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Sample records for 0-4 hours age

  1. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  2. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged <1 year) should be physically active several times daily - particularly through interactive floor-based play. Toddlers (aged 1-2 years) and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity spread throughout the day, including a variety of activities in different environments, activities that develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits.

  3. Ageing, working hours and work ability.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Sartori, S

    2007-11-01

    The current paper reports the main results of several studies carried out on Italian workers using the work ability index as a complementary tool for workers' periodical health surveillance. The work ability index shows a general decreasing trend over the years, but it changes differently according to working conditions and personal health status. In jobs with higher mental involvement and autonomy, but lower physical constraint, it remains quite constant and high over the years, while it significantly decreases with a steeper trend the higher the physical work load and the lower the job control are. Sex and working hours appear to act concurrently in influencing work ability, particularly in association with more physically demanding jobs. It is therefore necessary to adopt flexible interventions, able to give ageing shift workers a proper support for maintaining a satisfactory work ability, by means of actions addressed both to work organization and psycho-physical conditions.

  4. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  5. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  6. Disability-adjusted life-year burden of abusive head trauma at ages 0-4.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ted R; Steinbeigle, Ryan; Wicks, Amy; Lawrence, Bruce A; Barr, Marilyn; Barr, Ronald G

    2014-12-01

    We estimated the disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) burden of abusive head trauma (AHT) at ages 0 to 4 years in the United States. DALYs are computed by summing years of productive life that survivors lost to disability plus life-years lost to premature death. Surveying a convenience sample of 170 caregivers and pediatricians yielded health-related disability over time according to severity of AHT (measured with the Health Utilities Index, Mark 2). Incidence estimates for 2009 came from Vital Statistics for Mortality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Program Kids' Inpatient Database for hospitalized survivors, and published ratios of 0.894 case treated and released and 0.340 case not diagnosed/treated while in the acute phase per survivor admitted. Survival probability over time after discharge came from published sources. An estimated 4824 AHT cases in 2009 included 334 fatalities within 30 days. DALYs per surviving child averaged 0.555 annually for severe AHT (95% confidence interval: 0.512-0.598) and 0.155 (95% confidence interval: 0.120-0.190) for other cases. Including life-years lost to premature mortality, estimated lifetime burden averaged 4.7 DALYs for mild AHT, 5.4 for moderate AHT, 24.1 for severe AHT, and 29.8 for deaths. On average, DALY loss per 30-day survivor included 7.6 years of lost life expectancy and 5.7 years lived with disability. Estimated burden of AHT incidents in 2009 was 69 925 DALYs or 0.017 DALYs per US live birth. AHT is extremely serious, often resulting in severe physical damage or death. The annual DALY burden several years after mild AHT exceeds the DALY burden of a severe burn. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Leading causes of injury hospitalisation in children aged 0-4 years in New South Wales by injury submechanism: a brief profile by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah

    2012-11-01

    To identify the leading causes of injury in children aged 0-4 years by single year of age using injury submechanisms and present a brief epidemiologic profile of each cause. Hospitalisation data for New South Wales from 1999 to 2009 were used to identify the leading causes of injury for children aged 0-4 years by single year of age. For each leading cause, rates over time and by sex were calculated by single year of age. Associated age and sex risk ratios were estimated. The leading causes of injury for children aged <1, 1 and 2 years were falls while being carried, burns by hot non-aqueous substances and poisoning by other and unspecified pharmaceutical substances, respectively. Falls involving playground equipment ranked first for children aged 3-4 years. Each leading injury cause exhibited an age pattern that remained stable over time and by sex. Age predicted falls while being carried and both age and sex predicted the remaining leading injury causes, with age and sex interacting to predict burns by hot non-aqueous substances. Epidemiologic analysis using single-year age intervals and injury submechanisms results in a clearer picture of injury risk for young children. The findings of this study provide detailed information regarding the leading causes of hospitalised injury in young children by age and sex. Child health-care providers can use this information to focus discussions of child development and injury risk with families of young children and suggest appropriate prevention measures in terms of a child's age and sex. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Precipitates and Particles Coarsening of 9Cr-1.7W-0.4Mo-Co Ferritic Heat-Resistant Steel after Isothermal Aging.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiuzhi; Zhang, Yanan; Zhang, Hailian; Li, Huijun; Qu, Fu; Han, Jian; Lu, Cheng; Wu, Bintao; Lu, Yao; Ma, Yan

    2017-07-19

    The precipitates obtained by EPE technology from the 9Cr-1.7W-0.4Mo-Co ferritic heat-resistant steel subject to isothermal aging were investigated using SEM, TEM and XRD. The particle size distribution and the coarsening kinetics of M23C6 with duration of isothermal aging were also analyzed with or without consideration of Laves phase. The results show that the isolated dislocations were detected in delta ferrite interior, and the precipitates on delta ferrite and martensite boundaries are obviously larger than other locations. Fe2W-Laves phase can only be found as duration of aging time to 2000 h, and is preferential to form adjacent to M23C6 particles. The small M23C6 particles firstly coarsen, but the large M23C6 are relatively stable during short aging. The total coarsening rate of M23C6 precipitates is 9.75 × 10(-28)m(3)s(-1), and the coarsening of M23C6 depends on the formation of Laves phase.

  9. (0,4) dualities

    DOE PAGES

    Putrov, Pavel; Song, Jaewon; Yan, Wenbin

    2016-03-29

    We study a class of two-dimensional N = (0; 4) quiver gauge theories that flow to superconformal field theories. We find dualities for the superconformal field theories similar to the 4d N = 2 theories of class S, labelled by a Riemann surface C. The dual descriptions arise from various pair-of-pants decompositions, that involve an analog of the TN theory. Especially, we find the superconformal indices of such theories can be written in terms of a topological field theory on C. In conclusion, we interpret this class of SCFTs as the ones coming from compactifying 6d N = (2; 0)more » theory on CP1 x C. Moreover, some new dualities of (0; 2) and (2; 2) theories are also discussed.« less

  10. (0,4) dualities

    SciTech Connect

    Putrov, Pavel; Song, Jaewon; Yan, Wenbin

    2016-03-29

    We study a class of two-dimensional N = (0; 4) quiver gauge theories that flow to superconformal field theories. We find dualities for the superconformal field theories similar to the 4d N = 2 theories of class S, labelled by a Riemann surface C. The dual descriptions arise from various pair-of-pants decompositions, that involve an analog of the TN theory. Especially, we find the superconformal indices of such theories can be written in terms of a topological field theory on C. In conclusion, we interpret this class of SCFTs as the ones coming from compactifying 6d N = (2; 0) theory on CP1 x C. Moreover, some new dualities of (0; 2) and (2; 2) theories are also discussed.

  11. Social exclusion, deprivation and child health: a spatial analysis of ambulatory care sensitive conditions in children aged 0-4 years in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Butler, Danielle C; Thurecht, Linc; Brown, Laurie; Konings, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Recent Australian policy initiatives regarding primary health care focus on planning services around community needs and delivering these at the local area. As in many other countries, there has also been a growing concern over social inequities in health outcomes. The aims of the analysis presented here were firstly to describe small area variations in hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) among children aged 0-4 years between 2003 and 2009 in the state of Victoria, Australia, and secondly to explore the relationship of ACSC hospitalisations with socio-economic disadvantage using a comparative analysis of the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and the Composite Score of Deprivation (CSD). This is a cross sectional secondary data analysis, with data sourced from 2003 to 2009 ACSC data from the Victorian State Government Department of Health; the Australian Standard Geographical Classification of remoteness; the Australian 2006 Census of Population and Housing; and AMPCo General Practitioner data from 2010. The relationship between the indexes and child health outcomes was examined through bivariate analysis and visually through a series of maps. The results show there is significant variation in the geographical distribution of the relationship between ACSCs and socio-economic disadvantage, with both indexes capturing important social gradients in child health conditions. However, measures of access, such as geographical accessibility and workforce supply, detect additional small area variation in child health outcomes. This research has important implications for future primary health care policy and planning of services, as these findings confirm that not all areas are the same in terms of health outcomes, and there may be benefit in tailoring mechanisms for identifying areas of need depending on the outcome intended to be affected.

  12. Maximal Aerobic Power in Aging Men: Insights From 1-Hour Cycling Unaccompanied Record.

    PubMed

    Capelli, Carlo

    2017-04-19

    We analyzed best 1-hour unaccompanied performances of Master athletes in ages ranging from 35 to 105 years in order to estimate the decay of Maximal Aerobic Power (MAP) across the spectrum of age. MAP at the various ages was estimated by computing the metabolic power (̇c) maintained to cover the distances during best 1-hour unaccompanied performances established by Master athletes of different classes of age and by assuming that they were able to maintain during 1 hour of exhaustive exercise a Ėc equal to 88 % of their MAP. MAP started monotonically decreasing at 47 years of age. Thereafter, it showed an average percent rate of decrease of about 14 % for decade up to 105 years of age, similarly to other classes of Master athletes. The results confirm, by extending the analysis to centennial subjects, that MAP seem to start declining from the middle of the fifth decade of age with an average percent decay that is faster than the one traditionally reported even though one maintains a very active style of live. The proposed approach may be applied to other types of human locomotion of which the relationship between speed and Ė is known.

  13. Is the "golden age" of the "golden hour" in sepsis over?

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Derek S

    2015-12-29

    The so-called "golden hour" of trauma resuscitation has been applied to a number of disease conditions in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. For example, the "golden hour" as applied to the treatment of critically children and adults with severe sepsis and septic shock is based upon early recognition, early administration of antibiotics, and early reversal of the shock state. However, several clinical studies published over the last decade have called into question this time-honored approach and suggest that overly aggressive fluid resuscitation may cause more harm than good. Perhaps we are finally leaving the "Golden Age" of the "golden hour" and entering a new age in which we are able to use a more personalized approach to fluid management for patients with severe sepsis/septic shock.

  14. School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions of Practice: Differences by Generational Age and Hours Worked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Jun, Jinhyun; Arendt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the influences of school foodservice employees' age and average number of hours worked per week on perceived safe food handling practices, barriers, and motivators. Methods: A bilingual survey (English and Spanish) was developed to assess reported food safety practices, barriers, and motivators to…

  15. School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions of Practice: Differences by Generational Age and Hours Worked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Jun, Jinhyun; Arendt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the influences of school foodservice employees' age and average number of hours worked per week on perceived safe food handling practices, barriers, and motivators. Methods: A bilingual survey (English and Spanish) was developed to assess reported food safety practices, barriers, and motivators to…

  16. Diesel soot aging in urban plumes within hours under cold dark and humid conditions.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, A C; Wittbom, C; Roldin, P; Sporre, M; Öström, E; Nilsson, P; Martinsson, J; Rissler, J; Nordin, E Z; Svenningsson, B; Pagels, J; Swietlicki, E

    2017-09-28

    Fresh and aged diesel soot particles have different impacts on climate and human health. While fresh diesel soot particles are highly aspherical and non-hygroscopic, aged particles are spherical and hygroscopic. Aging and its effect on water uptake also controls the dispersion of diesel soot in the atmosphere. Understanding the timescales on which diesel soot ages in the atmosphere is thus important, yet knowledge thereof is lacking. We show that under cold, dark and humid conditions the atmospheric transformation from fresh to aged soot occurs on a timescale of less than five hours. Under dry conditions in the laboratory, diesel soot transformation is much less efficient. While photochemistry drives soot aging, our data show it is not always a limiting factor. Field observations together with aerosol process model simulations show that the rapid ambient diesel soot aging in urban plumes is caused by coupled ammonium nitrate formation and water uptake.

  17. CATCOM catalyst 5 atm 1000 hour aging study using No. 2 fuel oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osgerby, I. T.; Olson, B. A.; Lee, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    The durability of the CATCOM catalyst for use in catalytically supported thermal combustion has been demonstrated at 5 atm, complementing a previous 1000 hour durability study at 1 atm. Both of these studies were conducted at about 640 K air preheat temperature at a reference velocity of about 14 m/s; the adiabatic flame temperature of the fuel/air mixture was about 1530 K. The catalyst proved to be capable of low emissions operations after 1000 hours of diesel fuel aging. However, more severe deactivation occurred in the 5 atm test; this was attributed to a loss in kinetic (ignition) activity.

  18. Ageing behavior of extruded Mg-8.2Gd-3.8Y-1.0Zn-0.4Zr (wt.%) alloy containing LPSO phase and γ‧ precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Nakata, T.; Qiao, X. G.; Zheng, M. Y.; Wu, K.; Kamado, S.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase and γ‧ precipitates on the ageing behavior and mechanical properties of the extruded Mg-8.2Gd-3.8Y-1.0Zn-0.4Zr (wt.%) alloy was investigated. The results show that more β‧ phases precipitate during ageing treatment in the LPSO phase containing alloy so that the LPSO phase containing alloy exhibits a higher age-hardening response than the γ‧ precipitates containing alloy. The precipitation strengthening induced by β‧ precipitates is the greatest contributor to the strength of the peak-aged LPSO-containing alloys. Higher strength is achieved in γ‧ precipitates containing alloy due to the more effective strengthening induced by dense nanoscale γ‧ precipitates than LPSO phases as well as the higher volume fraction of coarse unrecrystallized grains with strong basal texture. The extruded alloy containing γ‧ precipitates after T5 peak-ageing treatment shows ultra-high tensile yield strength of 462 MPa, high ultimate tensile strength of 520 MPa, and superior elongation to failure of 10.6%.

  19. Ageing behavior of extruded Mg–8.2Gd–3.8Y–1.0Zn–0.4Zr (wt.%) alloy containing LPSO phase and γ′ precipitates

    PubMed Central

    Xu, C.; Nakata, T.; Qiao, X. G.; Zheng, M. Y.; Wu, K.; Kamado, S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase and γ′ precipitates on the ageing behavior and mechanical properties of the extruded Mg–8.2Gd–3.8Y–1.0Zn–0.4Zr (wt.%) alloy was investigated. The results show that more β′ phases precipitate during ageing treatment in the LPSO phase containing alloy so that the LPSO phase containing alloy exhibits a higher age-hardening response than the γ′ precipitates containing alloy. The precipitation strengthening induced by β′ precipitates is the greatest contributor to the strength of the peak-aged LPSO-containing alloys. Higher strength is achieved in γ′ precipitates containing alloy due to the more effective strengthening induced by dense nanoscale γ′ precipitates than LPSO phases as well as the higher volume fraction of coarse unrecrystallized grains with strong basal texture. The extruded alloy containing γ′ precipitates after T5 peak-ageing treatment shows ultra-high tensile yield strength of 462 MPa, high ultimate tensile strength of 520 MPa, and superior elongation to failure of 10.6%. PMID:28230211

  20. Longitudinal age-related changes in 24-hour total heart beats and premature beats and their relationship in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Tasaki, Hirofumi; Serita, Takumi; Ueyama, Chiaki; Kitano, Kouei; Seto, Shinji; Yano, Katsusuke; Camm, A John

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a longitudinal follow-up on age-related changes in 24-hour total heart beats (THBs) and total premature beats and their correlations in healthy elderly subjects. In 15 healthy elderly subjects (mean age, 70.0 +/- 4.1, age range at 1st recording, 64 to 80 years, 10 females, 5 males), we conducted Holter monitoring twice at an interval of 15 years and analysed age-related changes in THBs, atrial premature beats (APBs), and ventricular premature beats (VPBs), as well as their correlations. The results indicated that THBs, APBs, and VPBs all significantly increased with age in the healthy elderly subjects at a mean age of 70.0 +/- 4.1 (THB: 91074.1 +/- 11515.3 versus 99457.5 +/- 12131.0; P = 0.0004, APB:119.2 +/- 97.8 versus 884.4 +/- 1193.8; P = 0.0008, VPB: 15.2 +/- 53.6 versus 140.7 +/- 228.9; P = 0.0328). Moreover, we divided the subjects into increase and nonincrease groups based on the age-related changes in APB and VPB for 15 years ([n]; Inc-APB: Noninc-APB = 6 : 9, Inc-VPB: Noninc-VPB = 5 : 10). In the increase groups, premature beats tended to increase in proportion to changes in THBs with age (APB: Y = 207.488 + 0.136 X, r = 0.848, P = 0.0303; VPB: Y = -27.594 + 0.028 X, r = 0.727, P = 0.1921). In conclusion, this 15-year follow-up of Holter recordings in healthy elderly subjects revealed that THBs, APBs, and VPBs increased with age, and that the increases in premature beats, especially APBs, were in proportion to those in THBs.

  1. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the...

  2. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the...

  3. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the...

  4. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the...

  5. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the...

  6. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning § 1601.0-4...

  7. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning § 1601.0-4...

  8. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning § 1601.0-4...

  9. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning § 1601.0-4...

  10. 43 CFR 2361.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 2361.0-4 Section 2361.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... and Protection of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska § 2361.0-4 Responsibility. (a) The...

  11. 43 CFR 2361.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility. 2361.0-4 Section 2361.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... and Protection of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska § 2361.0-4 Responsibility. (a) The...

  12. 43 CFR 2200.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2200.0-4 Section 2200.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2200.0-4 Responsibilities. The Director of the Bureau of Land Management has the responsibility...

  13. 43 CFR 2610.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2610.0-4 Section 2610.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....0-4 Responsibilities. (a) The authority of the Secretary of the Interior to approve the...

  14. 43 CFR 2610.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2610.0-4 Section 2610.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....0-4 Responsibilities. (a) The authority of the Secretary of the Interior to approve the...

  15. 43 CFR 2200.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2200.0-4 Section 2200.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2200.0-4 Responsibilities. The Director of the Bureau of Land Management has the responsibility...

  16. 43 CFR 2400.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 2400.0-4 Section 2400.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2400.0-4 Responsibility. (a) Except where specified to the contrary in this group, the authority of...

  17. 43 CFR 2400.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility. 2400.0-4 Section 2400.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2400.0-4 Responsibility. (a) Except where specified to the contrary in this group, the authority of...

  18. 43 CFR 1784.0-4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1784.0-4 Section 1784.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.0-...

  19. 43 CFR 1784.0-4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 1784.0-4 Section 1784.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.0-...

  20. 43 CFR 2564.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 2564.0-4 Section 2564.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-4 Responsibility. (a) Administration of Indian possessions in trustee towns. As to...

  1. 43 CFR 2564.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility. 2564.0-4 Section 2564.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-4 Responsibility. (a) Administration of Indian possessions in trustee towns. As to...

  2. Do Hours Spent Viewing Television at Ages 3 and 4 Predict Vocabulary and Executive Functioning at Age 5?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of television viewing at ages 3 and 4 on vocabulary and at age 5 on executive functioning in the context of home learning environment and parental scaffolding. Children (N = 263) were seen in the lab when they were 3 years old and then again at ages 4 and 5. Parents completed measures assessing child television viewing and…

  3. Do Hours Spent Viewing Television at Ages 3 and 4 Predict Vocabulary and Executive Functioning at Age 5?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of television viewing at ages 3 and 4 on vocabulary and at age 5 on executive functioning in the context of home learning environment and parental scaffolding. Children (N = 263) were seen in the lab when they were 3 years old and then again at ages 4 and 5. Parents completed measures assessing child television viewing and…

  4. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards. Except...

  5. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards. Except...

  6. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards. Except...

  7. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards. Except...

  8. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for... is set forth as follows: § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of...

  9. Degradation of oxygen reduction reaction kinetics in porous La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ cathodes due to aging-induced changes in surface chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqué, Laura C.; Soldati, Analía L.; Teixeira-Neto, Erico; Troiani, Horacio E.; Schreiber, Anja; Serquis, Adriana C.

    2017-01-01

    The modification of surface composition after long-term operation is one of the most reported degradation mechanisms of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3-δ (LSCFO) cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs). Nevertheless, its effect on the oxygen reduction reaction kinetics of porous LSCFO cathodes has not been yet reliably established. In this work, La- and Sr-enrichment at the LSCFO surface of porous cathodes has been induced after 50 h aging at 800 °C under air. Such cation redistribution can extend up to ∼400 nm depth under the LSCFO surface as detected by high resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy maps acquired inside the cathode pores. The observed surface chemical changes hamper the oxygen surface exchange reaction at the LSCFO/gas interface. Accordingly, a suitable Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the oxygen ion conductivity remains practically unaltered during the aging treatment while the oxygen surface exchange resistance increases up to 1.8 times. As a result, the cathode impedance response deteriorates within the 10-0.1 Hz frequency range during the aging treatment, resulting in a total cathode area specific resistance increase of 150%. The methodology adopted has demonstrated to be very valuable for studying the degradation of SOFC cathodes produced by the modification of surface composition.

  10. Gender and Age Differences in Hourly and Daily Patterns of Sedentary Time in Older Adults Living in Retirement Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bellettiere, John; Carlson, Jordan A.; Rosenberg, Dori; Singhania, Anant; Natarajan, Loki; Berardi, Vincent; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Moran, Kevin; Crist, Katie; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Background Total sedentary time varies across population groups with important health consequences. Patterns of sedentary time accumulation may vary and have differential health risks. The purpose of this study is to describe sedentary patterns of older adults living in retirement communities and illustrate gender and age differences in those patterns. Methods Baseline accelerometer data from 307 men and women (mean age = 84±6 years) who wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers for ≥ 4 days as part of a physical activity intervention were classified into bouts of sedentary time (<100 counts per minute). Linear mixed models were used to account for intra-person and site-level clustering. Daily and hourly summaries were examined in mutually non-exclusive bouts of sedentary time that were 1+, 5+, 10+, 20+, 30+, 40+, 50+, 60+, 90+ and 120+ minutes in duration. Variations by time of day, age and gender were explored. Results Men accumulated more sedentary time than women in 1+, 5+, 10+, 20+, 30+, 40+, 50+ and 60+ minute bouts; the largest gender-differences were observed in 10+ and 20+ minute bouts. Age was positively associated with sedentary time, but only in bouts of 10+, 20+, 30+, and 40+ minutes. Women had more daily 1+ minute sedentary bouts than men (71.8 vs. 65.2), indicating they break up sedentary time more often. For men and women, a greater proportion of time was spent being sedentary during later hours of the day than earlier. Gender differences in intra-day sedentary time were observed during morning hours with women accumulating less sedentary time overall and having more 1+ minute bouts. Conclusions Patterns identified using bouts of sedentary time revealed gender and age differences in the way in which sedentary time was accumulated by older adults in retirement communities. Awareness of these patterns can help interventionists better target sedentary time and may aid in the identification of health risks associated with sedentary behavior. Future studies

  11. Age-related changes in sleep spindles characteristics during daytime recovery following a 25-hour sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Rosinvil, T.; Lafortune, M.; Sekerovic, Z.; Bouchard, M.; Dubé, J.; Latulipe-Loiselle, A.; Martin, N.; Lina, J. M.; Carrier, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The mechanisms underlying sleep spindles (~11–15 Hz; >0.5 s) help to protect sleep. With age, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain sleep at a challenging time (e.g., daytime), even after sleep loss. This study compared spindle characteristics during daytime recovery and nocturnal sleep in young and middle-aged adults. In addition, we explored whether spindles characteristics in baseline nocturnal sleep were associated with the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery periods in both age groups. Methods: Twenty-nine young (15 women and 14 men; 27.3 y ± 5.0) and 31 middle-aged (19 women and 13 men; 51.6 y ± 5.1) healthy subjects participated in a baseline nocturnal sleep and a daytime recovery sleep after 25 hours of sleep deprivation. Spindles were detected on artifact-free Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep epochs. Spindle density (nb/min), amplitude (μV), frequency (Hz), and duration (s) were analyzed on parasagittal (linked-ears) derivations. Results: In young subjects, spindle frequency increased during daytime recovery sleep as compared to baseline nocturnal sleep in all derivations, whereas middle-aged subjects showed spindle frequency enhancement only in the prefrontal derivation. No other significant interaction between age group and sleep condition was observed. Spindle density for all derivations and centro-occipital spindle amplitude decreased whereas prefrontal spindle amplitude increased from baseline to daytime recovery sleep in both age groups. Finally, no significant correlation was found between spindle characteristics during baseline nocturnal sleep and the marked reduction in sleep efficiency during daytime recovery sleep in both young and middle-aged subjects. Conclusion: These results suggest that the interaction between homeostatic and circadian pressure modulates spindle frequency differently in aging. Spindle characteristics do not seem to be linked with the ability to maintain daytime recovery sleep. PMID

  12. Work time control and mental health of workers working long hours: the role of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Zołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between work time control and mental health in workers working long hours. The study also attempted to show how that relationship depended on age and gender. Three hundred and six white-collar workers doing clerical work for over 8 h daily were diagnosed on work time control and mental health with the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. The results of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that participants working long hours but having high control over their work time had a significantly higher level of their mental health with regard to somatic complaints and anxiety and marginally higher with regard to social dysfunction than workers with low control over their work time. Male and female workers reported different problems with their mental health depending on what age (stage of life) they were at. It is hypothesized that the work-family conflict, inability to fulfil social commitments and poor working conditions can influence those effects.

  13. Impact of Age and Target-Organ Damage on Prognostic Value of 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Thomas B; Stidsen, Jacob V; Blicher, Marie K; Pareek, Manan; Rasmussen, Susanne; Vishram-Nielsen, Julie K K; Olsen, Michael H

    2017-09-11

    Markers of target-organ damage and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurement improve cardiovascular risk stratification. The prevalence of target-organ damage and raised BP increases with aging. The study aim was to evaluate the impact of age and target-organ damage on the prognostic value of ambulatory BP. Markers of target-organ damage and ambulatory BP were measured in 1408 healthy people aged 41 or 51 (middle-aged group), and 61 or 71 (older group) years. The primary outcome was cardiovascular events after 16 years of follow-up, with data obtained from national registries. The prognostic value of BP was evaluated with Cox regression models, adjusted for traditional risk factors and target-organ damage, including left ventricular mass, pulse wave velocity, carotid plaques, and urine albumin/creatinine ratio. A total of 323 events were observed. In comparison with traditional risk factors, adding systolic BP and presence of target-organ damage improved risk stratification by increasing concordance index from 0.711 to 0.728 (P=0.01). In middle-aged subjects with target-organ damage, increment in pulse pressure (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-2.21; P<0.01) and increment in average real variability (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.59; P=0.02) were associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease compared with subjects without target-organ damage: hazard ratio, 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.46; P=0.81); P for interaction, 0.02; and hazard ratio, 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.69-1.14; P=0.36); P for interaction, 0.01. Target-organ damage may be a marker of individual susceptibility to the harmful effects of pulse pressure and BP variability on the cardiovascular system in middle-aged individuals. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  15. Effect of aging on 24-hour changes in dopamine and serotonin turnover and amino acid and somatostatin contents of rat corpus striatum.

    PubMed

    Esquifino, Ana I; Cano, Pilar; Chacon, Fernando; Reyes Toso, Carlos F; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the 24-hour changes in a number of transmitters in the corpus striatum of young and middle-aged male Wistar rats. The contents of excitatory amino acids (glutamate, aspartate) and inhibitory amino acids (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA; taurine, glycine) and of somatostatin were measured in 2-month- and 18- to 20-month-old rats killed at six different time points along the 24-hour cycle. The striatal serotonin and dopamine turnover was also measured. Both young and middle-aged rats showed significant 24-hour variations in striatal glutamate and aspartate contents; only in young rats these variations fitted a cosine function, with acrophase during the first part of rest span. Mesor values of striatal excitatory amino acid contents were lowest in middle-aged rats. Significant 24-hour variations in striatal contents of GABA, taurine, and glycine occurred in young rats, while only striatal GABA exhibited 24-hour changes in middle- aged rats (acrophases during the first part of rest span). For every inhibitory transmitter, the mesor values in middle-aged rats were significantly lower than in young rats. The 24-hour variation of the striatal somatostatin content showed acrophase during the first part of rest span, mesor values and amplitude being lowest in middle-aged rats. Aging rats exhibited significantly higher mesor values of striatal serotonin turnover (34% increase) and lower mesor values of dopamine turnover (69% decrease) than their younger counterparts. Some of the circadian modifications of motor function seen in aging rats could be related to the striatal transmitter changes reported herein.

  16. Working hours, sleep duration and the risk of acute coronary heart disease: a case-control study of middle-aged men in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yawen; Du, Chung-Li; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Chen, I-Shin; Chen, Ming-Fong; Su, Ta-Chen

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to examine whether long working hours and short sleep duration were associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or severe coronary heart diseases (SCHD), independent of established psychosocial work-related factors. A case-control study was conducted. Cases were 322 men, aged <60 years and economically active, who were admitted to hospital with a first diagnosed AMI or SCHD during 2008-2011, of whom 134 were confirmed AMI and the other 188 were angiography-confirmed SCHD. Controls were 644 men who were drawn from a national survey and were matched to the cases on age, education and area of residence. Odds ratios of total CHD and confirmed AMI in relation to average weekly working hours and daily hours of sleep were calculated. Men with average working hours longer than 60 h/week were found to have significantly increased risks for total CHD (OR=2.2) as compared to those with weekly working hours in 40-48 h, and those with daily hours of sleep fewer than 6 h were found to have increased risks for CHD (OR=3.0) as compared to those with sleeping hours in 6-9 h. Restriction to confirmed AMI yielded a greater risk and these associations remained consistent with adjustment of smoking status, body mass index and psychosocial work factors including job demands, job control, workplace justice, job insecurity and shift work. The results support the hypothesis that long working hours and short sleep duration contribute independently to the risk of cardiovascular diseases in men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bryostatin extends tPA time window to 6 hours following middle cerebral artery occlusion in aged female rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhenjun; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Turner, Ryan C.; Tan, Cong; Li, Xinlan; Hongpaison, Jarin; Alkon, Daniel L.; Simpkins, James W.; Rosen, Charles L.; Huber, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and hemorrhagic transformation (HT) following ischemic/reperfusion injury contributes to post-stroke morbidity and mortality. Bryostatin, a potent protein kinase C (PKC) modulator, has shown promise in treating neurological injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that administration of bryostatin would reduce BBB disruption and HT following acute ischemic stroke; thus, prolonging the time window for administering recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA). Methods Acute cerebral ischemia was produced by reversible occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO) in 18–20-month-old female rats using an autologous blood clot with delayed r-tPA reperfusion. Bryostatin (or vehicle) was administered at 2 hours post-MCAO and r-tPA was administered at 6 hours post-MCAO. Functional assessment, lesion volume, and hemispheric swelling measurements were performed at 24 hours post-MCAO. Assessment of BBB permeability, measurement of hemoglobin, assessment of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels by gel zymography, and measurement of PKCε, PKCα, PKCδ expression by western blot were conducted at 24 hours post-MCAO. Results Rats treated with bryostatin prior to r-tPA administration had decreased mortality and hemispheric swelling when compared with rats treated with r-tPA alone. Administration of bryostatin also limited BBB disruption and HT and down-regulated MMP-9 expression while up-regulating PKCε expression at 24 hours post-MCAO. Conclusions Bryostatin administration ameliorates BBB disruption and reduces the risk of HT by down-regulating MMP-9 activation and up-regulating PKCε. In this proof-of-concept study, bryostatin treatment lengthened the time-to-treatment window and enhanced the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:26189021

  18. The Correlation between Sex, Age, Educational Background, and Hours of Service on Vigilance Level of ATC Officers in Air Nav Surabaya, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Lalu Muhammad; Suwandi, Tjipto; Hamidah

    2016-01-01

    The vigilance of an Air Traffic Control (ATC) officer determines aviation safety. The number of aviation accidents tends to be increasing in recent years. Aviation accidents may be caused by human errors (i.e. errors made by pilot or ATC officer) or unsafe work condition. Sex, age, educational background, and hours of service might affect…

  19. Correlates of Three Year Transfer Student Retention Rates with Race, Gender, Age, Credit Hours, and Place of Residence at a Regional Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examined the relationship between the three year academic success of transfer students and the variables of race, gender, age, number of transfer credit hours, and place of residence. The study was conducted at Midwestern State University, a public, regional four-year institution and followed the incoming transfer classes of the…

  20. Luminous Red Galaxies at Z=0.4-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sally; Lindler, Don

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of approx.20,000 luminous red galaxies (LRG's) at z=0.4-0.5 observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In order to differentiate among them, we measured restframe magnitudes, u (3000-3500 A), b (4200-4800 A), and y (5700-6300 A) from the spectra themselves. The galaxies show a significant range in restframe colors and absolute magnitudes. We binned the spectra according to the restframe u-b color and y-band absolute magnitude in order to increase the S/N. We used 3 approaches to estimate the ages and metal content of these binned spectra: via their spectral energy distributions, from spectral-line indices, and by full spectral fitting. The three methods usually produce discordant results

  1. Luminous Red Galaxies at Z=0.4-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sally; Lindler, Don

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of approx.20,000 luminous red galaxies (LRG's) at z=0.4-0.5 observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In order to differentiate among them, we measured restframe magnitudes, u (3000-3500 A), b (4200-4800 A), and y (5700-6300 A) from the spectra themselves. The galaxies show a significant range in restframe colors and absolute magnitudes. We binned the spectra according to the restframe u-b color and y-band absolute magnitude in order to increase the S/N. We used 3 approaches to estimate the ages and metal content of these binned spectra: via their spectral energy distributions, from spectral-line indices, and by full spectral fitting. The three methods usually produce discordant results

  2. [Analysis on prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour and related factors in students aged 9-22 years in China, 2014].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z H; Dong, Y H; Song, Y; Yang, Z P; Ma, J

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To explore the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour and related factors in students aged 9-22 years in China. Methods: A total of 220 159 students (110 039 boys and 110 120 girls) aged 9-22 years who completed the questionnaire of physical activity and lifestyle behaviors were selected from " 2014 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance" for the current study. All the participants were divided into 2 groups, i.e. physical activity time <1 hour and physical activity time ≥1 hour according the suggestion of Central Government, stratified by age and gender. χ(2) tests were used to compare the difference in the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour between boys and girls in every age groups. Univariate and multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to explore the factors that influenced the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour. Results: The boy's prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was 73.3%, with the lowest (57.0%) in 9-years-old group, and highest (82.5%) in 18 years old group. The girl's prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was 79.1%, with the lowest (60.1%) in 9-years-old group, and highest (89.8%) in 21 years old group. Overall, The prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was significantly higher in girls than in boys (P<0.001), and the prevalence were significantly higher in girls than in boys in all the age groups (P<0.001), and it was observed that the prevalence of physical activity <1 hour increased with age in both boys and girls (P<0.001). Multivariate log-binomial regression model found that being girl (PR=1.05, 95%CI: 1.05-1.06), parents' disliking children to participate physical activity (PR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.07-1.09), heavy homework (PR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.12-1.14), long homework time (PR =1.08, 95%CI: 1.07-1.08), long time spending on electronic screen watching (PR=1.01, 95%CI: 1.00-1.01) and disliking physical class (PR=1.11, 95%CI: 1.10-1.12) could be the risk factors for

  3. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... §§ 9260.0-4—9260.0-6 ...

  4. Walking Up to One Hour Per Week Maintains Mobility as Older Women Age: Findings from an Australian Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Field, Bonnie; Cochrane, Tom; Davey, Rachel; Kinfu, Yohannes

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify determinants of walking and whether walking maintained mobility among women as they transition from their mid-70s to their late 80s. We used 12 years of follow-up data (baseline 1999) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (n = 10,322). Fifteen determinants of walking were included in the analysis and three indicators of mobility. Longitudinal data analyses techniques were employed. Thirteen of the 15 determinants were significant predictors of walking. Women in their mid-70s who walked up to 1 hr per week were less likely to experience loss of mobility in very old age, including reduced likelihood of using a mobility aid. Hence, older women who do no walking should be encouraged to walk to maintain their mobility and their independence as they age, particularly women in their 70s and 80s who smoke, are overweight, have arthritis, or who have had a recent fall.

  5. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Law Enforcement,...

  6. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Law Enforcement,...

  7. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Law Enforcement,...

  8. Association between 24-hour urinary cadmium and pulmonary function among community-exposed men: the VA Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Brad J; Park, Sung Kyun; Robins, Thomas; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Litonjua, Augusto A; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Weisskopf, Marc; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard

    2008-09-01

    High levels of cadmium exposure are known to cause emphysema in occupationally exposed workers, but little has been reported to date on the association between chronic environmental cadmium exposure and pulmonary function. In this study we examined the association between pulmonary function and cadmium body burden in a subcohort of the Normative Aging Study, a community-based study of aging. We examined 96 men who had cadmium measured in single 24-hr urinary specimens collected in 1994-1995 and who had one to three tests of pulmonary function between 1994 and 2002 (a total of 222 observations). We used mixed-effect models to predict pulmonary function based on individual 24-hr urinary cadmium output, adjusted for age, height, time elapsed from the baseline, and smoking status. We assessed effect modification by smoking status. Among all subjects, a single log-unit increase in baseline urinary cadmium was inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV(1)) percent predicted [beta = -7.56%; 95% confidence interval (CI) -13.59% to -1.53%]; forced vital capacity (FVC) percent predicted (beta = -2.70%; 95% CI -7.39% to 1.99%), and FEV(1)/FVC ratio (beta = -4.13%; 95% CI -7.61% to -0.66%). In models including an interaction between urinary cadmium and smoking status, there was a graded, statistically significant reduction in FEV(1)/FVC ratio across smoking status in association with urinary cadmium. This study suggests that chronic cadmium exposure is associated with reduced pulmonary function, and cigarette smoking modifies this association. These results should be interpreted with caution because the sample size is small, and further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  9. Age-dependent changes in 24-hour rhythms of catecholamine content and turnover in hypothalamus, corpus striatum and pituitary gland of rats injected with Freund's adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Pilar; Cardinali, Daniel P; Chacon, Fernando; Castrillón, Patricia O; Reyes Toso, Carlos A; Esquifino, Ana I

    2001-01-01

    Background Little information is available on the circadian sequela of an immune challenge in the brain of aged rats. To assess them, we studied 24-hour rhythms in hypothalamic and striatal norepinephrine (NE) content, hypothalamic and striatal dopamine (DA) turnover and hypophysial NE and DA content, in young (2 months) and aged (18–20 months) rats killed at 6 different time intervals, on day 18th after Freund's adjuvant or adjuvant's vehicle administration. Results Aging decreased anterior and medial hypothalamic NE content, medial and posterior hypothalamic DA turnover, and striatal NE concentration and DA turnover. Aging also decreased NE and DA content in pituitary neurointermediate lobe and augmented DA content in the anterior pituitary lobe. Immunization by Freund's adjuvant injection caused: (i) reduction of DA turnover in anterior hypothalamus and corpus striatum; (ii) acrophase delay of medial hypothalamic DA turnover in old rats, and of striatal NE content in young rats; (iii) abolition of 24-h rhythm in NE and DA content of neurointermediate pituitary lobe, and in DA content of anterior lobe, of old rats. Conclusions The decline in catecholamine neurotransmission with aging could contribute to the decrease of gonadotropin and increase of prolactin release reported in similar groups of rats. Some circadian responses to immunization, e.g. suppression of 24-h rhythms of neurointermediate lobe NE and DA and of anterior lobe DA were seen only in aged rats. PMID:11741510

  10. Sex and age-related differences in performance in a 24-hour ultra-cycling draft-legal event – a cross-sectional data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age-related differences in performance in a draft-legal ultra-cycling event. Methods Age-related changes in performance across years were investigated in the 24-hour draft-legal cycling event held in Schötz, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2011 using multi-level regression analyses including age, repeated participation and environmental temperatures as co-variables. Results For all finishers, the age of peak cycling performance decreased significantly (β = −0.273, p = 0.036) from 38 ± 10 to 35 ± 6 years in females but remained unchanged (β = −0.035, p = 0.906) at 41.0 ± 10.3 years in males. For the annual fastest females and males, the age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged at 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years, respectively. For all female and male finishers, males improved significantly (β = 7.010, p = 0.006) the cycling distance from 497.8 ± 219.6 km to 546.7 ± 205.0 km whereas females (β = −0.085, p = 0.987) showed an unchanged performance of 593.7 ± 132.3 km. The mean cycling distance achieved by the male winners of 960.5 ± 51.9 km was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the distance covered by the female winners with 769.7 ± 65.7 km but was not different between the sexes (p > 0.05). The sex difference in performance for the annual winners of 19.7 ± 7.8% remained unchanged across years (p > 0.05). The achieved cycling distance decreased in a curvilinear manner with advancing age. There was a significant age effect (F = 28.4, p < 0.0001) for cycling performance where the fastest cyclists were in age group 35–39 years. Conclusion In this 24-h cycling draft-legal event, performance in females remained unchanged while their age of peak cycling performance decreased and performance in males improved while their age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged. The annual fastest females and males were 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years old, respectively. The sex

  11. Coudersport Consumer Mathematics Curriculum Guide. 0-4 Level ABE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Donald E., Comp.

    This curriculum guide was designed by the Coudersport, Pennsylvania, school system to be used in teaching 0-4 level mathematics skills to adult basic education students. The guide is intended to provide consumer-oriented, problem-solving material that correlates with those skills found in the Noonan-Spradley Diagnostic Program of Computational…

  12. [Role of sex and age as predictors of an apnea and hypopnea index higher than 5/hour in patients with normal body mass index using respiratory polygraphy].

    PubMed

    Borsini, Eduardo; Ernst, Glenda; Bosio, Martín; Blanco, Magali; Blasco, Miguel; Salvado, Alejandro

    2016-10-07

    To establish whether predictors of sleep apnea (OSAHS) from patients with normal body mass index (BMI) could facilitate the prioritization of candidates for sleep tests. Aim To describe the role of sex and age as predictors of apnea and hypopnea index (AHI)>5 events per hour in patients with normal BMI (<25kg/m(2)). Retrospective study of patients referred for home respiratory polygraphy level iii. One hundred and forty-three patients with BMI<25kg/m(2), of which 70 had OSA defined by an AHI>5/h were analyzed. The clinical variables to predict AHI>5/h in a multiple logistic regression model, found statistical significance for age>60 years (OR=5.67; 95% CI 2.38-13.53; P<.0001) and male (OR=3.15; 95% CI 1.47-6.73; P<.003). Forty-eight point ninety-five percent of normal weight patients in a population at risk had OSAHS defined by an AHI>5/h. The sex and age would be risk predictors in this population and most likely in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The quest for effective pain control during suture adjustment after strabismus surgery: a study evaluating supplementation of 2% lidocaine with 0.4% ropivacaine

    PubMed Central

    Palte, Howard D; Cavuoto, Kara M; Sundararaman, Lalitha; Gayer, Steven; Schiffman, Joyce; Capo, Hilda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the addition of 0.4% ropivacaine to the standard 2% lidocaine peribulbar anesthetic block improves pain scores during suture adjustment in patients undergoing strabismus surgery with adjustable sutures. Methods Prospective, double-blind study of 30 adult patients aged 21–84 years scheduled for elective strabismus surgery with adjustable sutures. Patients were divided into two groups of 15 patients each based on the local anesthetic. Group A received 2% lidocaine and Group B received 2% lidocaine/0.4% ropivacaine. Pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) preoperatively and at 2, 4, and 6 hours postoperatively. The Lancaster red-green test was used to measure ocular motility at the same time points. Results The pain scores in the two groups were low and similar at all measurement intervals. The VAS for Group A versus Group B at 2 hours (1.7 versus 2.4, P=0.5) and 4 hours (3.5 versus 3.7, P=0.8) showed no benefit from the addition of ropivacaine. At 6 hours, the VAS (3.7 versus 2.7) was not statistically significant, but the 95% confidence interval indicated that ropivacaine may provide some benefit. A repeated measures ANOVA did not find a statistically significant difference in VAS scores over time (P=0.9). In addition, the duration of akinesia was comparable in both groups (P=0.7). Conclusion We conclude that the 50:50 mixture of 2% lidocaine with 0.4% ropivacaine as compared to 2% lidocaine in peribulbar anesthetic blocks in adjustable-suture strabismus surgery does not produce significant improvements in pain control during the postoperative and adjustment phases. In addition, ropivacaine did not impair return of full ocular motility at 6 hours, which is advantageous in adjustable-suture strabismus surgery. PMID:25609996

  14. Correlation between some arterial and venous blood gas parameters in healthy newborn Martina Franca donkey foals from birth to 96 hours of age.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, A; Contri, A; Gloria, A; Veronesi, M C; Sfirro, M P; Parrillo, S; Robbe, D

    2017-01-01

    In neonatology, blood gas analysis is a useful tool in the evaluation of the health of newborns and plays a key role in early detection of critically ill subjects. Because blood gas analysis parameters have not previously been studied in any depth in donkey foals, this study was performed on 16 healthy Martina Franca donkey foals born after an uncomplicated delivery. Arterial and venous blood samples were collected at 5 minutes and at 12, 24, 72, and 96 hours of age. Blood gas analysis was performed by a portable analyzer, measuring arterial and venous total carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2), oxygen partial pressure (pO2), oxygen saturation (sO2), bicarbonate, base excess (BE), pH, and lactate (LT). Lower blood pH values, pO2 and sO2, and a higher level of lactate were found at birth in comparison with subsequent sampling times. This moderate acidotic profile disappeared at 12 hours, when all the parameters became constant until the end of the study period. As expected, significant differences between arterial and venous blood gas parameters related to the oxygenation, such as pO2 and sO2, and partially carbon dioxide partial pressure were found, whereas total carbon dioxide, pH, BE, and LT were comparable in arterial and venous blood samples. For these latter parameters, the highly significant correlation between arterial and venous findings suggests that venous samples could be an acceptable alternative to the arterial sample for blood gas analysis in newborn donkey foals, when the oxygenation status of the patient is not the first goal of patient analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of melatonin on 24-hour rhythms of ornithine decarboxylase activity and norepinephrine and acetylcholine synthesis in submaxillary lymph nodes and spleen of young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, D P; Brusco, L I; García Bonacho, M; Esquifìno, A I

    1998-05-01

    Young (50 days old) and old (18 months old) Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with mycobacterial Freund's adjuvant to produce an inflammatory disease of the joints and were studied the day before, and on days 6, 12 and 18 after injection. At every postinjection interval examined, old rats had significantly lower circadian amplitudes of pineal melatonin content. On day 18 of arthritis development, decreased levels of pineal melatonin were also seen in young rats. A second study, carried out 18 days after the injection of Freund's complete adjuvant and after 17 daily injections of 10 or 100 microg of melatonin in the evening, indicated that melatonin treatment restored the inflammatory response in old rats (assessed plethysmographically in hind paws) to the level found in young animals. In young rats, an inflammation-promoting effect of 100 microg melatonin could be demonstrated. As a consequence of the immune reaction, submaxillary lymph node and splenic ornithine decarboxylase activity (an index of lymph cell proliferation) augmented significantly, with acrophases of 24-hour rhythms in the afternoon for lymph nodes or in the morning for spleen. Mesor and amplitude of ornithine decarboxylase rhythm were lowest in old rats, while melatonin injection generally augmented its amplitude. Lymph node and splenic tyrosine hydroxylase activity (a presynaptic adrenergic marker) reached maximal values during early night hours while maximal values of [3H]acetylcholine synthesis (a presynaptic cholinergic marker) occurred during the afternoon in lymph nodes. Amplitude and mesor of these rhythms were lowest in old rats, an effect generally counteracted by melatonin treatment. The results suggest that inflammation is accompanied by an age-dependent, significant depression of pineal melatonin synthesis during adjuvant-induced arthritis and a decreased amplitude of the circadian rhythm of immune cell proliferation and autonomic activity in lymph nodes and spleen. These effects are

  16. Antioxidant properties of 8.0.4'-neolignans.

    PubMed

    Kónya, K; Varga, Z S; Antus, S

    2001-11-01

    A series of naturally occurring 8.0.4'-neolignans (1a-d, 1g, 2g, 2h) and their analogues (le-f, lh, 1i, 2a-f, 2i) have been synthesized in racemic form starting from commercially available phenols, such as eugenol, isoeugenol and 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol and from aromatic aldehydes, such as piperonal, veratraldehyde and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde. The inhibitory activity of these compounds on superoxide anion (O2.-) release by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) was tested and the structure-activity relationship was also studied.

  17. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 Version, for Youth Aged 9 to 11 Years: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Diep, Cassandra S; Hingle, Melanie; Chen, Tzu-An; Dadabhoy, Hafza R; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice; Subar, Amy F; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-10-01

    Valid methods of diet assessment are important for nutrition research and practice, but can be difficult with children. To validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites. Quasiexperimental. In one site, trained staff members observed and recorded foods and drinks consumed by children (n=38) during school lunch. The next day, the observed children completed both ASA24-Kids-2012 and an interviewer-administered 24hDR in a randomized order. Procedures in a second site (n=31) were similar, except observations occurred during dinner in a community location. Foods were classified as matches (reported and consumed), intrusions (reported, but not consumed), or omissions (not reported, but consumed) for each participant. Rates of matches, intrusions, and omissions were calculated. Rates were compared between each recall method using repeated measures analysis of covariance. For matched foods, the authors determined correlation coefficients between observed and reported serving sizes. Match, intrusion, and omission rates between ASA24-Kids-2012 and observed intakes in Site 1 were 37%, 27%, and 35%, respectively. Comparable rates for interviewer-administered 24hDRs were 57%, 20%, and 23%, respectively. In Site 2, match, intrusion, and omission rates between ASA24-Kids-2012 and observed intakes were 53%, 12%, and 36%, respectively, vs 76% matches, 9% intrusions, and 15% omissions for interviewer-administered 24hDRs. The relationship strength between reported and observed serving sizes for matched foods was 0.18 in Site 1 and 0.09 in Site 2 for ASA24-Kids-2012, and 0.46 in Site 1 and 0.11 in Site 2 for interviewer-administered 24hDRs. ASA24-Kids-2012 was less accurate than interviewer-administered 24hDRs when compared with observed intakes, but both performed poorly. Additional research

  18. Relationship of Sleep Quantity and Quality with 24-Hour Urinary Catecholamines and Salivary Awakening Cortisol in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jihui; Ma, Ronald C.W.; Kong, Alice P.S.; So, Wing Yee; Li, Albert M.; Lam, Sui Ping; Li, Shirley Xin; Yu, Mandy W.M.; Ho, Chung Shun; Chan, Michael H.M.; Zhang, Bin; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2011-01-01

    ; Zhang B; Wing YK. Relationship of sleep quantity and quality with 24-hour urinary catecholamines and salivary awakening cortisol in healthy middle-aged adults. SLEEP 2011;34(2):225-233. PMID:21286244

  19. CO investigation of z = 0.4-1.5 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, A.-L.; Combes, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the results of an IRAM-30 m search for CO emission lines in three galaxies at intermediate redshifts. The idea was to investigate the molecular content of galaxies that are bright in the infrared at z=0.4-1.5, a redshift desert for molecular line studies because poorly investigated as yet. We integrated 8-10 h per source and did not succeed in detecting any of the sources. From our upper limits, we were able to constrain the molecular gas content in these systems to less than 4 to 8 × 10^9~M_⊙, assuming a CO-to-H2 conversion factor (α=0.8~M_⊙/(K km s-1 pc2)). We stress the current difficulty of selecting sources with a detectable molecular content, a problem that will be faced by the ALMA First Science projects.

