2016-09-01

    We report a detailed study of the magnetic properties of CeCo0.85Fe0.15Si under high magnetic fields (up to 16 Tesla) measuring different physical properties such as specific heat, magnetization, electrical resistivity, thermal expansion and magnetostriction. CeCo0.85Fe0.15Si becomes antiferromagnetic at [Formula: see text] K. However, a broad tail (onset at [Formula: see text] K) in the specific heat precedes that second order transition. This tail is also observed in the temperature derivative of the resistivity. However, it is particularly noticeable in the thermal expansion coefficient where it takes the form of a large bump centered at T X . A high magnetic field practically washes out that tail in the resistivity. But surprisingly, the bump in the thermal expansion coefficient becomes a well pronounced peak fully split from the magnetic transition at T N . Concurrently, the magnetoresistance also switches from negative to positive above T N . The magnetostriction is considerable and irreversible at low temperature ([Formula: see text] at 2 K) when the magnetic interactions dominate. A broad jump in the field dependence of the magnetostriction observed at low T may be the signature of a weak ongoing metamagnetic transition. Taking altogether the results indicate the importance of the lattice effects on the development of the magnetic order in these alloys. PMID:27357448

  7. PAPER-64 Constraints on Reionization: The 21 cm Power Spectrum at z = 8.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Zaki S.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Zheng, Haoxuan; Pober, Jonathan C.; Liu, Adrian; Aguirre, James E.; Bradley, Richard F.; Bernardi, Gianni; Carilli, Chris L.; Cheng, Carina; DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; Grobbelaar, Jasper; Horrell, Jasper; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Klima, Pat; MacMahon, David H. E.; Maree, Matthys; Moore, David F.; Razavi, Nima; Stefan, Irina I.; Walbrugh, William P.; Walker, Andre

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we report new limits on 21 cm emission from cosmic reionization based on a 135 day observing campaign with a 64-element deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization in South Africa. This work extends the work presented in Parsons et al. with more collecting area, a longer observing period, improved redundancy-based calibration, improved fringe-rate filtering, and updated power-spectral analysis using optimal quadratic estimators. The result is a new 2σ upper limit on Δ2(k) of (22.4 mK)2 in the range 0.15\\lt k\\lt 0.5h {{Mpc}}-1 at z = 8.4. This represents a three-fold improvement over the previous best upper limit. As we discuss in more depth in a forthcoming paper, this upper limit supports and extends previous evidence against extremely cold reionization scenarios. We conclude with a discussion of implications for future 21 cm reionization experiments, including the newly funded Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array.

  8. Hysteresis in the RF-Induced Flux Lattice Annealing (RIFLA) of the superconducting state in Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4-y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, W. G.; Brown, S. E.; Gaidos, G.; Greene, R. L.; Balci, H.

    2010-03-01

    We report hysteresis in flux lattice (FL) annealing by an rf magnetic field for the cuprate superconductor Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4-y. A strained FL is formed by placing the sample in the coil (inductance L) of a tuned NMR probe circuit and rotating the coil and sample in a fixed B at low temperature. A series of rf pulses in the coil generates an alternating magnetic field that anneals the FL. It decreases the sample's rf skin depth, which reduces L and increases the resonant frequency (f) of the probe. Rotation in small steps about an axis parallel to the CuO planes and perpendicular to B with annealing after each step generates a peak in f whose shape is the same for rotation in both directions (no rotation hysteresis) and is a maximum for B parallel to the CuO planes. When rotation is done in both directions without annealing, the substantial hysteresis reported here occurs. This work was supported at UCLA by NSF Grants DMR-0334869 and DMR-0804625, and at U. Maryland by NSF Grant DMR- 0653535.

  9. An AlN/Al0.85Ga0.15N high electron mobility transistor

    DOE PAGES

    Baca, Albert G.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Douglas, Erica A.; Sanchez, Carlos A.; King, Michael P.; Coltrin, Michael E.; Fortune, Torben R.; Kaplar, Robert J.

    2016-07-22

    An AlN barrier high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based on the AlN/Al0.85Ga0.15N heterostructure was grown, fabricated, and electrically characterized, thereby extending the range of Al composition and bandgap for AlGaN channel HEMTs. An etch and regrowth procedure was implemented for source and drain contact formation. A breakdown voltage of 810 V was achieved without a gate insulator or field plate. Excellent gate leakage characteristics enabled a high Ion/Ioff current ratio greater than 107 and an excellent subthreshold slope of 75 mV/decade. A large Schottky barrier height of 1.74 eV contributed to these results. In conclusion, the room temperature voltage-dependent 3-terminalmore » off-state drain current was adequately modeled with Frenkel-Poole emission.« less

  10. Unusual magnetoresistance in cubic B20 Fe0.85Co0.15Si chiral magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, S. X.; Chen, Fei; Kang, Jian; Zang, Jiadong; Shu, G. J.; Chou, F. C.; Chien, C. L.

    2016-06-24

    The B20 chiral magnets with broken inversion symmetry and C4 rotation symmetry have attracted much attention. The broken inversion symmetry leads to the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya that gives rise to the helical and Skyrmion states.Wereport the unusual magnetoresistance (MR) of B20 chiral magnet Fe0.85Co0.15Si that directly reveals the broken C4 rotation symmetry and shows the anisotropic scattering by Skyrmions with respect to the current directions. The intimacy between unusual MR and broken symmetry is well confirmed by theoretically studying an effective Hamiltonian with spin–orbit coupling. In conclusion, the unusual MR serves as a transport signature for the Skyrmion phase.

  11. Nonlinear structure-composition relationships in the Ge1-ySny/Si(100) (y<0.15) system

    DOE PAGES

    Beeler, R.; Roucka, R.; Chizmeshya, A. V. G.; Kouvetakis, J.; Menéndez, J.

    2011-07-26

    The compositional dependence of the cubic lattice parameter in Ge1-ySny alloys has been revisited. Large 1000-atom supercell ab initio simulations confirm earlier theoretical predictions that indicate a positive quadratic deviation from Vegard's law, albeit with a somewhat smaller bowing coefficient, θ = 0.047 Å, than found from 64-atom cell simulations (θ = 0.063 Å). On the other hand, measurements from an extensive set of alloy samples with compositions y < 0.15 reveal a negative deviation from Vegard's law. The discrepancy with earlier experimental data, which supported the theoretical results, is traced back to an unexpected compositional dependence of the residualmore » strain after growth on Si substrates. The experimental bowing parameter for the relaxed lattice constant of the alloys is found to be θ = -0.066 Å. Possible reasons for the disagreement between theory and experiment are discussed in detail.« less

  12. An AlN/Al0.85Ga0.15N high electron mobility transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baca, Albert G.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Douglas, Erica A.; Sanchez, Carlos A.; King, Michael P.; Coltrin, Michael E.; Fortune, Torben R.; Kaplar, Robert J.

    2016-07-01

    An AlN barrier high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based on the AlN/Al0.85Ga0.15N heterostructure was grown, fabricated, and electrically characterized, thereby extending the range of Al composition and bandgap for AlGaN channel HEMTs. An etch and regrowth procedure was implemented for source and drain contact formation. A breakdown voltage of 810 V was achieved without a gate insulator or field plate. Excellent gate leakage characteristics enabled a high Ion/Ioff current ratio greater than 107 and an excellent subthreshold slope of 75 mV/decade. A large Schottky barrier height of 1.74 eV contributed to these results. The room temperature voltage-dependent 3-terminal off-state drain current was adequately modeled with Frenkel-Poole emission.

  13. Packaging of wavelength stabilized 976nm 100W 105µm 0.15 NA fiber coupled diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaochen; Liu, Rui; Gao, Yanyan; Zhang, Tujia; He, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Thomas; Zhang, Cuipeng

    2016-03-01

    Fiber coupled diode lasers are widely used in many fields now especially as pumps in fiber laser systems. In many fiber laser applications, high brightness pumps are essential to achieve high brightness fiber lasers. Furthermore, 976nm wavelength absorption band is narrow with Yb3+ doped fiber lasers which is more challenging for controlling wavelength stabilized in diode laser modules. This study designed and implemented commercial available high brightness and narrow wavelength width lasers to be able to use in previous mentioned applications. Base on multiple single emitters using spatial and polarization beam combining as well as fiber coupling techniques, we report a wavelength stabilized, 105μm NA 0.15 fiber coupled diode laser package with 100W of optical output power at 976 nm, which are 14 emitters inside each multiple single emitter module. The emitting aperture of the combined lasers output are designed and optimized for coupling light into a 105μm core NA 0.15 fiber. Volume Bragg grating technology has been used to improve spectral characteristics of high-power diode lasers. Mechanical modular design and thermal simulation are carried out to optimize the package. The spectral width is roughly 0.5 nm (FWHM) and the wavelength shift per °C < 0.02nm. The output spectrum is narrowed and wavelength is stabilized using Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs). The high brightness package has an electrical to optical efficiency better than 45% and power enclosure more than 90% within NA 0.12. Qualification tests have been included on this kind of package. Mechanical shock, vibration and accelerated aging tests show that the package is reliability and the MTTF is calculated to be more than 100k hours at 25°C.

  14. Serpentine Nanotubes in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    The CM chondrites are primitive meteorites that formed during the early solar system. Although they retain much of their original physical character, their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained aqueous alteration early in their histories [1- 3]. Serpentine-group minerals are abundant products of such alteration, and information regarding their structures, compositions, and spatial relationships is important for determining the reactions that produced them and the conditions under which they formed. Our recent work on FGRs and matrices of the CM chondrites has revealed new information on the structures and compositions of serpentine-group minerals [4,5] and has provided insights into the evolution of these primitive meteorites. Here we report on serpentine nanotubes from the Mighei and Murchison CM chondrites [6].

  15. Implication of Land Use and Belowground Weather on Nitrous Oxide Soil Depth Profiles and Denitrification Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. L.; Song, B.; Saliendra, N.; Liebig, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural soils are the largest single source of anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, which is largely attributed to the expansion in the use of synthetic fertilizer nitrogen (N). Alfalfa crops often do not require synthetic N addition because N is fixed symbiotically belowground. Some biologically fixed N leaks into soil, which could affect production and consumption of N2O. While many studies have reported net fluxes of N2O at the soil surface, few have quantified variation in N2O concentration at multiple soil depths under variable climatic conditions without synthetic N inputs. A no-till crop field, seeded to alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in 2009, was compared to neighboring native prairie in North Dakota, U.S.A. to determine if N2O, CO2 and CH4 concentrations varied with depth between fields for 4 years. Both fields (> 15 ha) were harvested for hay without N-fertilizer inputs between 2009 and 2013. Soils and instrumentation were similar. Sensors and soil gas well collection chambers were buried at near-surface (15 and 30 cm) and sub-surface (60 and 90 cm) soil depths. Temperature, moisture, oxygen, relative humidity, and pressure data were collected every 30 minutes, and gas well concentration data were collected twice weekly until spring 2013. Cores were collected for each depth increment in 2012, and potential rates of denitrification and anammox were measured for the 0-15 cm depth using soil slurry incubation experiments with 15N tracer treatments. We evaluated temporal variability in N2O concentration with depth and found N2O spikes beneath alfalfa tended to be an order of magnitude higher and more persistent than N2O peaks beneath prairie. Median N2O concentrations at sub-surface depths were greater than near-surface depths. Alfalfa median N2O concentrations for near-surface (24 nmols N2O L-1) and sub-soils (30 nmols N2O L-1) were higher than N2O concentrations beneath prairie (15 nmols N2O L-1 and 17 nmols N2O L-1, respectively). Soil

  16. Sound velocities of bcc-Fe and Fe0.85Si0.15 alloy at high pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Lin, Jung-Fu; Alatas, Ahmet; Bi, Wenli

    2014-08-01

    Studying the velocity-density profiles of iron and iron-silicon alloy at high pressures and temperatures is critical for understanding the Earth’s core as well as the interiors of other planetary bodies. Here we have investigated the compressional wave velocity (VP) and density (ρ) profiles of polycrystalline bcc-Fe and Fe0.85Si0.15 alloy (8 wt.% Si) using in situ high-energy resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (HERIX) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction spectroscopies in an externally-heated diamond anvil cell (EHDAC) up to 15 GPa and 700 K. Based on the measured velocity-density (VP-ρ) and velocity-pressure (VP-P) relations of bcc-Fe at simultaneous high pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions, our results show a strong VP reduction at elevated temperatures at a constant density. Comparison of the VP-ρ profiles between the bcc-Fe and bcc-Fe0.85Si0.15 alloy indicates that the alloying effect of additional 8 wt.% Si on the VP-ρ relationship of bcc-Fe is predominant via a constant density decrease of approximately 0.6 g/cm3 (7%). Compared with the literature velocity results for bcc and hcp Fe-Si alloys, the bcc-Fe and Fe-Si alloys exhibit higher VP than their hcp phase counterparts at the given bcc-hcp transition pressures. Our results here strongly support the notion that high temperature has a strong effect on the VP of Fe and that the VP-ρ profile of Fe can be affected by structural and magnetic transitions. Analyses on literature elastic constants of the bcc Fe-Si alloys, as a function of P-T and Si content, show that the bcc phase displays extremely high VP anisotropy of 16-30% and VS splitting anisotropy of 40-90% at high temperatures, while the addition of Si further enhances the anisotropy. Due to the extremely high elastic anisotropy of the bcc Fe-Si alloy, a certain portion of the bcc Fe-Si alloy with the lattice-preferred orientation may produce VP and VS anisotropies to potentially account for the observed seismic anisotropy in the inner core.

  17. 344 cm x 86 cm low mass vacuum window

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, R.M.; Porter, J.; Meneghetti, J.; Wilde, S.; Miller, R.

    1983-08-01

    The LBL Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) superconducting magnet contains a 1 m x 3.45 m x 2 m vacuum tank in its gap. A full aperture thin window was needed to minimize background as the products of nuclear collisions move from upstream targets to downstream detectors. Six windows were built and tested in the development process. The final window's unsupported area is 3m/sup 2/ with a 25 cm inward deflection. The design consists of a .11 mm Nylon/aluminum/polypropylene laminate as a gas seal and .55 mm woven aramid fiber for strength. Total mass is 80 milligrams per cm/sup 2/. Development depended heavily on past experience and testing. Safety considerations are discussed.

  18. Absolute dynamic viscosity measurements of subcooled liquid oxygen from 0.15 MPa to 1.0 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, D. K.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2008-01-01

    New absolute dynamic viscosity measurements of subcooled liquid oxygen are presented which were acquired in the pressure and temperature domains from 0.15 MPa to 1.0 MPa and from 55.20 K to 90.19 K, respectively. The measurements were acquired with an uncertainty of 1% at a 95% confidence level using a pressurized gravitational capillary (PGC) viscometer specifically designed for subcooled liquefied gases. The measurements are summarized by Arrhenius-Eyring plot parameters ( μ = Ae E/ RT), and interpreted with respect to the chemical reaction rate theory of viscosity by Eyring. The Arrhenius-Eyring plot parameters reproduce the dynamic viscosity measurements with only a 2% RMS error, which is remarkable considering just two parameters are involved, A, the factor which includes the weak pressure dependence of the dynamic viscosity, and E/ R, the barrier energy of the flow, where R is the universal gas constant. Although the Arrhenius-Eyring plot parameters do not have a discernible pressure dependence in the present work, the pressure coefficient versus temperature for the dynamic viscosity was determined from line plots of the dynamic viscosity versus pressure. The pressure coefficients suggest that the pressure dependence is very weak, yet positive, and increases with decreasing temperature. Measurements at pressures an order-of-magnitude higher are required to confirm this suggestion.

  19. BACE0.85Y0.15O3-DELTA Based Materials for Inovative Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhov, Kiril; Vladikova, Daria

    2016-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a promising green technology of direct conversion of chemical energy of fuel into electricity. Among the families of metal oxides, which can be successfully used as electrodes (cathodes or anodes) in SOFC, certain members of the large family of transition-metal oxides with perovskite structure ABO _{3} were found very prospective to fulfil most of the features required for preparation of mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) oxide materials for SOFCs operated in the intermediate temperature range. In this regard Barium cerate with Y-substitution at the B-site (Ce site) is well known for excellent conduction capabilities in the temperature range 400-800 °C as a result from the proton motion in the crystal lattice. Doping with Y ^{3+} is very effective and the proton conductivity in BaCe _{1-x}Y _{x}O _{3-δ} increases with the increasing of the dopant concentration up to x =0.2. However, the phase behaviour of the composition BCY20 (x=0.20) is very complicated. Even at room temperature the crystalline structure remains contradictory because various structures of monoclinic, rhombohedral and orthorhombic symmetry are reported. The characterization of the chemical composition and stability, oxygen stoichiometry and cationic ratios of each synthesized phase is of great importance to understand the defect-chemistry that would govern the transport properties. We report on oxygen-deficient BaCe _{0.85}Y _{0.15}O _{3-δ} (BCY15) perovskites prepared by auto-combustion with following calcination at high temperature. The structural details of powder, dense and porous samples of materials based on BCY15 were investigated from full profile analysis of neutron and x-ray diffraction patterns. The materials were used recently as cathode, anode and central membrane in an innovative monolithic design of SOFC.

  20. Stereo depth distortions in teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Vonsydow, Marika

    1988-01-01

    In teleoperation, a typical application of stereo vision is to view a work space located short distances (1 to 3m) in front of the cameras. The work presented here treats converged camera placement and studies the effects of intercamera distance, camera-to-object viewing distance, and focal length of the camera lenses on both stereo depth resolution and stereo depth distortion. While viewing the fronto-parallel plane 1.4 m in front of the cameras, depth errors are measured on the order of 2cm. A geometric analysis was made of the distortion of the fronto-parallel plane of divergence for stereo TV viewing. The results of the analysis were then verified experimentally. The objective was to determine the optimal camera configuration which gave high stereo depth resolution while minimizing stereo depth distortion. It is found that for converged cameras at a fixed camera-to-object viewing distance, larger intercamera distances allow higher depth resolutions, but cause greater depth distortions. Thus with larger intercamera distances, operators will make greater depth errors (because of the greater distortions), but will be more certain that they are not errors (because of the higher resolution).

  1. Cardiovascular rhythms in the 0.15-Hz band: common origin of identical phenomena in man and dog in the reticular formation of the brain stem?

    PubMed

    Perlitz, Volker; Lambertz, Manfred; Cotuk, Birol; Grebe, Reinhard; Vandenhouten, Ralf; Flatten, Guido; Petzold, Ernst Richard; Schmid-Schönbein, Holger; Langhorst, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Selected examples from experiments in humans and dogs with time series of reticular neurons, respiration, arterial blood pressure and cutaneous forehead blood content fluctuations were analysed using multiscaled time-frequency distribution, post-event-scan and pointwise transinformation. We found in both experiments a "0.15-Hz rhythm" exhibiting periods of spindle waves (increasing and decreasing amplitudes), phase synchronized with respiration at 1:2 and 1:1 integer number ratios. At times of wave-epochs and n:m phase synchronization, the 0.15-Hz rhythm appeared in heart rate and arterial blood pressure. As phase synchronization of the 0.15-Hz rhythm with respiration was established at a 1:1 integer number ratio, all cardiovascular-respiratory oscillations were synchronized at 0.15 Hz. Analysis of a canine experiment supplied evidence that the emergence of the 0.15-Hz rhythm and n:m phase synchronization appears to result from a decline in the level of the general activity of the organism associated with a decline in the level of activity of reticular neurons in the lower brainstem network. These findings corroborate the notion of the 0.15-Hz rhythm as a marker of the "trophotropic mode of operation" first introduced by W.R. Hess. PMID:15138824

  2. Cardiovascular rhythms in the 0.15-Hz band: common origin of identical phenomena in man and dog in the reticular formation of the brain stem?

    PubMed

    Perlitz, Volker; Lambertz, Manfred; Cotuk, Birol; Grebe, Reinhard; Vandenhouten, Ralf; Flatten, Guido; Petzold, Ernst Richard; Schmid-Schönbein, Holger; Langhorst, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Selected examples from experiments in humans and dogs with time series of reticular neurons, respiration, arterial blood pressure and cutaneous forehead blood content fluctuations were analysed using multiscaled time-frequency distribution, post-event-scan and pointwise transinformation. We found in both experiments a "0.15-Hz rhythm" exhibiting periods of spindle waves (increasing and decreasing amplitudes), phase synchronized with respiration at 1:2 and 1:1 integer number ratios. At times of wave-epochs and n:m phase synchronization, the 0.15-Hz rhythm appeared in heart rate and arterial blood pressure. As phase synchronization of the 0.15-Hz rhythm with respiration was established at a 1:1 integer number ratio, all cardiovascular-respiratory oscillations were synchronized at 0.15 Hz. Analysis of a canine experiment supplied evidence that the emergence of the 0.15-Hz rhythm and n:m phase synchronization appears to result from a decline in the level of the general activity of the organism associated with a decline in the level of activity of reticular neurons in the lower brainstem network. These findings corroborate the notion of the 0.15-Hz rhythm as a marker of the "trophotropic mode of operation" first introduced by W.R. Hess.

  3. Optical Characterization and 2,525 micron Lasing of Cr(2+):Cd(0.85)Mn(0.15)Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. R.; Wu, X.; Hoemmerich, U.; Trivedi, S. B.; Grasza, K.; Yu, Z.

    1997-01-01

    static acentric electric crystal field or the coupling of asymmetric phonons can force electric-dipole transitions by the admixture of wave functions with opposite parity. Tetrahedral sites lack inversion symmetry which provides the odd-parity field necessary to relax the parity selection rule. Therefore, high absorption and emission cross sections are observed. An enhanced radiative emission rate is also expected to reduce the detrimental effect of non-radiative decay. Motivated by the initial results on Cr doped ZnS and ZnSe, we have started a comprehensive effort to study Cr(2+) doped II-VI semiconductors for solid-state laser applications. In this paper we present the optical properties and the demonstration of mid-infrared lasing from Cr doped Cd(0.85)Mn(0.15)Te.

  4. On the accretion process in a high-mass star forming region. A multitransitional THz Herschel-HIFI study of ammonia toward G34.26+0.15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajigholi, M.; Persson, C. M.; Wirström, E. S.; Black, J. H.; Bergman, P.; Olofsson, A. O. H.; Olberg, M.; Wyrowski, F.; Coutens, A.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Menten, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Our aim is to explore the gas dynamics and the accretion process in the early phase of high-mass star formation. Methods: The inward motion of molecular gas in the massive star forming region G34.26+0.15 is investigated by using high-resolution profiles of seven transitions of ammonia at THz frequencies observed with Herschel-HIFI. The shapes and intensities of these lines are interpreted in terms of radiative transfer models of a spherical, collapsing molecular envelope. An accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) method is used to compute the models. Results: The seven ammonia lines show mixed absorption and emission with inverse P-Cygni-type profiles that suggest infall onto the central source. A trend toward absorption at increasingly higher velocities for higher excitation transitions is clearly seen in the line profiles. The J = 3 ← 2 lines show only very weak emission, so these absorption profiles can be used directly to analyze the inward motion of the gas. This is the first time a multitransitional study of spectrally resolved rotational ammonia lines has been used for this purpose. Broad emission is, in addition, mixed with the absorption in the 10-00 ortho-NH3 line, possibly tracing a molecular outflow from the star forming region. The best-fitting ALI model reproduces the continuum fluxes and line profiles, but slightly underpredicts the emission and absorption depth in the ground-state ortho line 10-00. An ammonia abundance on the order of 10-9 relative to H2 is needed to fit the profiles. The derived ortho-to-para ratio is approximately 0.5 throughout the infalling cloud core similar to recent findings for translucent clouds in sight lines toward W31C and W49N. We find evidence of two gas components moving inwards toward the central region with constant velocities: 2.7 and 5.3 km s-1, relative to the source systemic velocity. Attempts to model the inward motion with a single gas cloud in free-fall collapse did not succeed. Herschel is an ESA space

  5. Depth-Dependent Mineral Soil CO2 Production Processes: Sensitivity to Harvesting-Induced Changes in Soil Climate.

    PubMed

    Kellman, Lisa; Myette, Amy; Beltrami, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Forest harvesting induces a step change in the climatic variables (temperature and moisture), that control carbon dioxide (CO2) production arising from soil organic matter decomposition within soils. Efforts to examine these vertically complex relationships in situ within soil profiles are lacking. In this study we examined how the climatic controls on CO2 production change within vertically distinct layers of the soil profile in intact and clearcut forest soils of a humid temperate forest system of Atlantic Canada. We measured mineral soil temperature (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 cm depth) and moisture (0-15 cm and 30-60 cm depth), along with CO2 surface efflux and subsurface concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 35, 50, 75 and 100 cm depth) in 1 m deep soil pits at 4 sites represented by two forest-clearcut pairs over a complete annual cycle. We examined relationships between surface efflux at each site, and soil heat, moisture, and mineral soil CO2 production. Following clearcut harvesting we observed increases in temperature through depth (1-2°C annually; often in excess of 4°C in summer and spring), alongside increases in soil moisture (30%). We observed a systematic breakdown in the expected exponential relationship between CO2 production and heat with mineral soil depth, consistent with an increase in the role moisture plays in constraining CO2 production. These findings should be considered in efforts to model and characterize mineral soil organic matter decomposition in harvested forest soils. PMID:26263510

  6. Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba(Sn{sub 0.15}Ti{sub 0.85})O{sub 3} thin films grown by a sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai Jiwei; Shen Bo; Yao Xi; Zhang Liangying

    2004-09-01

    Ferroelectric Ba(Sn{sub 0.15}Ti{sub 0.85})O{sub 3} (BTS) thin films were deposited on LaNiO{sub 3}-coated silicon substrates via a sol-gel process. Films showed a strong (1 0 0) preferred orientation depending upon annealing temperature and concentration of the precursor solution. The dependence of dielectric and ferroelectric properties on film orientation has been studied. The leakage current density of thin films at 100 kV/cm was 7 x 10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} and 5 x 10{sup -5} A/cm{sup 2} and their capacitor tunability was 54 and 25% at an applied field of 200 kV/cm (measurement frequency of 1 MHz) for the thin films deposited with 0.1 and 0.4 M spin-on solution, respectively. This work clearly reveals the highly promising potential of BTS compared with BST films for application in tunable microwave devices.

  7. GIANT METREWAVE RADIO TELESCOPE DETECTION OF TWO NEW H I 21 cm ABSORBERS AT z ≈ 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kanekar, N.

    2014-12-20

    I report the detection of H I 21 cm absorption in two high column density damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs) at z ≈ 2 using new wide-band 250-500 MHz receivers on board the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. The integrated H I 21 cm optical depths are 0.85 ± 0.16 km s{sup –1} (TXS1755+578) and 2.95 ± 0.15 km s{sup –1} (TXS1850+402). For the z = 1.9698 DLA toward TXS1755+578, the difference in H I 21 cm and C I profiles and the weakness of the radio core suggest that the H I 21cm absorption arises toward radio components in the jet, and that the optical and radio sightlines are not the same. This precludes an estimate of the DLA spin temperature. For the z = 1.9888 DLA toward TXS1850+402, the absorber covering factor is likely to be close to unity, as the background source is extremely compact, with the entire 5 GHz emission arising from a region of ≤ 1.4 mas in size. This yields a DLA spin temperature of T{sub s} = (372 ± 18) × (f/1.0) K, lower than typical T{sub s} values in high-z DLAs. This low spin temperature and the relatively high metallicity of the z = 1.9888 DLA ([Zn/H] =(– 0.68 ± 0.04)) are consistent with the anti-correlation between metallicity and spin temperature that has been found earlier in damped Lyα systems.

  8. Strain-relaxation and critical thickness of epitaxial La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 films

    DOE PAGES

    Meyer, Tricia L; Jiang, Lu; Park, Sungkyun; Egami, Takeshi; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2015-12-08

    We report the thickness-dependent strain-relaxation behavior and the associated impacts upon the superconductivity in epitaxial La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 films grown on different substrates, which provide a range of strain. We have found that the critical thickness for the onset of superconductivity in La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 films is associated with the finite thickness effect and epitaxial strain. In particular, thin films with tensile strain greater than ~0.25% revealed no superconductivity. We attribute this phenomenon to the inherent formation of oxygen vacancies that can be minimized via strain relaxation.

  9. Spectral reflectance properties of carbonaceous chondrites: 2. CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E. A.; Hudon, P.; Hiroi, T.; Gaffey, M. J.; Mann, P.

    2011-11-01

    We have examined the spectral reflectance properties and available modal mineralogies of 39 CM carbonaceous chondrites to determine their range of spectral variability and to diagnose their spectral features. We have also reviewed the published literature on CM mineralogy and subclassification, surveyed the published spectral literature and added new measurements of CM chondrites and relevant end members and mineral mixtures, and measured 11 parameters and searched pair-wise for correlations between all quantities. CM spectra are characterized by overall slopes that can range from modestly blue-sloped to red-sloped, with brighter spectra being generally more red-sloped. Spectral slopes, as measured by the 2.4:0.56 μm and 2.4 μm:visible region peak reflectance ratios, range from 0.90 to 2.32, and 0.81 to 2.24, respectively, with values <1 indicating blue-sloped spectra. Matrix-enriched CM spectra can be even more blue-sloped than bulk samples, with ratios as low as 0.85. There is no apparent correlation between spectral slope and grain size for CM chondrite spectra - both fine-grained powders and chips can exhibit blue-sloped spectra. Maximum reflectance across the 0.3-2.5 μm interval ranges from 2.9% to 20.0%, and from 2.8% to 14.0% at 0.56 μm. Matrix-enriched CM spectra can be darker than bulk samples, with maximum reflectance as low as 2.1%. CM spectra exhibit nearly ubiquitous absorption bands near 0.7, 0.9, and 1.1 μm, with depths up to 12%, and, less commonly, absorption bands in other wavelength regions (e.g., 0.4-0.5, 0.65, 2.2 μm). The depths of the 0.7, 0.9, and 1.1 μm absorption features vary largely in tandem, suggesting a single cause, specifically serpentine-group phyllosilicates. The generally high Fe content, high phyllosilicate abundance relative to mafic silicates, and dual Fe valence state in CM phyllosilicates, all suggest that the phyllosilicates will exhibit strong absorption bands in the 0.7 μm region (due to Fe 3+-Fe 2+ charge

  10. Effects of NiO on the conductivity of Ce0.85Sm0.15O1.925 and on electrochemical properties of the cathode/electrolyte interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haopeng; Liu, Xiaomei; Bi, Hailin; Yu, Shenglong; Han, Fei; Sun, Jialing; Zhu, Lili; Yu, Huamin; Pei, Li

    2016-07-01

    Ce0.85Sm0.15O1.925 (SDC) and Ce0.85Sm0.15O1.925-0.5 at.% NiO (SDCN) are investigated as electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that the grain boundary resistance can be significantly reduced by adding 0.5 at.% NiO to SDC. Symmetric cells of the BaCo0.7Fe0.2Nb0.1O3-δ (BCFN) electrode on SDC and SDCN electrolytes are fabricated and the electrochemical properties of the electrode/electrolyte interface are investigated. The polarization resistance of the BCFN electrode on the SDCN electrolyte is much lower than that of the BCFN electrode on the SDC electrolyte, mainly because of the increase in the electrolyte conductivity and the decrease in the Si content at the electrode/electrolyte interface. NiO is able to restrict the diffusion of the siliceous impurity from the electrolyte to the electrode/electrolyte interface. Single cells based on SDC and SDCN electrolytes are fabricated using Ni0.9Cu0.1Ox-SDC as the anode and BCFN as the cathode. At 800 °C, the maximum power density of the SDCN-based cell is 0.745 W cm-2, which is much higher than that of the SDC-based cell.

  11. Dynamic in situ observations of electrical and structural changes in thin thermoelectric (Bi{sub 0.15}Sb{sub 0.85}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, Katrin; Stordeur, Matthias; Heyroth, Frank; Leipner, Hartmut S.

    2009-09-15

    Thin films of (Bi{sub 0.15}Sb{sub 0.85}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} were prepared by dc magnetron sputter deposition on different substrates. It is well known that thermal treatment of as-deposited p-type (Bi{sub 0.15}Sb{sub 0.85}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} films leads to an enhancement of the power factor. Whereas up to now only the initial (as deposited) and the final (after annealing) film stages have been investigated, here, the dynamic changes of sputter-deposited film properties have been observed by in situ measurements. The enhancement of the power factor shows a significant dependence on thermal treatment. The best thermoelectric films have been prepared at a substrate temperature of 170 deg. C, with a power factor of 24.4 muW/(cm K{sup 2}). The changes in the Seebeck and Hall coefficients are caused by the enhancement in the Hall mobility after annealing. In situ x-ray diffractometry shows the generation of additional Te in dependence of the temperature. This is also confirmed by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and the corresponding mapping in a scanning electron microscope. It is supposed that the locally well-defined Te enrichment is the reason for the improvement in the integral film transport properties.

  12. Multiferroic and magnetoelectric properties of Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3-CoFe2O4 core-shell nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajith S.; Lekha, C. S. Chitra; Vivek, S.; Saravanan, Venkata; Nandakumar, K.; Nair, Swapna S.

    2016-11-01

    Lead-free magnetoelectric (ME) composites with remarkable ME coupling are required for the realization of eco-friendly multifunctional devices. This work demonstrates the ME properties of Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3-CoFe2O4 (BCZT-CFO) core-shell composites synthesized via co-sol-gel technique. Room temperature ferroelectric and ferromagnetic characterization have shown that the samples are magnetic and ferroelectric along with an adequate magnetoelectric coupling of 12.15 mV/(cm Oe). The strong dependence of electric parameters on applied magnetic DC bias fields demonstrated in ferroelectric and magnetoelectric measurements provide a framework for the development of potential magnetoelectric devices. Also, the high sensitivity of magnetoelectric coupling towards the applied AC magnetic field can be used for its application in magnetoelectric sensors.

  13. Energy-storage properties and electrocaloric effect of Pb(1-3x/2)LaxZr0.85Ti0.15O3 antiferroelectric thick films.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Hao, Xihong; Zhang, Qi

    2014-07-23

    Antiferroelectric (AFE) thick (1 μm) films of Pb(1-3x/2)LaxZr0.85Ti0.15O3 (PLZT) with x = 0.08, 0.10, 0.12, and 0.14 were deposited on LaNiO3/Si (100) substrates by a sol-gel method. The dielectric properties, energy-storage performance, electrocaloric effect, and leakage current behavior were investigated in detail. With increasing La content, dielectric constant and saturated polarizations of the thick films were gradually decreased. A maximum recoverable energy-storage density of 38 J/cm(3) and efficiency of 71% were achieved in the thick films with x = 0.12 at room temperature. A large reversible adiabatic temperature change of ΔT = 25.0 °C was presented in the thick films with x = 0.08 at 127 °C at 990 kV/cm. Moreover, all the samples had a lower leakage current density below 10(-6) A/cm(2) at room temperature. These results indicated that the PLZT AFE thick films could be a potential candidate for applications in high energy-storage density capacitors and cooling devices.

  14. Colonization and community structure of root-associated microorganisms of Sabina vulgaris with soil depth in a semiarid desert ecosystem with shallow groundwater.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Takeshi; Usuki, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Junichi; Hirobe, Muneto; Miki, Naoko; Fukuda, Kenji; Zhang, Guosheng; Wang, Linhe; Yoshikawa, Ken; Yamanaka, Norikazu

    2012-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been observed in deep soil layers in arid lands. However, change in AMF community structure with soil depth and vertical distributions of the other root-associated microorganisms are unclear. Here, we examined colonization by AMF and dark septate fungi (DSF), as well as the community structure of AMF and endophytic fungi (EF) and endophytic bacteria (EB) in association with soil depth in a semiarid desert with shallow groundwater. Roots of Sabina vulgaris and soils were collected from surface to groundwater level at 20-cm intervals. Soil chemistry (water content, total N, and available P) and colonization of AMF and DSF were measured. Community structures of AMF, EF, and EB were examined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. AMF colonization decreased with soil depth, although it was mostly higher than 50%. Number of AMF phylotypes decreased with soil depth, but more than five phylotypes were observed at depths up to 100 cm. Number of AMF phylotypes had a significant and positive relationship with soil moisture level within 0-15% of soil water content. DSF colonization was high but limited to soil surface. Number of phylotypes of EF and EB were diverse even in deep soil layers, and the community composition was associated with the colonization and community composition of AMF. This study indicates that AMF species richness in roots decreases but is maintained in deep soil layers in semiarid regions, and change in AMF colonization and community structure associates with community structure of the other root-associated microorganisms.

  15. 77 FR 8877 - ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M) Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M... Standards Staff, announces the following meeting. Name: ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M... attend the ICD- 9-CM C&M meeting on March 5, 2012, must submit their name and organization by February...

  16. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  17. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C-120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  18. Chemical pressure effect in the heavy fermion compound Ce 1-yLa y(Ru 0.85Rh 0.15) 2Si 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horii, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Satomi; Nakano, Tomohito; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Takano, Hideaki; Hedo, Masato; Uwatoko, Yoshiya

    2007-03-01

    We have measured the susceptibility and resistivity on single-crystalline Ce 1-yLa y(Ru 0.85Rh 0.15) 2Si 2 along the tetragonal c-axis. The susceptibility increases with decreasing temperature, and then rapidly decreases, indicating the AF transition in each La concentration y. The resistivity also shows an anomaly in each La concentration y at around the TN. For y⩽0.1, we observe a jump in resistivity just below TN as is seen for Ce(Ru 0.85Rh 0.15) 2Si 2. This is interpreted in terms of the gap opening on the Fermi-surface along the c-axis. However, for y⩾0.2 the resistivity shows a downward bend at TN. These experimental facts suggest that the crossover from the spin density wave (SDW) with the gap opening to the localized AF order occurs at around y=0.1.

  19. Ferroelectric domain structures in <001>-oriented K{sub 0.15}Na{sub 0.85}NbO{sub 3} lead-free single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yan; Wong, Chi-Man; Yau, Hei-Man; Dai, Jiyan; Deng, Hao; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Danyang; Yan, Zhibo; Chan, Helen L. W.

    2015-03-15

    In this work, ferroelectric domain structures of <001 >-oriented K{sub 0.15}Na{sub 0.85}NbO{sub 3} single crystal are characterized. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation revealed high-density of laminate domain structures in the crystal and the lattices of the neighboring domains are found to be twisted in a small angle. Superlattice diffraction spots of 1/2 (eeo) and 1/2 (ooe) in electron diffraction patterns are observed in the crystal, revealing the a{sup +}a{sup +}c{sup −} tilting of oxygen octahedral in the perovskite structure. The piezoresponse of domains and in-situ poling responses of K{sub 0.15}Na{sub 0.85}NbO{sub 3} crystal are observed by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and the results assure its good ferroelectric properties.

  20. Chemical Reduction of Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4− δ Powders in Supercritical Sodium Ammonia Solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Dias, Yasmin; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Haiqing; Lin, Feng; Lan, Yucheng

    2015-01-01

    Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4− δ powders are chemically reduced in supercritical sodium ammonia solutions from room temperature to 350°C. The crystallographic structure of the reduced powders is investigated from Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction. The atomic positions are maintained constant within experimental errors while temperature factors of all atoms increase significantly after the chemical treatments, especially of Nd/Ce atoms. The ammonothermally reduced Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4− δ powders show diamagnetic below 24 K which is contributed to the lower oxygen content and higher temperature factors of atoms in the treated compound.more » The ammonothermal method paves a new way to reduce oxides in supercritical solutions near room temperature.« less

  1. Pulsed laser deposition growth and transport studies of superconducting La1.85Y0.15CuO4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Weiqiang; Liang, B.; Li, P.; Greene, R. L.; Fujino, S.; Murakami, T.; Takeuchi, I.

    2007-03-01

    The recent MBE growth of the ``nominally undoped" cuprate superconductor (La,RE)2CuO4 has led to the speculation that this system is a band metal and not a ``doped Mott insulator" as found in all other superconducting cuprates ^1. Here we report the first pulsed laser deposition (PLD) growth of insulating and superconducting La1.85Y0.15CuO4 thin films, which are prepared under different oxygen conditions. We also report resistivity, Hall, Nernst, and magnetoresistance measurements, which show that La1.85Y0.15CuO4 is an electron-doped, Mott-Hubbard system, where the carriers originate from oxygen nonstoichiometry produced by the oxygen reduction. This work is supported by NSF (DMR 0352735).^1A. Tsukada et al., Sol. Stat. Commu. 133, 427 (2005).

  2. The dynamic critical exponent in optimally doped Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4 as a function of film inhomoegneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, R. A.; Olson, J. B.; Sousa, J.; Salvaggio, M.; Sullivan, M. C.; Greene, R. L.

    2009-03-01

    Scaling analysis of voltage vs. current isotherms is a good tool to study the normal-superconducting phase transition in cuprate conductors. This measurement has never been performed on the optimally doped cuprate conductor Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4. If we take the finite thickness of the films into account,ootnotetextSullivan et al., Phys. Rev B 69, 214524 (2004) we can find the critical isotherm and determine the dynamic critical exponent z in our Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4 films. We find that the critical exponent varies as a function of transition width, from which we can infer the effect of sample inhomogeneity on the dynamic critical exponent. We present our results of the critical exponent as a function of sample inhomogeneity and compare it to the hole-doped cuprate YBa2Cu3O7-δ.

  3. c -axis longitudinal magnetoresistance of the electron-doped superconductor Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, W.; Liang, B.; Greene, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    We report c -axis resistivity and longitudinal magnetoresistance measurements of superconducting Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4 single crystals. In the temperature range 13⩽T⩽32K , a negative magnetoresistance is observed at fields just above HC2 . Our studies suggest that this negative magnetoresistance is caused by superconducting fluctuations. At lower temperatures (T⩽13K) , a different magnetoresistance behavior and a resistivity upturn are observed, whose origin is still unknown.

  4. Oxygen-doped Mott-Hubbard cuprate superconductor La1.85Y0.15CuO4-δ from transport measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, W.; Liang, B.; Li, P.; Fujino, S.; Murakami, T.; Takeuchi, I.; Greene, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    We report resistivity, Hall effect, Nernst effect, and magnetoresistance measurements on T' -phase La1.85Y0.15CuO4-δ (LYCO) films prepared by pulsed laser deposition under different oxygen conditions. Our results show that superconductivity in LYCO originates from an oxygen-doped Mott-like insulator and not from a weakly correlated, half-filled band metal as proposed previously.

  5. Neutron powder diffraction study and magnetic properties in LaMn1-xCuxO3 (x=0.05, 0.10 and 0.15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samantaray, B.; Srivastava, S. K.; Mohanty, S.; Ravi, S.; Dhiman, I.; Das, A.

    2010-05-01

    LaMn1-xCuxO3 (x=0.05 to 0.15) samples were prepared and their crystal structure and magnetic properties were studied by recording neutron powder diffraction patterns and M-H loops at different temperatures. Even though the samples were free from impurity, the x=0.05 and 0.10 samples are found to crystallize in mixture of R3¯c and Pnma space group with dominate fraction of former one. The phase fraction for x=0.10 sample is found to vary with temperature especially below the ferromagnetic TC. The x=0.15 sample could be refined based on Pnma space group. The patterns at low temperatures could be refined by considering magnetic reflections corresponding to ferromagnetic structure. The magnetic moments of Mn ion are found to be along b axis with typical value of 3.40(3)μB for x=0.10 sample. From the analysis of the diffraction patterns and the magnetization data, it is found that x=0.15 sample exhibit spin canting.

  6. Deformation Behavior and Microstructure Evolution of the Cu-2Ni-0.5Si-0.15Ag Alloy During Hot Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Volinsky, Alex A.; Xu, Qian-Qian; Chai, Zhe; Tian, Baohong; Liu, Ping; Tran, Hai T.

    2015-12-01

    Hot deformation behavior of the Cu-2Ni-0.5Si-0.15Ag alloy was investigated by hot compression tests using the Gleeble-1500D thermo-simulator in the 873 K to 1073 K (600 °C to 800 °C) temperatures range with the 0.01 to 5 s-1 strain rate. The flow stress strongly depends on the deformation parameters, including temperature and strain rate. The flow stress decreases with the deformation temperature and increases with the strain rate. The constitutive relationship between the peak stress, the strain rate, and the deformation temperature can be described by the Zener-Hollomon Z parameter in the hyperbolic sine function with the hot deformation activation energy of 316 kJ/mol. The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) is one of the important softening mechanisms of the Cu-2Ni-0.5Si-0.15Ag alloy during hot deformation. The DRX behavior of the Cu-2Ni-0.5Si-0.15Ag alloy is strongly affected by the Z parameter. Lower Z parameter leads to more adequate DRX proceeding.

  7. Magnetic order in geometrically frustrated Gd2(Ti1-xZrx)2O7 (x=0.02 and 0.15) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Da-Qian; Lees, M. R.; Baker, D. W.; Paul, D. Mck.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2011-02-01

    Single crystals of Gd2(Ti1-xZrx)2O7 with x=0.02 and 0.15 have been used to investigate the effects of Zr doping on the properties of the geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet Gd2Ti2O7. Powder and single-crystal x-ray data, along with optical birefringence measurements, reveal that the x=0.02 sample retains the cubic Fd3¯m structure of pure Gd2Ti2O7, while the x=0.15 composition adopts a tetragonal I41/amd structure. Low-temperature magnetization and specific heat measurements show that for Gd2(Ti0.98Zr0.02)2O7 there are two magnetic transitions at TN1=1.02 K and TN2=0.70 K, but for Gd2(Ti0.85Zr0.15)2O7 a single transition is observed at TN=1.02 K. Changes in the specific heat with a magnetic field applied along the [110] and the [111] directions are used to construct the H-T phase diagrams for both samples.

  8. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ -- Thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G.; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2008-12-08

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O](M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+](M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO]= 6.4+-0.2 eV; IE[CmO+]= 15.8+-0.4 eV; D[Cm-O]= 710+-45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O]= 670+-40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O]= 342+-55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O]and D[OC-O]--i.e., 167 kJ mol-1< D[M2+-O]< 532 kJ mol-1 -- such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic O-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+ and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2+ ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled -- although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2+ is a stable species.

  9. Optimization of the electrochemical performance of a Ni/Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ-impregnated La0.57Sr0.15TiO3 anode in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Tian; Brüll, Annelise; Grimaud, Alexis; Fourcade, Sébastien; Mauvy, Fabrice; Zhao, Hui; Grenier, Jean-Claude; Bassat, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-01

    A-site deficient perovskite La0.57Sr0.15TiO3 (LSTO) materials are synthesized by a modified polyacrylamide gel route. X-ray diffraction pattern of LSTO indicates an orthorhombic structure. The thermal expansion coefficient of LSTO is 10.0 × 10-6 K-1 at 600 °C in 5%H2/Ar. LSTO shows an electrical conductivity of 2 S cm-1 at 600 °C in 3%H2O/H2. A new composite material, containing the porous LSTO backbone impregnated with small amounts of Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ (CGO) (3.4-8.3 wt.%) and Ni/Cu (2.0-6.3 wt.%), is investigated as an alternative anode for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Because of the substantial electro-catalytic activity of the fine and well-dispersed Ni particles on the surface of the ceramic framework, the polarization resistance of 6.3%Ni-8.3%CGO-LSTO anode reaches 0.73 Ω cm2 at 800 °C in 3%H2O/H2. In order to further improve the anodic performance, corn starch and carbon black are used as pore-formers to optimize the microstructure of anodes.

  10. Systematic study of (La1-xGdx)1.85Sr0.15CuO4 (0<=x<=1): Structure, superconductivity, resistivity, and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gang; Cieplak, Marta Z.; Chien, C. L.

    1989-09-01

    A room-temperature structural phase diagram has been determined in (La1-xGdx)1.85Sr0.15CuO4 system (0<=x<=1). There exist three stable phases (T, T* and T'), in which the local Cu-O unit is an octahedron, a pyramid, and a square, respectively. The Jahn-Teller distortion is reduced in the order of T, T*, and T'. For each phase, there is a solubility region. No magnetic ordering is found in the T and T* phase, both of which exhibit paramagnetism with a constant Gd magnetic moment consistent with that of Gd3+. In Gd2CuO4 and Gd1.85Sr0.15CuO4, the initial susceptibility indicates a Néel state in the Cu-O2 plane at TN=285 K and another magnetic transition at low temperature. TN is not sensitive to the Sr doping at all, indicating that extra holes cannot be doped onto the Cu-O2 plane. While the T* and T' phases are insulating, exhibiting a variable-range hopping behavior, the Gd-doped (La1-xGdx)1.85Sr0.15CuO4 (x<=0.1) is superconducting with Tc reducing with increasing Gd concentration. The suppression of Tc is not due to a variation of the electron-boson coupling strength which remains unchanged in the system, but correlates closely with the low-temperature resistivity anomaly. Such an anomaly can be best described by a logarithmic temperature dependence.

  11. Tunneling behaviors of photogenerated electrons in In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As/GaAs quantum well photoelectrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Xiao, X.R.; Zeng, Y.P.; Pan, D.

    1999-11-25

    The photovoltaic spectral features and the behaviors of photocurrent versus the electrode potential for near surface In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As/GaAs quantum well electrodes have been investigated in nonaqueous solutions of ferrocene and acetylferrocene. The photovoltaic spectrum shows a sharp structure that reflects confined state-to-state exciton transition in the quantum well. Deep dips are observed in the photocurrent versus the electrode potential curves in both electrolytes at the different electrode potentials under the illumination of exciton resonance wavelength. These dips are qualitatively explained by considering the interfacial tunneling transfer of photogenerated electron within the quantum well.

  12. Critical state and low-field electrodynamics in LaO0.85F0.15FeAs superconductor polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerashchenko, O. V.; Kholmetskii, A. L.; Mashlan, M.; Yarman, T.; Aldushchenkov, A. V.; Okunev, I. S.; Lomonosov, V. A.; Makhnach, L. V.

    2015-06-01

    The penetration of a weak magnetic field into LaO0.85F0.15FeAs polycrystalline superconductors is investigated using two mutually complementing techniques: measurement of the higher harmonics of nonlinear magnetization and the current-voltage characteristics. The dependences of the critical current density and resistivity on the temperature and magnetic field strength are determined. The results confirm the theory of the critical state in the low-field electrodynamics of a Josephson medium. The universality of this theoretical concept is demonstrated for a new class of ceramic superconductors.

  13. Wind-tunnel free-flight investigation of a 0.15-scale model of the F-106B airplane with vortex flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, Long P.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effects of vortex flaps on the flight dynamic characteristics of the F-106B in the area of low-speed, high-angle-of-attack flight was undertaken on a 0.15-scale model of the airplane in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel. Static force tests, dynamic forced-oscillation tests, as well as free-flight tests were conducted to obtain a data base on the flight characteristics of the F-106B airplane with vortex flaps. Vortex flap configurations tested included a full-span gothic flap, a full-span constant-chord flap, and a part-span gothic flap.

  14. Critical state and low-field electrodynamics in LaO{sub 0.85}F{sub 0.15}FeAs superconductor polycrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gerashchenko, O. V.; Kholmetskii, A. L.; Mashlan, M.; Yarman, T.; Aldushchenkov, A. V.; Okunev, I. S.; Lomonosov, V. A.; Makhnach, L. V.

    2015-06-15

    The penetration of a weak magnetic field into LaO{sub 0.85}F{sub 0.15}FeAs polycrystalline superconductors is investigated using two mutually complementing techniques: measurement of the higher harmonics of nonlinear magnetization and the current-voltage characteristics. The dependences of the critical current density and resistivity on the temperature and magnetic field strength are determined. The results confirm the theory of the critical state in the low-field electrodynamics of a Josephson medium. The universality of this theoretical concept is demonstrated for a new class of ceramic superconductors.

  15. Preparation and magnetocaloric effect of (La0.67-XGdX)Sr0.33MnO3 (X =0.1,0.15) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Wang, Z.-D.; Zhang, L.-D.

    2005-05-01

    We report a new route to synthesize nanosized (La0.67-XGdX)Sr0.33MnO3 (X=0.1,0.15) perovskite crystalline complex oxides at calcination temperatures of 600-900 °C using amorphous molecular alloy as precursor. The precursor could completely decompose into oxide at temperatures below 500 °C according to thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis results. X-ray diffraction demonstrated that the decomposed species was composed of perovskite structure at a calcination temperature of 600 °C for 2 h. The size and topography of the oxides are dependent on the calcination temperature of the precursor. The resulting particle size is in the range of 40-120 nm as determined by a transmission electron microscope. This method is effective and can be easily quantitatively controlled to synthesize nanosized perovskite complex oxides. The Curie temperature TC and the magnetocaloric effect of (La0.67-XGdX)Sr0.33MnO3 (X=0.1,0.15) nanoparticles are discussed based on the measurement of the low-field magnetization curve and the isothermal magnetization curve.

  16. Alpha self-irradiation effect on the local structure of the U0.85Am0.15O2±x solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieur, D.; Martin, P. M.; Lebreton, F.; Delahaye, T.; Jankowiak, A.; Laval, J.-P.; Scheinost, A. C.; Dehaudt, P.; Blanchart, P.

    2012-10-01

    Uranium-americium mixed oxides are promising fuels for achieving an efficient Am recycling. Previous studies on U0.85Am0.15O2±x materials showed that the high α activity of 241Am induces pellet swelling which is a major issue for cladding materials design. In this context, X-ray Diffraction and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy measurements were used to study self-irradiation effects on U0.85Am0.15O2±x local structure and to correlate these results with those obtained at the macroscopic scale. For a cumulative α decay dose equal to 0.28 dpa, it was shown that non-defective fluorite solid solutions were achieved and therefore, that the fluorite structure is stable for the studied doses. In addition, both interatomic distance and lattice parameter expansions were observed, which only partially explains the macroscopic swelling. As expected, an increase of the structural disorder with self-irradiation was also observed.

  17. Effect of granularity and annealing conditions on the magneto-resistance of the electron doped superconductor Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raveendran, N. Radhikesh; Amaladass, E. P.; Janaki, J.; Mani, Awadhesh

    2016-05-01

    A single phase polycrystalline sample of Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4 has been synthesized and well characterized. Detailed studies on electrical resistivity behavior of this system as a function of temperature and magnetic field reveal interesting features attributable to the granularity effects. These features have been qualitatively understood based on the interplay of Josephson junction coupling and quasi particle tunneling which dictates the evolution of the observed temperature and field dependent resistivity behavior of Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4 system. The studies also reveal significant changes with respect to annealing conditions, indicating that such compounds are very sensitive to annealing conditions. It has been observed that prolonged annealing in Argon atmosphere leads to a decrease in normal state resistivity. This is associated with a decrease in the S-I-S type Josephson tunnel junctions perhaps due to improved inter-granular coupling, nevertheless they could not be completely eliminated.

  18. Thermoelectric Properties of Cu-doped Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 Prepared by Pulse-Current Sintering Under Cyclic Uniaxial Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Mimura, Naoki; Takimura, Kodai; Morito, Shigekazu; Kikuchi, Kotaro

    2016-03-01

    N-type Cu-doped Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 thermoelectric materials were prepared by pulse-current sintering under cyclic uniaxial pressure, and the effect of the cyclic uniaxial pressure on texture and thermoelectric properties was investigated. Cu x Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 ( x = 0-0.03) powder prepared by mechanical alloying was sintered at 673 K using pulse-current heating under 100 MPa of cyclic uniaxial pressure. X-ray diffraction patterns and electron backscattered diffraction analyses showed that the cyclic uniaxial pressure was effective for texture control. The flattened crystal grains were stacked in the thickness direction of the sintered materials and the hexagonal c-plane strongly tended to align in the direction perpendicular to the uniaxial pressure. As a result of this crystal alignment, the electrical resistivity in the direction perpendicular to the uniaxial pressure became smaller than that of equivalent samples prepared with a constant uniaxial pressure. The smaller resistivity led to a larger power factor, and the figure of merit was improved by the application of cyclic uniaxial pressure.

  19. Enhanced electrochemical performance and storage property of LiNi0.815Co0.15Al0.035O2 via Al gradient doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianguo; Hu, Guorong; Cao, Yanbing; Tan, Chaopu; Wu, Ceng; Du, Ke; Peng, Zhongdong

    2016-09-01

    LiNi1-x-yCoxAlyO2 is a commonly used Ni-rich cathode material because of its relatively low cost, excellent rate capability and high gravimetric energy density. Surface modification is an efficient way to overcome the shortcomings of Ni-rich cathodes such as poor cycling stability and poor thermal stability. A high-powered concentration-gradient cathode material with an average composition of LiNi0.815Co0.15Al0.035O2 (LGNCAO) has been successfully synthesized by using spherical concentration-gradient Ni0.815Co0.15Al0.035(OH)2 (GNCA)as the starting material. An efficient design of the Al3+ precipitation method is developed, which enables obtaining spherical GNCA with ∼10 μm particle size and high tap density. In LGNCAO, the nickel and cobalt concentration decreases gradually whereas the aluminum concentration increases from the centre to the outer layer of each particle. Electrochemical performance and storage properties of LGNCAO have been investigated comparatively. The LGNCAO displays better electrochemical performance and improved storage stability than LNCAO.

  20. Terahertz and infrared studies of antiferroelectric phase transition in multiferroic Bi0.85Nd0.15FeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goian, V.; Kamba, S.; Greicius, S.; Nuzhnyy, D.; Karimi, S.; Reaney, I. M.

    2011-10-01

    High-frequency dielectric studies of Bi0.85Nd0.15FeO3 ceramics performed betweeen 100 and 900 K reveal hardening of most polar phonons on cooling below antiferroelectric phase transition, which occurs near 600 K. Moreover, a strong THz dielectric relaxation is seen in paraelectric phase. Its relaxation frequency softens on cooling towards TC ≈ 600 K, its dielectric strength simultaneously decreases, and finally the relaxation disappears from the spectra below 450 K. Both phonon and dielectric relaxation behavior are responsible for a decrease in the dielectric permittivity at the antiferroelectric phase transition. Origin of unusual strong THz dielectric relaxation in paraelectric phase is discussed. Bi0.85Nd0.15FeO3 structure lies on the phase boundary between polar rhombohedral and non-polar orthorhombic phase and owing to this, the polarization rotation and polarization extension can enhance the piezoelectric response of this system. Similarities and discrepancies with lead-based piezoelectric perovskites, exhibiting morphotrophic phase boundary between two ferroelectric phases, are discussed.