  20. 24-Hour Urine Samples Are More Reproducible Than Spot Urine Samples for Evaluation of Iodine Status in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Wu, Yalan; Lin, Laixiang; Tan, Long; Shen, Jun; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Guo, Xiaohui; Wang, Wei; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Wanqi

    2016-01-01

    Variation in different urinary measurements for evaluation of iodine status is of concern to clinicians and researchers. This study evaluated variations between urine iodine concentration (UIC), spot and 24-h urine sample creatinine concentrations, and 24-h urine iodine excretion (24-h UIE) in repeated samples from school-age children. Urine samples (24 h and morning spot) were collected on 2 occasions from 981 children in Ningjin and Lingxian counties, China. Samples from Ningjin were collected in October and November 2013, and samples from Lingxian were collected in April and May 2014. Morning spot urine iodine concentration (MUIC), morning spot urine creatinine, 24-h UIC, and 24-h urine creatinine were measured in all samples. The 24-h UIE was calculated by multiplying the 24-h UIC by the 24-h urine volume. In Ningjin County, the 24-h UIC and 24-h UIE did not differ between repeated collections [192 and 172 μg/L, respectively, for 24-h UIC (P = 0.08); 123 and 120 μg/L, respectively, for 24-h UIE (P = 0.56)], whereas the MUIC was lower in November 2013 than in October 2013 (170 and 190 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.034). In Lingxian County, no significant differences were observed in 24-h UIC between the repeated collections (230 and 218 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.79), whereas the 24-h UIE and MUIC were higher in the samples collected in May 2014 than in April 2014 [161 and 155 μg/L, respectively, for 24-h UIE (P = 0.002); 244 and 203 μg/L, respectively, for MUIC (P < 0.001)]. When data from both counties were combined, no difference was observed between repeated 24-h UIC (214 compared with 196 μg/L; P = 0.17) and 24-h UIE (143 compared with 143 μg/d; P = 0.06), but MUICs were lower in the first collection than in the second collection (199 and 207 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.002). The κ values were >0.4 for 24-h UIC and mean UIE, whereas relatively low κ values were observed for MUIC and mean UIE. The 24-h UIC was more accurate and reproducible than the MUIC

  1. Relationship of Exercise, Age, and Gender on Decompression Sickness and Venous Gas Emboli During 2-Hour Oxygen Prebreathe Prior to Hypobaric Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Foster, P. P.; Pilmanis, A. A.; Butler, B. D.; Beltran, E.; Fife, C. E.; Vann, R. D.; Gerth, W. A.; Loftin, K. C.; hide

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated four 2-hour oxygen prebreathe protocols combining adynamia (non-walking) and 4 different amounts of exercise for potential use with extravehicular activity (EVA) on the International Space Station. Phase I: upper and lower body exercises using dual-cycle ergometry (75% VO2 max for 10 min). Phase 11: same ergometry plus 24 min of light exercise that simulated space suit preparations. Phase III: same 24 min of light exercise but no ergometry, and Phase IV: 56 min of light exercise without ergometry. After 80 min on 100% O2, the subjects breathed 26.5% O2 - 73.5% N2 for 30 min at 10.2 psi. All subjects performed a series of upper body exercises from a recumbent position for 4 hrs at 4.3 psi to simulate EVA work. Venous gas emboli (VGE) were monitored every 12 min using precordial Doppler ultrasound. The 39 female and 126 male exposures were analyzed for correlations between decompression sickness (DCS) or VGE, and risk variables. The duration and quantity of exercise during prebreathe inversely relates to DCS and VGE incidence. The type and distribution of the 19 cases of DCS were similar to historical cases. There was no correlation of age, gender, body mass index, or fitness level with greater incidence of DCS or all VGE. However there were more Grade IV VGE in males > 40 years (10 of 19) than in those =< 40 years (3 of 107), with p<0.01 from Fisher's Exact Chi square The latency time for VGE was longer (103 min +/- 56 SD, n = 15 versus 53 min +/- 31, n =13) when the ergometry occurred about 15 min into the prebreathe than when performed at the start of the prebreathe, but the order of the ergometry did not influence the overall DCS and VGE incidence. An increasing amount of exercise during prebreathes reduced the risk of DCS during subsequent exposures to 4.3 psi. Age, gender, or fitness level did not correlate with the incidence of DCS or VGE (combination of Grades I-IV). However males greater than 40 years had a higher incidence of Grade IV VGE.

  2. Relationship of Exercise, Age, and Gender on Decompression Sickness and Venous Gas Emboli During 2-Hour Oxygen Prebreathe Prior to Hypobaric Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Foster, P. P.; Pilmanis, A. A.; Butler, B. D.; Beltran, E.; Fife, C. E.; Vann, R. D.; Gerth, W. A.; Loftin, K. C.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated four 2-hour oxygen prebreathe protocols combining adynamia (non-walking) and 4 different amounts of exercise for potential use with extravehicular activity (EVA) on the International Space Station. Phase I: upper and lower body exercises using dual-cycle ergometry (75% VO2 max for 10 min). Phase 11: same ergometry plus 24 min of light exercise that simulated space suit preparations. Phase III: same 24 min of light exercise but no ergometry, and Phase IV: 56 min of light exercise without ergometry. After 80 min on 100% O2, the subjects breathed 26.5% O2 - 73.5% N2 for 30 min at 10.2 psi. All subjects performed a series of upper body exercises from a recumbent position for 4 hrs at 4.3 psi to simulate EVA work. Venous gas emboli (VGE) were monitored every 12 min using precordial Doppler ultrasound. The 39 female and 126 male exposures were analyzed for correlations between decompression sickness (DCS) or VGE, and risk variables. The duration and quantity of exercise during prebreathe inversely relates to DCS and VGE incidence. The type and distribution of the 19 cases of DCS were similar to historical cases. There was no correlation of age, gender, body mass index, or fitness level with greater incidence of DCS or all VGE. However there were more Grade IV VGE in males > 40 years (10 of 19) than in those =< 40 years (3 of 107), with p<0.01 from Fisher's Exact Chi square The latency time for VGE was longer (103 min +/- 56 SD, n = 15 versus 53 min +/- 31, n =13) when the ergometry occurred about 15 min into the prebreathe than when performed at the start of the prebreathe, but the order of the ergometry did not influence the overall DCS and VGE incidence. An increasing amount of exercise during prebreathes reduced the risk of DCS during subsequent exposures to 4.3 psi. Age, gender, or fitness level did not correlate with the incidence of DCS or VGE (combination of Grades I-IV). However males greater than 40 years had a higher incidence of Grade IV VGE.

  3. A 0.4 to 10 GHz airborne electromagnetic environment survey of USA urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of some U.S. metropolitan areas measured terrestrial emissions within the broad frequency spectrum from 0.4 to 10 GHz. A Cessna 402 commercial aircraft was fitted with both nadir-viewing and horizon-viewing antennas and instrumentation, including a spectrum analyzer, a 35 mm continuous film camera, and a magnetic tape recorder. Most of the flights were made at a nominal altitude of 10,000 feet, and Washington, D. C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Chicago were surveyed. The 450 to 470 MHz land-mobile UHF band is especially crowded, and the 400 to 406 MHz space bands are less active. This paper discusses test measurements obtained up to 10 GHz. Sample spectrum analyzer photograhs were selected from a total of 5,750 frames representing 38 hours of data.

  4. 0.4- to 10-GHz airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of United States urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of some U.S. metropolitan areas measured terrestrial emissions within the broad-frequency spectrum from 0.4 to 10 GHz. A Cessna 402 commercial aircraft was fitted with both nadir-viewing and horizon-viewing antennas and instrumentation, including a spectrum analyzer, a 35-mm continuous-film camera, and a magnetic-tape recorder. Most of the flights were made at a nominal altitude of 10,000 ft, and Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Chicago were surveyed. The 450- to 470-MHz land-mobile UHF band is especially crowded, and the 400- to 406-MHz space bands are less active. Test measurements obtained up to 10 GHz are discussed. Sample spectrum-analyzer photographs were selected from a total of 5750 frames representing 38 hours of data.

  5. 0.4- to 10-GHz airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of United States urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of some U.S. metropolitan areas measured terrestrial emissions within the broad-frequency spectrum from 0.4 to 10 GHz. A Cessna 402 commercial aircraft was fitted with both nadir-viewing and horizon-viewing antennas and instrumentation, including a spectrum analyzer, a 35-mm continuous-film camera, and a magnetic-tape recorder. Most of the flights were made at a nominal altitude of 10,000 ft, and Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Chicago were surveyed. The 450- to 470-MHz land-mobile UHF band is especially crowded, and the 400- to 406-MHz space bands are less active. Test measurements obtained up to 10 GHz are discussed. Sample spectrum-analyzer photographs were selected from a total of 5750 frames representing 38 hours of data.

  6. An Intergenerational Adventure: A Training Curriculum for Older Adult Caregivers Working with School-Age Children during the Hours after School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dale B.

    This training guide was created for organizations in which older adults serve as caregivers for children of 5-14 years of age during the times when they are not in school. The training curriculum was designed so that anyone familiar with the developmental needs of school-age children and the needs and aspirations of older adults would be able to…

  7. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... insipidus - renal Diabetes insipidus - central Diabetes High fluid intake Some forms of kidney disease Use of diuretic medicines Alternative Names Urine volume; 24-hour urine collection; Urine protein - 24 hour Images Urine sample Female urinary tract ...

  8. The effects of aging for 50,000 hours at 343{degree}C on the mechanical properties of Type 308 stainless steel weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1995-12-01

    The effects of long-term aging at intermediate temperature on the mechanical properties of type 308 stainless steel weld metals have been studied. Three multipass shielded metal-arc welds with ferrite levels of 4, 8, or 12% were aged up to 50,000 h at 343{degrees}C. Tensile and Charpy V-notch specimens were used to determine the effects of aging on the mechanical properties of the weld metal. Aging had little effect on the yield strength of the weld metal, but did result in a slight increase (approximately 5%) in the ultimate tensile strength. The ferrite content had little effect on the yield strength of the materials, but the ultimate tensile strength increased slightly with higher ferrite content. In contrast to the small effect on the tensile properties, the impact properties were significantly degraded by aging. The extent of the degradation increased with increasing ferrite content and continued to increase with increasing aging time, Spinodal decomposition and the precipitation of G-phase particles in the ferrite phase are believed to be responsible for the degradation of the mechanical properties.

  9. Optical spectroscopy and initial mass function of z = 0.4 red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Baitian; Worthey, Guy

    2017-05-01

    Spectral absorption features can be used to constrain the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in the integrated light of galaxies. Spectral indices used at low redshift are in the far red, and therefore increasingly hard to detect at higher and higher redshifts as they pass out of atmospheric transmission and CCD detector wavelength windows. We employ IMF-sensitive indices at bluer wavelengths. We stack spectra of red, quiescent galaxies around z = 0.4 from the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey. The z = 0.4 red galaxies have 2 Gyr average ages so that they cannot be passively evolving precursors of nearby galaxies. They are slightly enhanced in C and Na, and slightly depressed in Ti. Split by luminosity, the fainter half appears to be older, a result that should be checked with larger samples in the future. We uncover no evidence for IMF evolution between z = 0.4 and now, but we highlight the importance of sample selection, finding that an SDSS sample culled to select archetypal elliptical galaxies at z ˜ 0 is offset towards a more bottom-heavy IMF. Other samples, including our DEEP2 sample, show an offset towards a more spiral galaxy-like IMF. All samples confirm that the reddest galaxies look bottom-heavy compared with bluer ones. Sample selection also influences age-colour trends: red, luminous galaxies always look old and metal rich, but the bluer ones can be more metal poor, the same abundance or more metal rich, depending on how they are selected.

  10. Optical spectroscopy and initial mass function of z = 0.4 red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Baitian; Worthey, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Spectral absorption features can be used to constrain the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in the integrated light of galaxies. Spectral indices used at low redshift are in the far red, and therefore increasingly hard to detect at higher and higher redshifts as they pass out of atmospheric transmission and CCD detector wavelength windows. We employ IMF-sensitive indices at bluer wavelengths. We stack spectra of red, quiescent galaxies around z = 0.4, from the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey. The z = 0.4 red galaxies have 2 Gyr average ages so that they cannot be passively evolving precursors of nearby galaxies. They are slightly enhanced in C and Na, and slightly depressed in Ti. Split by luminosity, the fainter half appears to be older, a result that should be checked with larger samples in the future. We uncover no evidence for IMF evolution between z = 0.4 and now, but we highlight the importance of sample selection, finding that an SDSS sample culled to select archetypal elliptical galaxies at z˜0 is offset toward a more bottom heavy IMF. Other samples, including our DEEP2 sample, show an offset toward a more spiral galaxy-like IMF. All samples confirm that the reddest galaxies look bottom heavy compared with bluer ones. Sample selection also influences age-color trends: red, luminous galaxies always look old and metal-rich, but the bluer ones can be more metal-poor, the same abundance, or more metal-rich, depending on how they are selected.

  11. Effect of 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation on Auditory and Linguistic Perception: A Comparison among Young Controls, Sleep-Deprived Participants, Dyslexic Readers, and Aging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey; Zukerman, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effects of 24 hr of sleep deprivation on auditory and linguistic perception and to assess the magnitude of this effect by comparing such performance with that of aging adults on speech perception and with that of dyslexic readers on phonological awareness. Method: Fifty-five sleep-deprived young adults were compared with 29…

  12. Effect of 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation on Auditory and Linguistic Perception: A Comparison among Young Controls, Sleep-Deprived Participants, Dyslexic Readers, and Aging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey; Zukerman, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effects of 24 hr of sleep deprivation on auditory and linguistic perception and to assess the magnitude of this effect by comparing such performance with that of aging adults on speech perception and with that of dyslexic readers on phonological awareness. Method: Fifty-five sleep-deprived young adults were compared with 29…

  13. Effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on auditory and linguistic perception: a comparison among young controls, sleep-deprived participants, dyslexic readers, and aging adults.

    PubMed

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey; Zukerman, Gil

    2014-06-01

    To test the effects of 24 hr of sleep deprivation on auditory and linguistic perception and to assess the magnitude of this effect by comparing such performance with that of aging adults on speech perception and with that of dyslexic readers on phonological awareness. Fifty-five sleep-deprived young adults were compared with 29 aging adults (older than 60 years) and with 18 young controls on auditory temporal order judgment (TOJ) and on speech perception tasks (Experiment 1). The sleep deprived were also compared with 51 dyslexic readers and with the young controls on TOJ and phonological awareness tasks (One-Minute Test for Pseudowords, Phoneme Deletion, Pig Latin, and Spoonerism; Experiment 2). Sleep deprivation resulted in longer TOJ thresholds, poorer speech perception, and poorer nonword reading compared with controls. The TOJ thresholds of the sleep deprived were comparable to those of the aging adults, but their pattern of speech performance differed. They also performed better on TOJ and phonological awareness than dyslexic readers. A variety of linguistic skills are affected by sleep deprivation. The comparison of sleep-deprived individuals with other groups with known difficulties in these linguistic skills might suggest that different groups exhibit common difficulties.

  14. Leptin and adiponectin levels in discordant dichorionic twins at 72 hours of age-associations with anthropometric parameters and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Milenković, Svetlana J; Mirković, Ljiljana B; Jovandarić, Miljana Z; Milenković, Dušan M; Banković, Violeta V; Janković, Borisav Z

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) in adults has been associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Leptin and adiponectin correlations with anthropometric parameters and IR at 72 h in discordant twins were tested. We included 24 discordant (birth weight discordance ≥20% in relation to the heavier cotwin) and 30 concordant (birth weight discordance ≤10%) twins. A correlation between leptin (but not adiponectin) level and birth weight (BW), birth length and head circumference in IUGR twins was recorded (p<0.05). Insulin sensitivity (IS) and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-IR in IUGR twins were similar to appropriate-for-gestational-age cotwins and unrelated to adipokines. In IUGR twins, adiponectin and insulin associated positively. In larger concordant twins' leptin level correlated with HOMA-IR and insulin. Leptin, but not adiponectin, levels correlate positively with anthropometric parameters in IUGR twins. IR in IUGR twins is unrelated to adipokines in the first few days of life.

  15. 24-HOUR ACTIVITY RHYTHM AND SLEEP DISTURBANCES IN DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY OF MIDDLE-AGED AND OLDER PERSONS.

    PubMed

    Luik, Annemarie I; Zuurbier, Lisette A; Direk, Neşe; Hofman, Albert; Van Someren, Eus J W; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-09-01

    Disturbed circadian rhythms have been associated with depression and anxiety, but it is unclear if disturbances in the 24-hr activity rhythm and sleep are independently and specifically related to these disorders. In 1,714 middle-aged and elderly participants of the Rotterdam Study, we collected actigraphy recordings of at least 96 hr (138 ± 14 hr, mean ± standard deviation). Activity rhythms were quantified calculating the fragmentation of the rhythm, stability of the rhythm over days, and timing of the rhythm. Total sleep time, sleep onset latency, and wake after sleep onset were also estimated with actigraphy. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, persons with clinically relevant depressive symptoms were interviewed to diagnose DSM-IV-depressive disorder. Anxiety disorders were determined with the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. More fragmented rhythms were associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR): 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04;1.54) and anxiety disorders (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.14;1.70) after covariate adjustment. Less stable rhythms, longer sleep onset latency, and more wake after sleep onset were related to clinically relevant depressive symptoms or anxiety disorders only if not adjusted for covariates and other activity rhythm and sleep indicators. Our study in middle-aged and elderly persons suggests that fragmentation of the 24-hr activity rhythm is associated with depression and anxiety. Moreover, this association also largely accounts for the effect of disturbed sleep on these psychiatric disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cracking the Credit Hour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitinen, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The basic currency of higher education--the credit hour--represents the root of many problems plaguing America's higher education system: the practice of measuring time rather than learning. "Cracking the Credit Hour" traces the history of this time-based unit, from the days of Andrew Carnegie to recent federal efforts to define a credit…

  17. 0.4 Percent Scale Space Launch System Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-15

    0.4 Percent Scale Space Launch System Wind Tunnel Test 0.4 Percent Scale SLS model installed in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 1 for aerodynamic force and movement testing.

  18. A systematic review of third-generation hydroxyethyl starch (HES 130/0.4) in resuscitation: safety not adequately addressed.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Christiane S; Kohl, Matthias; Reinhart, Konrad

    2011-03-01

    Hydroxyethyl starches (HES) are widely used for intravascular volume therapy in surgical, emergency, and intensive care patients. There are safety concerns with regard to coagulopathy, renal failure, pruritus, tissue storage, and mortality. Third-generation HES 130/0.4 is considered to have an improved risk profile. A common rationale for the use of HES is the belief that 3 to 4 times more crystalloid than colloid volume is needed to achieve similar hemodynamic end points. Our goal was to assess whether published studies on HES 130/0.4 resuscitation are sufficiently well designed to draw conclusions about the safety of this compound. In addition, we wanted to assess crystalloid-to-colloid fluid ratios in studies with goal-directed fluid regimen. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials in which HES 130/0.4 is used for resuscitation. We identified 56 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with HES 130/0.4 in. acute hypovolemia, mainly from the elective surgical setting (n = 45). Surgical studies were small-sized (median 25 patients in the HES groups, range 10 to 90) and of short duration (median 12 hours, range 0.5 to 144 hours). The median cumulative HES dose was 2465 mL (range 328 to 6229 mL), corresponding to 35 mL/kg in a 70-kg patient, the daily dose limit being 50 mL/kg. End points mostly addressed variable surrogate outcomes. Sixty percent of control fluids were other HES solutions, gelatins, or dextran, which have a similar risk profile. Without exception, these studies were not designed for clinically important safety outcomes, primarily because they were too small, used mostly inadequate control fluids, and had inappropriately short observation periods. Therefore, and also because of heterogeneity of patient groups and outcome definitions, results from these studies cannot be pooled. These studies do not allow any conclusion about the safety of HES 130/0.4. There is a common belief that 3 to 4 times more crystalloid than colloid volume is necessary

  19. 17 CFR 275.0-4 - General requirements of papers and applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and applications. 275.0-4 Section 275.0-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.0-4 General requirements... date when they are actually received by it. (2) All filings required to be made electronically with...

  20. Trends in the Work Hours of Physicians in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Staiger, Douglas O.; Auerbach, David I.; Buerhaus, Peter I.

    2010-01-01

    Context Recent trends in hours worked by physicians may affect workforce needs but have not been thoroughly analyzed. Objectives To estimate trends in hours worked by US physicians and assess for association with physician fees. Design, Setting, and Participants A retrospective analysis of trends in hours worked among US physicians using nationally representative workforce information from the US Census Bureau Current Population Survey between 1976 and 2008 (N=116 733). Trends were estimated among all US physicians and by residency status, sex, age, and work setting. Trends in hours were compared with national trends in physician fees, and estimated separately for physicians located in metropolitan areas with high and low fees in 2001. Main Outcome Measure Self-reported hours worked in the week before the survey. Results After remaining stable through the early 1990s, mean hours worked per week decreased by 7.2% between 1996 and 2008 among all physicians (from 54.9 hours per week in 1996–1998 to 51.0 hours per week in 2006–2008; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3%–9.0%; P<.001). Excluding resident physicians, whose hours decreased by 9.8% (95% CI, 5.8%–13.7%; P<.001) in the last decade due to duty hour limits imposed in 2003, nonresident physician hours decreased by 5.7% (95% CI, 3.8%–7.7%; P<.001). The decrease in hours was largest for nonresident physicians younger than 45 years (7.4%; 95% CI, 4.7%–10.2%; P<.001) and working outside of the hospital (6.4%; 95% CI, 4.1%–8.7%; P<.001), and the decrease was smallest for those aged 45 years or older (3.7%; 95% CI, 1.0%–6.5%; P=.008) and working in the hospital (4.0%; 95% CI, 0.4%–7.6%; P=.03). After adjusting for inflation, mean physician fees decreased nationwide by 25% between 1995 and 2006, coincident with the decrease in physician hours. In 2001, mean physician hours were less than 49 hours per week in metropolitan areas with the lowest physician fees, whereas physician hours remained more than 52

  1. Origin of the high permittivity in (La0.4Ba0.4Ca0.2)(Mn0.4Ti0.6)O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Feteira, Antonio; Sinclair, Derek C.

    2005-10-01

    Single-phase cubic (La0.4Ba0.4Ca0.2)(Mn0.4Ti0.6)O3 (LBCMT) was reported by Jha et al. [J. Solid State Chem. 177, 2881 (2004)] to exhibit an extraordinarily high effective permittivity (ɛeff~6980 and 590 at 1 and 100 kHz, respectively) at room temperature. According to x-ray-diffraction analysis, the structure of this perovskite can be fully described on the centrosymmetric space-group Pm3m, which precludes the occurrence of ferroelectricity. In the present work, impedance spectroscopy has shown that LBCMT exhibits a bulk permittivity, Vr~40-45, in accordance with that expected for a cubic, centrosymmetric perovskite. LBCMT is a semiconductor with a bulk resistivity of ~3 kΩ cm at 300 K and an activation energy for conduction of ~0.20 eV which is consistent with an electron hopping conduction mechanism. Finally, it is demonstrated that the high effective permittivity Veff reported previously is not an intrinsic bulk effect arising from hopping conduction between Mn+3 and Mn+4, but is ultimately associated with grain-boundary effects.

  2. 100 Hours of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project is a worldwide event consisting of a wide range of public outreach activities, live science center, research observatory webcasts and sidewalk astronomy events. One of the key goals of 100 Hours of Astronomy is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years ago. 100 Hours of Astronomy will take place from 2-5 April when the Moon goes from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing. Saturn will be the other highlight of early evening observing events. This presentation will report on this worldwide public outreach event, its successes and lessons learned, participation and possible follow-up projects and activities.

  3. Cluster-spin-glass behavior in layered LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fei; Bie, Xiaofei; Chen, Yan; Wei, Yingjin; Liu, Lina; Wang, Chunzhong; Zou, Guangtian; Chen, Gang

    2009-09-01

    Layered LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 has been synthesized by citrate precursor method. Its magnetic properties are investigated by dc magnetization. The high-temperature susceptibility curve follows the Curie-Weiss law with Curie and Weiss constant 1.435(2) emu K/mol Oe and -112(4) K, respectively, larger than those values reported in previous researches, which possibly results from the difference in the synthesis process and sintered temperature. Our dc susceptibility differs from that of the homogeneous spin glass in that below Tirr field cooled (FC) curve continues to rise, while the FC curve is almost flat for homogeneous spin glass. Together with the de Almeida-Thouless line analysis, cluster spin glass is suggested to be the ground state of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2. Frustration parameter |θ|/Tf in this system is estimated to be about four, lower than the value that frustration effect is strong enough to give rise to spin glass state. This fact indicates that the cluster-spin-glass results from the short-range structure disorder rather than the geometrical frustration.

  4. Cosmic rays in the surroundings of SNR G35.6–0.4

    DOE PAGES

    Torres, Diego F.; Li, Hui; Chen, Yang; ...

    2011-11-02

    HESS J1858+020 is a TeV gamma-ray source that was reported to have no clearly catalogued counterpart at any wavelength. However, it has been recently proposed that this source is indirectly associated with the radio source, re-identified as a supernova remnant (SNR), G35.6–0.4. The latter has been found to be middle-aged (~30 kyr) and to have nearby molecular clouds (MCs). HESS J1858+020 was proposed to be the result of the interaction of protons accelerated in the SNR shell with target ions residing in the clouds. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog does not list any source coincident withmore » the position of HESS J1858+020, but some lie close. Here, we analyse more than 2 years of data obtained with the Fermi-LAT for the region of interest, and consider whether it is indeed possible that the closest LAT source, 1FGL J1857.1+0212c, is related to HESS J1858+020. We conclude it is not, and we impose upper limits on the GeV emission originating from HESS J1858+020. Using a simplified 3D model for the cosmic ray propagation out from the shell of the SNR, we consider whether the interaction between SNR G35.6–0.4 and the MCs nearby could give rise to the TeV emission of HESS J1858+020 without producing a GeV counterpart. If so, the pair of SNR/TeV source with no GeV detection would be reminiscent of other similarly aged SNRs, such as some of the TeV hotspots near W28, for which cosmic ray diffusion may be used to explain their multifrequency phenomenology. Furthermore, for HESS J1858+020, we found that although the phase space in principle allows such a GeV–TeV non-correlation to appear, usual and/or observationally constrained values of the parameters (e.g., diffusion coefficients and cloud–SNR likely distances) would disfavour it.« less

  5. Cosmic rays in the surroundings of SNR G35.6–0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Diego F.; Li, Hui; Chen, Yang; Cillis, Analía; Caliandro, Andrea G.; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Y.

    2011-11-02

    HESS J1858+020 is a TeV gamma-ray source that was reported to have no clearly catalogued counterpart at any wavelength. However, it has been recently proposed that this source is indirectly associated with the radio source, re-identified as a supernova remnant (SNR), G35.6–0.4. The latter has been found to be middle-aged (~30 kyr) and to have nearby molecular clouds (MCs). HESS J1858+020 was proposed to be the result of the interaction of protons accelerated in the SNR shell with target ions residing in the clouds. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog does not list any source coincident with the position of HESS J1858+020, but some lie close. Here, we analyse more than 2 years of data obtained with the Fermi-LAT for the region of interest, and consider whether it is indeed possible that the closest LAT source, 1FGL J1857.1+0212c, is related to HESS J1858+020. We conclude it is not, and we impose upper limits on the GeV emission originating from HESS J1858+020. Using a simplified 3D model for the cosmic ray propagation out from the shell of the SNR, we consider whether the interaction between SNR G35.6–0.4 and the MCs nearby could give rise to the TeV emission of HESS J1858+020 without producing a GeV counterpart. If so, the pair of SNR/TeV source with no GeV detection would be reminiscent of other similarly aged SNRs, such as some of the TeV hotspots near W28, for which cosmic ray diffusion may be used to explain their multifrequency phenomenology. Furthermore, for HESS J1858+020, we found that although the phase space in principle allows such a GeV–TeV non-correlation to appear, usual and/or observationally constrained values of the parameters (e.g., diffusion coefficients and cloud–SNR likely distances) would disfavour it.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER G144.9+0.4 IN THE CAMELOPARDALIS OB1 ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chien-Cheng; Chen, W. P.; Panwar, Neelam

    2013-10-01

    Our star-count analysis of the Two Micron All Sky Survey point sources resulted in an identification of the star cluster G144.9+0.4. The cluster was found, but not characterized, by Glushkova et al. We show that the cluster is physically associated with the Cam OB1 association at a distance of about 1 kpc and with an age of 1-2 Myr. Pre-main sequence stars are identified on the basis of photometric and proper motion data. A total of 91 additional OB star candidates was found in subgroups 1A and 1B, a significant increase from the currently known 43 OB stars. The OB members show an age spread that indicates a sustained star formation for at least the last 10-15 Myr. The young cluster G144.9+0.4 represents the latest episode of sequential star formation in this cloud complex.

  7. 100 Hours of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities including live webcasts, observing events and more. One of the key goals of 100HA is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years ago. 100HA will take place from 2-5 April when the Moon goes from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing. Saturn will be the other highlight of early evening observing events. 100 Hours of Astronomy consists of five main events: 1. An opening event featuring the telescope that Galileo used to make his groundbreaking observations. 2. Activities at science centres, planetariums and science museums including live webcasts, live observations by visitors using remotely-operated telescopes, and enhanced outreach programs including public observing sessions held by amateur astronomy groups. 3. Observing sessions and other educational activities in schools groups held by astronomy clubs and others. 4. 24 hours of live webcasts from research observatories around the world, along with observing events and other outreach activities at participating observatories. 5. 24 hours of sidewalk astronomy - public observing sessions in population centres to bring the opportunity to view the Moon, Saturn and other objects to as many people as possible. The annual International Sidewalk Astronomy Night will be held during this event. These primary activities will be scheduled so that each supports the other, leading in order from one to the next and culminating in the world's greatest public observing event. A wrap-up will be held at the IAU General Assembly in 2009 to recognize all participants’ contributions to this unique global event.

  8. After-hours coverage

    PubMed Central

    Bordman, Risa; Wheler, David; Drummond, Neil; White, David; Crighton, Eric

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and content of existing or developing policies and guidelines of medical associations and colleges regarding after-hours care by family physicians and general practitioners, especially legal requirements. DESIGN Telephone survey in fall 2002, updated in fall 2004. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS All national and provincial medical associations, Colleges of Family Physicians, Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, local government offices for the north, and the Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Response to the question: “Does your agency have a policy in place regarding after-hours health care coverage by FPs/GPs, or are there active discussions regarding such a policy?” RESULTS The College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia was the first to institute a policy, in 1995, requiring physicians to make “specific arrangements” for after-hours care of their patients. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta adopted a similar policy in 1996 along with a guideline to aid implementation. In 2002, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Nova Scotia approved a guideline on the Availability of Physicians After Hours. The Saskatchewan Medical Association and the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan formulated a joint policy on medical practice coverage that was released in 2003. Many agencies actively discussed the topic. Provincial and national Colleges of Family Physicians did not have any policies in place. The CMPA does not generate guidelines but released in an information letter in May 2000 a section entitled “Reducing your risk when you’re not available.” CONCLUSION There is increasing interest Canada-wide in setting policy for after-hours care. While provincial Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons have traditionally led the way, a trend toward more collaboration between associations was identified. The effect of policy implementation on physicians

  9. Growth and characterization of In0.6Se0.4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, P. B.; Desai, H. N.; Dhimmar, J. M.; Modi, B. P.

    2017-05-01

    In0.6Se0.4 crystals have been grown by using the Bridgman/Stockbarger method. The freshly cleaved crystals obtained from ingot have mirror-like surface. The compositional, morphological and structural properties of In0.6Se0.4 semiconductor crystals have been analysed using energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) techniques. It was observed from EDAX result that the ratio of weight (%) and atomic (%) of In and Se in In0.6Se0.4 crystals were 1.6 and 1.1 respectively. SEM image showed that In0.6Se0.4 crystals have smooth, homogenous and layered surface. The XRD spectra showed that obtained In0.6Se0.4 crystals had hexagonal and orthorhombic structure. The structural parameters: average crystallite size, average lattice strain, dislocation density and domain population were determined from XRD spectra.

  10. [Overweight and obesity in preschool children (0-4 years): behaviour and views of parents].

    PubMed

    Boere-Boonekamp, M M; L'Hoir, M P; Beltman, M; Bruil, J; Dijkstra, N; Engelberts, A C

    2008-02-09

    Description of unhealthy behaviour and views regarding nutrition, physical exercise and education in families with young children, in relation to specific groups with a high risk of overweight. Cross-sectional study. In wellbaby clinics for infants and toddlers in various sites in The Netherlands 534 parents were requested to fill in questionnaires on nutrition, physical exercise and education. Enquiry into background characteristics took place and several hypotheses were tested. Using a bivariate and multivariate analysis each hypothesis was examined with regard to linkage of the answers to specific high-risk groups. 73% (390 parents) responded. Overweight was found in 15% of the 2-4-year-olds, this included 3.7% with obesity. Relatively often, parents held views and showed behaviour characteristic of an unhealthy lifestyle for young children. For example, approximately 1 out of 7 families was not used to having breakfast. 43% of the respondents considered sweetened milk products approprite substitutes for milk and 39% of the children always had soft drinks at their disposal. One fifth of the parents indicated that they did not have enough time to go out with their child. Approximately 1 out of 10 toddlers aged 2-4 years had a TV in their own room; 22% were allowed to determine whether they wanted to watch TV or not and 9% were allowed to decide how long they watched. Such specific high-risk behaviour was seen in particular in families with non-western mothers, mothers with a low level of education or mothers living on social security. Regular use of child care or a nursery seemed to have some protective effect. In families with children aged 0-4 years, behaviour patterns related to overweight at a later age were frequently observed. In view of the increased incidence of overweight and obesity in young children, initiation of research aimed at optimisation of education is warranted, which should include special attention for the behaviour of parents with regard to

  11. An Hour in History

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-22

    John C. Stennis Space Center historian Marco Giardino speaks to center employees during the first An Hour in History session March 22. The Stennis History Office launched the series as part of the rocket engine test facility's yearlong 50th anniversary celebration. The inaugural session focused on Stennis history during the early 1960s. Subsequent sessions will focus on other aspects of Stennis history as part of the '50 Years of Powering Dreams' anniversary theme.

  12. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation of Li(Ni0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4)O2 Cathode Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rumble, C.; Conry, T.E.; Doeff, Marca; Cairns, Elton J.; Penner-Hahn, James. E.; Deb, Aniruddha

    2010-02-02

    Li(Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2-y}Al{sub y}Mn{sub 0.4})O{sub 2} with y=0.05 was investigated to understand the effect of replacement of the cobalt by aluminum on the structural and electrochemical properties. The effect of the substitution was studied by in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), utilizing a novel in situ electrochemical cell, specifically designed for long-term X-ray experiments. The cell was cycled at a moderate rate through a typical Li-ion battery operating voltage range (1.0-4.7 V). XAS measurements were performed at different states-of-charge (SOC) during cycling, at the Ni, Co, and the Mn edges, revealing details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction processes. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure region of the spectra revealed the changes of bond distance and coordination number of Ni, Co, and Mn absorbers as a function of the SOC of the material. The oxidation states of the transition metals in the system are Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 3+}, and Mn{sup 4+} in the as-made material (fully discharged), while during charging the Ni{sup 2+} is oxidized to Ni{sup 4+} through an intermediate stage of Ni{sup 3+}, Co{sup 3+} is oxidized towards Co{sup 4+} and Mn was found to be electrochemically inactive and remains as Mn{sup 4+}. The EXAFS results during cycling show that the Ni-O changes the most, followed by Co-O and Mn-O varies the least. These measurements on this cathode material confirmed that the material retains its symmetry and good structural short-range order leading to the superior cycling reported earlier.

  13. Structural and electrochemical Investigation of Li(Ni0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4)O2 Cathode Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rumble, C.; Conry, T.E.; Doeff, Marca; Cairns, Elton J.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Deb, Aniruddha

    2010-06-14

    Li(Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 0.4})O{sub 2} was investigated to understand the effect of replacement of the cobalt by aluminum on the structural and electrochemical properties. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed, utilizing a novel in situ electrochemical cell, specifically designed for long-term X-ray experiments. The cell was cycled at a moderate rate through a typical Li-ion battery operating voltage range. (1.0-4.7 V) XAS measurements were performed at different states of charge (SOC) during cycling, at the Ni, Co, and the Mn edges, revealing details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction processes. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) region of the spectra revealed the changes of bond distance and coordination number of Ni, Co, and Mn absorbers as a function of the SOC of the material. The oxidation states of the transition metals in the system are Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 3+}, and Mn{sup 4+} in the as-made material (fully discharged), while during charging the Ni{sup 2+} is oxidized to Ni{sup 4+} through an intermediate stage of Ni{sup 3+}, Co{sup 3+} is oxidized toward Co{sup 4+}, and Mn was found to be electrochemically inactive and remained as Mn{sup 4+}. The EXAFS results during cycling show that the Ni-O changes the most, followed by Co-O, and Mn-O varies the least. These measurements on this cathode material confirmed that the material retains its symmetry and good structural short-range order leading to the superior cycling reported earlier.

  14. Long Working Hours and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane E.; Gimeno, David; Marmot, Michael G.; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between long working hours and cognitive function in middle age. Data were collected in 1997–1999 (baseline) and 2002–2004 (follow-up) from a prospective study of 2,214 British civil servants who were in full-time employment at baseline and had data on cognitive tests and covariates. A battery of cognitive tests (short-term memory, Alice Heim 4-I, Mill Hill vocabulary, phonemic fluency, and semantic fluency) were measured at baseline and at follow-up. Compared with working 40 hours per week at most, working more than 55 hours per week was associated with lower scores in the vocabulary test at both baseline and follow-up. Long working hours also predicted decline in performance on the reasoning test (Alice Heim 4-I). Similar results were obtained by using working hours as a continuous variable; the associations between working hours and cognitive function were robust to adjustments for several potential confounding factors including age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, income, physical diseases, psychosocial factors, sleep disturbances, and health risk behaviors. This study shows that long working hours may have a negative effect on cognitive performance in middle age. PMID:19126590

  15. DC-Bias-Superposition Characteristics of Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 Nanopowders Synthesized by Auto-Combustion.

    PubMed

    Sadhana, K; Sandhya, R; Praveena, K

    2015-06-01

    Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 nanopowders were prepared by auto-combustion method. The as-synthesized powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and the powders were densified at different temperatures 400 degrees C, 500 degrees C, 600 degrees C and 700 degrees C/4 hrs using conventional sintering method. The sintered samples were characterized by XRD and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The bulk densities of the samples were increased with an increase of sintering temperature. The grain sizes of all the samples vary in between 18 nm to 30 nm. The hysteresis loops show high saturation magnetization and low coercivity, indicates that it is a soft material. The incremental permeability (permeability with magnetic field superposition) was influenced by both ΔM and H(c). A sample with higher initial permeability and favoured the attainment of a higher incremental permeability. The Q-factor was mainly determined by the sintered density and microstructure. To summarize, a uniform and dense microstructure with relatively small average grain size is favourable for obtaining better dc-bias-superposition characteristics, including permeability and Q-factor.

  16. PV Hourly Simulation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, Jesse; Metzger, Ian

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple general building characteristics and usage information to calculate the energy and cost benefits of solar PV. This tool conducts and complex hourly simulation of solar PV based primarily on the area available on the rooftop. It uses a simplified efficiency calculation method and real panel characteristics. It includes a detailed rate structure to account for time-of-use rates, on-peak and off-peak pricing, and multiple rate seasons. This tool includes the option for advanced system design inputs if they are known. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, incentives and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  17. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  18. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  19. Growth and thermal properties of GeSePb0.4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, G. K.; Patel, K. D.; Gosai, N. N.; Patel, Ruchita R.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of GeSePb0.4 were grown by Direct Vapor Transport (DVT) technique, in a two zone horizontal furnace with temperature difference of 50 K between growth and source zones. The material crystallizes in the form of shining gray and platelets like crystals at the end of growth cycles. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been used for many years to evaluate thermal stability of material as it will determine the range of stable operation for a device made up out of these materials under investigation. Thermal characteristics of GeSePb0.4 crystals were studied employing thermoanalytical techniques, viz. TGA and DTA. Thermal analysis experiments were carried out with constant heating rate of 10°C/ min in air. The DTA pattern of GeSePb0.4 crystals shows a strong endothermic peak at 472°C. The objective of this study is to determine activation energy and other kinetic parameters of GeSePb0.4 crystals. Broido and Coats-Redfern models are used to evaluate different kinetic parameters of GeSePb0.4 crystals viz. activation energy, entropy, enthalpy, Gibbs mean free energy etc.

  20. Thermal decomposition study of Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Deshpande, M. P.; Tailor, Jiten P.

    2013-06-01

    The Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis were carried out on the as-grown Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals in inert nitrogen atmosphere. All these thermal analysis were done from ambient temperature to 1223 K. The activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals were determined from the thermal curves using Broido, Horowitz-Metzger (H-M), Piloyan-Novikova (P-N) and Coats-Redfern (C-R) relations. The results are reported in this paper.

  1. Hydroxyethyl starch 6%, 130/0.4 vs. a balanced crystalloid solution in cardiopulmonary bypass priming: a randomized, prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the advent of cardiopulmonary bypass, many efforts have been made to avoid the complications related with it. Any component of the pump participates in occurrence of these adverse events, one of which is the type of prime solution. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 with a commonly used balanced electrolyte solution on postoperative outcomes following coronary bypass surgery. Methods Two hundred patients undergoing elective coronary bypass surgery were prospectively studied. The patients were randomized in to two groups. First group received a balanced electrolyte solution and the second group received 6% hydoxyethyl starch 130/0.4 as prime solution. The postoperative outcomes of the patients were studied. Results The mean age of the patients was 61.81 ± 10.12 in the crystalloid group whereas 61.52 ± 9.29 in the HES group. There were 77 male patients in crystalloid group and 74 in HES group. 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 did not have any detrimental effects on renal and pulmonary functions. The intensive care unit stay and postoperative hospital length of stay were shorter in hydroxyethyl starch group (p < 0.05 for each). Hydroxyethyl starch did not increase postoperative blood loss, amount of blood and fresh frozen plasma used, but it decreased platelet concentrate requirement. It did not have any effect on occurrence of post-coronary bypass atrial fibrillation (p > 0.05). Conclusions 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 when used as a prime solution did not adversely affect postoperative outcomes including renal functions and postoperative blood transfusion following coronary bypass surgery. PMID:23566712

  2. 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment: new drug. Not useful for anal fissures.

    PubMed

    2008-04-01

    (1) Anal fissures are very painful but often heal spontaneously. After eliminating other diagnoses, various treatments can be tried while waiting for fissures to heal: warm seat baths, local anaesthetics, and adequate fibre and fluid intake. (2) Clinical evaluation of glyceryl trinitrate 0.4% ointment, a nitrate derivative, is mainly based on a double-blind trial versus excipient in 193 adults with "chronic" fissures. This trial failed to show a clinically relevant analgesic effect of glyceryl trinitrate 0.4%, with only a 3-mm difference versus the excipient on a 100-mm pain rating scale. In another trial including 229 patients, neither 0.2% nor 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate was more effective on pain than placebo. (3) Another placebo-controlled trial including 304 adults treated for 8 weeks showed no efficacy of various doses of glyceryl trinitrate, versus the excipient, on the healing of anal fissures. (4) The most frequent adverse effect, as expected with a nitrate derivative, is headache, which affects about two-thirds of patients and is severe in 20% of cases. Abrupt-onset hypotension is a risk during concomitant use of other vasodilatory drugs. (5) There are no data on pregnant women exposed to glyceryl trinitrate. (6) In summary, glyceryl trinitrate 0.4% ointment does not reduce the pain linked to chronic anal fissures, but it does carry a risk of sometimes severe headache. It is best to continue using simple, non-aggressive treatments.

  3. Golden hour of neonatal life: Need of the hour.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    "Golden Hour" of neonatal life is defined as the first hour of post-natal life in both preterm and term neonates. This concept in neonatology has been adopted from adult trauma where the initial first hour of trauma management is considered as golden hour. The "Golden hour" concept includes practicing all the evidence based intervention for term and preterm neonates, in the initial sixty minutes of postnatal life for better long-term outcome. Although the current evidence supports the concept of golden hour in preterm and still there is no evidence seeking the benefit of golden hour approach in term neonates, but neonatologist around the globe feel the importance of golden hour concept equally in both preterm and term neonates. Initial first hour of neonatal life includes neonatal resuscitation, post-resuscitation care, transportation of sick newborn to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory and cardiovascular support and initial course in nursery. The studies that evaluated the concept of golden hour in preterm neonates showed marked reduction in hypothermia, hypoglycemia, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In this review article, we will discuss various components of neonatal care that are included in "Golden hour" of preterm and term neonatal care.

  4. Numerical study on a 0.4 THz second harmonic gyrotron with high power

    SciTech Connect

    Chaojun, Lei; Sheng, Yu; Hongfu, Li; Yinghui, Liu; Xinjian, Niu; Qixiang, Zhao

    2013-07-15

    Terahertz and sub-terahertz science and technology are promising topics today. However, it is difficult to obtain high power source of terahertz wave. In this paper, the mode competition and beam-wave interaction in a gradually tapered cavity are studied to achieve high efficiency of a 0.4THz second harmonic gyrotron in practice. In order to attain high power and stable radiation, the TE{sub 32,5} mode is selected as the operating mode of the desired gyrotron to realize single mode oscillation. The issues of studying on the high-order mode gyrotrons are solved effectively by transforming the generalized telegraphist's equations. The efficiency and output power of the gyrotron under different conditions have been calculated by the code, which is based on the transformed equations. Consequently, the results show that single mode second harmonic radiation with power of over 150 kW at frequency of 0.4 THz could be achieved.

  5. Design study of a 0.4 THz 100 kW pulsed gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, E.M.

    2011-07-01

    We present a status of development of a 0.4 THz, 100 kW pulsed gyrotron at UNIST 0.4 THz, 100 kW gyrotron is currently under design for a remote radioactive material detection. A magnetic injection gun (MIG) is used for the electron gun with a beam voltage of 70 kV and beam current of 10 A with a pulse duration of 10 usec. A second harmonic cavity for the gyrotron interaction is considered for the high power THz gyrotron. Numerical optimization of the electron gun design and the cavity is performed in the study. In this paper, we briefly report the design study of the gyrotron. (author)

  6. Long-term durability of CCA and ACA : how is 0.4 doing?

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow; Cherilyn A. Hatfield; Bessie Woodward

    2010-01-01

    For decades the phrase “point 4” was synonymous with wood treated for use in contact with the ground. In this paper we review how and why the 0.4 lb/ft3 (6.4 kg/m3) retention became such an accepted standard, and then evaluate how well this retention has performed in long term stake testing. Data from plots near Saucier,...

  7. Phase diagram for Bi1-xCaxMnO3 (x < 0.4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuhai; Tyson, Trevor; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Xu, Xiao-Nong

    2008-03-01

    The multiferroic BiMnO3 system, in which ferroelectronic and ferromagnetic orders can coexist, has attracted much research work in the past years for its potential technological applications. For the more general system Bi1-xCaxMnO3, the phase diagram for the Ca rich region (x > 0.4) has been established[1]. In order to understand the multiferroic behavior near the x=0 system, the hole-doped region (00.4) was investigated. We have completed the magnetic, transport, and structural phase diagram of Bi1-xCaxMnO3, by performing detailed structural (XRD and XAFS), magnetization (ZFC/FC) and electrical measurements on Bi1-xCaxMnO3 (00.4), showing the transition form the highly distorted monoclinic phase to the orthorhombic phase. This work is supported by NSF DMR-0512196 and DOE Grant DE-FG02-07ER46402. [1] H. Woo, et al, Phys. Rev. B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 63, 134412/1 (2001).

  8. Nitroglycerin 0.4% ointment vs placebo in the treatment of pain resulting from chronic anal fissure: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complications of chronic anal fissure (CAF) treatments are prompting interest in lower-risk therapies. This study was conducted to compare nitroglycerin (NTG) 0.4% ointment with placebo for pain associated with CAF. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with one CAF and moderate-to-severe pain (≥50 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale [VAS]) received 375 mg NTG 0.4% (1.5 mg active ingredient) or 375 mg placebo ointment applied anally every 12 hours for 21 days. The primary end point was change from baseline VAS score in 24-hour pain averaged over days 14–18. Review of data from patients who withdrew early was blinded to treatment. To control for the confounding effects of analgesics, all patients received 650 mg acetaminophen for headache prophylaxis before each application. Results A total of 247 patients were enrolled (NTG, n = 123; placebo, n = 124). The prespecified baseline observation carried forward (BOCF) analysis found no significant difference between groups; however, a last observation carried forward (LOCF) analysis showed a significant advantage for NTG. A post hoc analysis (LOCF/BOCF hybrid) demonstrated a significant adjusted mean difference of −7.0 mm in favor of NTG 0.4% (95% CI −13.6, –0.4; P = .038). Headache was the most common adverse event in the NTG (69.9%) and placebo (47.6%) groups. Conclusions This was the first placebo-controlled study that also controlled for the confounding effects of analgesics used to treat NTG-induced headache. In patients with moderate-to-severe CAF pain, NTG 0.4% ointment effectively reduced CAF pain compared with placebo. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00522041 PMID:23815124

  9. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces, July 1973 - June 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Satellite radiance measurements and data from meteorological rocketsondes were employed to analyze a series of high-altitude constant pressure charts. The methods of processing the various types of data and the analysis procedure used are described. Broad-scale analyses for the Northern Hemisphere 5-, 2-, and 0.4-mb surfaces are presented for each week of the period from September through April, and on a once-per-month basis for July, August, May, and June. A brief discussion of the variations of the temperature and height fields throughout the year is also given.

  10. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces for July 1974 through June 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Meteorological rocketsonde and satellite radiance data were employed for analyses of a continuing series of high altitude constant pressure charts. The methods of processing, the various types of data utilized and the analysis procedure are described. Broad-scale analyses of temperature and geopotential height for the Northern Hemisphere 5, 2, and 0.4 mb surfaces are presented for each week of the period July 1974 through June 1976. Brief discussions of the variations of the temperature and height fields throughout the two year period are also given.

  11. Microwave properties of Ba0.6K0.4BiO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricano, S.; Bonura, M.; Agliolo Gallitto, A.; Vigni, M. Li; Klinkova, L. A.; Barkovskii, N. V.

    2004-10-01

    We report on field-induced variations of the microwave surface resistance at 9.6 GHz of Ba0.6K0.4BiO3 crystals. Energy losses have been investigated as a function of the static magnetic field in the range of temperatures 4.2 K div T_c. By analyzing the experimental results in the framework of the Coffey and Clem model we determine the temperature dependence of the first-penetration field, upper critical field and depinning frequency. The results show that the pinning energy of this bismuthate superconductor is weaker than those of cuprates.

  12. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludbrook, B. M.; Ruck, B. J.; Granville, S.

    2016-07-01

    We report perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the half-metallic ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si (CFMS) in a MgO/CFMS/Pd trilayer stack. PMA is found for CFMS thicknesses between 1 and 2 nm, with a magnetic anisotropy energy density of KU=1.5 ×106 erg/cm3 for tCFMS=1.5 nm. Both the MgO and Pd layer are necessary to induce the PMA. We measure a tunable anomalous Hall effect, where its sign and magnitude vary with both the CFMS and Pd thickness.

  13. Operating Hours Based Inventory Management.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    Total Hours DDG - 993 Hours CG-47 Hours Date Predict/Actual Predict/Actual Predict/Actual 10/82 14,379 17,452 482 1,103 -0- -0- 11/82 15,918...turbine engine, is currently installed on 219 ships in the U. S. Navy. The LM-2500 is the main power plant on the DDG . CG. FFG. DD, P1IM class of ships

  14. Hourly associations between heat and ambulance calls.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    The response speed of ambulance calls is very crucial to rescue patients suffering immediately life threatening conditions. The serious health outcomes might be caused by exposing to extreme heat only several hours before. However, limited evidence is available on this topic. This study aims to examine the hourly association between heat and ambulance calls, to improve the ambulance services and to better protect health. Hourly data on ambulance calls for non-accidental causes, temperature and air pollutants (PM10, NO2, and O3) were collected from Brisbane, Australia, during 2001 and 2007. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine the associations between hourly ambulance calls and temperature during warm season (Nov, Dec, Jan, Feb, and Mar), while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were performed for sex and age groups. Ambulance calls peaked at 10am for all groups, except those aged <15 years at 19pm, while temperature was hottest at 13pm. The hourly heat-ambulance calls relationships were non-linear for all groups, with thresholds between 27 °C and 31 °C. The associations appeared immediately, and lasted for about 24 h. There were no significant modification effect by sex and age. The findings suggest that hot hourly temperatures (>27 °C) increase the demands of ambulance. This information is helpful to increase the efficiency of ambulance service then save lives, for example, preparing more ambulance before appearance of extremely hot temperature in combination with weather forecast. Also, people should better arrange their time for outdoor activities to avoid exposing to extreme hot temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of air exposure and vacuum storage on Li0.4WO3 studied by photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, A.; Lefeld, N.; Rahman, M. S.; Gesing, Th. M.; Murshed, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    A powder sample of Li0.4WO3 was studied after exposure to air in steps up to a total exposure time of 71 days. Over this period, XPS spectra of the W 4f, O 1s and C 1s level were recorded. The spectra reveal the formation of a OH/CO3 layer rendering the powder insulating. Careful evaluation of the W 4f spectra suggests a single initial state picture in which the electron donated by Li is shared between W ions. We demonstrate how the loss of charge carriers by aging in air can be followed by the fitting parameters. Additionally, the effects of vacuum storage, inducing oxygen vacancies, and subsequent treatment with molecular oxygen are considered.

  16. The Dependence of galaxy colors on luminosity and environment at z~0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, H.K.C.; Hsieh, B.C.; Lin, Huan; Gladders, M.D.; /Carnegie Inst. Observ.

    2005-08-01

    The authors analyze the B-R{sub c} colors of galaxies as functions of luminosity and local galaxy density using a large photometric redshift catalog based on the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey. They select two samples of galaxies with a magnitude limit of M{sub R{sub e}} < -18.5 and redshift ranges of 0.2 {le} z < 0.4 and 0.4 {le} x < 0.6 containing 10{sup 5} galaxies each. they model the color distributions of subsamples of galaxies and derive the red galaxy fraction and peak colors of red and blue galaxies as functions of galaxy luminosity and environment. The evolution of these relationships over the redshift range of x {approx} 0.5 to z {approx} 0.05 is analyzed in combination with published results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They find that there is a strong evolution in the restframe peak color of bright blue galaxies in that they become redder with decreasing redshift, while the colors of faint blue galaxies remain approximately constant. This effect supports the ''downsizing'' scenario of star formation in galaxies. While the general dependence of the galaxy color distributions on the environment is small, they find that the change of red galaxy fraction with epoch is a function of the local galaxy density, suggesting that the downsizing effect may operate with different timescales in regions of different galaxy densities.

  17. Structural inhomogeneities in FeTe0.6Se0.4: Relation to superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokeš, K.; Schulze, M.; Hartwig, S.; Schäfer, N.; Landsgesell, S.; Blum, C. G. F.; Abou-Ras, D.; Hacisalihoglu, M. Y.; Ressouche, E.; Ouladdiaf, B.; Büchner, B.; Wurmehl, S.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical and structural phase compositions of two single-crystalline samples prepared with different cooling rates from stoichiometric FeTe0.6Se0.4 melts were studied. Both types of samples were investigated in a very comprehensive way using magnetic and electrical transport measurements combined with X-ray, neutron and electron backscatter diffraction. We show that slowly cooled samples are homogeneous on a microscopic scale with only a small excess of iron. Those slowly cooled samples do not exhibit bulk superconductivity down to 1.8 K. In contrast, fast-cooled samples are superconducting below about 14 K but are composed of several chemical phases: they consist of a matrix preserving the crystal structure of slow-cooled samples, and of core-shell structured dendritic inclusions (about 20-30 vol%). These have different crystal structures and chemical compositions and order magnetically at temperatures far above the superconducting transition temperature of the inhomogeneous samples. These structural and chemical inhomogeneities seem to play a vital role in the superconducting properties of this and similar iron-based systems as they lead to internal stress and act in a similar way as the application of the external pressure that reportedly increase the superconducting transition temperature in many iron pnictides and chalcogenides. We argue that a phase pure, homogeneous and stress-free FeTe0.6Se0.4 is non-superconducting.

  18. Characterization of a young open cluster G144.9+0.4 in Cam OB1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Wen-Ping; Panwar, Neelam

    2013-06-01

    Open clusters are good laboratories to study stellar evolution and dynamical interaction among member stars. We are carrying out a program to identify uncharted clusters using sky-survey data. Our preliminary result is finding stellar density enhancement using the 2MASS Point Source Catalog in Galactic latitude |b| < 50 deg. One such density peak (G144.9+0.4), located in the Cam OB1 association, is a young star cluster centered at (ℓ,b) = (144.904,+0.434), first recognized but not well characterized, by Glushkova et al. [8]. We used the PPMXL proper motions to constrain the membership. Our analysis yields a distance of 1.0 kpc. G144.9+0.4 is hence physically related to the Cam OB1 association. Based on the 2MASS and WISE colors, seven classical T-Tauri Star candidates are found within the cluster, though, three of these have proper motions inconsistent with members. One of the kinematic members has been confirmed by spectroscopy to be a CTTS.

  19. The Swedish duty hour enigma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Swedish resident duty hour limit is regulated by Swedish and European legal frameworks. With a maximum average of 40 working hours per week, the Swedish duty hour regulation is one of the most restrictive in the world. At the same time, the effects of resident duty hour limits have been neither debated nor researched in the Swedish context. As a result, little is known about the Swedish conceptual framework for resident duty hours, their restriction, or their outcomes: we call this “the Swedish duty hour enigma.” This situation poses a further question: How do Swedish residents themselves construct a conceptual framework for duty hour restrictions? Methods A case study was conducted at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm – an urban, research-intensive hospital setting. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 34 residents currently in training in 6 specialties. The empirical data analysis relied on theoretical propositions and was conducted thematically using a pattern-matching technique. The interview guide was based on four main topics: the perceived effect of duty hour restrictions on (1) patient care, (2) resident education, (3) resident well-being, and (4) research. Results The residents did not perceive the volume of duty hours to be the main determinant of success or failure in the four contextual domains of patient care, resident education, resident well-being, and research. Instead, they emphasized resident well-being and a desire for flexibility. Conclusions According to Swedish residents’ conceptual framework on duty hours, the amount of time spent on duty is not a proxy for the quality of resident training. Instead, flexibility, organization, and scheduling of duty hours are considered to be the factors that have the greatest influence on resident well-being, quality of learning, and opportunities to attain the competence needed for independent practice. PMID:25559074

  20. The Swedish duty hour enigma.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Kristina; Frydén, Hanna; Kihlström, Lars; Nordquist, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The Swedish resident duty hour limit is regulated by Swedish and European legal frameworks. With a maximum average of 40 working hours per week, the Swedish duty hour regulation is one of the most restrictive in the world. At the same time, the effects of resident duty hour limits have been neither debated nor researched in the Swedish context. As a result, little is known about the Swedish conceptual framework for resident duty hours, their restriction, or their outcomes: we call this "the Swedish duty hour enigma." This situation poses a further question: How do Swedish residents themselves construct a conceptual framework for duty hour restrictions? A case study was conducted at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm--an urban, research-intensive hospital setting. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 34 residents currently in training in 6 specialties. The empirical data analysis relied on theoretical propositions and was conducted thematically using a pattern-matching technique. The interview guide was based on four main topics: the perceived effect of duty hour restrictions on (1) patient care, (2) resident education, (3) resident well-being, and (4) research. The residents did not perceive the volume of duty hours to be the main determinant of success or failure in the four contextual domains of patient care, resident education, resident well-being, and research. Instead, they emphasized resident well-being and a desire for flexibility. According to Swedish residents' conceptual framework on duty hours, the amount of time spent on duty is not a proxy for the quality of resident training. Instead, flexibility, organization, and scheduling of duty hours are considered to be the factors that have the greatest influence on resident well-being, quality of learning, and opportunities to attain the competence needed for independent practice.

  1. Extended Library Hours. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Patricia Ann, Comp.; Walters, Carolyn, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to provide a description of how they are responding to demands for greater hours of access and service. Survey responses indicate what hours of access and service libraries are providing and…

  2. Is the Office Hour Obsolete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A colleague can't make a coffee date at a time the author proposes because it would conflict with his office hour. No student has actually made an appointment with him during the hour, but he is committed to being in his office as promised in case someone drops by. The author's reaction to her colleague's faithfulness to his posted office hour…

  3. Breaking the Long Hours Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodz, J.; Kersley, B.; Strebler, M. T.; O'Regan, S.

    Case studies of 12 leading British employers were driven by employers' interest in issues related to working long hours in light of introduction of the Working Time Directive, a European Community initiative enacted into British law that sets limits on working hours per week. Data showed over one-fourth of full-time employees worked over 48 hours…

  4. Is the Office Hour Obsolete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A colleague can't make a coffee date at a time the author proposes because it would conflict with his office hour. No student has actually made an appointment with him during the hour, but he is committed to being in his office as promised in case someone drops by. The author's reaction to her colleague's faithfulness to his posted office hour…

  5. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces for January 1972 through June 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Data from meteorological rocketsonde and satellite radiance measurements were employed to analyze a series of high-altitude synoptic charts. The methods employed for processing the various types of data and the analysis procedure are described. Broad-scale analyses for the Northern Hemisphere 5-, 2-, and 0.4-mb surfaces are presented for each week from September through April and for each month from May through August during the period January 1972 through June 1973. A brief discussion of the height and temperature fields is also given. Circulation and temperature changes associated with a minor stratospheric warming in January and February 1972 and a major stratospheric warming in January and February 1973 are among the discussion items.

  6. Infrared photometry and spectrophotometry of G75.84+0.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipher, J. L.; Soifer, B. T.; Krassner, J.

    1979-01-01

    Photometric mapping of G75.84+0.4 at 12.6 microns is compared with previously published radio maps of the region to deduce the relative dust/gas mass ratio for the dust responsible for the 12.6-micron emission. Spectrophotometry from 2-4 microns and 8-13 microns of the highest-emission-measure region reveals the presence of the fine structure lines of forbidden Ar III at 8.99 microns, forbidden Ne II at 12.78 microns, and forbidden S IV at 10.53 microns. Estimates of the abundance of these ions are made, and the nature of the exciting source is discussed.

  7. First light with a carbon fiber reinforced polymer 0.4 meter telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Christopher C.; Santiago, Freddie; Jungwirth, Matthew E.; Martinez, Ty; Restaino, Sergio R.; Bagwell, Brett; Romeo, Robert

    2014-03-01

    For the passed several years, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been investigating the use of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) material in the construction of a telescope assembly including the optical components. The NRL, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. (CMA) have jointly assembled a prototype telescope and achieved "first light" images with a CFRP 0.4 m aperture telescope. CFRP offers several advantages over traditional materials such as creating structures that are lightweight and low coefficient of thermal expansion and conductivity. The telescope's primary and secondary mirrors are not made from glass, but CFRP, as well. The entire telescope weighs approximately 10 kg while a typical telescope of this size would weigh quite a bit more. We present the achievement of "first light" with this telescope demonstrating the imaging capabilities of this prototype and the optical surface quality of the mirrors with images taken during a day's quiescent periods.

  8. A 0.4-THz Second Harmonic Gyrotron with Quasi-Optical Confocal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaotong; Fu, Wenjie; Yan, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Mode density is very relevant for harmonic gyrotron cavity. Theoretical investigations suggest that quasi-optical confocal waveguide performs low mode density and good mode-selective character. By selecting the appropriate mode and optimizing the cavity parameters, the quasi-optical confocal cavity is suitable for high-harmonic terahertz gyrotron without mode competition. In order to verify the theoretical analysis, a 0.4-THz second harmonic gyrotron has been designed and experimented. Driven by a 40-kV, 4.75-A electron beam and 7.51-T magnetic field, the gyrotron prototype could generate 6.44 kW of output power at 395.35 GHz, which corresponds to an electron efficiency of 3.4%. There is no mode competition between the second harmonic and fundamental observed in the experiments.

  9. On the radial width of CMEs between 0.1 and 0.4 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, N. P.; Forsyth, R. J.; Rouillard, A. P.; Owens, M. J.; Davies, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    The launch of the two STEREO spacecraft in 2006 has heralded a new era of opportunities to make remote observations of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). An example CME on the 16th February 2008 with an approximately circular cross section was tracked through successive images obtained by the Heliospheric Imager (HI) instrument onboard the STEREO-A spacecraft. The cylindrical nature of force-free constant alpha flux ropes is used to determine the radial size of the CME. The radial velocity and longitude of propagation are determined. With these parameters known, the radial size is calculated from the images taking projection effects into account. A power law is obtained for the resulting radial width behaviour with heliocentric distance as the CME travels between 0.1 and 0.4 AU. We compare our results to those obtained in published studies based on in-situ spacecraft observations of ICMEs between 0.3 and 1.0 AU.

  10. A model of the 0.4-GHz scatterometer. [used for agriculture soil moisture program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1978-01-01

    The 0.4 GHz aircraft scatterometer system used for the agricultural soil moisture estimation program is analyzed for the antenna pattern, the signal flow in the receiver data channels, and the errors in the signal outputs. The operational principal, system sensitivity, data handling, and resolution cell length requirements are also described. The backscattering characteristics of the agriculture scenes are contained in the form of the functional dependence of the backscattering coefficient on the incidence angle. The substantial gains of the cross-polarization term of the horizontal and vertical antennas have profound effects on the cross-polarized backscattered signals. If these signals are not corrected properly, large errors could result in the estimate of the cross-polarized backscattering coefficient. It is also necessary to correct the variations of the aircraft parameters during data processing to minimize the error in the 0 degree estimation. Recommendations are made to improve the overall performance of the scatterometer system.

  11. Complexity Variations in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field between 0.4 and 5.3 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weygand, J. M.; Kivelson, M.; Velli, M.; Gekelman, W. N.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Walker, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated how the character of magnetic fluctuations of solar wind plasma depends on radial distance from the Sun. We use measurements of the magnetic field taken at different distances from the Sun by different spacecraft: Helios between 0.4 and 1 AU, ACE and Wind at about 1 AU, and Ulysses at about 5.3 AU. Data intervals are selected to contain only what appear to be random fluctuations and to exclude solar wind structures such as coronal mass ejections, co-rotating interaction regions, heliospheric current sheets, shocks, etc. With these data we calculate the Jensen-Shannon complexity as a function of permutation entropy. Jensen-Shannon complexity maps indicate if the fluctuations in the magnetic fields are stochastic (low complexity and high entropy), or if they exhibit minimal or maximal complexity and lower entropy. The Jensen-Shannon complexity values determined from the spacecraft measurements evolve from moderate complexity and high entropy at 0.4 AU to lower complexity and higher entropy farther from the Sun. We interpret these data to mean that as the solar wind plasma expands outward, the magnetic field fluctuations evolve from chaotic (i.e., low dimensionality, deterministic fluctuations) to turbulent (i.e., low dimensionality, non-deterministic fluctuations). By separating the magnetic fluctuations into slow solar wind (<450 km/s) and fast solar wind (>550 km/s), we find that the younger solar wind (transported outward rapidly) has higher complexity than the older solar wind (transported outward slowly). These results can be tested by Solar Probe Plus to be launched in 2018.

  12. Hourly Data Flow, Concentration of Hourly RINEX Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowers, D.; Habrich, H.

    2000-01-01

    The program RNXDIFF makes use of subroutines of the Bernese GPS Software to get the content of each data field and successively compares the fields of the daily files with that of the concatenated hourly files.

  13. EUV resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) for k1 0.4 and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Stephen; Howell, Rafael; Jia, Jianjun; Liu, Hua-Yu; Gronlund, Keith; Hansen, Steve; Zimmermann, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    Due to the exponential growth of mobile wireless devices, low-power logic chips continue to drive device scaling. To enable sub-10 nm device scaling at an affordable cost, there is a strong need for single exposure advanced lithography. Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is one of the most promising candidates to support the design rules for sub-10 nm. The aggressive mobile device design rules continue to push the critical dimension (CD) and pitch and put very stringent demands on the lithography performance such as pattern placement control, image contrast, critical dimension uniformity (CDU), and line width roughness (LWR). In this paper we report the latest advances in resolution enhancement techniques to address low k1 challenges in EUV lithography, specifically: minimizing the pattern placement error, enhancing the through-focus contrast, and reducing the impact of stochastic effects. We have developed an innovative source-mask optimization (SMO) method to significantly reduce edge placement errors (EPE) [1] [2]. Aggressive design rules using the state-of-the-art NA of 0.33 of the NXE:3300B and its successor tools can have imaging below k1 = 0.4, which can extend the current process capabilities for single exposure high volume manufacturing (HVM). Burkhardt et al. reported in a previous study that inserting a sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF) within semi-isolated features introduces strong Bossung tilts and best focus shifts, and a general solution for random pitches is not apparent [3]. Kang observed the same issues and proposed to introduce spherical aberrations to correct these effects while having a global impact on the full-chip [4]. In this work we introduce a new methodology to apply SRAFs to improve contrast, reduce best focus shift, and improve process window. Finally, the lower number of photons of EUV and the small feature size brings serious issue of the stochastic effect that causes the line-edge-roughness (LER) and local CD uniformity

  14. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  15. On the Fermi-GBM Event 0.4 s after GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, J.; Burgess, J. M.; Savchenko, V.; Yu, H.-F.

    2016-08-01

    In view of the recent report by Connaughton et al., we analyze continuous time-tagged event (TTE) data of Fermi-gamma-ray burst monitor (GBM) around the time of the gravitational-wave event GW 150914. We find that after proper accounting for low-count statistics, the GBM transient event at 0.4 s after GW 150914 is likely not due to an astrophysical source, but consistent with a background fluctuation, removing the tension between the INTEGRAL/ACS non-detection and GBM. Additionally, reanalysis of other short GRBs shows that without proper statistical modeling the fluence of faint events is over-predicted, as verified for some joint GBM-ACS detections of short GRBs. We detail the statistical procedure to correct these biases. As a result, faint short GRBs, verified by ACS detections, with significances in the broadband light curve even smaller than that of the GBM-GW150914 event are recovered as proper non-zero source, while the GBM-GW150914 event is consistent with zero fluence.

  16. SunPy - Python for Solar Physics, Version 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Perez-Suarez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russel

    2014-06-01

    We presents version 0.4 of SunPy, a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation NumPy, SciPy and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualisation and plotting (matplotlib).SunPy is a data-analysis environment specialising in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric datasets in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  17. 0.4% dimeticone spray, a novel physically acting household treatment for control of cat fleas.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian M; Brunton, Elizabeth R; Burgess, Ian F

    2014-01-17

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is the most important ectoparasite of cats and dogs worldwide as a cause of irritation and health problems. Most products to control these pests in the household environment rely upon a combination of neurotoxic insecticides and insect growth regulators to inhibit development of flea eggs and larvae into adults. However, some of these are affected by problems of insecticide resistance as well as public concerns about their potential for toxicity in domestic use. Heavy synthetic oils, like the siloxane dimeticone, are currently widely used to treat human ectoparasite infestations, acting by a physical mode of action, and have been used in a variety of presentations for killing all life stages of fleas. We have investigated the activity of low concentrations of high molecular weight dimeticone in a volatile silicone base for ability to immobilise flea life stages without asphyxiating them. We found that cat flea adults and larvae were immobilised by a surface film of dimeticone that inhibited movement of cuticular joints, apparently forming an effective sticky trap. When cocoons were treated the fleas continued to develop within the pupae but failed to emerge. An aerosol spray incorporating 0.4% concentration of dimeticone, for use as a residual household treatment, showed no significant difference in knock down capability compared with that of a widely used pyriproxifen/permethrin spray in a repeat challenge test, with effects persisting to inhibit adult flea emergence in the test arena area for more than 3 weeks after application.

  18. K2P2: Reduced data from campaigns 0-4 of the K2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handberg, R.; Lund, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Context. After the loss of a second reaction wheel the Kepler mission was redesigned as the K2 mission, pointing towards the ecliptic and delivering data for new fields approximately every 80 days. The steady flow of data obtained with a reduced pointing stability calls for dedicated pipelines for extracting light curves and correcting these for use in, e.g., asteroseismic analysis. Aims: We provide corrected light curves for the K2 fields observed until now (campaigns 0-4), and provide a comparison with other pipelines for K2 data extraction/correction. Methods: Raw light curves are extracted from K2 pixel data using the "K2-pixel-photometry" (K2P2) pipeline, and corrected using the KASOC filter. Results: The use of K2P2 allows for the extraction of the order of 90 000 targets in addition to 70 000 targets proposed by the community - for these, other pipelines provide no data. We find that K2P2 in general performs as well as, or better than, other pipelines for the tested metrics of photometric quality. In addition to stars, pixel masks are properly defined using K2P2 for extended objects such as galaxies for which light curves are also extracted.

  19. THE SLOAN BRIGHT ARCS SURVEY: SIX STRONGLY LENSED GALAXIES AT z = 0.4-1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Diehl, H. Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Lin, Huan; Tucker, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    We present new results of our program to systematically search for strongly lensed galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. In this study six strong lens systems are presented which we have confirmed with follow-up spectroscopy and imaging using the 3.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Preliminary mass models indicate that the lenses are group-scale systems with velocity dispersions ranging from 464 to 882 km s{sup -1} at z = 0.17 - 0.45 which are strongly lensing source galaxies at z = 0.4 - 1.4. Galaxy groups are a relatively new mass scale just beginning to be probed with strong lensing. Our sample of lenses roughly doubles the confirmed number of group-scale lenses in the SDSS and complements ongoing strong lens searches in other imaging surveys. As our arcs were discovered in the SDSS imaging data they are all bright (r {approx}< 22), making them ideally suited for detailed follow-up studies.

  20. The Sloan Bright Arcs Survey : Six Strongly Lensed Galaxies at z=0.4-1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Diehl, H.Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Lin, Huan; Tucker, Douglas; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    We present new results of our program to systematically search for strongly lensed galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. In this study six strong lens systems are presented which we have confirmed with followup spectroscopy and imaging using the 3.5m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Preliminary mass models indicate that the lenses are group-scale systems with velocity dispersions ranging from 466?878 km s{sup -1} at z = 0.17-0.45 which are strongly lensing source galaxies at z = 0.4-1.4. Galaxy groups are a relatively new mass scale just beginning to be probed with strong lensing. Our sample of lenses roughly doubles the confirmed number of group-scale lenses in the SDSS and complements ongoing strong lens searches in other imaging surveys such as the CFHTLS (Cabanac et al. 2007). As our arcs were discovered in the SDSS imaging data they are all bright (r {approx_equal} 22), making them ideally suited for detailed follow-up studies.

  1. 4. pi. physics. [/sup 40/Ar + KCl, 0. 4 to 1. 8 GeV/A

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, A.

    1980-03-01

    Exclusive ..pi../sup -/ and charged-particle production in collisions of /sup 40/Ar on KCl are studied at incident energies from 0.4 to 1.8 GeV/A. The correlation between the ..pi../sup -/ and the total charged particle multiplicity confines the reaction along a narrow ridge with no exotic islands of pion production. For high multiplicities the system reaches the total disintegration of target and projectile into singly charged fragments and pions. Every 200 MeV/A datum was taken with a central and inelastic trigger. For central collisions the mean ..pi../sup -/ multiplicity increases linearly with the bombarding energy with no marked discontinuities due to the ..delta..(3,3) resonance. At 1.8 GeV/A evidence for nonthermal ..pi../sup -/ production in central collisions is found. The total c.m. energy in ..pi../sup -/ shows linear dependence on the ..pi../sup -/ multiplicity with a slope of epsilon = 300 MeV/..pi../sup -/. Strange particle production in the central collision of 1.8 GeV/A Ar on KCl is seen. 8 figures.

  2. Discovery of nine extended ionized gas clouds in a z = 0.4 cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Masafumi; Koyama, Yusei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Gu, Liyi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Hattori, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2015-02-01

    From deep Hα imaging data of Suprime-Cam/Subaru, we discovered nine extended ionized gas clouds (EIG) around galaxies in the Abell 851 cluster (A851) at z = 0.4. We surveyed a 30 × 25 arcmin region, and the EIGs were found only near the cluster center (<2.3 arcmin ∼ 750 kpc). The parent galaxies of the EIGs are star-forming or post-starburst galaxies, all of which are spectroscopically confirmed members of the cluster. Four out of the nine parent galaxies show distortion of stellar distribution in the disk, which can be a sign of recent interaction, and the interaction may have made the EIGs. On the other hand, six parent galaxies (one overlaps those exhibiting distortion) show Hα emission without stars, which implies ram pressure stripping. The spectrum of the brightest parent galaxy shows a post-starburst signature and resembles the Hα stripped galaxies found in the Coma cluster. Meanwhile, two brightest parent galaxies in A851 are more massive than the EIG parent galaxies in the Coma cluster. This is consistent with a “downsizing” of star-forming galaxies, though it is still within the statistical variance. We also analyzed Suprime-Cam data of another z=0.39 cluster, CL0024+17, but found no EIGs. The key difference between A851 and CL0024+17 would be the existence of a subcluster colliding with the main body of A851, in which six or seven out of the nine parent galaxies in A851 exist, and the fraction of EIGs in the subcluster is significantly higher than the main subcluster of A851 and CL0024+17.

  3. Velocity segregation effects in galaxy clusters at 0.4 ≲ z ≲ 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsanti, S.; Girardi, M.; Biviano, A.; Borgani, S.; Annunziatella, M.; Nonino, M.

    2016-11-01

    Aims: Our study is meant to extend our knowledge of the galaxy color and luminosity segregation in velocity space (VCS and VLS, respectively), to clusters at intermediate and high redshift. Methods: Our sample is a collection of 41 clusters in the 0.4 ≲ z ≲ 1.5 redshift range for a total of 4172 galaxies, 1674 of which are member galaxies of the clusters within 2R200 with photometric or spectroscopic information, as taken from the literature. We perform homogeneous procedures to select cluster members, compute global cluster properties, in particular the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity dispersion σV, and separate blue from red galaxies. Results: We find evidence of VCS in clusters out to z ≃ 0.8 (at the 97-99.99% confidence level, depending on the test), in the sense that the blue galaxy population has a 10-20% larger σV than the red galaxy population. Poor or no VCS is found in the high-z sample at z ≥ 0.8. For the first time, we detect VLS in non-local clusters and confirm that VLS only affects the very luminous galaxies; brighter galaxies have lower velocities. The threshold magnitude of VLS is m3 + 0.5, where m3 is the magnitude of the third brightest cluster galaxy. Current data suggest that the threshold value moves to fainter magnitudes at higher redshift. We also detect (marginal) evidence of VLS for blue galaxies. Conclusions: We conclude that segregation effects can be important tracers of the galaxy evolution and cluster assembly when they are studied up to distant clusters. We also discuss the evidence of VCS at high redshift, which is poor or absent.

  4. Discovery of Nine Extended Ionized Gas Clouds in a z = 0.4 Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Gu, Liyi; Koyama, Yusei; Nakata, Fumiaki; Kodama, Tadayuki; Hattori, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2015-02-01

    From deep Hα imaging data of Suprime-Cam/Subaru, we discovered nine extended ionized gas clouds (EIG) around galaxies in the Abell 851 cluster (A851) at z = 0.4. We surveyed a 30 × 25 arcmin region, and the EIGs were found only near the cluster center (\\lt 2.3 arcmin ˜ 750 kpc). The parent galaxies of the EIGs are star-forming or post-starburst galaxies, all of which are spectroscopically confirmed members of the cluster. Four out of the nine parent galaxies show distortion of stellar distribution in the disk, which can be a sign of recent interaction, and the interaction may have made the EIGs. On the other hand, six parent galaxies (one overlaps those exhibiting distortion) show Hα emission without stars, which implies ram pressure stripping. The spectrum of the brightest parent galaxy shows a post-starburst signature and resembles the Hα stripped galaxies found in the Coma cluster. Meanwhile, two brightest parent galaxies in A851 are more massive than the EIG parent galaxies in the Coma cluster. This is consistent with a “downsizing” of star-forming galaxies, though it is still within the statistical variance. We also analyzed Suprime-Cam data of another z=0.39 cluster, CL0024+17, but found no EIGs. The key difference between A851 and CL0024+17 would be the existence of a subcluster colliding with the main body of A851, in which six or seven out of the nine parent galaxies in A851 exist, and the fraction of EIGs in the subcluster is significantly higher than the main subcluster of A851 and CL0024+17.

  5. New composite spectra of Mars, 0.4-5.7 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erard, Stephane; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1997-01-01

    About 15 areas were observed in the equatorial regions of Mars by the infrared spectrometers IRS (Mariner 6 and 7) and ISM (Phobos-2). The comparison between the spectra shows a remarkable consistency between two data sets acquired 20 years apart and calibrated independently. This similarity demonstrates the accuracy of ISM calibration above 2 μm, except for a possible stray light contribution above 2.6 μm, on the order of ∼1–2% of the solar flux at 2.7 μm. Most differences in spectral shapes are related to differences in spectral/spatial resolution and viewing geometries. No important variation in surface properties is detected, except for a spot in southern Arabia Terra which has a much deeper hydration feature in IRS spectra; differences in viewing geometries and spatial resolutions do not seem to account for this difference that could result from shifting or dehydration of surface materials. Composite spectra of several types of bright and dark materials are computed by modeling the thermal emission and are completed with telescopic spectra in the visible range. Modeled reflectance in the 3.0–5.7 μm range is consistent with basalts and palagonites. The bright regions and analog palagonite spectra are different from hematite in this range, but resemble several phyllosilicates. We infer that (1) although hematite dominates the spectra in the 0.4- to 2.5-μm range, the silicate-clay host is spectrally active beyond 3 μm and can be identified from this domain; (2) phyllosilicates such as montmorillonite or smectite may be abundant components of the martian soils, although the domain below 3 μm lacks the characteristic features of the most usual terrestrial clay minerals.

  6. Large Scale Structure in Absorption up to z~0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejos, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    We propose to observe and characterize IGM absorption systems associated with Large Scale Structure {LSS} in a statistical manner up to redshift 0.4. For this purpose, we have used a recently published cluster catalog {GMBCG; Hao et al., 2010} to identify massive nodes in the 'cosmic web'. Then, we used cluster pairs with small separations {<20 Mpc} at similar redshifts to identify zones where filaments should reside with high probabilities. Combining the GMBCG cluster catalog with the SDSS DR7 QSO catalog, we selected a single QSO whose sightline passes through a total of 6 predicted filaments {3 of which are independent} and 3 clusters with spectroscopic redshifts at impact parameters <1.5 Mpc. This will considerably increase the sample of known LSS {especially filaments} at low redshift. We propose to observe the QSO with HST/COS using the G130M and G160M gratings to cover the full FUV spectral range at high resolution {R 20000}. We require observations at S/N 10 to ensure a full characterization of HI and OVI lines at small column densities {N 10^13 cm^-2}. These low column densities will allow us to detect broad and shallow HI lines with OVI, believed to be associated with portions of the warm-hot intergalactic medium {WHIM}. Our results will also be suitable for testing an alternative hypothesis which states that the majority of OVI absorbers at low-z are confined within <300 kpc from galaxies and are not directly related to the WHIM {Prochaska et al., 2011; Tumlinson et al., 2011}. Our findings will test our understanding of galaxy formation and the importance of AGN/supernova feedbacks by comparing them with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations.

  7. Role of 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment after haemorrhoidectomy: results of a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Franceschilli, Luana; D'Ugo, Stefano; de Luca, Elisabetta; Cadeddu, Federica; Milito, Giovanni; di Lorenzo, Nicola; Gaspari, Achille L; Sileri, Pierpaolo

    2013-03-01

    Conventional haemorrhoidectomy (CH) is well known to cause significant post-operative pain and delayed return to daily activities. Both surgical wounds and sphincterial apparatus spasms are likely responsible for the pain. In this study, we evaluated the role of glyceryl trinitrate ointment (GTN) in reducing post-operative pain, ameliorating wound healing and recovery after CH. Between 01/08 and 12/11, 203 patients with symptomatic haemorrhoids were enrolled in the study and received (103 patients) or not (100 patients) 0.4 % GTN ointment for 6 weeks after surgery. Pain was assessed using a 10-cm linear visual analogue scale (VAS). Data on post-operative pain, wound secretion and bleeding, return to normal activities and complications were recorded. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney tests. GTN-treated group experienced significantly less pain during the first week after surgery (p < 0.0001). This difference was more evident starting from post-operative day 4 (p < 0.0001). A significant higher percentage of untreated patients experienced severe pain (mean VAS score > 7) (10 % vs 31 %). There were significant differences in terms of secretion time (p = 0.0052) and bleeding time (p = 0.02) in favor of GTN. In addition, the duration of itching was less in the GTN group (p = 0.0145). Patients treated with GTN were able to an early return to daily activities compared to untreated (p < 0.0001). Fifteen GTN-treated patients (14.6 %) discontinued the application because of local discomfort and headache. GTN ointment enhances significantly post-operative recovery, reducing pain in terms of duration and intensity. This effect might be secondary to a faster wound healing expressed by reduced secretion, bleeding and itching time.

  8. Patients' assessment of out of hours care in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bollam, Mary J; McCarthy, Mark; Modell, Michael

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 177 patients drawn from 13 north London practices were interviewed shortly after they had sought help from their practice outside normal surgery hours. Patients were asked to describe the process and outcome of their out of hours call, to comment on specific aspects of the consultation, and to access their overall satisfaction with the encounter. Parents seeking consultations for children were least satisfied with the consultation; those aged over 60 responded most positively. Visits from general practitioners were more acceptable than visits from deputising doctors for patients aged under 60, but for patients aged over 60 visits from general practitioners and deputising doctors were equally acceptable. Monitoring of patients' views of out of hours consultations is feasible, and the findings of this study suggest that practices should regularly review the organisation of their out of hours care and discuss strategies for minimising conflict in out of hours calls—particularly those concerning children. PMID:3130934

  9. Spectral Modeling of the 0.4-2.5 μm Phobos CRISM dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Roush, Ted; Dalle Ore, Cristina; Marzo, Giuseppe A.; Simioni, Emanuele

    2017-04-01

    We present the spectral modeling of the 0.4-2.5 μm MRO/CRISM Phobos dataset. After applying a statistical clustering technique, based on a K-means partitioning algorithm, we identified eight separate clusters in the Phobos CRISM data, extending the surface coverage beyond the previous analyses of Fraeman et al. (2012, 2014). Each resulting cluster is characterized by an average and its associated variability. We modeled these different spectra using a radiative transfer code based on the approach of Shkuratov et al. (1999). We used the optical constants of the model proposed by Pajola et al. (2013) in our effort, i.e. the Tagish Lake meteorite (TL) and the Mg-rich pyroxene glass (PM80). The Shkuratov model is used in an algorithm that iteratively, and simultaneously changes the relative abundance and grain sizes of the selected components to minimize the differences between the model and observations using a chi-squared criterion. The best-fitting models were achieved with a simple intimate mixture showing that the relative percentages of TL and PM80 vary between 80-20% and 95-5%, respectively, and grain sizes for TL are 12-14 μm and 20-22 μm for PM80. This work aims to return a detailed picture of the surface properties of Phobos identifying specific areas that may be of interest for future planetary exploration, as the proposed Japanese Mars Moon eXploration (MMX) sample return mission. Acknowledgements: We make use of the public NASA-Planetary Data System MRO-CRISM spectral data of Phobos. M.P. was supported for this research by an appointment to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Post-doctoral Program at the Ames Research Center administered by Universities Space Research Association (USRA) through a contract with NASA. References: Fraeman et al. 2012, J. Geophy. Res, E00J15, 10.1029/2012JE004137; Fraeman et al., 2014, Icarus, 229, 196-205, 10.1016/icarus.2013.11.021; Shkuratov, Y. et al. (1999), Icarus, 137, 235. Pajola et al., 2013

  10. Solar Hot Water Hourly Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel which provides an hourly simulation of a solar hot water heating system (including solar geometry, solar collector efficiency as a function of temperature, energy balance on storage tank and lifecycle cost analysis).

  11. 0.4-arc-second images of 3C 273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Neff, S. G.

    1991-01-01

    Images in V and I bands of the QSO 3C 273 (1226 + 023) were obtained using the High-Resolution Camera of the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. Attention is given to the structure and colors of the jet and details of the host galaxy which have not been observed in previous studies. The systematic change of color along the jet suggests an aging process in a synchrotron spectrum, while the irregularity of the knots and wiggles suggests that the jet structure is primarily governed by passage through a clumpy medium near the host galaxy.

  12. Sagitally focusing scanning monochromator produces 0.4-mm focus (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Sullivan, M.; Fischetti, R.; Rock, L.

    1992-01-01

    A sagitally focusing stage has been constructed for the double-crystal scanning monochromator on beam line X9-A at the NSLS which can be exchanged with the normally used flat crystal stage. The bending device located at 12.0 m from the source is designed to accept a beam up to 200-mm wide. The monochromator with bending stage can be scanned over Bragg angles from 10° to 71° corresponding to photon energies from 11.4 to 2.1 keV with Si-111 crystals. In conjunction with the vertically focusing mirror a point focus of 0.38 mm×0.18 mm [horizontal×vertical, full width at half maximum (FWHM) each] has been achieved at a focal length of 3.8 m (center of a four-circle diffractometer). Focused at the back of the experimental hutch (focal length=5.4 m) the focal size was 0.55 mm×0.30 mm. The measured horizontal width of the focus equals the calculated size of the demagnified source and is independent of the horizontal convergence used. The horizontal focus produced by the crystal is very clean: the full width at 1% of maximum is 1.5 mm and at 0.01% it is about 4 mm. The flux into the focus is 5×1011 photons/s at a photon energy of 7.4 keV and beam current of 200 mA. The average flux density in the center of the focus (FWHM area) is 5×1011 photons/s/mm2. The preliminary crystal presently used has been made from a thin Si plate of 0.4-mm thickness, 80-mm width, and 75-mm length (in the direction of the beam). Steel ribs of 0.6-mm thickness have been glued at 3-mm pitch to the back of the crystal in order to stiffen the plate and reduce anticlastic bending.1 Plates have been glued to this crystal plate to extend the width to size the bending stage. The crystal was cut in 111 orientation with a 4° angle between the lattice planes and the crystal surface. The asymmetric cut was used to increase the angle of incidence and thus decrease the effect of the remaining anticlastic bending. The bending stage has a bending couple at both ends of the crystal in order to produce the

  13. Hourly temporal distribution of wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligiannis, Ilias; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The wind process is essential for hydrometeorology and additionally, is one of the basic renewable energy resources. Most stochastic forecast models are limited up to daily scales disregarding the hourly scale which is significant for renewable energy management. Here, we analyze hourly wind timeseries giving emphasis on the temporal distribution of wind within the day. We finally present a periodic model based on statistical as well as hydrometeorological reasoning that shows good agreement with data. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  14. Neurologic Examination at 24 to 48 Hours Predicts Functional Outcomes in Basilar Artery Occlusion Stroke.

    PubMed

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Jovin, Tudor G; Frankel, Michael; Schonewille, Wouter J; Algra, Ale; Kappelle, L Jaap; Nogueira, Raul G

    2016-10-01

    Accurate long-term outcome prognostication in basilar artery occlusion strokes may guide clinical management in the subacute stage. We determine the prognostic value of the follow-up neurological examination using the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) and identify 24- to 48-hour NIHSS risk categories in basilar artery occlusion patients. Participants of an observational registry of radiologically confirmed acute basilar artery occlusion (BASICS [Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study]) with prospectively collected 24- to 48-hour NIHSS and 1-month modified Rankin scale scores were included. Uni- and multivariable modeling were performed to identify independent predictors of poor outcome. Predictive powers of baseline and 24- to 48-hour NIHSS for poor outcome (modified Rankin scale, 4-6) and 1-month mortality were determined by receiver operating characteristic analyses. Classification and regression tree analysis was performed to identify risk groups. Three hundred seventy-six of 619 BASICS participants were included, of whom 65.4% had poor outcome. In multivariable analyses, 24- to 48-hour NIHSS (odds ratio=1.28 [1.21-1.35]), history of minor stroke (odds ratio=2.64 [1.04-6.74], time to treatment >6 hours (odds ratio=3.07 [1.35-6.99]), and age (odds ratio=1.02 [0.99-1.04]) were retained in the final model as predictors of poor outcome. Prognostic power of 24- to 48-hour NIHSS was higher than baseline NIHSS for 1-month poor outcome (area under the curve, 0.92 versus 0.75) and mortality (area under the curve, 0.85 versus 0.72). Classification and regression tree analysis identified five 24- to 48-hour NIHSS risk categories with poor outcome rates of 9.4% (NIHSS 0-4), 36% (NIHSS 5-11), 84.3% (NIHSS 12-22), 96.1% (NIHSS 23-27), and 100% (NIHSS≥28). Twenty-four- to 48-hour NIHSS accurately predicts 1-month poor outcome and mortality and represents a clinically valuable prognostic tool for the care of basilar artery occlusion patients. © 2016

  15. Long work hours and obesity in Korean adult workers.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae-Won; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Lee, Hye-Eun; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify the association between work hours and obesity in Korean adult manual and nonmanual workers, and to determine whether there is a gender difference in this association. The study was conducted using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected between 2007 and 2010. Individuals aged below 25 or over 64 years, pregnant women, part-time workers, soldiers, housewives and students were excluded. The total number of individuals included in the analysis was 8,889 (5,241 male and 3,648 female subjects). The outcome variable was obesity, defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2). Variables considered in the model were age, education, income, marital status, alcohol drinking, smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, sleep hours per day, the type of job, work hours, and work schedule. Work hours were categorized as <40, 40-48 (reference), 49-60, and >60 hours per week. In the multiple SURVEYLOGISTIC regression analyses, the adjusted odds ratio of obesity for long work hours (>60 hours per week) in male manual workers was 1.647 (95% confidence interval 1.262-2.151). Long work hours did not significantly increase the odds ratio for obesity in male nonmanual workers and female manual and nonmanual workers. More than 60 work hours per week increased the risk of obesity in Korean male manual workers. This result might be helpful in preventing obesity in Korean adult workers, especially male manual workers.

  16. Two-step tuberculin skin testing in school-going adolescents with initial 0-4 millimeter responses in a high tuberculosis prevalence setting in South India.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Maitreyi; Selvam, Sumithra; Jesuraj, Nelson; Bennett, Sean; Doherty, Mark; Grewal, Harleen M S; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The utility of two-step tuberculin skin testing among adolescents in high tuberculosis prevalence settings is not well established. To determine the proportion and determinants of a 0-4 mm response to an initial standard tuberculin skin test (TST) and evaluating 'boosting' with repeat testing. Adolescents between 11 and 18 years attending schools/colleges underwent a TST; those with a response of between 0-4 mm had a repeat TST 1-4 weeks later. Initial TST was done for 6608/6643 participants; 1257 (19%) developed a 0-4 mm response to the initial TST. Younger age and under-nutrition were more likely to be associated with a 0-4 mm response, while the presence of BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) scar and higher socio-economic class were less likely to be associated with a 0-4 mm response. On repeat testing boosting was seen in 13.2% (145/1098; ≥ 6 mm over the initial test) while 4.3% showed boosting using a more conservative cutoff of a repeat TST ≥ 10 mm with an increment of at least 6 mm (47/1098). History of exposure to a tuberculosis (TB) case was associated with enhanced response. The proportion of adolescents who demonstrated boosting on two-step TST testing in our study was relatively low. As a result repeat testing did not greatly alter the prevalence of TST positivity. However, the two-step TST helps identify individuals who can potentially boost their immune response to a second test, and thus, prevents them from being misclassified as those with newly acquired infection, or tuberculin converters. While two-step tuberculin skin testing may have a limited role in population- level TST surveys, it may be useful where serial tuberculin testing needs to be performed to distinguish those who show an enhanced response or boosters from those who indeed have a new infection, or converters.

  17. Differing patterns in thermal injury incidence and hospitalisations among 0-4 year old children from England.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ruth; Tata, Laila J; Kendrick, Denise; Burch, Tiffany; Kennedy, Mary; Orton, Elizabeth

    2016-11-01

    To describe patterns in thermal injury incidence and hospitalisations by age, gender, calendar year and socioeconomic status among 0-4 year olds in England for the period 1998-2013. 708,050 children with linked primary care and hospitalisation data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), respectively. Incidence rates of all thermal injuries (identified in CPRD and/or HES), hospitalised thermal injuries, and serious thermal injuries (hospitalised for ≥72h). Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), estimated using Poisson regression. Incidence rates of all thermal injuries, hospitalised thermal injuries, and serious thermal injuries were 59.5 per 10,000 person-years (95%CI 58.4-60.6), 11.3 (10.8-11.8) and 2.15 (1.95-2.37), respectively. Socioeconomic gradients, between the most and least deprived quintiles, were steepest for serious thermal injuries (IRR 3.17, 95%CI 2.53-3.96). Incidence of all thermal injuries (IRR 0.64, 95%CI 0.58-0.70) and serious thermal injuries (IRR 0.44, 95%CI 0.33-0.59) reduced between 1998/9 and 2012/13. Incidence rates of hospitalised thermal injuries did not significantly change over time. Incidence of all thermal injuries and those hospitalised for ≥72h reduced over time. Steep socioeconomic gradients support continued targeting of preventative interventions to those living in the most deprived areas. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Nontraumatic dental condition-related visits to emergency departments on weekdays, weekends and night hours: findings from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care survey

    PubMed Central

    Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Fischer, Melissa Christine; Sadeghi, Saba Noori; Xiang, Qun; Szabo, Aniko

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the rates of nontraumatic dental condition (NTDC)-related emergency department (ED) visits are higher during the typical working hours of dental offices and lower during night hours, as well as the associated factors. Methods We analyzed data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 1997 through 2007 using multivariate binary and polytomous logistic regression adjusted for survey design to determine the effect of predictors on specified outcome variables. Results Overall, 4,726 observations representing 16.4 million NTDC-related ED visits were identified. Significant differences in rates of NTDC-related ED visits were observed with 40%–50% higher rates during nonworking hours and 20% higher rates on weekends than the overall average rate of 170 visits per hour. Compared with 19–33 year olds, subjects < 18 years old had significantly higher relative rates of NTDC-related ED visits during nonworking hours [relative rate ratio (RRR) = 1.6 to 1.8], whereas those aged 73 and older had lower relative rates during nonworking hours (RRR = 0.4; overall P = 0.0005). Compared with those having private insurance, Medicaid and self-pay patients had significantly lower relative rates of NTDC visits during nonworking and night hours (RRR = 0.6 to 0.7, overall P < 0.0003). Patients with a dental reason for visit were overrepresented during the night hours (RRR = 1.3; overall P = 0.04). Conclusion NTDC-related visits to ED occurred at a higher rate during nonworking hours and on weekends and were significantly associated with age, patient-stated reason for visit and payer type. PMID:24039453

  19. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly.

  20. Randomized clinical trial between hourly titrated and 2 hourly static oral misoprostol solution for induction of labor.