  1. Oxygen depth profiling with subnanometre depth resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmata, Marcel; Munnik, Frans; Hanf, Daniel; Grötzschel, Rainer; Crocoll, Sonja; Möller, Wolfhard

    2014-10-01

    A High-depth Resolution Elastic Recoil Detection (HR-ERD) set-up using a magnetic spectrometer has been taken into operation at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf for the first time. This instrument allows the investigation of light elements in ultra-thin layers and their interfaces with a depth resolution of less than 1 nm near the surface. As the depth resolution is highly influenced by the experimental measurement parameters, sophisticated optimisation procedures have been implemented. Effects of surface roughness and sample damage caused by high fluences need to be quantified for each kind of material. Also corrections are essential for non-equilibrium charge state distributions that exist very close to the surface. Using the example of a high-k multilayer SiO2/Si3N4Ox/SiO2/Si it is demonstrated that oxygen in ultra-thin films of a few nanometres thickness can be investigated by HR-ERD.

  2. Intensity Mapping During Reionization: 21 cm and Cross-correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, James E.; HERA Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The first generation of 21 cm epoch of reionization (EoR) experiments are now reaching the sensitivities necessary for a detection of the power spectrum of plausible reionization models, and with the advent of next-generation capabilities (e.g. the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and the Square Kilometer Array Phase I Low) will move beyond the power spectrum to imaging of the EoR intergalactic medium. Such datasets provide context to galaxy evolution studies for the earliest galaxies on scales of tens of Mpc, but at present wide, deep galaxy surveys are lacking, and attaining the depth to survey the bulk of galaxies responsible for reionization will be challenging even for JWST. Thus we seek useful cross-correlations with other more direct tracers of the galaxy population. I review near-term prospects for cross-correlation studies with 21 cm and CO and CII emission, as well as future far-infrared misions suchas CALISTO.

  3. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Eighteen geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  4. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to the dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  5. Soil Warming and Rhizosphere Effects on Root Litter Decomposition at Two Depths in a Mediterranean Grassland Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanha, C.; Zhu, B.; Hicks Pries, C.; Torn, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate understanding of soil processes is critical for predicting climate-ecosystem feedbacks. We investigated the effects of soil warming and plant rhizosphere on decomposition of 13C-labeled roots buried at two soil depths at the field lysimeter facilities at Hopland Research and Extension Center, CA. The lysimeters contain soil columns 38-cm in diameter and 48-cm deep (0-15 cm A-horizon and 15-48 cm B-horizon, Laughlin soil) sown with an annual grassland mix. The experimental design includes three treatments: heated, ambient, and unplanted. In February 2014 we added 13C-labeled Avena fatua roots to either 8-12 cm or 38-42 cm. We measured loss of 13C in CO2 from the soil surface and in leachate as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) over two growing seasons. At the end of each growing season we recovered the 13C remaining in the soil. In addition, we monitored plant productivity and soil temperature and moisture. The rates of both soil respiration and DOC losses were greatest in heated and least in unplanted plots, although respiration losses far outweighed leachate losses. Treatment affected timing of decomposition; added root litter was respired earlier in the ambient plots and later in the unplanted plots in both years. The litter addition stimulated native soil respiration in year 1 heated plots. The depth of the litter addition did not have an effect on soil respiration. However, after the first growing season, less added root litter remained in the A than in the B horizon (both in the visible root fraction and in the 2mm soil fraction), indicating lower overall decomposition rates at depth. These results, including 13C recovery following the 2nd growing season and soil microclimate variables, will be used to develop a mechanistic understanding of the impacts of soil warming, the rhizosphere, and soil depth on root decomposition and soil organic matter dynamics, and should improve our predictions of the feedbacks between climate change and carbon cycling

  6. Chilled Mirror Dew Point Hygrometer (CM) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2005-01-01

    The CM systems have been developed for the ARM Program to act as a moisture standard traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are three CM systems that are each fully portable, self-contained, and require only 110 V AC power. The systems include a CM sensor, air sampling and filtration system, a secondary reference (Rotronic HP043 temperature and relative humidity sensor) to detect system malfunctions, a data acquisition system, and data storage for more than one month of 1-minute data. The CM sensor directly measures dew point temperature at 1 m, air temperature at 2 m, and relative humidity at 2 m. These measurements are intended to represent self-standing data streams that can be used independently or in combinations.

  7. Characterization of phase transformation during hot compressive deformation in a β-stabilized Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.4W–0.15B alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong Huang, Lan; Li, Huizhong; He, Yuehui

    2015-07-15

    A β-stabilized Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.4W–0.15B (at.%) alloy was hot deformed by uniaxial compression and the phase evolution during the compression was characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. The results show that modest deformation stress during hot compression restrains the γ → α transformation and the decomposition of β phase. The restrained γ → α transformation is a result of a modified equilibrium of the γ and α phases due to the applied stress, and the restrained β decomposition is a kinetic effect due to the decelerated diffusion of β-stabilizing elements caused by the compressive stress. - Highlights: • In β-stabilized TiAl alloys, hot deformation has great influence on the equilibrium of the γ, α, and β phases. • Deformation restrains the γ → α transformation. • Deformation inhibits the decomposition of the β phase.

  8. Condyloma eradication: self-therapy with 0.15-0.5% podophyllotoxin versus 20-25% podophyllin preparations--an integrated safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, E; von Krogh, G

    2001-04-01

    Topical application of podophyllin solution, long considered the therapy of first choice against condylomata acuminata, can no longer be recommended due to its low efficacy and gross toxicity. Self-treatment with 0.15-0.5% purified podophyllotoxin preparations, applied twice daily for 3 days, is now advocated as the alternative first-line therapy of choice, when significant improvement is conveniently, and cost-effectively, accomplished within a few weeks. This review provides a summary of the comparative efficacy and utility of podophyllin versus podophyllotoxin as well as a compilation of in vivo and in vitro safety evaluations. In light of overwhelming safety and efficacy data in favor of podophyllotoxin-derived products, it is concluded that podophyllin preparations have no place in the modern treatment portfolio for anogenital warts. PMID:11350195

  9. Inflow Measurements Made with a Laser Velocimeter on a Helicopter Model in Forward Flight. Volume 1: Rectangular Planform Blades at an Advance Ration of 0.15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Joe W.; Althoff, Susan L.; Sailey, Richard H.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel at NASA Langley to measure the inflow into a scale model helicopter rotor in forward flight (microinf = 0.15). The measurements were made with a two component Laser Velocimeter (LV) one chord above the plane formed by the path of the rotor tips (tip path plane). A conditional sampling technique was employed to determine the azimuthal position of the rotor at the time each velocity measurement was made so that the azimuthal fluctuations in velocity could be determined. Measurements were made at a total of 147 separate locations in order to clearly define the inflow character. This data is presented without analysis. In order to increase the availability of the resulting data, both the mean and azimuthally dependent values are included as part of this report on two 5.25 inch floppy disks in Microsoft Corporation MS-DOS format.

  10. Local tunneling spectroscopy of the electron-doped cuprate superconductor Sm1.85Ce0.15CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmers, A.; Noat, Y.; Cren, T.; Sacks, W.; Roditchev, D.; Liang, B.; Greene, R. L.

    2007-10-01

    We present local tunneling spectroscopy in the optimally electron-doped cuprate Sm2-xCexCuO4 , x=0.15 . A clear signature of the superconducting gap is observed with an amplitude ranging from place to place and from sample to sample ( Δ˜3.5 6meV) . Another spectroscopic feature is simultaneously observed at high energy with an amplitude ranging from ±60 to ±80meV . Its energy scale and temperature evolution are found to be compatible with previous photoemission and optical experiments. If interpreted as the signature of antiferromagnetic order in the samples, these results could suggest the coexistence on the local scale of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity on the electron-doped side of cuprate superconductors.

  11. Nonlinear structure-composition relationships in the Ge1-ySny/Si(100) (y<0.15) system

    SciTech Connect

    Beeler, R.; Roucka, R.; Chizmeshya, A. V. G.; Kouvetakis, J.; Menéndez, J.

    2011-07-26

    The compositional dependence of the cubic lattice parameter in Ge1-ySny alloys has been revisited. Large 1000-atom supercell ab initio simulations confirm earlier theoretical predictions that indicate a positive quadratic deviation from Vegard's law, albeit with a somewhat smaller bowing coefficient, θ = 0.047 Å, than found from 64-atom cell simulations (θ = 0.063 Å). On the other hand, measurements from an extensive set of alloy samples with compositions y < 0.15 reveal a negative deviation from Vegard's law. The discrepancy with earlier experimental data, which supported the theoretical results, is traced back to an unexpected compositional dependence of the residual strain after growth on Si substrates. The experimental bowing parameter for the relaxed lattice constant of the alloys is found to be θ = -0.066 Å. Possible reasons for the disagreement between theory and experiment are discussed in detail.

  12. Inflow measurements made with a laser velocimeter on a helicopter model in forward flight. Volume 4: Tapered planform blades at an advance ratio of 0.15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Althoff, Susan L.; Elliott, Joe W.; Sailey, Richard H.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center to measure the inflow into the scale model helicopter rotor in forward flight (mu sub infinity = 0.15). The measurements were made with a two-component Laser Velocimeter (LV) one chord above the plane formed by the path of the rotor tips (tip path plane). A conditional sampling technique was employed to determine the position of the rotor at the time that each velocity measurement was made so that the azimuthal fluctuations in velocity could be determined. Measurements were made at a total of 146 separate locations in order to clearly define the inflow character. This data is presented herein without analysis. In order to increase the availability of the resulting data, both the mean and azimuthally dependent values are included as part of this report on two 5.25 inch floppy disks in MS-DOS format.

  13. (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 Ceramics Synthesized by a Gel-Casting Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei

    2016-08-01

    (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 (BCZT) powder was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method, then the ceramics were fabricated by gel-casting and die-pressing routes, respectively. Piezoelectric coefficient ( d 33 ) was measured by the d 33 m; Planar mode electromechanical coupling coefficient ( k p ), dielectric loss ( tanδ) and relative permittivity ( ɛ r ) were measured by the impedance analyzer. Results of measurements showed that in the range of tested sintering temperature (1300-1500°C), gel-casting samples showed better piezoelectric and electromechanical coupling coefficients ( d 33 = 395 pC/N, k p = 0.44) compared with die-pressing samples, and comparable dielectric properties were also observed. ( tanδ = 0.037, ɛ r = 3267).

  14. Fluctuation conductivity and possible pseudogap state in FeAs-based superconductor EuFeAsO0.85F0.15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovjov, A. L.; Omelchenko, L. V.; Terekhov, A. V.; Rogacki, K.; Vovk, R. V.; Khlybov, E. P.; Chroneos, A.

    2016-07-01

    The study of excess conductivity σ \\prime (T) in the textured polycrystalline FeAs-based superconductor EuFeAsO0.85F0.15 ({T}{{c}}=11 {{K}}) prepared by the solid state synthesis is reported for the first time. The σ \\prime (T) analysis has been performed within the local pair (LP) model based on the assumption of the LPs formation in cuprate high-T c superconductors (cuprates) below the pseudogap (PG) temperature {T}* \\gg {T}{{c}}. Similarly to the cuprates, near {T}{{c}} σ \\prime (T) is adequately described by the 3D term of the Aslamasov-Larkin (AL) theory but the range of the 3D-AL fluctuations, {{Δ }}{T}3{{D}}, is relatively short. Above the crossover temperature {T}0≈ 11.7 {{K}} σ \\prime (T) is described by the 2D Maki-Thompson (MT) fluctuation term of the Hikami-Larkin theory. But enhanced 2D-MT fluctuation contribution being typical for the magnetic superconductors is observed. Within the LP model the PG parameter, {{{Δ }}}* (T), was determined for the first time. It is shown that {{{Δ }}}* (T) demonstrates the narrow maximum at {T}s≈ 160 {{K}} followed by the descending linear length down to {T}{SDW}={T}{NFe}≈ 133 {{K}}. Observed small {{Δ }}{T}3{{D}}, enlarged 2D σ \\prime (T) and linear {{{Δ }}}* (T) are considered to be the evidence of the enhanced magnetic interaction in EuFeAsO0.85F0.15. Importantly, the slop of the linear {{{Δ }}}* (T) and its length are found to be the same as it is revealed for SmFeAsO0.85. The results suggest both the similarity of the magnetic interaction processes in different Fe-pnictides and applicability of the LP model to the σ \\prime (T) analysis even in magnetic superconductors.

  15. Fluctuation conductivity and possible pseudogap state in FeAs-based superconductor EuFeAsO0.85F0.15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovjov, A. L.; Omelchenko, L. V.; Terekhov, A. V.; Rogacki, K.; Vovk, R. V.; Khlybov, E. P.; Chroneos, A.

    2016-07-01

    The study of excess conductivity σ \\prime (T) in the textured polycrystalline FeAs-based superconductor EuFeAsO0.85F0.15 ({T}{{c}}=11 {{K}}) prepared by the solid state synthesis is reported for the first time. The σ \\prime (T) analysis has been performed within the local pair (LP) model based on the assumption of the LPs formation in cuprate high-T c superconductors (cuprates) below the pseudogap (PG) temperature {T}* \\gg {T}{{c}}. Similarly to the cuprates, near {T}{{c}} σ \\prime (T) is adequately described by the 3D term of the Aslamasov–Larkin (AL) theory but the range of the 3D-AL fluctuations, {{Δ }}{T}3{{D}}, is relatively short. Above the crossover temperature {T}0≈ 11.7 {{K}} σ \\prime (T) is described by the 2D Maki–Thompson (MT) fluctuation term of the Hikami–Larkin theory. But enhanced 2D-MT fluctuation contribution being typical for the magnetic superconductors is observed. Within the LP model the PG parameter, {{{Δ }}}* (T), was determined for the first time. It is shown that {{{Δ }}}* (T) demonstrates the narrow maximum at {T}s≈ 160 {{K}} followed by the descending linear length down to {T}{SDW}={T}{NFe}≈ 133 {{K}}. Observed small {{Δ }}{T}3{{D}}, enlarged 2D σ \\prime (T) and linear {{{Δ }}}* (T) are considered to be the evidence of the enhanced magnetic interaction in EuFeAsO0.85F0.15. Importantly, the slop of the linear {{{Δ }}}* (T) and its length are found to be the same as it is revealed for SmFeAsO0.85. The results suggest both the similarity of the magnetic interaction processes in different Fe-pnictides and applicability of the LP model to the σ \\prime (T) analysis even in magnetic superconductors.

  16. Structure and ferroelectric studies of (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Ti{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1})O{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Venkata Ramana, E.; Mahajan, A.; Graça, M.P.F.; Mendiratta, S.K.; Monteiro, J.M.; Valente, M.A.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Ti{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1})O{sub 3} (BCTZO) ceramic was synthesized by the ceramic method. • In situ XRD and Raman spectra showed the phase transition of BCTZO around 360 K. • The ceramics showed a tunability of 82% at 40 kV cm{sup −1} electric field. • BCTZO exhibited good quality factor of 111 at microwave frequencies. • Piezoforce microscopy studies indicated the switchability of ferroelectric domains. - Abstract: We have synthesized and studied the structural and ferroelectric properties of lead-free 0.5(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3}–0.5Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3} ceramics in the temperature region of its ferroelectric transition. The synthesized material showed high dielectric constant, low loss and good pyroelectric figure of merit. From the temperature dependent X-ray diffraction measurements, we determined the tricritical point to be in the temperature range of 303–400 K. The dielectric measurements indicate a diffuse ferroelectric phase transition (DPT) around 360 K in agreement with the X-ray measurements. We studied the evolution of Raman spectra with temperature to understand the nature of phase transition in BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) and the BCTZO. The results indicates that the transition of ferroelectric–paraelectric state is not sharp as in the case of BTO and the polar state persists through the paraelectric state. In general, our study indicates that there are ferroelectric domains of nanometer size beyond the commonly defined transition temperature. The observation of local piezoelectric hysteresis loop indicated the existence of intrinsic ferroelectric property of the ceramic at the nanoscale. The ceramics exhibited electric field tunable dielectric properties with a tunability of 82% at an applied DC field of 40 kV cm{sup −1}, low dielectric loss of 0.001 and room temperature pyroelectric coefficient of 6 × 10{sup −8} C cm{sup −2} K{sup −1} and the

  17. Study of structural, dielectric and magnetic behaviour of Ni0.75Zn0.25Fe2O4-Ba(Ti0.85Zr0.15)O3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhlakha, Nidhi; Yadav, K. L.

    2012-11-01

    A class of hybrid composites (x)Ni0.75Zn0.25Fe2O4-(1 - x)Ba(Ti 0.85Zr 0.15)O 3 (for x variations 0, 0.20, 0.30 and 0.40) synthesized via a solid state reaction method is investigated. The structural analysis was carried out using an x-ray diffraction graph which reveals a mixed phase of the hybrid composites with spinel phase for ferrite component and perovskite phase for the ferroelectric component. The microstructural analysis and grain size determination is carried out using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The relative dielectric constant with frequency variation (in the range of 100 Hz-1 MHz) and temperature at three fixed frequencies (100 Hz, 1 KHz and 10 KHz) is studied. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization (Ms ) and magnetic moment (μB) are calculated from the magnetic hysteresis loops obtained using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The value of remnant polarization for pure BZT is found to be 6.18 μC cm-2 and as the content of ferrite phase is increased up to 40 mol%, this value decreases. The magnetoelectric effect is studied using magnetocapacitance which takes a maximum value for 40 mol% addition of ferrite.

  18. Low loss, high tunable BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3/BaSn0.85Ti0.15O3 heterostructure thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shihui; Zhang, Jieling; Li, Lingxia; Zheng, Haoran; Zhang, Weifeng

    2016-10-01

    Ferroelectric BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3/BaSn0.85Ti0.15O3 (BZT/BTS) heterostructure thin films (˜200-nm-thick) have been prepared on Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The heterostructure thin films are crack free, compact, and crystallized in a perovskite structure. Dielectric measurements indicate that the BZT/BTS heterostructure thin films exhibit a low dielectric loss of below 0.007, a medium dielectric constant of ˜441, and the superior tunable dielectric properties at room temperature. Calculations of tunability and figure of merit (FOM) display a maximum value of 68.5% at 500 kV/cm and ˜101, respectively. The FOM value is higher than that of the single-layer BTS and BZT thin films. A brief discussion is given on the lower loss compared to the single-layer thin films. The results indicate that BZT/BTS heterostructure thin films are excellent candidates for electrically steerable applications.

  19. Titanates de cuivre substitués à structure bixbyite: Les composés Cu 1- xTi 1- xFe 2 xO 3 (0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.33)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouron, Paule; Odier, Philippe; Choisnet, Jacques

    1985-11-01

    A new bixbyite family, Cu 1- xTi 1- xFe 2 xO 3 (0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.33) has been synthesized and characterized. The unit cell is cubic: a ˜ 9.40Å. The X-ray powder diffraction study shows up an isotypism with the (Fe, Mn) 2O 3 compounds. There is a disordered distribution of Cu II, Ti IV, and Fe III over the two cyrstallographic sites: P I and P II. P II is highly distorted (two long MO distances) by the Jahn-Teller effect of Cu II. The bixbyite structure is described in terms of polyhedra arrangement, as a particular case of the C M2O 3 family. The cation packing is discussed in relation with the existence of the bixbyite structure for the Cu 1- xTi 1- xFe 2 xO 3 compounds. The electrical properties (σ ˜ 10 -5(Ω cm) -1 for x = 0.286 at room temperature) show an electron conduction with probably a hopping mechanism.

  20. Stereoscopic depth constancy

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Depth constancy is the ability to perceive a fixed depth interval in the world as constant despite changes in viewing distance and the spatial scale of depth variation. It is well known that the spatial frequency of depth variation has a large effect on threshold. In the first experiment, we determined that the visual system compensates for this differential sensitivity when the change in disparity is suprathreshold, thereby attaining constancy similar to contrast constancy in the luminance domain. In a second experiment, we examined the ability to perceive constant depth when the spatial frequency and viewing distance both changed. To attain constancy in this situation, the visual system has to estimate distance. We investigated this ability when vergence, accommodation and vertical disparity are all presented accurately and therefore provided veridical information about viewing distance. We found that constancy is nearly complete across changes in viewing distance. Depth constancy is most complete when the scale of the depth relief is constant in the world rather than when it is constant in angular units at the retina. These results bear on the efficacy of algorithms for creating stereo content. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269596

  1. Stereoscopic depth constancy.

    PubMed

    Guan, Phillip; Banks, Martin S

    2016-06-19

    Depth constancy is the ability to perceive a fixed depth interval in the world as constant despite changes in viewing distance and the spatial scale of depth variation. It is well known that the spatial frequency of depth variation has a large effect on threshold. In the first experiment, we determined that the visual system compensates for this differential sensitivity when the change in disparity is suprathreshold, thereby attaining constancy similar to contrast constancy in the luminance domain. In a second experiment, we examined the ability to perceive constant depth when the spatial frequency and viewing distance both changed. To attain constancy in this situation, the visual system has to estimate distance. We investigated this ability when vergence, accommodation and vertical disparity are all presented accurately and therefore provided veridical information about viewing distance. We found that constancy is nearly complete across changes in viewing distance. Depth constancy is most complete when the scale of the depth relief is constant in the world rather than when it is constant in angular units at the retina. These results bear on the efficacy of algorithms for creating stereo content.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'.

  2. Magnetic, dielectric, magnetoelectric properties and impedance spectroscopy of multiferroic Bi1-xNdxFe1-yCoyO3 (x=0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, y=0, 0.10) nanoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, K. P.; Mandal, P. R.; Nath, T. K.

    2015-06-01

    Single phase multiferroic Bi1-xNdxFe1-yCoyO3 (x=0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20; y = 0, 0.10) nanoparticles (average particle size 20-80 nm) were synthesized by novel chemical sol-gel route. The detailed microstructural analysis has been performed using HRXRD, HRTEM and FESEM techniques. The Rietveld refinement of the XRD data reveals that the samples are well crystalline with distorted rhombohedral structure having R3c space group without having any iron rich impurity phases. A noticeably large value of dielectric constant (880) and low tan δ loss (0.04) are observed for the sample Bi0.9Nd0.1Fe0.9Co0.1O3 at 100 Hz at room temperature. An anomaly near the Neel temperature in dielectric measurement has been observed for the samples with x = 0.10 and y = 0.0, 0.10. This anomaly has also been found in temperature dependent dielectric loss curve. A spectacular enhancement of Ms (7.26 emu/gm) and coercivity Hc (1.75 T) has been observed for Bi0.9Nd0.1Fe0.9Co0.1O3 nanoceramics revealing ferromagnetic ordering at the ground state (5 K). We have also observed well saturated P-E Hystersis loops with a remanent polarization (Pr) of 0.2 µC/ cm2 and coercive field Ec of 5 kV/cm for Bi0.9Nd0.1Fe0.9Co0.1O3 nanoceramics.

  3. Detection of Thermal 2 cm and 1 cm Formaldehyde Emission in NGC 7538

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang; Araya, E. D.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Pihlstrom, Y.

    2011-05-01

    Formaldehyde is a tracer of high density gas in massive star forming regions. The K-doublet lines from the three lowest rotational energy levels of ortho-formaldehyde correspond to wavelengths of 6, 2 and 1 cm. Thermal emission of these transitions is rare, and maser emission has only been detected in the 6 cm line. NGC 7538 is an active site of massive star formation in the Galaxy, and one of only a few regions known to harbor 6 cm formaldehyde (H2CO) masers. Using the NRAO 100 m Green Bank Telescope (GBT), we detected 2 cm H2CO emission toward NGC 7538 IRS1. The velocity of the 2 cm H2CO line is very similar to the velocity of one of the 6 cm H2CO masers but the linewidth is greater. To investigate the nature of the 2 cm emission, we conducted observations of the 1 cm H2CO transition, and obtained a cross-scan map of the 2 cm line. We detected 1 cm emission and found that the 2 cm emission is extended (greater than 30"), which implies brightness temperatures of ˜0.2 K. Assuming optically thin emission, LTE, and that the 1 cm and 2 cm lines originate from the same volume of gas, both these detections are consistent with thermal emission of gas at ˜30 K. We conclude that the 1 cm and 2 cm H2CO lines detected with the GBT are thermal, which implies molecular densities above ˜105 cm-3. LY acknowledges support from WIU. PH acknowledges partial support from NSF grant AST-0908901.

  4. Probing lepton asymmetry with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the issue of how accurately we can constrain the lepton number asymmetry ξ{sub ν}=μ{sub ν}/T{sub ν} in the Universe by using future observations of 21 cm line fluctuations and cosmic microwave background (CMB). We find that combinations of the 21 cm line and the CMB observations can constrain the lepton asymmetry better than big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Additionally, we also discuss constraints on ξ{sub ν} in the presence of some extra radiation, and show that the 21 cm line observations can substantially improve the constraints obtained by CMB alone, and allow us to distinguish the effects of the lepton asymmetry from the ones of extra radiation.

  5. Motivation with Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an illusional arena by offering experience in optical illusions in which students must apply critical analysis to their innate information gathering systems. Introduces different types of depth illusions for students to experience. (ASK)

  6. CV and CM chondrite impact melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunning, Nicole G.; Corrigan, Catherine M.; McSween, Harry Y.; Tenner, Travis J.; Kita, Noriko T.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Volatile-rich and typically oxidized carbonaceous chondrites, such as CV and CM chondrites, potentially respond to impacts differently than do other chondritic materials. Understanding impact melting of carbonaceous chondrites has been hampered by the dearth of recognized impact melt samples. In this study we identify five carbonaceous chondrite impact melt clasts in three host meteorites: a CV3red chondrite, a CV3oxA chondrite, and a regolithic howardite. The impact melt clasts in these meteorites respectively formed from CV3red chondrite, CV3oxA chondrite, and CM chondrite protoliths. We identified these impact melt clasts and interpreted their precursors based on their texture, mineral chemistry, silicate bulk elemental composition, and in the case of the CM chondrite impact melt clast, in situ measurement of oxygen three-isotope signatures in olivine. These impact melts typically contain euhedral-subhedral olivine microphenocrysts, sometimes with relict cores, in glassy groundmasses. Based on petrography and Raman spectroscopy, four of the impact melt clasts exhibit evidence for volatile loss: these melt clasts either contain vesicles or are depleted in H2O relative to their precursors. Volatile loss (i.e., H2O) may have reduced the redox state of the CM chondrite impact melt clast. The clasts that formed from the more oxidized precursors (CV3oxA and CM chondrites) exhibit phase and bulk silicate elemental compositions consistent with higher intrinsic oxygen fugacities relative to the clast that formed from a more reduced precursor (CV3red chondrite). The mineral chemistries and assemblages of the CV and CM chondrite impact melt clasts identified here provide a template for recognizing carbonaceous chondrite impact melts on the surfaces of asteroids.

  7. Depth Optimization Study

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kawase, Mitsuhiro

    2009-11-22

    The zipped file contains a directory of data and routines used in the NNMREC turbine depth optimization study (Kawase et al., 2011), and calculation results thereof. For further info, please contact Mitsuhiro Kawase at kawase@uw.edu. Reference: Mitsuhiro Kawase, Patricia Beba, and Brian Fabien (2011), Finding an Optimal Placement Depth for a Tidal In-Stream Conversion Device in an Energetic, Baroclinic Tidal Channel, NNMREC Technical Report.

  8. Strain accommodation through facet matching in La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4}/Nd{sub 1.85}Ce{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4} ramp-edge junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoek, M.; Coneri, F.; Poccia, N.; Renshaw Wang, X.; Hilgenkamp, H.; Ke, X.; Van Tendeloo, G.

    2015-08-01

    Scanning nano-focused X-ray diffraction and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy are used to investigate the crystal structure of ramp-edge junctions between superconducting electron-doped Nd{sub 1.85}Ce{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4} and superconducting hole-doped La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4} thin films, the latter being the top layer. On the ramp, a new growth mode of La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4} with a 3.3° tilt of the c-axis is found. We explain the tilt by developing a strain accommodation model that relies on facet matching, dictated by the ramp angle, indicating that a coherent domain boundary is formed at the interface. The possible implications of this growth mode for the creation of artificial domains in morphotropic materials are discussed.

  9. Impacts of Soil Warming and Plant Rhizosphere on Root Litter Decomposition at Different Soil Depths in a Mediterranuan Grassland Lysimeter Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, B.; Hicks Pries, C.; Castanha, C.; Curtis, J. B.; Porras, R. C.; Torn, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate understanding of soil carbon cycling is critical for predicting climate-ecosystem feedbacks. Decomposition of root litter and its transformation into soil organic matter (SOM) are critical processes of soil carbon cycling. We aim to study the impacts of soil warming and plant rhizosphere on the fate of 13C-labeled roots buried at two soil depths using a field lysimeter facility at Hopland, California. The lysimeters contain soil columns of 38-cm diameter and 48-cm depth (0-15 cm A-horizon, and 15-48 cm B-horizon, Laughlin soil series) sown with annual grasses dominated by Avena barbata. The experiment has three treatments (planted-ambient, planted-warming (+4°C), and unplanted-ambient). In February 2014, 13C-labeled A. fatua roots were added to two depths (8-12 and 38-42 cm). We measured root-derived 13C in respired CO2 collected at the soil surface and in leachate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) collected from the lysimeters during the growing season and in soil harvested in August 2014. We found (1) soil temperature at two depths (10- and 40-cm) have been elevated by 4±0.2°C in the warmed compared to the ambient lysimeters; (2) surface (10-cm) volumetric soil moisture followed this order (unplanted-ambient > planted-ambient > planted-warming), while subsurface (40-cm) soil moisture showed little variation among treatments; (3) ecosystem respiration was enhanced by soil warming during the early growing season (March 15th and April 5th) when soil moisture was not limiting (>20%), while it was suppressed by soil warming during the late growing season (May 7th) when soil moisture was limiting (<20%), and was not significantly different among treatments towards the end of growing season (May 20th); and (4) aboveground plant biomass increased 25% with soil warming. More data including 13C values of ecosystem respiration, DOC loss, and harvested soil samples, as well as soil nutrient supply rates, microbial biomass and community structure will be presented

  10. Characterization of 8-cm engineering model thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    Development of 8 cm ion thruster technology which was conducted in support of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) flight contract (Contract NAS3-21055) is discussed. The work included characterization of thruster performance, stability, and control; a study of the effects of cathode aging; environmental qualification testing; and cyclic lifetesting of especially critical thruster components.

  11. The Multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidergor, Hava E.

    2010-01-01

    The multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM) helps teachers to better prepare gifted and able students for our changing world, acquiring much needed skills. It is influenced by general learning theory of constructivism, notions of preparing students for 21st century, Teaching the Future Model, and current comprehensive curriculum models for…

  12. Microstructures of La 1.85Sr 0.15CuO 4 doped with Ni at high doping level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. S.; Jiang, S. S.; Pan, F. M.; Lin, J.; Xu, N.; Mao Zhiqiang; Xu Gaoji; Zhang Yuheng

    1996-02-01

    Ceramic superconductors of La 1.85Sr 0.15Cu 1- yNi yO 4 with 0.00 ≤ y ≤ 0.50 were synthesized. There is no impurity phase detected in the entire Ni doped region. The structure of these Ni-doped samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction studies. The atomic structural parameters were obtained by Rietveld refinements for the Ni-doped samples with y ≤ 0.50. Some meaningful bond distances were determined according to the refined results. According to the variations of some bond distances with y, the whole doping range could be divided into two regions: low doping level (LDL) and high doping level (HDL). The bond length between the two apical oxygen atoms in the CuO 6 octahedra for the Ni-doped samples increased with increasing content of Ni in the LDL, and decreased in the HDL. The average bond distance of LaO was not changed in the whole doping region. The metal-insulator transition was also observed in this Ni-doped system.

  13. Hydrostatic pressure tuned magneto-structural transition and occurrence of pressure induced exchange bias effect in Mn0.85Fe0.15NiGe alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, P.; Pramanick, S.; Das, D.; Chatterjee, S.

    2016-09-01

    The magnetic and magneto-functional behavior of a Fe-doped MnNiGe alloy with nominal composition Mn0.85Fe0.15NiGe have been investigated in ambient as well as in high pressure conditions. The alloy undergoes a first order martensitic phase transition (MPT) around 200 K and also shows a large conventional magnetocaloric effect (MCE) ( Δ S∼ -21 J kg‑1 K‑1 for magnetic field (H) changing from 0–50 kOe) around the transition in ambient conditions. The application of external hydrostatic pressure (P) results in a shift in MPT towards the lower temperature and a clear decrease in the saturation moment of the alloy at 5 K. The peak value of MCE is also found to decrease with increasing external P (∼18 J kg‑1 K‑1 decrease in Δ S has been observed for P  =  12.5 kbar). The most interesting observation is the occurrence of the exchange bias effect (EBE) on application of external P. The competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interaction in the presence of external P plays the pivotal role towards the observation of P induced EBE.

  14. Hydrostatic pressure tuned magneto-structural transition and occurrence of pressure induced exchange bias effect in Mn0.85Fe0.15NiGe alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, P.; Pramanick, S.; Das, D.; Chatterjee, S.

    2016-09-01

    The magnetic and magneto-functional behavior of a Fe-doped MnNiGe alloy with nominal composition Mn0.85Fe0.15NiGe have been investigated in ambient as well as in high pressure conditions. The alloy undergoes a first order martensitic phase transition (MPT) around 200 K and also shows a large conventional magnetocaloric effect (MCE) ( Δ S˜ -21 J kg-1 K-1 for magnetic field (H) changing from 0-50 kOe) around the transition in ambient conditions. The application of external hydrostatic pressure (P) results in a shift in MPT towards the lower temperature and a clear decrease in the saturation moment of the alloy at 5 K. The peak value of MCE is also found to decrease with increasing external P (˜18 J kg-1 K-1 decrease in Δ S has been observed for P  =  12.5 kbar). The most interesting observation is the occurrence of the exchange bias effect (EBE) on application of external P. The competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interaction in the presence of external P plays the pivotal role towards the observation of P induced EBE.

  15. Pinning mechanism in electron-doped HTS Nd_{1.85}Ce_{0.15}CuO_{4-\\delta } epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, A.; Leo, A.; Grimaldi, G.; Martucciello, N.; Dean, C.; Kunchur, M. N.; Pace, S.; Nigro, A.

    2014-12-01

    The electrical transport properties of c-axis oriented Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4 - δ superconducting films have been investigated to analyze the pinning mechanism in this material. The samples were grown on SrTiO3 substrates using the dc sputtering high-pressure technique, whereas a detailed analysis of the structure and local composition of the films has been achieved using high-resolution electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis. Magneto-resistance and current-voltage measurements, in the temperature range from 1.6 to 300 K and in magnetic field up to 9 T, have been reported. In particular, the anisotropic coefficient defined as the ratio between the parallel upper critical field, {{H}c2}\\parallel ab, and the perpendicular one, {{H}c2}\\parallel c, has been evaluated, pointing out the high anisotropy of this compound. Furthermore, the vortex activation energy as a function of the applied magnetic field, parallel and perpendicular to the CuO2 planes, has been derived and compared with the flux-pinning forces to enlighten the peculiar nature of pinning centers in this material.

  16. Solvent-Based Synthesis of Nano-Bi0.85Sb0.15 for Low-Temperature Thermoelectric Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, K.; Fritsch, K.; Habicht, K.; Willenberg, B.; Hillebrecht, H.

    2016-09-01

    In this study we show a preparation method for nanostructured Bi0.85Sb0.15 powders via a chemical reduction route in a polyol medium, yielding material with particle sizes of 20-150 nm in scalable amounts. The powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) in order to maintain the nanostructure. To investigate influence of the sinter process, the powders were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements before and after SPS. Transport properties, Seebeck effect, and thermal conductivity were determined in the low temperature range below 300 K. The samples showed excellent thermal conductivity of 2.3-2.6 W/m × K at 300 K and Seebeck coefficients from -97 μV/K to -107 μV/K at 300 K with a maximum of -141 μV/K at 110 K, thus leading to ZT values of up to 0.31 at room temperature. The results show that Bi-Sb-alloys are promising materials for low-temperature applications. Our wet chemical approach gives access to scalable amounts of nano-material with increased homogeneity and good thermoelectric properties after SPS.

  17. Dielectric and structural properties of diffuse ferroelectric phase transition in Pb1.85K1.15Li0.15Nb5O15 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choukri, E.; Gagou, Y.; Mezzane, D.; Abkhar, Z.; El Moznine, R.; Luk'yanchuk, I.; Saint-Grégoire, P.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2011-02-01

    We studied the structural and dielectric properties of new Tetragonal Tungsten Bronze (TTB) ceramics Pb1.85K1.15Li0.15Nb5O15 that was synthesized by solid-state reaction. We pay a special attention to the diffuse phase transition (DPT) that occurs close to 425 °C. Using dielectric measurements in a frequency range of 10 Hz-1 MHz and in the temperature range 30-560 °C, we have shown that the real permittivity close to DPT is well described by Santos-Eiras phenomenological model. Space-charge polarization, relaxation phenomena and free charges conductivity have been analyzed using dielectric spectroscopy impedance and modulus characterization. Cole-Cole plots show a non-Debye (polydispersive) type relaxation. In paraelectric phase the Arrhenius activation energy was determined as Eτ = 0.72 eV. We demonstrated that frequency dependence of ac conductivity at different temperatures obeys the Jonscher's universal law: σac = σdc + A(ω)n.

  18. Preparation and conductivity of composite apatite La9.33Si6O26 (LSO) - Zr0.85Y0.15O1.925 (YSZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noviyanti, Atiek Rostika; Irwansyah, Ferli S.; Hidayat, Sahrul; Hardian, Arie; Syarif, Dani Gustaman; Yuliyati, Yati B.; Hastiawan, Iwan

    2016-02-01

    A great challenge to reduce high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to intermediate temperature SOFC (IT-SOFC, 500-750 °C), is the development of solid electrolyte materials with high ionic conductivity at intermediate temperature range. In response to this challenge, here we report a novel composite material La9.33Si6O26 (LSO)-Zr0.85Y0.15O1.925 (YSZ). LSO-YSZ composite synthesis was carried out by combining LSO with commercial YSZ (9:1, 8:2, 7:3) using hydrothermal method. In order to get dense pellet, all of the product were sintered at 1450 °C for 3 hours. X-ray diffraction pattern of the entire pellets show typical both of LSO and YSZ pattern which indicate that the composite was succesfully formed. The highest conductivity was detected in YSZ-7LSO (YSZ:LSO = 7: 3), i.e 1.72 × 10-4 Scm-1 at 700 °C and also has low activation energy (0.88 eV). This result suggests that the LSO-YSZ composite materials are good oxide ion conductor and potential to be used as an alternative solid electrolyte in IT-SOFC technology.

  19. Anisotropic magnetostriction in a <110> oriented crystal Tb0.36Dy0.64(Fe0.85Co0.15)2 after coaxial field annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Changsheng; Ma, Tianyu; Qi, Ruilei; Yan, Mi

    2010-08-01

    Axial magnetostriction of Terfenol-D oriented crystals is highly anisotropic when changing the magnetization direction. Magnetostrictions of a ⟨110⟩ oriented crystal Tb0.36Dy0.64(Fe0.85Co0.15)2 were investigated under magnetic fields with a series of angles θ to its axis. Totally different anisotropic magnetostrictive behaviors are observed after annealing under a coaxial field of 240 kA/m. The magnetostriction for the field annealed specimen seems unsaturated even under 640 kA/m for angles θ in the range from 0° to 55°. At these angles, magnetostriction "ascending" is observed during the final magnetization process, while magnetostriction "dropping" occurs at angles above 35° for the untreated crystal. With the increase in angle θ, the corresponding field where magnetostriction starts dropping decreases for the untreated crystal, while the field at which magnetostriction starts ascending increases for the field annealed one. A simplified model based on moment "jump" and "rotation" is proposed to explain such anisotropic behaviors.

  20. Measurement of the Proton Spin Function g1(x,Q2) for Q2 from 0.15 to 1.6 GeV with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Renee Fatemi; Alexander Skabelin; Volker Burkert; Donald Crabb; Raffaella De Vita; Sebastian Kuhn; Ralph Minehart

    2003-11-01

    Double-polarization asymmetries for inclusive ep scattering were measured at Jefferson Lab using 2.6 and 4.3 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident on a longitudinally polarized NH{sub 3} target in the CLAS detector. The polarized structure function g{sub 1}(x,Q{sup 2}) was extracted throughout the nucleon resonance region and into the deep inelastic regime, for Q{sup 2} = 0.15-1.64 GeV{sup 2}. The contributions to the first moment {Gamma}{sub 1}(Q{sup 2}) = g{sub 1}(x,Q{sup 2})dx were determined up to Q{sup 2}=1.2 GeV{sup 2}. Using a parameterization for g{sub 1} in the unmeasured low x regions, the complete first moment was estimated over this Q{sup 2} region. A rapid change in {Gamma}{sub 1} is observed for Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2}, with a sign change near Q{sup 2} = 0.3 GeV{sup 2}, indicating dominant contributions from the resonance region. At Q{sup 2}=1.2 GeV{sup 2} our data are below the pQCD evolved scaling value.

  1. Experimental investigation of a 0.15 scale model of a conformal variable-ramp inlet for the F-16 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    A 0.15 scale model of a proposed conformal variable-ramp inlet for the Multirole Fighter was tested from Mach 0.8 to 2.2 at a wide range of angles of attack and sideslip. Inlet ramp angle was varied to optimize ramp angle as a function of engine airflow, Mach number, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. Several inlet configuration options were investigated to study their effects on inlet operation and to establish the final flight configuration. These variations were cowl sidewall cutback, cowl lip bluntness, boundary layer bleed, and first-ramp leading edge shape. Diagnostic and engine face instrumentation were used to evaluate inlet operation at various inlet stations and at the inlet/engine interface. Pressure recovery and stability of the inlet were satisfactory for the proposed application. On the basis of an engine stability audit of the worst-case instantaneous distortion patterns, no inlet/engine compatibility problems are expected for normal operations.

  2. Carrier leakage into the continuum in diagonal GaAs/Al{sub 0.15}GaAs terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Albo, Asaf Hu, Qing

    2015-12-14

    The maximum operating temperature reported so far for THz-QCLs is ∼200 K. With the well-known degradation mechanism of thermally activated LO-phonon scattering, one straightforward strategy to improve their temperature performances is the use of diagonal structures in which the upper-to-lower state scattering time is lengthened. However, the effectiveness of this method for achieving room temperature operation remains to be demonstrated. Here, we studied the temperature degradation of highly diagonal GaAs/Al{sub 0.15}GaAs THz-QCLs. By analyzing their output power dependence on temperature, we identified the physical mechanism that limits their performance to be thermally activated leakage into the continuum, as evidenced by the large activation energy of ∼80 meV extracted from the Arrhenius plot. This observation is further supported by a careful analysis of current-voltage characteristics, especially in regions of high biases. In order to significantly improve the temperature performances of diagonal THz-QCLs, this leakage should be eliminated.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Ba(Zr0.15Ti0.85)O3 Nano Powders by Oxalate Precipitation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Xiaohui; Qiao, Bin; Gui, Zhilun; Li, Longtu

    2006-08-01

    Barium zirconate titanate (BZT) is considered to be an important dielectric material for the fabrication of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs). The synthesis of nanocrystalline powders of high purity is the key to improving the performance of BZT-based ceramics. In this study, we developed Ba(Zr0.15Ti0.85)O3 nano powders with a perovskite structure and a homogeneous granularity through the oxalate precipitation method. The average particle size of the powders can be controlled from 30 to 100 nm at different calcining temperatures. The sintering property of the powders is superior to that of powders prepared by the conventional solid-state method, such that the more compact ceramics with a smaller grain size can be obtained at a sintering temperature of 1250 °C. The dielectric property of the ferroelectric-powder-based ceramics was so excellent for the development of dielectric materials for base-metal electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors (BME MLCCs) with a large capacitance.

  4. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation

  5. Balloon observations of the radiance of the earth between 2100 cm(-1) and 2700 cm(-1).

    PubMed

    Shaw, J H; McClatchey, R A; Schaper, P W

    1967-02-01

    A grating spectrometer capable of measuring small radiation fluxes with a spectral resolution of 95 at 4.3 micro is described. Bands of CO(2), N(2)O, and O(3) are identified in spectra between 2100 cm(-1) and 2700 cm(-1) of the earth and lower atmosphere obtained from an altitude of 30 km with this instrument. Scattering of solar radiation by clouds was observed between 2400 cm(-1) and 2700 cm(-1). A temperature profile of the atmosphere to 30 km determined from an analysis of the measurements in the region of the 4.3 micro CO(2) band is compared with radiosonde observations made during the flight.

  6. Hydrogen-Broadened Water from 50 to 300 cm-1 and 1300 to 4000 cm-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L.; Peterson, D.; Plymate, C.

    1995-01-01

    To support remote sensing of the outer planets, absorption spectra of H2O broadened by H2 were recorded at room temperature using two Fourier transform spectrometers. The data from 1300 to 4000 cm-1 were obtained at 0.012 cm-1 resolution with the McMath FTS located at Kitt Peak National Observatory/National Solar Observatory. The remainder of the spectral data from 55 to 320 cm-1 were taken at 0.0056 cm-1 with the Bruker FTS.

  7. Magnetic susceptibility of curium pnictides. [/sup 248/CmP, /sup 248/CmSb

    SciTech Connect

    Nave, S.E.; Huray, P.G.; Peterson, J.R.; Damien, D.A.; Haire, R.G.

    1981-09-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of microgram quantities of /sup 248/CmP and /sup 248/CmSb has been determined with the use of a SQUID micromagnetic susceptometer over the temperature range 4.2 to 340 K and in the applied magnetic field range of 0.45 to 1600 G. The fcc (NaCl-type) samples yield magnetic transitions at 73K and 162 K for the phosphide and antimonide, respectively. Together with published magnetic data for CmN and CmAs, these results indicate spatially extended exchange interactions between the relatively localized 5f electrons of the metallic actinide atoms.

  8. Extended Performance 8-cm Mercury Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A slightly modified 8-cm Hg ion thruster demonstrated significant increase in performance. Thrust was increased by almost a factor of five over that of the baseline thruster. Thruster operation with various three grid ion optics configurations; thruster performance as a function of accelerator grid open area, cathode baffle, and cathode orifice size; and a life test of 614 hours at a beam current of 250 mA (17.5 mN thrust) are discussed. Highest thruster efficiency was obtained with the smallest open area accelerator grid. The benefits in efficiency from the low neutral loss grids were mitigated, however, by the limitation such grids place on attainable ion beam current densities. The thruster components suffered negligible weight losses during a life test, which indicated that operation of the 8-cm thruster at extended levels of thrust and power is possible with no significant loss of lifetime.

  9. 15 cm multipole gas ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacson, G. C.; Kaufman, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    A 15-cm multipole thruster was operated on argon and xenon. The multipole approach used has been shown capable of low discharge losses and flat ion beam profiles with a minimum of redesign. This approach employs low magnetic field strengths and flat or cylindrical sheet-metal parts, hence is suited to rapid optimization and scaling. Only refractory metal cathodes were used in this investigation.

  10. Late type close binary system CM Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalomeni, Belinda

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present new observations of the close binary system CM Dra. We analyzed all the available data of the system and estimated the physical parameters of the system stars highly accurately. Using the newly obtained parameters the distance of the system is determined to be 11.6 pc. A possible giant planet orbiting the close binary system has been detected. This orbital period would likely make it one of the longest known orbital period planet.

  11. Constraining dark matter through 21-cm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, M.; Ferrara, A.; Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.

    2007-05-01

    Beyond reionization epoch cosmic hydrogen is neutral and can be directly observed through its 21-cm line signal. If dark matter (DM) decays or annihilates, the corresponding energy input affects the hydrogen kinetic temperature and ionized fraction, and contributes to the Lyα background. The changes induced by these processes on the 21-cm signal can then be used to constrain the proposed DM candidates, among which we select the three most popular ones: (i) 25-keV decaying sterile neutrinos, (ii) 10-MeV decaying light dark matter (LDM) and (iii) 10-MeV annihilating LDM. Although we find that the DM effects are considerably smaller than found by previous studies (due to a more physical description of the energy transfer from DM to the gas), we conclude that combined observations of the 21-cm background and of its gradient should be able to put constrains at least on LDM candidates. In fact, LDM decays (annihilations) induce differential brightness temperature variations with respect to the non-decaying/annihilating DM case up to ΔδTb = 8 (22) mK at about 50 (15) MHz. In principle, this signal could be detected both by current single-dish radio telescopes and future facilities as Low Frequency Array; however, this assumes that ionospheric, interference and foreground issues can be properly taken care of.

  12. Polyhedral Serpentine Grains in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    CM chondrites are primitive rocks that experienced aqueous alteration in the early solar system. Their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained the effects of alteration, and the minerals within them hold clues to the aqueous reactions. Sheet silicates are an important product of alteration, and those of the serpentine group are abundant in the CM2 chondrites. Here we expand on our previous efforts to characterize the structure and chemistry of serpentines in CM chondrites and report results on a polyhedral form that is structurally similar to polygonal serpentine. Polygonal serpentine consists of tetrahedral (T) sheets joined to M(2+)-centered octahedral (O) sheets (where (M2+) is primarily Mg(2+) and Fe(2+)), which give rise to a 1:1 (TO) layered structure with a 0.7-nm layer periodicity. The structure is similar to chrysotile in that it consists of concentric lizardite layers wrapped around the fiber axis. However, unlike the rolled-up chrysotile, the tetrahedral sheets of the lizardite layers are periodically inverted and kinked, producing sectors. The relative angles between sectors result in 15- and 30-sided polygons in terrestrial samples.

  13. Effect of Defects on Decay of Voltage and Capacity for Li[Li0.15Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 Cathode Material.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wuwei; Liu, Yongning; Guo, Shengwu; Jiang, Tao

    2016-05-18

    Lithium-rich manganese metal layered oxides are very promising cathode materials for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries, but improvement in voltage decay and capacity fade is a great challenge, which is mainly related to the structural instability or reconstruction of material's surface. Defects, such as part lattice distortions, local cation disordering and atomic ununiformity, often aggravate the further structural changes upon cycling. In this paper, we found that PEG contributed to form better layered structure, well crystallinity, uniform composition and polyhedral nanoparticles for Li[Li0.15Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 (LNMO). On the basis of the comparative trial, a mechanism of electronegativity difference is proposed to elucidate cation nonuniform distribution. Higher electronegativity of Ni (1.91) than Mn (1.55) show a stronger ability of attraction between Ni and O atoms, and then led to Ni atoms show stronger diffusion driving force toward particle surface to contact the rich O atoms during sintering in air. However, PEG polymer can form a better barrier for more O atoms to attract Ni and Mn atoms on particle surface so that facilitated a uniform distribution. The electrochemical test indicated that the decay of discharge capacity and working voltage was mitigated, which was identified by the result of HRTEM analysis that the initial less defect structure obviously retarded the phase transformation from the layered to spinel after 50 cycles. Therefore, defects are crucial for understanding the voltage fade and capacity decay, and the improvement of performance also demonstrates that designing optimum compositions and ordering atomic arrangements will contribute to stabilize the surface structure and restrain inherent phase transitions. PMID:27116571

  14. The specific heat of the electron-doped La-1038 compound (Ca0.85La0.15)10(FeAs)10(Pt3As8).

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Stürzer, T; Johrendt, D; Stewart, G R

    2013-04-01

    The specific heat of polycrystalline (Ca0.85La0.15)10(FeAs)10(Pt3As8), an electron-doped iron-based superconductor (T(c)(onset) = 34.6 K) with Ca/La ions and Pt3As8 separating the FeAs layers, was measured between 0.4 and 48 K.This compound has been recently reported to represent an electron-doped variant of the non-superconducting 10-3-8 phase, featuring a superconducting transition in the range of that of the 10-4-8 phase. This family of compounds is unique among the iron pnictide superconductors discovered to date due to the second metal pnictide layer, Pt3As8, present in the structure competing with the familiar FeAs layer for the electron from the Ca/La. This superconductor is further unusual in that it has a rather low crystalline symmetry (triclinic) for such a high superconducting transition temperature. The specific heat γ is found to be approximately 26 mJ/(Ca/La mol)K(2), comparable to 122 iron-based superconductors electron-doped on the Fe sites and a factor of two smaller than 122 compounds hole-doped on the cation site, e.g., Ba(1-x)K(x)Fe2As2. The present work also investigates the discontinuity in the specific heat at T(c), ΔC, to compare with the global trend, established by Bud'ko, Ni and Canfield (BNC), of ΔC/T(c) versus T(c) found for essentially all iron-based superconductors. The result is a value lower than the BNC trend by a factor of ten, consistent with a severely broadened superconducting transition.

  15. Pressure dependence of optical transitions in In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}N/GaN multiple quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, W.; Ager, J.W. III, and; Walukiewicz, W.; Haller, E.E. |; McCluskey, M.D.; Johnson, N.M.; Bour, D.P.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of hydrostatic pressure on optical transitions in In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQW{close_quote}s) have been studied. The optical transition associated with confined electron and hole states in the MQW{close_quote}s was found to shift linearly to higher energy with pressure but exhibit a significantly weaker pressure dependence compared to bulklike thick epitaxial-layer samples. Similar pressure coefficients obtained by both photomodulation and photoluminescence measurements rule out the possibility of the transition involving localized states deep in the band gap. We found that the difference in the compressibility of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N and GaN induces a tensile strain in the compressively strained In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N well layers, partially compensating the externally applied hydrostatic pressure. This mechanical effect is primarily responsible for the smaller pressure dependence of the optical transitions in the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N/GaN MQW{close_quote}s. In addition, the pressure-dependent measurements allow us to identify a spectral feature observed at an energy below the GaN band gap. We conclude that this feature is due to transitions from ionized Mg acceptor states to the conduction band in the {ital p}-type GaN cladding layer rather than a confined transition in the MQW{close_quote}s. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Effect of Defects on Decay of Voltage and Capacity for Li[Li0.15Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 Cathode Material.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wuwei; Liu, Yongning; Guo, Shengwu; Jiang, Tao

    2016-05-18

    Lithium-rich manganese metal layered oxides are very promising cathode materials for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries, but improvement in voltage decay and capacity fade is a great challenge, which is mainly related to the structural instability or reconstruction of material's surface. Defects, such as part lattice distortions, local cation disordering and atomic ununiformity, often aggravate the further structural changes upon cycling. In this paper, we found that PEG contributed to form better layered structure, well crystallinity, uniform composition and polyhedral nanoparticles for Li[Li0.15Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 (LNMO). On the basis of the comparative trial, a mechanism of electronegativity difference is proposed to elucidate cation nonuniform distribution. Higher electronegativity of Ni (1.91) than Mn (1.55) show a stronger ability of attraction between Ni and O atoms, and then led to Ni atoms show stronger diffusion driving force toward particle surface to contact the rich O atoms during sintering in air. However, PEG polymer can form a better barrier for more O atoms to attract Ni and Mn atoms on particle surface so that facilitated a uniform distribution. The electrochemical test indicated that the decay of discharge capacity and working voltage was mitigated, which was identified by the result of HRTEM analysis that the initial less defect structure obviously retarded the phase transformation from the layered to spinel after 50 cycles. Therefore, defects are crucial for understanding the voltage fade and capacity decay, and the improvement of performance also demonstrates that designing optimum compositions and ordering atomic arrangements will contribute to stabilize the surface structure and restrain inherent phase transitions.

  17. The transformation behavior of Cu-8.0Ni-1.8Si-0.6Sn-0.15Mg alloy during isothermal heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lei Qian; Li Zhou Zhu Anyin; Qiu Wenting; Liang Shuquan

    2011-09-15

    The transformation behavior of Cu-8.0Ni-1.8Si-0.6Sn-0.15Mg alloy during isothermal heat treatment has been studied by transmission electron microscope observation. On the basis of micro-hardness measurement, time-temperature-property curves of the alloy have been established, and nose-temperatures of curves are about 650 deg. C. Discontinuous precipitates appeared as the samples isothermal heat treated at 550 deg. C, while continuous precipitates appeared as the samples isothermal heat treated at temperatures below 550 deg. C and above 650 deg. C. {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si, {delta}-Ni{sub 2}Si and {delta}'-Ni{sub 2}Si precipitates were observed in the specimens. The crystal orientation relationships between copper matrix and precipitates were determined as (02-bar 2-bar){sub Cu} || (01-bar 1-bar){sub {beta}} || (010){sub {delta}}, [100]{sub Cu} || [100]{sub {beta}} || [001]{sub {delta}};(02-bar 2-bar){sub Cu} || (01-bar 1-bar){sub {beta}} || (100){sub {delta}} ', [100]{sub Cu} || [100]{sub {beta}} || [001]{sub {delta}} '. - Highlights: {yields} TTP curves have been established and their nose-tip temperatures are about 650 deg. C. {yields} Discontinuous precipitation appeared during isothermal treated at 550 deg. C. {yields} Continuous precipitation appeared when temperature is below 550 deg. C and above 650 deg. C. {yields} Crystal orientations relationships are: (02-bar 2-bar){sub Cu} || (01-bar 1-bar){sub {beta}} || (010){sub {delta}}, [100]{sub Cu} || [100]{sub {beta}} || [001]{sub {delta}};(02-bar 2-bar){sub Cu} || (01-bar 1-bar){sub {beta}} || (100){sub {delta}} ', [100]{sub Cu} || [100]{sub {beta}} || [001]{sub {delta}} '.

  18. Mn-doping induced ferromagnetism and enhanced superconductivity in Bi4 -xMnxO4S3 (0.075 ≤x ≤0.15 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhenjie; Yin, Xunqing; Cao, Yiming; Peng, Xianglian; Gao, Tian; Yu, Chuan; Chen, Jingzhe; Kang, Baojuan; Lu, Bo; Guo, Juan; Li, Qing; Tseng, Wei-Shiuan; Ma, Zhongquan; Jing, Chao; Cao, Shixun; Zhang, Jincang; Yeh, N.-C.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate that Mn doping in the layered sulfides Bi4O4S3 leads to stable Bi4-xMnxO4S3 compounds that exhibit both long-range ferromagnetism and enhanced superconductivity for 0.075 ≤x ≤0.15 , with a possible record superconducting transition temperature (Tc) ˜15 K among all BiS2-based superconductors. We conjecture that the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism may be attributed to Mn doping in the spacer Bi2O2 layers away from the superconducting BiS2 layers, whereas the enhancement of Tc may be due to excess electron transfer to BiS2 from the Mn4 +/Mn3 + substitutions in Bi2O2 . This notion is empirically corroborated by the increased electron-carrier densities upon Mn doping, and by further studies of the Bi4-xAxO4S3 compounds (A = Co, Ni; x =0.1 , 0.125), where the Tc values remain comparable to that of the undoped Bi4O4S3 system (˜4.5 K) due to lack of 4+ valences in either Co or Ni ions for excess electron transfer to the BiS2 layers. These findings therefore shed new light on feasible pathways to enhance the Tc values of BiS2-based superconductors, although complete elucidation of the interplay between superconductivity and ferromagnetism in these anisotropic layered compounds awaits the development of single crystalline materials for further investigation.