    PubMed

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Alsahly, Nora; Alamoudi, Rana; Almansouri, Nisma; Alsinani, Nawal; Alkafy, Souzan; Rozzah, Rayyan; Abduljabbar, Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Misoprostol is an effective agent for the induction of labor. Existing guidelines recommend oral misoprostol solution 25 μg every 2 hours. However, more research is required to optimize the use of oral misoprostol solution for the induction of labor. The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of hourly titrated-dose oral misoprostol solution with static-dose oral misoprostol solution every 2 hours for labor induction. In this randomized controlled study, oral misoprostol solution was administered as (1) 20 μg hourly (≤4 doses) that was increased in the absence of regular uterine contractions to 40 μg hourly (≤4 doses) and then to 60 μg hourly (≤16 doses) or (2) 25 μg every 2 hours until active labor began (≤12 doses). A sample size of 146 women was planned with the use of a projected 95% rate for the primary endpoint (vaginal delivery within 24 hours) for hourly titrated-dose misoprostol and 80% rate for static-dose misoprostol every 2 hours. Safety outcomes included maternal morbidity and adverse neonatal outcomes. From December 2013 to July 2015, 146 women were assigned randomly to treatment. Demographic and clinical factors were similar between groups, except for age. Vaginal delivery was achieved within 24 hours in 47 women (64.4%) who received hourly titrated-doses of misoprostol solution and 48 women (65.8%) who received 2-hourly static-dose misoprostol solution (P=1.00). Rates of vaginal delivery within 24 hours did not differ significantly between treatment groups for women who were nulliparous (P=1.00) or who had postterm pregnancies (P=.66), a Bishop score of ≤3 (P=.84), or oxytocin augmentation (P=.83). Cesarean deliveries were performed within 24 hours in 9 women who received hourly titrated-dose misoprostol solution and 2 women who received 2-hourly static-dose misoprostol solution (P=.056). Pyrexia and meconium-stained liquor occurred more frequently with the hourly titrated-dose regimen. The static-dose oral

  1. Electrochemical synthesis of photosensitive nano-nest like CdSe0.6Te0.4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Surendra K.; Thombare, Jagannath V.; Dubal, Deepak P.; Fulari, Vijay J.

    2013-10-01

    Polycrystalline CdSe0.6Te0.4 thin films were deposited on stainless steel and ITO coated glass (ITO) substrates by using simple and inexpensive electrodeposition method. CdSe0.6 Te0.4 films are characterized by different characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and contact angle measurement. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the films are polycrystalline with hexagonal crystal structure. FE-SEM studies reveal that the entire substrate surface is covered with CdSe0.6 Te0.4 nano-nest. Formation of CdSe0.6Te0.4 compound was confirmed from the FTIR studies. Optical absorption study shows the presence of direct transition and a considerable band gap, Eg = 1.7 eV. Surface wettability with solid-liquid interface showed hydrophilic nature with water contact angle 57° (<90°). Further photovoltaic activity of CdSe0.6Te0.4 films were studied by forming the photoelectrochemical cell having CdSe0.6Te0.4/1 M (Na2S + S + NaOH)/C cell configuration. The efficiency and fill factor of these PEC cells are found to be 0.64% and 0.49 respectively.

  2. Prediction of late (24-hour) radioactive iodine uptake using early (3-hour) uptake values in Japanese patients with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Yoshinori; Sakurai, Kanako; Arihara, Zenei; Hata, Masahiro; Fukazawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of 24-hour radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU), which is commonly used to calculate the dose of radioiodine (RI) therapy, cannot be accomplished in a single day. The purpose of this study was to predict 24-hour RAIU from 3-hour RAIU in Japanese patients with Graves' disease, and to investigate other factors that could be used to predict 24-hour RAIU. A total of 66 Japanese patients (14 men and 52 women; age, 17-83 years) with Graves' disease who had undergone both 3-hour and 24-hour ¹²³I RAIU measurements between January 2006 and September 2011 were included in this study. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed in order to identify factors that could be used to predict 24-hour RAIU. The investigated factors were gender, age, thyroid volume, TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), serum creatinine, second generation assay TSH receptor antibody (TRAb2), antithyroid drugs discontinuation period (ADP), iodine restriction period and 3-hour RAIU. The ADP was converted to an ordinal scale ADP score (ADPS) for multiple regression analyses. Multiple regression analyses showed that 3-hour RAIU (P < 0.001), FT3 (P < 0.001) and ADPS (P < 0.001) were statistically significant predictive factors of 24-hour RAIU. The relationship between 24-hour RAIU (LU) and 3-hour RAIU (EU), FT3 and ADPS was: LU = 11.5 + 29.1 × log₁₀ EU + 23.0 × log₁₀ FT3 - 2.7 × ADPS (r = 0.82, P < 0.001). The present results indicate that prediction of LU from EU, FT3 and ADPS is feasible in Japanese patients with Graves' disease.

  3. Effects of Acute Bleeding Followed by Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 or a Crystalloid on Propofol Concentrations, Cerebral Oxygenation, and Electroencephalographic and Haemodynamic Variables in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Venâncio, Carlos; Souza, Almir P.; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Amorim, Pedro; Ferreira, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Bleeding changes the haemodynamics, compromising organ perfusion. In this study, the effects of bleeding followed by replacement with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES) or lactated Ringer's (LR) on cerebral oxygenation and electroencephalogram-derived parameters were investigated. Twelve young pigs under propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia were bled 30 mL/kg and, after a 20-minute waiting period, volume replacement was performed with HES (GHES; N = 6) or LR (GRL; N = 6). Bleeding caused a decrease of more than 50% in mean arterial pressure (P < 0.01) and a decrease in cerebral oximetry (P = 0.039), bispectral index, and electroencephalogram total power (P = 0.04 and P < 0.01, resp.), while propofol plasma concentrations increased (P < 0.01). Both solutions restored the haemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation similarly and were accompanied by an increase in electroencephalogram total power. No differences between groups were found. However, one hour after the end of the volume replacement, the cardiac output (P = 0.03) and the cerebral oxygenation (P = 0.008) decreased in the GLR and were significantly lower than in GHES (P = 0.02). Volume replacement with HES 130/0.4 was capable of maintaining the cardiac output and cerebral oxygenation during a longer period than LR and caused a decrease in the propofol plasma concentrations. PMID:24971192

  4. Crystal growth and spin reorientation transition in Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 orthoferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiangyang; Zhang, Kailin; Xu, Kai; Man, Peiwen; Xie, Tao; Wu, Anhua; Ma, Guohong; Cao, Shixun; Su, Liangbi

    2016-04-01

    High quality Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 single crystal has been successfully grown by the floating zone method. Temperature dependence of the magnetizations of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 under ZFC process is studied in the temperature range of 4-300 K. Spin reorientation transition between Γ2 (Gz, Fx) and Γ4 (Gx, Fz) is observed in the temperature range of 170-210 K, which is significantly lower than that of SmFeO3, while much higher than that of ErFeO3. A compensation point (35.8 K) corresponding to zero magnetization and a spontaneous magnetization reversal transition at 49.5 K are observed in Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3. Temperature-induced SRT of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 is systematically studied by THz-TDS range from 40 K to 300 K. The temperature dependence of amplitude of AFM mode coincides well with the magnetization measurement which demonstrate that SRT in Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 can be studied through the amplitude of AFM mode FID emission. The AF mode frequency is almost invariant, while the F mode frequency significantly decreases with increasing temperature, which could be explained by the temperature dependence of anisotropy energy.

  5. Large linear magnetoresistance in topological crystalline insulator Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, Subhajit; Ghara, Somnath; Guin, Satya N.; Sundaresan, A.; Biswas, Kanishka

    2016-01-15

    Classical magnetoresistance generally follows the quadratic dependence of the magnetic field at lower field and finally saturates when field is larger. Here, we report the large positive non-saturating linear magnetoresistance in topological crystalline insulator, Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te, at different temperatures between 3 K and 300 K in magnetic field up to 9 T. Magnetoresistance value as high as ∼200% was achieved at 3 K at magnetic field of 9 T. Linear magnetoresistance observed in Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te is mainly governed by the spatial fluctuation carrier mobility due to distortions in the current paths in inhomogeneous conductor. - Graphical abstract: Large non-saturating linear magnetoresistance has been evidenced in topological crystalline insulator, Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te, at different temperatures between 3 K and 300 K in magnetic field up to 9 T. - Highlights: • Large non-saturating linear magnetoresistance was achieved in the topological crystalline insulator, Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te. • Highest magnetoresistance value as high as ~200% was achieved at 3 K at magnetic field of 9 T. • Linear magnetoresistance in Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te is mainly governed by the spatial fluctuation of the carrier mobility.

  6. On the Na xNi 0.6Co 0.4O 2System: Physical and Electrochemical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadoune, I.; Maazaz, A.; Ménétrier, M.; Delmas, C.

    1996-02-01

    Sodium chemical deintercalation from the NaNi0.6Co0.4O2phase was realized by using iodine as oxidizing agent. The Na0.58Ni0.6Co0.4O2phase obtained was used as the positive electrode in sodium batteries. Several structural transformations were observed during discharge (intercalation reaction). The magnetic and electrical study of the NaxNi0.6Co0.4O2(x= 1, 0.80, 0.58) phases shows clearly that NiIII(t62e1in LS configuration) is preferentially oxidized to the tetravalent state compared to CoIII(t62e0in LS configuration). The sodium diffusion coefficient was also calculated in the solid solution domains. It shows that the diffusion kinetics is faster when sodium ions are situated in a prismatic environment.

  7. Tailoring the surface properties of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ by titanium substitution for improved high voltage cycling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff-Goodrich, Silas; Xin, Huolin L.; Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M.; Nordlund, Dennis; Asta, Mark; Doeff, Marca M.

    2015-07-30

    The present research aims to provide insights into the behavior of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ (NMC442-Ti02) cathode materials under galvanostatic cycling to high potentials, in the context of previous work which predicted that Ti-substituted variants should deliver higher capacities and exhibit better cycling stability than the unsubstituted compounds. It is found that NMC cathodes containing Ti show equivalent capacity fading but greater specific capacity than those without Ti in the same potential range. When repeatedly charged to the same degree of delithiation, NMC cathodes containing Ti showed better capacity retention. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra for Mn and Co indicated increased reduction in these elements for NMC cathodes without Ti, indicating that the substitution of Ti for Co acts to suppress the formation of a high impedance rock salt phase at the surface of NMC cathode particles. The results of this study validate the adoption of a facile change to existing NMC chemistries to improve cathode capacity retention under high voltage cycling conditions.

  8. Tailoring the surface properties of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ by titanium substitution for improved high voltage cycling performance

    DOE PAGES

    Wolff-Goodrich, Silas; Xin, Huolin L.; Lin, Feng; ...

    2015-07-30

    The present research aims to provide insights into the behavior of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ (NMC442-Ti02) cathode materials under galvanostatic cycling to high potentials, in the context of previous work which predicted that Ti-substituted variants should deliver higher capacities and exhibit better cycling stability than the unsubstituted compounds. It is found that NMC cathodes containing Ti show equivalent capacity fading but greater specific capacity than those without Ti in the same potential range. When repeatedly charged to the same degree of delithiation, NMC cathodes containing Ti showed better capacity retention. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra for Mn and Comore » indicated increased reduction in these elements for NMC cathodes without Ti, indicating that the substitution of Ti for Co acts to suppress the formation of a high impedance rock salt phase at the surface of NMC cathode particles. The results of this study validate the adoption of a facile change to existing NMC chemistries to improve cathode capacity retention under high voltage cycling conditions.« less

  9. The Impact of Aluminum and Iron Substitution on the Structure and Electrochemistry of Li[Ni0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4]O2 Materials

    SciTech Connect

    WIlcox, James D.; Rodriguez, Efrain E.; Doeff, Marca M.

    2009-07-23

    Li[Ni0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4]O2 (0<_y<_0.2) (M=Al) and Li[Ni0.4Co0.15Fe0.05Mn0.4]O2 compounds were prepared in order to investigate the effect of replacement of all or part of the cobalt on the structural and electrochemical properties. The impact of substitution on the structure has been examined by both x-ray and neutron diffraction experiments. The incorporation of aluminum has minimal effect on the anti-site defect concentration, but leads to structural changes that affect electrochemical performance. The most important effect is an opening of the lithium slab dimension upon substitution, which results in improved rate performance compared to the parent compound. In contrast, the lithium slab dimension is not affected by iron substitution and no rate enhancement effect is observed. The cycling stability of aluminum containing materials is superior to both the parent material and iron-substituted materials.

  10. Dynamic evaluation of RPI's 0.4 scale unmanned Martian roving vehicle model. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, A. G.

    1973-01-01

    A design for a Mars Roving Vehicle is presented in a three dimensional model considering three degrees of freedom. In addition, the physical characteristics of the 0.4 scale RPI-MRV are presented along with the basic dynamic responses.

  11. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  12. My Half Hour with Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romer, Robert H.

    2005-03-01

    "So you're studying at Princeton. Would you like to meet Einstein?" That question, during a brief two-body collision at a cocktail party, a collision that was over before I could think of an appropriate response, led—over a year later—to one of the more memorable half hours of my life. It was an elastic collision, we drifted apart, and I thought it had simply been a casual remark until a few days later when the mail brought me a carbon copy [sic] of a letter (dated "25.XII.52") from the speaker, Dr. Tilly Edinger, to Albert Einstein. Accompanying the letter to Einstein was a card that Dr. Edinger advised me to send around to Einstein's home on Mercer Street to request a meeting. (What is perhaps most truly astonishing in connection with this event is that not only do I still have that carbon copy—and the eventual letter from Mercer Street that invited me to Einstein's home—but that I was able to find both documents in my attic!)

  13. Characterization and Electrochemical Performance of SubstitutedLiNi0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4O2 (0<_y<_0.2) Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, James D.; Doeff, Marca M.

    2007-11-28

    A complete series of LiNi0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4O2 (0<_y<_0.2) materials have been synthesized and investigated as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. When cycled between 2.0 and 4.3 V vs. Li/Li+ at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2, stable capacities of ~;;160 mAh/g for y=0 to ~;;110 mAh/g for y=0.2 are achieved. Upon increasing the current density, it is found that all materials containing aluminum show reduced polarization and improved rate performance. The optimal performance at all current densities was found for the compound with y=0.05. The effect of aluminumsubstitution on the crystal structure of the host is discussed.

  14. The effectiveness of electrolyte additives in fluorinated electrolytes for high voltage Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2]O2/graphite pouch Li-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Petibon, R.; Xiao, A.; Lamanna, W. M.; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of electrolyte additives in fluorinated electrolytes containing 1 M LiPF6/fluoroethylene carbonate:bis (2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) carbonate (1:1 w:w) were studied in high voltage Li(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2)O2/graphite pouch cells tested to 4.5 V. The results showed that fluorinated electrolytes containing prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone alone or in combination with other additives exhibited significant improvements in terms of coulombic efficiency and charge endpoint capacity slippage during UHPC cycling, voltage drop during storage, as well as capacity retention during long-term cycling compared with state-of-the-art ethylene carbonate-based (ethylene carbonate: ethylmethyl carbonate 3:7) or sulfolane-based electrolytes (sulfolane: ethylmethyl carbonate 3:7) with some promising additive blends. These results indicate that fluorinated electrolytes offer an interesting alternative for high voltage Li-ion batteries.

  15. A new, high energy Sn-C/Li[Li(0.2)Ni(0.4)/3Co(0.4)/3Mn(1.6/3)]O2 lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Wang, Jun; Bresser, Dominic; Li, Jie; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2014-08-13

    In this paper we report a new, high performance lithium-ion battery comprising a nanostructured Sn-C anode and Li[Li0.2Ni0.4/3Co0.4/3Mn1.6/3]O2 (lithium-rich) cathode. This battery shows highly promising long-term cycling stability for up to 500 cycles, excellent rate capability, and a practical energy density, which is expected to be as high as 220 Wh kg(-1) at the packaged cell level. Considering the overall performance of this new chemistry basically related to the optimized structure, morphology, and composition of the utilized active materials as demonstrated by XRD, TEM, and SEM, respectively, the system studied herein is proposed as a suitable candidate for application in the lithium-ion battery field.

  16. Effects of synthesis methods on the performance of Pt + Rh/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 three-way catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Zongcheng; Song, Liyun; Liu, Xiaojun; Jiao, Jiao; Li, Jinzhou; He, Hong

    2014-03-01

    The 0.7 wt% Pt + 0.3 wt% Rh/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 catalysts were fabricated via different methods, including ultrasonic-assisted membrane reduction (UAMR) co-precipitation, UAMR separation precipitation, co-impregnation, and sequential impregnation. The catalysts were physico-chemically characterized by N2 adsorption, XRD, TEM, and H2-TPR techniques, and evaluated for three-way catalytic activities with simulated automobile exhaust. UAMR co-precipitation- and UAMR separation precipitation-prepared catalysts exhibited a high surface area and metal dispersion, wide λ window and excellent conversion for NOx reduction under lean conditions. Both fresh and aged catalysts from UAMR-precipitation showed the high surface areas of ca. 60-67 m(2)/g and 18-22 m(2)/g, respectively, high metal dispersion of 41%-55%, and small active particle diameters of 2.1-2.7 nm. When these catalysts were aged, the catalysts prepared by the UAMR method exhibited a wider working window (Δλ = 0.284-0.287) than impregnated ones (Δλ = 0.065-0.115) as well as excellent three-way catalytic performance, and showed lower T50 (169°C) and T90 (195°C) for NO reduction than the aged catalysts from impregnation processes, which were at 265 and 309°C, respectively. This implied that the UAMR-separation precipitation has important potential for industrial applications to improve catalytic performance and thermal stability. The fresh and aged 0.7 wt% Pt + 0.3 wt% Rh/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 catalysts prepared by the UAMR-separation precipitation method exhibited better catalytic performance than the corresponding catalysts prepared by conventional impregnation routes. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermally activated flux flow in superconducting epitaxial FeSe0.6Te0.4 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, D.; Choi, W. J.; Seo, Y. I.; Seo, Sehun; Lee, Sanghan; Kwon, Yong Seung

    The thermally activated flux flow effect has been studied in epitaxial FeSe0.6Te0.4 thin film grown by a PLD method through the electrical resistivity measurement under various magnetic fields for B//c and B//ab. The results showed that the thermally activated flux flow effect is well described by the nonlinear temperature-dependent activation energy. The evaluated apparent activation energy U0 (B) is one order larger than the reported results and showed the double-linearity in both magnetic field directions. Furthermore, the FeSe0.6Te0.4 thin film shows the anisotropy of 5.6 near Tc and 2D-like superconducting behavior in thermally activated flux flow region. In addition, the vortex glass transition and the temperature dependence of the high critical fields were determined.

  18. BVR Photometry Of An Inverted-spectrum, Flat-spectrum Radio Source With The Rowan 0.4-meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Erick; Diekewicz, A.

    2012-01-01

    Several galaxies have been selected for an exploratory campaign with 0.4-meter telescope atop Science Hall at Rowan University. These galaxies exhibit inverted radio spectra on the basis of fluxes in the GB6 and VLA FIRST catalogs and have SDSS magnitudes in g-band less than 15.5. The results of BVR photometry of one of these galaxies, CGCG 215-024, are presented. These are the first results from an ongoing campaign to expand the function of the observatory atop Science Hall. Efforts to mitigate bulding vibration and light pollution in future work will be presented. The authors would like to acknowledge Ric and Jean Edelman for their gift that funded the 0.4-meter telescope.

  19. Influence of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 on hemostasis as measured by viscoelastic device analysis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Christiane S; Reuter, Dorit; Loesche, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Michael; Reinhart, Konrad

    2011-11-01

    Hydroxyethyl starch solutions (HES) are plasma volume expanders which affect hemostasis. Newer HES 130/0.4 is said to be safer. Reevaluation of published evidence is necessary after the recent retraction of studies. Systematic review of studies assessing HES 130/0.4 effects on hemostasis by thrombelastography (TEG, ROTEM) or Sonoclot (SCR) in comparison with crystalloid or albumin control fluids was performed. Only studies which provided statistical comparisons between study fluids were analyzed. Studies were divided into in vitro or in vivo hemodilution studies. We assessed study quality, HES effects which differed significantly from controls, values outside normal range, degree of hemodilution, and cumulative HES dose. Seventeen in vitro and seven in vivo hemodilution studies were analyzed. Four studies reported quality control measures. Nineteen studies (all 15 ROTEM studies, 3 of 5 in vitro TEG, and 1 of 2 SCR studies) showed a significant hypocoagulatory effect of HES 130/0.4 on clot formation, while clotting time was not uniformly affected. Three in vivo TEG studies with low HES doses or cancer patients found mixed or nonsignificant results. In studies which provided normal ranges (n = 9), more values were outside normal ranges in the HES than in the control groups (87/122 vs. 58/122, p < 0.001). Dose effects were apparent in the in vitro studies, which investigated higher dilutions up to 80%. In vivo studies were fewer and did not investigate doses >40 ml/kg. HES 130/0.4 administration results in a weaker and smaller clot. Until results from well-designed clinical trials are available, safer fluids should be chosen for patients with impaired coagulation.

  20. Soliton excitations in the quasi-one-dimensional conductor Rb 2Pt(CN) 4(FHF) 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pană, O.; Giurgiu, L. V.; Knorr, S.; Rahmer, J.; Grupp, A.; Mehring, M.

    2001-08-01

    The authors have studied the soliton generation process in the quasi-one-dimensional platinum Rb 2Pt(CN) 4(FHF) 0.4 compound. Under the Peierls-transition temperature TP, a periodic lattice distortion accompanied by a charge density wave (CDW) with commensurability N=5 condensates. Local depinning of the CDW generates a soliton-antisoliton pair. The energy spectrum of the 5d z2 Pt electrons along with charges and spins of all soliton types are calculated.

  1. A SUBCHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO 0, 0.4, 1.4 OR 4.0 PPM ACROLEIN.

    SciTech Connect

    KUTZMAN,R.S.

    1981-10-01

    Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.4, 1.4, or 4.0 ppm acrolein for 62 days. The major objective of the study was to relate the results of a series of pulmonary function tests to biochemical and pathological alterations observed in the lung. Cytological and reproductive potential endpoints were also assessed after acrolein exposure. Rats were exposed to acrolein for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 62 days. Mortality was observed only in the 4.0 ppm chamber where 32 of 57 exposed males died; however, none of the 8 exposed females died. Most of the mortality occurred within the first 10 exposure days. Histologic examination indicated that the animals died of acute bronchopneumonia. The surviving males and females exposed to 4.0 ppm acrolein gained weight at a significantly slower rate than control animals. The growth of both sexes in the 0.4 and 1.4 ppm groups was similar to that of their respective controls. Histopathologic examination of animals after 62 days of exposure revealed bronchiolar epithelial necrosis and sloughing, bronchiolar edema with macrophages, and focal pulmonary edema in the 4.0 ppm group. These lesions were, in some cases, associated with edema of the trachea and peribronchial lymph nodes, and acute rhinitis which indicated an upper respiratory tract effect of acrolein. Of particular interest was the variability of response between rats in the 4.0 ppm group, some not affected at all while others were moderately affected. Intragroup variability in toxicity was also apparent in the 1.4 ppm exposure group where only 3 of 31 animals examined had lesions directly related to acrolein exposure. Extra respiratory organs appeared unaffected.

  2. Effects of annealing, acid and alcoholic beverages on Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Taen, T.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Shi, Z. X.; Tamegai, T.

    2013-01-01

    We have systematically investigated and compared different methods to induce superconductivity in the iron chalcogenide Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4, including annealing in a vacuum, N2, O2 and I2 atmospheres and immersing samples into acid and alcoholic beverages. Vacuum and N2 annealing are proved to be ineffective in inducing superconductivity in a Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal. Annealing in O2 and I2 and immersion in acid and alcoholic beverages can induce superconductivity by oxidizing the excess Fe in the sample. Superconductivity in O2 annealed samples is of a bulk nature, while I2, acid and alcoholic beverages can only induce superconductivity near the surface. By comparing the different effects of O2, I2, acid and alcoholic beverages we propose a scenario to explain how the superconductivity is induced in the non-superconducting as-grown Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4.

  3. Dimensionality dependent magnetic and magnetocaloric response of La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 manganite.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M S; Ahmed, Faheem; Koo, Bon Heun

    2014-11-01

    We report the sol-gel synthesis and impact of reduced dimensionality on the magnetocaloric properties of La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 manganite. The synthesized powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and magnetization measurements. The XRD results indicated that the La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 nanoparticles have single phase nature with orthorhombic structure. FE-SEM results suggested that the nanoparticles are agglomerated and crystallite size increases with the annealing temperature. Magnetization measurements show that the La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 nanoparticles exhibit transition temperature (T(c)) below room temperature. The transition temperature was found to increase with the increasing the crystallite size. Maximum in magnetic entropy change, (ΔS(M))(max) shows interesting behaviour and was found to vary with the particle size. At magnetic field of 1 T, the value of (ΔS(M))(max) - 0.13 J/kg K was observed at 213 K for the sample annealed at 600 degrees C. Also, the increment in the value of (ΔS(M))(max) was observed at higher annealing temperature. This study shows that the magnetic entropy of pervoskite manganite can be tuned by tuning the crystallite size of the manganites.

  4. Au@Co0.4S core-shell nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and evaluation of photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warjri, Wandibahun; Negi, Devendra P. S.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, Au@Co0.4S core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared core-shell nanoparticles was evaluated by studying the degradation of methyl orange (MO) spectrophotometerically under visible light irradiation. Under optimum experimental conditions, 68.9% of the dye was degraded during 50 min of irradiation. Control experiments showed negligible degradation of MO in the absence of the photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. A good correlation was obtained between the concentration of the dye adsorbed on the surface of the Au@Co0.4S core-shell nanoparticles and its degradation efficiency. The as-prepared nanoparticles showed good recyclability for the degradation of MO. The mechanistic studies suggested that the valence band holes of the Co0.4S nanoparticles were scavenged by the MO molecules resulting in the degradation of the dye.

  5. [Effect of double anaesthetic Colicursi (tetracaine 0.1% and oxybuprocaine 0.4%) on central and paracentral corneal thickness].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rey, J A; Giráldez, M J; García-Resúa, C; Yebra-Pimentel, E

    2009-01-01

    To study the effect of 1 drop of combined topical anaesthesia (tetracaine 0.1% and oxybuprocaine 0.4%) on central corneal thickness (CCT) values and at 2.5 mm from the corneal centre in nasal, temporal, superior and inferior hemi meridians, monitored by Orbscan over a period of 16 minutes. The corneal thickness of 12 right eyes of 12 young healthy men was determined using the Orbscan Topography System. Values were determined at the centre and paracentral regions 2.5 mm from the centre every 2 minutes for 16 minutes before and after the administration of 1 drop of double anaesthetic Colircusi which contains tetracaine 0.1% and oxybuprocaine 0.4%. There was no obvious trend of central and paracentral corneal thickness value change before and after administration of Colircusi (paired ANOVA, p>0.05). Although corneal thickness variation was not statistically significant, higher differences were observed at the 6 minute time-point for CCT and at 8 minutes for nasal paracentral corneal thickness. One drop of double anaesthetic Colircusi with tetracaine 0.1% and oxibuprocaine 0.4% does not produce any significant change in central corneal thickness or in paracentral regions 2.5 mm from the centre (nasal, temporal, superior and inferior hemi meridians).

  6. NASA Spacecraft Hours from Comet Encounter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-14

    This composite image was taken by NASA Stardust navigation camera 42 hours before its encounter with comet Tempel 1. The spacecraft is due to encounter the comet in the evening hours of Feb. 14, 2011.

  7. Impact of working hours on sleep and mental health.

    PubMed

    Afonso, P; Fonseca, M; Pires, J F

    2017-07-01

    The number of hours people are required to work has a pervasive influence on both physical and mental health. Excessive working hours can also negatively affect sleep quality. The impact at work of mental health problems can have serious consequences for individuals' as well as for organizations' productivity. To evaluate differences in sleep quality and anxiety and depression symptoms between longer working hours group (LWHG) and regular working hours group (RWHG). To examine factors influencing weekly working hours, sleep quality and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were divided into two groups, RWHG and LWHG, based on working hours, with a cut-off of 48 h per week. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess anxiety and depression symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure the quality and patterns of sleep. The response rate was 23%. Among the 429 study participants, those in the LWHG group (n = 256, 53%) had significantly more depressive and anxiety symptoms and worse sleep quality than those in RWHG (n = 223, 47%). Working time was significantly positively correlated with higher corporate position and HADS scores. Moreover, HADS scores were positively correlated with PSQI scores and negatively correlated with age. This study suggests that longer working hours are associated with poorer mental health status and increasing levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. There was a positive correlation between these symptoms and sleep disturbances.

  8. No differences in metabolic outcomes between nadir GH 0.4 and 1.0 ng/mL during OGTT in surgically cured acromegalic patients (observational study)

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Cheol Ryong; Choe, Eun Yeong; Hong, Jae Won; Kim, Eui Hyun; Park, Se Hee; Kim, Sun Ho; Lee, Eun Jig

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Metabolic impairment is the common cause for mortality in acromegalic patients. In this study, long-term improvements of metabolic parameters were evaluated according to 2 different remission criteria. This was an observational cohort study before and up to 1 year after transsphenoidal adenomectomy (TSA). Participants were 187 patients with acromegaly. At 6 months after TSA, remitted patients with age- and sex-matched normalized IGF-1 were divided into 2 groups: remission 1 (R1), nadir growth hormone (GH) below 0.4 ng/mL; and remission 2 (R2), nadir GH between 0.4 and 1.0 ng/mL in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Metabolic parameters during serial OGTTs were evaluated for 12 months. Remission was achieved in 157 (R1–136; R2–21) patients. Immediate postoperative metabolic parameters including body weight, body mass index, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid in OGTT were all significantly improved in R1 and R2. HOMA-%β and HOMA-IR scores also improved in both R1 and R2. These improvements persisted for duration (12 months) of this study. However, no difference was present in metabolic parameters between R1 and R2. Although the patients with preoperative adrenal insufficiency presented significantly increased HOMA scores before TSA, there was no difference between classifications of deficient pituitary axes and changes of metabolic parameters after TSA. Remitted patients exhibited rapid restoration of metabolic parameters immediate postoperative period. Long-term improvements in metabolic parameters were not different between the 2 different nadir GH cut-offs, 0.4 and 1.0 ng/mL. PMID:27310957

  9. Effect of topical ketorolac 0.4%, nepafenac 0.1%, and bromfenac 0.09% on postoperative inflammation using laser flare photometry in patients having phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Sabin; Ram, Jagat; Bansal, Reema; Pandav, Surinder S; Gupta, Amod

    2015-10-01

    To study the effect of topical ketorolac 0.4% (Acular LS), bromfenac 0.09% (Megabrom), and nepafenac 0.1% (Nevanac) on postoperative inflammation using laser flare photometry in patients having phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) implantation. Tertiary care center, Chandigarh, India. Prospective randomized case series. Patients with age-related cataract having phacoemulsification with PC IOL implantation were randomized into 4 groups receiving topical ketorolac 0.4% (Group A), bromfenac 0.09% (Group B), nepafenac 0.1% (Group C), or no nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (Group D, control). The topical NSAIDs were started 1 day prior to the surgery and continued for 6 weeks postoperatively. All patients received a standard regimen of moxifloxacin 0.5% (Vigamox) and prednisolone acetate 1.0% (Pred Forte) eyedrops in tapering doses postoperatively. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), laser flare photometry, and fundus examination were done preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The study comprised 120 patients (120 eyes) (Group A = 33 patients, Group B = 30 patients, Group C = 31 patients, and Group D = 26 patients). The laser flare photometry values at the end of 4 weeks and 8 weeks were minimal in the nepafenac group compared with the other NSAID groups and the no-NSAID group (P = .032 at 4 weeks and P = .252 at 8 weeks). The topical NSAIDs ketorolac 0.4%, bromfenac 0.09%, and nepafenac 0.1% were effective for the reduction of postoperative inflammation following phacoemulsification. Compared with ketorolac tromethamine, bromfenac, and the control, nepafenac was significantly effective 1 month postoperatively in reducing anterior chamber flare, as evidenced by decreased laser flare photometry. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Extended working hours: Impacts on workers

    Treesearch

    D. Mitchell; T. Gallagher

    2010-01-01

    Some logging business owners are trying to manage their equipment assets by increasing the scheduled machine hours. The intent is to maximize the total tons produced by a set of equipment. This practice is referred to as multi-shifting, double-shifting, or extended working hours. One area often overlooked is the impact that working non-traditional hours can have on...

  11. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  12. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  13. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  14. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  15. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  16. The Student Credit Hour: Counting What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the student credit hour (SCH). The author begins with a rethinking of the basic unit of measurement in American higher education--the SCH. The credit hour was developed at the turn of the 20th century as a measure of student time in the classroom: one hour per week in class for one semester equalled one SCH. The credit hour…

  17. Tracking and Explaining Credit-Hour Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwenda, Maxwell Ndigume

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights factors associated with changes in earned hours for two cohorts of incoming freshmen during their first year. The objectives of this study are twofold: (a) to derive model(s) regressing the cumulative hours earned and differential hours earned on student demographic, socioeconomic, and academic characteristics; and (b) to…

  18. 24 hours prior to curtain.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S; Rosen, C A; Murry, T

    2000-03-01

    A retrospective review was conducted of 40 singers presenting with acute voice problems prior to performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the reasons for seeking emergent voice treatment, the types of acute voice disorders, and the performance outcome. The patients were assessed by age, singing style, years of experience, chief complaint, laryngovideostroboscopic findings, and treatment regimens. The outcomes were classified as full, restricted, or no performance. The majority of patients were classical singers. Laryngovideostroboscopy frequently revealed a pattern of early glottic contact at the mid-portion of the membranous vocal fold in patients with acute laryngitis. Experienced singers uniformly sought treatment many days before their performance compared with inexperienced singers who presented closer in time to performance. Six patients initially withheld information, which had a bearing on their acute management. The results of this study suggest that there is a need to accurately diagnose and treat the singer's emergent problem and educate singers regarding early evaluation of medical problems. With modern evaluation techniques and multi-modality treatment, 85% of the singers proceeded to full performance without negative sequelae.

  19. Electrochemical performance of LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 prepared by different molten salt flux: LiNO3-LiCl and LiNO3-KNO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayana, M.; James, Joseph; U. V., Varadaraju

    2017-10-01

    LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 material synthesized at different temperatures by using LiNO3-LiCl and LiNO3-KNO3 molten salt as a reaction medium. The phase purity of the samples obtained by powder X-ray diffraction measurement which suggests layered α-NaFeO2 type is obtained at 800-900 °C using LiNO3-LiCl flux and at 750-850 °C using LiNO3-KNO3 flux. The surface morphology change with flux media at different temperature are obtained by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The galvanostatic cycling results show that the high stable reversible discharge capacity of 155 (±3) mAh g-1 obtained for treated compound at 900 °C for 1 h (using LiNO3-LiCl) with coloumbic efficiency of 99%. The reversible discharge capacity of 140 and 130 (±3) mAh g-1 obtained for treated compound at 750 and 850 °C, respectively (using LiNO3-KNO3).

  20. A high temperature study on thermodynamic, thermal expansion and electrical properties of BaCe0.4Zr0.4Y0.2O3-δ proton conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basbus, J. F.; Arce, M. D.; Prado, F. D.; Caneiro, A.; Mogni, L. V.

    2016-10-01

    BaCe0.4Zr0.4Y0.2O3-δ (BCZY) was synthesized by solid state reaction, calcined and sintered at 1600 °C for 12 h. Crystal structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Morphology and porosity were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Crystalline structure, oxygen non-stoichiometry, linear expansion and electrical conductivity were characterized under oxidizing and reducing atmosphere by high temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), dilatometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. Chemical stability under CO2-rich atmosphere was evaluated by TG. BCZY electrical conductivity was studied by EIS under O2-containing atmosphere with water vapor (2% H2O) and heavy water vapor (2% D2O) in order to evaluate protonic conductivity. Throughout these techniques, interstitial proton incorporation/loss was observed under oxidizing and reducing atmosphere, between 300 and 500 °C. The conductivity presents two contributions. The bulk conductivity at high frequencies takes the same value regardless wet oxidizing or reducing atmosphere, decreasing its value in presence of D2O vapor supporting H-conductivity. On the other hand, the grain boundary conductivity was strongly dependent on the nature of wet atmosphere.

  1. Effect of sintering temperature on the structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 potential for radar absorbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, K.; Sadhana, K.; Matteppanavar, S.; Liu, Hsiang-Lin

    2017-02-01

    Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 nanopowders were prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion method, densified at different temperatures 400-700 °C/4 h using conventional sintering method. The grain sizes of all the samples vary between 18 nm and 30 nm. The hysteresis loops show high saturation magnetization and low coercivity, indicating magnetically soft behaviour of the material. The real and imaginary parts of permittivity is almost constant upto 1 GHz and increases with further increase of frequency. The permeability is ruled by Snoek's law, the values of μ‧ increases with increase of temperature and the resonance frequency increases with an increase of temperature. The reflection coefficient is however increasing with sintering temperature and the maximum loss is observed in the range of 100 MHz-1 GHz. Sample sintered at 700 °C has shown maximum reflection loss and this loss occurs due to absorption, destructive interference and multiple internal reflections in the sample. Quality factor is constant upto 380 MHz and increases with frequency for all the samples sintered at different temperatures. The TC for all the samples is above 230 °C. The room temperature EPR spectra confirm the oxidation state of Fe3+. The g-factor is in the range of 2.

  2. Two-Step Tuberculin Skin Testing in School-Going Adolescents with Initial 0-4 Millimeter Responses in a High Tuberculosis Prevalence Setting in South India

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Maitreyi; Selvam, Sumithra; Jesuraj, Nelson; Bennett, Sean; Doherty, Mark; Grewal, Harleen M. S.; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background The utility of two-step tuberculin skin testing among adolescents in high tuberculosis prevalence settings is not well established. Objectives To determine the proportion and determinants of a 0-4 mm response to an initial standard tuberculin skin test (TST) and evaluating 'boosting' with repeat testing. Methods Adolescents between 11 and 18 years attending schools/colleges underwent a TST; those with a response of between 0–4 mm had a repeat TST 1-4 weeks later. Results Initial TST was done for 6608/6643 participants; 1257 (19%) developed a 0-4 mm response to the initial TST. Younger age and under-nutrition were more likely to be associated with a 0-4 mm response, while the presence of BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) scar and higher socio-economic class were less likely to be associated with a 0-4 mm response. On repeat testing boosting was seen in 13.2% (145/1098; ≥ 6 mm over the initial test) while 4.3% showed boosting using a more conservative cutoff of a repeat TST ≥ 10 mm with an increment of at least 6 mm (47/1098). History of exposure to a tuberculosis (TB) case was associated with enhanced response. Conclusion The proportion of adolescents who demonstrated boosting on two-step TST testing in our study was relatively low. As a result repeat testing did not greatly alter the prevalence of TST positivity. However, the two-step TST helps identify individuals who can potentially boost their immune response to a second test, and thus, prevents them from being misclassified as those with newly acquired infection, or tuberculin converters. While two-step tuberculin skin testing may have a limited role in population- level TST surveys, it may be useful where serial tuberculin testing needs to be performed to distinguish those who show an enhanced response or boosters from those who indeed have a new infection, or converters. PMID:24039716

  3. Magneto-trions in a GaMnAs/Ga0.6Al0.4As Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalitha, D.; Peter, A. John; Lee, Chang Woo

    2014-09-01

    Magneto bound exciton and the charged exciton in a GaMn0.02As/Ga0.6Al0.4As quantum dot are reported with the spatial confinement effect. The numerical calculations are carried out with the inclusion of exchange interaction between the carrier and the magnetic impurities. The binding energies of exciton and the trions and the optical transition energy are obtained as a function of dot radius. Numerical computations are followed using exact diagonalization method. The spin polaronic energy of the exciton and the charged excitons are obtained using a mean field theory in the presence of magnetic field strength. The magnetization of Mn ion impurities as a function of dot radius is investigated. The effective g-factor of conduction (valence) band electron (hole) is obtained in the GaMnAs quantum dot. The magnetic field induced size dependence of effective Landé g-factor is computed. The result shows that (i) the geometrical dependence on sp-d exchange interaction in the GaMn0.02As/Ga0.6Al0.4As quantum dot has great influence with the geometrical confinement, (ii) the monotonic behavior of effective g-factor with the reduction of dot radius is observed, (iii) the Landé factor is more sensitive if the geometrical confinement effect is included and (iv) the value of effective g-factor increases when the spatial confinement is enhanced for all the dot radii. Our results show that the effective Landé g-factor can be manipulated negative to positive values in the GaMn0.02As/Ga0.4Al0.6As quantum dot.

  4. Degree of corneal anesthesia after topical application of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in normal equids.

    PubMed

    Little, Erika; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathy; Little, William; Sithole, Fortune; St Jean, Guy

    2016-10-01

    Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution has been widely used off-label in horses and donkeys, despite lack of data demonstrating efficacy and safety in these species. The objective of this study was to assess anesthetic efficacy of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in horses (n = 5) and donkeys (n = 24) and compare the effects with 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. The baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Donkeys (n = 12) and horses (n = 5) in group A received sterile ophthalmic solutions 0.4% oxybuprocaine with fluorescein (also termed benoxinate with fluorescein, abbreviated as ben + flu) instilled in one eye and 0.9% sterile sodium chloride solution (NaCl) with fluorescein (Na + flu) in the contralateral eye. Donkeys (n = 12) and horses (n = 5) in group B received sterile ophthalmic solutions (ben + flu) in one eye and 0.5% proparacaine with fluorescein (prop + flu) in the contralateral eye. The CTT was measured at 1 and 5 min post-application and at 5-minute intervals until 75 min after treatment. The CTT changes over time differed significantly between oxybuprocaine-treated and control eyes (P < 0.001). The CTT continued to decrease throughout the duration of the study when compared with baseline values. No statistically significant difference in onset, depth, or duration of corneal anesthesia was found between oxybuprocaine and proparacaine treated eyes during the time of the study. Interestingly, horses were shown to have a significantly more sensitive cornea than donkeys (P = 0.002). Oxybuprocaine and proparacaine reduced corneal sensitivity in donkeys and horses. No local irritation was observed with 0.4% oxybuprocaine.

  5. Interpreting observations of edge-on gravitationally unstable accretion flows. The case of G10.6-0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab

    2017-01-01

    Context. Gravitational collapse of molecular cloud or cloud core/clump may lead to the formation of geometrically flattened, rotating accretion flow surrounding the new born star or star cluster. Gravitational instability may occur in such accretion flow when the gas to stellar mass ratio is high (e.g., over 10%). Aims: This paper takes the OB cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4 as an example. We introduce the enclosed gas mass around its central ultra compact (UC) Hii region, address the gravitational stability of the accreting gas, and outline the observed potential signatures of gravitational instability. Methods: The dense gas accretion flow around the central UC Hii region in G10.6-0.4 is geometrically flattened, and is in an approximately edge-on projection. The position-velocity (PV) diagrams of various molecular gas tracers on G10.6-0.4 consistently show asymmetry in the spatial- and the velocity domain. We deduce the morphology of the dense gas accretion flow by modeling velocity distribution of the azimuthally asymmetric gas structures, and by directly de-projecting the PV diagrams. Results: We find that within the 0.3 pc radius, an infall velocity of 1-2 km s-1 may be required to explain the observed PV diagrams. In addition, the velocity distribution traced in the PV diagrams can be interpreted by spiral arm-like structures, which may be connected with exterior infalling gas filaments. We propose that the morphology of dense gas structures appears very similar to the spatially resolved gas structures around the OB cluster-forming region G33.92+0.11 with similar gas mass and size, which is likely, however, to be in an approximately face-on projection. Conclusions: The dense gas accretion flow around G10.6-0.4 appears to be Toomre-unstable, which is consistent with the existence of large-scale spiral arm-like structures, and the formation of localized gas condensations. The proposed approaches for data analyses may be applied to the observations of Class 0/I

  6. An observation of nanotwin lamellae in Cd 0.6Mn 0.4Te crystal by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, M. A.; Azoulay, M.; Collins, W. E.; Burger, A.; Silberman, E.

    1993-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to examine the structure of freshly cleaved Cd 0.6Mn 0.4Te surfaces. The present report complements previous results obtained with X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy which showed the existence of microtwins. The AFM analysis was performed under ambient conditions and yielded nanometer scale resolution images of single twin lamellae that ranged between 20 and 100 nm in width. This is a first observation using AFM of such a substructure, which we interpret as evidence for the presence of nonotwins.

  7. Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2

    DOE PAGES

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2014-10-13

    We report on the magnetic, magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties of Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. The title compound exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H ≥ 40 kOe and a small but non negligible negative MR for H ≤ 30 kOe. The maximum positive MR reaches 13% at H = 80 kOe. The magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes as functions of temperature each show two anomalies: a broad dome-like maximum below 20 K and a relatively sharp peak at higher temperature. As a result, observed behaviors are unique among other binary and mixed lanthanide compounds.

  8. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, 1-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces for July 1976 through June 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Meteorological rocketsonde and satellite radiance data are employed for analyses of a continuing series of high-altitude constant-pressure charts. The automated methods of data processing and the objective analysis procedures are described. Broad-scale analyses of temperature and geopotential height for the Northern Hemisphere 5-, 2-, 1-, and 0.4-mb surfaces are presented for each week of the period July 1976 through June 1977. Brief discussions of the variations of the temperature and height fields throughout the period are also given.

  9. Thermal equation of state of magnesiowüstite (Mg 0.6Fe 0.4)O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kostak, Paul

    2002-02-01

    Volume measurements for magnesiowüstite (Mg 0.6Fe 0.4)O, were carried out up to pressures of 10.1 GPa in the temperature range 300-1273 K, using energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. These data allow reliable determination of the temperature dependence of the bulk modulus and good constraint on the thermal expansitivity at ambient pressure which was previously not known for magnesiowüstite. From these data, thermal and elastic parameters were derived from various approaches based on the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS) and on the relevant thermodynamic relations. The results from three different equations of state are remarkably consistent. With (∂ K T/∂ P) T fixed at 4, we obtained K0=158(2) GPa, ( ∂KT/ ∂T) P=-0.029(3) GPa K -1, ( ∂KT/ ∂T) V=-3.9(±2.3)×10 -3 GPa K -1, and αT=3.45(18)×10 -5+1.14(28)×10 -8T. The K0, (∂ K T/∂ T) P, and (∂ K T/∂ T) V values are in agreement with those of Fei et al. (1992) and are similar to previously determined values for MgO. The zero pressure thermal expansitivity of (Mg 0.6Fe 0.4)O is found to be similar to that for MgO ( Suzuki, 1975). These results indicate that, for the compositional range x=0-0.4 in (Mg 1- xFe x)O, the thermal and elastic properties of magnesiowüstite exhibit a dependence on the iron content that is negligibly small, within uncertainties of the experiments. They are consequently insensitive to the Fe-Mg partitioning between (Mg, Fe)SiO 3 perovskite and magnesiowüstite when applied to compositional models of the lower mantle. With the assumption that (Mg 0.6Fe 0.4)O is a Debye-like solid, a modified equation of heat capacity at constant pressure is proposed and thermodynamic properties of geophysically importance are calculated and tabulated at high temperatures.

  10. High serum lactate level may predict death within 24 hours

    PubMed Central

    Zoubi, Abd Almajid; Kuria, Shiran; Blum, Nava

    2015-01-01

    Background Unexpected death within 24 hours of admission is a real challenge for the clinician in the emergency room. How to diagnose these patients and the right approach to prevent sudden death with 24 hours is still an enigma. The aims of our study were to find the independent factors that may affect the clinical outcome in the first 24 hours of admission to the hospital. Methods We performed a retrospective study defining unexpected death within 24 hours of admission in our Department of Medicine in the last 6 years. We found 43 patients who died within 24 hours of admission, and compared their clinical and biochemical characteristics to 6055 consecutive patients who were admitted in that period of time and did not die within the first 24 hours of admission. The parameters that were used include gender, age, temperature, clinical and laboratory criteria for SIRS, arterial blood lactate, and arterial blood pH. Results Most of the patients who died within 24 hours had sepsis with SIRS. These patients were older (78.6±14.7 vs. 65.2±20.2 years [p<.0001]), had higher lactate levels (8.0±4.8 vs. 2.1±1.8mmol/L [p<.0001]), and lower pH (7.2±0.2 vs. 7.4±0.1 [p<.0001]). Logistic regression analysis found that lactate was the strongest independent parameter to predict death within 24 hours of admission (OR 1.366 [95% CI 1.235–1.512]), followed by old age (OR 1.048 [95% CI 1.048–1.075] and low arterial blood pH (OR 0.007 [CI <0.001–0.147]). When gender was analyzed, pH was not an independent variable in females (only in males). Conclusions The significant independent variable that predicted death within 24 hours of admission was arterial blood lactate level on admission. Older age was also an independent variable; low pH affected only males, but was a less dominant variable. We suggest use of arterial blood lactate level on admission as a bio-marker in patients with suspected sepsis admitted to the hospital for risk assessment and prediction of death within 24

  11. Phonon Raman study in La 1.475Nd 0.4Sr 0.125CuO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimori, S.; Hata, H.; Ogita, N.; Nakamura, F.; Sakita, S.; Kikugawa, N.; Fujita, T.; Udagawa, M.

    1999-03-01

    The totally symmetric phonons in La 1.475Nd 0.4Sr 0.125CuO 4 single crystal have been investigated by Raman scattering in the temperature range between 6 and 445 K. Five phonon modes were observed in the OMT phase. Among them, the energies of three modes at 226 cm -1, 273 cm -1 and 430 cm -1 at 106 K, increase slightly by about 2 cm -1 in the OLT and TLT phases. However, two modes at 120 and 155 cm -1 at 111 K show the remarkable changes in TLT phase. The energy of the former decreases by about 10 cm -1 and the latter splits into two peaks. From the normal mode analysis, this anomaly is understood by the existence of two different interactions of La-Cu and Nd-Cu for the TLT phase. The asymmetric line shape of the apical oxygen vibration has been observed and its line shape is well explained by the interference effect between the sharp phonon peak and broad electron response. Our result concludes the existence of the electron-phonon interaction in La 1.475Nd 0.4Sr 0.125CuO 4.

  12. Localized recombining plasma in G166.0+4.3: A supernova remnant with an unusual morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Hideaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Nobukawa, Kumiko Kawabata; Itou, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    We observed the Galactic mixed-morphology supernova remnant G166.0+4.3 with Suzaku. The X-ray spectrum in the western part of the remnant is well represented by a one-component ionizing plasma model. The spectrum in the northeastern region can be explained by two components. One is an Fe-rich component with electron temperature kT_e = 0.87_{-0.03}^{+0.02}keV. The other is a recombining plasma (RP) component of lighter elements with kTe = 0.46 ± 0.03 keV, initial temperature kTinit = 3 keV (fixed), and ionization parameter n_et = (6.1_{-0.4}^{+0.5}) × 10^{11}cm-3 s. As the formation process of the recombining plasma, both rarefaction and thermal conduction scenarios are considered. The former would not be favored since we found the recombining plasma only in the northeastern region, whereas the latter would explain the origin of the RP. In the latter scenario, an RP is anticipated where blast waves in part of the remnant are in contact with cool dense gas. The emission measure suggests higher ambient gas density in the northeastern region. The morphology of the radio shell and a GeV gamma ray emission also suggest a molecular cloud in the region.

  13. Localized recombining plasma in G166.0+4.3: A supernova remnant with an unusual morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Hideaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Nobukawa, Kumiko Kawabata; Itou, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    We observed the Galactic mixed-morphology supernova remnant G166.0+4.3 with Suzaku. The X-ray spectrum in the western part of the remnant is well represented by a one-component ionizing plasma model. The spectrum in the northeastern region can be explained by two components. One is an Fe-rich component with electron temperature kT_e = 0.87_{-0.03}^{+0.02}keV. The other is a recombining plasma (RP) component of lighter elements with kTe = 0.46 ± 0.03 keV, initial temperature kTinit = 3 keV (fixed), and ionization parameter n_et = (6.1_{-0.4}^{+0.5}) × 10^{11}cm-3 s. As the formation process of the recombining plasma, both rarefaction and thermal conduction scenarios are considered. The former would not be favored since we found the recombining plasma only in the northeastern region, whereas the latter would explain the origin of the RP. In the latter scenario, an RP is anticipated where blast waves in part of the remnant are in contact with cool dense gas. The emission measure suggests higher ambient gas density in the northeastern region. The morphology of the radio shell and a GeV gamma ray emission also suggest a molecular cloud in the region.

  14. Electron spin resonance studies of Bi0.6Ca(0.4-x)SrxMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, Joji; Singh, R.

    2010-05-01

    The temperature dependent electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out on Bi0.6Ca(0.4-x)SrxMnO3 (0≤x≤0.4). The variation of charge ordering temperature, TCO, and Néel temperature, TN, are obtained from plots of double integrated (DI) intensity and linewidth (ΔH) of the ESR signal as a function of temperature. In the temperature range T>TCO, the sample is in the paramagnetic phase and the magnetic interactions are dominated by ferromagnetic (FM) spin correlations. In the range TN

  15. Unexpected superconductivity at nanoscale junctions made on the topological crystalline insulator Pb0.6Sn0.4Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shekhar; Aggarwal, Leena; Roychowdhury, Subhajit; Aslam, Mohammad; Gayen, Sirshendu; Biswas, Kanishka; Sheet, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    Discovery of exotic phases of matter from the topologically non-trivial systems not only makes the research on topological materials more interesting but also enriches our understanding of the fascinating physics of such materials. Pb0.6Sn0.4Te was recently shown to be a topological crystalline insulator. Here, we show that by forming a mesoscopic point-contact using a normal non-superconducting elemental metal on the surface of Pb0.6Sn0.4Te, a superconducting phase is created locally in a confined region under the point-contact. This happens when the bulk of the sample remains to be non-superconducting, and the superconducting phase emerges as a nano-droplet under the point-contact. The superconducting phase shows a high transition temperature Tc that varies for different point-contacts and falls in a range between 3.7 K and 6.5 K. Therefore, this Letter presents the discovery of a superconducting phase on the surface of a topological crystalline insulator, and the discovery is expected to shed light on the mechanism of induced superconductivity in topologically non-trivial systems in general.

  16. Martian atmosphere modeling between 0.4 and 3.5 microns - Comparison of theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Fischbein, W. L.; Hilgeman, T.; Smith, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    A model of the lower atmosphere of Mars has been constructed that combines aerosol absorption and scattering with a line-by-line analysis of CO2 and H2O in a multilayer radiative transfer program. Aerosol composition previously inferred from the NASA Lear Jet Observatory data was used to measure the optical complex indices of refraction of appropriate Martian analogs from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. The aerosol vertical particle density scale was deduced using the Viking camera observations of the soil and sky intensities between 0.4 and 1.0 microns in comparison with those modeled using a multilayer Mie scattering program. A comparison of observed Mars atmospheric absorptions was made with those obtained using Lorentz, Voigt, and Doppler line profiles in a multilayer model of the CO2 and H2O. The Voigt line profile of CO2 absorption at approximately 4976 kaysers was then combined in a multilayer aerosol model of the Martian atmosphere. An evaluation of the effect on the line shape was made using several aerosol loadings.

  17. Magnetic and structural transitions in La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2 single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Jiaqiang; Nandi, S.; Saparov, Bayrammurad I.; ...

    2015-01-05

    La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2 single crystals have been grown out of an NaAs flux in an alumina crucible and characterized by measuring magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, specific heat, as well as single-crystal x-ray and neutron diffraction. La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2 single crystals show a structural phase transition from a high-temperature tetragonal phase to a low-temperature orthorhombic phase at Ts=125 K. This structural transition is accompanied by an anomaly in the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity, anisotropic magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat. Concomitant with the structural phase transition, the Fe moments order along the a direction with an ordered moment of 0.7(1) μB at T=5 K. Finally,more » the low-temperature stripe antiferromagnetic structure is the same as that in other AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds. La0.5₋xNa0.5+xFe2As2 provides a material platform for the study of iron-based superconductors where the electron-hole asymmetry could be studied by simply varying the La/Na ratio.« less

  18. Critical behavior in the La0.6Ca0.4-xSrxMnO3 nano-particle compounds for x = 0, 0.05 and 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharsallah, H.; Bejar, M.; Dhahri, E.; Hlil, E. K.

    2017-10-01

    The critical behavior associated with the magnetic phase transition has been investigated by magnetization isotherms in La0.6Ca0.4-xSrxMnO3 nano-particle compounds for x = 0 (S0C1), 0.05 (SC. 4-4) and 0.4 (S1C0). The critical exponents are estimated by various techniques, such as the Modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher plot and critical isotherm techniques. Thus, the average values of the critical exponent and the critical temperature obtained by the different methods are (βmoy = 0.47 ;γmoy = 1.02 ; δmoy = 3.00 ;TC = 230.6 K) for S0C1, (βmoy = 0.47 ;γmoy = 1.00 ;δmoy = 3.21 ;TC = 361.9 K) for S1C0, and (βmoy = 0.26 ;γmoy = 1.02 ;δmoy = 4.92 ;TC = 286.4 K) for SC. 4-4. These values are in good agreement with those given by the theoretical models: Mean-Field model (β = 0.5, γ = 1 and δ = 3) for S0C1 and S1C0 compounds; and Tricritical mean-Field model (β = 0.25, γ = 1 and δ = 5) for SC. 4-4 one. The reliability of the critical exponent values was confirmed by the Widom scaling relation and the universal scaling hypothesis.

  19. Duty Hour Reporting: Conflicting Values in Professionalism

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, John M.; Loo, Lawrence K.; Giang, Dan W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Duty hour limits challenge professional values, sometimes forcing residents to choose between patient care and regulatory compliance. This may affect truthfulness in duty hour reporting. Objective We assessed residents' reasons for falsifying duty hour reports. Methods We surveyed residents in 1 sponsoring institution to explore the reasons for noncompliance, frequency of violations, falsification of reports, and the residents' awareness of the option to extend hours to care for a single patient. The analysis used descriptive statistics. Linear regression was used to explore falsification of duty hour reports by year of training. Results The response rate was 88% (572 of 650). Primary reasons for duty hour violations were number of patients (19%) and individual patient acuity/complexity (19%). Junior residents were significantly more likely to falsify duty hours (R = −0.966). Of 124 residents who acknowledged falsification, 51 (41%) identified the primary reason as concern that the program will be in jeopardy of violating the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour limits followed by fear of punishment (34, 27%). This accounted for more than two-thirds of the primary reasons for falsification. Conclusions Residents' falsification of duty hour data appears to be motivated by concerns about adverse actions from the ACGME, and fear they might be punished. To foster professionalism, we recommend that sponsoring institutions educate residents about professionalism in duty hour reporting. The ACGME should also convey the message that duty hour limits be applied in a no-blame systems-based approach, and allow junior residents to extend duty hours for the care of individual patients. PMID:26457145

  20. Duty Hour Reporting: Conflicting Values in Professionalism.

    PubMed

    Byrne, John M; Loo, Lawrence K; Giang, Dan W

    2015-09-01

    Duty hour limits challenge professional values, sometimes forcing residents to choose between patient care and regulatory compliance. This may affect truthfulness in duty hour reporting. We assessed residents' reasons for falsifying duty hour reports. We surveyed residents in 1 sponsoring institution to explore the reasons for noncompliance, frequency of violations, falsification of reports, and the residents' awareness of the option to extend hours to care for a single patient. The analysis used descriptive statistics. Linear regression was used to explore falsification of duty hour reports by year of training. The response rate was 88% (572 of 650). Primary reasons for duty hour violations were number of patients (19%) and individual patient acuity/complexity (19%). Junior residents were significantly more likely to falsify duty hours (R = -0.966). Of 124 residents who acknowledged falsification, 51 (41%) identified the primary reason as concern that the program will be in jeopardy of violating the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour limits followed by fear of punishment (34, 27%). This accounted for more than two-thirds of the primary reasons for falsification. Residents' falsification of duty hour data appears to be motivated by concerns about adverse actions from the ACGME, and fear they might be punished. To foster professionalism, we recommend that sponsoring institutions educate residents about professionalism in duty hour reporting. The ACGME should also convey the message that duty hour limits be applied in a no-blame systems-based approach, and allow junior residents to extend duty hours for the care of individual patients.

  1. Outcome after stroke thrombolysis in patients >80 years treated within 3 hours vs >3-4.5 hours.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Niaz; Lees, Kennedy R; Ringleb, Peter A; Bladin, Christopher; Collas, David; Toni, Danilo; Ford, Gary A

    2017-10-10

    To determine outcomes and risks of IV thrombolysis (IVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) >80 years of age within 3 hours compared to >3 to 4.5 hours recorded in the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke (SITS) International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry. A total of 14,240 (year 2003-2015) patients >80 years of age with AIS were treated with IVT ≤4.5 hours of stroke onset (3,558 in >3-4.5 hours). Of these, 8,658 (2,157 in >3-4.5 hours) were treated otherwise according to the European Summary of Product Characteristics (EU SmPC) criteria for alteplase. Outcomes were 3-month functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2), mortality, and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH)/SITS. Results were compared between the groups treated in >3 to 4.5 and ≤3 hours. Median age was 84 years; 61% were female in both groups. Median NIH Stroke Scale score was 12 vs 14 in the >3- to 4.5- and ≤3-hour group, respectively. Three-month functional independence was 34% vs 35% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-0.89, p < 0.001); mortality was 31% vs 32% (aOR 1.10, 95% CI 0.97-1.25, p = 0.13); and SICH/SITS was 2.7% vs 1.6% (aOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.25-2.35, p = 0.001). In EU SmPC-compliant patients, 3-month functional independence was 36 vs 37% (aOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92, p = 0.002), mortality was 29% vs 29.6% (aOR 1.10, 95% CI 0.95-1.28, p = 0.20), and SICH/SITS was 2.7% vs 1.6% (aOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.12-2.34, p = 0.01). In this observational study, unselected patients >80 years of age treated with IVT after 3 hours vs earlier had a slightly higher rate of SICH and similar unadjusted functional outcome but poorer adjusted outcome. The absolute difference between the treatment groups is small, and elderly patients should not be denied IVT in the later time window solely because of age without other contraindications. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Liquid hot NAGMA cooled to 0.4 K: benchmark thermochemistry of a gas-phase peptide.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Christopher M; Moore, Kevin B; Raston, Paul L; Agarwal, Jay; Moody, Grant H; Shirley, Caitlyne C; Schaefer, Henry F; Douberly, Gary E

    2014-10-16

    Vibrational spectroscopy and helium nanodroplet isolation are used to determine the gas-phase thermochemistry for isomerization between conformations of the model dipeptide, N-acetylglycine methylamide (NAGMA). A two-stage oven source is implemented to produce a gas-phase equilibrium distribution of NAGMA conformers, which is preserved when individual molecules are captured and cooled to 0.4 K by He nanodroplets. With polarization spectroscopy, the IR spectrum in the NH stretch region is assigned to a mixture of two conformers having intramolecular hydrogen bonds composed of either five- or seven-membered rings, C5 and C7, respectively. The C5 to C7 interconversion enthalpy and entropy, obtained from a van't Hoff analysis, are -4.52 ± 0.12 kJ/mol and -12.4 ± 0.2 J/(mol · K), respectively. The experimental thermochemistry is compared to high-level electronic structure theory computations.

  3. Fabrication and transport properties of Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 multifilamentary superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chao; Ma, Yanwei; Zhang, Xianping; Wang, Dongliang; Wang, Chunlei; Lin, He; Zhang, Qianjun

    2013-02-01

    Seven-core Ag/Fe sheathed Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Sr-122) superconducting wires were produced by the ex situ powder-in-tube method. The relationship between the cold-work deformation process and the superconducting properties of the wires was systematically studied. It was found that flat rolling can efficiently increase the mass density of the superconducting core, thus, significantly improving the transport critical current density (Jc) of the as-drawn wires. The transport Jc of the best sample achieved 21.1 kA/cm2 at 4.2 K in self field, and showed very weak magnetic field dependence at high fields. Our result suggested a promising future of multifilamentary iron-based superconductors in practical applications.

  4. Persistence and dissipation kinetics of chlorantraniliprole 0.4G in the soil of tropical sugarcane ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ramasubramanian, T; Paramasivam, M; Jayanthi, R; Nirmala, R

    2016-01-01

    Chlorantraniliprole 0.4 % GR has been in use for managing early shoot borer and top borer of sugarcane. Persistence and dissipation kinetics of granular formulation of chlorantraniliprole were studied in the soil of tropical sugarcane ecosystem by employing simple and sensitive analytical method. Limit of quantification of the method was 0.01 mg/kg and the recovery of chlorantraniliprole was in the range of 92.3-99.7 % with RSD of 1.14-3.0 %. The initial deposit of chlorantraniliprole in the soil was 0.513 and 1.031 mg/kg for the recommended (75 g a.i./ha) and double the recommended (150 g a.i./ha) doses, respectively. The residues were quantified up to 30 days after treatment irrespective of the doses applied. Half-life (t 1/2) was 6.60 and 6.73 days, respectively, for recommended and double the recommended doses of chlorantraniliprole.

  5. Evidence for orbital order and its relation to superconductivity in FeSe0.4Te0.6.

    PubMed

    Singh, Udai R; White, Seth C; Schmaus, Stefan; Tsurkan, Vladimir; Loidl, Alois; Deisenhofer, Joachim; Wahl, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of nematic electronic states accompanied by a structural phase transition is a recurring theme in many correlated electron materials, including the high-temperature copper oxide- and iron-based superconductors. We provide evidence for nematic electronic states in the iron-chalcogenide superconductor FeSe0.4Te0.6 from quasi-particle scattering detected in spectroscopic maps. The symmetry-breaking states persist above T c into the normal state. We interpret the scattering patterns by comparison with quasi-particle interference patterns obtained from a tight-binding model, accounting for orbital ordering. The relation to superconductivity and the influence on the coherence length are discussed.

  6. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La0.6Ca0.4-xCexMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, T. A.; Lim, S. H.; Kim, C. M.; Jung, M. H.; Ho, T. O.; Tho, P. T.; Phan, T. L.; Yu, S. C.

    2017-09-01

    La0.6Ca0.4-xCexMnO3 (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) compounds are fabricated by a solid-state reaction, and their structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties are investigated. The Curie temperature at which a ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition occurs decreases from 260 to 221 K as x increases from 0 to 0.09. The saturation magnetization also decreases with the increase of x. The experimental results for the magnetization with respect to the temperature and magnetic field are analyzed using the Banerjee criterion, revealing that all the samples undergo the second-order magnetic phase transition. The maximum magnetic entropy change measured at a magnetic-field span of 50 kOe, which occurs near the Curie temperature, slightly increases from 6.31 to 7.62 J/kg K as x increases from 0 to 0.09.

  7. Dielectric and magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline Cu0.4Co0.6Fe2O4 ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadoun, Priya; Sharma, Jyoti; Prashant, B. L.; Dolia, S. N.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Saxena, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    The mixed copper cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (Cu0.4Co0.6Fe2O4) have been synthesized by sol-gel auto combustion route with aqueous metal nitrates and citric acid as the precursor. The crystal structure has been analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) method. XRD reveals the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used for morphological studies. The dielectric measurements at room temperature show the decrease in dielectric constant with increasing frequency which is attributed to Maxwell Wagner model and conduction mechanism in ferrites.The magnetic measurements show ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature and large coercivity is observed on cooling down the temperature to 20K.

  8. Performance tests of an AGIPD 0.4 assembly at the beamline P10 of PETRA III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Marras, A.; Klyuev, A.; Westermeier, F.; Trunk, U.; Graafsma, H.

    2013-06-01

    The Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) is a novel detector system, currently under development by a collaboration of DESY, the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, the University of Hamburg and the University of Bonn, and is primarily designed for use at the European XFEL. To verify key features of this detector, an AGIPD 0.4 test chip assembly was tested at the P10 beamline of the PETRA III synchrotron at DESY. The test chip successfully imaged both the direct synchrotron beam and single 7.05 keV photons at the same time, demonstrating the large dynamic range required for XFEL experiments. X-ray scattering measurements from a test sample agree with standard measurements and show the chip's capability of observing dynamics at the microsecond time scale.

  9. Intrinsic superconducting transport properties of ultra-thin Fe1+ y Te0.6Se0.4 microbridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, HanCong; Lv, YangYang; Lu, DaChuan; Yang, ZhiBao; Zhou, XianJing; Hao, LuYao; Xing, XiangZhuo; Zou, Wei; Li, Jun; Shi, ZhiXiang; Xu, WeiWei; Wang, HuaBing; Wu, PeiHeng

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the superconducting properties of Fe1+ y Te0.6Se0.4 single-crystalline microbridges with a width of 4 μm and thicknesses ranging from 20.8 to 136.2 nm. The temperature-dependent in-plane resistance of the bridges exhibited a type of metal-insulator transition in the normal state. The critical current density ( J c) of the microbridge with a thickness of 136.2 nm was 82.3 kA/cm2 at 3K and reached 105 kA/cm2 after extrapolation to T = 0 K. The current versus voltage characteristics of the microbridges showed a Josephson-like behavior with an obvious hysteresis. These results demonstrate the potential application of ultra-thin Fe-based microbridges in superconducting electronic devices such as bolometric detectors.

  10. Use of labor economic theory to examine hours worked by male and female pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Mott, D A

    2001-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a theoretically derived model of hours worked by pharmacists and estimate the model separately for male and female pharmacists. A systematic random sample of 1,600 pharmacists from four states was mailed a survey asking about current and past employment information. Two dependent variables were studied: weekly hours worked and annual hours worked. Independent variables were categorized as economic variables (hourly wage rate, other income, total debt) and demographic variables (employment position, age, degree earned, marital status, number of children at home). A two equation multiple regression model was estimated with two-stage least squares regression. A total of 541 pharmacists responded to the survey and data from 442 of the respondents were used in the analysis. Hourly wage rates were negatively associated with weekly hours worked for males. Other income and total debt were significantly negatively and positively associated, respectively, with annual hours worked by female pharmacists. The number of young children at home significantly reduced weekly and annual hours worked by female pharmacists. Female pharmacists earning a Pharm.D. degree worked significantly more hours weekly and annually. Age was significantly negatively associated with male pharmacists weekly and annual hours worked. Economic variables had a relatively small effect on hours worked by male and female pharmacists suggesting that increased wage rates may not increase hours worked. Strategies to increase hours worked by females likely should focus on benefits to help females handle childcare issues.

  11. Parallel imaging of head with a dedicated multi-coil on a 0.4T open MRI.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Masahiro; Shimoda, Takahide; Nonaka, Masayuki; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Shinji; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Miki; Takahashi, Tetsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Parallel imaging is widely used for cylindrical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); however, few studies apply parallel imaging to open MRI. We previously developed a parallel method called "RAPID" (rapid acquisition through a parallel imaging design) for imaging the heart on a 0.7T open MRI apparatus, and we have now developed a RAPID head coil and shading correction algorithm for imaging the brain with a 0.4T open MRI apparatus. Images acquired with RAPID were compared with those acquired using a conventional quadrature-detection (QD) head coil. The images were acquired using a dedicated 4-channel RF receiving coil consisting of a solenoid coil and surface coils. For MRI of the brain, we developed 2 methods to acquire the necessary calibration data: a pre-scan method that acquires the calibration data before the main scans and a self-calibration method that acquires the calibration data and imaging data simultaneously. We also modified the algorithm for calculating the shading distribution so that it only uses acquired image data and then corrects the shading. RAPID was applied for T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR), time-of-flight (TOF), and diffusion-weighted echo-planar (DW-EPI) imaging. The RAPID images had no visible unfolded artifacts or motion artifacts. Images with the same contrast as that with a conventional QD coil were acquired using the RAPID coil and shading correction. These preliminary results show that RAPID can be applied to imaging of the head using a 0.4T open MRI apparatus.

  12. THE INTERSTELLAR BUBBLES OF G38.9-0.4 AND THE IMPACT OF STELLAR FEEDBACK ON STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kerton, Charles R.; Arvidsson, Kim E-mail: chipk@uwyo.edu E-mail: karvidsson@adlerplanetarium.org

    2013-06-10

    We present a study of the star formation (SF) region G38.9-0.4 using publicly available multiwavelength Galactic plane surveys from ground- and space-based observatories. This region is composed of four bright mid-IR bubbles and numerous infrared dark clouds. Two bubbles, N 74 and N 75, each host a star cluster anchored by a single O9.5V star. We identified 162 young stellar objects (YSOs) and classify 54 as stage I, 7 as stage II, 6 as stage III, and 32 as ambiguous. We do not detect the classical signposts of triggered SF, i.e., star-forming pillars or YSOs embedded within bubble rims. We conclude that feedback-triggered SF has not occurred in G38.9-0.4. The YSOs are preferentially coincident with infrared dark clouds. This leads to a strong correlation between areal YSO mass surface density and gas mass surface density with a power law slope near 1.3, which closely matches the Schmidt-Kennicutt Law. The correlation is similar inside and outside the bubbles and may mean that the SF efficiency is neither enhanced nor suppressed in regions potentially influenced by stellar feedback. This suggests that gas density, regardless of how it is collected, is a more important driver of SF than stellar feedback. Larger studies should be able to quantify the fraction of all SF that is feedback-triggered by determining the fraction SF, feedback-compressed gas surrounding H II regions relative to that already present in molecular clouds.

  13. Objective vs. Subjective Evaluation of Cognitive Performance During 0.4-MPa Dives Breathing Air or Nitrox.

    PubMed

    Germonpré, Peter; Balestra, Costantino; Hemelryck, Walter; Buzzacott, Peter; Lafère, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    Divers try to limit risks associated with their sport, for instance by breathing enriched air nitrox (EANx) instead of air. This double blinded, randomized trial was designed to see if the use of EANx could effectively improve cognitive performance while diving. Eight volunteers performed two no-decompression dry dives breathing air or EANx for 20 min at 0.4 MPa. Cognitive functions were assessed with a computerized test battery, including MathProc and Ptrail. Measurements were taken before the dive, upon arrival and after 15 min at depth, upon surfacing, and at 30 min postdive. After each dive subjects were asked to identify the gas they had just breathed. Identification of the breathing gas was not possible on subjective assessment alone, while cognitive assessments showed significantly better performance while breathing EANx. Before the dives, breathing air, mean time to complete the task was 1795 ms for MathProc and 1905 ms for Ptrail. When arriving at depth MathProc took 1616 ms on air and 1523 ms on EANx, and Ptrail took 1318 ms on air and and 1356 ms on EANx, followed 15 min later by significant performance inhibition while breathing air during the ascent and the postdive phase, supporting the concept of late dive/postdive impairment. The results suggest that EANx could protect against decreased neuro-cognitive performance induced by inert gas narcosis. It was not possible for blinded divers to identify which gas they were breathing and differences in postdive fatigue between air and EANx diving deserve further investigation.Germonpré P, Balestra C, Hemelryck W, Buzzacott P, Lafère P. Objective vs. subjective evaluation of cognitive performance during 0.4-MPa dives breathing air or nitrox. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):469-475.

  14. Effects of synthetic colloids on oxidative stress and inflammatory response in hemorrhagic shock: comparison of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5, and succinylated gelatin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study compared the effects of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5, and succinylated gelatin on oxidative stress and the inflammatory response in a rodent hemorrhagic shock model. Methods Sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized adult male Wistar rats (200 g to 220 g) were subjected to a severe volume-controlled hemorrhage using arterial blood withdrawal (30 mL/kg to 33 mL/kg) and resuscitated with a colloid solution at the same volume as blood withdrawal (hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5, or succinylated gelatin). Arterial blood gas parameters were monitored. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the liver, lungs, intestine, and brain were measured two hours after resuscitation. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 in the intestine were also measured. Results Infusions of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, but not hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 or succinylated gelatin, significantly reduced MDA levels and MPO activity in the liver, intestine, lungs and brain, and it also inhibited the production of TNF-α in the intestine two hours after resuscitation. However, no significant difference between hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 and succinylated gelatin was observed. Conclusions Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, but not hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 or succinylated gelatin, treatment after hemorrhagic shock ameliorated oxidative stress and the inflammatory response in this rat model. No significant differences were observed after hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 or succinylated gelatin administration at doses of approximately 33 mL/kg. PMID:23849347

  15. Room temperature charge-ordered phase in Gd0.6Ca0.4MnO3 and Sm0.6Ca0.4MnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paturi, P.; Tikkanen, J.; Huhtinen, H.

    2017-06-01

    We have grown rarely studied Gd1-x Cax MnO3 (GCMO) and Sm1-xCax MnO3 (SCMO) thin films on SrTiO3 (1 0 0) single crystal substrates with pulsed laser deposition in order to optimize the magnetic and structural properties for e.g. memristor-like applications. To enable the Mott insulator to metal transition with practicable external stimulus, the previously unstudied x = 0.4 doping was chosen. The deposition temperature was 500 °C or 700 °C and the oxygen post-annealing was done in situ at 500 °C or 700 °C. All the films were fully textured and (0 b 0) oriented, but the ones made at 700 °C had better crystalline quality. For the same pulse amounts, GCMO films were clearly thinner than the SCMO films. Magnetically, all the films showed a charge/orbital order phase transition around 360 K and a ferrimagnetic transition around 70 K. The saturation magnetization at 10 K was highest in the films deposited and oxygen annealed at 700 °C. The samples deposited and annealed at 500 °C contained an unknown ferromagnetic impurity, which was invisible in structural characterization and not observed in the other samples. The samples made at 700 °C had a hysteretic I (V) -curves typical for materials used in memristors.

  16. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  17. 16 CFR 0.3 - Hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hours. 0.3 Section 0.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.3 Hours. Principal and field offices are open on each business day from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. ...

  18. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  19. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  20. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  1. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  2. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  3. 47 CFR 0.403 - Office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Office hours. 0.403 Section 0.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General Information General § 0.403 Office hours. The main offices of the Commission are open from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Monday...

  4. Impacts of extended working hours in logging

    Treesearch

    Dana Mitchell; Tom Gallagher

    2008-01-01

    Last year at the 2007 AIM in Minneapolis, MN, the authors presented the human factors impacts to consider when implementing extended working hours in the logging industry. In a continuation of this project, we have researched existing literature to identify possible actions that logging business owners can take to reduce the impact of extended working hours on their...

  5. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  6. 47 CFR 0.403 - Office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Office hours. 0.403 Section 0.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General Information General § 0.403 Office hours. The main offices of the Commission are open from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Monday...

  7. 47 CFR 0.403 - Office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Office hours. 0.403 Section 0.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General Information General § 0.403 Office hours. The main offices of the Commission are open from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Monday...

  8. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  9. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  10. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  11. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  12. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  13. Design hourly volume from road users' perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.C.

    1986-07-01

    Highway designers have raised some serious questions in the past about the validity of the conventional DHV approach. One criticism is that it focuses on facility utilization rather than being roadway-user oriented. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the traditional 30th highest hourly approach from the road users' perspective. The road use type, or road users' perspective is characterized in this note by variables such as trip purpose and trip length distribution. More specifically, the objectives of the analysis presented in this note are: (1) To investigate the effect of road use type on the DHV considerations; and (2) to suggest a range of highest hourly volumes suitable for design purpose from the point of view of the total number of users experiencing traffic congestion rather than a number of hours of facility congestion, such as the 30th highest hour approach permitting a total of 30 hours of facility congestion for all types of road users.

  14. Layered-to-Rock-Salt Transformation in Desodiated NaxCrO2 (x 0.4)

    DOE PAGES

    Bo, Shou-Hang; Li, Xin; Toumar, Alexandra J.; ...

    2016-02-01

    O3 layered sodium transition metal oxides (i.e., NaMO2, M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) are a promising class of cathode materials for Na-ion battery applications. These materials, however, all suffer from severe capacity decay when the extraction of Na exceeds certain capacity limits. Understanding the causes of this capacity decay is critical to unlocking the potential of these materials for battery applications. In this work, we investigate the structural origins of capacity decay for one of the compounds in this class, NaCrO2. The (de)sodiation processes of NaCrO2 were studied both in situ and ex situ through X-raymore » and electron diffraction measurements. We demonstrate that NaxCrO2 (0 < x < 1) remains in the layered structural framework without Cr migration up to a composition of Na0.4CrO2. Further removal of Na beyond this composition triggers a layered-to-rock-salt transformation, which converts P'3-Na0.4CrO2 into the rock-salt CrO2 phase. This structural transformation proceeds via the formation of an intermediate O3 NaδCrO2 phase that contains Cr in both Na and Cr slabs and shares very similar lattice dimensions with those of rock-salt CrO2. It is intriguing to note that intercalation of alkaline ions (i.e., Na+ and Li+ ) into the rock-salt CrO2 and O3 NaδCrO 2 structures is actually possible, albeit in a limited amount (~0.2 per formula unit). When these results were analyzed under the context of electrochemistry data, it was apparent that preventing the layered-to-rock-salt transformation is crucial to improve the cyclability of NaCrO2. Possible strategies for mitigating this detrimental phase transition are proposed.« less

  15. SPECTROSCOPIC SIGNATURE OF ALFVEN WAVES DAMPING IN A POLAR CORONAL HOLE UP TO 0.4 SOLAR RADII

    SciTech Connect

    Bemporad, A.; Abbo, L.

    2012-06-01

    Between 2009 February 24 and 25, the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) spectrometer on board the Hinode spacecraft performed special 'sit and stare' observations above the south polar coronal hole continuously over more than 22 hr. Spectra were acquired with the 1'' slit placed off-limb covering altitudes up to 0.48 R{sub Sun} (3.34 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} Mm) above the Sun surface, in order to study with EIS the non-thermal spectral line broadenings. Spectral lines such as Fe XII {lambda}186.88, Fe XII {lambda}193.51, Fe XII {lambda}195.12, and Fe XIII {lambda}202.04 are observed with good statistics up to high altitudes and they have been analyzed in this study. Results show that the FWHM of the Fe XII {lambda}195.12 line increases up to {approx_equal} 0.14 R{sub Sun }, then decreases higher up. EIS stray light has been estimated and removed. Derived electron density and non-thermal velocity profiles have been used to estimate the total energy flux transported by Alfven waves off-limb in the polar coronal hole up to {approx_equal} 0.4 R{sub Sun }. The computed Alfven wave energy flux density f{sub w} progressively decays with altitude from f{sub w} {approx_equal} 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at 0.03 R{sub Sun} down to f{sub w} {approx_equal} 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at 0.4 R{sub Sun }, with an average energy decay rate of {Delta}f{sub w} /{Delta}h {approx_equal} -4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} erg cm{sup -1}. Hence, this result suggests energy deposition by Alfven waves in a polar coronal hole, thus providing a significant source for coronal heating.

  16. The association of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion.

    PubMed

    Land, Mary-Anne; Webster, Jacqui; Christoforou, Anthea; Johnson, Claire; Trevena, Helen; Hodgins, Frances; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Barzi, Federica; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Jeffery, Paul; Nowson, Caryl; Neal, Bruce

    2014-04-04

    Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs. A single 24-hour urine sample and a questionnaire describing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was obtained from 306 randomly selected participants and 113 volunteers from a regional town in Australia. Mean age of all participants was 55 years (range 20-88), 55% were women and mean 24-hour urinary salt excretion was 8.8(3.6) g/d. There was no difference in salt excretion between the randomly selected and volunteer sample. Virtually all participants (95%) identified that a diet high in salt can cause serious health problems with the majority of participants (81%) linking a high salt diet to raised blood pressure. There was no difference in salt excretion between those who did 8.7(2.1) g/d and did not 7.5(3.3) g/d identify that a diet high in salt causes high blood pressure (p=0.1). Nor was there a difference between individuals who believed they consumed "too much" 8.9(3.3) g/d "just the right amount" 8.4(2.6) g/d or "too little salt" 9.1(3.7) g/d (p=0.2). Likewise, individuals who indicated that lowering their salt intake was important 8.5(2.9) g/d vs. not important 8.8(2.4) g/d did not have different consumption levels (p=0.4). The absence of a clear association between knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt and actual salt consumption suggests that interventions focused on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours alone may be of limited efficacy.

  17. The association of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs. Methods A single 24-hour urine sample and a questionnaire describing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was obtained from 306 randomly selected participants and 113 volunteers from a regional town in Australia. Results Mean age of all participants was 55 years (range 20–88), 55% were women and mean 24-hour urinary salt excretion was 8.8(3.6) g/d. There was no difference in salt excretion between the randomly selected and volunteer sample. Virtually all participants (95%) identified that a diet high in salt can cause serious health problems with the majority of participants (81%) linking a high salt diet to raised blood pressure. There was no difference in salt excretion between those who did 8.7(2.1) g/d and did not 7.5(3.3) g/d identify that a diet high in salt causes high blood pressure (p = 0.1). Nor was there a difference between individuals who believed they consumed “too much” 8.9(3.3) g/d “just the right amount” 8.4(2.6) g/d or “too little salt” 9.1(3.7) g/d (p = 0.2). Likewise, individuals who indicated that lowering their salt intake was important 8.5(2.9) g/d vs. not important 8.8(2.4) g/d did not have different consumption levels (p = 0.4). Conclusion The absence of a clear association between knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt and actual salt consumption suggests that interventions focused on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours alone may be of limited efficacy. PMID:24708561

  18. Visible and near-infrared (0.4-2.5 μm) reflectance spectra of playa evaporite minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, James K.

    1991-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR; 0.4–2.4 μm) reflectance spectra were recorded for 35 saline minerals that represent the wide range of mineral and brine chemical compositions found in playa evaporite settings. The spectra show that many of the saline minerals exhibit diagnostic near-infrared absorption bands, chiefly attributable to vibrations of hydrogen-bonded structural water molecules. VNIR reflectance spectra can be used to detect minor hydrate phases present in mixtures dominated by anhydrous halite or thenardite, and therefore will be useful in combination with X ray diffraction data for characterizing natural saline mineral assemblages. In addition, VNIR reflectance spectra are sensitive to differences in sample hydration state and should facilitate in situ studies of minerals that occur as fragile, transitory dehydration products in natural salt crusts. The use of spectral reflectance measurements in playa studies should aid in mapping evaporite mineral distributions and may provide insight into the geochemical and hydrological controls on playa mineral and brine development.

  19. Unconventional superconductivity in Ba(0.6)K(0.4)Fe2As2 from inelastic neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Christianson, A D; Goremychkin, E A; Osborn, R; Rosenkranz, S; Lumsden, M D; Malliakas, C D; Todorov, I S; Claus, H; Chung, D Y; Kanatzidis, M G; Bewley, R I; Guidi, T

    2008-12-18

    A new family of superconductors containing layers of iron arsenide has attracted considerable interest because of their high transition temperatures (T(c)), some of which are >50 K, and because of similarities with the high-T(c) copper oxide superconductors. In both the iron arsenides and the copper oxides, superconductivity arises when an antiferromagnetically ordered phase has been suppressed by chemical doping. A universal feature of the copper oxide superconductors is the existence of a resonant magnetic excitation, localized in both energy and wavevector, within the superconducting phase. This resonance, which has also been observed in several heavy-fermion superconductors, is predicted to occur when the sign of the superconducting energy gap takes opposite values on different parts of the Fermi surface, an unusual gap symmetry which implies that the electron pairing interaction is repulsive at short range. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy shows no evidence of gap anisotropy in the iron arsenides, but such measurements are insensitive to the phase of the gap on separate parts of the Fermi surface. Here we report inelastic neutron scattering observations of a magnetic resonance below T(c) in Ba(0.6)K(0.4)Fe(2)As(2), a phase-sensitive measurement demonstrating that the superconducting energy gap has unconventional symmetry in the iron arsenide superconductors.

  20. Phobos spectral clustering: first results using the MRO-CRISM 0.4-2.5 micron dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; Roush, T. L.; Marzo, G. A.; Simioni, E.

    2016-12-01

    Whether Phobos is a captured asteroid or it formed in situ around Mars, is still an outstanding question within the scientific community. The proposed Japanese Mars Moon eXploration (MMX) sample return mission has the chief scientific objective to solve this conundrum, reaching Phobos in early 2020s and returning Phobos samples to Earth few years later. Nonetheless, well before surface samples are returned to Earth, there are important spectral datasets that can be mined in order to constrain Phobos' surface properties and address implications regarding Phobos' origin. One of these is the MRO-CRISM multispectral observations of Phobos. The MRO-CRISM visible and infrared observations (0.4-2.5 micron) are here corrected for incidence and emission angles of the observation. Unlike previous studies of the MRO-CRISM data that selected specific regions for analyses, we apply a statistical technique that identifies different clusters based on a K-means partitioning algorithm. Selecting specific wavelength ranges of Phobos' reflectance spectra permits identification of possible mineralogical compounds and the spatial distribution of these on the surface of Phobos. This work paves the way to a deeper analysis of the available dataset regarding Phobos, potentially identifying regions of interest on the surface of Phobos that may warrant more detailed investigation by the MXX mission as potential sampling areas. Acknowledgments: M. Pajola was supported for this research by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Ames Research Center administered by USRA.

  1. THE HIGH-VELOCITY MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING REGION G10.6-0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang Qizhou E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t

    2010-12-20

    We report the arcsecond resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the {sup 12}CO (2-1) transition in the massive cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4. In these observations, the high-velocity {sup 12}CO emission is resolved into individual outflow systems, which have a typical size scale of a few arcseconds. These molecular outflows are energetic and are interacting with the ambient molecular gas. By inspecting the shock signatures traced by CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HCN emissions, we suggest that abundant star formation activities are distributed over the entire 0.5 pc scale dense molecular envelope. The star formation efficiency over one global free-fall timescale (of the 0.5 pc molecular envelope, {approx}10{sup 5} years) is about a few percent. The total energy feedback of these high-velocity outflows is higher than 10{sup 47} erg, which is comparable to the total kinetic energy in the rotational motion of the dense molecular envelope. From order-of-magnitude estimations, we suggest that the energy injected from the protostellar outflows is capable of balancing the turbulent energy dissipation. No high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow associated with the central OB cluster is directly detected, which can be due to the photoionization.

  2. Discovery of an obscured globular cluster associated with GX 354+0 /=4U/MXB 1728-34/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Hertz, P.

    1981-07-01

    A diffuse infrared source identified as the most heavily obscured globular cluster yet found, was observed using the NASA 3m infrared telescope facility and Einstein positions for the X-ray source GX 354+0 (=4U/MXB 1728-34). Color excesses were measured to 1.4 + or - 0.3 for E(J-H) and 0.63 + or - 0.07 for E(H-K), and the visual extinction was determined at 10.6 + or - 1.3. The magnitude of several giant branch stars imply the cluster to be at a distance of 10.0 + or - 3.9 kpc, if metal rich, or 5.2 + or - 1.4 kpc, if metal poor. A single burst from MXB 1728-34 was observed with a blackbody temperature and cluster distance that indicated the luminosity to be not less than 10 times the Eddington limit for a neutron star model. This identification brings to 11 the number of compact X-ray sources in globular clusters, and reinforces the connection between GX sources, bursters, and globular clusters.

  3. Efficacy of ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) against stem borers and leaffolder insect-pests of basmati rice.

    PubMed

    Sarao, P S; Kaur, H

    2014-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three kharif seasons from 2009 to 2011 at Sudhar village, Ludhiana and Rice Research Area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Four doses of Ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) a new chemistry @ 20, 30, 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check Cartap hydrochloride 4 G @ 1000 g a.i. ha(-1) was tested against stem borers and leaffolder infesting basmati rice. Over the years, dead heart in all the Ferterra doses and standard check (1.01-1.80%) were at par70 DAT, whereas, at 80 DAT doses @ 40, 50 and standard check were at par (1.04-1.13%) but significantly better than lower doses and untreated control. Similarly, over the years, Ferterra doses @ 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) was significantly better than control in reducing white ear incidence, whereas, at 30 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check intermediately reduced the white ears incidence. Leaffolder infestation at all the Ferterra doses were at par with standard check 70 DAT (2.69-3.87%), whereas, 80 DAT, Ferterra doses @ 30, 40, 50 and standard check were at par (2.95-3.49%) but significantly better than lower dose and untreated control. Over the years the cost : benefit ratio was maximum (1 : 23.67) in the Ferterra @40 g a.i. ha(-1) dose followed by 50 g a.i. ha(-1) dose.

  4. Strongly enhanced current densities in Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 + Sn superconducting tapes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, He; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Xianping; Zhang, Haitao; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Qianjun; Ma, Yanwei; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Improving transport current has been the primary topic for practical application of superconducting wires and tapes. However, the porous nature of powder-in-tube (PIT) processed iron-based tapes is one of the important reasons for low critical current density (Jc) values. In this work, the superconducting core density of ex-situ Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 + Sn tapes, prepared from optimized precursors, was significantly improved by employing a simple hot pressing as an alternative route for final sintering. The resulting samples exhibited optimal critical temperature (Tc), sharp resistive transition, small resistivity and high Vickers hardness (Hv) value. Consequently, the transport Jc reached excellent values of 5.1 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T and 4.3 × 104 A/cm2 in 14 T at 4.2 K, respectively. Our tapes also exhibited high upper critical field Hc2 and almost field-independent Jc. These results clearly demonstrate that PIT pnictide wire conductors are very promising for high-field magnet applications. PMID:24663054

  5. Refractory amorphous metallic (W/0.6/ Re/0.4/)76B24 coatings on steel substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Lamb, J. L.; Khanna, S. K.; Mehra, M.; Johnson, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Refractory metallic coatings of (W/0.6/ Re/0.4/)76B24 (WReB) have been deposited onto glass, quartz, and heat-treated AISI 52100 bearing steel substrates by dc magnetron sputtering. As-deposited WReB films are amorphous, as shown by their diffuse X-ray diffraction patterns; chemically homogeneous, according to secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis; and they exhibit a very high (approximately 1000 C) crystallization temperature. Adhesion strength of these coatings on heat-treated AISI 52100 steel is in excess of approximately 20,000 psi and they possess high microhardness (approximately 2400 HV50). Unlubricated wear resistance of such hard and adherent amorphous metallic coatings on AISI 52100 steel is studied using the pin-on-disc method under various loading conditions. Amorphous metallic WReB coatings, about 4 microns thick, exhibit an improvement of more than two and a half orders of magnitude in the unlubricated wear resistance over that of the uncoated AISI 52100 steel.

  6. Structure cristalline de type alluaudite K0.4Na3.6Co(MoO4)3

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Rawia; Fakhar Bourguiba, Noura; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    A new triple molybdate, potassium sodium cobalt tris­(molybdate), K0.4Na3.6Co(MoO4)3, was synthesized using solid-state reactions. The Co2+ and one Na+ cation are located at the same general site, each with occupancy 0.5. Another site (site symmetry 2) is occupied by Na+ and K+ cations, with occupancies of 0.597 (7) and 0.402 (6), respectively. The other two Na+ cations and one of the two Mo atoms lie on special positions (site symmetries -1, 2 and 2, respectively). The structure is characterized by M 2O10 (M = Co/Na) dimers, which are linked by MoO4 tetra­hedra, forming infinite layers. The latter are connected firstly by insertion of one type of MoO4 tetra­hedra and secondly by sharing corners with the other type of MoO4 tetra­hedra. This results in an open three-dimensional framework with the cavities occupied by the Na+ and K+ cations. The structure is isotypic with Na3In2As3O12 and Na3In2P3O12. A comparison is made with structures such as K2Co2(MoO4)3 and β-NaFe2(MoO4)3 and their differences are discussed. PMID:25705436

  7. Resonant Spin Excitation in the High Temperature Superconductor Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, Andrew D; Goremychkin, E. A.; Osborn, R.; Rosenkranz, Stephen; Lumsden, Mark D; Malliakas, C.; Todorov, L.; Claus, H.; Chung, D.Y.; Kanatzidis, M.; Bewley, Robert I.; Guidi, T.

    2008-12-18

    A new family of superconductors containing layers of iron arsenide has attracted considerable interest because of their high transition temperatures (T{sub c}), some of which are >50 K, and because of similarities with the high-{sub c} copper oxide superconductors. In both the iron arsenides and the copper oxides, superconductivity arises when an antiferromagnetically ordered phase has been suppressed by chemical doping. A universal feature of the copper oxide superconductors is the existence of a resonant magnetic excitation, localized in both energy and wavevector, within the superconducting phase. This resonance, which has also been observed in several heavy-fermion superconductors is predicted to occur when the sign of the superconducting energy gap takes opposite values on different parts of the Fermi surface, an unusual gap symmetry which implies that the electron pairing interaction is repulsive at short range. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy shows no evidence of gap anisotropy in the iron arsenides, but such measurements are insensitive to the phase of the gap on separate parts of the Fermi surface. Here we report inelastic neutron scattering observations of a magnetic resonance below T{sub c} in Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, a phase-sensitive measurement demonstrating that the superconducting energy gap has unconventional symmetry in the iron arsenide superconductors.

  8. Multi-spectral fiber spectroscopy in 0,4-16μm range for biomedical applications(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyushenko, Viacheslav

    2017-02-01

    Various biomedical applications of fiber optics in a broad spectral range 0,4-16μm span from endoscopic imaging and Photo Dynamic Diagnostics (PDD) to laser power delivery for minimal invasive laser surgery, tissue coagulation and welding, Photo Dynamic Therapy (PDT), etc. Present review will highlight the latest results in advanced fiber solutions for a precise tissue diagnostics and control of some therapy methods - for so called "theranostic". Spectral fiber sensing for label free analysis of tissue composition helps to differentiate malignant and normal tissue to secure minimal invasive, but complete tumor removal or treatment. All key methods of Raman, fluorescence, diffuse reflection & MIR-absorption spectroscopy will be compared when used for the same spot of tissue - to select the most specific, sensitive and accurate method or to combine them for the synergy enhanced effect. The most informative spectral features for distinct organs/ tumor can be used to design special fiber sensors to be developed for portable and low cost applications with modern IT-features. Examples of multi-spectral tissue diagnostics promising for the future clinical applications will be presented to enable reduced mortality from cancer in the future. Translation of described methods into clinical practice will be discussed in comparison with the other method of optical diagnostics which should enhance modern medicine by less invasive, more precise and more effective methods of therapy to be fused with in-vivo diagnostics sensors & systems.

  9. Critical phenomena in Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 perovskite manganese oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hcini, Sobhi; Zemni, Sadok; Baazaoui, M.ed; Dhahri, Jamila; Vincent, Henri; Oumezzine, M.ed

    2012-05-01

    We studied the critical phenomena of perovskite-manganite compound Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 around its Curie temperature. Experimental results based on magnetic measurements using Banerjee criterion revealed that the sample exhibits the second-order paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition. It is found that the critical behaviour analysis and Kouvel-Fisher method show that the 3D- Heisenberg model is the best one to describe the critical phenomena around the critical point. Critical exponents β = 0.3785(6) and γ = 1.304(12) at TC = 320 K are obtained. The critical exponent δ = 4.7183(2) is determined separately from the isothermal magnetization at TC. These critical exponents fulfil the Widom scaling relation δ = 1 + γ/β. Based on the critical exponents, the magnetization-field-temperature (M-H-T) data around TC collapses into two curves obeying the single scaling equation M(H,ɛ)=|f(H/|) with ɛ = (T - TC)/TC is the reduced temperature.

  10. What are 12-hour shifts good for?

    PubMed

    In the UK many hospitals use 12-hour shifts, believing it to be a cost-efficient means of providing 24-hour nursing care on wards. While healthcare organisations need to find ways to deliver nursing care around the clock and efficiency is a key consideration, nurse leaders have raised concerns about ' whether nurses can function effectively and safely when working long hours (Calkin, 2012; Rogers et al, 2004). In this Policy Plus, we focus specifically on what is known about the impact of shift length on patient safety, employee health and quality of care.

  11. Estimation of peak winds from hourly observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Two closely related methods to obtain estimates of the hourly peak wind at Cape Kennedy were compared by statistical tests. The methods evaluated the Monin-Obukhov stability length and the standard deviation of the hourly observed wind speed, so as to augment the latter quantity by F standard deviations. F is an optimized factor. A third method utilizing an optimized gust factor was also applied to the hourly wind. The latter procedure estimated 2952 peak winds with an rms error of 2.81 knots, an accuracy which was not surpassed by the other methods. Peak ground wind speed data were developed for use in space shuttle design operation analyses.