  19. Practical aspects involved in the design and set up of a 0.15 T, 6-coil resistive magnet, whole body NMR imaging facility.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S R; Ackerman, J L; Kereiakes, J G

    1984-01-01

    Many technical and logistical questions must be addressed when planning the installation of an NMR imaging system. These considerations become particularly significant when the facility is being established within an existing medical center complex. This paper presents a report on the practical aspects and experience obtained in siting a 6-coil 0.15 T resistive magnet system. The topics discussed include: floor loading; ferromagnetic environment; the effect of iron on the magnet field strength and homogeneity characteristics; shimming procedures; temperature stability requirements; rf shielding; and effects of the magnetic field on common medical instrumentation and magnetic media. It was found that the field shift as a function of the distance of a steel mass from the center of the magnet exhibited an (1/r)5.2 +/- 0.5 to (1/r) 4.2 +/- 0.3 dependence for axial and radial positions respectively which, as expected, is somewhat weaker than the (1/r)6 dependence expected by point dipole approximations. Field distortions caused by the presence of ferromagnetic material in radial positions may be essentially fully compensated with first order transverse shim coils (most conveniently, the x and y imaging gradient coils could be used). Axially distributed material requires, in addition to first order z-gradient correction, higher order axial shim compensation. The temperature stability of the magnet system over the scan period must be better than 0.2 degrees C to insure that temperature-induced field fluctuations are less than the intrinsic static inhomogeneity: and, ideally, below 0.01 degrees C to reduce these fluctuations to less than those caused by power supply instability.

  20. Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP): evaluation of the main 243Cm and 245Cm decay characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chechev, Valery P

    2012-09-01

    The results of new decay data evaluations are presented for (243)Cm (α) decay to nuclear levels in (239)Pu and (245)Cm (α) decay to nuclear levels in (241)Pu. These evaluated data have been obtained within the Decay Data Evaluation Project using information published up to 2011.

  1. A young region on Enceladus revealed by 2 cm radiometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, P.; Janssen, M.

    2014-04-01

    On 5 November 2011, the Cassini spacecraft had a flyby of Enceladus dedicated to its synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instrument. In the course of that flyby, approximately 80% of Enceladus' surface was also observed serendipitously with the microwave radiometer operating concurrently at 2.2 cm. The radiometry data is analyzed and shown to drop sharply in the leading hemisphere's smooth terrain. This drop is also demonstrated in a series of unresolved distant radiometry measurements spread out over the ten years of the Cassini mission. However, the anomaly is absent from distant unresolved RADAR measurements and not visible in SAR imaging. The anomaly is most likely caused by a young surface (<100MYr in age) which has not yet been processed by micrometeoroid impacts below the electromagnetic skin depth (3 m).

  2. An engineering model 30 cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; King, H. J.; Schnelker, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    Thruster development at Hughes Research Laboratories and NASA Lewis Research Center has brought the 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thruster to the state of an engineering model. This thruster has been designed to have sufficient internal strength for direct mounting on gimbals, to weigh 7.3 kg, to operate with a corrected overall efficiency of 71%, and to have 10,000 hours lifetime. Subassemblies, such as the ion optical system, isolators, etc., have been upgraded to meet launch qualification standards. This paper presents a summary of the design specifications and performance characteristics which define the interface between the thruster module and the remainder of the propulsion system.

  3. Redundant Array Configurations for 21 cm Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Parsons, Aaron R.

    2016-08-01

    Realizing the potential of 21 cm tomography to statistically probe the intergalactic medium before and during the Epoch of Reionization requires large telescopes and precise control of systematics. Next-generation telescopes are now being designed and built to meet these challenges, drawing lessons from first-generation experiments that showed the benefits of densely packed, highly redundant arrays—in which the same mode on the sky is sampled by many antenna pairs—for achieving high sensitivity, precise calibration, and robust foreground mitigation. In this work, we focus on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an interferometer with a dense, redundant core designed following these lessons to be optimized for 21 cm cosmology. We show how modestly supplementing or modifying a compact design like HERA’s can still deliver high sensitivity while enhancing strategies for calibration and foreground mitigation. In particular, we compare the imaging capability of several array configurations, both instantaneously (to address instrumental and ionospheric effects) and with rotation synthesis (for foreground removal). We also examine the effects that configuration has on calibratability using instantaneous redundancy. We find that improved imaging with sub-aperture sampling via “off-grid” antennas and increased angular resolution via far-flung “outrigger” antennas is possible with a redundantly calibratable array configuration.

  4. THE METALLICITY OF THE CM DRACONIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Fleming, Scott W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Feiden, Gregory A.

    2012-11-20

    The CM Draconis system comprises two eclipsing mid-M dwarfs of nearly equal mass in a 1.27 day orbit. This well-studied eclipsing binary has often been used for benchmark tests of stellar models, since its components are among the lowest mass stars with well-measured masses and radii ({approx}< 1% relative precision). However, as with many other low-mass stars, non-magnetic models have been unable to match the observed radii and effective temperatures for CM Dra at the 5%-10% level. To date, the uncertain metallicity of the system has complicated comparison of theoretical isochrones with observations. In this Letter, we use data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility to measure the metallicity of the system during primary and secondary eclipses, as well as out of eclipse, based on an empirical metallicity calibration in the H and K near-infrared (NIR) bands. We derive an [Fe/H] = -0.30 {+-} 0.12 that is consistent across all orbital phases. The determination of [Fe/H] for this system constrains a key dimension of parameter space when attempting to reconcile model isochrone predictions and observations.

  5. Combining galaxy and 21-cm surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, J. D.; White, Martin; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Holder, Gil; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Doré, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic waves travelling through the early Universe imprint a characteristic scale in the clustering of galaxies, QSOs and intergalactic gas. This scale can be used as a standard ruler to map the expansion history of the Universe, a technique known as baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). BAO offer a high-precision, low-systematics means of constraining our cosmological model. The statistical power of BAO measurements can be improved if the `smearing' of the acoustic feature by non-linear structure formation is undone in a process known as reconstruction. In this paper, we use low-order Lagrangian perturbation theory to study the ability of 21-cm experiments to perform reconstruction and how augmenting these surveys with galaxy redshift surveys at relatively low number densities can improve performance. We find that the critical number density which must be achieved in order to benefit 21-cm surveys is set by the linear theory power spectrum near its peak, and corresponds to densities achievable by upcoming surveys of emission line galaxies such as eBOSS and DESI. As part of this work, we analyse reconstruction within the framework of Lagrangian perturbation theory with local Lagrangian bias, redshift-space distortions, {k}-dependent noise and anisotropic filtering schemes.

  6. The Metallicity of the CM Draconis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Fleming, Scott W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Feiden, Gregory A.; Bender, Chad F.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    2012-11-01

    The CM Draconis system comprises two eclipsing mid-M dwarfs of nearly equal mass in a 1.27 day orbit. This well-studied eclipsing binary has often been used for benchmark tests of stellar models, since its components are among the lowest mass stars with well-measured masses and radii (lsim 1% relative precision). However, as with many other low-mass stars, non-magnetic models have been unable to match the observed radii and effective temperatures for CM Dra at the 5%-10% level. To date, the uncertain metallicity of the system has complicated comparison of theoretical isochrones with observations. In this Letter, we use data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility to measure the metallicity of the system during primary and secondary eclipses, as well as out of eclipse, based on an empirical metallicity calibration in the H and K near-infrared (NIR) bands. We derive an [Fe/H] = -0.30 ± 0.12 that is consistent across all orbital phases. The determination of [Fe/H] for this system constrains a key dimension of parameter space when attempting to reconcile model isochrone predictions and observations.

  7. Fuel elements of research reactor CM

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.V.; Morozov, A.V.; Vatulin, A.V.; Ershov, S.A.

    2013-07-01

    In 1961 the CM research reactor was commissioned at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Dimitrovgrad, Russia), it was intended to carry on investigations and the production of transuranium nuclides. The reactor is of a tank type. Original fuel assembly contained plate fuels that were spaced with vanes and corrugated bands. Nickel was used as a cladding material, fuel meat was produced from UO{sub 2} + electrolytic nickel composition. Fuel plates have been replaced by self-spacing cross-shaped dispersion fuels clad in stainless steel. In 2005 the reactor was updated. The purpose of this updating was to increase the quantity of irradiation channels in the reactor core and to improve the neutron balance. The updating was implemented at the expense of 20 % reduction in the quantity of fuel elements in the core which released a space for extra channels and decreased the mass of structural materials in the core. The updated reactor is loaded with modified standard fuel elements with 20 % higher uranium masses. At the same time stainless steel in fuel assembly shrouds was substituted by zirconium alloy. Today in progress are investigations and work to promote the second stage of reactor updating that involve developments of cross-shaped fuel elements having low neutron absorption matrix materials. This article gives an historical account of the design and main technical changes that occurred for the CM reactor since its commissioning.

  8. Spin dynamics in the La1.85Sr0.15Cu1-xFexO4 system probed by ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marta Z.; Sienkiewicz, A.; Mila, F.; Guha, S.; Xiao, Gang; Xiao, J. Q.; Chien, C. L.

    1993-08-01

    We study the magnetic properties of the La1.85Sr0.15Cu1-xFexO4 system (x=0-0.1) in the vicinity of the metal-insulator (MI) transition using static-susceptibility measurements and the electron-spin resonance (ESR) of the Fe ions. Spin-glass (SG) freezing is present for all nonsuperconducting specimens. The iron ESR line broadens on approaching the freezing temperature, similarly to the effect observed in canonical spin glasses. This broadening can be attributed to the influence of the slowing down of spin fluctuations on the spin-spin relaxation rate. It depends differently on x on the two different sides of the MI transition suggesting the existence of two different SG phases: insulating (ISG) where the Fe spins couple to the Cu-spin array by superexchange interactions, and metallic (MSG), where there exists, in addition, Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-like coupling mediated by the free carriers. The proximity of the MI transition suppresses this coulping, giving rise to the observed dependence of the paramagnet -SG phase boundary on x. In the MSG phase, at high temperatures, the spin-lattice relaxation mechanism is also mediated by the free carriers. It differs from the analogous process observed in conventional metals in that the ESR linewidth increases with increasing T faster than linearly. We explain this behavior by assuming that the effective magnetic field felt by the Fe moments originates mainly from the spins of holes located on the nearest-neighbor oxygen ions. The linewidth divided by T which probes the dynamical susceptibility at the Fe site varies as a+bT. Here a goes to zero as the MI transition is approached and so plays the role of the Pauli susceptibility of the free carriers, whereas b is independent of x in the vicinity of the MI transition but decreases for small Fe dopings away from the MI transition and may be identified as originating from the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in the system.

  9. Comparison of paramagnetic- and nonmagnetic-impurity effects on superconductivity in Nd sub 1. 85 Ce sub 0. 15 CuO sub 4

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, J.; Tokuono, S.; Koriyama, S.; Yamauchi, H.; Tanaka, S. )

    1991-05-01

    The effects of substitution of Co, Ni, or Zn for Cu in the electron-doped superconductors, Nd{sub 1.85}Ce{sub 0.15}Cu{sub 1{minus}{ital x}M{ital x}}O{sub 4} (with {ital M}=Co, Ni, or Zn, {ital x}{le}0.05), have been investigated by powder x-ray diffraction analysis and resistivity, magnetic-susceptibility, and Hall-coefficient measurements. It is observed that only 0.7% Co or 0.8% Ni substitution for Cu destroys superconductivity. On the contrary, for the Zn-substituted samples, it is observed that {ital T}{sub {ital c}} decreases proportionally to {ital x} and the magnitude of {ital T}{sub {ital c}} is {similar to}9 K even for the 2% Zn-substituted sample. This result suggests that the pair-breaking effect plays a dominant role in the suppression of superconductivity in the Co- or Ni-substitute samples. The absolute values of the exchange-interaction energy between an electron and a Co ion and of that between an electron and a Ni ion are estimated at {similar to}0.09 and {similar to}0.08 eV, respectively. These values are comparable to those of the conventional BCS-type superconductors containing paramagnetic impurities. Both the absolute value of the Hall coefficient ({vert bar}{ital R}{sub {ital H}}{vert bar}) and its temperature coefficient ({ital d}{vert bar}{ital R}{sub {ital H}}{vert bar}/{ital dT}) are found to decrease as {ital x} increases for all the samples at temperatures higher than 120 K. However, for the Co-substituted samples, it is clearly observed that {vert bar}{ital R}{sub {ital H}}{vert bar} increases proportionally to {ital x} at 30 K, while {vert bar}{ital R}{sub {ital H}}{vert bar} decreases monotonically with increasing {ital x} for the Ni- or Zn-substitute samples. Therefore, it seems that there are no clear relations between the temperature dependence of {ital R}{sub {ital H}} and the suppression in the magnitude of {ital T}{sub {ital c}} due to the substitutional effects.

  10. Aliphatic amines in Antarctic CR2, CM2, and CM1/2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte, José C.; McLain, Hannah L.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2016-09-01

    Meteoritic water-soluble organic compounds provide a unique record of the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system and the chemistry preceding the origins of life on Earth. We have investigated the molecular distribution, compound-specific δ13C isotopic ratios and enantiomeric compositions of aliphatic monoamines present in the hot acid-water extracts of the carbonaceous chondrites LAP 02342 (CR2), GRA 95229 (CR2), LON 94101 (CM2), LEW 90500 (CM2), and ALH 83100 (CM1/2). Analyses of the concentration of monoamines in these meteorites revealed: (a) the CR2 chondrites studied here contain higher concentrations of monoamines relative to the analyzed CM2 chondrites; (b) the concentration of monoamines decreases with increasing carbon number; and (c) isopropylamine is the most abundant monoamine in these CR2 chondrites, while methylamine is the most abundant amine species in these CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. The δ13C values of monoamines in CR2 chondrite do not correlate with the number of carbon atoms; however, in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites, the 13C enrichment decreases with increasing monoamine carbon number. The δ13C values of methylamine in CR2 chondrites ranged from -1 to +10‰, while in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites the δ13C values of methylamine ranged from +41 to +59‰. We also observed racemic compositions of sec-butylamine, 3-methyl-2-butylamine, and sec-pentylamine in the studied carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we compared the abundance and δ13C isotopic composition of monoamines to those of their structurally related amino acids. We found that monoamines are less abundant than amino acids in CR2 chondrites, with the opposite being true in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. We used these collective data to evaluate different primordial synthetic pathways for monoamines in carbonaceous chondrites and to understand the potential common origins these molecules may share with meteoritic amino acids.

  11. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  12. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications

  13. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  14. Variable depth core sampler

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1996-02-20

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

  15. Variable depth core sampler

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, Peter M.; Reger, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  16. Mapping Cosmic Structure Using 21-cm Hydrogen Signal at Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, Tabitha; GBT 21-cm Intensity Mapping Group

    2011-05-01

    We are using the Green Bank Telescope to make 21-cm intensity maps of cosmic structure in a 0.15 Gpc^3 box at redshift of z 1. The intensity mapping technique combines the flux from many galaxies in each pixel, allowing much greater mapping speed than the traditional redshift survey. Measurement is being made at z 1 to take advantage of a window in frequency around 700 MHz where terrestrial radio frequency interference (RFI) is currently at a minimum. This minimum is due to a reallocation of this frequency band from analog television to wide area wireless internet and public service usage. We will report progress of our attempt to detect autocorrelation of the 21-cm signal. The ultimate goal of this mapping is to use Baryon Acoustic Oscillations to provide more precise constraints to dark energy models.

  17. Probing patchy reionization through τ-21 cm correlation statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Meerburg, P. Daniel; Spergel, David N.; Dvorkin, Cora E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-12-20

    We consider the cross-correlation between free electrons and neutral hydrogen during the epoch of reionization (EoR). The free electrons are traced by the optical depth to reionization τ, while the neutral hydrogen can be observed through 21 cm photon emission. As expected, this correlation is sensitive to the detailed physics of reionization. Foremost, if reionization occurs through the merger of relatively large halos hosting an ionizing source, the free electrons and neutral hydrogen are anticorrelated for most of the reionization history. A positive contribution to the correlation can occur when the halos that can form an ionizing source are small. A measurement of this sign change in the cross-correlation could help disentangle the bias and the ionization history. We estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of the cross-correlation using the estimator for inhomogeneous reionization τ-hat {sub ℓm} proposed by Dvorkin and Smith. We find that with upcoming radio interferometers and cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, the cross-correlation is measurable going up to multipoles ℓ ∼ 1000. We also derive parameter constraints and conclude that, despite the foregrounds, the cross-correlation provides a complementary measurement of the EoR parameters to the 21 cm and CMB polarization autocorrelations expected to be observed in the coming decade.

  18. Variable depth core sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    This invention relates to a sampling means, more particularly to a device to sample hard surfaces at varying depths. Often it is desirable to take samples of a hard surface wherein the samples are of the same diameter but of varying depths. Current practice requires that a full top-to-bottom sample of the material be taken, using a hole saw, and boring a hole from one end of the material to the other. The sample thus taken is removed from the hole saw and the middle of said sample is then subjected to further investigation. This paper describes a variable depth core sampler comprimising a circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapse to form a point and capture a sample, and a second saw member residing inside the first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of the first member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside the the first hole saw member.

  19. Phosphogypsum capping depth affects revegetation and hydrology in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mallory E; Naeth, M Anne; Chanasyk, David S; Nichol, Connie K

    2011-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), a byproduct of phosphate fertilizer manufacturing, is commonly stacked and capped with soil at decommissioning. Shallow (0, 8, 15, and 30 cm) and thick (46 and 91 cm) sandy loam caps on a PG stack near Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada, were studied in relation to vegetation establishment and hydrologic properties. Plant response was evaluated over two growing seasons for redtop ( L.), slender wheatgrass ( (Link) Malte ex H.F. Lewis), tufted hairgrass ( (L.) P. Beauv.), and sheep fescue ( L.) and for a mix of these grasses with alsike clover ( L.). Water content below the soil-PG interface was monitored with time-domain reflectometry probes, and leachate water quantity and quality at a depth of 30 cm was measured using lysimeters. Vegetation responded positively to all cap depths relative to bare PG, with few significant differences among cap depths. Slender wheatgrass performed best, and tufted hairgrass performed poorly. Soil caps <1 m required by regulation were sufficient for early revegetation. Soil water fluctuated more in shallow than in thick caps, and water content was generally between field capacity and wilting point regardless of cap depth. Water quality was not affected by cap depths ≤30 cm. Leachate volumes at 30 cm from distinct rainfall events were independent of precipitation amount and cap depth. The study period had lower precipitation than normal, yet soil caps were hospitable for plant growth in the first 2 yr of establishment.

  20. Overcoming the Challenges of 21cm Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, Jonathan

    The highly-redshifted 21cm line of neutral hydrogen is one of the most promising and unique probes of cosmology for the next decade and beyond. The past few years have seen a number of dedicated experiments targeting the 21cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) begin operation, including the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR), the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER). For these experiments to yield cosmological results, they require new calibration and analysis algorithms which will need to achieve unprecedented levels of separation between the 21cm signal and contaminating foreground emission. Although much work has been spent developing these algorithms over the past decade, their success or failure will ultimately depend on their ability to overcome the complications associated with real-world systems and their inherent complications. The work in this dissertation is closely tied to the late-stage commissioning and early observations with PAPER. The first two chapters focus on developing calibration algorithms to overcome unique problems arising in the PAPER system. To test these algorithms, I rely on not only simulations, but on commissioning observations, ultimately tying the success of the algorithm to its performance on actual, celestial data. The first algorithm works to correct gain-drifts in the PAPER system caused by the heating and cooling of various components (the amplifiers and above ground co-axial cables, in particular). It is shown that a simple measurement of the ambient temperature can remove ˜ 10% gain fluctuations in the observed brightness of calibrator sources. This result is highly encouraging for the ability of PAPER to remove a potentially dominant systematic in its power spectrum and cataloging measurements without resorting to a complicated system overhaul. The second new algorithm developed in this dissertation solves a major calibration challenge not

  1. 70-cm radar observations of 433 Eros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Pettengill, G. H.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1976-01-01

    Radar observations of 433 Eros were made at the Arecibo Observatory using a wavelength of 70 cm during the close approach of Eros to earth in mid-January, 1975. A peak radar cross section of plus or minus 15 sq km was observed. The spectral broadening obtained was approximately 30 Hz, which is consistent with a value of 16 km for the maximum radius of the asteroid. The surface of Eros appears to be relatively rough at the scale of a wavelength as compared to the surfaces of the terrestrial planets and the moon. The composition of the surface is not well determined, except that it cannot be a highly conducting metal. A single measurement each of round-trip echo times delay and Doppler shift was made.

  2. NASA 30 Cm Ion Thruster Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster is under development at NASA to provide an ion propulsion option for missions of national interest and it is an element of the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) program established to validate ion propulsion for space flight applications. The thruster has been developed to an engineering model level and it incorporates innovations in design, materials, and fabrication techniques compared to those employed to conventional ion thrusters. The performance of both functional and engineering model thrusters has been assessed including thrust stand measurements, over an input power range of 0.5-2.3 kW. Attributes of the engineering model thruster include an overall mass of 6.4 kg, and an efficiency of 65 percent and thrust of 93 mN at 2.3 kW input power. This paper discusses the design, performance, and lifetime expectations of the functional and engineering model thrusters under development at NASA.

  3. 21 Cm Tomography With the Alfalfa Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Alexander B.; Boutan, C.; Carroll, P. A.; Hazelton, B.; Morales, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen (HI) 21cm intensity mapping, or HI tomography is a promising technique being utilized by several upcoming experiments (LOFAR, MWA, SKA). The measurement of volume averaged neutral hydrogen mass density in synoptic sky surveys can be applied to the study of the HI mass function, the distribution of large scale structure, the reionization of the universe, and the expansion history of the universe through such standard rulers as baryonic acoustic oscillations. In order to prepare for future experiments, in particular the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), we analyze the Arecbo Legacy Fast ALFA (Arecibo L-Band Feed Array) Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey data to probe the spatial density variations of HI in our local universe (z <0.06) where data is currently available. We address challenges unique to data of this kind, such as identifying and subtracting out signal from RFI and local galactic sources, and characterizing the ALFA array beam pattern which dictates sensitivity and resolution.

  4. The 30-cm ion thruster power processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, B. G.; Hopper, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A power processor unit for powering and controlling the 30 cm Mercury Electron-Bombardment Ion Thruster was designed, fabricated, and tested. The unit uses a unique and highly efficient transistor bridge inverter power stage in its implementation. The system operated from a 200 to 400 V dc input power bus, provides 12 independently controllable and closely regulated dc power outputs, and has an overall power conditioning capacity of 3.5 kW. Protective circuitry was incorporated as an integral part of the design to assure failure-free operation during transient and steady-state load faults. The implemented unit demonstrated an electrical efficiency between 91.5 and 91.9 at its nominal rated load over the 200 to 400 V dc input bus range.

  5. Outreach program by measurements of frost depth in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, K.; Yoshikawa, K.; Iwahana, G.; Stanilovskaya, J. V.; Sawada, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In order to emphasis their interest for earth sciences, an outreach program through measurements of frost depth is conducting in Japan since 2011. This program is made at elementary, junior high and high schools in Hokkaido, northern part of Japan where seasonal ground freezing occurs in winter. At schools, a lecture was made and a frost tube was set at schoolyard, as the same tube and protocol as UAF's Permafrost Outreach Program, using clear tube with blue-colored water. Frost depth was measured directly once a week at each school by students during ground freezing under no snow-removal condition. In 2011 season, we started this program at three schools, and the number of participated school is extended to 29 schools in 2014 winter season, 23 elementary schools, 5 junior high schools and one high school. We visited schools summer time and just before frost season to talk about the method of measurement. After the end of measured period, we also visited schools to explain measured results by each school and the other schools in Japan, Alaska, Canada and Russia. The measured values of frost depth in Hokkaido were ranged between 0cm and more than 50cm. We found that the frost depth depends on air temperature and snow depth. We discussed with student why the frost depth ranged widely and explained the effect of snow by using the example of igloo. In order to validate the effect of snow and to compare frost depths, we tried to measure frost depths under snow-removal and no snow-removal conditions at one elementary school. At the end of December, depths had no significant difference between these conditions, 11cm and 10cm, and the difference went to 14cm, 27cm and 13cm after one month, with about 30cm of snow depth. After these measurements and lectures, students noticed snow has a role as insulator and affects the frost depth. The network of this program will be expected to expand, finally more than a hundred schools.

  6. Statistical classification of vegetation and water depths in montane wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, Julia L.; Sodja, Richard S.; Greenwood, Mark; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between water depths and density of submergent vegetation were studied in montane wetlands using statistical techniques based on clustering and an extension of regression trees. Sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) was associated with lower average water depths than water milfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum). We detected a nonlinear relationship when average water depths were used to predict percent cover in S. pectinata, with depths of 30–40 cm, producing the highest predicted average percent cover of S. pectinata; higher and lower depths resulted in lower percent cover predictions. For M. sibiricum, higher water depths were monotonically associated with higher average percent cover. To foster more S. pectinata and less M. sibiricum, managers might employ water control structures to reduce water depths below 1 m, using both temporary drawdowns and average depths of 30–40 cm. Other species responded less markedly to water depth variation. Should decreased water depths become more common, these results suggest an increase in S. pectinata and a decrease in M. sibiricum.

  7. Evaluation of Argonne 9-cm and 10-cm Annular Centrifugal Contactors for SHINE Solution Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, Kent E.; Pereira, Candido; Vandegrift, George

    2015-02-01

    Work is in progress to evaluate the SHINE Medical Technologies process for producing Mo-99 for medical use from the fission of dissolved low-enriched uranium (LEU). This report addresses the use of Argonne annular centrifugal contactors for periodic treatment of the process solution. In a letter report from FY 2013, Pereira and Vandegrift compared the throughput and physical footprint for the two contactor options available from CINC Industries: the V-02 and V-05, which have rotor diameters of 5 cm and 12.7 cm, respectively. They suggested that an intermediately sized “Goldilocks” contactor might provide a better balance between throughput and footprint to meet the processing needs for the uranium extraction (UREX) processing of the SHINE solution to remove undesired fission products. Included with the submission of this letter report are the assembly drawings for two Argonne-design contactors that are in this intermediate range—9-cm and 10-cm rotors, respectively. The 9-cm contactor (drawing number CE-D6973A, stamped February 15, 1978) was designed as a single-stage unit and built and tested in the late 1970s along with other size units, both smaller and larger. In subsequent years, a significant effort to developed annular centrifugal contactors was undertaken to support work at Hanford implementing the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process. These contactors had a 10-cm rotor diameter and were fully designed as multistage units with four stages per assembly (drawing number CMT-E1104, stamped March 14, 1990). From a technology readiness perspective, these 10-cm units are much farther ahead in the design progression and, therefore, would require significantly less re-working to make them ready for UREX deployment. Additionally, the overall maximum throughput of ~12 L/min is similar to that of the 9-cm unit (10 L/min), and the former could be efficiently operated over much of the same range of throughput. As a result, only the 10-cm units are considered here

  8. Designing new biocompatible glass-forming Ti75-x Zr10 Nbx Si15 (x = 0, 15) alloys: corrosion, passivity, and apatite formation.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Somayeh; Oswald, Steffen; Gostin, Petre Flaviu; Helth, Arne; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria Dolors; Calin, Mariana; Schultz, Ludwig; Eckert, Jürgen; Gebert, Annett

    2016-01-01

    Glass-forming Ti-based alloys are considered as potential new materials for implant applications. Ti75 Zr10 Si15 and Ti60 Zr10 Nb15 Si15 alloys (free of cytotoxic elements) can be produced as melt-spun ribbons with glassy matrix and embedded single β-type nanocrystals. The corrosion and passivation behavior of these alloys in their homogenized melt-spun states have been investigated in Ringer solution at 37°C in comparison to their cast multiphase crystalline counterparts and to cp-Ti and β-type Ti-40Nb. All tested materials showed very low corrosion rates as expressed in corrosion current densities icorr  < 50 nA/cm(2). Electrochemical and surface analytical studies revealed a high stability of the new alloys passive states in a wide potential range. This corresponds to low passive current densities ipass  = 2 ± 1 µA/cm(2) based on the growth of oxide films with thickness d <10 nm. A homogeneous constituent distribution in the melt-spun alloys is beneficial for stable surface passivity. The addition of Nb does not only improve the glass-forming ability and the mechanical properties but also supports a high pitting resistance even at extreme anodic polarization up to 4V versus SCE were oxide thickness values of d ∼35 nm are reached. With regard to the corrosion properties, the Nb-containing nearly single-phase glassy alloy can compete with the β-type Ti-40Nb alloy. SBF tests confirmed the ability for formation of hydroxyapatite on the melt-spun alloy surfaces. All these properties recommend the new glass-forming alloys for application as wear- and corrosion-resistant coating materials for implants. PMID:25611821

  9. Designing new biocompatible glass-forming Ti75-x Zr10 Nbx Si15 (x = 0, 15) alloys: corrosion, passivity, and apatite formation.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Somayeh; Oswald, Steffen; Gostin, Petre Flaviu; Helth, Arne; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria Dolors; Calin, Mariana; Schultz, Ludwig; Eckert, Jürgen; Gebert, Annett

    2016-01-01

    Glass-forming Ti-based alloys are considered as potential new materials for implant applications. Ti75 Zr10 Si15 and Ti60 Zr10 Nb15 Si15 alloys (free of cytotoxic elements) can be produced as melt-spun ribbons with glassy matrix and embedded single β-type nanocrystals. The corrosion and passivation behavior of these alloys in their homogenized melt-spun states have been investigated in Ringer solution at 37°C in comparison to their cast multiphase crystalline counterparts and to cp-Ti and β-type Ti-40Nb. All tested materials showed very low corrosion rates as expressed in corrosion current densities icorr  < 50 nA/cm(2). Electrochemical and surface analytical studies revealed a high stability of the new alloys passive states in a wide potential range. This corresponds to low passive current densities ipass  = 2 ± 1 µA/cm(2) based on the growth of oxide films with thickness d <10 nm. A homogeneous constituent distribution in the melt-spun alloys is beneficial for stable surface passivity. The addition of Nb does not only improve the glass-forming ability and the mechanical properties but also supports a high pitting resistance even at extreme anodic polarization up to 4V versus SCE were oxide thickness values of d ∼35 nm are reached. With regard to the corrosion properties, the Nb-containing nearly single-phase glassy alloy can compete with the β-type Ti-40Nb alloy. SBF tests confirmed the ability for formation of hydroxyapatite on the melt-spun alloy surfaces. All these properties recommend the new glass-forming alloys for application as wear- and corrosion-resistant coating materials for implants.

  10. ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM Codes: What? Why? How?

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Donna J.

    2013-01-01

    The wound care industry will gain many benefits when International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10-Clinical Modification (CM) is implemented. One of the main benefits is that the disease classifications will be consistent with current clinical practice and medical technology advances. The new classification codes will be very granular, which means the level of specificity will greatly improve. Numerous new codes will represent more specific anatomic sites, etiologies, comorbidities, and complications, and will improve the ability to demonstrate severity of illness. For instance, the new feature of laterality is directly built into the new codes: separate codes will distinguish right, left, and bilateral, where needed. The increased granularity will provide better analysis of disease patterns and outbreak of disease. Additionally, the United States will finally be using the same diagnosis coding system as the rest of the world. This article will describe what the ICD-9-CM/ICD-10-CM codes are, why they are so important, and how clinicians and researchers will convert from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM effective October 1, 2014. PMID:24761333

  11. The 15 cm diameter ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The startup reliability of a 15 cm diameter mercury bombardment ion thruster which employs a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode on the main and neutralizer cathodes is examined. Startup of the thruster is achieved 100% of the time on the main cathode and 98.7% of the time on the neutralizer cathode over a 3640 cycle test. The thruster was started from a 20 C initial condition and operated for an hour at a 600 mA beam current. An energy efficiency of 75% and a propellant utilization efficiency of 77% was achieved over the complete cycle. The effect of a single cusp magnetic field thruster length on its performance is discussed. Guidelines are formulated for the shaping of magnetic field lines in thrusters. A model describing double ion production in mercury discharges is presented. The production route is shown to occur through the single ionic ground state. Photographs of the interior of an operating-hollow cathode are presented. A cathode spot is shown to be present if the cathode is free of low work-function surfaces. The spot is observed if a low work-function oxide coating is applied to the cathode insert. Results show that low work-function oxide coatings tend to migrate during thruster operation.

  12. Engineering model 8-cm thruster subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, B. G.; Hyman, J.; Hopper, D. J.; Williamson, W. S.; Dulgeroff, C. R.; Collett, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    An Engineering Model (EM) 8 cm Ion Thruster Propulsion Subsystem was developed for operation at a thrust level 5 mN (1.1 mlb) at a specific impulse 1 sub sp = 2667 sec with a total system input power P sub in = 165 W. The system dry mass is 15 kg with a mercury-propellant-reservoir capacity of 8.75 kg permitting uninterrupted operation for about 12,500 hr. The subsystem can be started from a dormant condition in a time less than or equal to 15 min. The thruster has a design lifetime of 20,000 hr with 10,000 startup cycles. A gimbal unit is included to provide a thrust vector deflection capability of + or - 10 degrees in any direction from the zero position. The EM subsystem development program included thruster optimization, power-supply circuit optimization and flight packaging, subsystem integration, and subsystem acceptance testing including a cyclic test of the total propulsion package.

  13. Efficient multiview depth video coding using depth synthesis prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheon; Choi, Byeongho; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2011-07-01

    The view synthesis prediction (VSP) method utilizes interview correlations between views by generating an additional reference frame in the multiview video coding. This paper describes a multiview depth video coding scheme that incorporates depth view synthesis and additional prediction modes. In the proposed scheme, we exploit the reconstructed neighboring depth frame to generate an additional reference depth image for the current viewpoint to be coded using the depth image-based-rendering technique. In order to generate high-quality reference depth images, we used pre-processing on depth, depth image warping, and two types of hole filling methods depending on the number of available reference views. After synthesizing the additional depth image, we encode the depth video using the proposed additional prediction modes named VSP modes; those additional modes refer to the synthesized depth image. In particular, the VSP_SKIP mode refers to the co-located block of the synthesized frame without the coding motion vectors and residual data, which gives most of the coding gains. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed depth view synthesis method provides high-quality depth images for the current view and the proposed VSP modes provide high coding gains, especially on the anchor frames.

  14. A sub-cm micromachined electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinerman, A. D.; Crewe, D. A.; Perng, D. C.; Shoaf, S. E.; Crewe, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for fabricating macroscopic (approximately 10x10x10 mm(exp 3)) structures with micron accuracy has been developed. This approach combines the precision of semiconductor processing and fiber optic technologies. A (100) silicon wafer is anisotropically etched to create four orthogonal v-grooves and an aperture on each 10x12 mm die. Precision 308 micron optical fibers are sandwiched between the die to align the v-grooves. The fiber is then anodically bonded to the die above and below it. This procedure is repeated to create thick structures and a stack of 5 or 6 die will be used to create a miniature scanning electron microscope (MSEM). Two die in the structure will have a segmented electrode to deflect the beam and correct for astigmatism. The entire structure is UHV compatible. The performance of an SEM improves as its length is reduced and a sub-cm 2 keV MSEM with a field emission source should have approximately 1 nm resolution. A low voltage high resolution MSEM would be useful for the examination of biological specimens and semiconductors with a minimum of damage. The first MSEM will be tested with existing 6 micron thermionic sources. In the future a micromachined field emission source will be used. The stacking technology presented in this paper can produce an array of MSEMs 1 to 30 mm in length with a 1 mm or larger period. A key question being addressed by this research is the optimum size for a low voltage MSEM which will be determined by the required spatial resolution, field of view, and working distance.

  15. Going the distance: validation of Acuros and AAA at an extended SSD of 400 cm.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Narottam; Patel, Vivek N; Studenski, Matthew T

    2016-01-01

    Accurate dose calculation and treatment delivery is essential for total body irradiation (TBI). In an effort to verify the accuracy of TBI dose calculation at our institution, we evaluated both the Varian Eclipse AAA and Acuros algorithms to predict dose distributions at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 400 cm. Measurements were compared to calculated values for a 6 MV beam in physical and virtual phantoms at 400 cm SSD using open beams for both 5 × 5 and 40 × 40cm2 field sizes. Inline and crossline profiles were acquired at equivalent depths of 5 cm, 10 cm, and 20 cm. Depth-dose curves were acquired using EBT2 film and an ion chamber for both field sizes. Finally, a RANDO phantom was used to simulate an actual TBI treatment. At this extended SSD, care must be taken using the planning system as there is good relative agreement between measured and calculated profiles for both algorithms, but there are deviations in terms of the absolute dose. Acuros has better agreement than AAA in the penumbra region. PMID:27074473

  16. Natural fracturing, by depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, John; Laubach, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Natural opening-mode fractures commonly fall upon a spectrum whose end-members are veins, which have wide ranges of sizes and are mostly or thoroughly cemented, and joints, which have little opening displacement and little or no cement. The vein end-member is common in metamorphic rocks, whose high temperature and pressure of formation place them outside typical reservoir settings; conversely, many uncemented joints likely form near the surface and so too have limited relevance to subsurface exploration. Sampling of cores retrieved from tight-gas sandstone reservoirs suggest that it is intermediate fractures, not true joints or veins, that provide natural porosity and permeability. Such fractures have abundant pore space among fracture-bridging cements, which may hold fractures open despite varying states of stress through time. Thus the more sophisticated our understanding of the processes that form veins and joints, i.e., how natural fracturing varies by depth, the better our ability to predict intermediate fractures. Systematic differences between veins and joints, in terms of size-scaling and lateral and stratigraphic spatial arrangement, have been explained in the literature by the mechanical effects of sedimentary layering, which likely exert more control over fracture patterns at shallower depths. Thus stratabound joints commonly have narrow size ranges and regular spacing; non-stratabound veins have a wide range of sizes and spacings. However, new fieldwork and careful literature review suggest that the effects of mechanical layering are only half the story. Although atypical, veins may be highly stratabound and yet spatially clustered; non-stratabound fractures may nonetheless feature narrow size ranges. These anomalous fracture arrangements are better explained by the presence of precipitating cements during fracture opening than by mechanical layering. Cement is thought to be highly important for fracture permeability, but potential effects of

  17. PROCESS OF PRODUCING Cm$sup 244$ AND Cm$sup 24$$sup 5$

    DOEpatents

    Manning, W.M.; Studier, M.H.; Diamond, H.; Fields, P.R.

    1958-11-01

    A process is presented for producing Cm and Cm/sup 245/. The first step of the process consists in subjecting Pu/sup 2339/ to a high neutron flux and subsequently dissolving the irradiated material in HCl. The plutonium is then oxidized to at least the tetravalent state and the solution is contacted with an anion exchange resin, causing the plutonium values to be absorbed while the fission products and transplutonium elements remain in the effluent solution. The effluent solution is then contacted with a cation exchange resin causing the transplutonium, values to be absorbed while the fission products remain in solution. The cation exchange resin is then contacted with an aqueous citrate solution and tbe transplutonium elements are thereby differentially eluted in order of decreasing atomic weight, allowing collection of the desired fractions.

  18. Effect of local crosstalk on depth perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ujike, Hiroyasu; Penczek, John; Boynton, Paul A.

    2014-03-01

    Interocular crosstalk has a significant undesirable effect on the quality of 3D displays that utilize horizontal disparity. This study investigates observer sensitivity when judging the depth order of two horizontally aligned dots on a 3D display and assesses 3D display uniformity by obtaining this index for various locations on the display. Visual stimulus is two horizontally disparate dots, with nine steps of horizontal disparity. A dot pair is presented at five screen locations. An observer wearing polarized glasses sits 57 cm from a display, observes it through a slit, and judges the depth order of two dots. Each of the 20 observers responds 16 times per disparate dot pair, and we calculate the rate at which observers judge the dot on the right to be nearer in 16 trials for each display, screen location, and disparity. We then plot the rate as a function of the left-right dot disparity and fit a psychometric function to the plot. A curve slope at a response probability of 50% is used to gauge the sensitivity of depth order judgment. Results show the depth sensitivity variation across the display surface depends on interocular-crosstalk variation across the display thus its uniformity of the display.

  19. Airborne Surveys of Snow Depth over Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.; Panzer, B.; Leuschen, C.; Pang, S.; Markus, T.; Holt, B.; Gogineni, S.

    2011-01-01

    During the spring of 2009, an ultrawideband microwave radar was deployed as part of Operation IceBridge to provide the first cross-basin surveys of snow thickness over Arctic sea ice. In this paper, we analyze data from three approx 2000 km transects to examine detection issues, the limitations of the current instrument, and the regional variability of the retrieved snow depth. Snow depth is the vertical distance between the air \\snow and snow-ice interfaces detected in the radar echograms. Under ideal conditions, the per echogram uncertainty in snow depth retrieval is approx 4 - 5 cm. The finite range resolution of the radar (approx 5 cm) and the relative amplitude of backscatter from the two interfaces limit the direct retrieval of snow depths much below approx 8 cm. Well-defined interfaces are observed over only relatively smooth surfaces within the radar footprint of approx 6.5 m. Sampling is thus restricted to undeformed, level ice. In early April, mean snow depths are 28.5 +/- 16.6 cm and 41.0 +/- 22.2 cm over first-year and multiyear sea ice (MYI), respectively. Regionally, snow thickness is thinner and quite uniform over the large expanse of seasonal ice in the Beaufort Sea, and gets progressively thicker toward the MYI cover north of Ellesmere Island, Greenland, and the Fram Strait. Snow depth over MYI is comparable to that reported in the climatology by Warren et al. Ongoing improvements to the radar system and the utility of these snow depth measurements are discussed.

  20. A depth dependence determination of the wedge transmission factor for 4-10 MV photon beams.

    PubMed

    McCullough, E C; Gortney, J; Blackwell, C R

    1988-01-01

    The depth dependence (up to 25 cm) of the in-phantom wedge transmission factor (WTF) has been determined for three medical linear accelerator x-ray beams with energies of 4, 6, and 10 MV containing 15 degrees-60 degrees (nominal) brass wedges. All measurements were made with a cylindrical ionization chamber in water, for a field size of 10 X 10 cm2 with a source-skin distance of 80 or 100 cm. We conclude that, for the accelerators studied, the WTF factor at depth is less than 2% different from that determined at dmax (for the nominal wedge angles and photon energies studied) unless the depth of interest is greater than 10 cm. Up to the maximum depth studied (25 cm) the relative wedge factor--that is, wedge factor at depth compared to that determined at dmax--was about equal to or less than 1.02 for the 15 degrees and 30 degrees wedges and any of the photon beam energies studied. For the seldom utilized combination of a nominal wedge angle in excess of 45 degrees with a depth greater than 10 cm, the WTF at depth can differ from the WTF determined at dmax, by up to 5%. Since the wedge transmission factor is reflective of relative percent dose data, our results also indicate that it is in error to use open field percent depth doses for certain combinations of wedge angle, photon energy, and depth. PMID:3211057

  1. Investigations on the electronic transport and piezoresistivity properties of Ni{sub 2−X}Mn{sub 1+X}Ga (X = 0 and 0.15) Heusler alloys under hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Devarajan, U.; Kalai Selvan, G.; Sivaprakash, P.; Arumugam, S.; Singh, Sanjay; Esakki Muthu, S.; Roy Barman, S.

    2014-12-22

    The resisitivity of Ni{sub 2−X}Mn{sub 1+X}Ga (X = 0 and 0.15) magnetic shape memory alloys has been investigated as a function of temperature (4–300 K) and hydrostatic pressure up to 30 kilobars. The resistivity is suppressed (X = 0) and enhanced (X = 0.15) with increasing pressure. A change in piezoresistivity with respect to pressure and temperature is observed. The negative and positive piezoresistivity increases with pressure for both the alloys. The residual resistivity and electron-electron scattering factor as a function of pressure reveal that for Ni{sub 2}MnGa the electron-electron scattering is predominant, while the X = 0.15 specimen is dominated by the electron-magnon scattering. The value of electron-electron scattering factor is positive for both the samples, and it is decreasing (negative trend) for Ni{sub 2}MnGa and increasing (positive trend) for X = 0.15 with pressure. The martensite transition temperature is found to be increased with the application of external pressure for both samples.

  2. MAPPING THE DYNAMICS OF COLD GAS AROUND SGR A* THROUGH 21 cm ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Pierre; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-11-20

    The presence of a circumnuclear stellar disk around Sgr A* and megamaser systems near other black holes indicates that dense neutral disks can be found in galactic nuclei. We show that depending on their inclination angle, optical depth, and spin temperature, these disks could be observed spectroscopically through 21 cm absorption. Related spectroscopic observations of Sgr A* can determine its HI disk parameters and the possible presence of gaps in the disk. Clumps of dense gas similar to the G2 could could also be detected in 21 cm absorption against Sgr A* radio emission.

  3. Jupiter Clouds in Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 619 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 727 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 890 nm

    Images from NASA's Cassini spacecraft using three different filters reveal cloud structures and movements at different depths in the atmosphere around Jupiter's south pole.

    Cassini's cameras come equipped with filters that sample three wavelengths where methane gas absorbs light. These are in the red at 619 nanometer (nm) wavelength and in the near-infrared at 727 nm and 890 nm. Absorption in the 619 nm filter is weak. It is stronger in the 727 nm band and very strong in the 890 nm band where 90 percent of the light is absorbed by methane gas. Light in the weakest band can penetrate the deepest into Jupiter's atmosphere. It is sensitive to the amount of cloud and haze down to the pressure of the water cloud, which lies at a depth where pressure is about 6 times the atmospheric pressure at sea level on the Earth). Light in the strongest methane band is absorbed at high altitude and is sensitive only to the ammonia cloud level and higher (pressures less than about one-half of Earth's atmospheric pressure) and the middle methane band is sensitive to the ammonia and ammonium hydrosulfide cloud layers as deep as two times Earth's atmospheric pressure.

    The images shown here demonstrate the power of these filters in studies of cloud stratigraphy. The images cover latitudes from about 15 degrees north at the top down to the southern polar region at the bottom. The left and middle images are ratios, the image in the methane filter divided by the image at a nearby wavelength outside the methane band. Using ratios emphasizes where contrast is due to methane absorption and not to other factors, such as the absorptive properties of the cloud particles, which influence contrast at all wavelengths.

    The most prominent feature seen in all three filters is the polar stratospheric haze that makes Jupiter

  4. Organic matter evolution throughout a 100-cm ombrotrophic profile from an Italian floating mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; D'Orazio, Valeria; Lobianco, Daniela; Miano, Teodoro M.

    2015-04-01

    The curious sight of an island floating and moving on a lake naturally, already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia (AD 77-79), fascinated people from time immemorial. Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of macrofossils removed from the sample at 360 cm of depth revealed that the island probably formed more than 500 yrs ago (435±20 yr BP). In the present work, we show preliminary results regarding the evolution of the organic matter along the first, ombrotrophic 100 cm of depth, hoping also to provide some insight into the possible mechanism of the evolution of this floating island. The 100 cm monolith was collected using a Wardenaar corer and cut frozen in 1-cm layers. It consists almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, often spaced out, in the top 20-30 cm, by leaves of Populus tremula that annually fell off. This section shows a very low bulk density, ranging from 0.017 and 0.059 g cm-3 (avg. value, 0.03±0.01 g cm-3), an average water content of 96.1±1.1%, and a gravimetric water content ranging between 14.3 and 41.5 gwater gdrypeat-1. The pH of porewaters was in the range 5-5.5. The C content along the profile ranged between 35 and 47% (avg., 41±1%), whereas the N between 0.3 and 0.9% (avg., 0.6±0

  5. Investigations on the germination depth of Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense [L.] pers).

    PubMed

    Tóth, V; Lehoczky, E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our experiment was to gain data about the germination depth of Johnson grass, and to investigate the dynamics of germination at different sowing depths. These investigations have great importance in respect of effective weed control. The experiments were carried out in the summer of 2005, using pots, in glasshouses. 50 Sorghum halepense chaffy seeds per pot were sown at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 cm depth. Treatments were used in 4 repeats. Peat:sand mixture in 3:1 ratio was used in the experiments. From the first germination, weeds were counted in every second day for 3 weeks. Finally, we measured the length of sprouts, the fresh root and sprout weight of the weeds, and--after drying--the dry-matter weight as well. The results of the first experiment (carried out in July 2005) showed that 25% of the seeds came up from 15 cm. Most of the weeds (64%) came up from 1 cm depth. Answering to our expectations, the ratio of germination from 5 cm depth was also high: it was 56%. The ratio of germination from 10 cm depth was also good (58%). Another experiment was carried out in August 2005, where the germination of Sorghum halepense was investigated from 20 and 25 cm depth. The results show that in spite of the small size of its seeds (5-7 mm), Johnson grass is able to germinate from 20, 25 cm depth. 30% of the sown seeds germinated from 20 cm depth, and because of the slowing-down of the growth only 6% of them germinated from 25 cm depth.

  6. Irrigation depth far exceeds water uptake depth in an oasis cropland in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural irrigation in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin consumes approximately 80% of the total river water. Whether the irrigation depth matches the water uptake depth of crops is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of irrigation water use. Our results indicated that the influence of plastic film on soil water δ18O was restricted to 0–30 cm soil depth. Based on a Bayesian model (MixSIR), we found that irrigated maize acquired water preferentially from 0–10 cm soil layer, with a median uptake proportion of 87 ± 15%. Additionally, maize utilised a mixture of irrigation and shallow soil water instead of absorbing the irrigation water directly. However, only 24.7 ± 5.5% of irrigation water remained in 0–10 cm soil layer, whereas 29.5 ± 2.8% and 38.4 ± 3.3% of the irrigation water infiltrated into 10–40 cm and 40–80 cm layers. During the 4 irrigation events, approximately 39% of the irrigation and rainwater infiltrated into soil layers below 80 cm. Reducing irrigation amount and developing water-saving irrigation methods will be important strategies for improving the efficiency of irrigation water use in this area. PMID:26463010

  7. Irrigation depth far exceeds water uptake depth in an oasis cropland in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-10-01

    Agricultural irrigation in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin consumes approximately 80% of the total river water. Whether the irrigation depth matches the water uptake depth of crops is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of irrigation water use. Our results indicated that the influence of plastic film on soil water δ18O was restricted to 0-30 cm soil depth. Based on a Bayesian model (MixSIR), we found that irrigated maize acquired water preferentially from 0-10 cm soil layer, with a median uptake proportion of 87 ± 15%. Additionally, maize utilised a mixture of irrigation and shallow soil water instead of absorbing the irrigation water directly. However, only 24.7 ± 5.5% of irrigation water remained in 0-10 cm soil layer, whereas 29.5 ± 2.8% and 38.4 ± 3.3% of the irrigation water infiltrated into 10-40 cm and 40-80 cm layers. During the 4 irrigation events, approximately 39% of the irrigation and rainwater infiltrated into soil layers below 80 cm. Reducing irrigation amount and developing water-saving irrigation methods will be important strategies for improving the efficiency of irrigation water use in this area.

  8. Irrigation depth far exceeds water uptake depth in an oasis cropland in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural irrigation in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin consumes approximately 80% of the total river water. Whether the irrigation depth matches the water uptake depth of crops is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of irrigation water use. Our results indicated that the influence of plastic film on soil water δ(18)O was restricted to 0-30 cm soil depth. Based on a Bayesian model (MixSIR), we found that irrigated maize acquired water preferentially from 0-10 cm soil layer, with a median uptake proportion of 87 ± 15%. Additionally, maize utilised a mixture of irrigation and shallow soil water instead of absorbing the irrigation water directly. However, only 24.7 ± 5.5% of irrigation water remained in 0-10 cm soil layer, whereas 29.5 ± 2.8% and 38.4 ± 3.3% of the irrigation water infiltrated into 10-40 cm and 40-80 cm layers. During the 4 irrigation events, approximately 39% of the irrigation and rainwater infiltrated into soil layers below 80 cm. Reducing irrigation amount and developing water-saving irrigation methods will be important strategies for improving the efficiency of irrigation water use in this area.

  9. Drug Resistance of Enteric Bacteria VI. Introduction of Bacteriophage P1CM into Salmonella typhi and Formation of P1dCM and F-CM Elements

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Eiko; Mitsuhashi, Susumu

    1966-01-01

    Kondo, Eiko (Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan), and Susumu Mitsuhashi. Drug resistance of enteric bacteria. VI. Introduction of bacteriophage P1CM into Salmonella typhi and formation of P1dCM and F-CM elements. J. Bacteriol. 91:1787–1794. 1966.—Bacteriophage P1CM was introduced into Salmonella typhi by means of both phage infection and conjugation with Escherichia coli F+ lysogenic for the phage. Upon incubation with a P1CM phage lysate, S. typhi and S. abony yield CMr cells which are lysogenic for P1CM, but S. typhimurium LT2 does not. The P1CM phage is adsorbed slightly to S. typhi, but no infectious centers are formed when the phage is plated on this strain. Tests on P1CM-adsorbing capacity of the S. typhi P1CM+ strain and on plaque formation and transduction ability of the recovered phage from this strain indicated that the cell and the phage population did not have any special advantage over the original cell and phage population. Conjugation of S. typhi with E. coli F+ carrying P1CM+ gave three types of S. typhi CMr clones: those which carry the whole P1CM phage, those with the P1dCM element, and those with nontransferable CMr. The second type has the F factor and is sensitive to f phages in spite of its typical behavior, serologically and biochemically, as S. typhi. It can donate the P1dCM and F+ characters to E. coli F− or F−/P1 strains. As a consequence of conjugation with the E. coli F+ strain, the CMr character of the third type of S. typhi, the nontransferable CMr element, acquired conjugational transferability, owing to the formation of the element, F-CM. This element can be transferred to an E. coli F− strain at a very high frequency (ca. 100). Both the F and CMr determinants are jointly transduced with P1 phage and are jointly eliminated by acridine dye treatment. PMID:5327907

  10. Invariant Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Respiration with Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks Pries, C.; Torn, M. S.; Castanha, C.; Porras, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Over half of global soil organic carbon (SOC) is stored in subsurface soils (>30 cm), but little is known about the vulnerability of this deep SOC to climate change. Most soil warming experiments have only warmed surface soils, so the temperature sensitivity of deeper SOC and its potential to generate a positive feedback to climate change is undetermined. We are currently investigating how SOC down to 1 m deep responds to experimental in situ soil warming (+4°C). Our field site is a coniferous forest in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada in California, USA, whose soils are sandy, mixed, mesic Ultic Haploxeralfs. Our objectives are to understand (1) how the mechanisms controlling SOC turnover differ with depth and (2) how the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration differs by depth. Warming began in October 2013, and we have successfully warmed 1 m of the soil profile to 4°C (±0.5) above ambient temperatures at each depth and maintained this warming throughout different seasons. We have taken monthly surface CO2 flux measurements and monthly gas samples from stainless steel tubes at 15, 30, 50, 70, and 90 cm depths. We have collected soil water from tension lysimeters at 30 and 70 cm after large rain events. Warming has increased CO2 production at all depths of the warmed plots. Warming has also significantly increased soil respiration from the surface by 39% relative to the control and increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in soil water at both depths. The apparent Q10 of surface soil respiration and CO2 production at all depths is greater than 2, indicating that decomposition is similarly temperature sensitive at all depths. This study is one of the first to test whole-profile SOC responses to warming and shows that deep soil carbon is equally vulnerable to climate change in these upland mineral soils.

  11. A correlation between the H I 21-cm absorption strength and impact parameter in external galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, S. J.; Reeves, S. N.; Allison, J. R.; Sadler, E. M.

    2016-07-01

    By combining the data from surveys for H I 21-cm absorption at various impact parameters in near-by galaxies, we report an anti-correlation between the 21-cm absorption strength (velocity integrated optical depth) and the impact parameter. Also, by combining the 21-cm absorption strength with that of the emission, giving the neutral hydrogen column density, N_{H I}, we find no evidence that the spin temperature of the gas (degenerate with the covering factor) varies significantly across the disc. This is consistent with the uniformity of spin temperature measured across the Galactic disc. Furthermore, comparison with the Galactic N_{H I} distribution suggests that intervening 21-cm absorption preferentially arises in discs of high inclinations (near face-on). We also investigate the hypothesis that 21-cm absorption is favourably detected towards compact radio sources. Although there is insufficient data to determine whether there is a higher detection rate towards quasar, rather than radio galaxy, sight-lines, the 21-cm detections intervene objects with a mean turnover frequency of < ν _{_TO}rangle ≈ 5× 108 Hz, compared to < ν _{_TO}rangle ≈ 1× 108 Hz for the non-detections. Since the turnover frequency is anti-correlated with radio source size, this does indicate a preferential bias for detection towards compact background radio sources.

  12. Perception of relative depth interval: systematic biases in perceived depth.

    PubMed

    Harris, Julie M; Chopin, Adrien; Zeiner, Katharina; Hibbard, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    Given an estimate of the binocular disparity between a pair of points and an estimate of the viewing distance, or knowledge of eye position, it should be possible to obtain an estimate of their depth separation. Here we show that, when points are arranged in different vertical geometric configurations across two intervals, many observers find this task difficult. Those who can do the task tend to perceive the depth interval in one configuration as very different from depth in the other configuration. We explore two plausible explanations for this effect. The first is the tilt of the empirical vertical horopter: Points perceived along an apparently vertical line correspond to a physical line of points tilted backwards in space. Second, the eyes can rotate in response to a particular stimulus. Without compensation for this rotation, biases in depth perception would result. We measured cyclovergence indirectly, using a standard psychophysical task, while observers viewed our depth configuration. Biases predicted from error due either to cyclovergence or to the tilted vertical horopter were not consistent with the depth configuration results. Our data suggest that, even for the simplest scenes, we do not have ready access to metric depth from binocular disparity.

  13. Strain-relaxation and critical thickness of epitaxial La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 films

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Tricia L; Jiang, Lu; Park, Sungkyun; Egami, Takeshi; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2015-12-08

    We report the thickness-dependent strain-relaxation behavior and the associated impacts upon the superconductivity in epitaxial La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 films grown on different substrates, which provide a range of strain. We have found that the critical thickness for the onset of superconductivity in La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 films is associated with the finite thickness effect and epitaxial strain. In particular, thin films with tensile strain greater than ~0.25% revealed no superconductivity. We attribute this phenomenon to the inherent formation of oxygen vacancies that can be minimized via strain relaxation.

  14. LARGE PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT IN LOW-TEMPERATURE-SINTERED LEAD-FREE (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 THICK FILMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zuyong; Shi, Dongqi; Dou, Shixue; Hu, Yihua; Tang, Xingui

    2012-09-01

    High-quality piezoelectric (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 thick films with dense and homogenous microstructures were fabricated at a low sintering temperature (900°C) using a CuBi2O4 sintering aid. The 10 μm thick film exhibited a high longitudinal piezoelectric constant d33,eff of 210 pC/N with estimated unconstrained d33 value of 560 pC/N very close to that in the corresponding bulks. Such excellent piezoelectric effect in the low-temperature sintered (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 thick films is comparable to the case of lead-based PZT thick films, and may be a promising application in lead-free microdevices such as piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  15. Multistep joint bilateral depth upsampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemens, A. K.; Gangwal, O. P.; Barenbrug, B.; Berretty, R.-P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Depth maps are used in many applications, e.g. 3D television, stereo matching, segmentation, etc. Often, depth maps are available at a lower resolution compared to the corresponding image data. For these applications, depth maps must be upsampled to the image resolution. Recently, joint bilateral filters are proposed to upsample depth maps in a single step. In this solution, a high-resolution output depth is computed as a weighted average of surrounding low-resolution depth values, where the weight calculation depends on spatial distance function and intensity range function on the related image data. Compared to that, we present two novel ideas. Firstly, we apply anti-alias prefiltering on the high-resolution image to derive an image at the same low resolution as the input depth map. The upsample filter uses samples from both the high-resolution and the low-resolution images in the range term of the bilateral filter. Secondly, we propose to perform the upsampling in multiple stages, refining the resolution by a factor of 2×2 at each stage. We show experimental results on the consequences of the aliasing issue, and we apply our method to two use cases: a high quality ground-truth depth map and a real-time generated depth map of lower quality. For the first use case a relatively small filter footprint is applied; the second use case benefits from a substantially larger footprint. These experiments show that the dual image resolution range function alleviates the aliasing artifacts and therefore improves the temporal stability of the output depth map. On both use cases, we achieved comparable or better image quality with respect to upsampling with the joint bilateral filter in a single step. On the former use case, we feature a reduction of a factor of 5 in computational cost, whereas on the latter use case, the cost saving is a factor of 50.

  16. High temperature performance of surface-treated Li{sub 1.1}(Ni{sub 0.15}Co{sub 0.1}Mn{sub 0.55})O{sub 1.95} layered oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, H.; Belharouak, I.; Yoon, C. S.; Sun, Y.-K.; Amine, K.

    2010-07-29

    The electrochemical performance of pristine and AlF{sub 3}-coated Li{sub 1.1}Ni{sub 0.15}Co{sub 0.1}Mn{sub 0.55}O{sub 1.95} cathodes is reported for cells cycled at 25 and 55 C. In a half-cell configuration, a nanolayer coating of AlF{sub 3} on the Li{sub 1.1}Ni{sub 0.15}Co{sub 0.1}Mn{sub 0.55}O{sub 1.95} stabilizes the capacity on cycling. However, in cell tests with metallic lithium anodes, the initial coulombic efficiency decreased slightly at both 25 and 55 C for AlF{sub 3}-coated Li{sub 1.1}Ni{sub 0.15}Co{sub 0.1}Mn{sub 0.55}O{sub 1.95} in comparison to the pristine material. For cells constructed with graphite instead of lithium anodes, the capacity stability improved with cycling for the coated cathode materials. Transition-metal dissolution was more pronounced for the AlF{sub 3}-coated sample when stored at 55 C in electrolytes. For both the pristine and AlF{sub 3}-coated samples, there was no extra capacity loss due to the elevated temperature. Around 10% capacity gain of the cathode materials at elevated temperature is assumed to be due to improved thermodynamic activation.

  17. Influence of nickel doping on oxygen-ionic conductivity of the n = 1 Ruddlesden-Popper Phases La1.85Ca0.15(Cu1-xNix)O4-δ (δ = 0.0905)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midouni, Adnene; Houchati, Mohamed Ikbal; Othman, Walid Belhaj; Chniba-Boudjada, Nassira; Ceretti, Monica; Paulus, Werner; Jaouadi, Mouna; Hamzaoui, Ahmed Hichem

    2016-08-01

    The results of the synthesis and characterization of the optimally doped La1.85Ca0.15(Cu1-xNix)O4-δ solid solution with x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 are reported. The versatility of these La1.85Ca0.15(Cu1-xNix)O4-δ materials is explained on the basis of structural features and the ability to accommodate oxygen nonstoichiometry. According to powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data, La1.85Ca0.15(Cu1-xNix)O4-δ adopts the tetragonal structure with oxygen vacancies occurring preferentially at the Oap sites within the {(La/Ca)O} layers of the perovskite blocks and the oxygen deviation from stoichiometry δ was found to be δ=0.0905(6). The bulk conductivity indicated an Arrhenius-type thermally activated process and oxygen vacancies are the possible ionic charge carriers at T=270 °C. An increase of the conductivity was detected when Ni was introduced. With nickel ratio variation, a strong correlation was observed between the Cu(Ni)-Oap apical bond length variation and the conductivity variation through controlling the O2- ion migration.

  18. Synthesis cathode material LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 with two step solid-state method under air stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Shubiao; Zhang, Yingjie; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Yannan

    2014-01-01

    A facile generic strategy of solid-state reaction under air atmosphere is employed to prepare LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 layer structure micro-sphere as cathodes for Li-ion batteries. The impurity phase has been eliminated wholly without changing the R-3m space group of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2. The electrochemical performance of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes depend on the sintering step, temperature, particle size and uniformity. The sample pre-sintered at 540 °C for 12 h and then sintered at 720 °C for 28 h exhibits the best electrochemical performance, which delivers a reversible capacity of 180.4, 165.8, 154.7 and 135.6 mAhg-1 at 0.2 C, 1 C, 2 C and 5 C, respectively. The capacity retention keeps over 87% after 76 cycles at 1 C. This method is simple, cheap and mass-productive, and thus suitable to large scale production of NCA cathodes directly used for lithium ion batteries.

  19. Fine-sized LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders prepared by combined process of gas-phase reaction and solid-state reaction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Seo Hee; Kang, Yun Chan

    The Ni-rich precursor powders with spherical shape and filled morphologies were prepared by spray pyrolysis from the spray solution with citric acid, ethylene glycol and a drying control chemical additive. The precursor powders with controlled morphologies formed the LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders with spherical shape and fine size by solid-state reaction with lithium hydroxide. However, the cathode powders prepared from the spray solution without additives had irregular morphologies and were large in size. The precursor powders with hollow and porous morphologies formed cathode powders with irregular and aggregated morphologies. The composition ratios of the nickel, cobalt and manganese components were maintained in the as-prepared, precursor and cathode powders. The initial discharge capacity of the LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders with spherical shape and fine size tested at a temperature of 55 °C under a constant current density of 0.5 C was 215 mAh g -1. The discharge capacity of the LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders decreased to 81% of the initial value after 30 cycles.

  20. [Effect of water depths on hydraulic performance of pond wetlands].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Qiang; Dong, Bin; Liu, Jun-Jie; Liu, Chun-Guo; Feng, Da-Peng; Liu, Fang-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Pond wetlands have been widely used in the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields. However, wetland hydraulic performance and purification effects are affected by many factors, such as water depth, flow rate, aspect ratio and vegetation distribution, and the better understanding of these factors would be helpful to improve the quality of wetland design, operation and management. This paper analyzed the effect of three different water depths (20, 40 and 60 cm) on the hydraulic performance of pond wetland through the dye tracer experiments with Rhodamine WT. The hydraulic indices, i. e., effective volume ratio, nominal serial complete mixing tanks (N), hydraulic efficiency (λ), were selected for analysis through the hydraulic residence time distribution (RTD) curve. The results showed that the effective volume rate rose from 0.421 to 0.844 and the hydraulic efficiency from 0.281 to 0.604 when the water depth declined from 60 cm to 20 cm. This indicated that the wetland hydraulic performance improved as the water depth decreased. In addition, the hydraulic performance of the first half of the wetland was significantly better than that of the second half. The flow regime of the first half approached complete mixing because of the mixing index (N) approaching 1 and its effective volume rate was above 0.9 when the water depth was relatively low (20 and 40 cm). The normalized RTD curves demonstrated a good agreement between moment analysis parameters and hydraulic parameters, and a great consistency between the hydraulic parameters and moment index which was not affected by tail truncation error. The experimental study concluded that a lower water depth was favorable to improve the hydraulic performance of pond wetlands.

  1. [Effect of water depths on hydraulic performance of pond wetlands].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Qiang; Dong, Bin; Liu, Jun-Jie; Liu, Chun-Guo; Feng, Da-Peng; Liu, Fang-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Pond wetlands have been widely used in the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields. However, wetland hydraulic performance and purification effects are affected by many factors, such as water depth, flow rate, aspect ratio and vegetation distribution, and the better understanding of these factors would be helpful to improve the quality of wetland design, operation and management. This paper analyzed the effect of three different water depths (20, 40 and 60 cm) on the hydraulic performance of pond wetland through the dye tracer experiments with Rhodamine WT. The hydraulic indices, i. e., effective volume ratio, nominal serial complete mixing tanks (N), hydraulic efficiency (λ), were selected for analysis through the hydraulic residence time distribution (RTD) curve. The results showed that the effective volume rate rose from 0.421 to 0.844 and the hydraulic efficiency from 0.281 to 0.604 when the water depth declined from 60 cm to 20 cm. This indicated that the wetland hydraulic performance improved as the water depth decreased. In addition, the hydraulic performance of the first half of the wetland was significantly better than that of the second half. The flow regime of the first half approached complete mixing because of the mixing index (N) approaching 1 and its effective volume rate was above 0.9 when the water depth was relatively low (20 and 40 cm). The normalized RTD curves demonstrated a good agreement between moment analysis parameters and hydraulic parameters, and a great consistency between the hydraulic parameters and moment index which was not affected by tail truncation error. The experimental study concluded that a lower water depth was favorable to improve the hydraulic performance of pond wetlands. PMID:25898628

  2. On evaluation of depth accuracy in consumer depth sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Aziz, Azim Zaliha; Wei, Hong; Ferryman, James

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of different depth sensors. The aim is to answer the question, whether these sensors give accurate data for general depth image analysis. The study examines the depth accuracy between three popularly used depth sensors; ASUS Xtion Prolive, Kinect Xbox 360 and Kinect for Windows v2. The main attention is to study on the stability of pixels in the depth image captured at several different sensor-object distances by measuring the depth returned by the sensors within specified time intervals. The experimental results show that the fluctuation (mm) of the random selected pixels within the target area, increases with increasing distance to the sensor, especially on the Kinect for Xbox 360 and the Asus Xtion Prolive. Both of these sensors provide pixels fluctuation between 20mm and 30mm at a sensor-object distance beyond 1500mm. However, the pixel's stability of the Kinect for Windows v2 not affected much with the distance between the sensor and the object. The maximum fluctuation for all the selected pixels of Kinect for Windows v2 is approximately 5mm at sensor-object distance of between 800mm and 3000mm. Therefore, in the optimal distance, the best stability achieved.

  3. A comparative study of the growth of Tetraselmis sp. in large scale fixed depth and decreasing depth raceway ponds.

    PubMed

    Das, Probir; Thaher, Mahmoud Ibrahim; Hakim, Mohammed Abdul Quadir Mohd Abdul; Al-Jabri, Hareb Mohammed S J; Alghasal, Ghamza Saed H S

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an alternative approach was proposed where excess seawater would be added only during inoculation (DD) rather than daily addition (FD). Growth and metabolite contents of Tetraselmis sp. weren't affected for daily increase of 2% NaCl salinity. Tetraselmis sp. was then cultured in DD and FD pond. In DD pond, initial culture depth was 23.5cm and its depth reduced as no water was added; for FD pond, everyday sterilized seawater was added to maintain 20cm depth. DD pond had higher biomass productivity compared to FD pond, until DD pond was deeper than FD pond; metabolite content and FAME profile of Tetraselmis sp. were also similar in both cultures. Therefore, considering the simplicity in operation, halo tolerant microalgae can be grown in DD pond method. PMID:27235973

  4. Medium-depth chemical peels.

    PubMed

    Monheit, G D

    2001-07-01

    The combination medium-depth chemical peel (Jessner's solution +35% TCA) has been accepted as a safe, reliable, and effective method for the treatment of moderate photoaging skin. This article discusses the procedure in detail, including postoperative considerations. PMID:11599398

  5. Teaching Depth of Field Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Frederick C.; Smith, Rodney J.

    1978-01-01

    This activity utilizes an overhead projector, a wax pencil, and a petri-dish to demonstrate the depth of field concept to students learning the use of the microscope. Illustrations and directions are included. (MA)

  6. Nitrogen fixation in sediments along a depth transect through the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems off Peru and Mauritania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gier, J.; Sommer, S.; Löscher, C. R.; Dale, A.; Schmitz, R. A.; Treude, T.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of benthic nitrogen (N2) fixation and its relevance for N cycling in the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) are still unknown. Recent studies confirm that benthic N2 fixation can be coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) and that several species of sulfate reducing bacteria have the genetic ability to fix N due to the presence of the gene encoding for the nitrogenase enzyme. We investigated benthic N2 fixation and SR in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone at 12°S and in the Mauritanian upwelling system at 18°N along a depth transect. Sediments were retrieved by a multicorer and a benthic lander at six stations in both regions. Benthic N2 fixation occurred throughout the sediment in both EBUS. Off Peru the highest integrated (0-20 cm) N2 fixation rate of 0.4 mmol N/m2/d was measured inside the core of the OMZ at 253 m water depth. Off Mauritania the highest integrated (0-20 cm) N2 fixation rate of 0.15 mmol N/m2/d was measured at 90 m, coinciding with a low bottom water oxygen concentration (30 μM). N2 fixation depth profiles often overlapped with SR activity. Moreover, sequencing data yielded insights into the composition and diversity of the nifH gene pool in EBUS sediments. Interestingly, detected sequences in both EBUS clustered with SR bacteria, such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris and several of the novel detected clades belonged to uncultured diazotrophs. Our results suggest that N2 fixation and SR were coupled to a large extent in both regions. However, potential environmental factors controlling benthic diazotrophs in the EBUS appear to be the availability of sulfide and organic matter. Additionally, no inhibition of N2 fixation at high ammonium concentrations was found, which highlights gaps in our knowledge regards the interaction between ammonium availability and diazotrophy. Our results contribute to a better understanding of N cycling in EBUS sediments and sources of fixed N.

  7. Estimating the distribution of snow depth via artificial neural networks combined with MODIS snow cover area and ancillary topographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jinliang; Huang, Chunlin

    2016-04-01

    samples, respectively; while R2 of 0.57 and 0.57, RMSE of 0.14 and 0.15, the mean absolute error of 5.34 and 5.38 cm for the corresponding multiple regression method.

  8. Comparative depths of cure among various curing light types and methods.

    PubMed

    Soh, M S; Yap, Adrian U J; Siow, K S

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the depth of cure associated with commercial LEDs (light-emitting diodes) (Elipar FreeLight [FL], 3M-ESPE; GC e-Light [EL], GC), high intensity (Elipar TriLight [TL], 3M-ESPE) and very high intensity (Astralis 10 [AS], Ivoclar Vivadent) Quartz Tungsten Halogen (QTH) curing lights. Depth of cure of the various lights/curing modes were compared to a conventional QTH light (Max [Mx], Dentsply-Caulk). Ten exposure regimens were investigated: FL1 - 400 mW/cm2 [40 seconds]; FL2 - 0-400 mW/cm2 [12 seconds] --> 400 mW/cm2 [28 seconds]; EL1 - 750 mW/cm2 [10 pulses x 2 seconds], EL2 - 350 mW/cm2 [40 seconds]; EL3 - 600 mW/cm2 [20 seconds]; EL4 - 0 - 600 mW/cm2 [20 seconds] --> 600 mW/cm2 [20 seconds]; TL1 - 800 mW/cm2 [40 seconds]; TL2 - 100- 800 mW/cm2 [15 seconds] --> 800 mW/cm2 [25 seconds]; AS1 - 1200 mW/cm2 [10 seconds]; MX - 400 mW/cm2 [40 seconds]. Depth of cure was determined by penetration, scraping and microhardness techniques. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA/Scheffe's post-hoc test and Pearson's correlation at significance level 0.05 and 0.01, respectively. All light curing regimens met the ISO depth of cure requirement of 1.5 mm with the exception of EL1-EL3 with the microhardness technique. Curing with most modes of EL resulted in significantly lower depths of cure than the control [MX]. No significant difference in depth of cure was observed among the control and the two modes of FL. Curing with TL1 resulted in significantly greater depth of cure compared to MX with all testing techniques. No significant difference in depth of cure was observed between the control and AS1 for all testing techniques except for the penetration technique. The depth of composite cure is light unit and exposure mode dependent. Scraping and penetration techniques were found to correlate well but tend to overestimate depth of cure compared to microhardness.

  9. Depth perception of illusory surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kogo, Naoki; Drożdżewska, Anna; Zaenen, Peter; Alp, Nihan; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-03-01

    The perception of an illusory surface, a subjectively perceived surface that is not given in the image, is one of the most intriguing phenomena in vision. It strongly influences the perception of some fundamental properties, namely, depth, lightness and contours. Recently, we suggested (1) that the context-sensitive mechanism of depth computation plays a key role in creating the illusion, (2) that the illusory lightness perception can be explained by an influence of depth perception on the lightness computation, and (3) that the perception of variations of the Kanizsa figure can be well-reproduced by implementing these principles in a model (Kogo, Strecha, et al., 2010). However, depth perception, lightness perception, contour perception, and their interactions can be influenced by various factors. It is essential to measure the differences between the variation figures in these aspects separately to further understand the mechanisms. As a first step, we report here the results of a new experimental paradigm to compare the depth perception of the Kanizsa figure and its variations. One of the illusory figures was presented side-by-side with a non-illusory variation whose stereo disparities were varied. Participants had to decide in which of these two figures the central region appeared closer. The results indicate that the depth perception of the illusory surface was indeed different in the variation figures. Furthermore, there was a non-linear interaction between the occlusion cues and stereo disparity cues. Implications of the results for the neuro-computational mechanisms are discussed.

  10. Lessons Learned From CM-2 Modal Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Carney, Kelly S.; Otten, Kim D.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS-107 in the SPACEHAB Double Research Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is installed into SPACEHAB single and double racks. The CM-2 flight hardware was vibration tested in the launch configuration to characterize the structure's modal response. Cross-orthogonality between test and analysis mode shapes were used to assess model correlation. Lessons learned for pre-test planning and model verification are discussed.

  11. Energy Levels of the Nitrate Radical Below 2000 CM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, J. F.; Simmons, C. S.

    2012-06-01

    Highly sophisticated quantum chemistry techniques have been employed to build a three-state diabatic Hamiltonian for the nitrate radical (NO_3). Eigenvalues of this Hamiltonian (which includes effects beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation) are consistent with the known ``vibrational'' levels of NO_3 up to ca. 2100 cm-1 above the zero-point level; with a small empirical adjustment of the diabatic coupling strength, calculated levels are within 20 cm-1 of the measured level positions for those that have been observed experimentally. Of the eleven states with e' symmetry calculated below 2000 cm-1, nine of these have been observed either in the gas phase by Hirota and collaborators as well as Neumark and Johnston, or in frozen argon by Jacox. However, the Hamiltonian produces two levels that have not been seen experimentally: one calculated to lie at 1075 cm-1 (which is the third e' state, above ν_4 and 2ν_4) and another at 1640 cm-1 which is best assigned as one of the two e' sublevels of 4ν_4. A significant result is that the state predicted at 1075 cm-1 is not far enough above the predicted 2ν_4 level (777 cm-1 v. ca. 760 cm-1 from experiment) to be plausibly assigned as 3ν_4 (which is at 1155 cm-1: experimental position: 1173 cm-1), nor is its nodal structure consistent with such an idea. Rather, it is quite unambiguously the ν_3 level. Given the fidelity of the results generated by this model Hamiltonian as compared to experiment, it can safely be concluded that the prominent infrared band seen at 1492 cm-1 (corresponding to a calculated level at 1500 cm-1) is not ν_3, but rather a multiquantum state best viewed as a sublevel of the ν_3 + ν_4 combination.

  12. Effects of electron irradiation and temperature on 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicoletta, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    One OHM-cm and 10 OHM-cm silicon solar cells were exposed to 1.0 MeV electrons at a fixed flux of 10 to the 11th power e/sq cm/sec and fluences of 10 to the 13th power, 10 to the 14th power and 10 to the 15th power e/sq.cm. 1-V curves of the cells were made at room temperature, - 63 C and + or - 143 C after each irradiation. A value of 139.5 mw/sq cm was used as AMO incident energy rate per unit area. The 10 OHM-cm cells appear more efficient than 1 OHM-cm cells after exposure to a fluence greater than 10 to the 14th power e/sq cm. The 1.0 MeV electron damage coefficients for both 1 OHM-cm and 10 OHM-cm cells are somewhat less than those for previously irradiated cells at room temperature. The values of the damage coefficients increase as the cell temperatures decrease. Efficiencies pertaining to maximum power output are about the same as those of n on p silicon cells evaluated previously.

  13. Prestack depth migration applied to deep seismic data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, M.; Buske, S.; Lüth, S.; Shapiro, S.; Wigger, P.

    2003-04-01

    We present the results of Kirchhoff prestack depth migration applied to two onshore deep seismic reflection data sets (ANCORP'96 and PRECORP'95). The prestack depth migration was implemented in 3D (ANCORP) and in 2D (PRECORP), respectively, from topography. The 3D velocity model was obtained by extending a 2D velocity model received from refraction data analysis. The traveltime calculation was performed using a finite difference eikonal solver. An additional "offline stacking" provided a final 370 km long 2D depth section of the ANCORP data set. The migration procedure of the PRECORP data set consisted of three steps: First, early arrivals (0-15 s TWT) were processed. Second, later arrivals (15-40 s TWT) were passed to migration . Finally, both depth sections have been stacked and yielded the final 100 km deep subsurface image. In this paper a 180 km long part of the ANCORP section and a 110 km long PRECORP depth profile are presented. In comparison to earlier processing results (ANCORP working group, 1999; 2002) the prestack depth images contain new aspects. The final 2D ANCORP section shows a sharpened image of the oceanic crust. Except for some areas a nearly complete image of the Nazca reflector is present in both data sets between depths of 60 - 90 km. The compilation with local earthquake data shows that the seismogenic zone coincides with the upper reflector of the oceanic crust, but not with the Nazca reflector at depths larger than 80 km. The final depth sections contain two prominent features, the Quebrada Blanca Bright Spot (QBBS, ANCORP) and the Calama Bright Spot (CBS, PRECORP) located 160 km further to the south. Besides the west dip of the QBBS a 3D analysis of the ANCORP data set shows an additional north-dipping trend of the QBBS. Furthermore, the CBS is discovered for the first time. ANCORP Working Group (1999) Seismic reflection image revealing offset of Andean subduction-zone earthquake locations into oceanic mantle. Nature, 397:341--344. ANCORP

  14. Cosmic-Ray Muon Intensity Deep Underground versus Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B. S.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Crouch, M. F.; Kropp, W. R.; Sobel, H. W.; Gurr, H. S.; Lathrop, J.; Reines, F.

    Cosmic-ray muons produced in the earth's atmosphere were measured at a depth of 8.71×104 g cm-2 with a large-area (170 m2) liquid-scintillation-detector hodoscope. These data taken together with those of other workers lead to an improved muon vertical-depth intensity curve, Iv(h)=aμe-h/λ, where Iv(h)= vertical intensity, aμ=(1.04-0.12+0.21)×10-6 cm-2 sec-1 sr-1, λ=(8.04-0.20+0.36)×104 g cm-2, and h = depth in g cm-2. A comparison of these results with those expected from the sea-level muon spectra via an improved calculation may indicate the need for an increased energy loss, probably via the photonuclear interaction as suggested by Keuffel el al. The results are not inconsistent with the presence of the X process of Keuffel et al.

  15. Microwave property improvement of Ca[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ perovskite by A-site substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mingzhe; Xiong, Gang; Ding, Zhao

    2016-04-01

    The crystal structure and microwave dielectric properties of Ca[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ ceramic (CLNZ) are tuned by A-site substitution of Sr2+ and Ba2+ ions in the present paper. The tuning effect on the crystal structure is investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and it illustrates that single phase of orthorhombic perovskite structure is formed, however, minor amount of BaNb2O6-type second phase is also detected in (Ca1-xBax)[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ ceramics (CBLNZ) in the range of x ≥ 0.025, while pure perovskite phase is obtained in (Ca1-xSrx)[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ ceramics (CSLNZ) in the whole investigation range of 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2. With the increase of x value, the unit cell volumes of both CBLNZ and CSLNZ perovskites gradually expand, which results in the degradation of the vibration bond strength between the B-site ions and oxygen in the perovskites. The microscopic structure related thermal parameters in CSLNZ and CBLNZ perovskites are analyzed in terms of Clausius-Mossotti equation to reveal the original contributors in the temperature coefficients. The results show that both Sr2+ and Ba2+ substitution can effectively improve the permittivity and Qf value, especially, improve the temperature coefficient of CLNZ ceramic in a certain range.

  16. Structural and electrical properties of grain boundaries in Ce 0.85Gd 0.15O 1.925 solid electrolyte modified by addition of transition metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zając, Wojciech; Suescun, Leopoldo; Świerczek, Konrad; Molenda, Janina

    In this work we present studies on applicability of transition metal additives as sintering and electrical conductivity aids for cerium gadolinium oxide electrolyte. The nanosized Ce 0.85Gd 0.15O 1.925 powder obtained by coprecipitation method was modified with Cr 3+, Fe 3+, Ni 2+ or Cu 2+ ions. Using high-intensity high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction data we have determined that Cr, Fe and Ni ions do not incorporate into the cerium gadolinium oxide surface or bulk when sintered at 1300 °C, but react with Gd ions to form Cr 0.9Gd 0.1O, GdFeO 3 and GdNiO 3 phases, while Cu incorporates in the material up to 0.7 mol% with a significant fraction of remaining material showing poorly crystalline CuO phase. The nanosized Ce 0.85Gd 0.15O 1.925 material shows already improved sintering properties than previous reports but full sintering is not achieved below 1300 °C, however Cr, Fe and mainly Cu impregnation allows full sintering at 1300 °C. 0.5 mol% Ni impregnated material sintered at 1500 °C shows enhanced grain boundary conductivity that probably indicates that Ni incorporates into Ce 0.84Gd 0.15O 1.925 above 1300 °C. The global results indicate, however, that optimization of ceria microstructure is at least of equal importance for sinterability and grain boundary conductivity than impregnation of the material with transition metal ions.

  17. In Situ Carbon-Doped Mo(Se0.85 S0.15 )2 Hierarchical Nanotubes as Stable Anodes for High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zheng-Tian; Kang, Wenpei; Xu, Jun; Sun, Lian-Ling; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Li; Yu, Yong-Qiang; Yu, Denis Y W; Zhang, Wenjun; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-11-11

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are promising energy storage devices, but suffer from poor cycling stability and low rate capability. In this work, carbon doped Mo(Se0.85 S0.15 )2 (i.e., Mo(Se0.85 S0.15 )2 :C) hierarchical nanotubes have been synthesized for the first time and serve as a robust and high-performance anode material. The hierarchical nanotubes with diameters of 300 nm and wall thicknesses of 50 nm consist of numerous 2D layered nanosheets, and can act as a robust host for sodiation/desodiation cycling. The Mo(Se0.85 S0.15 )2 :C hierarchical nanotubes deliver a discharge capacity of 360 mAh g(-1) at a high current density of 2000 mA g(-1) and keep a 81.8% capacity retention compared to that at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) , showing superior rate capability. Comparing with the second cycle discharge capacities, the nanotube anode can maintain capacities of 102.2%, 101.9%, and 97.8% after 100 cycles at current densities of 200, 500, and 1000 mA g(-1) , respectively. This work demonstrates the best cycling performance and high-rate sodium storage capabilities of MoSe2 for SIBs to date. The hollow interior, hierarchical organization, layered structure, and carbon doping are beneficial for fast Na(+) -ion and electron kinetics and are responsible for the stable cycling performance and high rate capabilities.

  18. Sintering of BaCe(sub 0.85)Y(sub 0.15)O(sub 3-delta) with/without SrTiO3 Dopant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, F.; Sayir, A.; Heimann, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    The perovskite composition, BaCe(sub 0.85)Y(sub 0.15)O(sub 3-delta), displays excellent protonic conduction at high temperatures making it a desirable candidate for hydrogen separation membranes. This paper reports on the sintering behavior of BaCe(sub 0.85)Y(sub 0.15)O(sub 3-delta) powders doped with SrTiO3. Two methods were used to synthesize BaCe(sub 0.85)Y(sub 0.15)O(sub 3-delta) powders: (1) solid state reaction and (2) wet chemical co-precipitation. Co-precipitated powder crystallized into the perovskite phase at 1000 C for 4 hrs. Complete reaction and crystallization of the perovskite phase by solid state was achieved by calcining at 1200 C for 24 hrs. Solid state synthesis produced a coarser powder with an average particle size of 1.3 microns and surface area of 0.74 sq m/g. Co-precipitation produced a finer powder with a average particle size of 65 nm and surface area of 14.9 sq m/g. Powders were doped with 1, 2, 5, and 10 mole % SrTiO3. Samples were sintered at 1450 C, 1550 C and 1650 C. SrTiO3 enhances sintering, optimal dopant level is different for powders synthesized by solid state and co-precipitation. Both powders exhibit similar grain growth behavior. Dopant levels of 5 and 10 mole % SrTiO3 significantly enhances the grain size.

  19. Structural and large magnetocaloric properties of La0.67-xYxBa0.23Ca0.1MnO3 perovskites (0≤x≤0.15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abassi, Mounira; Dhahri, N.; Dhahri, J.; HLIL, E. K.

    2014-09-01

    La0.67Ba0.23Ca0.1MnO3 doped with different amounts of yttrium (Y) result in the series La0.67-xYxBa0.23Ca0.1MnO3 (LYBCMO) (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) which was synthesized by conventional solid state ceramics route. All samples show a rhombohedral structure (space group R3 barc) at room temperature. A transition from a paramagnetic to a ferromagnetic phase is observed at Curie temperature, TC. It has been found that the substitution of Y on the La site causes a reduction in TC. Analyses of crystallographic data suggested a strong correlation between structural properties and magnetism. As an example, a relationship between the distortion of MnO6 octahedron and the reduction in Curie temperature. The magnetic entropy change (-ΔS)m was estimated from isothermal magnetization curves. It decreases from 4.91 J/kg K at 350 k (x=0.00) to 4.14 J/kg K at 289 K (x=0.15) with the increase of Y content under μ0H=5 T. The relative cooling power (RCP) is found to be 365 J/kg for La0.67Ba0.23Ca0.1MnO3 and 288 J/kg for La0.52Y0.15Ba0.23Ca0.1MnO3 in the magnetic field change of 5 T. From these results, La0.67-xYxBa0.23Ca0.1MnO3 materials are strongly suggested for use as active refrigerants in magnetic refrigeration technology at near room temperature.

  20. Morphology and magneto-transport properties of electron doped La{sub 0.85}Te{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} thin film deposited on LaAlO{sub 3} substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Irshad; Husain, Shahid; Patil, S.I.

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Resistivity versus temperature plots of La{sub 0.85}Te{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} thin film under the applied magnetic field of 0 T, 5 T and 8 T. - Highlights: • La{sub 0.85}Te{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} manganite thin film is deposited on LaAlO{sub 3} using PLD technique. • Film is deposited at 750 °C, and is highly crystalline, single phase and c-axis oriented. • The film consists of grains with an average diameter of 60 nm. • Resistivity plots display double insulator-metal transitions. • XPS results confirm the electron doped (n-type) nature of the film. - Abstract: We report the structural, electronic transport and X-ray photoemission spectroscopic study of 100 nm thin film of La{sub 0.85}Te{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} grown on (0 0 1) LaAlO{sub 3} single crystal substrate by pulsed laser deposition. XRD results confirm that the film has good crystalline quality, single phase, and has a c-axis orientation. The atomic force microscopic (AFM) results showed that the film consists of grains with an average diameter of 60 nm. The resistivity measurement showed double insulator-metal transitions in absence and as well as in presence of the magnetic field. The resistivity peaks are ascribed to the intrinsic contribution of LTMO film and the tunnelling of spin-polarized electrons at grain boundaries. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements suggest that Te ions are in the Te{sup 4+} state, while the Mn ions are forced to stay in the Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} valence state.

  1. The structure, magnetostriction, and hysteresis of (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9)1-x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe1.9)x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bowen; Lv, Yan; Li, Guolu; Huang, Wenmei; Weng, Ling; Cui, Baozhi

    2015-05-01

    The (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9)1-x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe1.9)x alloys were prepared in an arc furnace under high purity argon. The as-cast samples wrapped in Mo foil were sealed in a silica tube filled with high purity argon and were homogenized at 1000 °C for 1 day and at 950 °C for 5 days. Then, the homogenized specimens with 5 mm in diameter and 8 mm in length were annealed under the magnetic field of 320 kA/m. The static measurement of magnetostriction (λ//, λ⊥) was made by standard strain gauge, and the magnetization M was measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that the main phase of annealed (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9)1-x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe1.9)x alloys is the (Tb,Dy,Ho)Fe2 phase with the MgCu2-type structure. The magnetostriction λ// and magnetization M of (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9)1-x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe1.9)x alloys increases with increasing x from x = 0.1 to x = 0.3 when H < 240 kA/m. The hysteresis becomes small with increasing x when x ≤ 0.3. For magnetically annealed rod alloys, the magnetostriction markedly increases and reaches 1080 × 10-6 for x = 0.3 when H = 240 kA/m.

  2. Synthesis, structural and vibrational properties of Bi{sub 0.8}La{sub 0.15}A{sub 0.05}FeO{sub 3} (A = Ca, Sr)

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Poorva E-mail: poorva.aks@gmail.com; Kumar, Ashwini; Varshney, Dinesh E-mail: poorva.aks@gmail.com

    2015-06-24

    The polycrystalline Bi{sub 0.8}La{sub 0.15}A{sub 0.05}FeO{sub 3} (A = Ca, Sr) was synthesized by solid state reaction route to study the structural and vibrational properties. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of single-phase perovskite structure. Rietveld–refined crystal structure parameters revealed the existence of rhombohedral R3c symmetry in the prepared sample. The blue shift of phonon modes is attributed to lower atomic mass of La{sup 3+} and A = (Ca, Sr) substitution at Bi site in BiFeO{sub 3}.

  3. Alpha self-irradiation effect on the local structure of the U{sub 0.85}Am{sub 0.15}O{sub 2{+-}x} solid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Prieur, D.; Martin, P.M.; Scheinost, A.C.; Dehaudt, P.

    2012-10-15

    Uranium-americium mixed oxides are promising fuels for achieving an efficient Am recycling. Previous studies on U{sub 0.85}Am{sub 0.15}O{sub 2{+-}x} materials showed that the high {alpha} activity of {sup 241}Am induces pellet swelling which is a major issue for cladding materials design. In this context, X-ray Diffraction and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy measurements were used to study self-irradiation effects on U{sub 0.85}Am{sub 0.15}O{sub 2{+-}x} local structure and to correlate these results with those obtained at the macroscopic scale. For a cumulative {alpha} decay dose equal to 0.28 dpa, it was shown that non-defective fluorite solid solutions were achieved and therefore, that the fluorite structure is stable for the studied doses. In addition, both interatomic distance and lattice parameter expansions were observed, which only partially explains the macroscopic swelling. As expected, an increase of the structural disorder with self-irradiation was also observed. - Graphical abstract: X-ray Diffraction and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy measurements were performed on U{sub 0.85}Am{sub 0.15}O{sub 2{+-}x}, exhibiting various cumulative {alpha} decay doses, in order to study self-irradiation effects on local structure and to correlate these results with those obtained at the macroscopic scale. Thus, it was shown that the fluorite structure is stable for the studied doses. In addition, both interatomic distance and lattice parameter expansions were observed, explaining partially the macroscopic swelling. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-defective fluorite U{sub 0.85}Am{sub 0.15}O{sub 2{+-}x} solid solutions were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorite structure is stable for the studied doses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A lattice parameter increase was observed, which partially explains the macroscopic swelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increase of the structural disorder can be understood from the ballistic effect associated

  4. Two-Fermi-Surface Superconducting State and a Nodal d-Wave Energy Gap of the Electron-Doped Sm1.85Ce0.15CuO4-δ Cuprate Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santander-Syro, A. F.; Ikeda, M.; Yoshida, T.; Fujimori, A.; Ishizaka, K.; Okawa, M.; Shin, S.; Greene, R. L.; Bontemps, N.

    2011-05-01

    We report on laser-excited angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in the electron-doped cuprate Sm1.85Ce0.15CuO4-δ. The data show the existence of a nodal hole-pocket Fermi surface both in the normal and superconducting states. We prove that its origin is long-range antiferromagnetism by an analysis of the coherence factors in the main and folded bands. This coexistence of long-range antiferrmagnetism and superconductivity implies that electron-doped cuprates are two-Fermi-surface superconductors. The measured superconducting gap in the nodal hole pocket is compatible with a d-wave symmetry.

  5. Erratum: VLA H92α and H115β Recombination Line Observations of the Galactic Center H II Regions: The Sickle (G0.18-0.04) and the Pistol (G0.15-0.05)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Cornelia C. Lang; Goss, W. M.; Wood, D. O. S.

    1997-06-01

    In the paper ``VLA H92α and H115β Recombination Line Observations of the Galactic Center H II Regions: The Sickle (G0.18-0.04) and the Pistol (G0.15-0.05)'' by Cornelia C. Lang, W. M. Goss, and D. O. S. Wood (ApJ, 474, 275 [1997]), an error occurred in Figure 9. Figure 9a was printed twice, and Figure 9b was omitted. The correct version of Figure 9b is presented here.

  6. Study of the angular-dependence of the L-alpha and L-beta radiation produced by 0-15 kev photons incident on Au targets of various thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requena, Sebastian; Williams, Scott

    2011-03-01

    We report the results of experiments involving the L-alpha and L-beta x-ray lines produced by 0-15 keV bremsstrahlung incident on gold targets of various thicknesses at forward-scattered angles ranging from 20 to 160 degrees. Previous reports [1, 2] have shown the L-beta peaks to be isotropic and the L-alpha peaks to be anisotropic due to the symmetry/asymmetry associated with the orbital being filled during the transition. The relative intensities are compared to the predictions of the Monte Carlo code, PENELOPE.

  7. Large-Scale Surveys of Snow Depth on Arctic Sea Ice from Operation IceBridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Nathan T.; Farrell, Sinead L.

    2011-01-01

    We show the first results of a large ]scale survey of snow depth on Arctic sea ice from NASA fs Operation IceBridge snow radar system for the 2009 season and compare the data to climatological snow depth values established over the 1954.1991 time period. For multiyear ice, the mean radar derived snow depth is 33.1 cm and the corresponding mean climatological snow depth is 33.4 cm. The small mean difference suggests consistency between contemporary estimates of snow depth with the historical climatology for the multiyear ice region of the Arctic. A 16.5 cm mean difference (climatology minus radar) is observed for first year ice areas suggesting that the increasingly seasonal sea ice cover of the Arctic Ocean has led to an overall loss of snow as the region has transitioned away from a dominantly multiyear ice cover.

  8. "The 5 cm Rule": Biopower, Sexuality and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores "the 5 cm rule", a regulation around student contact discovered during an investigation of the sexual culture of schooling with 16-19-year-olds in New Zealand. Implemented to stem "inappropriate and unwanted" touching, it stipulates that students must maintain a physical distance of 5 cm at all times. It is argued this rule…

  9. Design and Performance of 40 cm Ion Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2001-01-01

    A 40 cm ion thruster is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to obtain input power and propellant throughput capabilities of 10 kW and 550 kg. respectively. The technical approach here is a continuation of the "derating" technique used for the NSTAR ion thruster. The 40 cm ion thruster presently utilizes the NSTAR ion optics aperture geometry to take advantage of the large database of lifetime and performance data already available. Dome-shaped grids were chosen for the design of the 40 cm ion optics because this design is naturally suited for large-area ion optics. Ion extraction capabilities and electron backstreaming limits for the 40 cm ion optics were estimated by utilizing NSTAR 30 cm ion optics data. A preliminary service life assessment showed that the propellant throughput goal of 550 kg of xenon may be possible with molybdenum 40 cm ion optics. One 40 cm ion optics' set has been successfully fabricated to date. Additional ion optics' sets are presently being fabricated. Preliminary performance tests were conducted on a laboratory model 40 cm ion thruster.

  10. Effects of proton irradiation and temperature on 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicoletta, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells were exposed to 1.0 MeV protons at a fixed flux of 10 to the 9th power P/sq cm-sec and fluences of 10 to the 10th power, 10 to the 11th power, 10 to the 12th power and 3 X 10 to the 12th power P/sq cm. I-V curves of the cells were made at room temperature, 65 C and 165 C after each irradiation. A value of 139.5 mw/sq cm was taken as AMO incident energy rate per unit area. Degradation occurred for both uncovered 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm cells. Efficiencies are generally higher than those of comparable U.S. cells tested earlier. Damage (loss in maximum power efficiency) with proton fluence is somewhat higher for 10 ohm-cm cells, measured at the three temperatures, for fluences above 2 X 10 to the 11th power P/sq cm. Cell efficiency, as expected, changes drastically with temperature.

  11. Monitoring the Depth of Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Musizza, Bojan; Ribaric, Samo

    2010-01-01

    One of the current challenges in medicine is monitoring the patients’ depth of general anaesthesia (DGA). Accurate assessment of the depth of anaesthesia contributes to tailoring drug administration to the individual patient, thus preventing awareness or excessive anaesthetic depth and improving patients’ outcomes. In the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of studies on the development, comparison and validation of commercial devices that estimate the DGA by analyzing electrical activity of the brain (i.e., evoked potentials or brain waves). In this paper we review the most frequently used sensors and mathematical methods for monitoring the DGA, their validation in clinical practice and discuss the central question of whether these approaches can, compared to other conventional methods, reduce the risk of patient awareness during surgical procedures. PMID:22163504

  12. Flexible depth of field photography.

    PubMed

    Kuthirummal, Sujit; Nagahara, Hajime; Zhou, Changyin; Nayar, Shree K

    2011-01-01

    The range of scene depths that appear focused in an image is known as the depth of field (DOF). Conventional cameras are limited by a fundamental trade-off between depth of field and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For a dark scene, the aperture of the lens must be opened up to maintain SNR, which causes the DOF to reduce. Also, today's cameras have DOFs that correspond to a single slab that is perpendicular to the optical axis. In this paper, we present an imaging system that enables one to control the DOF in new and powerful ways. Our approach is to vary the position and/or orientation of the image detector during the integration time of a single photograph. Even when the detector motion is very small (tens of microns), a large range of scene depths (several meters) is captured, both in and out of focus. Our prototype camera uses a micro-actuator to translate the detector along the optical axis during image integration. Using this device, we demonstrate four applications of flexible DOF. First, we describe extended DOF where a large depth range is captured with a very wide aperture (low noise) but with nearly depth-independent defocus blur. Deconvolving a captured image with a single blur kernel gives an image with extended DOF and high SNR. Next, we show the capture of images with discontinuous DOFs. For instance, near and far objects can be imaged with sharpness, while objects in between are severely blurred. Third, we show that our camera can capture images with tilted DOFs (Scheimpflug imaging) without tilting the image detector. Finally, we demonstrate how our camera can be used to realize nonplanar DOFs. We believe flexible DOF imaging can open a new creative dimension in photography and lead to new capabilities in scientific imaging, vision, and graphics. PMID:21088319

  13. Legacy effects of grassland management on soil carbon to depth.

    PubMed

    Ward, Susan E; Smart, Simon M; Quirk, Helen; Tallowin, Jerry R B; Mortimer, Simon R; Shiel, Robert S; Wilby, Andrew; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-08-01

    The importance of managing land to optimize carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation is widely recognized, with grasslands being identified as having the potential to sequester additional carbon. However, most soil carbon inventories only consider surface soils, and most large-scale surveys group ecosystems into broad habitats without considering management intensity. Consequently, little is known about the quantity of deep soil carbon and its sensitivity to management. From a nationwide survey of grassland soils to 1 m depth, we show that carbon in grassland soils is vulnerable to management and that these management effects can be detected to considerable depth down the soil profile, albeit at decreasing significance with depth. Carbon concentrations in soil decreased as management intensity increased, but greatest soil carbon stocks (accounting for bulk density differences), were at intermediate levels of management. Our study also highlights the considerable amounts of carbon in subsurface soil below 30 cm, which is missed by standard carbon inventories. We estimate grassland soil carbon in Great Britain to be 2097 Tg C to a depth of 1 m, with ~60% of this carbon being below 30 cm. Total stocks of soil carbon (t ha(-1) ) to 1 m depth were 10.7% greater at intermediate relative to intensive management, which equates to 10.1 t ha(-1) in surface soils (0-30 cm), and 13.7 t ha(-1) in soils from 30 to 100 cm depth. Our findings highlight the existence of substantial carbon stocks at depth in grassland soils that are sensitive to management. This is of high relevance globally, given the extent of land cover and large stocks of carbon held in temperate managed grasslands. Our findings have implications for the future management of grasslands for carbon storage and climate mitigation, and for global carbon models which do not currently account for changes in soil carbon to depth with management.

  14. Legacy effects of grassland management on soil carbon to depth.

    PubMed

    Ward, Susan E; Smart, Simon M; Quirk, Helen; Tallowin, Jerry R B; Mortimer, Simon R; Shiel, Robert S; Wilby, Andrew; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-08-01

    The importance of managing land to optimize carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation is widely recognized, with grasslands being identified as having the potential to sequester additional carbon. However, most soil carbon inventories only consider surface soils, and most large-scale surveys group ecosystems into broad habitats without considering management intensity. Consequently, little is known about the quantity of deep soil carbon and its sensitivity to management. From a nationwide survey of grassland soils to 1 m depth, we show that carbon in grassland soils is vulnerable to management and that these management effects can be detected to considerable depth down the soil profile, albeit at decreasing significance with depth. Carbon concentrations in soil decreased as management intensity increased, but greatest soil carbon stocks (accounting for bulk density differences), were at intermediate levels of management. Our study also highlights the considerable amounts of carbon in subsurface soil below 30 cm, which is missed by standard carbon inventories. We estimate grassland soil carbon in Great Britain to be 2097 Tg C to a depth of 1 m, with ~60% of this carbon being below 30 cm. Total stocks of soil carbon (t ha(-1) ) to 1 m depth were 10.7% greater at intermediate relative to intensive management, which equates to 10.1 t ha(-1) in surface soils (0-30 cm), and 13.7 t ha(-1) in soils from 30 to 100 cm depth. Our findings highlight the existence of substantial carbon stocks at depth in grassland soils that are sensitive to management. This is of high relevance globally, given the extent of land cover and large stocks of carbon held in temperate managed grasslands. Our findings have implications for the future management of grasslands for carbon storage and climate mitigation, and for global carbon models which do not currently account for changes in soil carbon to depth with management. PMID:26854892

  15. Investigation of the effect of Ag addition on the critical current density of the high-temperature superconductor Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhikesh Raveendran, N.; Vinod, K.; Amaladass, E. P.; Janaki, J.; Mani, Awadhesh

    2016-07-01

    We have synthesized a Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4 + Ag composite system with the aim of studying the effect of Ag addition in the electron-doped system Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4 on its superconducting and magnetic properties. Measurements of magnetization using a vibration sample magnetometer indicate a systematic increase in diamagnetic shielding upon Ag addition. A subsequent analysis of the critical current density using the Bean model indicates a small but significant increase in intra-grain critical current density upon Ag addition. From the study of the dependence of electrical resistivity on the temperature and electrical current, an increase in inter-granular critical current has also been evidenced upon Ag addition. These results correlate well with the earlier reports of a similar improvement in the properties on the hole-doped ceramic superconductor/Ag composites. Possible reasons for the enhancement of JC have been described and discussed. Magnetic characterization by AC susceptibility using a SQUID magnetometer has been presented for a representative composition, which enabled delineation of the inter- and intra-granular transitions.

  16. Enhanced magnetic response in single-phase Bi0.80La0.15A0.05FeO3-δ (A=Ca, Sr, Ba) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Poorva; Kumar, Ashwini; Varshney, Dinesh

    2015-10-01

    Single phase Bi0.80La0.15A0.05FeO3-δ (A=Ca, Sr, Ba) dense ceramics were synthesized via solid state reaction method. Structural studies through X-ray diffraction shows that all prepared ceramics crystallized in a rhombohedrally (R 3 barC)distorted BiFeO3 structure with compressive lattice distortion induced by the rare earth (La3+) ion and divalent co-doping at the Bi-site for the Raman study. Scanning electron micrograph of the compounds showed the uniform distribution of grains on the sample surface with high density. A large ferromagnetic hysteresis loop is observed for La/Ba co-doped BiFeO3 as compared with BiFeO3 prepared under similar conditions, with saturation magnetization of 6.85 emu/g and remnant magnetization of 2.72 emu/ g at 300 K. Clear ferromagnetic ground state was observed in Bi0.80La0.15Ba0.05FeO3 and weak ferromagnetism in BLCFO and BLSFO samples. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were found to decrease with increase in frequency for all the compounds. These improved properties of La/Ba co-doped BFO demonstrate the possibility of enhancing the magnetic applicability and makes very promising for industrial applications such as new devices in information storage.

  17. Sub-10 μm grain size, Ba1-xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 (x = 0.10 and x = 0.15) piezoceramics processed using a reduced thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Montero, A.; Pardo, L.; López-Juárez, R.; González, A. M.; Rea-López, S. O.; Cruz, M. P.; Villafuerte-Castrejón, M. E.

    2015-06-01

    The solid-state synthesis of Ba1-xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 (x = 0.10, 0.15) (BCTZ) powder and the processing method of ceramics, by the use of reduced synthesis time and temperature (1250 °C for 2 h), are reported. Homogeneous and dense (≥95%) ceramic microstructures with sub-10 μm grain size were obtained under all sintering conditions. A comparative study of their ferro-piezoelectric properties as a function of sintering temperatures is presented. The study shows the role of the grain size effect for improving both piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of these materials. With an increase of the sintering temperature, grain growth was promoted; therefore, higher ferro-piezoelectric values were obtained (at 1400 °C, for x = 0.10: d33 = 300 pC/N, {{d}31}=-150 pC/N, kp = 48% for x = 0.15: d33 = 410 pC/N, d31 =-154 pC/N, kp = 50%). In addition, a diffuse phase transition is observed in these BCTZ ceramics with a Curie temperature near 100 °C at 1 kHz.

  18. Electronic structural changes of the electrochemically Li-ion deintercalated LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 cathode material investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Won-Sub; Chung, Kyung Yoon; McBreen, James; Fischer, Daniel A.; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    In situ hard X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at metal K-edges and soft XAS at O K-edge and metal L-edges have been carried out during the first charging process for the layered Li 1- xNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 cathode material. The metal K-edge XAS results show that the major charge compensation at the metal site during Li-ion deintercalation is achieved by the oxidation of Ni ions, while the cobalt ions remain mostly unchanged in the Co 3+ state. Ni L II,III-edge and O K-edge XAS results in both the fluorescence yield (FY) and partial electron yield (PEY) modes show that substantial amount of Ni ions at the surface of LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 powders exist as Ni 2+, whereas most of Ni ions in the bulk are in the form of Ni 3+. Therefore, if the PEY mode, which is a surface-sensitive technique, is used alone, the interpretation of the results is limited to the surface structures only. In order to get the full picture of both the surface and the bulk, the FY mode and PEY mode should be used simultaneously.

  19. Power and capacity fade mechanism of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.0502composite cathodes in high-power lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kostecki, Robert; McLarnon, Frank

    2003-09-01

    High-power Li-ion cells that were tested at elevatedtemperatures showed a significant impedance rise, which was associatedprimarily with the LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode. By systematicallycollecting thousands of Raman spectra from 50 x 80 mm areas at 0.9 mmspatial resolution, and integrating the respective bands of the cathodecomponents for each spectrum, we were able to produce color-coded,semi-quantitative composition maps of cathode surfaces. Raman microscopyimages of cathodes from tested cells revealed that cell cycling orstorage at elevated temperatures led to significant changes in theLiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2/elemental-carbon surface concentration ratio. Theloss of conductive carbon correlated with the power and capacity fade ofthe tested cathodes. The cathode surface state of charge (SOC) variedbetween individual grains of active material, and at some locations thespectra indicated the presence of fully charged material, despite thedeep cell discharge at the end of testing.

  20. Exhibition of structural flexibility of the infinite layer framework of the prototype compound Ca{sub 0.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 2} prepared under ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kiruthika, G.V.M. . E-mail: gvmk@tifr.res.in; Varadaraju, U.V.

    2005-09-01

    The infinite layer compound Ca{sub 0.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 2} has been synthesized by the sol-gel technique using the acetate gel route. The compound is found to be single-phasic as evidenced from the powder X-ray and electron diffraction measurements. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of homogenous stoichiometric phase pertaining to the composition Ca{sub 0.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 2}. High-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) studies reveal interesting defects in the infinite layer frame work of the system. Apart from the usual strain and shear induced defects observed in the lattice, which is common among the perovskite compounds, the main finding is the defect along [0 1 0], occurring due to the intercalation of extra AO layer in the CuO{sub 2} plane. Such a defect is accommodated in the lattice by the increase in the interplanar distance (which is basically the c-axis parameter) from 3.2 to 3.4 A in the defective layer. This implies the formation of square pyramidal oxygen co-ordination of copper at the defect site.

  1. Magneto-transport properties of La0.75Ca0.15Sr0.1MnO3 with YBa2Cu3O7-δ addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zghal, E.; Koubaa, M.; Berthet, P.; Sicard, L.; Cheikhrouhou-Koubaa, W.; Decorse-Pascanut, C.; Cheikhrouhou, A.; Ammar-Merah, S.

    2016-09-01

    We report the structural, magnetic, electrical and magentoresistance properties of (La0.75Ca0.15Sr0.1MnO3)1-x(YBa2Cu3O7-δ)x (with x=0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) composites synthesized through sol-gel method. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns indicate no evidence of reaction between La0.75Ca0.15Sr0.1MnO3 (LCSMO) and YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO). The addition of YBCO induces a reduction of the total magnetization while the Curie temperature remains almost constant (∼312 K). The behavior of the electrical resistivity evolves differently depending on the doping level. Above the paramagnetic-insulating transition temperature the resistivity data were best-fitted by using the adiabatic small polaron and variable range hopping models. Ferromagnetic-metallic regime in the composites seems to emanate from the electron-phonon or/and electron-magnon scattering processes. With increasing the YBCO doping content (until x=0.1), the positive magnetoresistance (MR) of YBCO phase dominates the negative MR of LCSMO one, which gives rise to the decreasing of MR of the composites.

  2. Sampling Depths, Depth Shifts, and Depth Resolutions for Bi(n)(+) Ion Analysis in Argon Gas Cluster Depth Profiles.

    PubMed

    Havelund, R; Seah, M P; Gilmore, I S

    2016-03-10

    Gas cluster sputter depth profiling is increasingly used for the spatially resolved chemical analysis and imaging of organic materials. Here, a study is reported of the sampling depth in secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. It is shown that effects of the sampling depth leads to apparent shifts in depth profiles of Irganox 3114 delta layers in Irganox 1010 sputtered, in the dual beam mode, using 5 keV Ar₂₀₀₀⁺ ions and analyzed with Bi(q+), Bi₃(q+) and Bi₅(q+) ions (q = 1 or 2) with energies between 13 and 50 keV. The profiles show sharp delta layers, broadened from their intrinsic 1 nm thickness to full widths at half-maxima (fwhm's) of 8-12 nm. For different secondary ions, the centroids of the measured delta layers are shifted deeper or shallower by up to 3 nm from the position measured for the large, 564.36 Da (C₃₃H₄₆N₃O₅⁻) characteristic ion for Irganox 3114 used to define a reference position. The shifts are linear with the Bi(n)(q+) beam energy and are greatest for Bi₃(q+), slightly less for Bi₅(q+) with its wider or less deep craters, and significantly less for Bi(q+) where the sputtering yield is very low and the primary ion penetrates more deeply. The shifts increase the fwhm’s of the delta layers in a manner consistent with a linearly falling generation and escape depth distribution function (GEDDF) for the emitted secondary ions, relevant for a paraboloid shaped crater. The total depth of this GEDDF is 3.7 times the delta layer shifts. The greatest effect is for the peaks with the greatest shifts, i.e. Bi₃(q+) at the highest energy, and for the smaller fragments. It is recommended that low energies be used for the analysis beam and that carefully selected, large, secondary ion fragments are used for measuring depth distributions, or that the analysis be made in the single beam mode using the sputtering Ar cluster ions also for analysis. PMID:26883085

  3. Influence of depth and sampling time on bacterial community structure in an upland grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Robert I; Whiteley, Andrew S; O'Donnell, Anthony G; Bailey, Mark J

    2003-02-01

    Abstract Temporal and spatial variation of soil bacterial communities was evaluated with both molecular and metabolic profiling techniques. Soil cores (20 cm deep) were taken from an upland grassland in the Scottish Borders (UK) over 3 days in July 1999, and on single days in October 1999, April 2000, and August 2000. Cores were separated into four 5-cm depths to examine vertical spatial distribution. The 0-5-, 5-10- and 10-15-cm samples represented organic horizons whilst the 15-20-cm depths were from a mineral horizon. The potential metabolic activities were analysed using BIOLOG-GN plates, whereas genotypic diversity was evaluated using molecular profiling of amplified 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA gene fragments (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)). BIOLOG-GN analysis revealed decreased substrate utilisation in the lowest depths, which was coupled with changes in the DNA and RNA DGGE profiles. Seasonal variation was pronounced in the 5-10-cm and 10-15-cm organic horizons for the July samplings whilst the 15-20-cm depths appeared more stable. Potential factors influencing the observed changes in bacterial communities resulting from soil depth and sampling time are discussed.

  4. [Pharmacological effects of CM6912 and its main metabolites].