  12. Critical international normalized ratio results after hours

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Darlene; Sean McMurtry, M.; George-Phillips, Kirsten; Bungard, Tammy J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether the timing of notification of critical international normalized ratio (INR) results (during or after clinic hours) altered the clinician’s ability to affect same-day patient care. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting The Anticoagulation Management Service at the University of Alberta Hospital in Edmonton. Participants A total of 276 patients with critical INR results (> 5.0) separated by at least 30 days were identified to have 200 critical INR results reported during clinic hours and 200 reported after hours. Main outcome measures Differences in the proportion of patients with critical INR results having same-day care altered (by changing warfarin dose, administering vitamin K, or referring for assessment) between those with results reported during clinic hours compared with those with results reported after clinic hours. Differences by highly critical INR results (> 9.0 vs ≤ 9.0) and whether patients experienced thromboembolism or bleeding within 30 days were also assessed. Results Same-day patient care was affected for 174 out of 200 (87.0%) critical INR results reported during clinic hours compared with 101 out of 200 (50.5%) reported after clinic hours (P < .001). The most common reason for not being able to intervene was that warfarin had already been taken. Warfarin dose alteration was the most frequent change (97.1% during clinic hours and 96.0% after hours). When patients with INRs greater than 9.0 were assessed separately, the ability to affect care increased for INRs reported both during and after clinic hours (92.9% and 63.6%, respectively), largely attributable to oral vitamin K use. Overall, thromboembolic and major bleeding event rates were low and were similar in both groups. Conclusion Same-day care was less likely to be affected by critical INR results communicated after hours, most commonly because the patient had already taken their daily warfarin dose. However, after-hours care was still

  13. Preschool-aged children's television viewing in child care settings.

    PubMed

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to quantify television viewing in day care settings and to investigate the characteristics of programs that predict viewing. A telephone survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan, Washington, Florida, and Massachusetts was performed. The frequency and quantity of television viewing for infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children were assessed. With the exception of infants, children in home-based child care programs were exposed to significantly more television on an average day than were children in center-based programs (infants: 0.2 vs 0 hours; toddlers: 1.6 vs 0.1 hours; preschool-aged children: 2.4 vs 0.4 hours). In a regression analysis of daily television time for preschool-aged children in child care, center-based programs were found to have an average of 1.84 fewer hours of television each day, controlling for the other covariates. Significant effect modification was found, in that the impact of home-based versus center-based child care programs differed somewhat depending on educational levels for staff members; having a 2- or 4-year college degree was associated with 1.41 fewer hours of television per day in home-based programs, but no impact of staff education on television use was observed in center-based programs. For many children, previous estimates of screen time significantly underestimated actual amounts. Pediatricians should council parents to minimize screen time in child care settings.

  14. A Founder Mutation in LEPRE1 Carried by 1.5% of West Africans and 0.4% of African Americans Causes Lethal Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Wayne A.; Barnes, Aileen M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Cushing, Kelly; Chitayat, David; Porter, Forbes D.; Panny, Susan R.; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Gueye, Serigne M.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Brody, Lawrence C.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Marini, Joan C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Deficiency of prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1, encoded by LEPRE1, causes recessive osteogenesis imperfecta. We previously identified a LEPRE1 mutation, exclusively in African Americans and contemporary West Africans. We hypothesized that this allele originated in West Africa and was introduced to the Americas with the Atlantic slave trade. We aimed to determine the frequency of carriers for this mutation among African Americans and West Africans, and the mutation origin and age. Methods Genomic DNA was screened for the mutation using PCR and restriction digestion, and a custom TaqMan genomic SNP assay. The mutation age was estimated using microsatellites and short tandem repeats spanning 4.2 Mb surrounding LEPRE1 in probands and carriers. Results Approximately 0.4% of Mid-Atlantic African Americans carry this mutation, estimating recessive OI in 1/260,000 births in this population. In Nigeria and Ghana, 1.48% of unrelated individuals are heterozygous carriers, predicting 1/18,260 births will be affected with recessive OI, equal to the incidence of de novo dominant OI. The mutation was not detected in Africans from surrounding countries. All carriers shared a haplotype of 63-770 Kb, consistent with a single founder for this mutation. Using linkage disequilibrium analysis, the mutation was estimated to have originated between 650 and 900 years before present (1100-1350 C.E.). Conclusions We identified a West African founder mutation for recessive OI in LEPRE1. Nearly 1.5% of Ghanians and Nigerians are carriers. The age of this allele is consistent with introduction to North America via the Atlantic slave trade (1501 – 1867 C.E). PMID:22281939

  15. Rates of zinc and trace metal release from dissolving sphalerite at pH 2.0-4.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, M.R.; Gemery-Hill, P. A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Taylor, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    High-Fe and low-Fe sphalerite samples were reacted under controlled pH conditions to determine nonoxidative rates of release of Zn and trace metals from the solid-phase. The release (solubilization) of trace metals from dissolving sphalerite to the aqueous phase can be characterized by a kinetic distribution coefficient, (Dtr), which is defined as [(Rtr/X(tr)Sph)/(RZn/X(Zn) Sph)], where R is the trace metal or Zn release rate, and X is the mole fraction of the trace metal or Zn in sphalerite. This coefficient describes the relationship of the sphalerite dissolution rate to the trace metal mole fraction in the solid and its aqueous concentration. The distribution was used to determine some controls on metal release during the dissolution of sphalerite. Departures from the ideal Dtr of 1.0 suggest that some trace metals may be released via different pathways or that other processes (e.g., adsorption, solubility of trace minerals such as galena) affect the observed concentration of metals. Nonoxidative sphalerite dissolution (mediated by H+) is characterized by a "fast" stage in the first 24-30 h, followed by a "slow" stage for the remainder of the reaction. Over the pH range 2.0-4.0, and for similar extent of reaction (reaction time), sphalerite composition, and surface area, the rates of release of Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb from sphalerite generally increase with lower pH. Zinc and Fe exhibit the fastest rates of release, Mn and Pb have intermediate rates of release, and Cd and Cu show the slowest rates of release. The largest variations in metal release rates occur at pH 2.0. At pH 3.0 and 4.0, release rates show less variation and appear less dependent on the metal abundance in the solid. For the same extent of reaction (100 h), rates of Zn release range from 1.53 ?? 10-11 to 5.72 ?? 10-10 mol/m2/s; for Fe, the range is from 4.59 ?? 10-13 to 1.99 ?? 10-10 mol/m2/s. Trace metal release rates are generally 1-5 orders of magnitude slower than the Zn or Fe rates

  16. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  17. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  18. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  19. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  20. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  1. Ba0.4Rb0.6Mn2As2: A prototype half-metallic ferromagnet

    DOE PAGES

    Pandey, Abhishek; Johnston, D. C.

    2015-11-02

    Half-metallic ferromagnetism (FM) in single-crystal Ba0.39(1)Rb0.61(1)Mn2As2 below its Curie temperature TC = 103(2) K is reported. The magnetization M versus applied magnetic field H isotherm data at 1.8 K show complete polarization of the itinerant doped-hole magnetic moments that are introduced by substituting Rb for Ba. Here, the material exhibits extremely soft FM, with unobservably small remanent magnetization and coercive field. Surprisingly, and contrary to typical itinerant FMs, the M(H) data follow the Arrott-plot paradigm that is based on a mean-field theory of local-moment FMs. The in-plane electrical resistivity data are fitted well by an activated-T2 expression for T ≤more » TC, whereas the data sharply deviate from this model for T > TC. Hence the activated-T2 resistivity model is an excellent diagnostic for determining the onset of half-metallic FM in this compound, which in turn demonstrates the presence of a strong correlation between the electronic transport and magnetic properties of the material. Together with previous data on 40% hole-doped Ba0.6K0.4Mn2As2, these measurements establish 61%-doped Ba0.39Rb0.61Mn2As2 as a prototype for a class of half-metallic ferromagnets in which all the itinerant carriers in the material are ferromagnetic.« less

  2. HST Detection of Extended Neutral Hydrogen in a Massive Elliptical at z = 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedy, Fakhri S.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Rauch, Michael; Zabludoff, Ann

    2017-09-01

    We report the first detection of extended neutral hydrogen (H i) gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) of a massive elliptical galaxy beyond z∼ 0. The observations utilize the doubly lensed images of QSO HE 0047‑1756 at {z}{QSO}=1.676 as absorption-line probes of the ISM in the massive ({M}{star}≈ {10}11 {M}ȯ ) elliptical lens at z = 0.408, detecting gas at projected distances of d = 3.3 and 4.6 kpc on opposite sides of the lens. Using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, we obtain UV absorption spectra of the lensed QSO and identify a prominent flux discontinuity and associated absorption features matching the Lyman series transitions at z = 0.408 in both sightlines. The H i column density is log N({{H}} {{I}})=19.6{--}19.7 at both locations across the lens, comparable to what is seen in 21 cm images of nearby ellipticals. The H i gas kinematics are well-matched with the kinematics of the Fe ii absorption complex revealed in ground-based echelle data, displaying a large velocity shear of ≈360 {\\text{km s}}-1 across the galaxy. We estimate an ISM Fe abundance of 0.3–0.4 solar at both locations. Including likely dust depletions increases the estimated Fe abundances to solar or supersolar, similar to those of the hot ISM and stars of nearby ellipticals. Assuming 100% covering fraction of this Fe-enriched gas, we infer a total Fe mass of {M}{cool}({Fe})∼ (5{--}8)× {10}4 {M}ȯ in the cool ISM of the massive elliptical lens, which is no more than 5% of the total Fe mass observed in the hot ISM.

  3. Nature of the absorbing gas associated with a galaxy group at z˜0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péroux, Céline; Rahmani, Hadi; Quiret, Samuel; Pettini, Max; Kulkarni, Varsha; York, Donald G.; Straka, Lorrie; Husemann, Bernd; Milliard, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    We present new Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of quasar field Q2131-1207 with a log N(H I} = 19.50 ± 0.15 sub-damped Lyman α at zabs = 0.42980. We detect four galaxies at a redshift consistent with that of the absorber where only one was known before this study. Two of these are star-forming galaxies, while the ones further away from the quasar (>140 kpc) are passive galaxies. We report the metallicities of the H II regions of the closest objects (12 + log(O/H) = 8.98 ± 0.02 and 8.32 ± 0.16) to be higher or equivalent within the errors to the metallicity measured in absorption in the neutral phase of the gas (8.15 ± 0.20). For the closest object, a detailed morphokinematic analysis indicates that it is an inclined large rotating disc with Vmax = 200 ± 3 km s-1. We measure the masses to be Mdyn = 7.4 ± 0.4 × 1010 M⊙ and Mhalo = 2.9 ± 0.2 × 1012 M⊙. Some of the gas seen in absorption is likely to be corotating with the halo of that object, possibly due to a warped disc. The azimuthal angle between the quasar line-of-sight and the projected major axis of the galaxy on the sky is 12° ± 1° which indicates that some other fraction of the absorbing gas might be associated with accreting gas. This is further supported by the galaxy to gas metallicity difference. Based on the same arguments, we exclude outflows as a possibility to explain the gas in absorption. The four galaxies form a large structure (at least 200 kpc wide) consistent with a filament or a galaxy group so that a fraction of the absorption could be related to intragroup gas.

  4. The '0.4 eV' shape resonance of electron scattering from mercury in a Franck Hertz tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoletopoulos, Peter

    2004-05-01

    The alternative version of the Franck-Hertz experiment with mercury, in which a two-grid tube is used as a combination of electron gun, equipotential collision space and detection cell, was analysed recently in considerable detail. In particular, it was inferred that, at optimal pressure, the formation of peaks in the anode current at inelastic thresholds is mediated inside the detection cell by the large variation, a maximum at 0.4 eV, in the cross section for elastic scattering. This variation is due to a shape resonance in the electron-mercury system and is observable persuasively at the onset of anode current as a sharp peak followed by a clear minimum. In this paper, the passage of electrons through the second grid to the anode region is analysed in terms of kinetic theory. The discussion is based on a simplified expression for the electron current derivable from an approximate form of the Boltzmann transport equation that maintains the spatial density gradient but omits elastic energy losses. The estimated range of pressure underlying this kind of idealization is in good agreement with experiment. An explicit solution is obtained by constructing an analytic expression for the momentum transfer cross section of mercury using a recent theory of generalized Fano profiles for overlapping resonances. This solution is used in order to model successfully the formation of peaks at the threshold of anode current and at excitation potentials, and to explain the dependence of the observed profiles on the pressure and on the sign and magnitude of the potential across the detection cell.

  5. Simulation study of electric-guided delivery of 0.4µm monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols to the ostiomeatal complex.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Yuan, Jiayao Eddie; Si, Xiuhua April

    2016-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of rhinosinusitis, current inhalation therapy shows limited efficacy due to extremely low drug delivery efficiency to the paranasal sinuses. Novel intranasal delivery systems are needed to enhance targeted delivery to the sinus with therapeutic dosages. An optimization framework for intranasal drug delivery was developed to target polydisperse charged aerosols to the ostiomeatal complex (OMC) with electric guidance. The delivery efficiency of a group of charged aerosols recently reported in the literature was numerically assessed and optimized in an anatomically accurate nose-sinus model. Key design variables included particle charge number, particle size and distribution, electrode strength, and inhalation velocity. Both monodisperse and polydisperse aerosol profiles were considered. Results showed that the OMC delivery efficiency was highly sensitive to the applied electric field and electrostatic charges carried by the particles. Through the synthesis of electric-guidance and point drug release, focused deposition with significantly enhanced dosage in the OMC can be achieved. For 0.4 µm charged aerosols, an OMC delivery efficiency of 51.6% was predicted for monodisperse aerosols and 34.4% for polydisperse aerosols. This difference suggested that the aerosol profile exerted a notable effect on intranasal deliveries. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the OMC deposition fraction was highly sensitive to the charge and size of particles and was less sensitive to the inhalation velocity considered in this study. Experimental studies are needed to validate the numerically optimized designs. Further studies are warranted to investigate the targeted OMC delivery with both electric and acoustics controls, the latter of which has the potential to further deliver the drug particles into the sinus cavity.

  6. Two-Body Photodisintegration of ^3He between 0.4 and 1.5 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, Yordanka

    2006-04-01

    The γ^3He->pd reaction was measured with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab for photon energies between 0.4 and 1.5 GeV and proton CM angles p̂CM between 40^o and 140^o. It is complementary to the three-body breakup of ^3He with respect to studying three-body mechanisms. At all photon energies for our experiment, the differential cross sections exhibit a very strong forward-to-backward asymmetry --- approximately one order of magnitude. An interesting feature of the differential cross sections is that their slope does not depend on the photon energy and there is a change of slope at p̂CM=120^o seen at all photon energies. The invariant cross sections fall off with s (where s is the total CM energy) much faster than expected by the quark counting rules [1]. The latter predict that in the asymptotic regime t->∞ the invariant cross sections should scale as s-17, whereas our data scale as s-22. A comparison of our preliminary results with the cross sections predicted by Jean-Marc Laget's model [2] shows that the differential cross sections for angles greater than 60^o are sensitive to contributions from three-body mechanisms. The relative importance of the latter, with respect to one- and two-body mechanisms, is larger at 0.6 - 0.8 GeV than at higher energies. This has already been observed in our data for γ^3He->ppn [3] and seems to be a characteristic of the three-body mechanisms at medium energies. 6mm 1. S.J. Brodsky and G.R. Farrar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 1153 (1973) 2. J-M. Laget, Phys. Rev. C 38, 2993 (1988)3. S. Niccolai et al., Phys. Rev. C 70, 064003 (2004)

  7. An Evaluation of First Offender Driver Alcohol Education Models: 40 Hours versus 15 Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Kim; And Others

    An evaluation assessed the impact of the 40- and 15-hour driver alcohol education (DAE) program models on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of driving while intoxicated (DWI) first offenders in Massachusetts. The 40-hour program evaluation studied 306 clients from 31 DAE programs; the 15-hour study group consisted of 207 clients in 23 DAE…

  8. Delinking resident duty hours from patient safety

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a powerful motivating force for change in modern medicine, and is often cited as a rationale for reducing resident duty hours. However, current data suggest that resident duty hours are not significantly linked to important patient outcomes. We performed a narrative review and identified four potential explanations for these findings. First, we question the relevance of resident fatigue in the creation of harmful errors. Second, we discuss factors, including workload, experience, and individual characteristics, that may be more important determinants of resident fatigue than are duty hours. Third, we describe potential adverse effects that may arise from – and, therefore, counterbalance any potential benefits of – duty hour reductions. Fourth, we explore factors that may mitigate any risks to patient safety associated with using the services of resident trainees. In summary, it may be inappropriate to justify a reduction in working hours on the grounds of a presumed linkage between patient safety and resident duty hours. Better understanding of resident-related factors associated with patient safety will be essential if improvements in important patient safety outcomes are to be realized through resident-focused strategies. PMID:25561349

  9. 24-hour rhythmicity of seizures in refractory focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Menezes Cordeiro, Inês; Santos, Ana Catarina; Peralta, Rita; Paiva, Teresa; Bentes, Carla

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence of seizures in specific types of epilepsies can follow a 24-hour nonuniform or nonrandom pattern. We described the 24-hour pattern of clinical seizures in patients with focal refractory epilepsy who underwent video-electroencephalography monitoring. Only patients who were candidates for epilepsy surgery with an unequivocal seizure focus were included in the study. A total of 544 seizures from 123 consecutive patients were analyzed. Specific time of seizures were distributed along 3- or 4-hour time blocks or bins throughout the 24-hour period. The mean age of the subjects was 37.7 years, with standard deviation of 11.5 years, median of 37. The majority were females (70/56%). The majority of patients had a seizure focus located in the mesial temporal lobe (102/83%) and in the neocortical temporal lobe (13/11%). The remaining patients had a seizure focus located in the extratemporal lobe (8/6%). The most common etiology was mesial temporal sclerosis (86/69.9%). Nonuniform seizure distribution was observed in seizures arising from the temporal lobe (mesial temporal lobe and neocortical temporal lobe), with two peaks found in both 3- and 4-hour bins: 10:00-13:00/16:00-19:00 and 08:00-12:00/16:00-20:00 respectively (p=0.004). No specific 24-hour pattern was identified in seizures from extratemporal location. The 24-hour rhythmicity of seizure distribution is recognized in certain types of epilepsy, but studies on the topic are scarce. Their replication and validation is therefore needed. Our study confirms the bimodal pattern of temporal lobe epilepsy independently of the nature of the lesion. However, peak times differ between different studies, suggesting that the ambient, rhythmic exogenous factors or environmental/social zeitgebers, may modulate the 24-hour rhythmicity of seizures. Characterization of these 24-hour patterns of seizure occurrence can influence diagnosis and treatment in selected types of epilepsy, such as the case of temporal lobe

  10. Hourly Updated GNSS Orbit and Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Xue, J.

    2016-12-01

    With the development of the performance of GNSS, the hourly updated orbit and clock of GNSS are paid much more attention and used by more and more users because of the timeliness and high accuracy. The hourly GNSS orbit and clock are produced routinely in Shanghai Analysis Center(AC) of the International GNSS Monitoring and Assessment Service (iGMAS).In this article, the accuracy of hourly and 6-hourly updated ultra-rapid GPS,GLONASS,GALILEO,BDS orbit and clock (SHU1 and SHU6) are analyzed relative to the final production in detail. The analysis show that, in calculation session, there's no much difference between the mean SHU1 and SHU6 RMS and STD for GNSS orbit and clock. However, for BDS clock in prediction session, the RMS and STD of BDS SHU1 are 2.6ns and 0.5ns respectively, the RMS of BDS SHU6 increase from 2.7ns to 4.5ns from the 1st to the 6th hour prediction session, but there's no much changes of STD. For GPS clock in prediction session, the RMS and STD of GPS SHU1 is quite stable with 0.5ns and 0.2ns.The RMS of GPS SHU6 clock increase from 0.6ns to 1.0ns from the 1st to the 6th hour, but STD is stable at about 0.2ns.For the orbit in calculate session, the RMS of BDS SHU1 is a little less than that of SHU6,the RMS of GPS SHU1 and SHU6 orbit are approximately at the same level. In prediction session, the RMS of IGSO/MEO for BDS SHU1 is relative stable, but the RMS of SHU6 1st-6th hour prediction session increase from about 26.5cm to 32.7cm. The RMS of GPS SHU1 orbit's prediction session is about 3.4cm,but which increase from 3.3cm to 4.3cm for GPS SHU6 1st-6th hour prediction session.The comparison of GLONASS and GALILEO orbit and clock also will be described.The results show that the hourly update is more important for BDS at this stage.Moreover,some problems appearing in satellites and stations can be found earlier by 1 hourly updated frequency.

  11. Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36: Spectroscopy from 0.4 to 2.4 Micrometer and Meteorite Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Beth Ellen; Binzel, Richard P.; Howell, Ellen S.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Ockert-Bell, Maureen; Christensen, Phil; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; DeMeo, Francesca; Lauretta, Dante S.; Connolly, Harold, Jr.; Soderberg, Alicia; Hergenrother, Carl; Lim, Lucy; Emery, Josh; Mueller, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We present reflectance spectra from 0.4 to 2.4 ?m of Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36, the target of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft mission. The visible spectral data were obtained at the McDonald Observatory 2.1-m telescope with the ES2 spectrograph. The infrared spectral data were obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility using the SpeX instrument. The average visible spectrum is combined with the average near-infrared wavelength spectrum to form a composite spectrum. We use three methods to constrain the compositional information in the composite spectrum of Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 (hereafter RQ36). First, we perform a least-squares search for meteorite spectral analogs using 15,000 spectra from the RELAB database. Three most likely meteorite analogs are proposed based on the least-squares search. Next, six spectral parameters are measured for RQ36 and their values are compared with the ranges in parameter values of the carbonaceous chondrite meteorite classes. A most likely meteorite analog group is proposed based on the depth of overlap in parameter values. The results of the least-squares search and the parametric comparisons point to CIs and/or CMs as the most likely meteorite analogs for RQ36, and COs and CHs as the least likely. RQ36 has a spectrally blue continuum slope that is also observed in carbonaceous chondrites containing magnetite. We speculate that RQ36 is composed of a CM1 -like material. Finally, we compare RQ36 to other B-type asteroids measured by Clark et al. (Clark, B.E. et al. [2010]. J. Geophys. Res. 115, E06005). The results of this comparison are inconclusive. RQ36 is comparable to Themis spectral properties in terms of its albedo, visible spectrum, and near-infrared spectrum from 1.1 to 1.45 micrometers. However, RQ36 is more similar to Pallas in terms of its near-infrared spectrum from 1.6 to 2.3 micrometers. Thus it is possible that B-type asteroids form a spectral continuum and that RQ36 is a transitional object, spectrally

  12. Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36: Spectroscopy from 0.4 to 2.4 Micrometer and Meteorite Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Beth Ellen; Binzel, Richard P.; Howell, Ellen S.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Ockert-Bell, Maureen; Christensen, Phil; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; DeMeo, Francesca; Lauretta, Dante S.; Connolly, Harold, Jr.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present reflectance spectra from 0.4 to 2.4 ?m of Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36, the target of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft mission. The visible spectral data were obtained at the McDonald Observatory 2.1-m telescope with the ES2 spectrograph. The infrared spectral data were obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility using the SpeX instrument. The average visible spectrum is combined with the average near-infrared wavelength spectrum to form a composite spectrum. We use three methods to constrain the compositional information in the composite spectrum of Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 (hereafter RQ36). First, we perform a least-squares search for meteorite spectral analogs using 15,000 spectra from the RELAB database. Three most likely meteorite analogs are proposed based on the least-squares search. Next, six spectral parameters are measured for RQ36 and their values are compared with the ranges in parameter values of the carbonaceous chondrite meteorite classes. A most likely meteorite analog group is proposed based on the depth of overlap in parameter values. The results of the least-squares search and the parametric comparisons point to CIs and/or CMs as the most likely meteorite analogs for RQ36, and COs and CHs as the least likely. RQ36 has a spectrally blue continuum slope that is also observed in carbonaceous chondrites containing magnetite. We speculate that RQ36 is composed of a CM1 -like material. Finally, we compare RQ36 to other B-type asteroids measured by Clark et al. (Clark, B.E. et al. [2010]. J. Geophys. Res. 115, E06005). The results of this comparison are inconclusive. RQ36 is comparable to Themis spectral properties in terms of its albedo, visible spectrum, and near-infrared spectrum from 1.1 to 1.45 micrometers. However, RQ36 is more similar to Pallas in terms of its near-infrared spectrum from 1.6 to 2.3 micrometers. Thus it is possible that B-type asteroids form a spectral continuum and that RQ36 is a transitional object, spectrally

  13. Probing the cool interstellar and circumgalactic gas of three massive lensing galaxies at z = 0.4-0.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedy, Fakhri S.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Rauch, Michael; Wilson, Michelle L.; Zabludoff, Ann

    2016-05-01

    We present multisightline absorption spectroscopy of cool gas around three lensing galaxies at z = 0.4-0.7. These lenses have half-light radii re = 2.6-8 kpc and stellar masses of log M*/M⊙ = 10.9-11.4, and therefore resemble nearby passive elliptical galaxies. The lensed QSO sightlines presented here occur at projected distances of d = 3-15 kpc (or d ≈ 1-2 re) from the lensing galaxies, providing for the first time an opportunity to probe both interstellar gas at r ˜ re and circumgalactic gas at larger radii r ≫ re of these distant quiescent galaxies. We observe distinct gas absorption properties among different lenses and among sightlines of individual lenses. Specifically, while the quadruple lens for HE 0435-1223 shows no absorption features to very sensitive limits along all four sightlines, strong Mg II, Fe II, Mg I, and Ca II absorption transitions are detected along both sightlines near the double lens for HE 0047-1756, and in one of the two sightlines near the double lens for HE 1104-1805. The absorbers are resolved into 8-15 individual components with a line-of-sight velocity spread of Δ v ≈ 300-600 km s-1. The large ionic column densities, log N ≳ 14, observed in two components suggest that these may be Lyman limit or damped Ly α absorbers with a significant neutral hydrogen fraction. The majority of the absorbing components exhibit a uniform supersolar Fe/Mg ratio with a scatter of <0.1 dex across the full Δ v range. Given a predominantly old stellar population in these lensing galaxies, we argue that the observed large velocity width and Fe-rich abundance pattern can be explained by SNe Ia enriched gas at radius r ˜ re. We show that additional spatial constraints in line-of-sight velocity and relative abundance ratios afforded by a multisightline approach provide a powerful tool to resolve the origin of chemically enriched cool gas in massive haloes.

  14. Development of a global motor rating scale for young children (0-4 years) including eye-hand grip coordination.

    PubMed

    Vaivre-Douret, L; Burnod, Y

    2001-11-01

    A comparative study of the eight motor rating scales available in Western countries demonstrated methodological differences in the choice of items and standardization. We have developed a global motor rating scale that includes items which measure postural-motor, locomotor (PML) and eye-hand grip coordination (EHGC), and which allows the assessment of an average of motor function level (MFL), PML and EHGC development. Scores obtained were used to define the acquisition of motor age based on the skills completed. The items were selected on the basis of the average age at which the function developed in two populations of healthy full-term French infants, followed from birth to 4 months (n = 60) and from 4 months to 4 years (n = 63). Recent French developmental standards (mean age and standard deviation) of acquisition allow the identification of neuro-psychomotor deviations from normal motor behaviour. This includes both static and dynamic motor coordination sequences. Inter-examiner correlations (n = 3) for 15 randomly selected children indicated a coefficient of 0.90. The scale revealed a sequence in the organization of learned postural-motor, locomotor and eye-hand gripping skills which can contribute to the understanding of brain areas implicated in this maturation process.

  15. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  16. The hour-to-hour influence of weather conditions on walking and cycling among Dutch older adults.

    PubMed

    Prins, Richard G; van Lenthe, F J

    2015-09-01

    physical activity (PA) is an important factor to promote healthy ageing. However, older adults are not physically active enough. Socio-ecological models suggest that weather conditions are determinants of PA and may bias relations between other environmental factors and PA. This may especially be the case for the most vulnerable and inactive older persons. Understanding the role of weather conditions is based on daily or seasonal variation in weather, but it can be improved by using hour-to-hour measured weather conditions. to study the hour-to-hour relationships between weather factors and objectively measured walking and cycling in a sample of Dutch older adults. baseline data (2013) of a sub-sample of older adults (3,248 observations clustered in 43 adults) participating in The Neighborhood Walking in Rotterdam Older ADultS (NEW.ROADS) trial were used. Participants wore a GPS logger for 7 consecutive days. Hour-to-hour weather data (temperature, wind speed, rain and sun time) for the city of Rotterdam were retrieved from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Multilevel linear regression models were fitted with minutes walked and minutes cycled as dependent variables and the weather variables as independent variables. the time older adults walked increased with higher temperature, higher wind speed and the absence of rain. The time cycled increased with higher temperature. this study improves the evidence of weather factors as a determinant for walking and cycling in older adults. Studies on the relation between environmental factors and PA should consider adjustment for weather factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Structure and substructure analysis of DAFT/FADA galaxy clusters in the [0.4-0.9] redshift range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guennou, L.; Adami, C.; Durret, F.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Ulmer, M. P.; Clowe, D.; LeBrun, V.; Martinet, N.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Basa, S.; Benoist, C.; Biviano, A.; Cappi, A.; Cypriano, E. S.; Gavazzi, R.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Jullo, E.; Just, D.; Limousin, M.; Márquez, I.; Mazure, A.; Murphy, K. J.; Plana, H.; Rostagni, F.; Russeil, D.; Schirmer, M.; Slezak, E.; Tucker, D.; Zaritsky, D.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The DAFT/FADA survey is based on the study of ~90 rich (masses found in the literature >2 × 1014 M⊙) and moderately distant clusters (redshifts 0.4 < z < 0.9), all with HST imaging data available. This survey has two main objectives: to constrain dark energy (DE) using weak lensing tomography on galaxy clusters and to build a database (deep multi-band imaging allowing photometric redshift estimates, spectroscopic data, X-ray data) of rich distant clusters to study their properties. Aims: We analyse the structures of all the clusters in the DAFT/FADA survey for which XMM-Newton and/or a sufficient number of galaxy redshifts in the cluster range are available, with the aim of detecting substructures and evidence for merging events. These properties are discussed in the framework of standard cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. Methods: In X-rays, we analysed the XMM-Newton data available, fit a β-model, and subtracted it to identify residuals. We used Chandra data, when available, to identify point sources. In the optical, we applied a Serna & Gerbal (SG) analysis to clusters with at least 15 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts available in the cluster range. We discuss the substructure detection efficiencies of both methods. Results: XMM-Newton data were available for 32 clusters, for which we derive the X-ray luminosity and a global X-ray temperature for 25 of them. For 23 clusters we were able to fit the X-ray emissivity with a β-model and subtract it to detect substructures in the X-ray gas. A dynamical analysis based on the SG method was applied to the clusters having at least 15 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts in the cluster range: 18 X-ray clusters and 11 clusters with no X-ray data. The choice of a minimum number of 15 redshifts implies that only major substructures will be detected. Ten substructures were detected both in X-rays and by the SG method. Most of the substructures detected both in X-rays and with the SG method are probably at their first

  18. [24 hours at Johannesburg Hospital Trauma Unit].

    PubMed

    Østerballe, Lene; Asbury, Sarah; Boffard, Kenneth D

    2011-05-02

    This paper describes the hectic work as a doctor at the Trauma Unit of Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, a highly regarded and well-visited trauma unit worldwide. A trauma junior doctor is followed on a 24-hour-call through a full casualty to urgent operations and complicated postoperative management of the trauma patient. In a diary fashion the paper describes the evidence-based guidelines of management of certain trauma cases brought into the trauma unit during the 24-hour-shift.

  19. After-hours coverage: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andrew L

    2004-05-01

    Among the problems facing many radiology groups today is how to cover after-hours studies, because the demand is increasing while the number of available radiologists is still relatively low. There are a number of possible solutions, each of which has its own pros and cons, and no solution is right for every group. Recently, there have been a number of companies whose sole business is providing outside teleradiology coverage of after-hours radiology studies, sometimes referred to as "nighthawk" services. This article describes one group's decision-making process in choosing to hire a nighttime teleradiology provider as well as its subsequent experiences and ideas for future solutions.

  20. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA.

  1. Double-masked comparison of ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% versus nepafenac sodium 0.1% for postoperative healing rates and pain control in eyes undergoing surface ablation.

    PubMed

    Trattler, William; McDonald, Marguerite

    2007-07-01

    Determine the degree of postoperative pain and rate of healing in eyes treated with either ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% (Acular LS) or nepafenac sodium 0.1% (Nevanac) after flapless surface ablation [epi-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)]. Prospective, randomized, double-masked, paired-eye comparison. Patients undergoing flapless surface ablation were randomized to receive ketorolac in 1 eye and nepafenac in the other. Drops were instilled immediately after the surgical procedure, and patients continued to instill the masked drops 3 times daily for 5 days. Study follow-up visits were at days 1 and 5 postoperatively. Patients were queried by phone regarding their level of pain at 5 hours postoperatively and on days 2, 3, and 4. Outcome measures included postoperative pain levels including need for additional rescue medications, rate of healing, and adverse events. Although the original target population was 60 eyes of 30 patients, this study was halted after only 14 eyes of 7 patients because of concern for patient safety, because most patients in 1 arm developed haze. Eyes treated with nepafenac healed at a slower rate than eyes treated with ketorolac in 57% of patients. Mean time to healing was 5.7 +/- 1.1 days with ketorolac and 7.9 +/- 2.1 days with nepafenac (P = 0.066). Moreover, eyes treated with nepafenac exhibited statistically significant greater mean hazing scores at week 2 (P = 0.024) and month 1 (P = 0.039). Throughout the study, a greater percentage of nepafenac-treated eyes exhibited haze than did ketorolac-treated eyes. This difference was statistically significant at week 2 (P = 0.005) and month 1 (P = 0.039). Patients reported significantly more pain in nepafenac-treated eyes at day 3 when pain was at its peak (P = 0.046). In patients undergoing epi-LASIK, a statistically significant trend postoperative toward increased corneal haze was seen with nepafenac compared with ketorolac. Nepafenac therapy resulted in a non-statistically significant

  2. Perioperative outcomes of primary renal tumour resections: comparison of in-hours to out-of-hours surgery.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Connor; Butterworth, Sonia A

    2014-10-01

    Primary resection is typically performed for children with localised suspected Wilms tumours. Resource limitation may necessitate performing these operations nights and weekends. We hypothesise that outcomes will be worse in patients having nephrectomies out-of-hours (OOH) compared to those in-hours (IH). With IRB ethics approval, primary renal tumour resections performed on oncology patients from 1989-2011 were reviewed retrospectively. IH operations were defined as Monday-Friday 0745-1530 hours. Outcomes included major intraoperative complications, capsule rupture, and blood loss. Data were analysed using Fischer Exact and Mann-Whitney U tests. There were 64 patients with renal tumours who underwent primary resection. Forty-five procedures were performed IH, and 19 OOH. Groups were similar in age, ASA status, tumour size and grade. In a comparison of major intraoperative complications, capsule rupture, and mean blood loss, differences were 2 vs. 26% (p = 0.007), 27 vs. 42% (p = 0.12), 178 vs. 244 ml (p = 0.15) for IH and OOH respectively. There was one perioperative mortality (OOH). Primary renal tumour resections performed OOH were associated with an increase in major complications compared to those performed in standard hours. Avoidance of OOH operating where possible may reduce morbidity for children undergoing primary renal tumour resections.

  3. Correlation of 2 Hours and 24 Hours Creatinine Clearance in Renal Donors After Unilateral Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Devanand, Viji; Chithrapavai, S.U.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The kidney performs numerous specialised functions in an effort to maintain constancy of the internal composition of body fluids. Aim: This study was done to ascertain the feasibility of estimating creatinine clearance as an outpatient procedure over a 2 hours period instead of doing the study over a 24 hours period. Material and Methods: Eighteen renal donors, Twelve females and Six males, who were closely related to recipients, were chosen. This study was done on renal donors who attended the Nephrology Department of Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Madras Medical College, Chennai–03 India. To estimate creatinine clearance in 24 hours urine, 24 hours urine sample was collected from 9 am on the first day to 9 am on the next day, after first emptying the bladder. Then, creatinine clearance was calculated by using standard formula, CC=UV/ Pt X 1.73m2/BSA of the individual. Results: There was no significant differences in mean creatinine clearance values by collecting 2 hours and 24 hours urine samples from renal donors in different stages of post nephrectomy period. It has been shown that 2 hours collection of urine sample is as good as 24 hours urine sample for estimating creatinine clearance. Conclusion: Hence it was proved that measurement of creatinine clearance could be done as an outpatient procedure, as the patient needed only 2 hours of hospital stay. PMID:24298453

  4. Accommodating to Restrictions on Residents' Working Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Henry W., Jr.; Seltzer, Vicki L.

    1991-01-01

    In response to New York State legislation limiting house staff working hours, a survey of obstetrics and gynecology resident programs (n=26) was conducted. Results were used to construct a prototype call schedule and a hypothetical monthly schedule indicating how a single resident would function without violating any state regulations. (MSE)

  5. Wage and Hour Farm Labor Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Catherine

    This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…

  6. Stunden-abstract (Class-Hour Plan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Heinz-Otto

    1977-01-01

    Offers a class-hour plan for Grade 11 on the theme of "James Thurber, 'The Peacelike Mongoose' - Discussion of Text," dividing the treatment into stages: Introduction and Reading, Text Elucidation, Comprehension Check, Summarizing Content, Reflection, Written Homework. Possible alternative approaches are discussed. (Text is in German.)…

  7. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  8. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  9. 47 CFR 73.1730 - Specified hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specified hours. 73.1730 Section 73.1730 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES... experimental period), § 73.1250 (Broadcasting emergency information) and § 73.1740 (Minimum operating schedule)....

  10. Probing the local structure of crystalline ZITO: In 2-2xSn xZn xO 3 ( x≤0.4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoel, Cathleen A.; Gaillard, Jean-François; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2010-04-01

    The local structure of In 2O 3 cosubstituted with Zn and Sn (In 2-2xSn xZn xO 3, x≤0.4 or ZITO) was determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) for x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4. The host bixbyite In 2O 3 structure is maintained up to the enhanced substitution limit ( x=0.4). The EXAFS spectra are consistent with random substitution of In by the smaller Zn and Sn cations, a result that is consistent with the "good-to-excellent" conductivities reported for ZITO.

  11. Early life adversity and/or posttraumatic stress disorder severity are associated with poor diet quality, including consumption of trans fatty acids, and fewer hours of resting or sleeping in a US middle-aged population: A cross-sectional and prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gavrieli, Anna; Farr, Olivia M; Davis, Cynthia R; Crowell, Judith A; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life adversity (ELA) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with poorer psychological and physical health. Potential underlying mechanisms and mediators remain to be elucidated, and the lifestyle habits and characteristics of individuals with ELA and/or PTSD have not been fully explored. We investigated whether the presence of ELA and/or PTSD are associated with nutrition, physical activity, resting and sleeping and smoking. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 151 males and females (age: 45.6±3.5 y, BMI: 30.0±7.1kg/m2) underwent anthropometric measurements, as well as detailed questionnaires for dietary assessment, physical activity, resting and sleeping, smoking habits and psychosocial assessments. A prospective follow-up visit of 49 individuals was performed 2.5 years later and the same outcomes were assessed. ELA and PTSD were evaluated as predictors, in addition to a variable assessing the combined presence/severity of ELA–PTSD. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance after adjusting for several socioeconomic, psychosocial and anthropometric characteristics. Results Individuals with higher ELA or PTSD severity were found to have a poorer diet quality (DASH score: p=0.006 and p=0.003, respectively; aHEI-2010 score: ELA p=0.009), including further consumption of trans fatty acids (ELA p=0.003); the differences were significantly attenuated null after adjusting mainly for education or income and/or race. Further, individuals with higher ELA severity reported less hours of resting and sleeping (p=0.043) compared to those with zero/lower ELA severity, and the difference remained significant in the fully adjusted model indicating independence from potential confounders. When ELA and PTSD were combined, an additive effect was observed on resting and sleeping (p=0.001); results remained significant in the fully adjusted model. They also consumed more energy from trans fatty acids (p=0.017) tended to smoke more (p=0

  12. Electric System Intra-hour Operation Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Meng, PNNL Da; Guillen, PNNL Zoe; PNNL,

    2014-03-07

    ESIOS is a software program developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that performs intra-hour dispatch and automatic generation control (AGC) simulations for electric power system frequency regulation and load/variable generation following. The program dispatches generation resources at minute interval to meet control performance requirements, while incorporating stochastic models of forecast errors and variability with generation, load, interchange and market behaviors. The simulator also contains an operator model that mimics manual actions to adjust resource dispatch and maintain system reserves. Besides simulating generation fleet intra-hour dispatch, ESIOS can also be used as a test platform for the design and verification of energy storage, demand response, and other technologies helping to accommodate variable generation.

  13. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    PubMed

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours.

  14. Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kwac, J; Flora, J; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing US deployment of residential advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) has made hourly energy consumption data widely available. Using CA smart meter data, we investigate a household electricity segmentation methodology that uses an encoding system with a pre-processed load shape dictionary. Structured approaches using features derived from the encoded data drive five sample program and policy relevant energy lifestyle segmentation strategies. We also ensure that the methodologies developed scale to large data sets.

  15. Ampere-Hour Meter For Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Schott, Timothy D.; Tcheng, Ping

    1993-01-01

    Low-power analog/digital electronic circuit meters discharge of storage battery in ampere-hours. By metering discharge, one obtains indication of state of charge of battery and avoids unnecessary recharging, maintaining capacity of battery and prolonging life. Because of its small size and low power consumption, useful in such applications as portable video cameras, communication equipment on boats, portable audio equipment, and portable medical equipment.

  16. Why surface nanobubbles live for hours.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Joost H; Lohse, Detlef

    2013-02-01

    We present a theoretical model for the experimentally found but counterintuitive exceptionally long lifetime of surface nanobubbles. We can explain why, under normal experimental conditions, surface nanobubbles are stable for many hours or even up to days rather than the expected microseconds. The limited gas diffusion through the water in the far field, the cooperative effect of nanobubble clusters, and the pinned contact line of the nanobubbles lead to the slow dissolution rate.

  17. General practice after-hours incentive funding: a rationale for change.

    PubMed

    Neil, Amanda L; Nelson, Mark R; Richardson, Tracy; Mann-Leonard, Meghan; Palmer, Andrew J

    2015-07-20

    After-hours incentive funding for general practice was introduced in 1998 through the introduction of the Practice Incentives Program (PIP). In 2010, a national audit of the PIP identified after-hours incentive funding as having the greatest levels of non-compliance across 12 PIP components. The audit specified the need for secondary data sources to ensure practice compliance. In this article, we examine the drivers of the 1998-2013 PIP mechanism to inform development of a fair, transparent and auditable after-hours incentive funding scheme for Tasmania. The PIP after-hours incentive funding mechanism paid, at diminishing levels, for anticipated burden of care (practice size), claimed method of providing care (stream) and remoteness of practice. Increasing remoteness rather than practice size or stream is the primary determinant of urgent after-hours attendances per practice in Tasmania; after-hours attendances to residential aged care facilities are unrelated to individual practice location or stream but concentrated in urban areas. The PIP after-hours incentive funding mechanism does not preferentially support practices that provide after-hours care and arguably led to perverse incentives. A new after-hours incentive funding mechanism embodying pre-specified objectives - such as support for (unavoidable) burden and/or provision of care to residential aged care facilities - is required. Claimed provision is considered an inappropriate funding determinant.

  18. Short sleep mediates the association between long work hours and increased body mass index.

    PubMed

    Magee, Christopher A; Caputi, Peter; Iverson, Don C

    2011-04-01

    This study examined whether short sleep duration, physical activity and time spent sitting each day mediated the association between long work hours and body mass index (BMI). Participants included 16,951 middle aged Australian adults who were employed in full time work (i.e. ≥35 h a week). Data on BMI, sleep duration, work hours and other health and demographic variables were obtained through a self-report questionnaire. A multiple mediation model was tested whereby sleep duration, physical activity and amount of time spent sitting were entered as potential mediators between work hours and BMI. The results demonstrated that short sleep partially mediated the association between long work hours and increased BMI in males. In females, long work hours were indirectly related to higher BMI through short sleep. The results provide some support for the hypothesis that long work hours could contribute to obesity via a reduction in sleep duration; this warrants further investigation in prospective studies.

  19. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-11-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal.

  20. Long working hours and health status among employees in Europe: between-country differences.

    PubMed

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Cortès, Imma; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Bartoll, Xavier; Basart, Helena; Borrell, Carme

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to (i) identify family responsibilities associated with moderately long working hours (41-60 hours a week); (ii) examine the relationship between moderately long working hours and three health outcomes; and (iii) analyze whether patterns differ by welfare state regimes. The sample was composed of all employees aged 16-64 years working 30-60 hours a week interviewed in the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey (9288 men and 6295 women). We fitted multiple logistic regression models separated by sex and welfare state regime typologies. Married males were more likely to work long hours in countries with male breadwinner models whereas family responsibilities were related to long working hours among both sexes in countries with dual breadwinner models. The association between long working hours and health was (i) stronger among men in countries with male breadwinner models, primarily in Anglo-Saxon countries [adjusted odds ratio (OR adj) associated with working 51-60 hours of 6.43, 6.04 and 9.60 for work-related poor health status, stress and psychological distress, respectively); (ii) similar among both sexes in Nordic countries; and (iii) stronger among women in Eastern European countries. In the European Union of 25 members (EU-25), working moderately long hours is associated with poor health outcomes with different patterns depending on welfare state regimes. The findings from this study suggest that the family responsibilities and breadwinner models can help explain the relationship between long working hours and health status.

  1. Composition and phase analysis of nanocrystalline BaxSr1-xFe12O19 (x = 1.0; 0.6; and 0.4) by using general structure analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunanto, Y. E.; Jobiliong, E.; Adi, Wisnu Ari

    2016-03-01

    Single phase of nanocrystalline BaxSr1-xFe12O19 (x = 1.0; 0.6; and 0.4) was successfully synthesized by mechanical milling method and thermal process. Stoichiometric quantities of analytical-grade SrCO3, BaCO3, and Fe2O3, were mixed and milled using a high-energy milling. The mixture of all precursors was sintered at a temperature of 1000 °C for 10 hours. The refinement of x-ray diffraction trace for all samples confirmed a single phase material with a hexagonal structure. The increase of the amount of strontium content in the barium atoms in the BaxSr1-xFe12O19 system can decrease the lattice parameter which have been successfully substituted into the barium atoms. The calculation result of cationic distribution showed that the BaxSr1-xFe12O19 (x = 0.6) and (x = 0.4) samples have nominal composition of Ba0,61Sr0,39Fe12O19 and Ba0,37Sr0,63Fe12O19, respectively. Results of the mean of crystallite size evaluation for respective powder materials showed that the BaxSr1-xFe12O19 (x = 1.0; 0.6; and 0.4) samples have the crystallite size of 22 nm, 25 nm and 34 nm, respectively. We concluded that the cationic distribution of barium atoms was successfully substituted by strontium atoms approaching the nominal stoichiometric composition.

  2. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111... REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Each person... shall receive a minimum of 10 hours of rest in any 24-hour period. (b) The hours of rest required under...

  3. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111... REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Each person... shall receive a minimum of 10 hours of rest in any 24-hour period. (b) The hours of rest required under...

  4. Ethylene Oxide: Acute Four-Hour and One-Hour Inhalation Toxicity Testing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Snellings, William M.; Nachreiner, Donald J.; Pottenger, Lynn H.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene oxide was tested on groups of rats for either 4-hour or 1-hour inhalation exposure, followed by 14 days of observation. Groups of five Sprague-Dawley rats/sex were exposed, and clinical signs and mortality were recorded. Clinical signs noted included irregular breathing, absence of certain reflexes, and tremors. Rats that died had moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The calculated LC50 values, reported as ppm by volume (with 95% confidence limits), were as follows. 4-hour LC50 values were 1972 (1887 to 2061) ppm for males; 1537 (1391 to 1698) ppm for females; 1741 (1655 to 1831) ppm for the combined sexes. The 1-hour LC50 values were 5748 (5276 to 6262) ppm for males; 4439 (4034 to 4884) ppm for females; 5029 (4634 to 5459) ppm for the combined sexes. PMID:21785591

  5. New Zealand optometrists 2006: demographics, working arrangements and hours worked.

    PubMed

    Frederikson, Lesley G; Chamberlain, Kerry; Sangster, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Optometry is a regulated health profession in NZ, with limited student places. With 650 registered optometrists in 2005, the optometrist to population ratio was 1 : 6,291 with no apparent national shortage. If optometrists registered in NZ do not actually live there, a workforce shortage is possible. This paper presents findings from the New Zealand Association of Optometrists 2006 workforce survey of members, which aimed to profile the NZ optometric workforce and to explore factors relating to workforce capacity, job stress and future planning. A questionnaire was developed to collect information on employment status, hours worked and gender distribution of optometrists in New Zealand. It was circulated to 530 active members of the NZ Association of Optometrists representing 86 per cent of the available optometrists. Direct comparisons with the Australian optometric workforce numbers were also undertaken. Of the 243 respondents, 129 (53 per cent) were male. The median age of all respondents was 39 years (46 for males and 34 for females) and 75 per cent of the respondents were aged younger than 50 years. Fifty per cent had practised 15 years or less. Ten per cent of respondents had 'time-out' during their career and this was significantly more likely for females. Nearly half the respondents were self-employed (46 per cent) and eight per cent worked as locums. Part-time employees were more likely to be female and males were more likely to be in full-time self-employment. Half the group was under 40 (51 per cent), which accounted for 86 per cent of the full-time salaried arrangements. Those aged 30 to 39 included 52 per cent of the total part-time salaried workers. The average working week was 34 hours for women and 39 hours for men; the median was 40 hours for both groups. In the typical working week, 80 per cent of an optometrist's time was spent consulting with patients and five per cent was patient-related paperwork. The distribution of work arrangements was

  6. Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia: the first 48 hours.

    PubMed

    Ringenberg, Q S; Doll, D C

    1990-08-01

    The initial care of patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia can be lifesaving. Such patients are most often treated at tertiary care centers where resident physicians, working under the supervision of a subspecialist, are responsible for the diagnosis and initial treatment. During the first 48 hours, the house officer must recognize and understand the management of perilous complications such as hyperleukocytosis, hemorrhage, and infection. Specific lifesaving measures will grant the patient and his physicians sufficient time to reach a decision regarding the initiation of curative induction chemotherapy.