    PubMed

    Morishita, H; Kushiku, K; Furukawa, T; Yamaki, Y; Izawa, M; Shibazaki, Y; Shibata, U

    1985-07-01

    Pharmacodynamic effects of ethyl 7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1H-1,4- benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate (CM6912), a new benzodiazepine derivative, and its main metabolites (CM6913 = M1, CM7116 = M2) on the peripheral systems were investigated in several species of animals. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits, CM6912 and M2 (1 or 5 mg/kg, i.v.) had little effect on blood pressure, heart rate and ECG, but it slightly reduced the respiration rate. M1 decreased the heart rate without affecting respiration, blood pressure and ECG. In conscious rabbits, CM6912 and M2 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) did not affect respiration, blood pressure, heart rate and ECG, but M1 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) increased the heart rate. CM6912 (5 or 30 mg/kg), when administered orally, also increased heart rate. In pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs, CM6912 and its metabolites (5 mg/kg, i.v.) decreased respiration and heart rate without affecting blood pressure and ECG. CM 6912 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) did not affect cardiovascular responses to the carotid occlusion, vagus stimulation, and pre- and post-ganglionic stimulation of cardiac ganglion in anesthetized dogs. CM6912 and its metabolites affected neither the spontaneous contraction nor the heart rate of isolated rabbit atria. These compounds also had no action on isolated aortic strips from rabbits. CM6912 and its metabolites did not affect the muscle tone of isolated guinea pig intestine, and it had no effects on the contractile responses to acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin and barium chloride. In isolated rabbit intestine, CM6912 and M2 slightly reduced the amplitude of contraction, while M1 had no effect. CM6912 and its metabolites did not affect the spontaneous motility of isolated non-pregnant and pregnant rat uteri as well as in situ non-pregnant rat uterus and isolated guinea pig vas deferens, including the contractile response to adrenaline. CM6912 and M2 relaxed isolated guinea pig trachea strips only at high concentrations. CM6912 and its

  5. Evaluation of CM5 Charges for Condensed-Phase Modeling.

    PubMed

    Vilseck, Jonah Z; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Jorgensen, William L

    2014-07-01

    The recently developed Charge Model 5 (CM5) is tested for its utility in condensed-phase simulations. The CM5 approach, which derives partial atomic charges from Hirshfeld population analyses, provides excellent results for gas-phase dipole moments and is applicable to all elements of the periodic table. Herein, the adequacy of scaled CM5 charges for use in modeling aqueous solutions has been evaluated by computing free energies of hydration (ΔG hyd) for 42 neutral organic molecules via Monte Carlo statistical mechanics. An optimal scaling factor for the CM5 charges was determined to be 1.27, resulting in a mean unsigned error (MUE) of 1.1 kcal/mol for the free energies of hydration. Testing for an additional 20 molecules gave an MUE of 1.3 kcal/mol. The high precision of the results is confirmed by free energy calculations using both sequential perturbations and complete molecular annihilation. Performance for specific functional groups is discussed; sulfur-containing molecules yield the largest errors. In addition, the scaling factor of 1.27 is shown to be appropriate for CM5 charges derived from a variety of density functional methods and basis sets. Though the average errors from the 1.27*CM5 results are only slightly lower than those using 1.14*CM1A charges, the broader applicability and easier access to CM5 charges via the Gaussian program are additional attractive features. The 1.27*CM5 charge model can be used for an enormous variety of applications in conjunction with many fixed-charge force fields and molecular modeling programs. PMID:25061445

  6. Effect of sowing depth on performance of Quercus castaneifolia seedling at different levels of canopy cover.

    PubMed

    Jalali; Gh, A; Ali-Arab, A R; Tabari, M; Akbarinia, M; Hosseini, S M

    2007-04-01

    Due to failure of oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Meyer) natural regeneration, investigation on the best acorn sowing depth of this species under different levels of canopy cover is an important consideration in the Caspian forests, north of Iran. For this purpose, a study site with north-facing slope, clay-loam soil and 260-280 m a.s.l. was chosen in a mixed oak forest. The experiment was conducted as a Complete Randomized Split Plot Design (CRSPD) and the measurements made in one growing season in nine fenced circular 1000 m2 plots with three canopy densities (25, 50 and 75%) at three soil depths (5, 10 and 15 cm). The results revealed that under all canopy densities the maximum seedling emergence occurred at 5 cm depth. The highest emergence rate was appeared in June and the lowest in October. Neither canopy density nor sowing depth did prominently reduce seedling establishment, but a high quotient of mortality likely could be attributed to rodent populations, particularly Hystrix indica. Under all canopies, ground line diameter decreased with increasing sowing depth, the biggest being at 5 cm depth. Neither canopy density nor sowing depth influenced the seedling height. It can be concluded that the best performance of Q. castaneifolia seedling occurs at 5 cm sowing depth and 25% canopy cover.

  7. Ion accelerator systems for high power 30 cm thruster operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two and three-grid accelerator systems for high power ion thruster operation were investigated. Two-grid translation tests show that over compensation of the 30 cm thruster SHAG grid set spacing the 30 cm thruster radial plasma density variation and by incorporating grid compensation only sufficient to maintain grid hole axial alignment, it is shown that beam current gains as large as 50% can be realized. Three-grid translation tests performed with a simulated 30 cm thruster discharge chamber show that substantial beamlet steering can be reliably affected by decelerator grid translation only, at net-to-total voltage ratios as low as 0.05.

  8. Eight-cm mercury ion thruster system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The technology status of 8 cm diameter electron bombardment ion thrusters is presented. Much of the technology resulting from the 5 cm diameter thruster has been adapted and improved upon to increase the reliability, durability, and efficiency of the 8 cm thruster. Technology discussed includes: dependence of neutralizer tip erosion upon neutralizer flow rate; impregnated and rolled-foil insert cathode performance and life testing; neutralizer position studies; thruster ion beam profile measurements; high voltage pulse ignition; high utilization ion machined accelerator grids; deposition internal and external to the thruster; thruster vectoring systems; thruster cycling life testing and thruster system weights for typical mission applications.

  9. Titan's surface properties inferred from the seasonal brightness variation at 2-cm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, M.; Le Gall, A.; Lopes, R.; Lorenz, R.; Malaska, M.; Neish, C.; Solomonidou, A.

    2015-10-01

    A comprehensive calibration and mapping of the thermal microwave emission from Titan's surface at 2.2-cm wavelength has been completed by the passive radiometer included in the Cassini RADAR instrument. A seasonal brightness temperature variation has been determined that is comparable to but slightly smaller than that obtained by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). This difference has implications for the composition and structure of Titan's surface; namely, that most of Titan's surface is covered by the deposition and possible redistribution of tholin-like atmospheric photochemical products to a depth of at least a meter.

  10. Depth dependent multiple logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, A. P. S.; Angehrn, J. A.; Dienglewicz, A. M.; Viswanathan, R.

    1985-12-03

    An improved well logging technique is provided for more accurately deriving and correlating a plurality of measurements made during a single traversal of a logging instrument through subsurface formations. In one exemplary embodiment, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving a more accurate and precise measurement of depth at which real-time logging measurements are made, and in particular for correcting anomalies occurring in the depth indication from cable stretch, yo-yo of the sonde in the borehole and the like. The more accurate and precise depth measurement is then utilized for generating well logging measurements on a depth-dependent basis, deriving at least some of such measurements in digital form and alternately transmitting to the surface digital and analog representations of such measurements. Furthermore, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving measurements of subsurface earth formation from a plurality of logging instruments combined in a single tool, wherein such measurements are made during a single pass through a borehole with the resultant measurement data correlatively merged, recorded and displayed.

  11. Rotating drum variable depth sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, Thomas A.; Steeper, Timothy J.

    2008-07-01

    A sampling device for collecting depth-specific samples in silt, sludge and granular media has three chambers separated by a pair of iris valves. Rotation of the middle chamber closes the valves and isolates a sample in a middle chamber.

  12. Perceived depth from shading boundaries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juno; Anstis, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Shading is well known to provide information the visual system uses to recover the three-dimensional shape of objects. We examined conditions under which patterns in shading promote the experience of a change in depth at contour boundaries, rather than a change in reflectance. In Experiment 1, we used image manipulation to illuminate different regions of a smooth surface from different directions. This manipulation imposed local differences in shading direction across edge contours (delta shading). We found that increasing the angle of delta shading, from 0° to 180°, monotonically increased perceived depth across the edge. Experiment 2 found that the perceptual splitting of shading into separate foreground and background surfaces depended on an assumed light source from above prior. Image regions perceived as foreground structures in upright images appeared farther in depth when the same images were inverted. We also found that the experienced break in surface continuity could promote the experience of amodal completion of colored contours that were ambiguous as to their depth order (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the visual system can identify occlusion relationships based on monocular variations in local shading direction, but interprets this information according to a light source from above prior of midlevel visual processing.

  13. Pursuing the Depths of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Today's state literacy standards and assessments demand deeper levels of knowledge from students. But many teachers ask, "What does depth of knowledge look like on these new, more rigorous assessments? How do we prepare students for this kind of thinking?" In this article, Nancy Boyles uses a sampling of questions from the PARCC and SBAC…

  14. Perceived depth from shading boundaries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juno; Anstis, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Shading is well known to provide information the visual system uses to recover the three-dimensional shape of objects. We examined conditions under which patterns in shading promote the experience of a change in depth at contour boundaries, rather than a change in reflectance. In Experiment 1, we used image manipulation to illuminate different regions of a smooth surface from different directions. This manipulation imposed local differences in shading direction across edge contours (delta shading). We found that increasing the angle of delta shading, from 0° to 180°, monotonically increased perceived depth across the edge. Experiment 2 found that the perceptual splitting of shading into separate foreground and background surfaces depended on an assumed light source from above prior. Image regions perceived as foreground structures in upright images appeared farther in depth when the same images were inverted. We also found that the experienced break in surface continuity could promote the experience of amodal completion of colored contours that were ambiguous as to their depth order (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the visual system can identify occlusion relationships based on monocular variations in local shading direction, but interprets this information according to a light source from above prior of midlevel visual processing. PMID:27271807

  15. Constraining the redshifted 21-cm signal with the unresolved soft X-ray background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Cohen, Aviad; Barkana, Rennan; Silk, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    We use the observed unresolved cosmic X-ray background (CXRB) in the 0.5 - 2 keV band and existing upper limits on the 21-cm power spectrum to constrain the high-redshift population of X-ray sources, focusing on their effect on the thermal history of the Universe and the cosmic 21-cm signal. Because the properties of these sources are poorly constrained, we consider hot gas, X-ray binaries and mini-quasars (i.e., sources with soft or hard X-ray spectra) as possible candidates. We find that (1) the soft-band CXRB sets an upper limit on the X-ray efficiency of sources that existed before the end of reionization, which is one-to-two orders of magnitude higher than typically assumed efficiencies, (2) hard sources are more effective in generating the CXRB than the soft ones, (3) the commonly-assumed limit of saturated heating is not valid during the first half of reionization in the case of hard sources, with any allowed value of X-ray efficiency, (4) the maximal allowed X-ray efficiency sets a lower limit on the depth of the absorption trough in the global 21-cm signal and an upper limit on the height of the emission peak, while in the 21-cm power spectrum it sets a minimum amplitude and frequency for the high-redshift peaks, and (5) the existing upper limit on the 21-cm power spectrum sets a lower limit on the X-ray efficiency for each model. When combined with the 21-cm global signal, the CXRB will be useful for breaking degeneracies and helping constrain the nature of high-redshift heating sources.

  16. CM Process Improvement and the International Space Station Program (ISSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Ginny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Configuration Management (CM) process improvements planned and undertaken for the International Space Station Program (ISSP). It reviews the 2004 findings and recommendations and the progress towards their implementation.

  17. Benchmarking and performance analysis of the CM-2. [SIMD computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David W.; Adams, George B., II

    1988-01-01

    A suite of benchmarking routines testing communication, basic arithmetic operations, and selected kernel algorithms written in LISP and PARIS was developed for the CM-2. Experiment runs are automated via a software framework that sequences individual tests, allowing for unattended overnight operation. Multiple measurements are made and treated statistically to generate well-characterized results from the noisy values given by cm:time. The results obtained provide a comparison with similar, but less extensive, testing done on a CM-1. Tests were chosen to aid the algorithmist in constructing fast, efficient, and correct code on the CM-2, as well as gain insight into what performance criteria are needed when evaluating parallel processing machines.

  18. CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Yinjie; Li, Xiran; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI) data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly. PMID:26600125

  19. New results on the ternary fission of 243Cm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyse, J.; Wagemans, C.; Vermote, S.; Serot, O.; Geltenbort, P.; Soldner, T.; Van Gils, J.

    2005-11-01

    Ternary fission is an important source of He and tritium gas in nuclear reactors and used fuel elements. Therefore a systematic study of the ternary fission yields for 4He and tritons (t) is being performed. In recent years the influence of the excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus on the triton emission probability (t/B) has been investigated for different Cm and Cf isotopes. In this paper we report on new results on the neutron induced fission of 243Cm.

  20. CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Yinjie; Li, Xiran; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI) data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly. PMID:26600125

  1. Depth dependence determination of the wedge transmission factor for 4--10 MV photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, E.C.; Gortney, J.; Blackwell, C.R.

    1988-07-01

    The depth dependence (up to 25 cm) of the in-phantom wedge transmission factor (WTF) has been determined for three medical linear accelerator x-ray beams with energies of 4, 6, and 10 MV containing 15/sup 0/--60/sup 0/ (nominal) brass wedges. All measurements were made with a cylindrical ionization chamber in water, for a field size of 10 x 10 cm/sup 2/ with a source--skin distance of 80 or 100 cm. We conclude that, for the accelerators studied, the WTF factor at depth is less than 2% different from that determined at d/sub max/ (for the nominal wedge angles and photon energies studied) unless the depth of interest is greater than 10 cm. Up to the maximum depth studied (25 cm) the relative wedge factor: that is, wedge factor at depth compared to that determined at d/sub max/ : was about equal to or less than 1.02 for the 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/ wedges and any of the photon beam energies studied. For the seldom utilized combination of a nominal wedge angle in excess of 45/sup 0/ with a depth greater than 10 cm, the WTF at depth can differ from the WTF determined at d/sub max/, by up to 5%. Since the wedge transmission factor is reflective of relative percent dose data, our results also indicate that it is in error to use open field percent depth doses for certain combinations of wedge angle, photon energy, and depth.

  2. Depth of soil water uptake by tropical rainforest trees during dry periods: does tree dimension matter?

    PubMed

    Stahl, Clément; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Burban, Benoit; Bréchet, Claude; Bonal, Damien

    2013-12-01

    Though the root biomass of tropical rainforest trees is concentrated in the upper soil layers, soil water uptake by deep roots has been shown to contribute to tree transpiration. A precise evaluation of the relationship between tree dimensions and depth of water uptake would be useful in tree-based modelling approaches designed to anticipate the response of tropical rainforest ecosystems to future changes in environmental conditions. We used an innovative dual-isotope labelling approach (deuterium in surface soil and oxygen at 120-cm depth) coupled with a modelling approach to investigate the role of tree dimensions in soil water uptake in a tropical rainforest exposed to seasonal drought. We studied 65 trees of varying diameter and height and with a wide range of predawn leaf water potential (Ψpd) values. We confirmed that about half of the studied trees relied on soil water below 100-cm depth during dry periods. Ψpd was negatively correlated with depth of water extraction and can be taken as a rough proxy of this depth. Some trees showed considerable plasticity in their depth of water uptake, exhibiting an efficient adaptive strategy for water and nutrient resource acquisition. We did not find a strong relationship between tree dimensions and depth of water uptake. While tall trees preferentially extract water from layers below 100-cm depth, shorter trees show broad variations in mean depth of water uptake. This precludes the use of tree dimensions to parameterize functional models.

  3. Resonance in Optimally Electron-Doped Superconductor Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4−?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jun; Dai, Pengcheng; Li, Shiliang; Freeman, Paul G.; Onose, Y,.; Tokura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We use inelastic neutron scattering to probe magnetic excitations of an optimally electron-doped superconductor Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4− above and below its superconducting transition temperature Tc = 25 K. In addition to gradually opening a spin pseudo gap at the antiferromagnetic ordering wavevector Q = (1/2, 1/2, 0), the effect of superconductivity is to form a resonance centered also at Q = (1/2, 1/2, 0) but at energies above the spin pseudo gap. The intensity of the resonance develops like a superconducting order parameter, similar to those for hole-doped superconductors and electron-doped Pr0.88LaCe0.12CuO4. The resonance is therefore a general phenomenon of cuprate superconductors, and must be fundamental to the mechanism of high-Tc superconductivity.

  4. Substrate effect on in-plane dielectric and microwave properties of Ba(Sn{sub 0.15}Ti{sub 0.85})O{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Song, S.N.; Zhai, J.W. Yao, X.

    2008-08-04

    The microstructure and in-plane dielectric and microwave properties of Barium tin titanate Ba(Sn{sub 0.15}Ti{sub 0.85})O{sub 3} (BTS) thin films grown on (1 0 0) LaAlO{sub 3} and (1 0 0) MgO single-crystal substrates through sol-gel process were investigated. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize crystal structure of phases and microstructure of the thin films, respectively. Microwave properties of the films were measured from 1 to 10 GHz by the interdigital capacitor configuration. The obvious differences in the dielectric and microwave properties are attributed to the stress in the films, which result from the lattice mismatch and difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between the film and substrates. This work clearly reveals the highly promising potential of BTS films for application in tunable microwave devices.

  5. Lorentz microscopy and small-angle electron diffraction study of magnetic textures in L a1 -xS rxMn O3 (0.15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, A.; Nakajima, H.; Harada, K.; Ishii, Y.; Mori, S.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic textures in the ferromagnetic phases of L a1 -xS rxMn O3 for 0.15

  6. The atomic structure and chemistry of Fe-rich steps on antiphase boundaries in Ti-doped Bi{sub 0.9}Nd{sub 0.15}FeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    MacLaren, Ian Craven, Alan J.; Schaffer, Bernhard; Wang, LiQiu; Ramasse, Quentin M.; Kalantari, Kambiz; Reaney, Ian M.

    2014-06-01

    Stepped antiphase boundaries are frequently observed in Ti-doped Bi{sub 0.85}Nd{sub 0.15}FeO{sub 3}, related to the novel planar antiphase boundaries reported recently. The atomic structure and chemistry of these steps are determined by a combination of high angle annular dark field and bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging, together with electron energy loss spectroscopy. The core of these steps is found to consist of 4 edge-sharing FeO{sub 6} octahedra. The structure is confirmed by image simulations using a frozen phonon multislice approach. The steps are also found to be negatively charged and, like the planar boundaries studied previously, result in polarisation of the surrounding perovskite matrix.

  7. Study of the electronic and magnetic properties as a function of isoelectronic substitution in SmFe(1-x)RuxAsO0.85F0.15.

    PubMed

    Simonelli, L; Al-Zein, A; Moretti Sala, M; Joseph, B; Iadecola, A; Bendele, M; Martinelli, A; Palenzona, A; Putti, M; Monaco, G

    2014-02-12

    We have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of SmFe(1-x)RuxAsO0.85F0.15 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.25, 0.33, 0.5) by high-resolution x-ray absorption and x-ray emission spectroscopy. The local Fe magnetic moment (μ) tends to decrease for a small Ru substitution, but it shows a clear increase with further substitution. It appears that impurity scattering prevails in reducing the μ with small Ru substitution due to an extended Ru d-band. A nanoscale phase separation, that decouples the FeAs layers from the spacer layers, drives the increase of μ at higher Ru substitution. The results provide important information on nanoscale phase separation due to isoelectronic substitution in the active layers of iron-based 1111-superconductors and its effect on the local magnetic properties.

  8. Structural and electrical transport properties of La{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.05}K{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} manganites

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, M. W.; Mansuri, I.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2014-04-24

    Polycrystalline sample of single-phase La{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.05}K{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} perovskite compound have been synthesized by solid-state reaction route. X-ray diffraction patterns accompanied by Rietveld–refined crystal structure parameters reveal the rhombohedral structure with space group R 3C. Electrical resistivity infers transition from metallic to insulator phase at 537 K. The application of magnetic field of 8 T, suppresses the resistivity. The metallic resistivity is retraced by considering electron–phonon, electron–electron and electron-spin-fluctuation interactions while insulating behaviour is analysed with small polaron conduction model.

  9. Reverse Monte Carlo analysis of the local order in liquid Ge{sub 0.15}Te{sub 0.85} alloys combining neutron scattering and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Coulet, Marie-Vanessa; Testemale, Denis; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Gaspard, Jean-Pierre; Bichara, Christophe

    2005-11-01

    The structure of liquid Ge{sub 0.15}Te{sub 0.85} alloys that exhibit a density anomaly between 633 K and 733 K at ambient pressure was investigated using x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Ge K edge. Using a reverse Monte Carlo method to combine the present results with neutron scattering data, we show that the volume contraction is associated with an increase of the first neighbor coordination number around both Ge and Te by about one atom. The coordination number of Ge increases from 3{+-}0.3 to 4.1{+-}0.3. These results support an interpretation of the density anomaly in terms of the same Peierls-like distortion mechanism acting in the liquid state and in the neighboring (pure Te and GeTe compound) phases.

  10. Study of the anisotropic dielectric behavior of Rb1-x(NH4)xH2PO4 (x=0.15 and 0.17) mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Keum Hwan; Kwun, Sook-Il; Yoon, Jong-Gul

    2000-07-01

    The complex dielectric constants and polarization of the mixed crystals of Rb1-x(NH4)xH2PO4 (RADP) with x=0.15 and 0.17 have been measured along the tetragonal a and c axes as a function of temperature. Phase coexistence of ferroelectric order and proton glass in RADP can be confirmed from a dielectric dispersion distinguished from the ferroelectric domain wall freezing at low temperature. The dielectric dispersion, which was ascribed to the proton glass state, occurred at much lower temperatures compared to pure proton glass composition. The detection of depolarization after field-cooling or zero-field cooling the sample, showed that the ferroelectric domain and polarization were retained in the glass freezing process. The result is qualitatively consistent with the expectation of the mean-field model in the presence of macroscopic polarization. The phase coexistence may be a common feature of KH2PO4 family mixed crystals.

  11. Superspin glassy behaviour of La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.85}Al{sub 0.15}O{sub 3} thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Manish; Choudhary, R. J. Shukla, D. K.; Phase, D. M.

    2014-07-21

    Here, we present the low temperature magnetic behaviour of epitaxial La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.85}Al{sub 0.15}O{sub 3} (LCMAO) thin film through a series of DC magnetic measurements. Overall behaviour inferred from the magnetization measurements indicate that the magnetic phases created due to Al doping induced inhomogeneous distribution of Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions and oxygen vacancies present in the system act like superspins, and the strong interaction among themselves results in the superspin glassy behaviour. Interactions among the superspins are marked by the aging and zero filed memory effects. The glassy magnetic phase in LCMAO is found to follow the hierarchical model of spin glasses.

  12. The role of the hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p orbitals in the existence of the Griffiths phase in La0.85Ca0.15MnO3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-guang; Shi, Jiang-jian; Li, Yong-tao; Dong, Xue-guang; Ge, Xiao-peng; Liu, Hao; Hou, Qing-teng; Li, Qi; Tang, Yan-kun

    2014-04-01

    Favourable conditions for the existence of the Griffiths phase in the La0.85Ca0.15MnO3 compound are experimentally investigated in terms of electronic and lattice structure by temperature-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy, valence band photoemission spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction experiments. The chemical shifts of Mn L-edge and O K-edge x-ray absorption lines in the Griffiths phase are understood to be related to the hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states instead of the variation of Mn valence states. Valence band spectra also indicate that the hybridization of O 2p with Mn 3d is enhanced in the Griffiths phase. From a 2D diluted Ising ferromagnet model, this hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p orbitals surely enhances the Griffiths phase feature. PMID:24637382

  13. Magnetic susceptibility investigation of Bose-glass state in Ni0.85Cd0.15Cl2-4SC(NH2)2 at ultra-low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Xia, J. S.; Sullivan, N. S.; Zapf, V. S.; Paduan-Filho, A.; Yu, R.; Roscilde, T.

    2012-12-01

    We report measurements of the AC susceptibility of a site-diluted quantum magnet Ni0.85Cd0.15Cl2-4SC(NH2)2 (15% Cd-doped dichloro-tetrakis-thiourea-Nickel, or Cd-DTN) down to 10 mK Below a crossover temperature Tcr ≍ 100 ~ 200mK, we find that the critical fields Hc for Bose-Einstein condensation obey the scaling relation |Hc(T)-Hc(0)| ~ Tα, with a novel and universal scaling exponent α ≍ 0.9, which is in agreement with numerical results from a theoretical model. Our findings provide strong evidence of the existence of a Bose glass phase in Cd-DTN, and they display a quantitative signature of the transition between a Bose glass and a Bose Einstein condensate.

  14. Explosion depths for phreatomagmatic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Greg A.; Graettinger, Alison H.; Sonder, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions can result from the interaction of ascending magma with groundwater. Experiments over a wide range of energies show that for a given energy there is a depth below which an explosion will be contained within the subsurface (not erupt), and there is a corresponding shallower depth that will optimize ejecta dispersal. We combine these relationships with constraints on the energies of phreatomagmatic explosions at maar-diatreme volcanoes and show that most eruptions are likely sourced by explosions in the uppermost ~200 m, and even shallower ones (<100 m) are likely to dominate deposition onto tephra rings. Most explosions below ~200 m will not erupt but contribute to formation of, and to the vertical mixing of materials within, a diatreme (vent structure), with only rare very high energy explosions between ~200 and 500 m erupting. Similar constraints likely apply at other volcanoes that experience phreatomagmatic explosions.

  15. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOEpatents

    Good, Morris S.; Schuster, George J.; Skorpik, James R.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

  16. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    PubMed

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293

  17. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOEpatents

    Good, M.S.; Schuster, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1997-07-08

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part. 12 figs.

  18. A practical block detector for a depth encoding PET camera

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.G.; Moisan, C.; Hoskinson, E.M.; Andreaco, M.S.; Williams, C.W.; Nutt, A.

    1995-10-01

    The depth-of-interaction effect in block detectors degrades the image resolution in commercial PET cameras and impedes the natural evolution of smaller, less expensive cameras. A method for correcting the measured position of each detected gamma ray by measuring its depth-of-interaction was tested and found to recover 38% of the lost resolution in a table-top 50 cm diameter camera. To obtain the desired depth sensitivity, standard commercial detectors were modified by a simple and practical process, which is suitable for mass production of the detectors. The impact of the detector modifications on central image resolution and on the ability of the camera to correct for object scatter were also measured.

  19. Radioactivities vs. depth in Apollo 16 and 17 soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.; D'Amico, J.; Defelice, J.

    1973-01-01

    The radioactivities of Ar-37, Ar-39, and H-3 measured at a number of depths for Apollo 16 and 17 soil are reported. The Ar-37 activities vs depth in the Apollo 16 drill string increased with depth and reached a broad maximum in the neighborhood of 50 g per sq cm before decreasing. The Ar-39 activities in Apollo 17 soil were higher than in Apollo 16 soil, probably owing to the higher Fe and Ti contents. The H-3 activities in Apollo 16 and 17 soil were quite similar and indicate that the 4 August 1972 flare produced very little H-3 compared to the amount produced by solar flares during the previous 50 years.

  20. The effectiveness of cure of LED and halogen curing lights at varying cavity depths.

    PubMed

    Soh, M S; Yap, Adrian U J; Siow, K S

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of cure of two LED (light-emitting diodes) lights (Elipar FreeLight [FL], 3M-ESPE and GC e-Light [EL], GC) to conventional (Max [MX] (control), Dentsply-Caulk), high intensity (Elipar TriLight [TL], 3M-ESPE) and very high intensity (Astralis 10 [AS], Ivoclar Vivadent) halogen lights at varying cavity depths. Ten light curing regimens were investigated. They include: FL1-400 mW/cm2 [40 seconds], FL2-0-400 mW/cm2 [12 seconds] --> 400 mW/cm2 [28 seconds], EL1-750 mW/cm2 [10 pulses x 2 seconds], EL2-350 mW/cm2 [40 seconds], EL3-600 mW/cm2 [20 seconds], EL4-0-600 mW/cm2 [20 seconds] --> 600 mW/cm2 [20 seconds], TL1-800 mW/cm2 [40 seconds], TL2-100-800 mW/cm2 [15 seconds] --> 800 mW/cm2 [25 seconds], AS1-1200 mW/cm2 [10 seconds], MX-400 mW/cm2 [40 seconds]. The effectiveness of cure of the different modes was determined by measuring the top and bottom surface hardness (KHN) of 2-mm, 3-mm and 4-mm thick composite (Z100, [3M-ESPE]) specimens using a digital microhardness tester (n = 5, load = 500 g; dwell time = 15 seconds). Results were analyzed using ANOVA/Scheffe's post-hoc test and Independent Samples t-Test (p < 0.05). For all lights, effectiveness of cure was found to decrease with increased cavity depths. The mean hardness ratio for all curing lights at a depth of 2 mm was found to be greater than 0.80 (the accepted minimum standard). At 3 mm, all halogen lights produced a hardness ratio greater than 0.80 but some LED light regimens did not; and at a depth of 4 mm, the mean hardness ratio observed with all curing lights was less than 0.80. Significant differences in top and bottom KHN values were observed among different curing regimens for the same light and between LED and halogen lights. While curing with most modes of EL resulted in significantly lower top and bottom KHN values than the control (MX) at all depths, the standard mode of FL resulted in significantly higher top and bottom KHN at a depth of 3 mm and 4 mm. The

  1. Cosmological signatures of tilted isocurvature perturbations: reionization and 21cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Silk, Joseph E-mail: hiroyuki.tashiro@asu.edu E-mail: naoshi@nagoya-u.jp

    2014-03-01

    We investigate cosmological signatures of uncorrelated isocurvature perturbations whose power spectrum is blue-tilted with spectral index 2∼depth as a powerful probe of a highly blue-tilted isocurvature primordial power spectrum. We also study the consequences for 21cm line fluctuations due to neutral hydrogens in minihalos. Combination of measurements of the reionization optical depth and 21cm line fluctuations will provide complementary probes of a highly blue-tilted isocurvature power spectrum.

  2. CM Carbonaceous Chondrite Lithologies and Their Space Exposure Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Gregory, Timothy; Takenouchi, Atsushi; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Trieman, Alan; Berger, Eve; Le, Loan; Fagan, Amy; Velbel, Michael; Imae, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The CMs are the most commonly falling C chondrites, and therefore may be a major component of C-class asteroids, the targets of several current and future space missions. Previous work [1] has concluded that CM chondrites fall into at least four distinct cosmic ray space exposure (CRE) age groups (0.1 million years, 0.2 million years, 0.6 million years and greater than 2.0 million years), an unusually large number, but the meaning of these groupings is unclear. It is possible that these meteorites came from different parent bodies which broke up at different times, or instead came from the same parent body which underwent multiple break-up events, or a combination of these scenarios, or something else entirely. The objective of this study is to investigate the diversity of lithologies which make up CM chondrites, in order to determine whether the different exposure ages correspond to specific, different CM lithologies, which permit us to constrain the history of the CM parent body(ies). We have already reported significant petrographic differences among CM chondrites [2-4]. We report here our new results.

  3. Selenographic distribution of apparent crater depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hon, R. A.

    If apparent crater depth is a function of crater diameter, then the frequencies of crater depth and diameter should be similar and the distribution of apparent depths of craters on the lunar surface should be random. Apparent depths of complex craters, which range from 0.2 to 4.3 km on the moon, exhibit little correlation with crater diameters. Crater frequency decreases at increasing diameters, but apparent crater depth displays a Gaussian distribution. The average crater depth for all young craters is 1.8 km. The mean depth of craters on the maria is 1.3 km, and the mean depth of craters on the highlands is 2.1 km. A contour map of apparent crater depths exhibits sufficient organization to suggest that the apparent crater depth is correlated to major lunar provinces. In general, regions of shallow craters are associated with basin interiors. Greater apparent depths are associated with highland terrains.

  4. Factors affecting the accuracy of chest compression depth estimation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung Hee; Cha, Won Chul; Chae, Minjung Kathy; Park, Hang A; Hwang, Sung Yeon; Jin, Sang Chan; Lee, Tae Rim; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Rhee, Joong Eui; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to estimate the accuracy of visual estimation of chest compression depth and identify potential factors affecting accuracy. Methods This simulation study used a basic life support mannequin, the Ambu man. We recorded chest compression with 7 different depths from 1 to 7 cm. Each video clip was recorded for a cycle of compression. Three different viewpoints were used to record the video. After filming, 25 clips were randomly selected. Health care providers in an emergency department were asked to estimate the depth of compressions while watching the selected video clips. Examiner determinants such as experience and cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and environment determinants such as the location of the camera (examiner) were collected and analyzed. An estimated depth was considered correct if it was consistent with the one recorded. A multivariate analysis predicting the accuracy of compression depth estimation was performed. Results Overall, 103 subjects were enrolled in the study; 42 (40.8%) were physicians, 56 (54.4%) nurses, and 5 (4.8%) emergency medical technicians. The mean accuracy was 0.89 (standard deviation, 0.76). Among examiner determinants, only subjects’ occupation and clinical experience showed significant association with outcome (P=0.03 and P=0.08, respectively). All environmental determinants showed significant association with the outcome (all P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that accuracy rate was significantly associated with occupation, camera position, and compression depth. Conclusions The accuracy rate of chest compression depth estimation was 0.89 and was significantly related with examiner’s occupation, camera view position, and compression depth.

  5. Simulating the 21 cm signal from reionization including non-linear ionizations and inhomogeneous recombinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Sultan; Davé, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Santos, Mario G.

    2016-04-01

    We explore the impact of incorporating physically motivated ionization and recombination rates on the history and topology of cosmic reionization and the resulting 21 cm power spectrum, by incorporating inputs from small-volume hydrodynamic simulations into our semi-numerical code, SIMFAST21, that evolves reionization on large scales. We employ radiative hydrodynamic simulations to parametrize the ionization rate Rion and recombination rate Rrec as functions of halo mass, overdensity and redshift. We find that Rion scales superlinearly with halo mass ({R_ion}∝ M_h^{1.41}), in contrast to previous assumptions. Implementing these scalings into SIMFAST21, we tune our one free parameter, the escape fraction fesc, to simultaneously reproduce recent observations of the Thomson optical depth, ionizing emissivity and volume-averaged neutral fraction by the end of reionization. This yields f_esc=4^{+7}_{-2} per cent averaged over our 0.375 h-1 Mpc cells, independent of halo mass or redshift, increasing to 6 per cent if we also constrain to match the observed z = 7 star formation rate function. Introducing superlinear Rion increases the duration of reionization and boosts small-scale 21 cm power by two to three times at intermediate phases of reionization, while inhomogeneous recombinations reduce ionized bubble sizes and suppress large-scale 21 cm power by two to three times. Gas clumping on sub-cell scales has a minimal effect on the 21 cm power. Superlinear Rion also significantly increases the median halo mass scale for ionizing photon output to ˜ 1010 M⊙, making the majority of reionizing sources more accessible to next-generation facilities. These results highlight the importance of accurately treating ionizing sources and recombinations for modelling reionization and its 21 cm power spectrum.

  6. New Development of the Online Integrated Climate-Chemistry model framwork (RegCM-CHEM4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakey, A. S.; Shalaby, A. K.; Solmon, F.; Giorgi, F.; Tawfik, A. B.; Steiner, A. L.; Baklanov, A.

    2012-04-01

    The RegCM-CHEM4 is a new online integrated climate-chemistry model based on the regional climate model (RegCM4). The RegCM4 developed at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), is a hydrostatic, sigma coordinate model. Tropospheric gas-phase chemistry is integrated into the climate model using the condensed version of the Carbon Bond Mechanism CBM-Z with lumped species that represent broad categories of organics based on carbon bond structure. The computationally rapid radical balance method RBM is coupled as a chemical solver to the gas-phase mechanism. Photolysis rates are determined as a function of meteorological and chemical inputs and interpolated from an array of pre-determined values based on the Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible Model (TUV) with cloud cover corrections. Cloud optical depths and cloud altitudes from RegCM-CHEM4 are used in the photolysis calculations, thereby directly coupling the photolysis rates and chemical reactions to meteorological conditions at each model time step. In this study, we evaluate the model over Europe for two different time scales: (1) an event-based analysis of the ozone episode associated with the heat wave of August 2003 and (2) a climatological analysis of a six-year simulation (2000-2005). For the episode analysis, model simulations show a good agreement with the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) observations of hourly ozone over different regions in Europe and capture ozone concentrations during and after the summer 2003 heat wave event. Analysis of the full six years of simulation indicates that the coupled chemistry-climate model can reproduce the seasonal cycle of ozone, with an overestimation of ozone in the non-event years of 5-15 ppb depending on the geographic region. Overall, the ozone and ozone precursor evaluation shows the feasibility of using RegCM-CHEM4 for decadal-length simulations of chemistry-climate interactions.

  7. Growth and Physiological Responses to Water Depths in Carex schmidtii Meinsh

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hong; Liu, Ruiquan; Liu, Zinan; Wang, Xue; Luo, Wenbo; Sheng, Lianxi

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to investigate growth and physiological responses to water depth in completely submerged condition of a wetland plant Carex schmidtii Meinsh., one of the dominant species in the Longwan Crater Lake wetlands (China). Growth and physiological responses of C. schmidtii were investigated by growing under control (non-submerged) and three submerged conditions (5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm water level). Total biomass was highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm treatment and lowest in the other two submerged treatments. Water depth prominently affected the first-order lateral root to main root mass ratio. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity decreased but malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased as water depth increased. The starch contents showed no differences among the various treatments at the end of the experiment. However, soluble sugar contents were highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm and 15 cm treatments and lowest in 25 cm treatment. Our data suggest that submergence depth affected some aspects of growth and physiology of C. schmidtii, which can reduce anoxia damage not only through maintaining the non-elongation strategy in shoot part but also by adjusting biomass allocation to different root orders rather than adjusting root-shoot biomass allocation. PMID:26009895

  8. Growth and Physiological Responses to Water Depths in Carex schmidtii Meinsh.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Liu, Ruiquan; Liu, Zinan; Wang, Xue; Luo, Wenbo; Sheng, Lianxi

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to investigate growth and physiological responses to water depth in completely submerged condition of a wetland plant Carex schmidtii Meinsh., one of the dominant species in the Longwan Crater Lake wetlands (China). Growth and physiological responses of C. schmidtii were investigated by growing under control (non-submerged) and three submerged conditions (5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm water level). Total biomass was highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm treatment and lowest in the other two submerged treatments. Water depth prominently affected the first-order lateral root to main root mass ratio. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity decreased but malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased as water depth increased. The starch contents showed no differences among the various treatments at the end of the experiment. However, soluble sugar contents were highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm and 15 cm treatments and lowest in 25 cm treatment. Our data suggest that submergence depth affected some aspects of growth and physiology of C. schmidtii, which can reduce anoxia damage not only through maintaining the non-elongation strategy in shoot part but also by adjusting biomass allocation to different root orders rather than adjusting root-shoot biomass allocation.

  9. CM-2 Environmental / Modal Testing of Spacehab Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Farkas, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Combined environmental/modal vibration testing has been implemented at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The benefits of combined vibration testing are that it facilitates test article modal characterization and vibration qualification testing. The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS 107 in the SPACEHAB Research Double Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is integrated into a SPACEHAB single and double rack. CM-2 rack level combined vibration testing was recently completed on a shaker table to characterize the structure's modal response and verify the random vibration response. Control accelerometers and limit force gauges, located between the fixture and rack interface, were used to verify the input excitation. Results of the testing were used to verify the loads and environments for flight on the Shuttle.

  10. VLA observations of Uranus at 1. 3-20 cm

    SciTech Connect

    De Pater, I.; Gulkis, S.

    1988-08-01

    Observations of Uranus, obtained with resolution 0.5-1.2 arcsec at wavelengths 1.3, 2, 6, and 20 cm using the A and B configurations of the VLA in June-July 1982, October 1983, and February 1984, are reported. The disk-averaged brightness temperatures (DABTs) are determined by model fitting, and the results are presented in extensive graphs and contour maps and characterized in detail. Findings discussed include: (1) an overall spectrum which is relatively flat above 6 cm, (2) 1.3-6-cm brightness which is concentrated nearer to the pole than to the subsolar point, and (3) small changes in DABT from 1982 to 1983/1984 (consistent with an explanation based on a pole-equator temperature gradient). 16 references.

  11. [Quantitative determination of the depth of edge influence on soil moisture in pepper-forest boundary of Minjiang River upper reaches].

    PubMed

    Li, Liguang; He, Xingyuan; Li, Xiuzhen; Wen, Qingchun

    2006-11-01

    A typical pepper-forest boundary was selected in the arid valley of Minjiang River upper reaches, and the moisture content in 0-15 cm soil layer was determined by time-domain reflectometry (TDR) during drought, after rain, and different seasons. Moving split-window techniques (MSWT) was employed to detect the depth of edge influence (DEI) on soil moisture and its dynamic variation with time. The results showed that the changes of squared Euclidean distance (SED) curve on the graph tended to become stable when the window width reached 8 - 12, and DEI could be detected. The seasonal variation of soil moisture could be divided into three periods, i.e., rising period (January to April), peak period (May to October), and lessen period (November to December). DEI was smaller during drought, and increased after rain. The DEI on soil moisture ranged from 6 m in pepper field to 2 m in forest during drought and from 12 m in pepper field to 2 m in forest after rain, but ranged from 10 m in pepper field to 2 m in forest field within a year. DEI was different in different seasons, and was dynamic. Under such condition of soil moisture, the forest restoration from pepper land and the seedling planting were not ecologically reasonable. Reducing human disturbance and revegetating with natural shrubs and meadows could be more effective for vegetation conservation in the arid valley of Minjiang River upper reaches.

  12. Evidence for live Cm-247 in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatsumoto, M.; Shimamura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Variations of the U-238/U-235 ratio in the Allende meteorite, ranging from -35% to +19% are interpreted as evidence of live Cm-247 in the early solar system. The amounts of these and other r-products in the solar system indicate values of (9000 + or - 3000) million years for the age of the Galaxy and approximately 8 million years for the time between the end of nucleosynthesis and the formation of meteoritic grains. Three possible explanations are presented for the different values of the latter time period which are indicated by the decay of products of Cm-247, Al-27, Pu-244, and I-129.

  13. WSRC Am/Cm Stabilization Program - Cylindrical Induction Melter Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, W.A.

    1999-02-17

    1.1.1 Kilogram quantities of Americium and Curium isotopes (Am/Cm) have been produced at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina. These highly radioactive isotopes have both government and commercial value and are currently stored as a nitric acid solution at the Savannah River Site. The material represents the largest source term in the F canyon at SRS. It is proposed that the Am/Cm material be vitrified to stabilize the material for long term, recoverable storage. This paper reviews the progress made during the process development phase of this program using the Cylindrical Induction Melter.

  14. Precise measurements of primordial power spectrum with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the issue of how precisely we can measure the primordial power spectrum by using future observations of 21 cm fluctuations and cosmic microwave background (CMB). For this purpose, we investigate projected constraints on the quantities characterizing primordial power spectrum: the spectral index n{sub s}, its running α{sub s} and even its higher order running β{sub s}. We show that future 21 cm observations in combinations with CMB would accurately measure above mentioned observables of primordial power spectrum. We also discuss its implications to some explicit inflationary models.

  15. Evidence for live 247Cm in the early solar system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Shimamura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Variations of the 238U/235U ratio in the Allende meteorite, ranging from -35% to + 19%, are interpreted as evidence of live 247Cm in the early Solar System. The amounts of these and other r-products in the Solar System indicate values of (9,000??3,000) Myr for the age of the Galaxy and ??? 8 Myr for the time between the end of nucleosynthesis and the formation of meteoritic grains. Three possible explanations are presented for the different values of the latter time period which are indicated by the decay products of 247Cm, 26Al, 244Pu and 129I. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  16. DEEP 21 cm H I OBSERVATIONS AT z {approx} 0.1: THE PRECURSOR TO THE ARECIBO ULTRA DEEP SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Freudling, Wolfram; Zwaan, Martin; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Meyer, Martin; Catinella, Barbara; Minchin, Robert; Calabretta, Mark; Momjian, Emmanuel; O'Neil, Karen

    2011-01-20

    The 'ALFA Ultra Deep Survey' (AUDS) is an ongoing 21 cm spectral survey with the Arecibo 305 m telescope. AUDS will be the most sensitive blind survey undertaken with Arecibo's 300 MHz Mock spectrometer. The survey searches for 21 cm H I line emission at redshifts between 0 and 0.16. The main goals of the survey are to investigate the H I content and probe the evolution of H I gas within that redshift region. In this paper, we report on a set of precursor observations with a total integration time of 53 hr. The survey detected a total of eighteen 21 cm emission lines at redshifts between 0.07 and 0.15 in a region centered around {alpha}{sub 2000} {approx} 0{sup h}, {delta} {approx} 15{sup 0}42'. The rate of detection is consistent with the one expected from the local H I mass function. The derived relative H I density at the median redshift of the survey is {rho}{sub H{sub I}}[z = 0.125] = (1.0 {+-} 0.3){rho}{sub 0}, where {rho}{sub 0} is the H I density at zero redshift.

  17. Focus cues affect perceived depth

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

    2007-01-01

    Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space. PMID:16441189

  18. Lunar Far Side Regolith Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, G. D.; Melosh, H. J.

    2005-08-01

    The lunar far side contains the South Pole Aitken Basin, which is the largest known impact basin in the solar system, and is enhanced in titanium and iron compared to the rest of the lunar highlands. Although we have known of this enigmatic basin since the 60's, most lunar photography and science covered the equatorial near side where the Apollo spacecraft landed. With NASA's renewed interest in the Moon, the South Pole Aitken Basin is a likely target for future exploration. The regolith depth is a crucial measurement for understanding the source of the surface material in the Basin. On the southern far side of the Moon (20 S, 180 W), near the north edge of the Basin, we determined the regolith depth by examining 11 flat-floored craters about 200 m in diameter. We measured the ratio of the diameter of the flat floor to the diameter of the crater, and used it to calculate the regolith thickness using the method of Quaide and Oberbeck (1968). We used Apollo 15 panoramic images --- still the highest resolution images available for this region of the Moon. We found the regolith depth at that location to be about 40 m. This value is significantly greater than values for the lunar near side: 3 m (Oceanus Procellarum), 16 m (Hipparchus), and 1-10 m at the Surveyor landing sites. The thicker value obtained for the far side regolith is consistent with the older age of the far side. It also suggests that samples returned from the far side may have originated from deeper beneath the surface than their near side counterparts.

  19. Snow Depth Mapping at a Basin-Wide Scale in the Western Arctic Using UAS Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, T.; Marsh, P.; Mann, P.; Walker, B.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing snow depths across the Arctic has proven to be extremely difficult due to the variability of snow depths at scales from metres to 100's of metres. New Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) technology provides the possibility to obtain centimeter level resolution imagery (~3cm), and to create Digital Surface Models (DSM) based on the Structure from Motion method. However, there is an ongoing need to quantify the accuracy of this method over different terrain and vegetation types across the Arctic. In this study, we used a small UAS equipped with a high resolution RGB camera to create DSMs over a 1 km2 watershed in the western Canadian Arctic during snow (end of winter) and snow-free periods. To improve the image georeferencing, 15 Ground Control Points were marked across the watershed and incorporated into the DSM processing. The summer DSM was subtracted from the snowcovered DSM to deliver snow depth measurements across the entire watershed. These snow depth measurements were validated by over 2000 snow depth measurements. This technique has the potential to improve larger scale snow depth mapping across watersheds by providing snow depth measurements at a ~3 cm . The ability of mapping both shallow snow (less than 75cm) covering much of the basin and snow patches (up to 5 m in depth) that cover less than 10% of the basin, but contain a significant portion of total basin snowcover, is important for both water resource applications, as well as for testing snow models.

  20. The Complexity and Challenges of the ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM Transition in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Krive, Jacob; Patel, Mahatkumar; Gehm, Lisa; Mackey, Mark; Kulstad, Erik; Li, Jianrong ‘John’; Lussier, Yves A.; Boyd, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning October 2015, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) will require medical providers to utilize the vastly expanded ICD-10-CM system. Despite wide availability of information and mapping tools for the next generation of the ICD classification system, some of the challenges associated with transition from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM are not well understood. To quantify the challenges faced by emergency physicians, we analyzed a subset of a 2010 Illinois Medicaid database of emergency department ICD-9-CM codes, seeking to determine the accuracy of existing mapping tools in order to better prepare emergency physicians for the change to the expanded ICD-10-CM system. We found that 27% of 1,830 codes represented convoluted multidirectional mappings. We then analyzed the convoluted transitions and found 8% of total visit encounters (23% of the convoluted transitions) were clinically incorrect. The ambiguity and inaccuracy of these mappings may impact the work flow associated with the translation process and affect the potential mapping between ICD codes and CPT (Current Procedural Codes) codes, which determine physician reimbursement. PMID:25863652

  1. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite: Insights into the most primitive CM chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; D'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant

    2015-05-01

    The Paris meteorite is one of the most primitive carbonaceous chondrites. It is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite, and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism. We have analyzed for the first time the amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of this pristine meteorite by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). When plotting the relative amino acids abundances of several CM chondrites according to the increasing hydrothermal scale (petrologic subtypes), from the CM2.7/2.8 Paris to the CM2.0 MET 01070, Paris has the lowest relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine (0.15), which fits with the relative abundances of β-alanine/glycine increasing with increasing aqueous alteration for CM chondrites. These results confirm the influence of aqueous alteration on the amino acid abundances and distribution. The amino acid analysis shows that the isovaline detected in this meteorite is racemic (D/L = 0.99 ± 0.08; L-enantiomer excess = 0.35 ± 0.5%; corrected D/L = 1.03; corrected L-enantiomer excess = -1.4 ± 2.6%). The identified hydrocarbons show that Paris has n-alkanes ranging from C16 to C25 and 3- to 5-ring nonalkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lack of alkylated PAHs in Paris seems to be also related to this low degree of aqueous alteration on its parent body. The extraterrestrial hydrocarbon content, suggested by the absence of any biomarker, may well have a presolar origin. The chemistry of the Paris meteorite may thus be closely related to the early stages of the solar nebula with a contribution from interstellar (molecular cloud) precursors.

  2. Static stereo vision depth distortions in teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, D. B.; Von Sydow, M.

    1988-01-01

    A major problem in high-precision teleoperation is the high-resolution presentation of depth information. Stereo television has so far proved to be only a partial solution, due to an inherent trade-off among depth resolution, depth distortion and the alignment of the stereo image pair. Converged cameras can guarantee image alignment but suffer significant depth distortion when configured for high depth resolution. Moving the stereo camera rig to scan the work space further distorts depth. The 'dynamic' (camera-motion induced) depth distortion problem was solved by Diner and Von Sydow (1987), who have quantified the 'static' (camera-configuration induced) depth distortion. In this paper, a stereo image presentation technique which yields aligned images, high depth resolution and low depth distortion is demonstrated, thus solving the trade-off problem.

  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of chemically and electrochemically Li ion extracted Li{sub y}Co{sub 0.85}Al{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.G.; Yo, C.H.

    1999-08-05

    The local structure refinements for chemically and electrochemically Li ion extracted Li{sub y}Co{sub 0.85}Al{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} compounds have been investigated by Co K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), the 1s {r_arrow} 3d transition at {approximately} 7,709.9 eV and 1s {r_arrow} 4p transition at {approximately} 7,727.8 eV for the pristine LiCo{sub 0.85}Al{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} have shifted effectively to higher energy regions of {approximately} 0.6 eV and {approximately} 2.5 eV for the higher Li ion extraction, respectively, which shows that the average oxidation state of Co ion increases gradually with the extraction. The systematic variations of peak intensities for the 1s {r_arrow} 3d transition and 1s {r_arrow} 4p transition result from Co 3d and 4p orbital mixing by the local structure distortion around Co atoms. In particular, the abrupt decrease of peak intensity for 1s {r_arrow} 4p transition with shakedown process by ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) represents the transfer of the hole state from the oxygen to Co atom and the localization at the Co atomic site as a form of Co{sup IV} ion by structural distortion. The XANES features for the electrochemical extraction have shown that the electrochemical redox reaction is always not reversible in the Li ion extraction/insertion process. From the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) refinement, the interatomic distances of bond pairs decrease for the Li ion extraction. The chemical and electrochemical extractions have a significant effect on Fourier transform (FT) magnitude, which decreases linearly with the extraction. Since single and multiple scatterings with Co atoms have predominantly contributed to the FT magnitudes, the systematic decrease of FT magnitude is closely related to the static disorder of two different oxidative Co{sup III} and Co{sup IV} ions. This fact is consistent with the increase of the Debye-Waller factor for each

  4. Effect of phosphorus additions on the sintering and transport properties of proton conducting BaZr{sub 0.85}Y{sub 0.15}O{sub 3-{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, H.S.; Zhang, X.; Antunes, I.; Frade, J.R.; Mather, G.C.; Fagg, D.P.

    2012-07-15

    The influence of phosphorous additions on the sintering and electrical transport properties of the proton-conducting perovskite BaZr{sub 0.85}Y{sub 0.15}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BZY) has been studied with a view to the use of phosphates as typical dispersants for the formation of stabilised solid suspensions or as possible sintering aids. P{sub 2}O{sub 5} additions, (1-x)BZY{center_dot}xP{sub 2}O{sub 5}, monotonously promote densification in the intermediate compositional range 0.04{<=}x{<=}0.08. Nonetheless, BZY reacts with phosphorous forming the phase Ba{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} at temperatures as low as 600 Degree-Sign C. The associated loss of Ba from the perovskite, leads to a decrease in the perovskite lattice parameter, the formation of yttria-based impurity phases and impaired grain growth. Such reaction has an extremely detrimental effect on bulk and grain boundary conductivities. It is, therefore, vital that the current results are taken into account by the protonics community when attempting to prepare the stabilised solid suspensions of BZY nanopowders required for thin ceramic applications. Alternative dispersants to phosphate esters must be found. - Graphical Abstract: Sintering experiments performed at 1500 Degree-Sign C for 5 h and at 1400 Degree-Sign C for 24 h of (1-x)BaZr{sub 0.85}Y{sub 0.15}O{sub 3-{delta}}{center_dot}xP{sub 2}O{sub 5} in the range x=0-0.10. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P{sub 2}O{sub 5} additions, (1-x)BZY{center_dot}xP{sub 2}O{sub 5}, promote densification in the intermediate compositional range 0.04{<=}x{<=}0.08. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BZY reacts with phosphorous forming the phase Ba{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} at temperatures as low as 600 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detrimental effects on bulk and grain boundary conductivities are shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alternative dispersants to phosphate esters must be found.

  5. A cm scale electret-based electrostatic wind turbine for low-speed energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, M.; Boisseau, S.; Gasnier, P.; Willemin, J.; Geisler, M.; Reboud, J. L.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a small-scale airflow energy harvester built on an axial turbine architecture and exploiting an electret-based electrostatic converter. When the airflow velocity is high enough, the windmill starts rotating and creates a periodic relative motion between a stator and a rotor which induces variations of capacitance. These ones are directly converted into electricity thanks to the use of Teflon electrets charged at -1400 V which polarize the variable capacitors. We focus our study on a 4-blade axial turbine with a diameter of D = 40 mm, a depth of W = 10 mm, for a total volume of 12.6 cm3. This windmill has been tested with various blade angles and different types of electrostatic converters and output powers up to 90 μW at 1.5 m s-1 (7.5 μW cm-3) and 1.8 mW at 10 m s-1 (111 μW cm-3) have been obtained so far. The coefficient of power reaches C p = 5.8% and among the small-scale airflow energy harvesters previously reported, this one has the lowest cut-in speed (1.5 m s-1).

  6. Search for Cm-248 in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavielle, B.; Marti, K.; Pellas, P.; Perron, C.

    1992-01-01

    Possible evidence for the presence of Cm-248 in the early solar system was reported from fission gas studies (Rao and Gopalan, 1973) and recently from studies of very high nuclear track densities (not less than 5 x 10 exp 8/sq cm) in the merrillite of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale (F.V.) (Pellas et al., 1987). We report here an analysis of the isotopic abundances of xenon in F.V. phosphates and results of track studies in phosphate/pyroxene contacts. The fission xenon isotopic signature clearly identifies Pu-244 as the extinct progenitor. We calculate an upper limit Cm-248/Pu-244 to be less than 0.0015 at the beginning of Xe retention in F.V. phosphates. This corresponds to an upper limit of the ratio Cm-248/U-235 of not greater than 5 x 10 exp -5 further constraining the evidence for any late addition of freshly synthesized actinide elements just prior to solar system formation. The fission track density observed after annealing the phosphates at 290C (1 hr, which essentially erases spallation recoil tracks) is also in agreement with the Pu-244 abundance inferred from fission Xe. The spallation recoil tracks produced during the 76 Ma cosmic-ray exposure account for the very high track density in merrillites.

  7. Retrofit and acceptance test of 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Six 30 cm mercury thrusters were modified to the J-series design and evaluated using standardized test procedures. The thruster performance meets the design objectives (lifetime objective requires verification), and documentation (drawings, etc.) for the design is completed and upgraded. The retrofit modifications are described and the test data for the modifications are presented and discussed.

  8. Preparing for ICD-10-CM in physician practices.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Lynn

    2009-08-01

    What will change under CD-10-CM, and what must be done to prepare? This is the year for physician practices to get their ducks in a row: become informed, assess their IT and training needs, and make a plan that leads to the October 1, 2013, deadline.

  9. Calorimetric determination of kQ factors for NE 2561 and NE 2571 ionization chambers in 5 cm × 5 cm and 10 cm × 10 cm radiotherapy beams of 8 MV and 16 MV photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Achim; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter

    2007-10-01

    The relative uncertainty of the ionometric determination of the absorbed dose to water, Dw, in the reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams is in the order of 1.5% and is dominated by the uncertainty of the calculated chamber- and energy-dependent correction factors kQ. In the present investigation, kQ values were determined experimentally in 5 cm × 5 cm and 10 cm × 10 cm radiotherapy beams of 8 MV and 16 MV bremsstrahlung by means of a water calorimeter operated at 4 °C. Ionization chambers of the types NE 2561 and NE 2571 were calibrated directly in the water phantom of the calorimeter. The measurements were carried out at the linear accelerator of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. It is shown that the kQ factor of a single ionization chamber can be measured with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.3%. No significant variations of kQ were found for the different lateral sizes of the radiation fields used in this investigation.

  10. The 21 cm signature of a cosmic string loop

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, Michael; Brandenberger, Robert E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca

    2012-05-01

    Cosmic string loops lead to nonlinear baryon overdensities at early times, even before the time which in the standard LCDM model corresponds to the time of reionization. These overdense structures lead to signals in 21 cm redshift surveys at large redshifts. In this paper, we calculate the amplitude and shape of the string loop-induced 21 cm brightness temperature. We find that a string loop leads to a roughly elliptical region in redshift space with extra 21 cm emission. The excess brightness temperature for strings with a tension close to the current upper bound can be as high as 1deg K for string loops generated at early cosmological times (times comparable to the time of equal matter and radiation) and observed at a redshift of z+1 = 30. The angular extent of these predicted 'bright spots' is x{sup '}. These signals should be detectable in upcoming high redshift 21 cm surveys. We also discuss the application of our results to global monopoles and primordial black holes.

  11. Adaptation of California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Hasan Fehmi; Demirtasli, Nükhet Çikrikçi

    2015-01-01

    Education without doubt, plays a vital role for individuals to gain the essential personal traits of the 21st century, also known as "knowledge age". One of the most important skills among these fundamental qualities which the individuals should be equipped with is critical thinking. California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3 was…

  12. Shallow depth subsurface imaging with microwave holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, Andrei; Ivashov, Sergey; Razevig, Vladimir; Vasiliev, Igor; Bechtel, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, microwave holography is considered as a tool to obtain high resolution images of shallowly buried objects. Signal acquisition is performed at multiple frequencies on a grid using a two-dimensional mechanical scanner moving a single transceiver over an area of interest in close proximity to the surface. The described FFT-based reconstruction technique is used to obtain a stack of plan view images each using only one selected frequency from the operating waveband of the radar. The extent of a synthetically-formed aperture and the signal wavelength define the plan view resolution, which at sounding frequencies near 7 GHz amounts to 2 cm. The system has a short depth of focus which allows easy selection of proper focusing plane. The small distance from the buried objects to the antenna does not prevent recording of clean images due to multiple reflections (as happens with impulse radars). The description of the system hardware and signal processing technique is illustrated using experiments conducted in dry sand. The microwave images of inert anti-personnel mines are demonstrated as examples. The images allow target discrimination based on the same visually-discernible small features that a human observer would employ. The demonstrated technology shows promise for modification to meet the specific practical needs required for humanitarian demining or in multi-sensor survey systems.

  13. Characterization of nano-depth junctions in silicon by using Photo-Carrier Radiometry (PCR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J. A.; Guo, X.; Mandelis, A.; Shaughnessy, D.; Nicolaides, L.; Salnik, A.

    2008-01-01

    Non-contact, non-intrusive Photo-Carrier Radiometry (PCR) was used for monitoring nano-depth junctions in industrial-grade silicon wafers. The silicon wafers were implanted with arsenic to the dose of 5E1014 cm-2. The junction depth was in the 30 nm to 100 nm range. Quantitative results for PCR sensitivity to the junction depth and implantation energies are presented. This laser-based carrier-wave technique monitors harmonically photo-excited and recombining carriers and shows great potential advantages for the characterization of multiple semiconductor processes such as ion implantation, ultra shallow junction (USJ) depth determination and other Si wafer process steps.

  14. Maribo—A new CM fall from Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Henning; Grau, Thomas; Bischoff, Addi; Horstmann, Marian; Wasson, John; Sørensen, Anton; Laubenstein, Matthias; Ott, Ulrich; Palme, Herbert; Gellissen, Marko; Greenwood, Richard C.; Pearson, Victoria K.; Franchi, Ian A.; Gabelica, Zelimir; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Maribo is a new Danish CM chondrite, which fell on January 17, 2009, at 19:08:28 CET. The fall was observed by many eye witnesses and recorded by a surveillance camera, an all sky camera, a few seismic stations, and by meteor radar observatories in Germany. A single fragment of Maribo with a dry weight of 25.8 g was found on March 4, 2009. The coarse-grained components in Maribo include chondrules, fine-grained olivine aggregates, large isolated lithic clasts, metals, and mineral fragments (often olivine), and rare Ca,Al-rich inclusions. The components are typically rimmed by fine-grained dust mantles. The matrix includes abundant dust rimmed fragments of tochilinite with a layered, fishbone-like texture, tochilinite-cronstedtite intergrowths, sulfides, metals, and carbonates often intergrown with tochilinite. The oxygen isotopic composition: (δ17O = -1.27‰; δ18O = 4.96‰; Δ17O = -3.85‰) plots at the edge of the CM field, close to the CCAM line. The very low Δ17O and the presence of unaltered components suggest that Maribo is among the least altered CM chondrites. The bulk chemistry of Maribo is typical of CM chondrites. Trapped noble gases are similar in abundance and isotopic composition to other CM chondrites, stepwise heating data indicating the presence of gas components hosted by presolar diamond and silicon carbide. The organics in Maribo include components also seen in Murchison as well as nitrogen-rich components unique to Maribo.

  15. High e+/e- Ratio Dense Pair Creation with 1021W.cm-2 Laser Irradiating Solid Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, E.; Clarke, T.; Henderson, A.; Fu, W.; Lo, W.; Taylor, D.; Chaguine, P.; Zhou, S.; Hua, Y.; Cen, X.; Wang, X.; Kao, J.; Hasson, H.; Dyer, G.; Serratto, K.; Riley, N.; Donovan, M.; Ditmire, T.

    2015-09-01

    We report results of new pair creation experiments using ~100 Joule pulses of the Texas Petawatt Laser to irradiate solid gold and platinum targets, with intensities up to ~1.9 × 1021 W.cm-2 and pulse durations as short as ~130 fs. Positron to electron (e+/e-) ratios >15% were observed for many thick disk and rod targets, with the highest e+/e- ratio reaching ~50% for a Pt rod. The inferred pair yield was ~ few ×1010 with emerging pair density reaching ~1015/cm3 so that the pair skin depth becomes < pair jet transverse size. These results represent major milestones towards the goal of creating a significant quantity of dense pair-dominated plasmas with e+/e- approaching 100% and pair skin depth ≪ pair plasma size, which will have wide-ranging applications to astrophysics and fundamental physics.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of electron doped La{sub 0.85}Te{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} thin film grown on LaAlO{sub 3} substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Irshad Husain, Shahid; Patil, S. I.; Khan, Wasi; Ali, S. Asad

    2015-06-24

    We report the structural, morphological and magneto-transport properties of electron doped La{sub 0.85}Te{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} (LTMO) thin film grown on (001) LaAlO{sub 3} single crystal substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm that the film has good crystalline quality, single phase, and c-axis orientation. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) results have revealed that the film consists of grains with the average size in a range of 20–30 nm and root-mean square (rms) roughness of 0.27nm. The resistivity versus temperature measurement exhibits an insulator to metal transition (MIT). We have noticed a huge value of magnetoresistance (∼93%) close to MIT in presence of 8T field. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy confirms the electron doping and suggests that Te ions could be in the Te{sup 4+} state, while the Mn ions stay in the Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} valence state.

  17. Uniaxial Fermi-surface nesting and spin-density-wave transition in the heavy-fermion compound Ce(Ru{sub 0.85}Rh{sub 0.15}){sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, S.; Sekine, C.; Yokoyanagi, A.; Hoshi, K.; Onuki, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Resistivity parallel and perpendicular to the tetragonal c axis of the antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion compound Ce(Ru{sub 1{minus}x}Rh{sub x}){sub 2}Si{sub 2} for x=0.15 has been measured in various fields along the c axis of the single crystal. A sharp upturn is observed just below the N{acute e}el temperature T{sub N} only in the parallel direction. This is interpreted in terms of partial gapping of the Fermi surface along the uniaxial c direction. The specific heat and susceptibility below T{sub N} are, respectively, analyzed into two independent contributions in the low-temperature limit: one is an exponential contribution of the gapped part of the Fermi surface with the energy gap about 10 K, and the other is a residual heavy-fermion contribution due to the remaining ungapped part of about 65{percent}. These facts suggest an itinerant spin-density-wave transition based on Fermi-surface nesting in a heavy-electron band. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Evolution of local structures in polycrystalline Zn1−xMgxO (0<=x<=0.15) studied by Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron x-ray pair-distribution-function analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Il; Page, Katharine; Limarga, Andi M.; Clarke, David R.; Seshadri, Ram

    2008-09-18

    The local structures of Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O alloys have been studied by Raman spectroscopy and by synchrotron x-ray pair-distribution-function (PDF) analysis. Within the solid solution range (0 {le} x {le} 0.15) of Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O, the wurtzite framework is maintained with Mg homogeneously distributed throughout the wurtzite lattice. The E{sub 2}{sup high} Raman line of Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O displays systematic changes in response to the evolution of the crystal lattice upon the Mg substitution. The redshift and broadening of the E{sub 2}{sup high} mode are explained by the expansion of hexagonal ab dimensions and compositional disorder of Zn/Mg, respectively. Synchrotron x-ray PDF analyses of Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O reveal that the Mg atoms have a slightly reduced wurtzite parameter u and more regular tetrahedral bond distances than the Zn atoms. For both Zn and Mg, the internal tetrahedral geometries are independent of the alloy composition.

  19. Magnetocaloric effect and the influence of pressure on magnetic properties of La-excess pseudo-binary alloys La1+δ(Fe0.85Si0.15)13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuong, Van Hiep; Do Thi, Kim Anh; Thuan Nguyen, Khac; Le, Van Hong; Nhat Hoang, Nam

    2016-10-01

    The La-excess alloys La1+δ(Fe0.85Si0.15)13 (δ = 0.06 and 0.09) exhibit large magnetocaloric effect which has been attributed to the occurrence of itinerant-electron metamagnetic transition near the Curie temperature TC. The maximum entropy change -ΔSm was shown to be from 4.5 to 11.5 J/kg K for the applied field variation ΔH from 20 to 70 kOe, respectively. The estimated relative cooling power for ΔH = 70 kOe was 418 J/kg. The alloys show a typical NaZn13-type cubic structure, featuring a doping-induced magnetovolume effect with the increase in TC. Under the applied pressure up to 2 GPa, the TC as deduced from resistance measurements decreased linearly, ΔTC = 113 (for δ = 0.06) and 111 K (for δ = 0.09), together with a corresponding decrease of resistivity, Δρ = 6.1 μΩ m at room temperature for both samples. At a low pressure, the effect of spontaneous magnetostriction on TC caused by applying the pressure appeared to have a similar magnitude to that of the negative magnetovolume effect caused by La-excess doping. In comparison with other stoichiometric La(Fe1-xSix)13 compounds, the pressure in our case was shown to have a smaller influence on TC.

  20. A comprehensive study on electrochemical performance of Mn-surface-modified LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 synthesized by an in situ oxidizing-coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bin; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun; Shen, Li; Wang, Jiexi

    2014-04-01

    The degradation of Ni-rich LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode material is successfully suppressed via a facile in situ oxidizing-coating method. KMnO4 is used as not only a Mn source but also an oxidant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) results demonstrate that the structure and morphology of the KMnO4-pretreated sample are the same as the pristine one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms that the valence state of Mn is +4 and the Ni3+ ions are partly reduced to Ni2+ when the material is doped with Mn4+. Besides, the Mn4+ ions are proved to distribute uniformly on the surface of the materials particles through energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and EDS elemental mapping. And it is confirmed that the concentration of Ni in the outer layer is reduced by the Mn-surface-modification. From the electrochemical characterizations, it is confirmed that the presence of tetravalent Mn at the surface can suppress the capacity fading during charge-discharge cycles, even under elevated temperature and overcharge conditions, and can prevent the material from deterioration during storage in air.

  1. Anisotropy of electric resistance and upper critical field in magnetic superconductor Dy0.6Y0.4Rh3.85Ru0.15B4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terekhov, A. V.; Zolochevskii, I. V.; Khristenko, E. V.; Ishchenko, L. A.; Bezuglyi, E. V.; Zaleski, A.; Khlybov, E. P.; Lachenkov, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    We have measured temperature dependencies of the electric resistance R and upper critical magnetic field Hc2 of a magnetic superconductor Dy0.6Y0.4Rh3.85Ru0.15B4. The measurements were made for different angles φ of the magnetic field inclination to the direction of measuring current and revealed strong anisotropy of the behavior of R(T) and the values of Hc2(T). By using the Werthamer-Gelfand-Hohenberg theory, we determined the Maki parameter α and the parameter of the spin-orbital interaction. For φ =0∘ and 90° both parameters are close to zero, thus the magnitude of Hc2(0) ≈ 38 kOe is basically limited by the orbital effect. At φ =45∘ , a large value of α = 4.2 indicates dominating role of the spin-paramagnetic effect in the suppression of Hc2(0) down to 8.8 kOe. We suggest that such behavior of R(T) and Hc2(T) is caused by internal magnetism of the Dy atoms which may strongly depend on the magnetic field orientation.

  2. A microwave-assisted sol-gel Pechini method for the synthesis of BaCe{sub 0.65}Zr{sub 0.20}Y{sub 0.15}O{sub 3-{delta}} powders

    SciTech Connect

    Barison, S.; Fabrizio, M.; Fasolin, S.; Montagner, F.; Mortalo, C.

    2010-09-15

    In this work, BaCe{sub 0.65}Zr{sub 0.20}Y{sub 0.15}O{sub 3-{delta}} powders with a perovskite-type structure were successfully synthesized by a microwave-assisted sol-gel Pechini method (SGP). By comparison, powders having the same nominal stoichiometry were also prepared without the microwave assistance. For the syntheses, nitrates were used as metal precursors, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ethylene glycol were used as complexing and polymerizing agents, respectively. An extensive structural and morphological investigation by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been performed. Moreover, in order to check the phase transitions, simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses were (TG-DTA) performed on gels. With respect to the conventional Pechini method, the microwave-assisted process guaranteed a faster, energy-saving procedure for obtaining single-phase nanopowders of high purity. Moreover, a significant increase in pellet densities was achieved owing to a higher grain coalescence.

  3. Magnetic measurement of RF-induced flux lattice annealing (RIFLA) in the electron-doped superconductor Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4-y.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, W. G.; Gaidos, G.; Wu, G.; Brown, S. E.; Greene, R. L.; Balci, H.

    2007-03-01

    A strained flux lattice (FL) in a superconductor (SC) can be annealed to a lower free energy by the RF-field used to generate an NMR spin-echo signal [W.G. Clark et al., J. Phys. IV Proceedings 9, Pr10-49-52 (1999)]. Here, we report the change in the rf magnetic susceptibility (χ) in the SC phase of a single crystal of Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4-y with a strained FL by successive RIFLA pulses. The distorted FL is prepared by rotating the sample through a small angle in a magnetic field well below the SC transition temperature, leaving the FL pinned in a non-equilibrium configuration. RIFLA pulses then reduce χ, which is measured by the change in the inductance of a coil surrounding the sample using an NMR probe and spectrometer. The interpretation is that shaking the FL by the RF pulses progressively anneals it to a lower free energy configuration, which has a smaller χ. These measurements provide a very sensitive measure of the RIFLA effect. Work at UCLA was supported by NSF Grants DMR-0334869 (WGC) and DMR-0520552 (SEB).

  4. Transonic-Wind-Tunnel Tests of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 0.15-Scale Model of the North American Aviation 255-Inch Fin-Stabilized External Store, Coord No. AF-AM-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischetti, Thomas L.

    1958-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnels on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.15-scale model of the North American Aviation 255-inch fin-stabilized external store over a maximum Mach number range of 0.60 to 1.2 and on the effects of mounting lugs, of fin orientation, of fin aspect ratio, and of fixed-transition. The Reynolds number (based on a body length of 37.50 inches) varied from 9.8 x 10(exp 6) to 13.1 x 10(exp 6). The results indicate that the static margin of the finned store at low lift coefficients was only 9 percent of body length at subsonic Mach numbers and was reduced to zero at a Mach number of 1.0, Increasing the fin aspect ratio from 1.82 to 2.41 increased the subsonic static margin to 18 percent and provided a minimum margin of 9 percent near a Mach number of l.O. Store mounting lugs or fin orientation had only small effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of the basic store.

  5. Inhibition of the hemorrhagic and proteolytic activities of Lansberg's hognose pit viper (Porthidium lansbergii hutmanni) venom by opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) serum: isolation of Didelphis marsupialis 0.15Dm fraction on DEAE-cellulose chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pineda, María E; Girón, María E; Estrella, Amalid; Sánchez, Elda E; Aguilar, Irma; Fernandez, Irma; Vargas, Alba M; Scannone, Héctor; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2008-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed the ability of sera from several mammals to neutralize the toxic effects of snake venom. The Venezuelan opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) is one that has been found to inhibit hemorrhagic and proteolytic activities of venoms from many species of snakes. In this article it is shown that the opossum sera and its 0.15DM fraction were able to completely neutralize both hemorrhagic and hydrolysis (proteolysis) of casein effects induced by venom of the Lansberg's hognose pit viper (Porthidium lansbergii hutmanni). We have used DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography to collect protein fractions from D. marsupialis sera which were able to defend mice from the lethal effects of P.l. hutmanni venom. The fractions separated were homogeneous by conventional electrophoresis using SDS-PAGE. The protein bands obtained contained molecular weights of approximately 6 to 220 kDa. These results revealed the presence of proteases inhibitors in the opossum sera fractions and the inhibition of venom activity by opossum sera suggesting a reciprocal adaptation at the molecular level.

  6. Absence of nematic order in the pressure-induced intermediate phase of the iron-based superconductor B a0.85K0.15F e2A s2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yan; Tam, Pok Man; Hou, Jianqiang; Böhmer, Anna E.; Wolf, Thomas; Meingast, Christoph; Lortz, Rolf

    2016-03-01

    The hole doped Fe-based superconductors B a1-xAxF e2A s2 (where A =Na or K) show a particularly rich phase diagram. It was observed that an intermediate reentrant tetragonal phase, in which the C4 fourfold rotational symmetry is restored, forms within the orthorhombic antiferromagnetically ordered stripe-type spin density wave state above the superconducting transition [S. Avci et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 3845 (2014);, 10.1038/ncomms4845 A. E. Böhmer et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 7911 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms8911]. A similar intermediate phase was reported to appear if pressure is applied to underdoped B a1-xKxF e2A s2 [E. Hassinger et al., Phys. Rev. B 86, 140502(R) (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.140502]. Here we report data of the electric resistivity, Hall effect, specific heat, and the thermoelectric Nernst and Seebeck coefficients measured on a B a0.85K0.15F e2A s2 single crystal under pressure up to 5.5 GPa. The data reveal a coexistence of the intermediate phase with filamentary superconductivity. The Nernst coefficient shows a large signature of nematic order that coincides with the stripe-type spin density wave state up to optimal pressure. In the pressure-induced intermediate phase the nematic order is removed, thus confirming that its nature is a reentrant tetragonal phase.

  7. Development and understanding of La0.85Sr0.15Cr1-xNixO3-δ anodes for La5.6WO11.4-δ-based Proton Conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solís, Cecilia; Navarrete, Laura; Balaguer, María; Serra, José M.

    2014-07-01

    Porous electrodes based on the system La0.85Sr0.15Cr1-xNixO3-δ (x = 0.1 and 0.2) have been investigated as anodes for proton conducting solid oxide fuel cells based on the La5.6WO11.4-δ (LWO) electrolyte material. The microstructure of the anodes was optimized by varying both the starting powder morphology and the final anode sintering temperature. Two different electrode thicknesses were studied, i.e. 15 and 30 μm. The importance of the catalytic role of Ni was also studied by using different concentrations of Ni (10% and 20%) in the chromite and by tuning the Ni particle sizes through the control of the reduction temperature. Additionally, a ceramic-ceramic (cer-cer) composite electrode comprising a physical mixture of the optimized chromite and LWO phase was also considered. Finally, a kinetics study and modeling based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism was carried out in order to quantitatively describe the rate of dissociative adsorption of H2 on the Ni particles spread on the chromite surface.

  8. In-situ Electric Field-Induced Modulation of Photoluminescence in Pr-doped Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hai Ling; Wu, Xiao; Chung, Tat Hang; Kwok, K. W.

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent materials with dynamic photoluminescence activity have aroused special interest because of their potential widespread applications. One proposed approach of directly and reversibly modulating the photoluminescence emissions is by means of introducing an external electric field in an in-situ and real-time way, which has only been focused on thin films. In this work, we demonstrate that real-time electric field-induced photoluminescence modulation can be realized in a bulk Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 ferroelectric ceramic doped with 0.2 mol% Pr3+, owing to its remarkable polarization reversal and phase evolution near the morphotropic phase boundary. Along with in-situ X-ray diffraction analysis, our results reveal that an applied electric field induces not only typical polarization switching and minor crystal deformation, but also tetragonal-to-rhombohedral phase transformation of the ceramic. The electric field-induced phase transformation is irreversible and engenders dominant effect on photoluminescence emissions as a result of an increase in structural symmetry. After it is completed in a few cycles of electric field, the photoluminescence emissions become governed mainly by the polarization switching, and thus vary reversibly with the modulating electric field. Our results open a promising avenue towards the realization of bulk ceramic-based tunable photoluminescence activity with high repeatability, flexible controllability, and environmental-friendly chemical process.

  9. Surface degradation of Li1-xNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes: Correlating charge transfer impedance with surface phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallis, S.; Pereira, N.; Mukherjee, P.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Faenza, N.; Schlueter, C.; Lee, T.-L.; Yang, W. L.; Cosandey, F.; Amatucci, G. G.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2016-06-01

    The pronounced capacity fade in Ni-rich layered oxide lithium ion battery cathodes observed when cycling above 4.1 V (versus Li/Li+) is associated with a rise in impedance, which is thought to be due to either bulk structural fatigue or surface reactions with the electrolyte (or combination of both). Here, we examine the surface reactions at electrochemically stressed Li1-xNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 binder-free powder electrodes with a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, spatially resolving electron microscopy, and spatially averaging X-ray spectroscopy techniques. We circumvent issues associated with cycling by holding our electrodes at high states of charge (4.1 V, 4.5 V, and 4.75 V) for extended periods and correlate charge-transfer impedance rises observed at high voltages with surface modifications retained in the discharged state (2.7 V). The surface modifications involve significant cation migration (and disorder) along with Ni and Co reduction, and can occur even in the absence of significant Li2CO3 and LiF. These data provide evidence that surface oxygen loss at the highest levels of Li+ extraction is driving the rise in impedance.

  10. Optimized structure stability and electrochemical performance of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 by sputtering nanoscale ZnO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yan-Qing; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Zhi-An; Gao, Chun-Hui; Wang, Peng; Yu, Zi-Yang

    2016-03-01

    LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) is one of the most promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles, which is successfully adopted in Tesla. However, the dissolution of the cation into the electrolyte is still a one of the major challenges (fading capacity and poor cyclability, etc.) presented in pristine NCA. Herein, a homogeneous nanoscale ZnO film is directly sputtered on the surface of NCA electrode via the magnetron sputtering (MS). This ZnO film is evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results clearly demonstrate that ZnO film is fully and uniformly covered on the NCA electrodes. After 90 cycles at 1.0C, the optimized MS-2min coated NCA electrode delivers much higher discharge capacity with 169 mAh g-1 than that of the pristine NCA electrode with 127 mAh g-1. In addition, the discharge capacity also reaches 166 mAh g-1 at 3.0C, as compared to that of 125 mAh g-1 for the pristine electrode. The improved electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the superiority of the MS ZnO film that reduce charge transfer resistance and protect the NCA electrode from cation dissolution.

  11. Insights on the fundamental lithium storage behavior of all-solid-state lithium batteries containing the LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode and sulfide electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Gang; Yao, Xiayin; Wan, Hongli; Huang, Bingxin; Yin, Jingyun; Ding, Fei; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2016-03-01

    An insightful study on the fundamental lithium storage behavior of all-solid-state lithium battery with a structure of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA)/Li10GeP2S12/Li-In is carried out in this work. The relationship between electrochemical performances and particle size, surface impurities and defects of the NCA positive material is systematically investigated. It is found that a ball-milling technique can decrease the particle size and remove surface impurities of the NCA cathode while also give rise to surface defects which could be recovered by a post-annealing process. The results indicate that the interfacial resistance between the NCA and Li10GeP2S12 is obviously decreased during the ball-milling followed by a post-annealing. Consequently, the discharge capacity of NCA in the NCA/Li10GeP2S12/Li-In solid-state battery is significantly enhanced, which exhibits a discharge capacity of 146 mAh g-1 at 25 °C.

  12. Effect of substrate and orientation on charge ordering behaviors in epitaxial Pr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.35}Sr{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H. W.; Hu, F. X.; Sun, J. R. E-mail: jrsun@iphy.ac.cn; Wang, C.; Cai, R. S.; Wang, Y. Q. E-mail: jrsun@iphy.ac.cn

    2015-05-07

    The charge ordering (CO) behaviors of Pr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.35}Sr{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} films grown on STO(100), STO(110) and LAO(100) are systematically investigated by transport measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations. From the transport measurements, the CO transition temperatures of all the three films are much higher than those of the bulk materials, showing that the film strain could enhance the CO transition. From TEM observations, many superlattice spots appear in the electron diffraction patterns taken from the films, indicating the appearance of the CO modulation structures at room temperature. The modulation vectors are determined to be (1/2, 0, 0) for STO (100), (1/2, 1/2, 1/2) for STO (110), and both (0, 1/2, 0) and (1/2, 1/2, 0) for LAO (100). It is shown that both the substrate orientation and the film strain have a great effect on the CO modulation structures. The CO state is much easier to appear in the compressive strain direction which is due to the Mn-O-Mn angle tilting.

  13. In-situ Electric Field-Induced Modulation of Photoluminescence in Pr-doped Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hai Ling; Wu, Xiao; Chung, Tat Hang; Kwok, K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Luminescent materials with dynamic photoluminescence activity have aroused special interest because of their potential widespread applications. One proposed approach of directly and reversibly modulating the photoluminescence emissions is by means of introducing an external electric field in an in-situ and real-time way, which has only been focused on thin films. In this work, we demonstrate that real-time electric field-induced photoluminescence modulation can be realized in a bulk Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 ferroelectric ceramic doped with 0.2 mol% Pr3+, owing to its remarkable polarization reversal and phase evolution near the morphotropic phase boundary. Along with in-situ X-ray diffraction analysis, our results reveal that an applied electric field induces not only typical polarization switching and minor crystal deformation, but also tetragonal-to-rhombohedral phase transformation of the ceramic. The electric field-induced phase transformation is irreversible and engenders dominant effect on photoluminescence emissions as a result of an increase in structural symmetry. After it is completed in a few cycles of electric field, the photoluminescence emissions become governed mainly by the polarization switching, and thus vary reversibly with the modulating electric field. Our results open a promising avenue towards the realization of bulk ceramic-based tunable photoluminescence activity with high repeatability, flexible controllability, and environmental-friendly chemical process. PMID:27339815

  14. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 0.85}(Na{sub 1−x}K{sub x}){sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} ceramics produced by reactive spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Regaieg, Y.; Sicard, L.; Ammar-Merah, S.; Monnier, J.; Koubaa, M.; Cheikhrouhou, A.

    2014-05-07

    La{sub 0.85}(Na{sub 1−x}K{sub x}){sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) ceramics were synthesized from the raw La(OH){sub 3}, NaOH, KOH, and MnO{sub 2} powders using Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering. All the compounds were obtained as pure, dense, and ultrafine grained pellets. The Rietveld refinement of the X-Ray powder diffraction shows that all our synthesized samples are single phase and crystallize in the distorted rhombohedral system with R-3c space group. The thermal variation of their magnetization under a magnetic applied field of 50 mT shows a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition at a Curie temperature very close to room temperature. The magnetic entropy change, deduced from magnetization measurements versus magnetic applied field up to 5 T at several temperatures exhibits a maximum |ΔS{sub M}|{sub max} which slightly increases with increasing K content. The relative cooling power values, inferred from the |ΔS{sub M}| vs T peak broadening, vary slightly with the potassium content, reaching, values between 316 and 289 Jkg{sup −1}, in an applied magnetic field of 5 T, when x increases from 0 to 1. Technically, these large values make the prepared materials very promising for domestic magnetic refrigeration.

  15. AC Impedance Behavior of LaNi3.55Mn0.4Al0.3Co0.6Fe0.15 Hydrogen-Storage Alloy: Effect of Surface Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tliha, M.; Khaldi, C.; Lamloumi, J.

    2016-04-01

    The decrease of Cobalt content in alloy is very beneficial to reduce the production cost of the alloy, whereas the effect of Co on cycle life of the AB5-type hydrogen-storage alloys is extremely important. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate low-Co and/or Co-free AB5-type alloys in which Co was substituted by other elements. Iron is a key element in the development of low-Co AB5-type alloys. The aim of this work is to systematically investigate the effect of the real surface area on the all kinetic properties of a low-Co LaNi3.55Mn0.4Al0.3Co0.6Fe0.15 alloy under cycling using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. All kinetic properties of the electrode, such as exchange density, limiting current density, high-rate charge/discharge ability, cycle life time, electrocatalytic activity, and diffusion rate are related to the real surface area. During the EIS analysis, interestingly, we found that with increasing number of charge/discharge cycles, the metal hydride alloy powders undergo micro-cracking into smaller particles, and thus the real surface area of the alloy increases, which then influences the kinetic properties of the electrode reactions.

  16. A study of surface film formation on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes u sing attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, S.-W.; Zhuang, G.V.; Ross Jr., P.N.

    2004-01-19

    The surface films formed on commercial LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes (ATD Gen2) charged from 3.75V to 4.2V vs. Li/Li+ in EC:DEC - 1M LiPF6 were analyzed using ex-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with the attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique. A surface layer of Li2CO3 is present on the virgin cathode, probably from reaction of the active material with air during the cathode preparation procedure. The Li2CO3 layer disappeared even after soaking in the electrolyte, indicating that the layer dissolved into the electrolyte possibly even before potential cycling of the electrode. IR features only from the binder (PVdF) and a trace of polyamide from the Al current collector were observed on the surfaces of cathodes charged to below 4.2 V, i.e., no surface species from electrolyte oxidation. Some new IR features were, however, found on the cathode charged to 4.2 V and higher. An electrolyte oxidation product was observed that appeared to contain dicarbonyl anhydride and (poly)ester functionalities. The reaction appears to be an indirect electrochemical oxidation with overcharging (removal of > 0.6 Li ions) destabilizing oxygen in the oxide lattice resulting in oxygen transfer to the solvent molecules.

  17. Superconducting properties of single crystalline FeTe{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} (x = 0, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35, 0.40 and 0.50)

    SciTech Connect

    Sudesh,; Kumar, R.; Varma, G. D.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper we have grown single crystalline samples of Se-doped FeTe compound using self-flux technique and studied the structural and electrical transport properties of the as-grown crystals. The samples have been grown with compositions FeTe{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} (x = 0, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35, 0.40 and 0.50). The as-grown samples are then investigated for their structural and superconducting properties by means of X-ray diffraction and physical property measurements. The XRD results of powdered samples reveal a single (tetragonal) phase with space group symmetry P4/nmm for all the samples. The lattice parameters are observed to reduce with increase of Se-doping at Te-site. Highest H{sub c2}(0) (∼180 T) value has been observed for FeTe{sub 0.5}Se{sub 0.5} sample.

  18. NMR evidence of LiF coating rather than fluorine substitution in Li(Ni{sub 0.425}Mn{sub 0.425}Co{sub 0.15})O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Menetrier, M.; Bains, J.; Croguennec, L. Flambard, A.; Bekaert, E.; Jordy, C.; Biensan, Ph.; Delmas, C.

    2008-12-15

    A series of 'Li{sub 1+z/2}(Ni{sub 0.425}Mn{sub 0.425}Co{sub 0.15}){sub 1-z/2}O{sub 2-z}F{sub z}' materials was prepared by a coprecipitation route and their structure was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), as well as {sup 7}Li and {sup 19}F Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Two hypotheses were considered: (i) formation of layered oxyfluoride materials and (ii) formation of a mixture between the layered material and LiF. Structural parameters were refined by the Rietveld method, using XRD diffraction data. The refinement results did not allow us to choose between these two hypotheses: no significant change in crystallinity and structural parameters was observed irrespective of the fluorine ratio. {sup 7}Li and {sup 19}F MAS NMR analyses showed signals with isotropic positions characteristic of LiF, but envelopes characteristic of very strong dipolar interactions with the electron spins of the material, demonstrating that LiF was not incorporated into the layered oxide structure but was instead present as a coating. - Graphical abstract: {sup 7}Li and {sup 19}F MAS NMR show signals with isotropic positions characteristic of LiF, but with spinning sidebands envelopes characteristic of very strong dipolar interactions with the electron spins of the layered oxide, demonstrating that F is not a part of the material but is present as an LiF coating.

  19. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.9-xZr0.1CuxO3 ceramics synthesized by a hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunpratub, Sitchai; Phokha, Sumalin; Maensiri, Santi; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2016-04-01

    Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.9Zr0.1-xCuxO3 (BCTZC) nanopowders were synthesized using a hydrothermal method after which they were pressed into discs and sintered in air at 1300 °C for 3 h to form ceramic samples. The phase and microstructure of the powder and ceramic samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results indicated that the ceramic samples exhibited a tetragonal structure and that CuO, BaZrO3 or CaTiO3 impurity phases, which had been present in the powder samples, were not observed. The average grain sizes in the ceramic samples were found to be 17.0, 16.1, 20.0, 18.1 and 19.6 μm for Cu mole fractions x of 0.002, 0.004, 0.006, 0.008 and 0.01, respectively. The dielectric constants, ferroelectric hysteresis loops and piezoelectric charge coefficients of the BCZTC ceramic samples were also investigated. Optimum values for the relative dielectric constant (ɛ‧), tan δ and piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) of the samples were 3830, 0.03 and 306 pC/N, respectively, in the Cu mole fraction samples with x = 0.002.

  20. Atomic resolution imaging of oxygen atoms close to heavy atoms by HRTEM and ED, using the superconductor SmFeAsO0.85F0.15 as an example.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yumei; Ge, Binghui; Che, Guangcan

    2015-04-01

    Imaging of light atoms has always been a challenge in high-resolution electron microscopy. Image resolution is mainly limited by lens aberrations, especially the spherical aberration of the objective lens. Image deconvolution could correct for the image distortion by lens aberrations and restore the structure projection, the resolution of which is limited by the information limit of the microscope. Electron diffraction unrestricted by lens aberrations could overcome this resolution limit. Here we show a combination of electron diffraction and image deconvolution to reveal simultaneously the atomic columns of O and considerably heavier Sm at a very close distance (1.17 Å) in iron-based superconductor SmFeAsO0.85F0.15 using a conventional 200 kV electron microscope. The approach used here, starting from an image and an electron diffraction pattern, has an advantage for those radiation-sensitive samples. Besides, it can be applied to simultaneously imaging light and heavy atoms, even though they have a big difference in atomic number and a much smaller atomic distance than the microscope resolution.

  1. The Paris meteorite, the least altered CM chondrite so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, Roger H.; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Zanda, Brigitte; Leroux, Hugues; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Humayun, Munir; Göpel, Christa; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Pont, Sylvain; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Cournède, Cécile; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Rochette, Pierre; Kuga, Maïa; Marrocchi, Yves; Marty, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The Paris chondrite provides an excellent opportunity to study CM chondrules and refractory inclusions in a more pristine state than currently possible from other CMs, and to investigate the earliest stages of aqueous alteration captured within a single CM bulk composition. It was found in the effects of a former colonial mining engineer and may have been an observed fall. The texture, mineralogy, petrography, magnetic properties and chemical and isotopic compositions are consistent with classification as a CM2 chondrite. There are ∼45 vol.% high-temperature components mainly Type I chondrules (with olivine mostly Fa0-2, mean Fa0.9) with granular textures because of low mesostasis abundances. Type II chondrules contain olivine Fa7 to Fa76. These are dominantly of Type IIA, but there are IIAB and IIB chondrules, II(A)B chondrules with minor highly ferroan olivine, and IIA(C) with augite as the only pyroxene. The refractory inclusions in Paris are amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) and fine-grained spinel-rich Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). The CAI phases formed in the sequence hibonite, perovskite, grossite, spinel, gehlenite, anorthite, diopside/fassaite and forsterite. The most refractory phases are embedded in spinel, which also occurs as massive nodules. Refractory metal nuggets are found in many CAI and refractory platinum group element abundances (PGE) decrease following the observed condensation sequences of their host phases. Mn-Cr isotope measurements of mineral separates from Paris define a regression line with a slope of 53Mn/55Mn = (5.76 ± 0.76) × 106. If we interpret Cr isotopic systematics as dating Paris components, particularly the chondrules, the age is 4566.44 ± 0.66 Myr, which is close to the age of CAI and puts new constraints on the early evolution of the solar system. Eleven individual Paris samples define an O isotope mixing line that passes through CM2 and CO3 falls and indicates that Paris is a very fresh sample, with variation explained

  2. The 12 micron band of ethane: A spectral catalog from 765 cm(-1) to 900 cm(-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atakan, A. K.; Blass, W. E.; Brault, J. W.; Daunt, S. J.; Halsey, G. W.; Jennings, D. E.; Reuter, D. C.; Susskind, J.

    1983-01-01

    The high resolution laboratory absorption spectrum of the 12 micro band of ethane gas is studied. The data were obtained using the McMath Solar Telescope 1 meter Fourier Transform interferometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory and tunable diode laser spectrometers at the University of Tennessee and NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Over 200 individual vibration rotation transitions were analyzed taking into account many higher order effects including torsional splitting. Line positions were reproduced to better than 0.001/cm. Both ground and upper state molecular constants were determined in the analysis. The experimental details, the analysis procedures and the results are addressed. A list of ethane transitions occurring near (14)CO2 laser lines needed for heterodyne searches for C2H6 in extraterrestrial sources is also included. A spectral catalog of the ethane nu sub g fundamental from 765/cm to 900/cm is provided. A high dispersion (1/cm 12 in.) plot of both the Kitt Peak interferometric data and a simulated spectrum with Doppler limited resolution, a table of over 8500 calculated transitions listed quantum number assignments, frequencies and intensities are provided.

  3. Foundation Depth for Bridge Piers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerappadevaru, G.; Gangadharaiah, T.; Jagadeesh, T. R.

    2013-09-01

    The safety of bridge piers built in rivers having the bed is one of the prime aspects in the study of scouring process around bridge piers. The stability of bridge piers depends on the depth of foundation provided below maximum scour level. The stability analysis of bridge piers is carried based on moment of forces acting on the caisson pier when the pier slides and tilts slightly in downstream from its position. The experiments are conducted for three pier shapes on two sediment beds and for different flow conditions. The curves indicating the stability limits are compared with Lacey's recommendations which are used in present day practice in India. The analysis presented here indicates that the Lacey's recommendation for railway bridges is safe and for some cases of the road bridges depends on grip length, angle of tilt and weight of caisson.

  4. Aeration equipment for small depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluše, Jan; Pochylý, František

    2015-05-01

    Deficit of air in water causes complications with cyanobacteria mainly in the summer months. Cyanobacteria is a bacteria that produces poison called cyanotoxin. When the concentration of cyanobacteria increases, the phenomena "algal bloom" appears, which is very toxic and may kill all the organisms. This article describes new equipment for aeration of water in dams, ponds and reservoirs with small depth. This equipment is mobile and it is able to work without any human factor because its control is provided by a GPS module. The main part of this equipment consists of a floating pump which pumps water from the surface. Another important part of this equipment is an aerator where water and air are blended. Final aeration process runs in the nozzles which provide movement of all this equipment and aeration of the water. Simulations of the flow are solved by multiphase flow with diffusion in open source program called OpenFOAM. Results will be verified by an experiment.

  5. Development of a 60 cm Magnetic Suspension System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Hideo; Kunimasu, Tetsuya

    A 60cm Magnetic Suspension Balance System (MSBS), which has been developed in the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL), is described in detail. Magnetic field in the MSBS is evaluated analytically and is compared with measured one. Available magnet kinds for the MSBS are selected analytically. The optimum ratio of diameter to length of cylindrical magnet for the MSBS is also evaluated. A model position sensing and the control systems are described with calibration test results. A model holding system is also shown, which is necessary for worker’s safety at suspending a large and massive model. The control system is presented and the measured model position during suspension is examined. The balance accuracy is examined and its error of drag force can be improved by restricting the calibration test to an expected drag range. Flow of the 60cm low-speed wind tunnel equipped with the MSBS is examined to be available for wind tunnel tests.

  6. Precision measurement of cosmic magnification from 21 cm emitting galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengjie; Pen, Ue-Li; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.

    2005-04-01

    We show how precision lensing measurements can be obtained through the lensing magnification effect in high redshift 21cm emission from galaxies. Normally, cosmic magnification measurements have been seriously complicated by galaxy clustering. With precise redshifts obtained from 21cm emission line wavelength, one can correlate galaxies at different source planes, or exclude close pairs to eliminate such contaminations. We provide forecasts for future surveys, specifically the SKA and CLAR. SKA can achieve percent precision on the dark matter power spectrum and the galaxy dark matter cross correlation power spectrum, while CLAR can measure an accurate cross correlation power spectrum. The neutral hydrogen fraction was most likely significantly higher at high redshifts, which improves the number of observed galaxies significantly, such that also CLAR can measure the dark matter lensing power spectrum. SKA can also allow precise measurement of lensing bispectrum.

  7. Lensing of 21-cm fluctuations by primordial gravitational waves.

    PubMed

    Book, Laura; Kamionkowski, Marc; Schmidt, Fabian

    2012-05-25

    Weak-gravitational-lensing distortions to the intensity pattern of 21-cm radiation from the dark ages can be decomposed geometrically into curl and curl-free components. Lensing by primordial gravitational waves induces a curl component, while the contribution from lensing by density fluctuations is strongly suppressed. Angular fluctuations in the 21-cm background extend to very small angular scales, and measurements at different frequencies probe different shells in redshift space. There is thus a huge trove of information with which to reconstruct the curl component of the lensing field, allowing tensor-to-scalar ratios conceivably as small as r~10(-9)-far smaller than those currently accessible-to be probed. PMID:23003237

  8. POLYSHIFT Communications Software for the Connection Machine System CM-200

    DOE PAGES

    George, William; Brickner, Ralph G.; Johnsson, S. Lennart

    1994-01-01

    We describe the use and implementation of a polyshift function PSHIFT for circular shifts and end-offs shifts. Polyshift is useful in many scientific codes using regular grids, such as finite difference codes in several dimensions, and multigrid codes, molecular dynamics computations, and in lattice gauge physics computations, such as quantum chromodynamics (QCD) calculations. Our implementation of the PSHIFT function on the Connection Machine systems CM-2 and CM-200 offers a speedup of up to a factor of 3–4 compared with CSHIFT when the local data motion within a node is small. The PSHIFT routine is included in the Connection Machine Scientificmore » Software Library (CMSSL).« less

  9. 21 cm cosmology in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jonathan R; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-08-01

    Imaging the Universe during the first hundreds of millions of years remains one of the exciting challenges facing modern cosmology. Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line of atomic hydrogen offer the potential of opening a new window into this epoch. This will transform our understanding of the formation of the first stars and galaxies and of the thermal history of the Universe. A new generation of radio telescopes is being constructed for this purpose with the first results starting to trickle in. In this review, we detail the physics that governs the 21 cm signal and describe what might be learnt from upcoming observations. We also generalize our discussion to intensity mapping of other atomic and molecular lines.

  10. 21 cm cosmology in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jonathan R; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-08-01

    Imaging the Universe during the first hundreds of millions of years remains one of the exciting challenges facing modern cosmology. Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line of atomic hydrogen offer the potential of opening a new window into this epoch. This will transform our understanding of the formation of the first stars and galaxies and of the thermal history of the Universe. A new generation of radio telescopes is being constructed for this purpose with the first results starting to trickle in. In this review, we detail the physics that governs the 21 cm signal and describe what might be learnt from upcoming observations. We also generalize our discussion to intensity mapping of other atomic and molecular lines. PMID:22828208

  11. SU-E-J-197: Investigation of Microsoft Kinect 2.0 Depth Resolution for Patient Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, E; Snyder, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Investigate the use of the Kinect 2.0 for patient motion tracking during radiotherapy by studying spatial and depth resolution capabilities. Methods: Using code written in C#, depth map data was abstracted from the Kinect to create an initial depth map template indicative of the initial position of an object to be compared to the depth map of the object over time. To test this process, simple setup was created in which two objects were imaged: a 40 cm × 40 cm board covered in non reflective material and a 15 cm × 26 cm textbook with a slightly reflective, glossy cover. Each object, imaged and measured separately, was placed on a movable platform with object to camera distance measured. The object was then moved a specified amount to ascertain whether the Kinect’s depth camera would visualize the difference in position of the object. Results: Initial investigations have shown the Kinect depth resolution is dependent on the object to camera distance. Measurements indicate that movements as small as 1 mm can be visualized for objects as close as 50 cm away. This depth resolution decreases linearly with object to camera distance. At 4 m, the depth resolution had decreased to observe a minimum movement of 1 cm. Conclusion: The improved resolution and advanced hardware of the Kinect 2.0 allows for increase of depth resolution over the Kinect 1.0. Although obvious that the depth resolution should decrease with increasing distance from an object given the decrease in number of pixels representing said object, the depth resolution at large distances indicates its usefulness in a clinical setting.

  12. OH 18 cm TRANSITION AS A THERMOMETER FOR MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Ebisawa, Yuji; Inokuma, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sakai, Nami; Menten, Karl M.; Maezawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-10

    We have observed the four hyperfine components of the 18 cm OH transition toward the translucent cloud eastward of Heiles Cloud 2 (HCL2E), the cold dark cloud L134N, and the photodissociation region of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. We have found intensity anomalies among the hyperfine components in all three regions. In particular, an absorption feature of the 1612 MHz satellite line against the cosmic microwave background has been detected toward HCL2E and two positions of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud. On the basis of statistical equilibrium calculations, we find that the hyperfine anomalies originate from the non-LTE population of the hyperfine levels, and can be used to determine the kinetic temperature of the gas over a wide range of H{sub 2} densities (10{sup 2}–10{sup 7} cm{sup −3}). Toward the center of HCL2E, the gas kinetic temperature is determined to be 53 ± 1 K, and it increases toward the cloud peripheries (∼60 K). The ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} is determined to be 3.5 ± 0.9 from the averaged spectrum for the eight positions. In L134N, a similar increase of the temperature is also seen toward the periphery. In the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud, the gas kinetic temperature decreases as a function of the distance from the exciting star HD 147889. These results demonstrate a new aspect of the OH 18 cm line that can be used as a good thermometer of molecular cloud envelopes. The OH 18 cm line can be used to trace a new class of warm molecular gas surrounding a molecular cloud, which is not well traced by the emission of CO and its isotopologues.

  13. OH 18 cm Transition as a Thermometer for Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, Yuji; Inokuma, Hiroshi; Sakai, Nami; Menten, Karl M.; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    We have observed the four hyperfine components of the 18 cm OH transition toward the translucent cloud eastward of Heiles Cloud 2 (HCL2E), the cold dark cloud L134N, and the photodissociation region of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. We have found intensity anomalies among the hyperfine components in all three regions. In particular, an absorption feature of the 1612 MHz satellite line against the cosmic microwave background has been detected toward HCL2E and two positions of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud. On the basis of statistical equilibrium calculations, we find that the hyperfine anomalies originate from the non-LTE population of the hyperfine levels, and can be used to determine the kinetic temperature of the gas over a wide range of H2 densities (102-107 cm-3). Toward the center of HCL2E, the gas kinetic temperature is determined to be 53 ± 1 K, and it increases toward the cloud peripheries (˜60 K). The ortho-to-para ratio of H2 is determined to be 3.5 ± 0.9 from the averaged spectrum for the eight positions. In L134N, a similar increase of the temperature is also seen toward the periphery. In the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud, the gas kinetic temperature decreases as a function of the distance from the exciting star HD 147889. These results demonstrate a new aspect of the OH 18 cm line that can be used as a good thermometer of molecular cloud envelopes. The OH 18 cm line can be used to trace a new class of warm molecular gas surrounding a molecular cloud, which is not well traced by the emission of CO and its isotopologues.

  14. Control of a 30 cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terdan, F. F.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Control logic functions were established for three automatic modes of operation of a 30-cm thruster using a power conditioner console with flight-like characteristics. The three modes provide: (1) automatic startup to reach thermal stability, (2) steady-state closed-loop control, and (3) the reliable recycling of the high voltages following an arc breakdown to reestablish normal operation. Power supply impedance characteristics necessary for stable operation and the effect of the magnetic baffle on the reliable recycling was studied.

  15. Semi-Lagrangian shallow water modeling on the CM-5

    SciTech Connect

    Nadiga, B.T.; Margolin, L.G.; Smolarkiewicz, P.K.

    1995-09-01

    We discuss the parallel implementation of a semi-Lagrangian shallow-water model on the massively parallel Connection Machine CM-5. The four important issues we address in this article are (i) two alternative formulations of the elliptic problem and their relative efficiencies, (ii) the performance of two successive orders of a generalized conjugate residual elliptic solver, (iii) the time spent in unstructured communication -- an unavoidable feature of semi-Lagrangian schemes, and (iv) the scalability of the algorithm.

  16. The future of primordial features with 21 cm tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xingang; Meerburg, P. Daniel; Münchmeyer, Moritz

    2016-09-01

    Detecting a deviation from a featureless primordial power spectrum of fluctuations would give profound insight into the physics of the primordial Universe. Depending on their nature, primordial features can either provide direct evidence for the inflation scenario or pin down details of the inflation model. Thus far, using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) we have only been able to put stringent constraints on the amplitude of features, but no significant evidence has been found for such signals. Here we explore the limit of the experimental reach in constraining such features using 21 cm tomography at high redshift. A measurement of the 21 cm power spectrum from the Dark Ages is generally considered as the ideal experiment for early Universe physics, with potentially access to a large number of modes. We consider three different categories of theoretically motivated models: the sharp feature models, resonance models, and standard clock models. We study the improvements on bounds on features as a function of the total number of observed modes and identify parameter degeneracies. The detectability depends critically on the amplitude, frequency and scale-location of the features, as well as the angular and redshift resolution of the experiment. We quantify these effects by considering different fiducial models. Our forecast shows that a cosmic variance limited 21 cm experiment measuring fluctuations in the redshift range 30 <= z <= 100 with a 0.01-MHz bandwidth and sub-arcminute angular resolution could potentially improve bounds by several orders of magnitude for most features compared to current Planck bounds. At the same time, 21 cm tomography also opens up a unique window into features that are located on very small scales.

  17. The 21 cm signature of cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Danos, Rebecca J.; Hernández, Oscar F.; Holder, Gilbert P. E-mail: rjdanos@physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: holder@physics.mcgill.ca

    2010-12-01

    We discuss the signature of a cosmic string wake in 21cm redshift surveys. Since 21cm surveys probe higher redshifts than optical large-scale structure surveys, the signatures of cosmic strings are more manifest in 21cm maps than they are in optical galaxy surveys. We find that, provided the tension of the cosmic string exceeds a critical value (which depends on both the redshift when the string wake is created and the redshift of observation), a cosmic string wake will generate an emission signal with a brightness temperature which approaches a limiting value which at a redshift of z+1 = 30 is close to 400 mK in the limit of large string tension. The signal will have a specific signature in position space: the excess 21cm radiation will be confined to a wedge-shaped region whose tip corresponds to the position of the string, whose planar dimensions are set by the planar dimensions of the string wake, and whose thickness (in redshift direction) depends on the string tension. For wakes created at z{sub i}+1 = 10{sup 3}, then at a redshift of z+1 = 30 the critical value of the string tension μ is Gμ = 6 × 10{sup −7}, and it decreases linearly with redshift (for wakes created at the time of equal matter and radiation, the critical value is a factor of two lower at the same redshift). For smaller tensions, cosmic strings lead to an observable absorption signal with the same wedge geometry.

  18. A box corer 30 cm square and 4 m long

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster Johnson, Richard

    1988-08-01

    To collect long, large-volume cores of diatomaceous sediment on the continental shelf off Namibia, we built a box corer that is 30 cm square and 4 m long. This paper describes the corer and the tools and procedures for sampling the covers. In terms of volume of sediment recovered in a single penetration, the corer may be among the largest ever used. The corer itself consists of a barrel with segments 20 cm long, a release mechanism at top and a thin fiberglass curtain at bottom. To support the large load of sediment without distortion, the curtain follows a semi-circular track, concave upward. During assembly and disassembly, the corer hangs vertically over the side, enabling it to operate from a relatively small ship. To sample the core, an extruding device pushes the sediment from each segment into boxes made of polyurethane foam. Ashore a specially designed jig helps slice these boxes into vertical slabs as thin as 1 cm. In the 6 days at sea that we had to test the corer and collect samples for the project, we took 9 cores, the longest of which was 3 m.

  19. Am/Cm Vitrification Process: Vitrification Material Balance Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G.

    2000-08-15

    This report documents material balance calculations for the Americium/Curium vitrification process and describes the basis used to make the calculations. The material balance calculations reported here start with the solution produced by the Am/Cm pretreatment process as described in ``Material Balance Calculations for Am/Cm Pretreatment Process (U)'', SRT-AMC-99-0178 [1]. Following pretreatment, small batches of the product will be further treated with an additional oxalic acid precipitation and washing. The precipitate from each batch will then be charged to the Am/Cm melter with glass cullet and vitrified to produce the final product. The material balance calculations in this report are designed to provide projected compositions of the melter glass and off-gas streams. Except for decanted supernate collected from precipitation and precipitate washing, the flowsheet neglects side streams such as acid washes of empty tanks that would go directly to waste. Complete listings of the results of the material balance calculations are provided in the Appendices to this report.

  20. The wedge bias in reionization 21-cm power spectrum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Hannes; Majumdar, Suman; Mellema, Garrelt; Lidz, Adam; Iliev, Ilian T.; Dixon, Keri L.

    2016-02-01

    A proposed method for dealing with foreground emission in upcoming 21-cm observations from the epoch of reionization is to limit observations to an uncontaminated window in Fourier space. Foreground emission can be avoided in this way, since it is limited to a wedge-shaped region in k∥, k⊥ space. However, the power spectrum is anisotropic owing to redshift-space distortions from peculiar velocities. Consequently, the 21-cm power spectrum measured in the foreground avoidance window - which samples only a limited range of angles close to the line-of-sight direction - differs from the full redshift-space spherically averaged power spectrum which requires an average over all angles. In this paper, we calculate the magnitude of this `wedge bias' for the first time. We find that the bias amplifies the difference between the real-space and redshift-space power spectra. The bias is strongest at high redshifts, where measurements using foreground avoidance will overestimate the redshift-space power spectrum by around 100 per cent, possibly obscuring the distinctive rise and fall signature that is anticipated for the spherically averaged 21-cm power spectrum. In the later stages of reionization, the bias becomes negative, and smaller in magnitude (≲20 per cent).

  1. Distinct Distribution of Purines in CM and CR Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Smith, Karen E.; Martin, Mildred G.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of organic molecules and delivered pre biotic organic compounds, including purines and pyrimidines, to the early Earth (and other planetary bodies), seeding it with the ingredients likely required for the first genetic material. We have investigated the distribution of nucleobases in six different CM and CR type carbonaceous chondrites, including fivc Antarctic meteorites never before analyzed for nucleobases. We employed a traditional formic acid extraction protocol and a recently developed solid phase extraction method to isolate nucleobases. We analyzed these extracts by high performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV -MS/MS) targeting the five canonical RNAIDNA bases and hypoxanthine and xanthine. We detected parts-per-billion levels of nucleobases in both CM and CR meteorites. The relative abundances of the purines found in Antarctic CM and CR meteorites were clearly distinct from each other suggesting that these compounds are not terrestrial contaminants. One likely source of these purines is formation by HCN oligomerization (with other small molecules) during aqueous alteration inside the meteorite parent body. The detection of the purines adenine (A), guanine (0), hypoxanthine (HX), and xanthine (X) in carbonaceous meteorites indicates that these compounds should have been available on the early Earth prior to the origin of the first genetic material.

  2. BRIGHT SOURCE SUBTRACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR REDSHIFTED 21 cm MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, A.; Bowman, J. D.; Carilli, C. L.

    2010-11-20

    The H I 21 cm transition line is expected to be an important probe into the cosmic dark ages and epoch of reionization. Foreground source removal is one of the principal challenges for the detection of this signal. This paper investigates the extragalactic point source contamination and how accurately bright sources ({approx}>1 Jy) must be removed in order to detect 21 cm emission with upcoming radio telescopes such as the Murchison Widefield Array. We consider the residual contamination in 21 cm maps and power spectra due to position errors in the sky model for bright sources, as well as frequency-independent calibration errors. We find that a source position accuracy of 0.1 arcsec will suffice for detection of the H I power spectrum. For calibration errors, 0.05% accuracy in antenna gain amplitude is required in order to detect the cosmic signal. Both sources of subtraction error produce residuals that are localized to small angular scales, k{sub perpendicular} {approx}> 0.05 Mpc{sup -1}, in the two-dimensional power spectrum.

  3. High angular resolution cosmic X-ray astronomy observations in the energy range 0.15-2 keV and XUV observations of nearby stars from an attitude controlled rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmire, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    The construction of a two dimensional focusing Wolter Type I mirror system for X-ray and XUV astronomical observations from an Astrobee F sounding rocket is described. The mirror design goal will have a one degree field, a 20-arc seconds resolution, an effective area of about 50 sq cm at 1 keV and 10 sq cm at 0.25 keV on axis. A star camera provides aspect data to about 15-arc seconds. Two detectors are placed at the focus with an interchange mechanism to allow a detector change during flight. The following specific developments are reported: (1) position sensitive proportional counter development; (2) channel plate multiplier development; (3) telescope mirror development and payload structure; (4) Australian rocket flight results; (5) Comet Kohoutek He I observation; and (6) Vela, Puppis A, and Gem-Mon bright patch observations.

  4. A quantile count model of water depth constraints on Cape Sable seaside sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, B.S.; Dong, Q.

    2008-01-01

    1. A quantile regression model for counts of breeding Cape Sable seaside sparrows Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis (L.) as a function of water depth and previous year abundance was developed based on extensive surveys, 1992-2005, in the Florida Everglades. The quantile count model extends linear quantile regression methods to discrete response variables, providing a flexible alternative to discrete parametric distributional models, e.g. Poisson, negative binomial and their zero-inflated counterparts. 2. Estimates from our multiplicative model demonstrated that negative effects of increasing water depth in breeding habitat on sparrow numbers were dependent on recent occupation history. Upper 10th percentiles of counts (one to three sparrows) decreased with increasing water depth from 0 to 30 cm when sites were not occupied in previous years. However, upper 40th percentiles of counts (one to six sparrows) decreased with increasing water depth for sites occupied in previous years. 3. Greatest decreases (-50% to -83%) in upper quantiles of sparrow counts occurred as water depths increased from 0 to 15 cm when previous year counts were 1, but a small proportion of sites (5-10%) held at least one sparrow even as water depths increased to 20 or 30 cm. 4. A zero-inflated Poisson regression model provided estimates of conditional means that also decreased with increasing water depth but rates of change were lower and decreased with increasing previous year counts compared to the quantile count model. Quantiles computed for the zero-inflated Poisson model enhanced interpretation of this model but had greater lack-of-fit for water depths > 0 cm and previous year counts 1, conditions where the negative effect of water depths were readily apparent and fitted better with the quantile count model.