  7. The Hours: between safety and servitude.

    PubMed

    Charles, Marilyn

    2004-09-01

    This paper explores the issue of how character is created and re-created in the context of relationships. This theme, salient in the recent film The Hours, has been particularly problematic for creative women, who are often caught in tensions between self-development and relationship. Two case examples are given, in counterpoint to the film and to illustrations from Woolf's life and work. Through these various lenses, we can consider the complex interplays between our conjectures as to the expected price of relationship, and the actual price exacted as our various dramas unfold.

  8. 20140430_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-05-05

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 April to 30 April 2014.

  9. Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-07-15

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 6/1/13 to 6/30/13

  10. Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data 20130731

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-08-30

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 7/1/13 to 7/31/13.

  11. 20130416_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-04-24

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 4/16/13.

  12. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L.; Folkard, S.; Tucker, P.; Macdonald, I.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. METHODS: Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. RESULTS: The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. CONCLUSIONS: There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.   PMID:9624275

  13. Work patterns, sleeping hours and excess weight in commercial drivers.

    PubMed

    Lemke, M K; Hege, A; Perko, M; Sönmez, S; Apostolopoulos, Y

    2015-12-01

    Work and sleep patterns for commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers often include long working hours, shift work and diminished sleep duration and quality, which have been linked to overweight, obesity and other problems. To explore possible connections between work, sleep and obesity among CMV drivers. Survey and anthropometric data were collected from male long-haul CMV drivers in central North Carolina, USA, over a period of 6 months. Drivers' body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of total body obesity and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) as a measure of central adiposity. Among the 260 study subjects, mean BMI was 33.1 (64% were obese or morbidly obese) and mean SAD was 32.3cm, classifying 89% of drivers as being at high or very high cardiometabolic risk. About 83% of drivers worked an irregular daily schedule, 64% worked irregular total daily hours, 32% worked irregular days of the week and 46% reported getting <7h of sleep during work nights. Significant predictors of BMI included the number of hours worked daily (P < 0.05) and the age (P < 0.01) of the driver, while age was also a significant predictor for SAD (P < 0.05). Significant predictors of sleep quality included the extent of shift work (P < 0.05) and sleep duration (P < 0.001). Work and sleep configurations appear to affect the weight status of CMV drivers. Shift work and sleep duration are both associated with the weight status of CMV drivers, and both appear to function as indicators of their sleep quality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Abbreviated (12-hour) versus traditional (24-hour) postpartum magnesium sulfate therapy in severe pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Maia, Sabina B; Katz, Leila; Neto, Carlos Noronha; Caiado, Bárbara V R; Azevedo, Ana P R L; Amorim, Melania M R

    2014-09-01

    To compare the use of magnesium sulfate for 12 hours versus 24 hours in postpartum women with stable severe pre-eclampsia. In 2011, an open randomized clinical trial was conducted with 120 postpartum women with severe pre-eclampsia who gave birth at a tertiary hospital in Brazil; 60 women received magnesium sulfate for 24 hours and 60 for 12 hours. The analysis was by intention-to-treat and the intervention was not masked. Abbreviated (12-hour) magnesium sulfate therapy was associated with less exposure to the drug, and clinical outcomes were similar in both groups. No woman developed eclampsia and there was no need to re-initiate treatment after completing the scheduled magnesium sulfate therapy in either group. Magnesium sulfate therapy was extended in only three women in the 12-hour group. In addition, in this group, significant reductions were found in the duration of postpartum use of an indwelling bladder catheter, the time to ambulation, and the time to maternal contact with the newborn. Abbreviated postpartum magnesium sulfate therapy in patients with stable severe pre-eclampsia was associated with less drug exposure, similar outcomes, and benefits such as a reduction in the time to contact with the newborn. clinicaltrials.gov NCT1408979. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Seven hour shifts versus 12 hours in intensive nursing care: going against the tide].

    PubMed

    Moreno Arroyo, M C; Jerez González, J A; Cabrera Jaime, S; Estrada Masllorens, J M; López Martín, A

    2013-01-01

    Working in shifts has an impact on the well being of health care professionals, affecting their quality of life. The main objective of this study is to describe the consequences of 12hours work shifts versus 7hours for nursing professionals working in intensive care units. A cost-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals of Barcelona, these being the Hospital Clínico and Hospital Vall d'Hebron (of 7hour and 12hour shifts, respectively). The data was collected through a questionnaire having 29 closed questions that was anonymous and self-administered. The questionnaire was based on two scales: Standard Shiftwork Index and Shiftwork. locus of control. Data was processed through SPSS V.18.0. The target population consisted of 85 people, for whom 52 surveys were valid: 22 in Hospital Clínico of Barcelona and 30 in Hospital Vall d'Hebron. Professionals working a 12-hour shift express higher levels of work and family conciliation, especially in the case of leisure time to enjoy (×2: 10.635 p=0.031) and family-friends time dedication as well as lower levels of perceived fatigue. No differences were found between type of shift and ease of development of professional work, even though the 12-hour shift has higher levels.

  16. A neutron polarization analysis study of moment correlations in (Dy(0.4)Y(0.6))T(2) (T = Mn, Al).

    PubMed

    Stewart, J R; Hillier, J M; Manuel, P; Cywinski, R

    2011-04-27

    We present a study of the magnetic moment correlations of two pseudo-binary C15 Laves phase compounds, (Dy(0.4)Y(0.6))Mn(2) and (Dy(0.4)Y(0.6))Al(2), both of which have spin-glass-like magnetic ground states at low temperature. We use neutron powder diffraction with polarization analysis to isolate the diffuse scattering associated with the correlated spin-glass ground state, and compare and contrast the two systems. Despite there being differences of correlation length scale, we discover that the moment-moment correlations of these two disordered magnets are quite similar over a short range, and hence conjecture that the Mn ions in (Dy(0.4)Y(0.6))Mn(2) have little influence on the ground-state magnetic properties.

  17. Fabrication of magnetic Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 nanocomposite for visible-light-driven photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ziling; Wu, Dan; Wang, Wei; Tan, Fatang; Ng, Tsz Wai; Chen, Jianguo; Qiao, Xueliang; Wong, Po Keung

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial inactivation by magnetic photocatalysts has now received growing interests due to the easy separation for recycle and reuse of photocatalysts. In this study, magnetic Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 photocatalyst was prepared by a facile two-step precipitation method. Multiple techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffused reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were employed to characterize the structure, morphology and physicochemical properties of the photocatalyst. The as-obtained Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 possessing magnetic property was easily collected from the reaction system by a magnet. Under white light-emitting-diode (LED) lamp irradiation, Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 nanocomposite could completely inactivate 7-log of Escherichia coli K-12 within 5 h. More importantly, almost no decrease of photocatalytic efficiency in bacterial inactivation was observed even after five consecutive cycles, demonstrating Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 exhibited good stability for reuse. The low released rate of Fe2+/Fe3+ and Zn2+ from Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 composite further indicated the photocatalyst showed low cytotoxicity to bacterium and high stability under LED lamp irradiation. Facile preparation, high photocatalytic efficiency, good stability and reusability, and magnetic recovery property endow Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 nanocomposite to be a promising photocatalytic material for bacterial inactivation.

  18. The future intensification of hourly precipitation extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prein, Andreas F.; Rasmussen, Roy M.; Ikeda, Kyoko; Liu, Changhai; Clark, Martyn P.; Holland, Greg J.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme precipitation intensities have increased in all regions of the Contiguous United States (CONUS) and are expected to further increase with warming at scaling rates of about 7% per degree Celsius (ref. ), suggesting a significant increase of flash flood hazards due to climate change. However, the scaling rates between extreme precipitation and temperature are strongly dependent on the region, temperature, and moisture availability, which inhibits simple extrapolation of the scaling rate from past climate data into the future. Here we study observed and simulated changes in local precipitation extremes over the CONUS by analysing a very high resolution (4 km horizontal grid spacing) current and high-end climate scenario that realistically simulates hourly precipitation extremes. We show that extreme precipitation is increasing with temperature in moist, energy-limited, environments and decreases abruptly in dry, moisture-limited, environments. This novel framework explains the large variability in the observed and modelled scaling rates and helps with understanding the significant frequency and intensity increases in future hourly extreme precipitation events and their interaction with larger scales.

  19. Solid state watt-hour meter

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.R.; Gilker, C.S.

    1984-08-21

    A watt-hour meter is disclosed which includes: a microprocessor coupled to a solid-state Hall-Effect sensor; an electrically alterable ROM coupled to the microprocessor; a power supply; a power outage timing means using the discharge characteristic of a capacitor; apparatus for supplying a 60 Hz clock signal to the microprocessor; a readout device coupled to the microprocessor to provide an indication of the power consumed; an output on the microprocessor for controlling a circuit breaker; and a switch for overriding the microprocessor controlled circuit breaker. The microprocessor and the electrically alterable ROM are connected and programmed: to sense the time of day as determined from an initial time of day and setting the 60 Hz clock signal; to sense and compute the power used by the consumer; to automatically open the circuit breaker when power demand on the electric power source is high and/or the cost per kilowatt hour is high; to automatically close the circuit breaker when the power demand on the source of electric power is low and/or the cost per kilowatt power is low; and to allow a consumer to override the microprocessor's control of the circuit breaker.

  20. [Salt taste threshold, 24 hour natriuresis and blood pressure variation in normotensive individuals].

    PubMed

    Antonello, Vicente Sperb; Antonello, Ivan Carlos Ferreira; Santos, Carlos Abaeté de Los

    2007-01-01

    The study evaluates salt taste sensibility, urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure (BP) in normotensive persons. The hypothesis was that a higher salt taste threshold (STT) can be associated to a higher 24 hour natriuresis and increased BP levels. Twenty four not hypertensive volunteers were selected. To evaluate STT, different concentrations of sodium chloride were used. Individuals were submitted to 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and the 24 hour urine was collected for sodium dosage. Patients were divided in two groups related to higher or normal STT. Both groups did not differ regarding age or body mass index (BMI). There was no difference between the groups regarding demographic variables, alcohol or tobacco use, and ABPM. Twenty-four hour natriuresis was significantly higher in the group with increased STT. Using Pearson's correlation coefficient, with the significance determined by Student-t test, there was a strong correlation between 24 hour Systolic BP and BMI, Diastolic BP and BMI, and a regular correlation between STT with 24 hour natriuresis and Systolic BP with 24 hour natriuresis. Twenty four hour natriuresis was significantly higher in individuals with higher STT, suggesting that this avidity for salt is followed by higher ingestion of sodium. There was strong association between BP and BMI. The association between STT and BP levels was not confirmed. Increasing the number of persons, the age bracket, and of hypertensive patients may lead to a better understanding of the relations between STT, natriuresis and BP variation.

  1. Comprehensive report of the efficacy, safety, quality of life, and work impact of Olopatadine 0.6% and Olopatadine 0.4% treatment in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, Carol J; Meltzer, Eli O; Roland, Peter S; Wells, David; Drake, Margaret; Wall, G Michael

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) treatment should reduce symptoms and help patients resume normal function. This study was performed to determine the effect of olopatadine (Olo) nasal spray on symptoms, quality of life (QoL), work, and activities of SAR patients. A pooled analysis was conducted of two Institutional Review Board-approved, randomized, double-blind clinical trials that compared 2-week treatment with Olo 0.6% and Olo 0.4% to placebo. Symptoms were assessed with the Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) from daily diaries. Health outcomes were measured by the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire-Allergy Specific (WPAI-AS) and Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ). The studies included 1240 SAR patients with a mean age of 37 years; 64% were women. TNSS and RQLQ improvements were significantly different from placebo: TNSS, Olo 0.6% (p < 0.0001) and Olo 0.4% (p < 0.0037); RQLQ, Olo 0.6% (p < 0.001) and Olo 0.4% (p < 0.05). WPAI-AS improvements also were significant for overall work impact and activity impairment in the Olo 0.6% (p < 0.001) and Olo 0.4% (p < 0.05). Correlations between Olo 0.6% TNSS scores and work impact were r = 0.45 (p < 0.0001); activities, r = 0.55 (p < 0.0001); and RQLQ score, r = 0.61 (p < 0.0001), indicating that symptom reduction with Olo therapy was associated with improvements in function and QoL. Adverse events were nonserious and infrequent in all treatment groups. The most frequent adverse events were unpleasant taste and headache. This analysis indicates that Olo is a safe and effective intranasal treatment and is associated with significant improvement in QoL and ability to perform work and conduct usual activities of SAR patients.

  2. Test plan and preliminary report of airborne electromagentic environment survey over USA urban areas 0.4 to 18.0 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic environment survey is described of five urban areas where terrestrially-generated radio-frequency interference was measured over the frequency range from 0.4 to 18.0 GHz. A chartered Cessna 402 aircraft contained necessary measurement test equipment, including the receiving antennas mounted beneath the fuselage. Urban areas including Washington, D.C.; Baltimore, MD; Philadelphia, PA; New York, NY; Chicago, ILL; and Palestine, TX were surveyed. A flight test plan and preliminary test results for the 0.4 to 1.4 GHz frequency range, are included; a final test report describes more detailed results.

  3. A 0-Hour/1-Hour Protocol for Safe, Early Discharge of Chest Pain Patients.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Arash; Lindahl, Bertil; Schiopu, Alexandru; Yndigegn, Troels; Khoshnood, Ardavan; Gilje, Patrik; Ekelund, Ulf

    2017-08-01

    Guidelines recommend a 0-hour/1-hour high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) diagnostic strategy in acute chest pain patients. There are, however, little data on the performance of this strategy when combined with clinical risk stratification. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP) using the 0-hour/1-hour hs-cTnT strategy together with an adapted Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score and electrocardiogram (ECG) for ruling out major adverse cardiac events (MACE) within 30 days. This prospective observational study enrolled consecutive emergency department (ED) chest pain patients. TIMI score variables, ED physicians' assessments of the ECG, and 0- and 1-hour hs-cTnT were collected. Thirty-day MACE was defined as acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina (UA), cardiogenic shock, ventricular arrhythmia, atrioventricular block, cardiac arrest, or death of cardiac or unknown cause. A total of 1,020 patients were included in the final analysis. The combination of an adapted TIMI score ≤1, a nonischemic ECG, and either a 0-hour hs-cTnT < 5 ng/L or a 0-hour hs-cTnT < 12 ng/L combined with a 1-hour increase < 3 ng/L identified 432 (42.4%) patients as very low risk with a negative predictive value of 99.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 98.3%-99.9%) and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.04 (95% CI = 0.01-0.14) for 30-day MACE. The ADP missed only two patients with UA and no patients with AMI or other forms of MACE. An ADP using the guideline recommended 0-hour/1-hour hs-cTnT strategy rapidly identified patients with a very low risk of 30-day MACE including UA where no further cardiac testing would be needed. This could potentially allow safe early discharge of about 40% of ED chest pain patients. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  4. Workplace status and risk of hypertension among hourly and salaried aluminum manufacturing employees

    PubMed Central

    Clougherty, Jane Ellen; Eisen, Ellen A; Slade, Martin D; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cullen, Mark R

    2009-01-01

    An inverse relationship between workplace status and morbidity is well established; higher job status has been associated with reduced risks of heart disease, hypertension, and injury. Most research on job status, however, has focused on salaried populations, and it remains unclear whether job status operates similarly among hourly workers. Our objectives were to examine whether hourly status itself influences risk of hypertension after adjustment for socioeconomic confounders, and to explore the role of fine-scale job grade on hypertension incidence within hourly and salaried groups. We examined data for 14,999 aluminum manufacturing employees in 11 plants across the U.S., using logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, race/ ethnicity and other individual characteristics. Propensity score restriction was used to identify comparable groups of hourly and salaried employees, reducing confounding by socio-demographic characteristics. Job grade (coded 1 through 30, within hourly and salaried groups) was examined as a more refined measure of job status. Hourly status was associated with an increased risk of hypertension, after propensity restriction and adjustment for confounders. The observed effect of hourly status was stronger among women, although the propensity-restricted cohort was disproportionately male (96 %). Among salaried workers, higher job grade was not consistently associated with decreased risk; among hourly employees, however, there was a significant trend, with higher job grades more protective against hypertension. Increasing the stringency of hypertension case criteria also increased the risk of severe or persistent hypertension for hourly employees. PMID:19027215

  5. Preparation of silver-modified La 0.6Ca 0.4CoO 3 binary electrocatalyst for bi-functional air electrodes in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Shuxin; Huang, Kelong; Huang, Chenghuan; Huang, Hongxia; Liu, Suqin; Fan, Min

    Silver-modified La 0.6Ca 0.4CoO 3 composites for molecular oxygen reduction and evolution reaction are prepared by a chemical reduction process using N 2H 4 as the reducing agent at room temperature. The La 0.6Ca 0.4CoO 3 catalysts are modified with silver content that vary from 0.3 to 30 wt.% without damaging their microstructure. The electrochemical behavior of La 0.6Ca 0.4CoO 3 catalysts with different silver loadings is studied on classical bilayer gas diffusion electrodes. The electrocatalytic properties of these composites are evaluated by polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in alkaline electrolyte. The silver loading is found to have a significant impact on the electrode performances, which facilitate or block the electrochemical processes of the gas diffusion electrodes. The binary catalyst electrodes exhibit higher electrocatalytic activities than that of the electrodes with only La 0.6Ca 0.4CoO 3 as the catalyst. In this paper, the best performance was achieved when the silver loading was 3.0 wt.%.

  6. Morphological, structural, and electrochemical characteristics of LiNi 0.5Mn 0.4M 0.1O 2 (M = Li, Mg, Co, Al)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Decheng; Sasaki, Yuki; Kobayakawa, Koichi; Sato, Yuichi

    LiNi 0.5Mn 0.4M 0.1O 2 (M = Li, Mg, Al, Co) compound was prepared by a solid-state reaction, and its structural, morphological and electrochemical properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, charge-discharge tests and EIS. The impacts of alien ion introduction on the structural, morphological and electrochemical properties of LiNi 0.5Mn 0.5O 2 depend on the dopants. The substitution of Li, Mg, and Co for Mn can enlarge the particle size and improve the crystallinity. LiNi 0.5Mn 0.4Li 0.1O 2 and LiNi 0.5Mn 0.4Co 0.1O 2 show increased reversible capacities as well as upgraded rate capabilities. LiNi 0.5Mn 0.4Li 0.1O 2 exhibits a retentive capacity of about 200 mAh g -1 at 50 °C.

  7. Resistive switching characteristics of Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices constructed on plastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2012-07-01

    In this study, Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6Al devices are fabricated on plastic substrates using the sputtering method at room temperature. The ratio of O/S in the zinc oxysulfide thin film is confirmed to be 0.4/0.6 from the Auger depth profiling. The Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices show unipolar resistive switching behaviors and the ratio of the measured resistance in the low-resistance state (LRS) to that in the high-resistance state (HRS) is above 10(4). The conduction mechanism of the LRS is governed by Ohm's law. On the other hand, in the HRS, the conduction mechanism at low voltages is controlled by Ohm's law, but that at high voltages results from the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism. The Ohmic and Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanisms observed in the LRS and HRS support the filament model of unipolar resistive switching. The memory characteristics of the Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices are retained for 10(4) sec without any change.

  8. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Bi0.4Ca0.6MnO3 Epitaxial Films on SrTiO3 Buffered Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Grace; Smolyaninova, Vera; Adhikari, Sanjay; Hofmann, Benjamin; Kolagani, Rajeswari; Liang, Yong

    2010-03-01

    Bi0.4Ca0.6MnO3 is a photo-responsive material. Upon illumination with visible light, the resistivity of Bi0.4Ca0.6MnO3 epitaxial thin films on oxide substrates decreases significantly in a wide temperature range due to the destruction of charge ordering, with the resistivity (ρ) recovering upon subsequent blocking of the light. We demonstrate that Bi0.4Ca0.6MnO3 can be grown epitaxially (by PLD) on SrTiO3 buffered Si(001). (The Si was buffered with ˜ 100å epitaxial SrTiO3 grown via a Motorola Molecular Beam Epitaxy process). In general, epitaxy on silicon is needed for integration of a detector component with complementary MOS readout. Epitaxial growth on Si also opens up the possibility of fabricating a free-standing, strain-free Bi0.4Ca0.6MnO3 membrane via standard Si micromachining techniques. Such a free standing film may be expected to have properties similar to that of the bulk single crystal which exhibit permanent photoinduced reflectivity changes attractive for photonic device application.

  9. Fabrication and magnetic property of BaSm(x)Fe(12-x)O19 (x < or = 0.4) nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Xian-Feng, Meng; Li-Ju, Guo

    2012-03-01

    BaSm(x)Fe(12-x)O19 (x < or = 0.4) ferrite nanofibers were prepared by sol-gel method from starting reagents of metal salts and citric acid. These nanofibers were characterized by TG-DTA, FTIR, SEM, XRD and VSM. These results show that the BaSm(x)Fe(12-x)O19 (x < or = 0.4) ferrite nanofibers were obtained subsequently from calcination at 750 degrees C for 1 h. The BaSm(x)Fe(12-x)O19 (x < or = 0.4) microstructure and magnetic property are mainly influenced by chemical composition and heat-treatment temperature. The grain sizes of BaSm0.3Fe11.7O19 ferrite nanofibers are in a nanoscale from 40 nm to 62 nm corresponding to the calcination temperature from 750 degrees C to 1050 derees C. The saturation magnetization of BaSm(x)Fe(12-x)O19 ferrite nanofiber calcined at 950 degrees C for 1 h initially decreases with the Sm content from 0 to 0.3 and then increases with a further Sm content, while the coercivity exhibits a continuous increase from 348 kA x m(-1) (x = 0) to 427 kA x m(-1) (x = 0.4). The differences of magnetic properties are attributed to lattice distortion and enhancement for the anisotropy energy.

  10. Portable PVS-02 spectrometer for transfer of the spectral radiance scale in the 0.4-2.5 μm range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Yu. V.; Rogovets, A. V.; Khomitsevich, A. D.; Tsikman, I. M.

    2010-11-01

    We describe selection of an optical layout and calculation of the spectral sensitivity and measurement uncertainty in a portable spectrometer. The spectrometer is used for transfer of the brightness scale in the 0.4-2.5 μm range from one brightness reference standard to another.

  11. Platelet closure time in anesthetized Greyhounds with hemorrhagic shock treated with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 or 0.9% sodium chloride infusions.

    PubMed

    McBride, Duana; Hosgood, Giselle; Raisis, Anthea; Smart, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    To measure platelet closure time (PCT) in dogs during controlled hemorrhagic shock and after fluid resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 or 0.9% sodium chloride. Experimental interventional study. University veterinary teaching hospital. Eleven healthy Greyhounds. Dogs were anesthetized and had 48 mL/kg of blood removed to induce hemorrhagic shock. Dogs received 20 mL/kg of HES 130/0.4 (n = 6) or 80 mL/kg of 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl; n = 5) intravenously over 20 minutes. PCT was measured using the Platelet Function Analyzer-100 with collagen and adenosine-diphosphate cartridges at: T0 = 60 minutes after induction of anesthesia prior to hemorrhage, T1 = during hemorrhagic shock, and T2 = 40 minutes after completion of fluid bolus. Packed cell volume and platelet count were concurrently measured. Hemorrhagic shock did not significantly change PCT, with no difference between T0 and T1. Both the HES 130/0.4 and 0.9% NaCl group had a significantly increased mean PCT at T2 of 91.4 seconds (95% CI 69.3-113.4) and 95.5 seconds (95% CI 78.2-112.8), respectively, compared to T1. The magnitude of change was significantly greater for the 0.9% NaCl group than the HES 130/0.4 group. There was no difference in the magnitude of change in PCV and platelet count between the 2 groups. The PCV and platelet count were >25% and >100,000/μL, respectively, in all dogs, except for dogs in the HES 130/0.4 group at T2 where platelet counts were <100,000/μL. Controlled hemorrhagic shock in Greyhounds under anesthesia did not cause a significant change in PCT. Both HES 130/0.4 and 0.9% NaCl administration after induction of shock increased PCT. These results do not support that HES 130/0.4 causes relevant platelet dysfunction beyond hemodilution. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  12. Controlled synthesis and microwave absorption properties of Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/PANI composite via an in-situ polymerization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Ji, Guangbin; Zhang, Baoshan; Tang, Dongming; Yang, Yi; Du, Youwei

    2015-03-01

    The binary composites of conducting polyaniline (PANI) and nickle zinc ferrite were synthesized by an in-situ polymerization process, and the electromagnetic absorption properties of the composites were also investigated. The FT-IR spectra present the peaks of PANI (1562, 1481, 1301, 1109, and 799 cm-1) and the bonds of NiZn ferrite (579 and 390 cm-1), indicating the existence of both NiZn ferrite particles and PANI in the composites. With the increasing ratio of nickle zinc ferrite, the composites distributes in irregular compared with pure PANI and Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4. The TG curves of the pure PANI and PANI/Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 composites with different molar ratios clearly show the increase percentage of the ferrite in the composites. Furthermore, we found that the excellent electromagnetic absorption properties and wide absorption bandwidth can be achieved by adjusting proper molar ratios Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 to PANI. The maximum reflection loss of Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/PANI can reach to -41 dB at 12.8 GHz and the bandwidth exceeding -10 dB can reach to 5 GHz with the absorber thickness of 2.6 mm at the molar ratio of 1:2. This can be attributed to the enhancing magnetic loss and the better impedance matching. Therefore, Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/PANI ferrite composites can become a new kind of candidate in the field of the microwave absorbing.

  13. Enhanced microwave dielectric properties of Ba{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 0.6}TiO{sub 3} ceramics doping by metal Fe powders

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qiwei; Zhai Jiwei; Yao Xi; Ben Qianqian; Yu Xian

    2012-11-15

    Ba{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 0.6}TiO{sub 3} ceramics by adding mental Fe powders have been fabricated via the solid-state reaction method. The microstructures and optical properties of samples are systematically studied in order to establish the effects of Fe powder additives on microwave dielectric properties of Ba{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 0.6}TiO{sub 3} ceramics by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and optical reflective spectrum. The results show the coexistence of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} in Ba{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 0.6}TiO{sub 3} ceramics, the decrease of O vacancy concentrations, and their incorporation into the B-site (Ti) of the Ba{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 0.6}TiO{sub 3} host lattice give rise to excellent microwave dielectric properties. All samples have a higher Q value above 290 while maintaining relatively high tunability above 16.6%. In particular, the sample with the composition of x = 0.035 mol has the dielectric constant of 889, Q Multiplication-Sign f value of 826 (at 1.370 GHz), and tunability of 24%, which are very promising for high power tunable devices. In comparison, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide doped Ba{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 0.6}TiO{sub 3} ceramics with the same molar ratios of Fe exhibit inferior microwave properties. It indicates that additives of the metal Fe powders can more effectively improve dielectric properties of Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} system than Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide.

  14. Investigation of Low Temperature Non-Linear Magnetization Behavior in Al and Ga - Substituted La0.4Bi0.6Mno3 Manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, Vijaylakshmi; v, Punith Kumar; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David; David C Jiles Team; Vijaylakshmi Dayal Collaboration

    Low temperature magnetization measurements have been carried out for the samples containing Al and Ga at B-site in La0.4Bi0.6MnO3 manganites. The magnetization (M) vs. T(K) data shows strong ferromagnetic behavior with highest magnetization of 6.45 emu/g for La0.4Bi0.6Mn0.95Al0.05O3 and 5.40 emu/g for La0.4Bi0.6Mn0.90Al0.1O3 samples respectively for an applied magnetic field of H =100 Oe at T =20 K. Similarly at T =20 K for La0.4Bi0.6Mn0.95Ga0.05O3 the highest magnetization (MS) was found to be 5.44 emu/g and for La0.4Bi0.6Mn0.90Ga0.1O3 the MS is 5.05 emu/g. The decrease in magnetization with both Al and Ga substitution produces magnetic dilution with increasing concentrations. Both Al and Ga substituted samples exhibit non-linear behavior in their magnetization (MNL) curves around 40 -120 K due to the frustrations arising from mismatch in their magnetic spin arrangements. The quantity non linear susceptibility, χNL = - MNL/H, diverges as the temperature approaches the frustrated region Tf from above (i.e.TC) . Further from dχNL/dT vs. T(K) plots and critical analysis with unusual critical exponent's γ and β gives an experimental evidence for the observed non linearity and magnetic frustration.

  15. Enhanced microwave dielectric properties of Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 ceramics doping by metal Fe powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiwei; Zhai, Jiwei; Ben, Qianqian; Yu, Xian; Yao, Xi

    2012-11-01

    Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 ceramics by adding mental Fe powders have been fabricated via the solid-state reaction method. The microstructures and optical properties of samples are systematically studied in order to establish the effects of Fe powder additives on microwave dielectric properties of Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 ceramics by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and optical reflective spectrum. The results show the coexistence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 ceramics, the decrease of O vacancy concentrations, and their incorporation into the B-site (Ti) of the Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 host lattice give rise to excellent microwave dielectric properties. All samples have a higher Q value above 290 while maintaining relatively high tunability above 16.6%. In particular, the sample with the composition of x = 0.035 mol has the dielectric constant of 889, Q × f value of 826 (at 1.370 GHz), and tunability of 24%, which are very promising for high power tunable devices. In comparison, Fe2O3 oxide doped Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 ceramics with the same molar ratios of Fe exhibit inferior microwave properties. It indicates that additives of the metal Fe powders can more effectively improve dielectric properties of BaxSr1-xTiO3 system than Fe2O3 oxide.

  16. Work Hours of Immigrant Versus U.S.-Born Female Workers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung-Heui

    2017-10-01

    This study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data extracted from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey. Data from 8,931 full-time (i.e., 21 hours or more per week) women workers aged 18 to 85 years were analyzed to examine the nature and prevalence of immigrant female workers' work hours, overtime, and related factors in the United States compared to U.S.-born female workers. Results showed that foreign-born female workers did not work longer hours than U.S.-born female workers. Foreign-born female workers who reported poor health worked longer hours than did their U.S.-born counterparts. Foreign-born female workers who were self-employed or worked in family businesses tended to work longer hours than did those women who worked for private companies or nonprofit organizations.

  17. Hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children: a multicenter birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Iñiguez, Carmen; Torrent, Maties; Vioque, Jesús; Turner, Michelle C; Julvez, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine potential associations between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children. To examine the association between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in preschool and school-aged children. Longitudinal, multicenter study among birth cohorts in Menorca, Sabadell, and Valencia from the Spanish Infancia y Medio Ambiente (environment and childhood) project. The study sample included 1713 children (468 from Menorca, 560 from Sabadell, and 685 from Valencia). Parent-reported child television viewing duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. Parent-reported child sleep duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. In cross-sectional analysis, children with longer periods of television viewing reported at baseline (≥ 1.5 hours per day) had shorter sleep duration. Longitudinally, children with reported increases in television viewing duration over time (from <1.5 to ≥ 1.5 hours per day) had a reduction in sleep duration at follow-up visits. Results were similar when examining television viewing duration as a continuous variable, with each 1 hour per day of increased viewing decreasing sleep duration at follow-up visits (β = -0.11; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.05). Associations were similar when television viewing duration was assessed during weekends and after adjusting for potential intermediate factors (child executive function and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms) and confounders (child physical activity level, parental mental health status, maternal IQ, and maternal marital status). Children spending longer periods watching television had shorter sleep duration. Changes in television viewing duration were inversely associated with changes in sleep duration in longitudinal analysis. Parents should consider avoiding long periods of

  18. Stability, precision, and near-24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, C. A.; Duffy, J. F.; Shanahan, T. L.; Brown, E. N.; Mitchell, J. F.; Rimmer, D. W.; Ronda, J. M.; Silva, E. J.; Allan, J. S.; Emens, J. S.; hide

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of circadian period in humans was thought to differ from that of other species, with the period of the activity rhythm reported to range from 13 to 65 hours (median 25.2 hours) and the period of the body temperature rhythm reported to average 25 hours in adulthood, and to shorten with age. However, those observations were based on studies of humans exposed to light levels sufficient to confound circadian period estimation. Precise estimation of the periods of the endogenous circadian rhythms of melatonin, core body temperature, and cortisol in healthy young and older individuals living in carefully controlled lighting conditions has now revealed that the intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker averages 24.18 hours in both age groups, with a tight distribution consistent with other species. These findings have important implications for understanding the pathophysiology of disrupted sleep in older people.

  19. Stability, precision, and near-24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, C. A.; Duffy, J. F.; Shanahan, T. L.; Brown, E. N.; Mitchell, J. F.; Rimmer, D. W.; Ronda, J. M.; Silva, E. J.; Allan, J. S.; Emens, J. S.; Dijk, D. J.; Kronauer, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of circadian period in humans was thought to differ from that of other species, with the period of the activity rhythm reported to range from 13 to 65 hours (median 25.2 hours) and the period of the body temperature rhythm reported to average 25 hours in adulthood, and to shorten with age. However, those observations were based on studies of humans exposed to light levels sufficient to confound circadian period estimation. Precise estimation of the periods of the endogenous circadian rhythms of melatonin, core body temperature, and cortisol in healthy young and older individuals living in carefully controlled lighting conditions has now revealed that the intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker averages 24.18 hours in both age groups, with a tight distribution consistent with other species. These findings have important implications for understanding the pathophysiology of disrupted sleep in older people.

  20. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene between broken periods, one-half day's extra pay will be allowed for each distinct 2-hour period or part... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9...

  1. 5 CFR 550.1303 - Hourly rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regular tour of duty that does not include a basic 40-hour workweek (e.g., firefighters whose schedules generally consist of 24-hour shifts with a significant amount of designated standby and sleep time), the hourly rate of basic pay is computed by dividing the applicable annual rate of basic pay by 2756 hours...

  2. 5 CFR 550.1303 - Hourly rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regular tour of duty that does not include a basic 40-hour workweek (e.g., firefighters whose schedules generally consist of 24-hour shifts with a significant amount of designated standby and sleep time), the hourly rate of basic pay is computed by dividing the applicable annual rate of basic pay by 2756 hours...

  3. 5 CFR 550.1303 - Hourly rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regular tour of duty that does not include a basic 40-hour workweek (e.g., firefighters whose schedules generally consist of 24-hour shifts with a significant amount of designated standby and sleep time), the hourly rate of basic pay is computed by dividing the applicable annual rate of basic pay by 2756 hours...

  4. 5 CFR 550.1303 - Hourly rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regular tour of duty that does not include a basic 40-hour workweek (e.g., firefighters whose schedules generally consist of 24-hour shifts with a significant amount of designated standby and sleep time), the hourly rate of basic pay is computed by dividing the applicable annual rate of basic pay by 2756 hours...

  5. 5 CFR 550.1303 - Hourly rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regular tour of duty that does not include a basic 40-hour workweek (e.g., firefighters whose schedules generally consist of 24-hour shifts with a significant amount of designated standby and sleep time), the hourly rate of basic pay is computed by dividing the applicable annual rate of basic pay by 2756 hours...

  6. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensable hours of work. 553.221 Section 553.221 Labor... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.221 Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part...

  7. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensable hours of work. 553.221 Section 553.221 Labor... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.221 Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part...

  8. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensable hours of work. 553.221 Section 553.221 Labor... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.221 Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part...

  9. New management strategy for fluid resuscitation: Quantifying volume in the first 48 hours after burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Katrina B; Khalil, Elie; Brennan, Ann; Shao, Huibo; Rabbitts, Angela; Leahy, Nicole E; Yurt, Roger W; Gallagher, James J

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated a 24-hour resuscitation protocol; established a formula to quantify resuscitation volume for the second 24 hours; described the relationship between the first and second 24 hours; and, identified which patients required high volumes. Methods A protocol for >15% TBSA burn-injured patients was implemented in 2009. Initial fluid was based on Parkland's calculation, and adjusted to meet a goal urine output. Protocol compliance was defined as appropriate fluid titration to maintain urine output. Resuscitation ratio in the second 24 hours was tabulated as total fluid /(evaporative loss+maintenance fluid+estimated colloid). Data were prospectively collected from 2009-2011. Wilcox rank test compared differences between groups. Regression analyses analyzed volume administered. P< 0.05 was statistically significant. Results 40 patients with ≥ 15% TBSA burn injury met criteria for inclusion. Mean age, burn size, and resuscitation volumes in the first and second 24 hours were as follows (mean ± SD): 47± 20.7 years, 29.9 ± 14.6% TBSA, 7.4 ±3.7 cc/kg/% TBSA, and a ratio of 1.9 times expected volume (SD=1.3), respectively. Protocol compliance was 34%. Intubation, older age, and increased narcotic administration correlated with higher resuscitation volumes. A higher resuscitation volume in the first 24 hours significantly correlated with a higher resuscitation volume in the second 24 hours (p<0.001). Conclusions There is a significant relationship between fluid administration in the first and second 24 hours of resuscitation; intubation, older age, and narcotics correlate with higher volumes. A formula for observed/expected volumes in the second 24 hours is total fluid/(evaporative loss+maintenance fluid+estimated colloid). PMID:23292589

  10. New management strategy for fluid resuscitation: quantifying volume in the first 48 hours after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Katrina B; Khalil, Elie; Brennan, Ann; Shao, Huibo; Rabbitts, Angela; Leahy, Nicole E; Yurt, Roger W; Gallagher, James J

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated a 24-hour resuscitation protocol, established a formula to quantify resuscitation volume for the second 24 hours, described the relationship between the first and second 24 hours, and identified which patients required high volumes. A protocol for patients with burn >15% TBSA was implemented in 2009. Initial fluid was based on the Parkland calculation and adjusted to meet a goal urine output. Protocol compliance was defined as appropriate fluid titration to maintain urine output. Resuscitation ratio in the second 24 hours was tabulated as total fluid /(evaporative loss + maintenance fluid + estimated colloid). Data were collected prospectively from 2009 to 2011. A Wilcoxon rank test compared differences between groups. Regression analyses analyzed volume administered. P < .05 was statistically significant. Forty patients with burn >15% TBSA met criteria for inclusion. Mean age, burn size, and resuscitation volumes in the first and second 24 hours (mean + SD) were 47+ 20.7 years, 29.9 + 14.6% TBSA, 7.4 + 3.7 ml/kg/% TBSA, and a ratio of 1.9 times expected volume (SD, 1.3), respectively. Protocol compliance was 34%. Intubation, older age, and increased narcotic administration correlated with higher resuscitation volumes. A higher resuscitation volume in the first 24 hours significantly correlated with a higher resuscitation volume in the second 24 hours (P < .001). In conclusion, there is a significant relationship between fluid administration in the first and second 24 hours of resuscitation; intubation, older age, and narcotics correlate with higher volumes. A formula for observed/expected volumes in the second 24 hours is total fluid/(evaporative loss + maintenance fluid +estimated colloid).

  11. 24 hours stay after hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Van Den Eeden, Yannick N T; De Turck, Bruno J G; Van Den Eeden, Frank M C

    2017-02-01

    Background and purpose - The length of stay after total hip arthroplasty has been reduced to 2-4 days after implementing fast-track surgery. We investigated whether a new time-based patient-centered primary direct anterior approach (DAA) total hip arthroplasty (THA) treatment protocol in a specialized clinic, with a planned length of stay of about 24 hours, could be achieved in all patients or only in a selected group of patients. Patients and methods - We analyzed prospectively collected data in a cohort of 378 consecutive patients who underwent a primary direct anterior THA as a patient-centered time-based procedure between March 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015. Patients with complicated medical comorbidity and those over the age of 85 were excluded from the study. The average length of stay was recorded and all complications, re-admissions, and reoperations were registered and analyzed. The primary outcome measures were length of stay and complication rate, at discharge and 90 days postoperatively. Results - The average length of stay for all patients was 26 hours. All patients were discharged from the clinic on the day after the operation and were able to continue their recovery at home or in a rehabilitation facility. The overall complication rate within 3 months of surgery was 6%. The 3-month re-admission rate and the 3-month reoperation rate were both 2%. Interpretation - Performing a time-based, patient-centered fast-track program for DAA total hip arthroplasty can result in a standardized length of stay of about 24 hours and a high level of patient satisfaction with few complications, re-admissions, and reoperations.

  12. 24 hours stay after hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Eeden, Yannick N T; De Turck, Bruno J G; Van Den Eeden, Frank M C

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — The length of stay after total hip arthroplasty has been reduced to 2–4 days after implementing fast-track surgery. We investigated whether a new time-based patient-centered primary direct anterior approach (DAA) total hip arthroplasty (THA) treatment protocol in a specialized clinic, with a planned length of stay of about 24 hours, could be achieved in all patients or only in a selected group of patients. Patients and methods — We analyzed prospectively collected data in a cohort of 378 consecutive patients who underwent a primary direct anterior THA as a patient-centered time-based procedure between March 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015. Patients with complicated medical comorbidity and those over the age of 85 were excluded from the study. The average length of stay was recorded and all complications, re-admissions, and reoperations were registered and analyzed. The primary outcome measures were length of stay and complication rate, at discharge and 90 days postoperatively. Results — The average length of stay for all patients was 26 hours. All patients were discharged from the clinic on the day after the operation and were able to continue their recovery at home or in a rehabilitation facility. The overall complication rate within 3 months of surgery was 6%. The 3-month re-admission rate and the 3-month reoperation rate were both 2%. Interpretation — Performing a time-based, patient-centered fast-track program for DAA total hip arthroplasty can result in a standardized length of stay of about 24 hours and a high level of patient satisfaction with few complications, re-admissions, and reoperations. PMID:27658640

  13. Effects on employees of controlling working hours and working schedules.

    PubMed

    Kubo, T; Takahashi, M; Togo, F; Liu, X; Shimazu, A; Tanaka, K; Takaya, M

    2013-03-01

    High levels of control over working time and low variability in working hours have been associated with improved health-related outcomes. The potential mechanisms for this association remain unclear. To examine how work-time control and variability of working times are associated with fatigue recovery, sleep quality, work-life balance, and 'near misses' at work. Manufacturing sector employees completed a questionnaire that assessed work-time control, work-time variability, fatigue recovery, sleep quality, work-life balance and the frequency of near misses in the past 6 months. Mixed model analysis of covariance and multiple logistic regression analysis tested the main effects of work-time control and variability and their interaction, while adjusting for age, sex, work schedules, and overtime work in the past month. Subscales of work-time control were also investigated (control over daily working hours and over days off). One thousand three hundred and seventy-two completed questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 69%. A significantly higher quality of sleep and better work-life balance were found in the 'high control with low variability' reference group than in the other groups. Significantly better recovery of fatigue was also observed in the group having control over days off with low variability. While near misses were more frequent in the group with high control over daily working hours coupled with high variability compared with the reference group this was not significant. High work-time control and low variability were associated with favourable outcomes of health and work-life balance. This combined effect was not observed for the safety outcome addressed here.

  14. Comparisons of Office and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kun-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Weng, Wen-Chin; Lee, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Chung

    2017-03-01

    To compare office blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP (ABP) monitoring to facilitate the diagnosis and management of hypertension in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Children aged 4-16 years with OSA-related symptoms were recruited from a tertiary referral medical center. All children underwent overnight polysomnography, office BP, and 24-hour ABP studies. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to elucidate the association between the apnea-hypopnea index and BP. Correlation and consistency between office BP and 24-hour ABP were measured by Pearson correlation, intraclass correlation, and Bland-Altman analyses. In the 163 children enrolled (mean age, 8.2 ± 3.3 years; 67% male). The prevalence of systolic hypertension at night was significantly higher in children with moderate-to-severe OSA than in those with primary snoring (44.9% vs 16.1%, P = .006). Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation analyses revealed associations between office BP and 24-hour BP, and Bland-Altman analysis indicated an agreement between office and 24-hour BP measurements. However, multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that 24-hour BP (nighttime systolic BP and mean arterial pressure), unlike office BP, was independently associated with the apnea-hypopnea index, after adjustment for adiposity variables. Twenty-four-hour ABP is more strongly correlated with OSA in children, compared with office BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract, custom...

  16. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract, custom...

  17. Hours to Graduation: A National Survey of Credit Hours Required for Baccalaureate Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitter, Gita Wijesinghe; And Others

    In the context of an increased emphasis on accountability in higher education and time taken to earn a baccalaureate degree, the Board of Regents of the State University System of Florida conducted a national survey of 75 public universities concerning the minimum credit hours required for the baccalaureate degree for various disciplines. The…

  18. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  19. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  20. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  1. Adult immunization—Need of the hour

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, P. Srinivas; Ganta, Avani; Kattimani, Vivekanand S.; Tiwari, Rahul V. C.

    2016-01-01

    Immunization is the process or the act of making individuals immune, which is usually done during childhood. Everyone is aware about immunization during childhood, however, very few know about adult immunization. This led us to review the adult immunization literature for the preventive strategies through various vaccination protocols. Adults do require vaccination protocols with booster doses for hepatitis B, Shingles, communicable diseases, traveler's diseases, etc. In this context, this article revises much of the available adult immunization literature and presents comprehensive guidelines. This article will increase the awareness regarding the importance of vaccination for adults to prevent a variety of conditions prevalent in our country as well as epidemics. The article comprehensively provides insights into the available vaccination and preventive strategy of human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in this part of the review. We strongly recommend all the health care professionals to educate their co-professionals and the public to use the benefits of adult immunization. It is the need of the hour and reduces the burden of treatment and increases productivity. PMID:27583212

  2. Life of a Six-Hour Hurricane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Kay L.; Molinari, John

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Claudette developed from a weak vortex in 6 h as deep convection shifted from downshear into the vortex center, despite ambient vertical wind shear exceeding 10 m/s. Six hours later it weakened to a tropical storm, and 12 h after the hurricane stage a circulation center could not be found at 850 hPa by aircraft reconnaissance. At hurricane strength the vortex contained classic structure seen in intensifying hurricanes, with the exception of 7-12 C dewpoint depressions in the lower troposphere upshear of the center. These extended from the 100-km radius to immediately adjacent to the eyewall, where equivalent potential temperature gradients reached 6 K/km. The dry air was not present prior to intensification, suggesting that it was associated with vertical shear-induced subsidence upshear of the developing storm. It is argued that weakening of the vortex was driven by cooling associated with the mixing of dry air into the core, and subsequent evaporation and cold downdrafts. Evidence suggests that this mixing might have been enhanced by eyewall instabilities after the period of rapid deepening. The existence of a fragile, small, but genuinely hurricane-strength vortex at the surface for 6 h presents difficult problems for forecasters. Such a "temporary hurricane" in strongly sheared flow might require a different warning protocol than longer-lasting hurricane vortices in weaker shear.

  3. Angle-resolved environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: A new laboratory setup for photoemission studies at pressures up to 0.4 Torr

    SciTech Connect

    Mangolini, F.; Wabiszewski, G. E.; Egberts, P.; Ahlund, J.; Backlund, K.; Karlsson, P. G.; Adiga, V. P.; Streller, F.; Wannberg, B.; Carpick, R. W.

    2012-09-15

    The paper presents the development and demonstrates the capabilities of a new laboratory-based environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system incorporating an electrostatic lens and able to acquire spectra up to 0.4 Torr. The incorporation of a two-dimensional detector provides imaging capabilities and allows the acquisition of angle-resolved data in parallel mode over an angular range of 14 Degree-Sign without tilting the sample. The sensitivity and energy resolution of the spectrometer have been investigated by analyzing a standard Ag foil both under high vacuum (10{sup -8} Torr) conditions and at elevated pressures of N{sub 2} (0.4 Torr). The possibility of acquiring angle-resolved data at different pressures has been demonstrated by analyzing a silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO{sub 2}) sample. The collected angle-resolved spectra could be effectively used for the determination of the thickness of the native silicon oxide layer.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of tensile and stress-rupture behavior of W + 24 at. pct Re + 0.4 at. pct HfC wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, H. M.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of an evaluation of tensile properties and stress-rupture bahavior of a small-diameter W24ReHfC (W-24Re-0.4(HfC)) wire, which is considered to be an excellent reinforcing fiber candidate for a variety of metal-matrix composites. The results were compared to data of Petrasek (1972) on W4ReHfC (W-4Re-0.4(HfC)) wire. It was found that the room-temperature (RT) tensile strength of the W24ReHfC wire was about 3250 MPa, higher than that of the W4ReHfC (3160 MPa) and WHfC (2250 MPa) wires. Above 1366 K, the W4ReHfC wire had both a greater tensile strength and the stress rupture strength than the W24ReHfC wire.

  5. Electrical and optical properties of a kind of ferroelectric oxide films comprising of PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shimin; Ma, Guohong; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Wenchao; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chu, Junhao; Dai, Ning; Shi, Wangzhou; Hu, Gujin

    2017-07-01

    A type of ferroelectric oxide films, consisting of three PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 stacks with different periodic thicknesses, has been designed and fabricated on F-doped transparent conductive tin oxide substrates by using one single precursor solution and spinning-coating process. These films exhibit superior ferroelectric, dielectric, and optical performance. Each PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 multilayer has a high reflectivity band with ˜110 nm photonic band width and average reflectivity of >80%, a dielectric constant of 530 and dielectric tunability of ˜28% at 1 MHz, a remnant polarization of 36 μC/cm2, and a polarization loss of <5% after 109 polarization switching cycles, rendering their perspective application in photonic band-gap engineering, microwave tunable devices, and integrated optoelectronics.

  6. Microwave anneal effect on magnetic properties of Ni 0.6Zn 0.4Fe 2O 4 nano-particles prepared by conventional hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongzhu; Xie, Yanyu; Wang, Peihong; Ma, Yongqing; Jin, Shaowei; Liu, Xiansong

    2011-12-01

    Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferrite nano-particles with a crystallite size of about 20 nm were prepared by the conventional hydrothermal method, followed by annealing in a microwave oven for 7.5-15 min. The microstructure and magnetic properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The microwave annealing process has slight effect on the morphology and size of Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferrite nano-particles. However it reduces the lattice parameter and enhances the densification of the particles, and then greatly increases the saturation magnetization (50-56 emu/g) and coercive force of the samples as compared to the non-annealing condition. The microwave annealing process is an effective way to rapidly synthesize high performance ferrite nano-particle.

  7. Magnetic excitations of the charge stripe electrons below half doping in La2 -xSrxNiO4 (x = 0.45 , 0.4 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, P. G.; Giblin, S. R.; Hradil, K.; Mole, R. A.; Cermak, P.; Prabhakaran, D.