  5. Effect of soil, sowing depth and sowing date on growth and survival of Pistacia atlantica seedlings.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Shayesteh; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Sayad, Ehsan

    2007-01-15

    The effect of soil, sowing depth and sowing date on growth and survival of Pistacia atlantica seedlings was evaluated in nursery conditions. Pistacia atlantica is a deciduous tree species that belongs to the Anacardiaceae family. It is valuable in soil conservation and so suitable for plantation in dry lands. Regeneration of Pistacia atlantica in western part of Iran due to much destruction to its natural habitats has problems. Two levels of soil (Forest and nursery soil) and three levels of sowing date (9 and 29 January, 18 February) were used. In addition, seed were sown at three different depths (0, 4 and 8 cm) but no seedlings emerged when seeds were sown at 0 sowing depth. At the end of first growing season on September 2004 survival, height above the soil surface, collar diameter, shoot/root length ratio and shoot/root dry weight ratio were measured. Survival was significantly affected by sowing date and sowing depth but not by soil. Survival was greater at 4 cm than at 8 cm sowing depth and in 9 January and 29 January than in 18 February sowing dates. Collar diameter and height were significantly greater in nursery soil and 9 January and 29 January sowing date but were not different among sowing depths. Shoot/root ratio and shoot/root dry weight ratio were significantly lower in forest soil but not affected by sowing date. Shoot/root dry weight ratio was lower in 4 cm sowing depth while shoot/root ratio did not showed any difference among sowing depth. In general soil type, sowing date and sowing depth are factors that can be influence on physical and morphological traits of seedlings.

  6. The ecological response of Carex lasiocarpa community in the Riparian Wetlands to the environmental gradient of water depth in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Luan, Zhaoqing; Wang, Zhongxin; Yan, Dandan; Liu, Guihua; Xu, Yingying

    2013-01-01

    The response of Carex lasiocarpa in riparian wetlands in Sanjiang Plain to the environmental gradient of water depth was analyzed by using the Gaussian Model based on the biomass and average height data, and the ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was derived. The results indicated that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on biomass was [13.45 cm, 29.78 cm], while the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on average height was [2.31 cm, 40.11 cm]. The intersection of the ecological water-depth amplitudes based on biomass and height confirmed that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was [13.45 cm, 29.78 cm] and the optimist growing water-depth of Carex lasiocarpa was 21.4 cm. The TWINSPAN, a polythetic and divisive classification tool, was used to classify the wetland ecological series into 6 associations. Result of TWINSPAN matrix classification reflected an obvious environmental gradient in these associations: water-depth gradient. The relation of biodiversity of Carex lasiocarpa community and water depth was determined by calculating the diversity index of each association.

  7. Internal static electric and magnetic field at the copper cite in a single crystal of the electron-doped high-Tc superconductor Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4 -y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guoqing; Zamborszky, F.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; Greene, R. L.; Clark, W. G.

    2014-12-01

    We report 63 ,65Cu -NMR spectroscopy and Knight shift measurements on a single crystal of the electron-doped high-Tc superconductor Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4 -y with an applied magnetic field (H ) up to 26.42 T. A very small NQR frequency is obtained with the observation of the spectrum, which shows an extremely wide continuous distribution of it that becomes significantly narrower below 20 K at H ∥c where the superconductivity is completely suppressed, indicating a significant change in the charge distribution at the Cu site, while the corresponding change at H ⊥c is negligible when the superconductivity is present or not fully suppressed. The Knight shift and central linewidth are proportional to the applied magnetic field with a high anisotropy. We find that the magnitude of the internal static magnetic field at the copper is dominated by the anisotropic Cu2 + 3 d orbital contributions, while its weak temperature dependence is mainly determined by the isotropic contact hyperfine coupling to the paramagnetic Pr3 + spins, which also gives rise to the full distribution of the internal static magnetic field at the copper for H ⊥c . This internal static electric and magnetic field environment at the copper is very different from that in the hole-doped cuprates, and may provide new insight into the understanding of high-Tc superconductivity. Other experimental techniques are needed to verify whether the observed significant narrowing of the charge distribution at the Cu site with H ∥c is caused by the charge ordering [E. H. da Silva Neto et al., Science (to be published, 2014)] or a new type of charge modulation.

  8. Unraveling the Degradation Process of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 Electrodes in Commercial Lithium Ion Batteries by Electronic Structure Investigations.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Karin; Melke, Julia; Merz, Michael; Jakes, Peter; Nagel, Peter; Schuppler, Stefan; Liebau, Verena; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2015-09-01

    The degradation of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (LNCAO) is reflected by the electrochemical performance in the fatigued state and correlated with the redox behavior of these cathodes. The detailed electrochemical performance of these samples is investigated by galvanostatic and voltammetric cycling as well as with the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT). Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy was used to investigate the oxidation state of all three materials at the Ni L2,3, O K, and Co L2,3 edges at five different states of charge. Surface and more bulklike properties are distinguished by total electron yield (TEY) and fluorescence yield (FY) measurements. The electrochemical investigations revealed that the changes in the cell performance of the differently aged materials can be explained by considering the reaction kinetics of the intercalation/deintercalation process. The failure of the redox process of oxygen and nickel at low voltages leads to a significant decrease of the reaction rates in the fatigued cathodes. The accompanied cyclic voltammogram (CV) peaks appear as two peaks because of the local minimum of the reaction rate, although it is one peak in the CV of the calendarically aged LNCAO. The absence of the oxidation/reduction process at low voltages can be traced back to changes in the surface morphology (formation of a NiO-like structure). Further consequences of these material changes are overpotentials, which lead to capacity losses of up to 30% (cycled with a C/3 rate). PMID:26281920

  9. Evaluation of the effect of various mechanisms on the magnetoresistance of lanthanum manganites La{sub 0.85}Sr{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} with activation-type conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gudin, S. A. Kurkin, M. I.; Neifel’d, E. A.; Korolev, A. V.; Gapontseva, N. N.; Ugryumova, N. A.

    2015-11-15

    A method is proposed that allows one to divide the magnetoresistance (MR) observed in manganites into three mechanisms: dimensional, orientational, and magnetic. The first two mechanisms are associated with the stratification of a substance into ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic phases, which significantly differ in electric resistivity. The dimensional mechanism of MR is attributed to the effect of a magnetic field on the size of magnetic inclusions. The orientational mechanism of MR is determined by the dependence of electric resistivity on the mutual orientation of the magnetizations of magnetic inclusions. The magnetic mechanism of MR is determined by the properties of the magnetization of a ferromagnet, in particular, by the Curie–Weiss singularity on the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility at the Curie point. This mechanism exists in homogeneous substances, although its value may depend on the magnetic properties of inhomogeneities. The method is developed for substances with activation-type conductivity and is applied to the analysis of MR of La{sub 0.85}Sr{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} manganite near the Curie point, where the MR attains its maximum. The dimensional mechanism turns out to be dominant in magnetic fields H greater than the saturation field H{sub s} (H > H{sub s}). The orientational, dimensional, and magnetic mechanisms have a comparable effect on the MR for H < H{sub s}. The effect of the orientational mechanism on MR is relatively weak (does not exceed the third part of the total MR), although this mechanism determines the giant MR in multilayered metal films. The possibility of application of the method to the analysis of MR near the insulator–metal transition is analyzed.

  10. 10 cm x 10 cm Single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) X-ray Fluorescence Detector for Dilute Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, E. H.; Siddons, D. P.; Seifu, D.

    2014-03-01

    We have built and tested a 10 cm × 10 cm single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) X-ray detector to probe dilute amounts of Fe in a prepared sample. The detector uses Argon/Carbon Dioxide (75/25) gas mixture flowing at a slow rate through a leak proof Plexi-glass enclosure held together by O-rings and screws. The Fluorescence X-ray emitted by the element under test is directed through a Mylar window into the drift region of the detector where abundant gas is flowing. The ionized electrons are separated, drifted into the high electric field of the GEM, and multiplied by impact ionization. The amplified negatively charged electrons are collected and further amplified by a Keithley amplifier to probe the absorption edge of the element under test using X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique. The results show that the GEM detector provided good results with less noise as compared with a Silicon drift detector (SDD).

  11. Visual Cues for Enhancing Depth Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, L. M.; Smith, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the physiological mechanisms involved in three-dimensional depth perception and presents a variety of distance and depth cues and strategies for detecting and estimating curbs and steps for individuals with impaired vision. (Author/DB)

  12. Uterine caliper and depth gauge

    DOEpatents

    King, Loyd L.; Wheeler, Robert G.; Fish, Thomas M.

    1977-01-01

    A uterine caliper and sound consisting of an elongated body having outwardly biased resilient caliper wings and a spring-loaded slidable cervical stop. A slide on the body is operatively connected to the wings by a monofilament and operates with respect to a first scale on the body as a width indicator. A rod extending longitudinally on the body is connected to the cervical stop and cooperates with a second scale on the body as a depth indicator. The instrument can be positioned to measure the distance from the outer cervical ostium to the fundus, as read on said second scale. The wings may be allowed to open by moving the slide, and when the wings engage the utero-tubal junctions, the width may be read on said first scale. By adjustment of the caliper wings the instrument may be retracted until the resistance of the inner ostium of the cervix is felt, enabling the length of the cervical canal to be read directly by the position of the longitudinal indicator rod with respect to said second scale. The instrument may be employed to measure the width of the uterine cavity at any position between the inner ostium of the cervix and the fundus.

  13. Tests of the Tully-Fisher relation. 1: Scatter in infrared magnitude versus 21 cm width

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Gary M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Raychaudhury, Somak; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Herter, Terry; Vogt, Nicole P.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the precision of the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) using a sample of galaxies in the Coma region of the sky, and find that it is good to 5% or better in measuring relative distances. Total magnitudes and disk axis ratios are derived from H and I band surface photometry, and Arecibo 21 cm profiles define the rotation speeds of the galaxies. Using 25 galaxies for which the disk inclination and 21 cm width are well defined, we find an rms deviation of 0.10 mag from a linear TFR with dI/d(log W(sub c)) = -5.6. Each galaxy is assumed to be at a distance proportional to its redshift, and an extinction correction of 1.4(1-b/a) mag is applied to the total I magnitude. The measured scatter is less than 0.15 mag using milder extinction laws from the literature. The I band TFR scatter is consistent with measurement error, and the 95% CL limits on the intrinsic scatter are 0-0.10 mag. The rms scatter using H band magnitudes is 0.20 mag (N = 17). The low width galaxies have scatter in H significantly in excess of known measurement error, but the higher width half of the galaxies have scatter consistent with measurement error. The H band TFR slope may be as steep as the I band slope. As the first applications of this tight correlation, we note the following: (1) the data for the particular spirals commonly used to define the TFR distance to the Coma cluster are inconsistent with being at a common distance and are in fact in free Hubble expansion, with an upper limit of 300 km/s on the rms peculiar line-of-sight velocity of these gas-rich spirals; and (2) the gravitational potential in the disks of these galaxies has typical ellipticity less than 5%. The published data for three nearby spiral galaxies with Cepheid distance determinations are inconsistent with our Coma TFR, suggesting that these local calibrators are either ill-measured or peculiar relative to the Coma Supercluster spirals, or that the TFR has a varying form in different locales.

  14. Depth distribution of glyphosate and AMPA under diferent tillage system and soils in long-term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis; De Geronimo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl glycine) is a post-emergence, non-selective, foliar herbicide. Around 200 million liters of this herbicide are applied every year in Argentina, where the main agricultural practice is no-till (NT), accounting for 78 % of the cultivated land. In this work, we studied the depth distribution of glyphosate in long-term experiments (more than 15 years) at different locations under NT and conventional tillage (CT). Samples from 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm depth with four replication and two treatments NT CT at three locations: Balcarce (BA) a loam soil, Bordenave (BO) a sandy loam soil y Marcos Juarez a silty loam soil (MJ). The glyphosate concentration in the first 2 cm of soil was, on the average, 70% greater than in the next 2-5 cm. The mass of glyphosate in CT was higher at 2 to 10 cm depth. The depth concentration of AMPA follows the same trend than glyphosate, although its average concentration at 0-2 cm depth is 28 times higher than the glyphosate concentration at 2-5 cm (glyphosate = 147 ppb and AMPA = 4100 ppb). Beside the AMPA concentration at 0-2 cm depth is greater in NT than in CT, the mass of AMPA is higher in CT only for the Balcarce location. To our knowledge, this study is the first dealing with the depth distribution of glyphosate concentration in soils under different soil managements. In the present study, it was demonstrated that glyphosate and AMPA are present in soils under agricultural activity with maximum concentration in the first two cm of soil and the AMPA concentration at this depth is greater in NT than in CT.

  15. The Transition to ICD-10-CM: Challenges for Pediatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Jeffrey; Nam, Hannah; Chae, Sae-Rom; Williams, Lauren; Mathew, Gina; Burton, Michael; Li, Jiarong “John”; Lussier, Yves A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic codes are used widely within health care for billing, quality assessment, and to measure clinical outcomes. The US health care system will transition to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM), in October 2015. Little is known about how this transition will affect pediatric practices. The objective of this study was to examine how the transition to ICD-10-CM may result in ambiguity of clinical information and financial disruption for pediatricians. METHODS: Using a statewide data set from Illinois Medicaid specified for pediatricians, 2708 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, diagnosis codes were identified. Diagnosis codes were categorized into 1 of 5 categories: identity, class-to-subclass, subclass-to-class, convoluted, and no translation. The convoluted and high-cost diagnostic codes (n = 636) were analyzed for accuracy and categorized into “information loss,” “overlapping categories,” “inconsistent,” and “consistent.” Finally, reimbursement by Medicaid was calculated for each category. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of pediatric diagnosis codes are convoluted, which represents 21% of Illinois Medicaid pediatric patient encounters and 16% of reimbursement. The diagnosis codes represented by information loss (3.6%), overlapping categories (3.2%), and inconsistent (1.2%) represent 8% of Medicaid pediatric reimbursement. CONCLUSIONS: The potential for financial disruption and administrative errors from 8% of reimbursement diagnosis codes necessitates special attention to these codes in preparing for the transition to ICD-10-CM for pediatric practices. PMID:24918217

  16. Multiple precursors of secondary mineralogical assemblages in CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Marrocchi, Yves; Vacher, Lionel. G.; Delon, RéMi; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    We report a petrographic and mineralogical survey of tochilinite/cronstedtite intergrowths (TCIs) in Paris, a new CM chondrite considered to be the least altered CM identified to date. Our results indicate that type-I TCIs consist of compact tochilinite/cronstedtite rims surrounding Fe-Ni metal beads, thus confirming kamacite as the precursor of type-I TCIs. In contrast, type-II TCIs are characterized by complex compositional zoning composed of three different Fe-bearing secondary minerals: from the outside inwards, tochilinite, cronstedtite, and amakinite. Type-II TCIs present well-developed faces that allow a detailed morphological analysis to be performed in order to identify the precursors. The results demonstrate that type-II TCIs formed by pseudomorphism of the anhydrous silicates, olivine, and pyroxene. Hence, there is no apparent genetic relationship between type-I and type-II TCIs. In addition, the complex chemical zoning observed within type-II TCIs suggests that the alteration conditions evolved dramatically over time. At least three stages of alteration can be proposed, characterized by alteration fluids with varying compositions (1) Fe- and S-rich fluids; (2) S-poor and Fe- and Si-rich fluids; and (3) S- and Si-poor, Fe-rich fluids. The presence of unaltered silicates in close association with euhedral type-II TCIs suggests the existence of microenvironments during the first alteration stages of CM chondrites. In addition, the absence of Mg-bearing secondary minerals in Paris TCIs suggests that the Mg content increases during the course of alteration.

  17. Performance of 30-cm ion thrusters with dished accelerator grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five different 30-cm diameter bombardment thrustors to evaluate the effects of grid geometry variations on thrustor discharge chamber performance. The dished grid parameters varied were: grid-to-grid spacing, screen and accelerator grid hole-diameter, screen and accelerator open area fraction, compensation for beam divergence losses, and accelerator grid thickness. Also investigated were the effects on discharge chamber performance of main magnetic field changes, magnetic baffle current cathode pole piece length and cathode position.

  18. Performance of 30-cm ion thrusters with dished accelerator grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen sets of dished accelerator grids were treated on five different 30 cm diameter bombardment thrusters to evaluate the effects of grid geometry variations on thruster discharge chamber performance. The dished grid parameters varied were: grid-to-grid spacing, screen and accelerator grid hole diameter, screen and accelerator open area fraction, compensation for beam divergence losses, and accelerator grid thickness. The effects on discharge chamber performance of main magnetic field changes, magnetic baffle current, cathode pole piece length and cathode position were also investigated.

  19. Affordable échelle spectroscopy with a 60 cm telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribulla, T.; Garai, Z.; Hambálek, L.; Kollár, V.; Komžík, R.; Kundra, E.; Nedoroščík, J.; Sekeráš, M.; Vaňko, M

    2015-09-01

    A new fiber-fed spectrograph was installed at the 60 cm telescope of the Stará Lesná Observatory. The article presents tests of its performance (spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, radial-velocity stability) and reports observations of selected variable stars and exoplanet host stars. First test observations show that the spectrograph is an ideal tool to observe bright eclipsing and spectroscopic binaries but also symbiotic and nova-like stars. The radial-velocity stability (60-80 ms-1) is sufficient to study spectroscopic binaries and to detect easily the orbital motion of hot-Jupiter extrasolar planets around bright stars.

  20. The 8-CM ion thruster characterization. [mercury ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessel, F. J.; Williamson, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    The performance capabilities of the 8 cm diameter mercury ion thruster were increased by modifying the thruster operating parameters and component hardware. The initial performance levels, representative of the Hughes/NASA Lewis Research Center Ion Auxiliary Propulsion Subsystem (IAPS) thruster, were raised from the baseline values of thrust, T = 5 mN, and specific impulse, I sub sp = 2,900s, to thrust, T = 25 mN and specific impulse, I sub sp = 4,300 s. Performance characteristics including estmates of the erosion rates of various component surfaces are presented.

  1. Performance documentation of the engineering model 30-cm diameter thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Rawlin, V. K.

    1976-01-01

    The results of extensive testing of two 30-cm ion thrusters which are virtually identical to the 900 series Engineering Model Thruster in an ongoing 15,000-hour life test are presented. Performance data for the nominal fullpower (2650 W) operating point; performance sensitivities to discharge voltage, discharge losses, accelerator voltage, and magnetic baffle current; and several power throttling techniques (maximum Isp, maximum thrust/power ratio, and two cases in between are included). Criteria for throttling are specified in terms of the screen power supply envelope, thruster operating limits, and control stability. In addition, reduced requirements for successful high voltage recycles are presented.

  2. Performance capabilities of the 8-cm mercury ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary characterization of the performance capabilities of the 8-cm thruster in order to initiate an evaluation of its application to LSS propulsion requirements is presented. With minor thruster modifications, the thrust was increased by about a factor of four while the discharge voltage was reduced from 39 to 22 volts. The thruster was operated over a range of specific impulse of 1950 to 3040 seconds and a maximum total efficiency of about 54 percent was attained. Preliminary analysis of component lifetimes, as determined by temperature and spectroscopic line intensity measurements, indicated acceptable thruster lifetimes are anticipated at the high power level operation.

  3. Status of 30 cm mercury ion thruster development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; King, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two engineering model 30-cm ion thrusters were assembled, calibrated, and qualification tested. This paper discusses the thruster design, performance, and power system. Test results include documentation of thrust losses due to doubly charged mercury ions and beam divergence by both direct thrust measurements and beam probes. Diagnostic vibration tests have led to improved designs of the thruster backplate structure, feed system, and harness. Thruster durability is being demonstrated over a thrust range of 97 to 113 mN at a specific impulse of about 2900 seconds. As of August 15, 1974, the thruster has successfully operated for over 4000 hours.

  4. Recycle Requirements for NASA's 30 cm Xenon Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical breakdowns have been observed during ion thruster operation. These breakdowns, or arcs, can be caused by several conditions. In flight systems, the power processing unit must be designed to handle these faults autonomously. This has a strong impact on power processor requirements and must be understood fully for the power processing unit being designed for the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness program. In this study, fault conditions were investigated using a NASA 30 cm ion thruster and a power console. Power processing unit output specifications were defined based on the breakdown phenomena identified and characterized.

  5. Control of a 30 cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terdan, F. F.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Increased thruster performance has made closed-loop automatic control more difficult than previously. Specifically, high perveance optics tend to make reliable recycling more difficult. Control logic functions were established for three automatic modes of operation of a 30-cm thruster using a power conditioner console with flight-like characteristics. The three modes provide (1) automatic startup to reach thermal stability, (2) steady-state closed-loop control, and (3) the reliable recycling of the high voltages following an arc breakdown to reestablish normal operation. Power supply impedance characteristics necessary for stable operation and the effect of the magnetic baffle on the reliable recycling was studied.

  6. Radiated and conducted EMI from a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittlesey, A. C.; Peer, W.

    1981-01-01

    In order to properly assess the interaction of a spacecraft with the EMI environment produced by an ion thruster, the EMI environment was characterized. Therefore, radiated and conducted emissions were measured from a 30-cm mercury ion thruster. The ion thruster beam current varied from zero to 2.0 amperes and the emissions were measured from 5 KHz to 200 MHz. Several different types of antennas were used to obtain the measurements. The various measurements that were made included: magnetic field due to neutralizer/beam current loop; radiated electric fields of thruster and plume; and conducted emissions on arc discharge, neutralizer keeper and magnetic baffle lines.

  7. Long lifetime hollow cathodes for 30-cm mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation of hollow cathodes for 30-cm Hg bombardment thrusters was carried out. Both main and neutralizer cathode configurations were tested with both rolled foil inserts coated with low work function material and impregnated porous tungsten inserts. Temperature measurements of an impregnated insert at various positions in the cathode were made. These, along with the cathode thermal profile are presented. A theory for rolled foil and impregnated insert operation and lifetime in hollow cathodes is developed. Several endurance tests, as long as 18000 hours at emission currents of up to 12 amps were attained with no degradation in performance.

  8. Performance mapping of a 30 cm engineering model thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Vahrenkamp, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A 30 cm thruster representative of the engineering model design has been tested over a wide range of operating parameters to document performance characteristics such as electrical and propellant efficiencies, double ion and beam divergence thrust loss, component equilibrium temperatures, operational stability, etc. Data obtained show that optimum power throttling, in terms of maximum thruster efficiency, is not highly sensitive to parameter selection. Consequently, considerations of stability, discharge chamber erosion, thrust losses, etc. can be made the determining factors for parameter selection in power throttling operations. Options in parameter selection based on these considerations are discussed.

  9. The 100 cm solar telescope primary mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The manufacturing impact of primary mirror configuration on the performance of a 100 cm aperture solar telescope was studied. Three primary mirror configurations were considered: solid, standard lightweight, and mushroom. All of these are of low expansion material. Specifically, the study consisted of evaluating the mirrors with regard to: manufacturing metrology, manufacturing risk factors and ultimate quality assessment. As a result of this evaluation, a performance comparison of the configurations was made, and a recommendation of mirror configuration is the final output. These evaluations, comparisons and recommendations are discussed in detail. Other investigations were completed and are documented in the appendices.

  10. Human Being Imaging with cm-Wave UWB Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarovoy, A.; Zhuge, X.; Savelyev, T.; Matuzas, J.; Levitas, B.

    Possibilities of high-resolution human body imaging and concealed weapon detection using centimeter-wave microwave frequencies are investigated. Dependencies of the cross-range resolution of different imaging techniques on operational bandwidth, center frequency, imaging aperture size, and imaging topology have been studied. It has been demonstrated that the cross-range resolution of 2 cm can be achieved using frequencies below 10 GHz. These findings have been verified experimentally by producing high-resolution images of a foil-covered doll and some weapons.

  11. Interdecadal changes in snow depth on Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Melinda A.; Rigor, Ignatius G.; Nghiem, Son V.; Kurtz, Nathan T.; Farrell, Sinead L.; Perovich, Donald K.; Sturm, Matthew

    2014-08-01

    Snow plays a key role in the growth and decay of Arctic sea ice. In winter, it insulates sea ice from cold air temperatures, slowing sea ice growth. From spring to summer, the albedo of snow determines how much insolation is absorbed by the sea ice and underlying ocean, impacting ice melt processes. Knowledge of the contemporary snow depth distribution is essential for estimating sea ice thickness and volume, and for understanding and modeling sea ice thermodynamics in the changing Arctic. This study assesses spring snow depth distribution on Arctic sea ice using airborne radar observations from Operation IceBridge for 2009-2013. Data were validated using coordinated in situ measurements taken in March 2012 during the Bromine, Ozone, and Mercury Experiment (BROMEX) field campaign. We find a correlation of 0.59 and root-mean-square error of 5.8 cm between the airborne and in situ data. Using this relationship and IceBridge snow thickness products, we compared the recent results with data from the 1937, 1954-1991 Soviet drifting ice stations. The comparison shows thinning of the snowpack, from 35.1 ± 9.4 to 22.2 ± 1.9 cm in the western Arctic, and from 32.8 ± 9.4 to 14.5 ± 1.9 cm in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. These changes suggest a snow depth decline of 37 ± 29% in the western Arctic and 56 ± 33% in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. Thinning is negatively correlated with the delayed onset of sea ice freezeup during autumn.

  12. Acoustically enriching, large-depth aquatic sampler.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Jonas; Ogden, Sam; Johansson, Linda; Hjort, Klas; Thornell, Greger

    2012-05-01

    In marine biology, it is useful to collect water samples when exploring the distribution and diversity of microbial communities in underwater environments. In order to provide, e.g., a miniaturized submersible explorer with the capability of collecting microorganisms, a compact sample enrichment system has been developed. The sampler is 30 mm long, 15 mm wide, and just a few millimetres thick. Integrated in a multilayer steel, polyimide and glass construction is a microfluidic channel with piezoelectric transducers, where microorganism and particle samples are collected and enriched, using acoustic radiation forces for gentle and labelless trapping. High-pressure, latchable valves, using paraffin as the actuation material, at each end of the microfluidic channel keep the collected sample pristine. A funnel structure raised above the surface of the device directs water into the microfluidic channel as the vehicle propels itself or when there is a flow across its hull. The valves proved leak proof to a pressure of 2.1 MPa for 19 hours and momentary pressures of 12.5 MPa, corresponding to an ocean depth of more than 1200 metres. By reactivating the latching mechanism, small leakages through the valves could be remedied, which could thus increase the leak-less operational time. Fluorescent particles, 1.9 μm in diameter, were successfully trapped in the microfluidic channel at flow rates up to 15 μl min(-1), corresponding to an 18.5 cm s(-1) external flow rate of the sampler. In addition, liquid-suspended GFP-marked yeast cells were successfully trapped.

  13. Acoustically enriching, large-depth aquatic sampler.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Jonas; Ogden, Sam; Johansson, Linda; Hjort, Klas; Thornell, Greger

    2012-05-01

    In marine biology, it is useful to collect water samples when exploring the distribution and diversity of microbial communities in underwater environments. In order to provide, e.g., a miniaturized submersible explorer with the capability of collecting microorganisms, a compact sample enrichment system has been developed. The sampler is 30 mm long, 15 mm wide, and just a few millimetres thick. Integrated in a multilayer steel, polyimide and glass construction is a microfluidic channel with piezoelectric transducers, where microorganism and particle samples are collected and enriched, using acoustic radiation forces for gentle and labelless trapping. High-pressure, latchable valves, using paraffin as the actuation material, at each end of the microfluidic channel keep the collected sample pristine. A funnel structure raised above the surface of the device directs water into the microfluidic channel as the vehicle propels itself or when there is a flow across its hull. The valves proved leak proof to a pressure of 2.1 MPa for 19 hours and momentary pressures of 12.5 MPa, corresponding to an ocean depth of more than 1200 metres. By reactivating the latching mechanism, small leakages through the valves could be remedied, which could thus increase the leak-less operational time. Fluorescent particles, 1.9 μm in diameter, were successfully trapped in the microfluidic channel at flow rates up to 15 μl min(-1), corresponding to an 18.5 cm s(-1) external flow rate of the sampler. In addition, liquid-suspended GFP-marked yeast cells were successfully trapped. PMID:22422039

  14. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite, the most primitive CM chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis

    2015-04-01

    The Paris meteorite is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite [1,2], and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism [2-5]. The IR spectra of some of Paris' fragments suggest a primitive origin for the organic matter in this meteorite, similar to the spectra from solid-state materials in molecular clouds [6]. Most of the micron-sized organic particles present in the Paris matrix exhibit 0 < δD <2000‰ [7,8]. In order to understand the effect of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on the abundance and distribution of meteoritic soluble organic matter, we have analyzed for the first time the amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite [9]. Extensive aqueous alteration in the parent body of carbonaceous meteorites may result in the decomposition of α-amino acids and the synthesis of β- and γ-amino acids. When plotted with several CM chondrites, Paris has the lowest relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine (0.15) for a CM chondrite, which fits with the relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine increasing with increasing aqueous alteration [10,11]. In addition, our results show that the isovaline detected in this meteorite is racemic (D/L= 0.99 ± 0.08; L-enantiomer excess (%) = 0.35 ± 0.5; corrected D/L = 1.03; corrected L-enantiomer excess (%) = -1.4 ± 2.6). Although aqueous alteration does not create by itself an isovaline asymmetry, it may amplify a small enantiomeric excess. Therefore, our data may support the hypothesis that aqueous alteration is responsible for the high L-enantiomer excess of isovaline observed in the most aqueously altered carbonaceous meteorites [12,13]. Paris has n-alkanes ranging from C16 to C25 and 3- to 5-ring non-alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lack of alkylated PAHs in Paris seems to be related to the low degree of aqueous alteration on its parent body [9,14]. The extra-terrestrial aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon content of Paris may have an interstellar origin

  15. Measuring the Cosmological 21 cm Monopole with an Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presley, Morgan E.; Liu, Adrian; Parsons, Aaron R.

    2015-08-01

    A measurement of the cosmological 21 {cm} signal remains a promising but as-of-yet unattained ambition of radio astronomy. A positive detection would provide direct observations of key unexplored epochs of our cosmic history, including the cosmic dark ages and reionization. In this paper, we concentrate on measurements of the spatial monopole of the 21 {cm} brightness temperature as a function of redshift (the “global signal”). Most global experiments to date have been single-element experiments. In this paper, we show how an interferometer can be designed to be sensitive to the monopole mode of the sky, thus providing an alternate approach to accessing the global signature. We provide simple rules of thumb for designing a global signal interferometer and use numerical simulations to show that a modest array of tightly packed antenna elements with moderately sized primary beams (FWHM of ∼ 40^\\circ ) can compete with typical single-element experiments in their ability to constrain phenomenological parameters pertaining to reionization and the pre-reionization era. We also provide a general data analysis framework for extracting the global signal from interferometric measurements (with analysis of single-element experiments arising as a special case) and discuss trade-offs with various data analysis choices. Given that interferometric measurements are able to avoid a number of systematics inherent in single-element experiments, our results suggest that interferometry ought to be explored as a complementary way to probe the global signal.

  16. Power processor for a 20CM ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Schoenfeld, A. D.; Cohen, E.

    1973-01-01

    A power processor breadboard for the JPL 20CM Ion Engine was designed, fabricated, and tested to determine compliance with the electrical specification. The power processor breadboard used the silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) series resonant inverter as the basic power stage to process all the power to the ion engine. The breadboard power processor was integrated with the JPL 20CM ion engine and complete testing was performed. The integration tests were performed without any silicon-controlled rectifier failure. This demonstrated the ruggedness of the series resonant inverter in protecting the switching elements during arcing in the ion engine. A method of fault clearing the ion engine and returning back to normal operation without elaborate sequencing and timing control logic was evolved. In this method, the main vaporizer was turned off and the discharge current limit was reduced when an overload existed on the screen/accelerator supply. After the high voltage returned to normal, both the main vaporizer and the discharge were returned to normal.

  17. Characterization of an 8-cm Diameter Ion Source System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhongmin; Hawk, C. W.; Hawk, Clark W.; Buttweiler, Mark S.; Williams, John D.; Buchholtz, Brett

    2005-01-01

    Results of tests characterizing an 8-cm diameter ion source are presented. The tests were conducted in three separate vacuum test facilities at the University of Alabama-Huntsville, Colorado State University, and L3 Communications' ETI division. Standard ion optics tests describing electron backstreaming and total-voltage-limited impingement current behavior as a function of beam current were used as guidelines for selecting operating conditions where more detailed ion beam measurements were performed. The ion beam was profiled using an in-vacuum actuating probe system to determine the total ion current density and the ion charge state distribution variation across the face of the ion source. Both current density and ExB probes were utilized. The ion current density data were used to obtain integrated beam current, beam flatness parameters, and general beam profile shapes. The ExB probe data were used to determine the ratio of doubly to singly charged ion current. The ion beam profile tests were performed at over six different operating points that spanned the expected operating range of the DAWN thrusters being developed at L3. The characterization tests described herein reveal that the 8-cm ion source is suitable for use in (a) validating plasma diagnostic equipment, (b) xenon ion sputtering and etching studies of spacecraft materials, (c) plasma physics research, and (d) the study of ion thruster optics at varying conditions.

  18. Presolar grains in the CM2 chondrite Sutter's Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuchao; Lin, Yangting; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zhang, Jianchao; Hao, Jialong; Zolensky, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The Sutter's Mill (SM) carbonaceous chondrite is a regolith breccia, composed predominantly of CM2 clasts with varying degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. An investigation of presolar grains in four Sutter's Mill sections, SM43, SM51, SM2-4, and SM18, was carried out using NanoSIMS ion mapping technique. A total of 37 C-anomalous grains and one O-anomalous grain have been identified, indicating an abundance of 63 ppm for presolar C-anomalous grains and 2 ppm for presolar oxides. Thirty-one silicon carbide (SiC), five carbonaceous grains, and one Al-oxide (Al2O3) were confirmed based on their elemental compositions determined by C-N-Si and O-Si-Mg-Al isotopic measurements. The overall abundance of SiC grains in Sutter's Mill (55 ppm) is consistent with those in other CM chondrites. The absence of presolar silicates in Sutter's Mill suggests that they were destroyed by aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. Furthermore, SM2-4 shows heterogeneous distributions of presolar SiC grains (12-54 ppm) in different matrix areas, indicating that the fine-grained matrix clasts come from different sources, with various thermal histories, in the solar nebula.

  19. Altimeter error sources at the 10-cm performance level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Error sources affecting the calibration and operational use of a 10 cm altimeter are examined to determine the magnitudes of current errors and the investigations necessary to reduce them to acceptable bounds. Errors considered include those affecting operational data pre-processing, and those affecting altitude bias determination, with error budgets developed for both. The most significant error sources affecting pre-processing are bias calibration, propagation corrections for the ionosphere, and measurement noise. No ionospheric models are currently validated at the required 10-25% accuracy level. The optimum smoothing to reduce the effects of measurement noise is investigated and found to be on the order of one second, based on the TASC model of geoid undulations. The 10 cm calibrations are found to be feasible only through the use of altimeter passes that are very high elevation for a tracking station which tracks very close to the time of altimeter track, such as a high elevation pass across the island of Bermuda. By far the largest error source, based on the current state-of-the-art, is the location of the island tracking station relative to mean sea level in the surrounding ocean areas.

  20. Electric prototype power processor for a 30cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Schoenfeld, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical prototype power processor unit was designed, fabricated and tested with a 30 cm mercury ion engine for primary space propulsion. The power processor unit used the thyristor series resonant inverter as the basic power stage for the high power beam and discharge supplies. A transistorized series resonant inverter processed the remaining power for the low power outputs. The power processor included a digital interface unit to process all input commands and internal telemetry signals so that electric propulsion systems could be operated with a central computer system. The electrical prototype unit included design improvement in the power components such as thyristors, transistors, filters and resonant capacitors, and power transformers and inductors in order to reduce component weight, to minimize losses, and to control the component temperature rise. A design analysis for the electrical prototype is also presented on the component weight, losses, part count and reliability estimate. The electrical prototype was tested in a thermal vacuum environment. Integration tests were performed with a 30 cm ion engine and demonstrated operational compatibility. Electromagnetic interference data was also recorded on the design to provide information for spacecraft integration.

  1. Depth enhanced and content aware video stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, A.; Atanassov, K.; Goma, S.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a system that uses depth information for video stabilization. The system uses 2D-homographies as frame pair transforms that are estimated with keypoints at the depth of interest. This makes the estimation more robust as the points lie on a plane. The depth of interest can be determined automatically from the depth histogram, inferred from user input such as tap-to-focus, or selected by the user; i.e., tap-to-stabilize. The proposed system can stabilize videos on the fly in a single pass and is especially suited for mobile phones with multiple cameras that can compute depth maps automatically during image acquisition.

  2. Is visual short-term memory depthful?

    PubMed

    Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan

    2014-03-01

    Does visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on depth, as it might be if information was stored in more than one depth layer? Depth is critical in natural viewing and might be expected to affect retention, but whether this is so is currently unknown. Cued partial reports of letter arrays (Sperling, 1960) were measured up to 700 ms after display termination. Adding stereoscopic depth hardly affected VSTM capacity or decay inferred from total errors. The pattern of transposition errors (letters reported from an uncued row) was almost independent of depth and cue delay. We conclude that VSTM is effectively two-dimensional. PMID:24491386

  3. Estimation of optimal pediatric chest compression depth by using computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Soo Young; Oh, Seong Beom; Kim, Young Oh

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare the optimal chest compression depth for infants and children with that of adults when the simulated compression depth was delivered according to the current guidelines. Methods A total of 467 consecutive chest computed tomography scans (93 infants, 110 children, and 264 adults) were reviewed. The anteroposterior diameter and compressible diameter (CD) for infants and children were measured at the inter-nipple level and at the mid-lower half of the spine for adults. Compression ratio (CR) to CD was calculated at simulated 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2 antero-posterior compressions in infants and children, and simulated 5- and 6-cm compressions in adults. Results In adults, the CRs to CD at simulated 5- and 6-cm compression depth were 41.7±0.16%, 50.0±7.3% respectively. In children and infants, the CRs to CD at 1/3 chest compression were 55.1±2.4% and 51.8±2.4%, respectively, and at 1/2 chest compression, CRs were 82.7±3.7% and 77.7±3.6%, respectively. The CRs to CD of 4-cm compression depth in infants and 5-cm compression depth in children were 74.4±10.9%, 62.5±8.7%, respectively. The CRs to CD for children and infants were significantly higher than in adults (P<0.001). The CR to CD of 4-cm compression depth in children was almost similar to that of 6-cm compression depth in adults (50.0± 6.9% vs. 50.0±7.3%, P=0.985). Conclusion Current pediatric guidelines for compression depth are too deep compared to those in adults. We suggest using 1/3 of the anteroposterior chest diameter or about 4 cm in children and less than 4 cm in infants. PMID:27752612

  4. Influence of measurement depth on the stiffness assessment of healthy liver with real-time shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong-Zhi; Zheng, Jian; Huang, Ze-Ping; Xiao, Yang; Song, Dan; Zeng, Jie; Zheng, Hai-Rong; Zheng, Rong-Qin

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the measurement depth range within which liver stiffness can be reliably assessed using real-time shear wave elastography (SWE) technology. Measurements were performed on phantoms and healthy volunteers. In the first group of patients, measurements were performed at depths of 2-8 cm from the probe surface. In the second group of patients, measurements were conducted 0-7 cm below the liver capsule. Success rate of measurements (SRoM), success rate of patients (SRoS) and coefficients of variation (CVs) of repeated measurements were compared. The SRoMs at 3-7 cm and the CVs at 2-5 cm from the probe surface were significantly higher and lower than those at other depths (p < 0.001), respectively. SRoS was zero 0-1 cm below the liver capsule. Furthermore, the features of 2-D stiffness mapping images were also found to change with depth. According to our results, the depth range for the most reliable liver stiffness assessment using SWE should be 3-5 cm from the probe surface and simultaneously 1-2 cm below the liver capsule.

  5. Wavelength-dependent penetration depth of near infrared radiation into cartilage.

    PubMed

    Padalkar, M V; Pleshko, N

    2015-04-01

    Articular cartilage is a hyaline cartilage that lines the subchondral bone in the diarthrodial joints. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is emerging as a nondestructive modality for the evaluation of cartilage pathology; however, studies regarding the depth of penetration of NIR radiation into cartilage are lacking. The average thickness of human cartilage is about 1-3 mm, and it becomes even thinner as OA progresses. To ensure that spectral data collected is restricted to the tissue of interest, i.e. cartilage in this case, and not from the underlying subchondral bone, it is necessary to determine the depth of penetration of NIR radiation in different wavelength (frequency) regions. In the current study, we establish how the depth of penetration varies throughout the NIR frequency range (4000-10 000 cm(-1)). NIR spectra were collected from cartilage samples of different thicknesses (0.5 mm to 5 mm) with and without polystyrene placed underneath. A separate NIR spectrum of polystyrene was collected as a reference. It was found that the depth of penetration varied from ∼1 mm to 2 mm in the 4000-5100 cm(-1) range, ∼3 mm in the 5100-7000 cm(-1) range, and ∼5 mm in the 7000-9000 cm(-1) frequency range. These findings suggest that the best NIR region to evaluate cartilage with no subchondral bone contribution is in the range of 4000-7000 cm(-1).

  6. Wavelength-Dependent Penetration Depth of Near Infrared Radiation into Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Padalkar, M.V.; Pleshko, N.

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a hyaline cartilage that lines the subchondral bone in a diarthrodial joint. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been emerging as a nondestructive modality for evaluation of cartilage pathology. However, studies of the depth of penetration of NIR radiation into cartilage are lacking. The average thickness of human cartilage is about 1-3 mm, and it becomes even thinner as OA progresses. To ensure that the spectral data collected is restricted to the tissue of interest i.e. cartilage in this case, and not from the underlying subchondral bone, it is necessary to determine the depth of penetration of NIR radiation in different wavelength (frequency) regions. In the current study we establish how the depth of penetration varies throughout the NIR frequency range (4000-10000 cm-1). NIR spectra were collected from cartilage samples of different thicknesses (0.5 mm to 5 mm) with and without polystyrene placed underneath. A separate NIR spectrum of polystyrene was collected as a reference. It was found that the depth of penetration varied from ∼1 mm to 2 mm in the 4000-5100 cm-1 range, to ∼3 mm in the 5100-7000 cm-1 range, and to ∼5 mm in the 7000-9000 cm-1 frequency range. These findings suggest that the best NIR region to evaluate cartilage only with no subchondral bone contribution is between 4000-7000 cm-1. PMID:25630381

  7. P-O-rich sulfide phase in CM chondrites: Constraints on its origin on the CM parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-Cheng; Itoh, Shoichi; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Hsu, Wei-Biao; Wang, Ru-Cheng; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    CM chondrites are a group of primitive meteorites that have recorded the alteration history of the early solar system. We report the occurrence, chemistry, and oxygen isotopic compositions of P-O-rich sulfide phase in two CM chondrites (Grove Mountains [GRV] 021536 and Murchison). This P-O-rich sulfide is a polycrystalline aggregate of nanometer-size grains. It occurs as isolated particles or aggregates in both CM chondrites. These grains, in the matrix and in type-I chondrules from Murchison, were partially altered into tochilinite; however, grains enclosed by Ca-carbonate are much less altered. This P-O-rich sulfide in Murchison is closely associated with magnetite, FeNi phosphide, brezinaite (Cr3S4), and eskolaite (Cr2O3). In addition to sulfur as the major component, this sulfide contains ~6.3 wt% O, ~5.4 wt% P, and minor amounts of hydrogen. Analyses of oxygen isotopes by SIMS resulted in an average δ18O value of -22.5 ‰ and an average Δ17O value of 0.2 ± 9.2 ‰ (2σ). Limited variations in both chemical compositions and electron-diffraction patterns imply that the P-O-rich sulfide may be a single phase rather than a polyphase mixture. Several features indicate that this P-O-rich sulfide phase formed at low temperature on the parent body, most likely through the alteration of FeNi metal (a) close association with other low-temperature alteration products, (b) the presence of hydrogen, (c) high Δ17O values and the presence in altered mesostasis of type-I chondrules and absence in type-II chondrules. The textural relations of the P-O-rich sulfide and other low-temperature minerals reveal at least three episodic-alteration events on the parent body of CM chondrites (1) formation of P-O-rich sulfide during sulfur-rich aqueous alteration of P-rich FeNi metal, (2) formation of Ca-carbonate during local carbonation, and (3) alteration of P-O-rich sulfide and formation of tochilinite during a period of late-stage intensive aqueous alteration.

  8. A comparative study of intervening and associated H I 21-cm absorption profiles in redshifted galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, S. J.; Duchesne, S. W.; Divoli, A.; Allison, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    The star-forming reservoir in the distant Universe can be detected through H I 21-cm absorption arising from either cool gas associated with a radio source or from within a galaxy intervening the sight-line to the continuum source. In order to test whether the nature of the absorber can be predicted from the profile shape, we have compiled and analysed all of the known redshifted (z ≥ 0.1) H I 21-cm absorption profiles. Although between individual spectra there is too much variation to assign a typical spectral profile, we confirm that associated absorption profiles are, on average, wider than their intervening counterparts. It is widely hypothesised that this is due to high velocity nuclear gas feeding the central engine, absent in the more quiescent intervening absorbers. Modelling the column density distribution of the mean associated and intervening spectra, we confirm that the additional low optical depth, wide dispersion component, typical of associated absorbers, arises from gas within the inner parsec. With regard to the potential of predicting the absorber type in the absence of optical spectroscopy, we have implemented machine learning techniques to the 55 associated and 43 intervening spectra, with each of the tested models giving a ≳80% accuracy in the prediction of the absorber type. Given the impracticability of follow-up optical spectroscopy of the large number of 21-cm detections expected from the next generation of large radio telescopes, this could provide a powerful new technique with which to determine the nature of the absorbing galaxy.

  9. A comparative study of intervening and associated H I 21-cm absorption profiles in redshifted galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, S. J.; Duchesne, S. W.; Divoli, A.; Allison, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    The star-forming reservoir in the distant Universe can be detected through H I 21-cm absorption arising from either cool gas associated with a radio source or from within a galaxy intervening the sightline to the continuum source. In order to test whether the nature of the absorber can be predicted from the profile shape, we have compiled and analysed all of the known redshifted (z ≥ 0.1) H I 21-cm absorption profiles. Although between individual spectra there is too much variation to assign a typical spectral profile, we confirm that associated absorption profiles are, on average, wider than their intervening counterparts. It is widely hypothesized that this is due to high-velocity nuclear gas feeding the central engine, absent in the more quiescent intervening absorbers. Modelling the column density distribution of the mean associated and intervening spectra, we confirm that the additional low optical depth, wide dispersion component, typical of associated absorbers, arises from gas within the inner parsec. With regard to the potential of predicting the absorber type in the absence of optical spectroscopy, we have implemented machine learning techniques to the 55 associated and 43 intervening spectra, with each of the tested models giving a ≳ 80 per cent accuracy in the prediction of the absorber type. Given the impracticability of follow-up optical spectroscopy of the large number of 21-cm detections expected from the next generation of large radio telescopes, this could provide a powerful new technique with which to determine the nature of the absorbing galaxy.

  10. Investigation of extensive air shower development using large slant depth of atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokhoyan, S. H.; Chilingarian, A. A.; Gharagyozyan, G. V.; Ghazaryan, S. S.; Hovsepyan, G. G.; Melkumyan, L. G.

    Using the EAS size spectra measured with the MAKET ANI array on on Mt. Aragats, Armenia (3200m a.s.l., 700g · cm-2 ) in the range Ne = 105 - 107 for different angles-of-incidence, the EAS attenuation length has been determined applying different analysis methods. Energy dependence of the attenuation length at large slant depth of atmosphere (700 - 1250g/cm2 ) is obtained and discussed.

  11. Estimation of foot pressure from human footprint depths using 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, Dwi Basuki; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Priambodo, Agus

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of normal and pathological variation in human foot morphology is central to several biomedical disciplines, including orthopedics, orthotic design, sports sciences, and physical anthropology, and it is also important for efficient footwear design. A classic and frequently used approach to study foot morphology is analysis of the footprint shape and footprint depth. Footprints are relatively easy to produce and to measure, and they can be preserved naturally in different soils. In this study, we need to correlate footprint depth with corresponding foot pressure of individual using 3D scanner. Several approaches are used for modeling and estimating footprint depths and foot pressures. The deepest footprint point is calculated from z max coordinate-z min coordinate and the average of foot pressure is calculated from GRF divided to foot area contact and identical with the average of footprint depth. Evaluation of footprint depth was found from importing 3D scanner file (dxf) in AutoCAD, the z-coordinates than sorted from the highest to the lowest value using Microsoft Excel to make footprinting depth in difference color. This research is only qualitatif study because doesn't use foot pressure device as comparator, and resulting the maximum pressure on calceneus is 3.02 N/cm2, lateral arch is 3.66 N/cm2, and metatarsal and hallux is 3.68 N/cm2.

  12. Depth of artificial Burrowing Owl burrows affects thermal suitability and occupancy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.; Rathbun, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations have installed artificial burrows to help bolster local Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) populations. However, occupancy probability and reproductive success in artificial burrows varies within and among burrow installations. We evaluated the possibility that depth below ground might explain differences in occupancy probability and reproductive success by affecting the temperature of artificial burrows. We measured burrow temperatures from March to July 2010 in 27 artificial burrows in southern California that were buried 15–76 cm below the surface (measured between the surface and the top of the burrow chamber). Burrow depth was one of several characteristics that affected burrow temperature. Burrow temperature decreased by 0.03°C per cm of soil on top of the burrow. The percentage of time that artificial burrows provided a thermal refuge from above-ground temperature decreased with burrow depth and ranged between 50% and 58% among burrows. The percentage of time that burrow temperature was optimal for incubating females also decreased with burrow depth and ranged between 27% and 100% among burrows. However, the percentage of time that burrow temperature was optimal for unattended eggs increased with burrow depth and ranged between 11% and 95% among burrows. We found no effect of burrow depth on reproductive success across 21 nesting attempts. However, occupancy probability had a non-linear relationship with burrow depth. The shallowest burrows (15 cm) had a moderate probability of being occupied (0.46), burrows between 28 and 40 cm had the highest probability of being occupied (>0.80), and burrows >53 cm had the lowest probability of being occupied (<0.43). Burrowing Owls may prefer burrows at moderate depths because these burrows provide a thermal refuge from above-ground temperatures, and are often cool enough to allow females to leave eggs unattended before the onset of full-time incubation, but not too cool for incubating females that

  13. 15 cm cusped magnetic field mercury ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The importance of achieving a uniform current density in the exhaust beam of an electrostatic ion thruster is discussed in terms of thrust level and accelerator grid lifetime. A neutral residence time approach is used to propose a magnetic field geometry which should produce a highly uniform beam current density. The discharge chamber length to diameter ratio is shown to be an important optimization parameter and experimental evaluation of the cusped field thruster over a wide range of this parameter is presented. Beam profile measurements 5 cm downstream of the accelerator grid indicate a beam profile flatness parameter which is 25% greater than the SERT II value. Flatness parameters extrapolated to the plane of the accelerator grid are demonstrated to be as high as 0.9.

  14. Gravitational-wave detection using redshifted 21-cm observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Somnath; Guha Sarkar, Tapomoy

    2009-06-15

    A gravitational-wave traversing the line of sight to a distant source produces a frequency shift which contributes to redshift space distortion. As a consequence, gravitational waves are imprinted as density fluctuations in redshift space. The gravitational-wave contribution to the redshift space power spectrum has a different {mu} dependence as compared to the dominant contribution from peculiar velocities. This, in principle, allows the two signals to be separated. The prospect of a detection is most favorable at the highest observable redshift z. Observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation from neutral hydrogen hold the possibility of probing very high redshifts. We consider the possibility of detecting primordial gravitational waves using the redshift space neutral hydrogen power spectrum. However, we find that the gravitational-wave signal, though present, will not be detectable on superhorizon scales because of cosmic variance and on subhorizon scales where the signal is highly suppressed.

  15. Translation Optics for 30 cm Ion Engine Thrust Vector Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Data were obtained from a 30 cm xenon ion thruster in which the accelerator grid was translated in the radial plane. The thruster was operated at three different throttle power levels, and the accelerator grid was incrementally translated in the X, Y, and azimuthal directions. Plume data was obtained downstream from the thruster using a Faraday probe mounted to a positioning system. Successive probe sweeps revealed variations in the plume direction. Thruster perveance, electron backstreaming limit, accelerator current, and plume deflection angle were taken at each power level, and for each accelerator grid position. Results showed that the thruster plume could easily be deflected up to six degrees without a prohibitive increase in accelerator impingement current. Results were similar in both X and Y direction.

  16. An H I 21-cm line survey of evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, E.; Le Bertre, T.; Libert, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The HI line at 21 cm is a tracer of circumstellar matter around AGB stars, and especially of the matter located at large distances (0.1-1 pc) from the central stars. It can give unique information on the kinematics and on the physical conditions in the outer parts of circumstellar shells and in the regions where stellar matter is injected into the interstellar medium. However this tracer has not been much used up to now, due to the difficulty of separating the genuine circumstellar emission from the interstellar one. With the Nançay Radiotelescope we are carrying out a survey of the HI emission in a large sample of evolved stars. We report on recent progresses of this long term programme, with emphasis on S-type stars.

  17. Autumn at Titan's South Pole: The 220 cm-1 Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Achterberg, R. K.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; de Kok, R. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.

    2015-10-01

    Beginning in 2012 an atmospheric cloud known by its far-infrared emission has formed rapidly at Tit an's South Pole [1, 2]. The build-up of this condensate is a result of deepening temperatures and a gathering of gases as Winter approaches. Emission from the cloud in the south has been doubling each year since 2012, in contrast to the north where it has halved every 3.8 years since 2004. The morphology of the cloud in the south is quite different from that in the north. In the north, the cloud has extended over the whole polar region beyond 55 N, whereas in the south the cloud has been confined to within about 10 degrees of the pole. The cloud in the north has had the form of a uniform hood, whereas the southern cloud has been much more complex. A map from December 2014,recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini, showed the 220 cm-1 emission coming from a distinct ring with a maximum at about 80 S. In contrast, emissions from the gases HC3N, C4H2 and C6H6 peaked near the pole and had a ring at 70 S. The 220 cm-1 ring at 80 S coincided with the minimum in the gas emission pattern. The80 S condensate ring encompassed the vortex cloud seen by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS)[3, 4]. Both the 220 cm-1 ring and the gas "bull's-eye" pattern were centered on a point that was shifted from the geographic South Pole by 4 degrees in the direction of the Sun. This corresponds to the overall tilt of Titan's atmosphere discovered from temperature maps early in the Cassini mission by Achterberg et al. [5]. The tilt may be reinforced by the presumably twice-yearly (north and south) spin-up of the atmosphere at the autumnal pole. The bull's-eye pattern of the gas emissions can be explained by the retrieved abundance distributions, which are maximum near the pole and decrease sharply toward lower latitudes, together with temperatures that are minimum at the pole and increase toward lower latitudes

  18. Rb-Sr studies of CI and CM chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Wetherill, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    Rb-Sr whole rock analyses have been performed on 2 CI and 3 CM chondrites. Four of these stones (Ivuna, Orgueil, Cold Bokkeveld and Erakot) were previously studied in this laboratory and were shown to be discordant from a 4.6 Gyr isochron. The fifth, Murchison, was not previously studied. The new data support the discordance of the first four stones, and indicate that Murchison is also discordant. Studies of Sr isotope ratios in unspiked Orgueil show that the discordance is not due to inhomogeneities in the Sr-84/Sr-86 ratio caused by incomplete mixing of nucleosynthesis products. In order to gauge the effects of weathering, two leaching experiments were performed on fresh, interior samples of Murchison; one for a period of 1.5 hr and the other for 117 hr. The results indicate that the relative solubility of nonradiogenic Sr is approximately twice that of Rb and radiogenic Sr is more soluble than the nonradiogenic Sr.

  19. The Murchison Widefield Array 21 cm Power Spectrum Analysis Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Daniel C.; Hazelton, B. J.; Trott, C. M.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Pindor, B.; Sullivan, I. S.; Pober, J. C.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, HS; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Thyagarajan, N.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tegmark, M.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-07-01

    We present the 21 cm power spectrum analysis approach of the Murchison Widefield Array Epoch of Reionization project. In this paper, we compare the outputs of multiple pipelines for the purpose of validating statistical limits cosmological hydrogen at redshifts between 6 and 12. Multiple independent data calibration and reduction pipelines are used to make power spectrum limits on a fiducial night of data. Comparing the outputs of imaging and power spectrum stages highlights differences in calibration, foreground subtraction, and power spectrum calculation. The power spectra found using these different methods span a space defined by the various tradeoffs between speed, accuracy, and systematic control. Lessons learned from comparing the pipelines range from the algorithmic to the prosaically mundane; all demonstrate the many pitfalls of neglecting reproducibility. We briefly discuss the way these different methods attempt to handle the question of evaluating a significant detection in the presence of foregrounds.

  20. Viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions and anomalous CM diffusion in polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Hendrik

    We have recently discovered that anomalous center-of-mass (CM) diffusion occurring on intermediate time scales in polymer melts can be explained by the interplay of viscoelastic and hydrodynamic interactions (VHI). The theory has been solved for unentangled melts in 3D and 2D and excellent agreement between theory and simulation is found, also for alkanes with a force field optimized from neutron scattering. The physical mechanism considers that hydrodynamic interactions are not screened: they are time dependent because of increasing viscosity before the terminal relaxation time. The VHI are generally active in melts of any topology. They are most important at early times well before the terminal relaxation time and thus affect the nanosecond time range typically observable in dynamic neutron scattering experiments. We illustrate the effects with recent molecular dynamics simulations of linear, ring and star polymers. Work performed with A.N. Semenov and J. Farago.

  1. Direct thrust measurement of a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B.; Rawlin, V.; Weigand, A.; Walker, J.

    1975-01-01

    A direct thrust measurement of a 30-cm diameter ion thruster was accomplished by means of a laser interferometer thrust stand. The thruster was supported in a pendulum manner by three 3.65-m long wires. Electrical power was provided by means of 18 mercury filled pots. A movable 23-button planar probe rake was used to determine thrust loss due to ion beam divergence. Values of thrust, thrust loss due to ion beam divergence, and thrust loss due to multiple ionization were measured for ion beam currents ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 A. Measured thrust values indicate an accuracy of approximately 1% and are in good agreement with thrust values calculated by indirect measurements.

  2. Hollow cathode restartable 15 cm diameter ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of substituting high perveance dished grids for low perveance flat ones on performance variables and plasma properties within a 15 cm modified SERT II thruster are discussed. Results suggest good performance may be achieved as an ion thruster is throttled if the screen grid transparency is decreased with propellant flow rate. Thruster startup tests, which employ a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode between the keeper and the cathode to initiate the discharge, are described. High startup reliability at cathode tip temperatures of about 500 C without excessive component wear over 2000 startup cycles is demonstrated. Testing of a single cusp magnetic field concept of discharge plasma containment is discussed. A theory which explains the observed behavior of the device is presented and proposed thruster modifications and future testing plans are discussed.

  3. HIBAYES: Global 21-cm Bayesian Monte-Carlo Model Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwart, Jonathan T. L.; Price, Daniel; Bernardi, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    HIBAYES implements fully-Bayesian extraction of the sky-averaged (global) 21-cm signal from the Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization in the presence of foreground emission. User-defined likelihood and prior functions are called by the sampler PyMultiNest (ascl:1606.005) in order to jointly explore the full (signal plus foreground) posterior probability distribution and evaluate the Bayesian evidence for a given model. Implemented models, for simulation and fitting, include gaussians (HI signal) and polynomials (foregrounds). Some simple plotting and analysis tools are supplied. The code can be extended to other models (physical or empirical), to incorporate data from other experiments, or to use alternative Monte-Carlo sampling engines as required.

  4. Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

  5. Very Large Array observations of Uranus at 2. 0 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, G.L.; Muhleman, D.O.; Linfield, R.P.

    1988-07-01

    Radio observations of Uranus obtained at 2.0 cm with the B configuration of the VLA during April 1985 are reported. The calibration and data-reduction procedures are described in detail, and the results are presented in tables, maps, and graphs and compared with IRIS 44-micron observations (Hanel et al., 1986). Features discussed include highest brightness centered on the pole rather than on the subearth point, a decrease in brightness temperature (by up to 9 K) at latitudes between -20 and -50 deg (well correlated with the IRIS data), and disk-center position (corrected for the observed radio asymmetry) in good agreement with that found on the basis of the outer contours of the image. 15 references.

  6. Cosmic (Super)String Constraints from 21 cm Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Khatri, Rishi; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2008-03-07

    We calculate the contribution of cosmic strings arising from a phase transition in the early Universe, or cosmic superstrings arising from brane inflation, to the cosmic 21 cm power spectrum at redshifts z{>=}30. Future experiments can exploit this effect to constrain the cosmic string tension G{mu} and probe virtually the entire brane inflation model space allowed by current observations. Although current experiments with a collecting area of {approx}1 km{sup 2} will not provide any useful constraints, future experiments with a collecting area of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} km{sup 2} covering the cleanest 10% of the sky can, in principle, constrain cosmic strings with tension G{mu} > or approx. 10{sup -10}-10{sup -12} (superstring/phase transition mass scale >10{sup 13} GeV)

  7. Cosmic (Super)String Constraints from 21 cm Radiation.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Rishi; Wandelt, Benjamin D

    2008-03-01

    We calculate the contribution of cosmic strings arising from a phase transition in the early Universe, or cosmic superstrings arising from brane inflation, to the cosmic 21 cm power spectrum at redshifts z > or =30. Future experiments can exploit this effect to constrain the cosmic string tension G mu and probe virtually the entire brane inflation model space allowed by current observations. Although current experiments with a collecting area of approximately 1 km2 will not provide any useful constraints, future experiments with a collecting area of 10(4)-10(6) km2 covering the cleanest 10% of the sky can, in principle, constrain cosmic strings with tension G mu > or = 10(-10)-10(-12) (superstring/phase transition mass scale >10(13) GeV). PMID:18352691

  8. Direct thrust measurement of a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B.; Rawlin, V.; Weigand, A. J.; Walker, J.

    1975-01-01

    A direct thrust measurement of a 30-cm diameter ion thruster was accomplished by means of a laser interferometer thrust stand. The thruster was supported in a pendulum manner by three 3.65-m long wires. Electrical power was provided by means of 18 mercury filled pots. A movable 23-button planar probe rake was used to determine thrust loss due to ion beam divergence. Values of thrust, thrust loss due to ion beam divergence, and thrust loss due to multiple ionization were measured for ion beam currents ranging from 0.5 A to 2.5 A. Measured thrust values indicate an accuracy of approximately 1% and are in good agreement with thrust values calculated by indirect measurements.

  9. A dual frequency 10 cm Doppler weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, K. M.; Armstrong, G. M.; Bishop, A. W.; Banis, K. J.

    A summary is given of the design concepts underlying a new 10-cm band dual frequency Doppler weather radar under development at the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. Primary emphasis in the design is placed on the system performance in a clutter environment, and the technique used to extend the radar's unambiguous range and velocity span is an important, but secondary, consideration. The design includes the use of fault tolerance and/or fault location methods at critical locations in the system and automated calibration techniques for quasi-continuous monitoring of system performance. The approach followed for minimizing range and velocity ambiguities used in this radar is a uniform pulse train version of the Doviak et al. (1978) dual sampling (batch) technique.

  10. Performance tests for the NASA Ames Research Center 20 cm x 40 cm oscillating flow wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.; Giddings, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of initial tests conducted to assess the performance of the NASA Ames 20 cm x 40 cm oscillating flow wind tunnel. The features of the tunnel are described and two aspects of tunnel operation are discussed. The first is an assessment of the steady mainstream and boundary layer flows and the second deals with oscillating mainstream and boundary layer flows. Experimental results indicate that in steady flow the test section mainstream velocity is uniform in the flow direction and in cross section. The freestream turbulence intensity is about 0.2 percent. With minor exceptions the steady turbulent boundary layer generated on the top wall of the test section exhibits the characteristics of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer generated on a flat plate. The tunnel was designed to generate sinusoidal oscillating mainstream flows. Experiments confirm that the tunnel produces sinusoidal mainstream velocity variations for the range of frequencies (up to 15 Hz). The results of this study demonstrate that the tunnel essentially produces the flows that it was designed to produce.

  11. Transport of E. coli in a sandy soil as impacted by depth to water table.

    PubMed

    Stall, Christopher; Amoozegar, Aziz; Lindbo, David; Graves, Alexandria; Rashash, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Septic systems are considered a source of groundwater contamination. In the study described in this article, the fate of microbes applied to a sandy loam soil from North Carolina coastal plain as impacted by water table depth was studied. Soil materials were packed to a depth of 65 cm in 17 columns (15-cm diameter), and a water table was established at 30, 45, and 60 cm depths using five replications. Each day, 200 mL of an artificial septic tank effluent inoculated with E. coli were applied to the top of each column, a 100-mL sample was collected at the water table level and analyzed for E. coli, and 100 mL was drained from the bottom to maintain the water table. Two columns were used as control and received 200 mL/day of sterilized effluent. Neither 30 nor 45 cm of unsaturated soil was adequate to attenuate bacterial contamination, while 60 cm of separation appeared to be sufficient. Little bacterial contamination moved with the water table when it was lowered from 30 to 60 cm.

  12. Root carbon decomposition and microbial biomass response at different soil depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpel, C.

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between root litter addition and soil organic matter (SOM) formation in top- versus subsoils is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate root litter decomposition and stabilisation in relation to microbial parameters in different soil depths. Our conceptual approach included incubation of 13C-labelled wheat roots at 30, 60 and 90 cm soil depth for 36 months under field conditions. Quantitative root carbon contribution to SOM was assessed, changes of bulk root chemistry studied by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and lignin content and composition was assessed after CuO oxidation. Compound-specific isotope analysis allowed to assess the role of root lignin for soil C storage in the different soil depths. Microbial biomass and community structure was determined after DNA extraction. After three years of incubation, O-alkyl C most likely assigned to polysaccharides decreased in all soil depth compared to the initial root material. The degree of root litter decomposition assessed by the alkyl/O-alkyl ratio decreased with increasing soil depth, while aryl/O-alkyl ratio was highest at 60 cm depth. Root-derived lignin showed depth specific concentrations (30 < 90 < 60 cm). Its composition was soil depth independent suggesting that microbial communities in all three soil depths had similar degradation abilities. Microbial biomass C and fungi contribution increased after root litter addition. Their community structure changed after root litter addition and showed horizon specific dynamics. Our study shows that root litter addition can contribute to C storage in subsoils but did not influence C storage in topsoil. We conclude that specific conditions of single soil horizons have to be taken into account if root C dynamics are to be fully understood.

  13. Liquid Argon Maximm Convective Heat Flux vs. Liquid Depth

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.; /Fermilab

    1990-01-12

    In order to help answer questions about the magnitude of heat flux to the liquid argon in a liquid argon calorimeter which could cause boiling (bubbles), calculations estimating the heat flux which can be removed by free convection were made in February, 1988. These calculations are intended to be an estimate of the heat flux above which boiling would occur. No formal writeup was made of these calculations, although the graph dated 3 Feb 88 and revised (adding low-velocity forced convection lines) 19 Feb 88 was presented in several meetings and widely distributed. With this description of the calculations, copies of the original graph and calculations are being added to the D0 Engineering Note files. The liquid argon surface is in equilibrium with argon vapor at a pressure of 1.3 bar, so the surface is at 89.70 K. The liquid is entirely at this surface temperature throughout the bulk of the volume, except locally where it is warmed by a solid surface at a higher temperature than the bulk liquid. This surface temperature is taken to be the boiling temperature of argon at the pressure corresponding to 1.3 bar plus the liquid head; hence it is a function of depth below the surface. The free and forced convection correlations used are 'from Kreith, 'Heat Transfer', for heated flat plates in a large (i.e., no other objects nearby enough to disturb the flow) uniform volume of fluid. Heat flux is a function of plate size, really length along the flow path (since a boundary layer increases in thickness starting from the leading edge of the plate), and orientation (i.e., vertical or horizontal). The maximum heat flux which can be carried away by free convection (i.e., the heat flux above which boiling occurs) is .001 W/sq.cm. at 4 inches below the surface and 0.1 to 0.2 W/sq.cm. 15 feet below the surface. Forced convection over a 1 cm plate with a fluid velocity of 1 cm/sec, or a 10 cm plate at 10 cm/sec, is about like free convection. The line for much higher heat flux is

  14. Mechanisms and depths of atlantic transform earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engeln, J. F.; Wiens, D. A.; Stein, S.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanisms and depths of 40 earthquakes on major transforms along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are studied in order to identify events that deviate from the transform-parallel strike-slip motion. Long and short period waves and Rayleigh wave spectral amplitudes are used to analyze focal mechanisms, depths, source time functions, and seismic moments of earthquakes. The relationship between centroid depths and transform thermal structures is examined. The data reveal that transform earthquake centroid depths occur above the predicted 400 C isotherms and the oceanic intraplate depths extend to the 750 C isotherm. Slip rates inferred from seismic moment releases are compared to those predicted by plate motions and good correlation is detected. The difference in the centroid depths of transform and interplate seismicity indicates transforms are either weaker or higher temperatures than expected.

  15. Learning the missing values in depth maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xuanwu; Wang, Guijin; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Qingmin

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the task of hole filling in depth maps, with the help of an associated color image. We take a supervised learning approach to solve this problem. The model is learnt from the training set, which contain pixels that have depth values. Then we apply supervised learning to predict the depth values in the holes. Our model uses a regional Markov Random Field (MRF) that incorporates multiscale absolute and relative features (computed from the color image), and models depths not only at individual points but also between adjacent points. The experiments show that the proposed approach is able to recover fairly accurate depth values and achieve a high quality depth map.

  16. Neutron depth profiling at the University of Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünlü, Kenan; Wehring, Bernard W.

    1994-12-01

    A Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) facility has been developed at The University of Texas at Austin (UT) Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory. Thermal neutrons from the tangential beam port of the UT 1-MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor are utilized. The UT-NDP facility consists of a neutron beam collimator, target chamber, beam catcher, and necessary data acquisition and process electronics. The collimator was designed to achieve a high quality thermal neutron beam with good intensity and minimum contamination of neutrons above thermal energies. A target chamber for NDP was constructed from 40.6 cm diameter aluminum tubing. The chamber can accommodate several small samples as well as a single large sample with a diameter up to 30.5 cm. Depth profiles for borophosphosilicate glass films on silicon wafers were measured using the UT-NDP facility. Other potential applications of the UT-NDP facility include the study of implanted boron in semiconductor material; study of nitrogen in metals; and study of helium behavior in metals, and metallic and amorphous alloys.

  17. The effect of burial depth on removal of seeds of Phytolacca americana.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John, L.: Damschen, Ellen, I.

    2007-04-01

    Abstract - Although burial is known to have important effects on seed predation in a variety of habitats, the role of burial depth in affecting the removal of seeds in early successional systems is poorly known. Phytolacca American (pokeweed) is a model species to examine the role of burial depth in affecting seed removal because it is common in early-successional habitats, studies suggest that seed removal is indicative of seed predation, and seed predation is related to the recruitment of mature plants. To determine how burial depth affects P. americana seed removal, 20 seeds of P. americana were buried at depths of 0, 1, or 3 cm in early-successional habitats at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina for over 6 weeks. The frequency with which seeds were encountered (as measured by the removal of at least one seed) and the proportion of seeds removed was significantly greater when seeds were on the soil surface (0 cm depth) compared to seeds that were buried 1 cm or 3 cm; there was no difference in encounter or removal between seeds at 1 cm or 3 cm. Our findings suggest that burial may have important consequences for P. americana population dynamics, because seed survival depends upon whether or not the seed is buried, and relatively shallow burial can yield large increases in seed survival. Because seed limitation is known to be an important determinant of plant community composition in early successional systems, our work suggests that burial may play an unappreciated role in the dynamics of these communities by reducing predator-mediated seed limitation.

  18. A 1.3 cm line survey toward IRC +10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Henkel, C.; Spezzano, S.; Thorwirth, S.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Mao, R. Q.; Klein, B.

    2015-02-01

    Context. IRC +10216 is the prototypical carbon star exhibiting an extended molecular circumstellar envelope. Its spectral properties are therefore the template for an entire class of objects. Aims: The main goal is to systematically study the λ ~ 1.3 cm spectral line characteristics of IRC +10216. Methods: We carried out a spectral line survey with the Effelsberg-100 m telescope toward IRC +10216. It covers the frequency range between 17.8 GHz and 26.3 GHz (K-band). Results: In the circumstellar shell of IRC +10216, we find 78 spectral lines, among which 12 remain unidentified. The identified lines are assigned to 18 different molecules and radicals. A total of 23 lines from species known to exist in this envelope are detected for the first time outside the solar system and there are additional 20 lines first detected in IRC +10216. The potential orgin of "U" lines is also discussed. Assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), we then determine rotational temperatures and column densities of 17 detected molecules. Molecular abundances relative to H2 are also estimated. A non-LTE analysis of NH3 shows that the bulk of its emission arises from the inner envelope with a kinetic temperature of 70 ± 20 K. Evidence for NH3 emitting gas with higher kinetic temperature is also obtained, and potential abundance differences between various 13C-bearing isotopologues of HC5N are evaluated. Overall, the isotopic 12C/13C ratio is estimated to be 49 ± 9. Finally, a comparison of detected molecules in the λ ~ 1.3 cm range with the dark cloud TMC-1 indicates that silicate-bearing molecules are more predominant in IRC +10216. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgSpectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A56

  19. Amorphous nanostructuralization in HOPG by 1014 W cm-2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NISHIMURA, Yasuhiko; KITAGAWA, Yoneyoshi; MORI, Yoshitaka; ISHII, Katsuhiro; HANAYAMA, Ryohei; AZUMA, Hirozumi; HIOKI, Tatsumi; NISHI, Teppei; MOTOHIRO, Tomoyoshi; KOMEDA, Osamu; SEKINE, Takashi; SATO, Nakahiro; KURITA, Takashi; KAWASHIMA, Toshiyuki; KAN, Hirofumi; SUNAHARA, Atsushi; SENTOKU, Yasuhiko; MIURA, Eisuke

    2016-05-01

    This reports provide an amorphous nanostructuralization technique on the surface modification in Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) by using a femtosecond laser. We showed, for the first time, that the surface of HOPG is changed to the amorphous nanostructuralization graphite by using a femtosecond laser-driven compression technique. Our results also suggest that the HOPG surface is changed until the deeper area from the surface by the laser-driven shock wave. A single shot of a femtosecond laser beam (1.27 ∼ 1.33×1014 Wcm∼2 in intensity, with 2 mm-diameter, and 110 fs in pulse width) is irradiated under the vacuum ambience onto a 2 mm-thick of HOPG. The calculated impact pressures on a sample was 8.3 ∼ 8.7 GPa. Crystal structure in the HOPG were analyzed using a Raman spectroscopy and an X-ray diffraction, those analyzing depth from the surface were 50 nm and 350 μm, respectively.

  20. Clear sky atmosphere at cm-wavelengths from climatology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, Bartosz; Uscka-Kowalkowska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    We utilize ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite climatology data to reconstruct site and season-dependent vertical profiles of precipitable water vapour (PWV). We use these profiles to solve radiative transfer through the atmosphere, and derive atmospheric brightness temperature (Tatm) and optical depth (τ) at centimetre wavelengths. We validate the reconstruction by comparing the model column PWV with photometric measurements of PWV, performed in clear sky conditions pointed towards the Sun. Based on the measurements, we devise a selection criteria to filter the climatology data to match the PWV levels to the expectations of the clear sky conditions. We apply the reconstruction to the location of a Polish 32-metre radio telescope, and characterize Tatm and τ year round, at selected frequencies. We also derive the zenith distance dependence for these parameters, and discuss the shortcomings of using planar, single-layer and optically thin atmospheric models in continuum radio-source flux-density measurement calibrations. We obtain PWV-Tatm and PWV-τ scaling relations in clear sky conditions, and constrain limits to which the actual Tatm and τ can deviate from those derived solely from the climatological data. Finally, we suggest a statistical method to detect clear sky that involves ground-level measurements of relative humidity. Accuracy is tested using local climatological data. The method may be useful to constrain cloud cover in cases when no other (and more robust) climatological data are available.

  1. Are face representations depth cue invariant?

    PubMed

    Dehmoobadsharifabadi, Armita; Farivar, Reza

    2016-06-01

    The visual system can process three-dimensional depth cues defining surfaces of objects, but it is unclear whether such information contributes to complex object recognition, including face recognition. The processing of different depth cues involves both dorsal and ventral visual pathways. We investigated whether facial surfaces defined by individual depth cues resulted in meaningful face representations-representations that maintain the relationship between the population of faces as defined in a multidimensional face space. We measured face identity aftereffects for facial surfaces defined by individual depth cues (Experiments 1 and 2) and tested whether the aftereffect transfers across depth cues (Experiments 3 and 4). Facial surfaces and their morphs to the average face were defined purely by one of shading, texture, motion, or binocular disparity. We obtained identification thresholds for matched (matched identity between adapting and test stimuli), non-matched (non-matched identity between adapting and test stimuli), and no-adaptation (showing only the test stimuli) conditions for each cue and across different depth cues. We found robust face identity aftereffect in both experiments. Our results suggest that depth cues do contribute to forming meaningful face representations that are depth cue invariant. Depth cue invariance would require integration of information across different areas and different pathways for object recognition, and this in turn has important implications for cortical models of visual object recognition. PMID:27271993

  2. Pictorial depth probed through relative sizes

    PubMed Central

    Wagemans, Johan; van Doorn, Andrea J; Koenderink, Jan J

    2011-01-01

    In the physical environment familiar size is an effective depth cue because the distance from the eye to an object equals the ratio of its physical size to its angular extent in the visual field. Such simple geometrical relations do not apply to pictorial space, since the eye itself is not in pictorial space, and consequently the notion “distance from the eye” is meaningless. Nevertheless, relative size in the picture plane is often used by visual artists to suggest depth differences. The depth domain has no natural origin, nor a natural unit; thus only ratios of depth differences could have an invariant significance. We investigate whether the pictorial relative size cue yields coherent depth structures in pictorial spaces. Specifically, we measure the depth differences for all pairs of points in a 20-point configuration in pictorial space, and we account for these observations through 19 independent parameters (the depths of the points modulo an arbitrary offset), with no meaningful residuals. We discuss a simple formal framework that allows one to handle individual differences. We also compare the depth scale obtained by way of this method with depth scales obtained in totally different ways, finding generally good agreement. PMID:23145258

  3. Clutter depth discrimination using the wavenumber spectrum.

    PubMed

    Benjamin Reeder, D

    2014-01-01

    Clutter depth is a key parameter in mid-frequency active sonar systems to discriminate between sources of clutter and targets of interest. A method is needed to remotely discriminate clutter depth by information contained in the backscattered signal-without a priori knowledge of that depth. Presented here is an efficient approach for clutter depth estimation using the structure in the wavenumber spectrum. Based on numerical simulations for a simple test case in a shallow water waveguide, this technique demonstrates the potential capability to discriminate between a clutter source in the water column vs one on the seabed.

  4. Depth Perception In Remote Stereoscopic Viewing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Von Sydow, Marika

    1989-01-01

    Report describes theoretical and experimental studies of perception of depth by human operators through stereoscopic video systems. Purpose of such studies to optimize dual-camera configurations used to view workspaces of remote manipulators at distances of 1 to 3 m from cameras. According to analysis, static stereoscopic depth distortion decreased, without decreasing stereoscopitc depth resolution, by increasing camera-to-object and intercamera distances and camera focal length. Further predicts dynamic stereoscopic depth distortion reduced by rotating cameras around center of circle passing through point of convergence of viewing axes and first nodal points of two camera lenses.

  5. An Exploration of the Needling Depth in Acupuncture: The Safe Needling Depth and the Needling Depth of Clinical Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Pei-Chi; Chu, Heng-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore the existing scientific information regarding safe needling depth of acupuncture points and the needling depth of clinical efficacy. Methods. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify relevant monographs and related references from 1991 to 2013. Chinese journals and theses/dissertations were hand searched. Results. 47 studies were recruited and divided into 6 groups by measuring tools, that is, MRI, in vivo evaluation, CT, ultrasound, dissected specimen of cadavers, and another group with clinical efficacy. Each research was analyzed for study design, definition of safe depth, and factors that would affect the measured depths. Depths of clinical efficacy were discussed from the perspective of de-qi and other clinical observations. Conclusions. Great inconsistency in depth of each point measured from different subject groups and tools exists. The definition of safe depth should be established through standardization. There is also lack of researches to compare the clinical efficacy. A well-designed clinical trial selecting proper measuring tools to decide the actual and advisable needling depth for each point, to avoid adverse effects or complications and promote optimal clinical efficacy, is a top priority. PMID:23935678

  6. Conjugate 18 cm OH satellite lines at a cosmological distance.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, Nissim; Chengalur, Jayaram N; Ghosh, Tapasi

    2004-07-30

    We have detected the two 18 cm OH satellite lines from the z approximately 0.247 source PKS1413+135, the 1720 MHz line in emission and the 1612 MHz line in absorption. The 1720 MHz luminosity is L(OH) approximately 354L (center dot in circle), more than an order of magnitude larger than that of any other known 1720 MHz maser. The profiles of the two satellite lines are conjugate, implying that they arise in the same gas. This allows us to test for any changes in the values of fundamental constants without being affected by systematic uncertainties arising from relative motions between the gas clouds in which the different lines arise. Our data constrain changes in G identical with g(p)[alpha(2)/y](1.849), where y identical with m(e)/m(p); we find DeltaG/G=2.2+/-3.8 x 10(-5), consistent with no changes in alpha, g(p), and y.

  7. Piezo-Operated Shutter Mechanism Moves 1.5 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Robert; Bamford, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The figure shows parts of a shutter mechanism designed to satisfy a number of requirements specific to its original intended application as a component of an atomic clock to be flown in outer space. The mechanism may also be suitable for use in laboratory and industrial vacuum systems on Earth for which there are similar requirements. The requirements include the following: a) To alternately close, then open, a 1.5-cm-diameter optical aperture twice per second, with a stroke time of no more than 15 ms, during a total operational lifetime of at least a year; b) To attenuate light by a factor of at least 1012 when in the closed position; c) To generate little or no magnetic field; d) To be capable of withstanding bakeout at a temperature of 200 C to minimize outgassing during subsequent operation in an ultrahigh vacuum; and e) To fit within a diameter of 12 in. (=305 mm) a size limit dictated by the size of an associated magnetic shield. The light-attenuation requirement is satisfied by use of overlapping shutter blades. The closure of the aperture involves, among other things, insertion of a single shutter blade between a pair of shutter blades. The requirement to minimize the magnetic field is satisfied by use of piezoelectric actuators. Because piezoelectric actuators cannot withstand bakeout, they must be mounted outside the vacuum chamber, and, hence, motion must be transmitted from the actuators to the shutter levers via a vacuum-chamber-wall diaphragm.

  8. Microbiological study of the Murchison CM2 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2012-10-01

    In 1864, Louis Pasteur attempted to cultivate living microorganisms from pristine samples of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorite. His results were negative and never published, but recorded it in his laboratory notebooks. At that time, only aerobic liquid or agar-based organic reach media were used, as his research on anaerobes had just started. In our laboratory the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous meteorite was selected to expand on these studies for microbiological study by cultivation on anaerobic mineral media. Since the surface could have been more easily contaminated, interior fragments of a sample of the Murchison meteorite were extracted and crushed under sterile conditions. The resulting powder was then mixed in anoxic medium and injected into Hungate tubes containing anaerobic media with various growth substrates at different pH and salinity and incubated at different temperatures. The goal of the experiments was to determine if living cells would grow from the material of freshly fractured interior fragments of the stone. If any growth occurred, work could then be carried out to assess the nature of the environmental contamination by observations of the culture growth (rates of speed and biodiversity); live/dead fluorescent staining to determine contamination level and DNA analysis to establish the microbial species present. In this paper we report the results of that study.

  9. Sensing and characterization of explosive vapors near 700 cm -1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Alan R.; Reeve, Scott W.

    2007-04-01

    One of the technological challenges associated with trace vapor detection of explosive materials are the relatively low vapor pressures exhibited by most energetic materials under ambient conditions. For example, the vapor pressure for TNT is ~10 ppbv at room temperature, a concentration near the Limit of Detection for many of the technologies currently being deployed. In the case of improvised explosive devices, the clandestine nature of the device further serves to exacerbate the vapor pressure issue. Interestingly, the gold standard in explosives detection remains the trained canine nose. While there is still some debate as to what the dog actually smells, recent studies have indicated the alert response is triggered, not by the vapor presence of a specific explosive compound but, by a characteristic bouquet of odors from chemical impurities used to manufacture and process the explosives. Here we present high resolution infrared data for several of these volatile organic compounds in the 700 cm -1 region required for real time optical sensing of energetic materials.

  10. CM and DM in an ISO R and D Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    ISO 9000 - a common buzz word in industry is making inroads to government agencies. The National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) achieved ISO 9001 certification at each of its nine (9) Centers and Headquarters in 1998-1999. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) was recommended for certification in September 1999. Since then, each of the Centers has been going through the semi-annual surveillance audits. Growing out of the manufacturing industry, successful application of the international quality standard to a research and development (R&D) environment has had its challenges. This paper will address how GRC applied Configuration Management (CM) and Data (or Document) Management (DM) to meet challenges to achieve ISO certification. One of the first challenges was to fit the ISO 9001-1994 elements to the GRC environment. Some of the elements fit well-Management Responsibility (4.1), Internal Audits (4.17), Document and Data Control (4.5). Other elements were not suited or applied easily to the R&D environment-Servicing (4.19), Statistical Techniques (4.20). Since GRC "builds" only one or two items at a time, these elements were considered not applicable to the environment.

  11. Ion thruster system (8-cm) cyclic endurance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Beattie, J. R.; Poeschel, R. L.; Hyman, J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the qualification test of an Engineering-Model 5-mN-thrust 8-cm-diameter mercury ion thruster which is representative of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) thrusters. Two of these thrusters are scheduled for future flight test. The cyclic endurance test described herein was a ground-based test performed in a vacuum facility with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled cryo-surface and a frozen mercury target. The Power Electronics Unit, Beam Shield, Gimal, and Propellant Tank that were used with the thruster in the endurance test are also similar to those of the IAPS. The IAPS thruster that will undergo the longest beam-on-time during the actual space test will be subjected to 7,055 hours of beam-on-time and 2,557 cycles during the flight test. The endurance test was successfully concluded when the mercury in the IAPS Propellant Tank was consumed. At that time, 8,471 hours of beam-on-time and 599 cycles had been accumulated. Subsequent post-test-evaluation operations were performed (without breaking vacuum) which extended the test values to 652 cycles and 9,489 hours of beam-on-time. The Power Electronic Unit (PEU) and thruster were in the same vacuum chamber throughout the test. The PEU accumulated 10,268 hr of test time with high voltage applied to the operating thruster or dummy load.

  12. The 15 cm mercury ion thruster research 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Doubly charged ion current measurements in the beam of a SERT II thruster are shown to introduce corrections which bring its calculated thrust into close agreement with that measured during flight testing. A theoretical model of doubly charged ion production and loss in mercury electron bombardment thrusters is discussed and is shown to yield doubly-to-singly charged ion density ratios that agree with experimental measurements obtained on a 15 cm diameter thruster over a range of operating conditions. Single cusp magnetic field thruster operation is discussed and measured ion beam profiles, performance data, doubly charged ion densities, and discharge plasma characteristics are presented for a range of operating conditions and thruster geometries. Variations in the characteristics of this thruster are compared to those observed in the divergent field thruster and the cusped field thruster is shown to yield flatter ion beam profiles at about the same discharge power and propellant utilization operating point. An ion optics test program is described and the measured effects of grid system dimensions on ion beamlet half angle and diameter are examined. The effectiveness of hollow cathode startup using a thermionically emitting filament within the cathode is examined over a range of mercury flow rates and compared to results obtained with a high voltage tickler startup technique. Results of cathode plasma property measurement tests conducted within the cathode are presented.

  13. Effect of sediment depth and sediment type on the survival of Vallisneria americana Michx grown from tubers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rybicki, N.B.; Carter, V.

    1986-01-01

    Sedimentation resulting from storms may have been one of the reasons for the elimination of submersed aquatic vegetation from the tidal Potomac River in the late 1930's. Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the effects of different depths of overlying sediment and composition of sediment on the survival of Vallisneria americana Michx (wildcelery) grown from tubers. Survival of plants grown from tubers decreased significantly with increasing sediment depth. Survival of tubers declined from 90% or more when buried in 10 cm to no survival in greater than 25 cm of sediment. Survival with depth in sand was significantly lower than in silty clay. Field investigation determined that the majority of tubers in Vallisneria beds are distributed between 10 and 20 cm in depth in silty clay and between 5 and 15 cm in depth in sand. Based on the field distribution of tubers and on the percent survival of plants growing from tubers at each depth in the laboratory experiment, we suggest that the deposition of 10 cm or more of sediment by severe storms such as occurred in the 1930s could contribute to the loss of vegetation in the tidal Potomac River. ?? 1986.

  14. Trends in extend and depth of Ordovician infauna

    SciTech Connect

    Droser, M.L.; Bottjer, D.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Ordovician radiation has been particularly well documented from analyses of trends in marine familial diversity. Trace fossil diversity also increased during this time. However, there has not previously been an attempt to document the Ordovician radiation in terms of depth and extent of bioturbation and utilization of infaunal ecospace. In order to determine the relationship between the Ordovician radiation and the development of the infaunal biological benthic boundary layer, over 600 m of Ordovician strata (Nevada and Utah) deposited in shallow subtidal shelf environments were examined. The amount of bioturbation in these rocks was ranked using the following ichnofabric indices: (1) no bioturbation; (2) discrete isolated trace fossils, up to 10% bioturbated; (3) 10 to 40% bioturbated, but bedding is generally preserved; (4) 40 to 60% bioturbated, last vestiges of bedding preserved; (5) bedding completely disrupted; and (6) bedding nearly or totally homogenized. In the Lower and Middle Ordovician the most common ichnofabric index is 3, represented by 41% of the strata, whereas ichnofabric index 5 represents only 8%. Depth of bioturbation averages 2-3 cm with a maximum of 5 cm. Flat pebble conglomerates, previously suggested to indicate limited bioturbation, are abundant in these strata. By the late Caradoc, 67% of the strata are represented by ichnofabric index 5. Depth of bioturbation ranges from centimeters to tens of centimeters, with Thalassinoides dominating trace fossil assemblages. This nearly order-of-magnitude increase in the occurrence of completely bioturbated strata through the Ordovician is consistent with the hypotheses of others who have suggested that an increase in diversity can be accompanied by an increase in utilization of ecospace.

  15. Topsoil Depth Effects on Crop Yields as Affected by Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott; Cruse, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Topsoil (A-horizon) depth is positively correlated with crop productivity; crop roots and available nutrients are concentrated in this layer; topsoil is critical for nutrient retention and water holding capacity. Its loss or reduction can be considered an irreversible impact of soil erosion. Climatic factors such as precipitation and temperature extremes that impose production stress further complicate the relationship between soil erosion and crop productivity. The primary research objective was to determine the effects of soil erosion on corn and soybean yields of loess and till-derived soils in the rain-fed farming region of Iowa. Data collection took place from 2007 to 2012 at seven farm sites located in different major soil regions. Collection consisted of 40 to 50 randomly selected georeferenced soil probe locations across varying erosion classes in well drained landscape positions. Soil probes were done to a minimum depth of 100 cm and soil organic carbon samples were obtained in the top 10 cm. Crop yields were determined utilizing georeferenced harvest maps from yield monitoring devices and cross referenced with georeferenced field data points. Data analysis targeted relationships between crop yields versus soil organic carbon contents (SOC) and crop yields versus topsoil depths (TSD). The variation of yield and growing season rainfall across multiple years were also evaluated to provide an indication of soil resiliency associated with topsoil depth and soil organic carbon levels across varying climatic conditions. Results varied between sites but generally indicated a greater yield potential at thicker TSD's and higher SOC concentrations; an annual variation in yield response as a function of precipitation amount during the growing season; largest yield responses to both TSD and SOC occurred in the driest study year (2012); and little to no significant yield responses to TSD occurred during the wettest study year (2010). These results were not

  16. Handheld White Light Interferometer for Measuring Defect Depth in Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Simmons, Stephen; Cox, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Accurate quantification of defects (scratches and impacts) is vital to the certification of flight hardware and other critical components. The amount of damage to a particular component contributes to the performance, reliability, and safety of a system, which ultimately affects the success or failure of a mission or test. The launch-commit criteria on a Space Shuttle Orbiter window are governed by the depth of the defects that are identified by a visual inspection. This measurement of a defect is not easy to obtain given the environment, size of the defect, and location of the window(s). The determination of depth has typically been performed by taking a mold impression and measuring the impression with an optical profiling instrument. Another method of obtaining an estimate of the depth is by using a refocus microscope. To use a refocus microscope, the surface of the glass and bottom of the defect are, in turn, brought into focus by the operator. The amount of movement between the two points corresponds to the depth of the defect. The refocus microscope requires a skilled operator and has been proven to be unreliable when used on Orbiter windows. White light interferometry was chosen as a candidate to replace the refocus microscope. The White Light Interferometer (WLI) was developed to replace the refocus microscope as the instrument used for measuring the depth of defects in Orbiter windows. The WLI consists of a broadband illumination source, interferometer, detector, motion control, displacement sensor, mechanical housing, and support electronics. The illumination source for the WLI is typically a visible light emitting diode (LED) or a near-infrared superluminescent diode (SLD) with power levels of less than a milliwatt. The interferometer is a Michelson configuration consisting of a 1-in. (2.5-cm) cube beam splitter, a 0.5-in. (1.3-cm) optical window as a movable leg (used to closely match the return intensity of the fixed leg from the window), and a

  17. Formation of asteroids from mm-cm sized grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, D.; Johansen, A.; Davies, M. B.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Asteroids and comets are intricately connected to life in the universe. Asteroids are the building blocks of terrestrial planets; water-rich asteroids and comets are likely to be the primary source of water for Earth's oceans and other volatiles (Morbidelli et al. 2000; Hartogh et al. 2011); and they may play role in mass extinctions. Yet, the formation of these objects is poorly understood. There is mounting evidence that the traditional picture of the formation of asteroids must be revised. The size distribution of asteroids is hard to reconcile with a traditional bottomup formation scenario. Instead, asteroids may form top-down, with large 100 - 1000 km sized objects forming first by the gravitational collapse of dense clumps of small particles. Experiments and simulations suggest that dust grains cannot grow to sizes larger than mm-cm in protoplanetary disks (Zsom et al. 2010). Also, primitive meteorites from the asteroid belt contain a large mass fraction in chondrules of sizes from 0.1 mm to a few mm. Hence, it is desirable to find a model for asteroid formation from mm-sized particles. Aims. In this work, we model the dynamics of mm-cm sized grains in dust-enriched inner regions of protoplanetary disks. We model the dust-gas interaction to determine whether dust grains of this size can form dense, self-gravitating clouds that can collapse to form asteroids. Methods. We perform shearing box simulations of the inner disk using the Pencil Code (Brandenburg & Dobler 2002). The simulations start with a Solar-type solids-to-gas ratio of 0.01 and we gradually increase the particle concentration. In a real protoplanetary disk, solid particles are expected to migrate from the outer regions and concentrate in the inner disk. Results. Our simulations show that mm-sized particles can form very dense clumps, driven by a run-away convergence in the radial-drift flow of these particles - this dynamic is known as the streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005

  18. A 1.3 cm line survey toward Orion KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Henkel, C.; Thorwirth, S.; Spezzano, S.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Mao, R. Q.; Klein, B.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The nearby Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula is one of the most prolific sources of molecular line emission. It has served as a benchmark for spectral line searches throughout the (sub)millimeter regime. Aims: The main goal is to systematically study the spectral characteristics of Orion KL in the λ ~ 1.3 cm band. Methods: We carried out a spectral line survey with the Effelsberg-100 m telescope toward Orion KL. It covers the frequency range between 17.9 GHz and 26.2 GHz, i.e., the radio "K band". We also examined ALMA maps to address the spatial origin of molecules detected by our 1.3 cm line survey. Results: In Orion KL, we find 261 spectral lines, yielding an average line density of about 32 spectral features per GHz above 3σ (a typical value of 3σ is 15 mJy). The identified lines include 164 radio recombination lines (RRLs) and 97 molecular lines. The RRLs, from hydrogen, helium, and carbon, stem from the ionized material of the Orion Nebula, part of which is covered by our beam. The molecular lines are assigned to 13 different molecular species including rare isotopologues. A total of 23 molecular transitions from species known to exist in Orion KL are detected for the first time in the interstellar medium. Non-metastable (J>K) 15NH3 transitions are detected in Orion KL for the first time. Based on the velocity information of detected lines and the ALMA images, the spatial origins of molecular emission are constrained and discussed. A narrow feature is found in SO2 (81,7 - 72,6), but not in other SO2 transitions, possibly suggesting the presence of a maser line. Column densities and fractional abundances relative to H2 are estimated for 12 molecules with local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) methods. Rotational diagrams of non-metastable 14NH3 transitions with J = K + 1 to J = K + 4 yield different results; metastable (J = K) 15NH3 is found to have a higher excitation temperature than non-metastable 15NH3, also indicating that they may trace different

  19. Does strip-tillage could limit the drop of yields on soils of reduced depth of profiles in loess areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejman, Jerzy; Rafalska-Przysucha, Anna; Jadzczyszyn, Jan; Rodzik, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Strip tillage restrict a tillage operation to seed rows and enables a combination of tillage, sowing and application of fertilizers during one pass of agricultural machines. The practice decreases the costs of fuel and limits the risk of water erosion by the increase of infiltration of soil water. In the studies, we put a hypothesis that strip tillage is a tool to increase the yields on soils of reduced profiles. Studies were carried out in the loess area of the Lublin Upland (Poland). The site is cultivated from the beginning of the 18th century, and strip tillage is performed from 2008. All plant residues is left after harvest in the field and mixed with the soil by disc harrow. Measurements of solum depth (Ap-BC), soil properties and parameters of plant growth were carried out in 108 points in the field of the area of 4 ha. Crops included winter wheat (2014) and maize (2015). Studies showed that the profiles of Haplic Luvisol were largely truncated or overbuilt due to erosion and moldboard plow in the past. Solum depth ranged from 0.2 to 3.6 m (mean=1.29 m, CV=64%), and soils with the non-eroded, slightly, moderately, severely, very severely eroded and depositional profiles represented 13, 32, 10, 5, 8 and 32% of total number of cores, respectively. In a result of modification of profiles, clay content ranged from 84 to 222 (145; 16%) in the layer of 0-15 cm, whereas SOC concentration remained on relatively low level and ranged from 4.3 to 16.8 g/kg (9.1; 21.4%). Soil water content (SWC) within depth of 1-m profile was differentiated at the start of measurements in the middle of June 2015. The SWC was the highest in non-eroded and depositional soils and the smallest in severely and very severely eroded soils. The difference of 5% has maintained during the whole growing season and did not affect the growth of plants till the phase of flowering. Then, the plants on shallower soils passed quicker to the next phenological phases in comparison to the plants on deeper

  20. Effects of soil depths on nymphal eclosion of Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work reports on the use of cultural practices to influence grasshoppers nymphal emergence. Grasshopper eggs were buried at depths of 2, 14, 18, 22, and 26 cm in laboratory arenas. Nymph eclosion ranges from 77 to 87%. However, nymph emergence, measured as the number of nymphs that reached the s...

  1. 152Eu depth profiles in granite and concrete cores exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Shizuma, K; Iwatani, K; Hasai, H; Hoshi, M; Oka, T

    1997-06-01

    Two granite and two concrete core samples were obtained within 500 m from the hypocenter of the Hiroshima atomic bomb, and the depth profile of 152Eu was measured to evaluate the incident neutron spectrum. The granite cores were obtained from a pillar of the Motoyasu Bridge located 101 m from the hypocenter and from a granite rock in the Shirakami Shrine (379 m); the concrete cores were obtained from a gate in the Gokoku Shrine (398 m) and from a pillar top of the Hiroshima bank (250 m). The profiles of the specific activities of the cores were measured to a depth of 40 cm from the surface using low background germanium (Ge) spectrometers. According to the measured depth profiles, relaxation lengths of incident neutrons were derived as 13.6 cm for Motoyasu Bridge pillar (granite), 12.2 cm for Shirakami Shrine core (granite), and 9.6 cm for concrete cores of Gokoku Shrine and Hiroshima Bank. In addition, a comparison of the granite cores in Hiroshima showed good agreement with Nagasaki data. Present results indicates that the depth profile of 152Eu reflects incident neutrons not so high but in the epithermal region.

  2. Seasonal Evolution of Titan's South Pole 220 cm-1 Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald

    2016-06-01

    A cloud of ices that had been seen only in Titan's north during winter began to emerge at the south pole in 2012. Discovered by Voyager IRIS as an emission feature at 220 cm-1, the cloud has been studied extensively in both the north and south by Cassini CIRS. The spectral feature acts as a tracer of the seasonal changes at Titan's poles, relating to evolving composition, temperature structure and dynamics. Although candidates have been proposed, the chemical makeup of the cloud has never been identified. The cloud is composed of condensates derived from gases created at high altitude and transported to the cold, shadowed pole. In the north the cloud has diminished gradually over the Cassini mission as Titan has transitioned from winter to spring. The southern cloud, on the other hand, grew rapidly after 2012. By late 2014 it had developed a complex ring structure that was confined to latitudes poleward of 70°S within the deep temperature well that had formed at the south pole [1]. The location of the cloud coincides in latitude with the HCN cloud reported by ISS and VIMS [2,3]. CIRS also saw enhanced gas emissions at those latitudes [4]. When it first formed, the cloud was abundant at altitudes as high as 250 km, while later it was found mostly at 100-150 km, suggesting that the material that had been deposited from above had gathered at the lower altitudes. Radiance from the southern cloud increased until mid-2015 and since then has decreased. The cloud may be transitioning to the more uniform hood morphology familiar in the north. Taking the north and south together, by the end of the Cassini mission in 2017 we will have observed almost an entire seasonal cycle of the ice cloud.

  3. Molecular depth profiling in ice matrices using C 60 projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wucher, A.; Sun, S.; Szakal, C.; Winograd, N.

    2004-06-01

    The prospects of molecular sputter depth profiling using C 60+ projectiles were investigated on thick ice layers prepared by freezing aqueous solutions of histamine onto a metal substrate. The samples were analyzed in a ToF-SIMS spectrometer equipped with a liquid metal Ga + ion source and a newly developed fullerene ion source. The C 60+ beam was used to erode the surface, while static ToF-SIMS spectra were taken with both ion beams alternatively between sputtering cycles. We find that the signals both related to the ice matrix and to the histamine are about two orders of magnitude higher under 20-keV C 60 than under 15-keV Ga bombardment. Histamine related molecular signals are found to increase drastically if the freshly introduced surface is pre-sputtered with C 60 ions, until at a total ion fluence of about 10 13 cm -2 the spectra are completely dominated by the molecular ion and characteristic fragments of histamine. At larger fluence, the signal is found to decrease with a disappearance cross section of approximately 10 -14 cm 2, until at total fluences of about 10 14 cm -2 a steady state with stable molecular signals is reached. In contrast, no appreciable molecular signal could be observed if Ga + ions were used to erode the surface.

  4. Effect of acupuncture depth on muscle pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While evidence supports efficacy of acupuncture and/or dry needling in treating musculoskeletal pain, it is unclear which needling method is most effective. This study aims to determine the effects of depth of needle penetration on muscle pain. Methods A total of 22 healthy volunteers performed repeated eccentric contractions to induce muscle soreness in their extensor digital muscle. Subjects were assigned randomly to four groups, namely control group, skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle), muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle) and non-segmental group (depth of 10 mm: the anterior tibial muscle). Pressure pain threshold and electrical pain threshold of the skin, fascia and muscle were measured at a point 20 mm distal to the maximum tender point on the second day after the exercise. Results Pressure pain thresholds of skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle) and muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle) were significantly higher than the control group, whereas the electrical pain threshold at fascia of muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle) was a significantly higher than control group; however, there was no significant difference between the control and other groups. Conclusion The present study shows that acupuncture stimulation of muscle increases the PPT and EPT of fascia. The depth of needle penetration is important for the relief of muscle pain. PMID:21696603

  5. "Depth" Matters in High School Science Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a recent study that examines one of the most enduring debates in science instruction--whether "depth" or "breadth" of knowledge is most important. Its authors come down on the side of depth. The study found that high school students who focus more intensely on core topics within their biology, chemistry, and…

  6. Improved Boundary Layer Depth Retrievals from MPLNET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Molod, Andrea M.; Joseph, Everette

    2013-01-01

    Continuous lidar observations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth have been made at the Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) site in Greenbelt, MD since April 2001. However, because of issues with the operational PBL depth algorithm, the data is not reliable for determining seasonal and diurnal trends. Therefore, an improved PBL depth algorithm has been developed which uses a combination of the wavelet technique and image processing. The new algorithm is less susceptible to contamination by clouds and residual layers, and in general, produces lower PBL depths. A 2010 comparison shows the operational algorithm overestimates the daily mean PBL depth when compared to the improved algorithm (1.85 and 1.07 km, respectively). The improved MPLNET PBL depths are validated using radiosonde comparisons which suggests the algorithm performs well to determine the depth of a fully developed PBL. A comparison with the Goddard Earth Observing System-version 5 (GEOS-5) model suggests that the model may underestimate the maximum daytime PBL depth by 410 m during the spring and summer. The best agreement between MPLNET and GEOS-5 occurred during the fall and they diered the most in the winter.

  7. Contextualizing Range and Depth in Indian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Examines the range and depth of English in India and argues that these Kachruvian notions go a long way towards explaining how the language is used, exploited, extended, and recreated in the sub-continent. Data, both written and spoken, are presented, and it is suggested that in-depth analyses of such data are a prerequisite to any real…

  8. Differential Cognitive Cues in Pictorial Depth Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omari, Issa M.; Cook, Harold

    The experiment described in this report investigates the effects of various cognitive cues in questions asked regarding the relationship of elements in pictorial depth perception. The subjects of this study are 40 third grade Black and Puerto Rican children. They are confronted with four pictures from the Hudson Depth Perception Tests and asked to…

  9. [Effects of sensor's laying depth for precision irrigation on growth characteristics of maturate grapes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Ning; Fan, Jun; Li, Shi-Qing; Zheng, Chen; Wang, Quan-Jiu

    2012-08-01

    In order to approach the appropriate laying depth of soil moisture sensor to control irrigation amount, the sensors were laid at different soil depth to measure the soil moisture content, with the effects of definite irrigation amount on the growth characteristics of maturate grapes studied. The results showed that using the sensor laying at the soil depth 40 cm (SF40) to control irrigation amount, the biological characteristics of the grapes, including photosynthesis, grape yield, and water use efficiency were superior than those when the sensor was laid at the depth 20 cm (SF20) and under conventional furrow irrigation (CK). The grape brix degree in treatment SF40 was slightly lower than that in treatments SF20 and CK, but was still near 20%. In treatment SF40, the irrigated water could infiltrate or redistribute in the soil layers where the main roots of the grapes existed. It was suggested that laying soil moisture sensor at the depth 40 cm could better control the irrigation amount for the maturate grapes in the study area.

  10. On the ability of RegCM4 regional climate model to simulate surface solar radiation patterns over Europe: an assessment using satellite-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandri, G.; Georgoulias, A. K.; Zanis, P.; Katragkou, E.; Tsikerdekis, A.; Kourtidis, K.; Meleti, C.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we assess the ability of RegCM4 regional climate model to simulate surface solar radiation (SSR) patterns over Europe. A decadal RegCM4 run (2000-2009) was implemented and evaluated against satellite-based observations from the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) showing that the model simulates adequately the SSR patterns over the region. The bias between RegCM4 and CM SAF is +1.54 % for MFG (Meteosat First Generation) and +3.34 % for MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) observations. The relative contribution of parameters that determine the transmission of solar radiation within the atmosphere to the deviation appearing between RegCM4 and CM SAF SSR is also examined. Cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties such as cloud fractional cover (CFC), cloud optical thickness (COT) and cloud effective radius (Re) from RegCM4 are evaluated against data from CM SAF. The same procedure is repeated for aerosol optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), asymmetry factor (ASY) and single scattering albedo (SSA), as well as other parameters including surface broadband albedo (ALB) and water vapor amount (WV) using data from MACv1 aerosol climatology, from CERES satellite sensors and from ERA-Interim reanalysis. It is shown here that the good agreement between RegCM4 and satellite-based SSR observations can be partially attributed to counteracting effects among the above mentioned parameters. The contribution of each parameter to the RegCM4-CM SAF SSR deviations is estimated with the combined use of the aforementioned data and a radiative transfer model (SBDART). CFC, COT and AOD are the major determinants of these deviations; however, the other parameters also play an important role for specific regions and seasons.

  11. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many volcanic hazard factors - such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses - relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11–15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011–2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide. PMID:24067336

  12. Contour detection combined with depth information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jie; Cai, Chao

    2015-12-01

    Many challenging computer vision problems have been proven to benefit from the incorporation of depth information, to name a few, semantic labellings, pose estimations and even contour detection. Different objects have different depths from a single monocular image. The depth information of one object is coherent and the depth information of different objects may vary discontinuously. Meanwhile, there exists a broad non-classical receptive field (NCRF) outside the classical receptive field (CRF). The response of the central neuron is affected not only by the stimulus inside the CRF, but also modulated by the stimulus surrounding it. The contextual modulation is mediated by horizontal connections across the visual cortex. Based on the findings and researches, a biological-inspired contour detection model which combined with depth information is proposed in this paper.

  13. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide. PMID:24067336

  14. Depth perception through circular movements of dots.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Elements that move with velocity gradients have been shown to give the impression of depth. In this study, it was found that dots in circular motion around a line of sight give a depth impression corresponding to the gradients of the angular velocities of circular motion on a screen. The results of two experiments show that depth perception through circular motion is as effective as that through expansion or spiral motion, but less effective than that through lateral motion parallax when the local speed distributions on the screen are matched. The present depth effect shows that expansion-contraction, spiral, and circular motions are a continuum in terms of producing depth effects; they differ from lateral motion parallax.

  15. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-09-26

    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide.

  16. Models of the Cosmological 21 cm Signal from the Epoch of Reionization Calibrated with Lyα and CMB Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy; Puchwein, Ewald; Haehnelt, Martin G.

    2016-08-01

    We present here 21 cm predictions from high dynamic range simulations for a range of reionization histories that have been tested against available Lyα and CMB data. We assess the observability of the predicted spatial 21 cm fluctuations by ongoing and upcoming experiments in the late stages of reionization in the limit in which the hydrogen spin temperature is significantly larger than the CMB temperature. Models consistent with the available Lyα data and CMB measurement of the Thomson optical depth predict typical values of 10-20 mK2 for the variance of the 21 cm brightness temperature at redshifts z = 7-10 at scales accessible to ongoing and upcoming experiments (k ≲ 1 cMpc-1h). This is within a factor of a few magnitude of the sensitivity claimed to have been already reached by ongoing experiments in the signal rms value. Our different models for the reionization history make markedly different predictions for the redshift evolution and thus frequency dependence of the 21 cm power spectrum and should be easily discernible by LOFAR (and later HERA and SKA1) at their design sensitivity. Our simulations have sufficient resolution to assess the effect of high-density Lyman limit systems that can self-shield against ionizing radiation and stay 21 cm bright even if the hydrogen in their surroundings is highly ionized. Our simulations predict that including the effect of the self-shielded gas in highly ionized regions reduces the large scale 21 cm power by about 30%.

  17. ROV seafloor surveys combining 5-cm lateral resolution multibeam bathymetry with color stereo photographic imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caress, D. W.; Hobson, B.; Thomas, H. J.; Henthorn, R.; Martin, E. J.; Bird, L.; Rock, S. M.; Risi, M.; Padial, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute is developing a low altitude, high-resolution seafloor mapping capability that combines multibeam sonar with stereo photographic imagery. The goal is to obtain spatially quantitative, repeatable renderings of the seafloor with fidelity at scales of 5 cm or better from altitudes of 2-3 m. The initial test surveys using this sensor system are being conducted from a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Ultimately we intend to field this survey system from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). This presentation focuses on the current sensor configuration, methods for data processing, and results from recent test surveys. Bathymetry data are collected using a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar. This configuration produces 512 beams across a 135° wide swath; each beam has a 0.5° acrosstrack by 1.0° alongtrack angular width. At a 2-m altitude, the nadir beams have a 1.7-cm acrosstrack and 3.5 cm alongtrack footprint. Dual Allied Vision Technology GX1920 2.8 Mpixel color cameras provide color stereo photography of the seafloor. The camera housings have been fitted with corrective optics achieving a 90° field of view through a dome port. Illumination is provided by dual 100J xenon strobes. Position, depth, and attitude data are provided by a Kearfott SeaDevil Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated with a 300 kHz RDI Doppler velocity log (DVL). A separate Paroscientific pressure sensor is mounted adjacent to the INS. The INS Kalman filter is aided by the DVL velocity and pressure data, achieving navigational drift rates less than 0.05% of the distance traveled during surveys. The sensors are mounted onto a toolsled fitted below MBARI's ROV Doc Ricketts with the sonars, cameras and strobes all pointed vertically down. During surveys the ROV flies at a 2-m altitude at speeds of 0.1-0.2 m/s. During a four-day R/V Western Flyer cruise in June 2013, we successfully collected multibeam and camera survey data from a 2-m altitude

  18. Accurate measurement of the H I column density from H I 21 cm absorption-emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Kanekar, Nissim; Roy, Nirupam

    2013-07-01

    We present a detailed study of an estimator of the H I column density, based on a combination of H I 21 cm absorption and H I 21cm emission spectroscopy. This `isothermal' estimate is given by NHI, ISO = 1.823 × 1018 ∫ [τtot × TB / [ 1 - e-τtot]dV, where τtot is the total H I 21cm optical depth along the sightline and TB is the measured brightness temperature. We have used a Monte Carlo simulation to quantify the accuracy of the isothermal estimate by comparing the derived NHI, ISO with the true H I column density NHI. The simulation was carried out for a wide range of sightlines, including gas in different temperature phases and random locations along the path. We find that the results are statistically insensitive to the assumed gas temperature distribution and the positions of different phases along the line of sight. The median value of the ratio of the true H I column density to the isothermal estimate, NHI/NHI, ISO, is within a factor of 2 of unity while the 68.2 per cent confidence intervals are within a factor of ≈3 of unity, out to high H I column densities, ≤5 × 1023 cm-2 per 1 km s-1 channel, and high total optical depths, ≤1000. The isothermal estimator thus provides a significantly better measure of the H I column density than other methods, within a factor of a few of the true value even at the highest columns, and should allow us to directly probe the existence of high H I column density gas in the Milky Way.

  19. A depth camera for natural human-computer interaction based on near-infrared imaging and structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yue; Wang, Liqiang; Yuan, Bo; Liu, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Designing of a novel depth camera is presented, which targets close-range (20-60cm) natural human-computer interaction especially for mobile terminals. In order to achieve high precision through the working range, a two-stepping method is employed to match the near infrared intensity image to absolute depth in real-time. First, we use structured light achieved by an 808nm laser diode and a Dammann grating to coarsely quantize the output space of depth values into discrete bins. Then use a learning-based classification forest algorithm to predict the depth distribution over these bins for each pixel in the image. The quantitative experimental results show that this depth camera has 1% precision over range of 20-60cm, which show that the camera suit resource-limited and low-cost application.

  20. Depth Analogy: Data-Driven Approach for Single Image Depth Estimation Using Gradient Samples.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunghwan; Min, Dongbo; Ham, Bumsub; Kim, Youngjung; Oh, Changjae; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2015-12-01

    Inferring scene depth from a single monocular image is a highly ill-posed problem in computer vision. This paper presents a new gradient-domain approach, called depth analogy, that makes use of analogy as a means for synthesizing a target depth field, when a collection of RGB-D image pairs is given as training data. Specifically, the proposed method employs a non-parametric learning process that creates an analogous depth field by sampling reliable depth gradients using visual correspondence established on training image pairs. Unlike existing data-driven approaches that directly select depth values from training data, our framework transfers depth gradients as reconstruction cues, which are then integrated by the Poisson reconstruction. The performance of most conventional approaches relies heavily on the training RGB-D data used in the process, and such a dependency severely degenerates the quality of reconstructed depth maps when the desired depth distribution of an input image is quite different from that of the training data, e.g., outdoor versus indoor scenes. Our key observation is that using depth gradients in the reconstruction is less sensitive to scene characteristics, providing better cues for depth recovery. Thus, our gradient-domain approach can support a great variety of training range datasets that involve substantial appearance and geometric variations. The experimental results demonstrate that our (depth) gradient-domain approach outperforms existing data-driven approaches directly working on depth domain, even when only uncorrelated training datasets are available. PMID:26529766