    2017-02-01

    The low energy magnetic excitation spectrum of charge stripe ordered La2 -xSrxNiO4 , x =0.4 and x =0.45 samples, were studied by neutron scattering. Two excitation modes are observed in both materials, one from the ordered magnetic moments, and a second mode consistent with pseudo-one-dimensional antiferromagnetic excitations of the charge stripe electrons (q-1D). The dispersion of the q-1D excitation follows the same relation as in x =1 /3 composition, with even spectral weight in the two counterpropagating branches of the x =0.4 sample, however in the x =0.45 sample only one dispersion branch has any measurable spectral weight. The evolution of the q-1D excitations on doping to the checkerboard charge ordered phase is discussed.

  8. Improvement in elastic properties of CuAl{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.6}O{sub 4} spinel ferrite by rapid thermal cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, K. B. Shah, S. J. Pathak, T. K. Vasoya, N. H. Lakhani, V. K.; Yahya, A. K.

    2014-04-24

    The elastic properties of spinel ferrite composition, CuAl{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.6}O{sub 4}, quenched from final sintering temperature of 1373 K to liquid nitrogen temperature (∼ 80K) have been studied by means of X-ray powder diffractometry and pulse echo-overlap technique (9 MHz) at 300 K. The magnitude of elastic constants is found to enhance by 15% compared to slowly-cooled counterpart. The observed mechanical strengthening has been discussed in the light of compressive stress on the surface, with tensile stresses at interior regions and corresponding changes in structural parameters. The B{sub o}/G{sub o} ratio indicates the brittle nature of CuAl{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.6}O{sub 4}.

  9. Bulk Superconductivity in Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 Induced by Removal of Excess Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yue; Zhang, Shuo; Zhuang, Jincheng; Yuan, Feifei; Li, Xiong; Shi, Zhixiang; Yamada, Tatsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi

    2014-06-01

    Experimental evidences from transport, magnetic, and magneto-optical (MO) image measurements confirmed that arsenic (As) vapor annealing was another effective way to induce bulk superconductivity with isotropic, large, and homogenous superconducting critical current density (Jc) in Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal. Since As is an exotic and easily detectable heavy element to Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal, As vapor annealing is very advantageous for the study of annealing mechanism. Detailed micro-structural and elemental analyses exclude the possibility that intercalating or doping effect may happen in the other post-annealing methods, proving that Fe reacts with As on the surface of the crystal and the reaction itself acts as a driving force to drag excess Fe out. The removal of excess Fe results in the good superconductivity performance.

  10. Growth and interface engineering in thin-film Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 /SrMoO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radetinac, Aldin; Ziegler, Jürgen; Vafaee, Mehran; Alff, Lambert; Komissinskiy, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    Epitaxial heterostructures of ferroelectric Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 and highly conducting SrMoO3 were grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrates. Surface oxidation of the SrMoO3 film is suppressed using a thin cap interlayer of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3-δ grown in reduced atmosphere. As shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the Mo4+ valence state of the SrMoO3 films is stable upon annealing of the sample in oxygen up to 600 °C. The described oxygen interface engineering enables utilization of the highly conducting material SrMoO3 in multilayer oxide ferroelectric varactors.

  11. Effects of the association between a calcium hydroxide paste and 0.4% chlorhexidine on the development of the osteogenic phenotype in vitro.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Leonardo, Mário Roberto; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; de Castro, Larissa Moreira Spinola; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco

    2008-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether the association between a calcium hydroxide paste (Calen paste) and 0.4% chlorhexidine (CHX) affects the development of the osteogenic phenotype in vitro. With rat calvarial osteogenic cell cultures, the following parameters were assayed: cell morphology and viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, total protein content, bone sialoprotein immunolocalization, and mineralized nodule formation. Comparisons were carried out by using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test (level of significance, 5%). The results showed that the association between Calen paste and 0.4% CHX did not affect the development of the osteogenic phenotype. No significant changes were observed in terms of cell shape, cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and the total amount of bone-like nodule formation among control, Calen, or Calen + CHX groups. The strategy to combine Ca(OH)(2) and CHX to promote a desirable synergistic antibacterial effect during endodontic treatment in vivo might not significantly affect osteoblastic cell biology.

  12. Angle-resolved environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: A new laboratory setup for photoemission studies at pressures up to 0.4 Torr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangolini, F.; Åhlund, J.; Wabiszewski, G. E.; Adiga, V. P.; Egberts, P.; Streller, F.; Backlund, K.; Karlsson, P. G.; Wannberg, B.; Carpick, R. W.

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents the development and demonstrates the capabilities of a new laboratory-based environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system incorporating an electrostatic lens and able to acquire spectra up to 0.4 Torr. The incorporation of a two-dimensional detector provides imaging capabilities and allows the acquisition of angle-resolved data in parallel mode over an angular range of 14° without tilting the sample. The sensitivity and energy resolution of the spectrometer have been investigated by analyzing a standard Ag foil both under high vacuum (10-8 Torr) conditions and at elevated pressures of N2 (0.4 Torr). The possibility of acquiring angle-resolved data at different pressures has been demonstrated by analyzing a silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO2) sample. The collected angle-resolved spectra could be effectively used for the determination of the thickness of the native silicon oxide layer.

  13. One-step method to grow Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 single crystals without fluxing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlei; Gao, Zhaoshun; Yao, Chao; Wang, Lei; Qi, Yanpeng; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Xianping; Ma, Yanwei

    2011-06-01

    Single crystals of Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 have been successfully grown without using any fluxing agent through a simple one-step method. X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrate that they have high crystalline quality and c-axis orientation. The onset transition temperature is up to 38 K, while the zero resistivity temperature reaches 36.7 K. Both the R-T and M-T data show very sharp superconducting transitions and the transition width is about 0.4 K. We also found that the samples possess very large current carrying ability and high upper critical field, indicating potential applications requiring very high field. The above simple and safe one-step technique of single crystal growth can be effective in other systems of Fe-based superconductors.

  14. B And V Photometry Of A Inverted-spectrum And Flat-spectrum Radio Sources With The Rowan 0.4-meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Erick; Pultar, R.

    2010-05-01

    Several galaxies have been selected for an exploratory campaign with 0.4-meter telescope atop Science Hall at Rowan University. These galaxies exhibit inverted radio spectra on the basis of fluxes in the GB6 and VLA FIRST catalogs and have SDSS magnitudes in g-band less than 15.5. The results of V and R band photometry of theses galaxies are presented. Photometry from multiple nights will be examined to explore variability on the timescales of days or weeks. Targets in the sample include Markarian 668 and NGC 5635. These are the first results from an ongoing campaign to expand the function of the observatory atop Science Hall. The authors would like to acknowledge Ric and Jean Edelman for their gift that funded the 0.4-meter telescope.

  15. Time Course of Conjunctival Hyperemia Induced by a Rho-kinase Inhibitor Anti-glaucoma Eye Drop: Ripasudil 0.4.

    PubMed

    Terao, Etsuko; Nakakura, Shunsuke; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Fujio, Yuki; Matsuya, Kanae; Kobayashi, Yui; Tabuchi, Hitoshi; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi; Fukushima, Atsuki; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the detailed time course of conjunctival hyperemia induced by ripasudil 0.4%, a novel Rho-kinase inhibitor anti-glaucoma eye drop, in healthy subjects. We recruited 51 healthy subjects and administered ripasudil 0.4% in their right eye. We evaluated conjunctival hyperemia using slit lamp photography and measured the intraocular pressure (IOP) using the Icare PRO Rebound Tonometer at baseline and after 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. The conjunctival hyperemia score was graded by three independent observers on a scale of 0 (none) to 3 (severe). Additionally, we analyzed the "percent coverage" of conjunctival hyperemia by using an automated hyperemia analysis software program; this program provides the pixel coverage of the conjunctival vessels in the region of interest. Dunnett and Steel multiple comparison tests were used, as appropriate, for the subsequent analyses. The conjunctival hyperemia score and percent coverage increased rapidly after the instillation of ripasudil 0.4%, peaking at 15 min (score: 1.83 ± 0.29 [mean ± SD]) and 5 min (11.6% ± 4.7%), respectively, and then gradually decreasing until 120 min (0.45 ± 0.22 and 4.7% ± 1.8%, respectively), when they reached a level that was not significantly different from the baseline values. The IOP decreased significantly compared to the baseline at 30, 60, and 90 min, based on the Dunnett test. Conjunctival hyperemia induced by ripasudil 0.4% peaks rapidly to moderate severity, but subsides relatively quickly.

  16. Controlling Spatial Confinement Effects in La0.3Pr0.4Ca0.3MnO3 Microbridges via Post Ar and Air Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jaechun; Jung, Jan; Chow, Kim H.

    2017-08-01

    We report the effects of post Ar and air annealing of La0.3Pr0.4Ca0.3MnO3 microbridges which do not initially show spatial confinement effects. The removal or addition of oxygen via the post annealing changes the sizes and distribution of the metallic and insulating phase domains within these films and can create spatial confinement effects such as percolation induced resistance jumps and tunneling magnetoresistance.

  17. Unexpected magnetism, Griffiths phase, and exchange bias in the mixed lanthanide Pr0.6Er0.4Al2

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Paudyal, D.; Jayasekara, W. T.; Calder, S.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, Alan I.; Gschneidner, Karl A.

    2014-06-01

    We report an unusual coexistence of ferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism, and metamagnetism in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. In addition, this compound retains a clear Griffiths phase behavior even at 1 kOe magnetic field and shows a large exchange bias after field cooling from the paramagnetic state. The crystal-field excitations and opposite exchange interactions between nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor rare earth sites explain these behaviors.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Ni0.5Zn0.4Cu0.1Fe2O4 as a magnetic feeder for electromagnetic transmitter application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie, Afza; Pransisco, Prengki; Guan, Beh Hoe; Annur, Robithoh

    2016-11-01

    Material ferrites with composition Ni0.5Zn0.4Cu0.1Fe2O4 has been successfully synthesized through sol gel method in difference calcination temperature 600 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C respectively. The temperatures calcination of the material was obtained from thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) results. Phase and crystallite size of material were investigated using X-Ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructure, shape and distribution particles of Ni0.5Zn0.4Cu0.1Fe2O4 were examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Magnetic properties were investigated using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Initial permeability and magnetic loss factor were examined by impedance analyzer. Computer simulation technique (CST) was used to simulate electromagnetic transmitter (antenna) with magnetic feeder. The thermo-gravimetric analysis result shows that the total weight loss of Ni0.5Zn0.4Cu0.1Fe2O4 was completed at temperature 572 °C. XRD result shows single phase and no secondary phase was detected and it has a variation of crystallite size in the range of 0.2 to 1.3 nm. The HRTEM result exhibits microstructure particle in interval value of 46-89 nm with agglomeration shape. The highest magnetic saturation was founded at highest calcination temperature 900 °C. The Initial permeability and relative loss factor of the material were 187 and 0.03 respectively. Electromagnetic transmitter with magnetic feeder Ni0.5Zn0.4Cu0.1Fe2O4 exhibits magnitude of magnetic field 1.03×10-6 tesla, which is higher as compared to the transmitter without magnetic feeder with magnitude magnetic field 8.4×10-14 Tesla.

  19. Unexpected magnetism, Griffiths phase, and exchange bias in the mixed lanthanide Pr0.6Er0.4Al2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Paudyal, D.; Jayasekara, W. T.; Calder, S.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A. I.; Gschneidner, K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2014-06-01

    We report an unusual coexistence of ferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism, and metamagnetism in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. In addition, this compound retains a clear Griffiths phase behavior even at 1 kOe magnetic field and shows a large exchange bias after field cooling from the paramagnetic state. The crystal-field excitations and opposite exchange interactions between nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor rare earth sites explain these behaviors.

  20. [Prophylaxis for hypotension during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia: a randomized trial comparing hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 to ephedrine].

    PubMed

    Osseyran Samper, F; Errando, C L; Plaza Lloret, M; Díaz Cambronero, O; García Gregorio, N; de Andrés Ibáñez, J

    2011-01-01

    Spinal anesthesia is the technique of choice for scheduled or emergency cesarean section, but the prevalence of hypotension is high in this setting. Our aim was to compare the efficacy of a colloid (6% hydroxyethyl starch [HES] 130/0.4) to ephedrine for preventing hypotension. Patients undergoing elective or emergency cesarean section (in non-life-threatening situations) were enrolled. Patients were randomized to 3 groups for prophylaxis. The first ephedrine group received 5 mg of ephedrine intravenously (EPHE-5); the second ephedrine group received 10 mg of the drug intravenously (EPHE-10); and the HES group received 500 mL of HES 130/0.4 in rapid infusion n 15 minutes. We recorded systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate after 10 minutes in the operating room and 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after injection of the anesthetic. We also assessed the sensory and motor blockades on both sides 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after injection. Neonatal status was assessed by Apgar score and umbilical cord blood gas analysis. Ninety-six patients, 33 in each ephedrine group and 30 in the HES group, were enrolled. Blood pressure decreased similarly in all 3 groups (36% EPHE-5 group, 36% EPHE-10 group and 40% HES group); no significant between-group differences were observed. Nor were there significant differences in the percentages of patients requiring bolus doses of ephedrine to treat hypotension (23% in the HES group vs 33% in the EPHE-5 group and 27% in the EPHE-10 group) or in the cumulative doses of ephedrine. Neonatal status was also similarly satisfactory in all 3 groups. HES 130/0.4 is as useful for hypotension prophylaxis as 5-mg or 10-mg intravenous doses of ephedrine. HES 130/0.4 might be a substitute for sympathomimetic agents if adverse effects are predicted or contraindications to the use of such drugs are present.

  1. Sc-substituted La0.6Sr0.4FeO3-δ mixed conducting oxides as promising electrodes for symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuejiao; Han, Da; Zhou, Yucun; Meng, Xie; Wu, Hao; Li, Junliang; Zeng, Fanrong; Zhan, Zhongliang

    2014-01-01

    The main barrier to symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), where the same catalytic materials are used simultaneously as the anodes and the cathodes, is to identify a redox-stable catalyst that exhibits superior catalytic activities for both fuel oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. Here we report a Sc-substituted La0.6Sr0.4FeO3-δ oxide, La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.9Sc0.1O3-δ, that shows great promise as a new symmetrical electrode material with good structural stability and reasonable conductivities in air and hydrogen. We further demonstrate that nano-scale La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.9Sc0.1O3-δ catalysts impregnated into the porous La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ backbones exhibit good catalytic activities for oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation reactions and thereby yield low polarization resistances, e.g., 0.015 Ω cm2 in air and 0.29 Ω cm2 in hydrogen with appropriate current collection at 800 °C. Thin La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ electrolyte fuel cells with such symmetrical La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.9Sc0.1O3-δ catalysts showed maximum power densities of 0.56 and 0.32 W cm-2 when operating on 97% H2-3% H2O at 800 and 700 °C, respectively.

  2. Characteristics of Ti and Fe doped LiCo0.6Ni0.4O2 cathode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarulzaman, Norlida; Azahidi, Azira; Elong, Kelimah; Firdaus Kasim, Muhd; Rusdi, Roshidah; Mokhtar, Nurul Atikah Mohd; Aziz, Nor Diyana Abd; Osman, Zurina

    2017-04-01

    Partial substitution of Fe and Ti was done to replace Co in LiCo0.6Ni0.4O2 cathode materials producing LiCo0.55Ni0.4Ti0.05O2 and LiCo0.55Ni0.4Fe0.05O2 novel stoichiometries and improved behaviour of the materials. The materials were prepared by using a self-propagating combustion method. The materials are found to be single phase and pure of the hexagonal structure and R \\bar{3} m space group. Results showed that the doped materials perform better than the undoped material and Ti substituted material performs better than the Fe substituted material in terms of first cycle capacity and capacity retention. To further understand the effect of structure and electrochemical behaviour of the materials, quantitative structural studies of the materials were done via x-ray diffraction (XRD) and using the Rietveld refinement method. It was found that the Fe and Ti doped materials had larger lattice parameters implying greater inter-layer spacings and therefore, increased ease for the movement of the Li+ ions through the layered structures which explained the improved performance of the electrochemical cells. Binding energy and oxidation state studies of the transition metals were also done via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and results showed that lithium was more tightly bound in the structure of the undoped LiCo0.6Ni0.4O2 material agreeing with the XRD structural studies of bond length. Results were also supported by conductivity studies that showed that the Ti substituted material had the highest conductivity.

  3. Doping of Nb to the Ba and Cu Sites in the Y0.6Gd0.4Ba2Cu3O7- δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, M.; Sönmez, E.; Doğan, O.

    2013-04-01

    Polycrystalline samples of Y0.6Gd0.4Ba2- x Nb x Cu3O7- δ and Y0.6Gd0.4Ba2Cu3- x Nb x O7- δ with different Nb contents ( x=0.025, 0.075, 0.125, 0.175 and 0.225) were prepared using the solid state reaction method. Structural and electrical properties of new compounds were investigated with optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Four Point Probe (FPP). The results indicated that Nb constituted YBa2NbO6 structure instead of substituting to the Y0.6Gd0.4Ba2Cu3O7- δ structure. YBa2NbO6 structures gathered between grains. Transition temperature did not change significantly, but critical current ( J c) values decreased with increase of Nb concentration. The underlying reason is that the oxygen concentration of compounds remained unchanged due to Gd; thus, T c values did not change significantly.

  4. The Evaluation of Hydroxyethyl Starch (6% HES 130/0.4) Solution’s Potential Preventive Effects on Coagulation Status in Women with Gynecologic Malignancies Using Rotation Thromboelastography

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Meltem Olga; Bilir, Ayten; Öge, Tufan; Kuş, Gökhan; Mutlu, Fezan Şahin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of in vitro hemodilution with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 solution on the coagulation status of women with gynecologic malignancies by using rotation thromboelastogram (ROTEM®). Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients with gynecological tumors scheduled for anesthesia were enrolled. Blood samples were diluted by 20% with 6% HES (130/0.4) solution. Results: In the INTEM assay, clotting time (CT) (p<0.01) and clot formation time (CFT) (p<0.001) were significantly increased and maximum maximum clot formation (MCF) (p< 0.001) was significantly decreased in HES hemodilution compared with the undiluted control samples. In the EXTEM assay, there was a similar significant increase in increase in CFT (p<0.01) and a decrease in maximum a decrease in MCF (p<0.01) in HES hemodilution when compared with control samples. Conclusion: HES 130/0.4 solution causes significant hypocoagulable changes in the thromboelastographic profile of gynecologic cancer patients in vitro. PMID:25330518

  5. Spin fluctuations in Sr1.6Ba0.4RuO4 : An inelastic neutron scattering study with polarization analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. W.; Guo, H.; Liu, C.-F.; Bourdarot, F.; Schmidt, W.; Skoulatos, M.; Komarek, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present inelastic neutron scattering measurements on the ruthenate Sr1.6Ba0.4RuO4 which is on the hitherto almost unknown Ba-substituted side of the doping phase diagram of Sr2 -xAexRuO4 (Ae = Ca, Ba). Unlike the Ca-substituted side of the phase diagram no (quasi)static magnetic peaks can be observed in Sr1.6Ba0.4RuO4 . Instead, incommensurate spin fluctuations can be observed around q0=(±0.3 ,±0.3 ,0 ) . Both the absolute intensity of χ''(Q ,ω ) and its energy and temperature dependence as well as the anisotropy ratio χc''/χa,b '' resemble the ones in Sr2RuO4 . Hence, a random potential implied by the substitution of huge Ba ions as well as the induced increase of interatomic distances has less impact on the magnetic properties than octahedral tilts implied by Ca substitution. Moreover, any ferromagnetic spin fluctuations are either absent in Sr1.6Ba0.4RuO4 or below the detection limit.

  6. Detection of gamma-ray emission in the region of the supernova remnants G296.5+10.0 and G166.0+4.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    52 months of accumulated observations by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnants G296.5+10.0 (PKS 1209-51/52) and G166.0+4.3 (VRO 42.05.01) are analysed. GeV emission is detected coincident with the position of the sources at the ≃5σ and 11σ levels above the background, respectively, for the best-fitting spectral and spatial scenarios. The gamma-ray spectrum of the sources can be described with a power law in energy. G166.0+4.3 shows a soft GeV spectrum while that of G296.5+10.0 is flat (in the νFν representation). The origin of the gamma-ray emission from the sources is explored. Both leptonic and hadronic mechanisms can account for the high-energy emission from G296.5+10.0, while a leptonic scenario is preferred for G166.0+4.3.

  7. Degree and duration of corneal anesthesia after topical application of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in ophthalmically normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Douet, Jean-Yves; Michel, Julien; Regnier, Alain

    2013-10-01

    To assess the anesthetic efficacy and local tolerance of topically applied 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution to in dogs and compare its effects with those of 1% tetracaine solution. 34 ophthalmically normal Beagles. Dogs were assigned to 2 groups, and baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured bilaterally with a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. Dogs of group 1 (n = 22) received a single drop of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in one eye and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) in the contralateral eye. Dogs of group 2 (n = 12) received a single drop of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in one eye and 1% tetracaine ophthalmic solution in the contralateral eye. The CTT of each eye was measured 1 and 5 minutes after topical application and then at 5-minute intervals until 75 minutes after topical application. CTT changes over time differed significantly between oxybuprocaine-treated and control eyes. After instillation of oxybuprocaine, maximal corneal anesthesia (CTT = 0) was achieved within 1 minute, and CTT was significantly decreased from 1 to 45 minutes, compared with the baseline value. No significant difference in onset, depth, and duration of corneal anesthesia was found between oxybuprocaine-treated and tetracaine-treated eyes. Conjunctival hyperemia and chemosis were detected more frequently in tetracaine-treated eyes than in oxybuprocaine-treated eyes. Topical application of oxybuprocaine and tetracaine similarly reduced corneal sensitivity in dogs, but oxybuprocaine was less irritating to the conjunctiva than was tetracaine.

  8. Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group.

  9. Perianal versus endoanal application of glyceryl trinitrate 0.4% ointment in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: results of a randomized controlled trial. Is this the solution to the headaches?

    PubMed

    Pérez-Legaz, Juan; Arroyo, Antonio; Moya, Pedro; Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Frangi, Andres; Candela, Fernando; Oliver, Miguel I; Calpena, Rafael

    2012-08-01

    Application of nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate) ointment with perianal administration is a widely used treatment for chronic anal fissure. However, headache occurs after application in 20% to 70% patients and leads to withdrawal in 10% of patients. The aim of the study was to investigate whether endoanal application of the ointment may lower the frequency of headaches without sacrificing effectiveness. compare the effects of perianal versus endoanal administration of nitroglycerin ointment on frequency of headache and rate of healing in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. This was a prospective randomized clinical trial (ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT01132391). Study participants were consecutive patients with a diagnosis of chronic anal fissure treated at a university teaching hospital in Elche, Alicante, Spain. Patients were randomly assigned to receive perianal (n = 26) or endoanal (n = 26) administration of 0.4% nitroglycerin ointment (375 mg of ointment containing 1.5 mg of glyceryl trinitrate), applied every 12 hours over an 8-week period. The primary endpoint of the study was the number of patients with headache within 3 hours after application of the ointment, analyzed with the intention-to-treat principle. Intensity of headache pain was rated on a 10-point visual analog scale. Secondary endpoints included frequencies of fissure healing, anorectal pain, rectal bleeding, pruritus, and incontinence. Headaches were reported in 14 (54%) patients with perianal treatment and in 6 patients (23%) with anorectal treatment (p = 0.003). The median headache pain score was 6 (range, 0-10) in the perianal group and 4.5 (range, 0-10) in the endoanal group (p = 0.03). Disabling headaches led to crossover from perianal to endoanal treatment in 4 patients (15%), and from endoanal to perianal treatment in 1 patient (4%) (p = 0.004). Of the 4 patients who switched from perianal to endoanal treatment, 2 reported improvement in headaches and 2 stopped treatment. The patient who

  10. Using additional information on working hours to predict coronary heart disease: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G. David; Hamer, Mark; Ferrie, Jane E.; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Marmot, Michael G.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Shipley, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Long hours are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. Adding information on long hours to traditional risk factors could potentially help improve risk prediction. Objective To examine whether information on long working hours improves the ability of the Framingham risk model to predict coronary heart disease in a low-risk employed population. Design Prospective cohort study; baseline medical examination (1991-1993) and coronary heart disease follow-up to 2004. Settings Civil service departments in London (the Whitehall II study). Participants 7095 adults (2109 women) aged 39 to 62, working full time, and free of coronary heart disease at baseline. Measurements Working hours and the Framingham risk score were measured at baseline. Coronary death and non-fatal myocardial infarction were ascertained from three sources: medical screenings every 5 years, hospital data and register linkage. Results 192 persons had incident coronary heart disease during a median 12.3 year follow-up. After adjustment for the Framingham score, participants working ≥11 hours per day had a 1.67-fold (95% CI: 1.10-2.55) increased risk of coronary heart disease relative to those working 7-8 hours. The addition of working hours to the Framingham score led to a net reclassification improvement of 4.7% (p=0.034), resulting from a better identification of individuals who later developed coronary heart disease (sensitivity gain). Limitations The findings may not be generalizable to populations with a larger proportion of high-risk individuals. Furthermore, the predictive utility of working hours was not validated in an independent cohort. Conclusion Information on working hours may improve prediction of coronary heart disease risk based on the Framingham risk score in low-risk working populations. Primary Funding Source Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, BUPA Foundation, UK; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and National Institute on Aging, NIH

  11. Estimating salt intake in a Caucasian population: can spot urine substitute 24-hour urine samples?

    PubMed

    Toft, Ulla; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Laurberg, Peter; Ovesen, Lars; Perrild, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-10-01

    A simple and valid alternative for 24-hour urine collection to estimate populational 24-hour urinary sodium excretion would be desirable for monitoring sodium intake in populations. To assess the validity of the predicted 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine and two different prediction methods in a Danish population. Overall, 473 Danish individuals provided a para-aminobenzoic acid-validated complete 24-hour urine collection and a spot urine sample. Data were collected in the DanThyr study (248 women aged 25-30 years and 60-65 years) and the Inter99 study (102 men and 113 women aged 30-60 years), respectively. The measured 24-hour urine sodium excretion was compared with the predicted 24-hour sodium excretion from a causal urine specimen, using both the Tanaka prediction method and a prediction model developed in a Danish population. The measured 24-hour sodium excretion (median, 5th to 95th percentile) was men 195 (110 to 360) and women 139 (61 to 258), whereas the predicted 24-hour sodium excretion for the Tanaka model was men 171 (117 to 222) and women 153 (92 to 228) and for the Danish model was men 207 (146 to 258); women 134 (103 to 163). The Spearman correlation between predicted and measured 24-hour sodium excretion was 0.39 and 0.49 for the Tanaka and the Danish model, respectively. For both prediction models, the proportion of individuals classified in the same or adjacent quintile was 74% for men and 64% for women. Both prediction models gave a reasonable classification of individuals according to their sodium excretion. However, the median daily sodium intake was estimated more precisely by the Danish model, especially among men. © Authors 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Sunny hours and variations in the prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren according to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies (ISAAC) Phase III in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Fernández-Espinar, Jorge Fuertes; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; González-Díaz, Carlos; Carvajal-Urueña, Ignacio; Busquet-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; de Andoin, Nagore García; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo; Varela, Angel López-Silvarrey; García-Hernández, Gloria

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relationship between the prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years and 13-14 years and the mean annual sunny hours (MASH) in Spain, and to explore predictive models for asthma prevalence. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies (ISAAC) Phase III 2002-2003, and climate and socio-economic variables from official sources. Nine centres were studied and a further four centres, two of which are in ISAAC, to test the predictive models. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted prevalence rates of asthma for each centre, and multiple regression models to study the effects of MASH and other meteorological and socio-economic variables. The adjusted prevalence rate of asthma decreased 0.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.8%] for the 6-7 years group and 1.1% (95% CI 0.8-1.3%) for the 13-14 years group with an increase in the MASH of 100 h. Relative humidity was negatively associated with asthma in the older age group, and gross province product per capita (GPP) was positively associated with asthma in the younger age group. The predictive models, which included MASH, gender, relative humidity, and GPP, anticipated prevalence rates of asthma without significant differences between the levels observed and those expected in 9 of the11 measurements carried out. The results indicate that sunny hours have a protective effect on the prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren.

  13. Electrochemically influenced cation inter-diffusion and Co3O4 formation on La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 infiltrated into SOFC cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Xueyan; Lee, Shiwoo; Chen, Yun; ...

    2015-06-18

    Nanosized LSC electrocatalyst was infiltrated into a porous scaffold cathode composed of Sm2O3-doped CeO2 (SDC) and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) in a commercial button solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). To understand the stability of cathodes infiltrated with LSC, the infiltrated composite cells were subjected to both electrochemical operating and thermal aging states at 750 °C for 1500 h. Nanostructure and local chemistry evolution of La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 (LSC) infiltrated cathodes upon operation and aging were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. After operation, the LSC remained a cubic perovskite, and the crystal grains exhibit comparable size to as-infiltrated LSC grains. Inter-diffusion of Fe from themore » LSCF to a Fe-incorporated LSC layer developed on the LSCF backbone. However, only sharp interfaces were observed between LSC and SDC backbone in the as-infiltrated cathode and such interfaces remain after operation. The infiltrated LSC on the SDC backbone also retains granular particle morphology. Furthermore, newly grown Co3O4 nanocrystals were found in the operated cathode. After thermal aging, on the other hand, cation inter-diffusion across the interfaces of the infiltrate particles and the cathode backbones is less than that from the operated cells. Lastly, the following hypothesis is proposed: Co3O4 forms on LSC arising from local charge balancing between cobalt and oxygen vacancies.« less

  14. After-Hours Radiology: Challenges and Strategies for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Rohatgi, Saurabh; Hanna, Tarek N; Sliker, Clint W; Abbott, Robert M; Nicola, Refky

    2015-11-01

    Because of the increase in the use of 24-hour-a-day 7-day-a-week real-time radiologic interpretation, radiologists more frequently perform after-hours work. The purpose of this article was to examine the challenges arising from after-hours work and describe evidence-based strategies meant to limit the adverse physical and psychologic stresses of after-hours work. Working nontraditional hours affects a radiologist's health, social life, professional productivity, and possibly interpretive accuracy. Appropriate attention to these factors and targeted countermeasures can optimize the professional development and personal well-being of radiologists working after hours.

  15. Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour contingency exposures to airborne chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hector D.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a 'typical' mission. A set of 'contingency SMACs' is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related 'contingency' releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.

  16. Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour contingency exposures to airborne chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hector D.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a 'typical' mission. A set of 'contingency SMACs' is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related 'contingency' releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.

  17. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  18. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  19. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  20. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  1. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  2. 100-ampere-hour NiCd battery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Cells use potassium hydroxide electrolyte and are hermetically sealed in stainless steel casings. Each cell provides 1.56 volts and has a minimum operating life of 17,000 hours and a maximum of approximately 48,000 hours.

  3. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and thermo-chemical stability of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, M.; Hashimoto, S.; Sato, K.; Yashiro, K.; Mizusaki, J.

    2013-01-15

    The oxygen nonstoichiometry of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} has been the topic of various reports in the literature, but has been exclusively measured at high oxygen partial pressures, pO{sub 2}, and/or elevated temperatures. For applications of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}}, such as solid oxide fuel cell cathodes or oxygen permeation membranes, knowledge of the oxygen nonstoichiometry and thermo-chemical stability over a wide range of pO{sub 2} is crucial, as localized low pO{sub 2} could trigger failure of the material and device. By employing coulometric titration combined with thermogravimetry, the oxygen nonstoichiometry of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} was measured at high and intermediate pO{sub 2} until the material decomposed (at log(pO{sub 2}/bar) Almost-Equal-To -4.5 at 1073 K). For a gradually reduced sample, an offset in oxygen content suggests that La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} forms a 'super-reduced' solid solution before decomposing. When the sample underwent alternate reduction-oxidation, a hysteresis-like pO{sub 2} dependence of the oxygen content in the decomposition pO{sub 2} range was attributed to the reversible formation of ABO{sub 3} and A{sub 2}BO{sub 4} phases. Reduction enthalpy and entropy were determined for the single-phase region and confirmed interpolated values from the literature. - Graphical abstract: Oxygen nonstoichiometry (shown as 3-{delta}) of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of pO{sub 2} at 773-1173 K. The experimental data were obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and coulometric titration (measured either by a simple reduction (CT1) or a 'two-step-forward one-step-back' reduction-oxidation (CT2) procedure). D1 and D2 denote the decomposition pO{sub 2}. The solid lines are the fit to the thermogravimetry and CT1 data. The dashed lines represent the non-equilibrium region where the sample shows a super-reduced state. Highlights: Black

  4. Effects of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 on pulmonary capillary leakage and cytokines production and NF-kappaB activation in CLP-induced sepsis in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaomei; Yan, Wei; Liu, Xiaoming; Duan, Manlin; Zhang, Xinhua; Xu, Jianguo

    2006-09-01

    Sepsis and resulting multiple system organ failure are the leading causes of mortality in intensive care units. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 was a novel preparation, developed to improve the pharmacokinetics of current medium molecular weight HES solutions. This study was designed to explore the effects of HES 130/0.4 on pulmonary capillary permeability (PCP), production of cytokines, and activation of transcription factor in septic rats induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups (six rats/group): saline controls (30 ml/kg); CLP plus saline (30 ml/kg); CLP plus HES (7.5, 15, or 30 ml/kg, respectively), and HES alone (30 ml/kg). Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored during the experiment process. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, wet/dry weight ratio, PCP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) were investigated at 6 h. We demonstrated that CLP could provoke significant injury in lung, characterized by increase in PCP, wet/dry weight ratio, MPO activity, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 level, and NF-kappaB activation. Without obvious influence on systemic macro-hemodynamics, HES 15 ml/kg and 30 ml/kg significantly reduced CLP-induced elevation of pulmonary capillary permeability, wet/dry weight ratio, and production of IL-6. Meanwhile, HES 15 ml/kg increased IL-10 level and HES 7.5, 15, and 30 ml/kg suppressed MPO activity, TNF-alpha level, and NF-kappaB activation. HES 130/0.4 can inhibit CLP-induced PCP by attenuating pulmonary inflammation and NF-kappaB activation in vivo.

  5. Study of magnetic transition and magnetic entropy changes of Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 and Pr0.6Sr0.4Mn0.9Fe0.1O3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasri, Abir.; Hlil, E. K.; Lehlooh, A.-F.; Ellouze, M.; Elhalouani, F.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we analyze the magnetic transition and magnetic entropy change \\vertΔ SM\\vert of Pr0.6Sr0.4Mn1- x Fe x O3 samples. Using Arrott plots, we report that the phase transition for Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 sample is of second order, while the Pr0.6Sr0.4Mn0.9Fe0.1O3 sample exhibits a first-order magnetic phase transition. From the magnetization measurements at temperature close to the Curie temperature, the magnetic entropy change, \\vertΔ SM\\vert and the Relative Cooling Power (RCP) have been estimated. The maximum of magnetic entropy change \\vertΔ S_M^{max}\\vert reaches, under an applied magnetic field of 5T, 3.58 and 3.66J/kg K for Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 and Pr0.6Sr0.4Mn0.9Fe0.1O3, respectively. The RCP values have been estimated to 159.37 and 223.52J/kg. For both samples, the \\vertΔ SM\\vert values evaluated using the Maxwell theory were found in accordance with those calculated by the Landau theory.

  6. Far-Infrared Photometry with an 0.4-Meter Liquid Helium Cooled Balloon-Borne Telescope. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    A 0.4-meter aperture, liquid helium cooled multichannel far-infrared balloon-borne telescope was constructed to survey the galactic plane. Nine new sources, above a 3-sigma confidence level of 1300 Jy, were identified. Although two-thirds of the scanned area was more than 10 degrees from the galactic plane, no sources were detected in that region; all nine fell within 10 degrees and eight of those within 4 degrees of the galactic equator. Correlations with visible, compact H lines associated with radio continuum and with sources displaying spectra steeply rising between 11 and 20 microns were noted, while stellar objects were not detected.

  7. Measurements of electron-proton elastic cross sections for 0.4 < Q{sup 2} < 5.5 (GeV/c){sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Christy; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Christopher Armstrong; John Arrington; Razmik Asaturyan; Steven Avery; O. Baker; Douglas Beck; Henk Blok; C.W.Bochna; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Maurice Bouwhuis; Herbert Breuer; D.S.Brown; Antje Bruell; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cochran; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; B.Fox; Liping Gan; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Garrow; David Gaskell; Ashot Gasparian; Don Geesaman; Paul Gueye; Mark Harvey; Roy Holt; Xiaodong Jiang; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; Yongguang Liang; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; J.W.Martin; Kevin McIlhany; Daniella Mckee; David Meekins; M.A.Miller; Richard Milner; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Robert Mueller; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Thomas O'neill; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Buz Piercey; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Joerg Reinhold; E.Rollinde; Philip Roos; Adam Sarty; Reyad Sawafta; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; C.Smith; Stepan Stepanyan; Steffen Strauch; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Raphael Tieulent; Alicia Uzzle; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Feng Xiong; Lulin Yuan; Markus Zeier; Benedikt Zihlmann; Vitaliy Ziskin

    2004-01-01

    We report on precision measurements of the elastic cross section for electron-proton scattering performed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The measurements were made at 28 unique kinematic settings covering a range in momentum transfer of 0.4 < Q{sup 2} < 5.5 (/rm GeV/c){sup 2}. These measurements represent a significant contribution to the world's cross section data set in the Q{sup 2} range where a large discrepancy currently exists between the ratio of electric to magnetic proton form factors extracted from previous cross section measurements and that recently measured via polarization transfer in Hall A at Jefferson Lab.

  8. Repeatability of Brain Volume Measurements Made with the Atlas-based Method from T1-weighted Images Acquired Using a 0.4 Tesla Low Field MR Scanner.

    PubMed

    Goto, Masami; Suzuki, Makoto; Mizukami, Shinya; Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Fukuda, Michinari; Gomi, Tsutomu; Takeda, Tohoru

    2016-10-11

    An understanding of the repeatability of measured results is important for both the atlas-based and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods of magnetic resonance (MR) brain volumetry. However, many recent studies that have investigated the repeatability of brain volume measurements have been performed using static magnetic fields of 1-4 tesla, and no study has used a low-strength static magnetic field. The aim of this study was to investigate the repeatability of measured volumes using the atlas-based method and a low-strength static magnetic field (0.4 tesla). Ten healthy volunteers participated in this study. Using a 0.4 tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner and a quadrature head coil, three-dimensional T1-weighted images (3D-T1WIs) were obtained from each subject, twice on the same day. VBM8 software was used to construct segmented normalized images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) images]. The regions-of-interest (ROIs) of GM, WM, CSF, hippocampus (HC), orbital gyrus (OG), and cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL) were generated using WFU PickAtlas. The percentage change was defined as[100 × (measured volume with first segmented image - mean volume in each subject)/(mean volume in each subject)]The average percentage change was calculated as the percentage change in the 6 ROIs of the 10 subjects. The mean of the average percentage changes for each ROI was as follows: GM, 0.556%; WM, 0.324%; CSF, 0.573%; HC, 0.645%; OG, 1.74%; and CPL, 0.471%. The average percentage change was higher for the orbital gyrus than for the other ROIs. We consider that repeatability of the atlas-based method is similar between 0.4 and 1.5 tesla MR scanners. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that the level of repeatability with a 0.4 tesla MR scanner is adequate for the estimation of brain volume change by the atlas-based method.

  9. Relation between oxygen stoichiometry and thermodynamic properties and the electronic structure of nonstoichiometric perovskite La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ.

    PubMed

    Bychkov, S F; Sokolov, A G; Popov, M P; Nemudry, A P

    2016-10-26

    Continuous phase diagram 3 - δ - log pO2 - T of the nonstoichiometric perovskite La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ was obtained in a gas flow reactor by means of the quasi-equilibrium oxygen release technique. The thermodynamic properties of oxides were determined as a function of oxygen nonstoichiometry. Within the framework of the itinerant electron model, the dependence of the oxide nonstoichiometry on the oxygen activity was related to the density of electronic states near the Fermi level.

  10. Effect of jump length of electrons on the physical properties of Mn-doped Co 0.6Zn 0.4Fe 2O 4 ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Saadawy, M.; Barakat, M. M.

    2000-05-01

    The system Co 0.6Zn 0.4Mn xFe 2- xO 4 was prepared by the general ceramic method. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the spinel cubic structure. The dielectric constant, electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility were studied as a function of the jump length of electrons at the B sites of the above compositions. The increase of the jump length of electrons increase the electrical conductivity, dielectric constant and magnetic susceptibility which confirms that the jumping of electrons is predominant in the electrical behavior of ferrites.

  11. Chalcohalide glasses: The effect of covalent versus ionic bonding in (CuI)0.6(Sb2Se3)0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Philip S.; Xin, Shuqin

    2002-02-01

    The Cu-Cu partial structure factor and related difference functions were measured for the four-component chalcohalide glass (CuI)0.6(Sb2Se3)0.4 by using the method of isotopic substitution in neutron diffraction. The Cu-Cu nearest-neighbors reside at a large distance of 4.06(3) Å, by contrast with metal chalcogenide glasses of high modifier content, and the corresponding coordination number is 1.9(3). Local structural motifs centered on Cu and Sb are deduced using a scheme where there is exclusive heteropolar bonding but where Cu-Sb and Se-I contacts are disallowed.

  12. Evidence of a spin resonance mode in the iron-based superconductor Ba(0.6)K(0.4)Fe2As2 from scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lei; Gong, Jing; Wang, Yong-Lei; Shen, Bing; Hou, Xingyuan; Ren, Cong; Li, Chunhong; Yang, Huan; Wen, Hai-Hu; Li, Shiliang; Dai, Pengcheng

    2012-06-01

    We used high-resolution scanning tunneling spectroscopy to study the hole-doped iron pnictide superconductor Ba(0.6)K(0.4)Fe(2)As(2) (T(c)=38 K). Features of a bosonic excitation (mode) are observed in the measured quasiparticle density of states. The bosonic features are intimately associated with the superconducting order parameter and have a mode energy of ~14 meV, similar to the spin resonance measured by inelastic neutron scattering. These results indicate a strong electron-spin excitation coupling in iron pnictide superconductors, similar to that in high-T(c) copper oxide superconductors.

  13. A dose finding study with 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment in patients with chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Scholefield, J H; Bock, J U; Marla, B; Richter, H J; Athanasiadis, S; Pröls, M; Herold, A

    2003-02-01

    Anal fissure is a common painful condition affecting the anal canal. The majority of acute fissures heal spontaneously. However, some of these acute fissures do not resolve but become chronic. Chronic anal fissures were traditionally treated by anal dilation or by lateral sphincterotomy. However, both of these surgical treatments may cause a degree of incontinence in up to 30% of patients. Several recent trials have shown that nitric oxide donors such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) can reduce sphincter pressure and heal up to 70% of chronic fissures. This study addressed the dose-response to three different concentrations of GTN ointment compared with placebo in a double blind randomised controlled trial. A double blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial was set up to compare placebo ointment against three active treatment arms (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% GTN ointment applied at a dose of 220 mg twice daily) in chronic anal fissures. The primary end point was complete healing of the fissure. Two hundred patients were recruited over an eight month period from 18 centres. After eight weeks of treatment the healing rate in the placebo group was 37.5% compared with 46.9% for 0.1%, 40.4% for 0.2%, and 54.1% for 0.4% GTN. None was significantly better than the placebo response. A secondary analysis excluded fissures without secondary criteria for chronicity. Healing rates were then found to be 24% in the placebo group compared with 50% in the 0.1% GTN group, 36% in the 0.2% group, and 57% in the 0.4% GTN group. These values were statistically significantly different for the placebo group compared with 0.1% GTN, 0.4% GTN, and for the GTN treated group as a whole. The results of this study have demonstrated the significant benefit of topical GTN when applied to patients suffering from chronic anal fissures but acute fissures showed a tendency to resolve spontaneously. The high proportion of fissures which healed in the placebo group suggests that the definition of

  14. A dose finding study with 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment in patients with chronic anal fissures

    PubMed Central

    Scholefield, J H; Bock, J U; Marla, B; Richter, H J; Athanasiadis, S; Pröls, M; Herold, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Anal fissure is a common painful condition affecting the anal canal. The majority of acute fissures heal spontaneously. However, some of these acute fissures do not resolve but become chronic. Chronic anal fissures were traditionally treated by anal dilation or by lateral sphincterotomy. However, both of these surgical treatments may cause a degree of incontinence in up to 30% of patients. Several recent trials have shown that nitric oxide donors such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) can reduce sphincter pressure and heal up to 70% of chronic fissures. Aim: This study addressed the dose-response to three different concentrations of GTN ointment compared with placebo in a double blind randomised controlled trial. Method: A double blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial was set up to compare placebo ointment against three active treatment arms (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% GTN ointment applied at a dose of 220 mg twice daily) in chronic anal fissures. The primary end point was complete healing of the fissure. Results: Two hundred patients were recruited over an eight month period from 18 centres. After eight weeks of treatment the healing rate in the placebo group was 37.5% compared with 46.9% for 0.1%, 40.4% for 0.2%, and 54.1% for 0.4% GTN. None was significantly better than the placebo response. A secondary analysis excluded fissures without secondary criteria for chronicity. Healing rates were then found to be 24% in the placebo group compared with 50% in the 0.1% GTN group, 36% in the 0.2% group, and 57% in the 0.4% GTN group. These values were statistically significantly different for the placebo group compared with 0.1% GTN, 0.4% GTN, and for the GTN treated group as a whole. Conclusions: The results of this study have demonstrated the significant benefit of topical GTN when applied to patients suffering from chronic anal fissures but acute fissures showed a tendency to resolve spontaneously. The high proportion of fissures which healed in the placebo

  15. Thermoelectric and mechanical properties of multi-wall carbon nanotube doped Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 thermoelectric material

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fei; Wang, Hsin; Menchhofer, Paul A; Kiggans, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Since many thermoelectrics are brittle in nature with low mechanical strength, improving their mechanical properties is important in fabrication of devices such as thermoelectric power generators and coolers. In this work, multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated into polycrystalline Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 through powder processing, which increased the flexural strength from 32 MPa to 90 MPa. Electrical and thermal conductivities were both reduced in the CNT containing materials, leading to unchanged figure of merit. Dynamic Young s modulus and shear modulus of the composites were lower than the base material, which is likely related to the grain boundary scattering due to the CNTs.

  16. Space shuttle: Static aerodynamic characteristics characteristics and control effectiveness for McDonnell-Douglas orbiter configuration for Mach number range of 0.4 to 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental aerodynamic wind tunnel investigation was conducted employing a 0.00325 scale model of the McDonnell-Douglas space shuttle orbiter configuration. This investigation was conducted in the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center 14- by 14- inch trisonic wind tunnel. The investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the orbiter over the Mach number range of 0.4 to 5.0, an angle of attack variation from -4 degrees to 50 degrees, and -6 degrees to 9 degrees angle of sideslip. Control surface effectiveness was investigated for elevator, aileron, and rudder deflections.

  17. Coexistence of, and Competition between, Superconductivity and Charge-Stripe Order in La1.6-xNd0.4SrxCuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, J. M.; Axe, J. D.; Ichikawa, N.; Moodenbaugh, A. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Uchida, S.

    1997-01-01

    Previously we have presented evidence for stripe order of holes and spins in La1.6-xNd0.4SrxCuO4 with x = 0.12. Here we show, via neutron diffraction measurements of magnetic scattering, that similar order occurs in crystals with x = 0.15 and 0.20. Zero-field-cooled magnetization measurements show that all three compositions are also superconducting, with the superconducting transition temperature increasing as the low-temperature staggered magnetization decreases. These results directly demonstrate an intimate connection between stripe correlations and superconductivity.

  18. Hard X-ray diffraction study of charge stripe order in La1.48Nd0.4Sr0.12CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, M. v.; Vigliante, A.; Niemöller, T.; Ichikawa, N.; Frello, T.; Madsen, J.; Wochner, P.; Uchida, S.; Andersen, N. H.; Tranquada, J. M.; Gibbs, D.; Schneider, J. R.

    1998-03-01

    High-energy photon diffraction is used to investigate the charge ordering previously studied by neutron diffraction in La1.48Nd0.4Sr0.12CuO4. Besides confirming the existence of superlattice peaks due to charge order, the temperature dependence of the peak intensity, width, and position has been determined with improved precision. Furthermore, we show that the scattered intensity has a sinusoidial modulation along c*, consistent with long-range Coulomb interactions between ordered charges within the CuO2 planes.

  19. Significant enhancement in energy density of polymer composites induced by dopamine-modified Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu; Shen, Yang; Hu, Penghao; Lin, Yuanhua; Li, Ming; Nan, C. W.

    2012-10-01

    Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) nanofibers prepared via electrospinning and modified by dopamine are used as dielectric fillers in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based composites. With 4.4 vol. % of BST nanofibers, the extractable energy density of the BST/PVDF composites is more than doubled as compared with pure PVDF matrix. Such significant enhancement is attributed to the combined effect of both surface modification by dopamine and large aspect ratio of the BST nanofibers. Paraelectric or anti-ferroelectric fillers of large aspect ratio may serve as a general strategy for enhanced electric energy density in polymer composites.

  20. Development of two supercritical airfoils with a thickness-to-chord ratio of 0.20 and design lift coefficients of 0.3 and 0.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernell, L. S.

    1976-01-01

    Two supercritical airfoils were developed specifically for application to span distributed loading cargo aircraft. These airfoils have a thickness-to-chord ratio of 0.20 and design lift coefficients of 0.3 and 0.4, and were derived by modifying a recently developed supercritical airfoil having a thickness-to-chord ratio of 0.18 and a design lift coefficient of 0.5. The aerodynamic characteristics were calculated using a theoretical method which computes the flow field about an airfoil having supercritical surface velocities.

  1. Evidence for multi-gap symmetry from grain boundary effects in polycrystalline {{Ba}}_{0.6}{{\\rm{K}}}_{0.4}{{Fe}}_{2}{{As}}_{2} microbridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Zhou, Xian-Jing; Gao, Zhao-Shun; Wu, Hao; He, Ge; Yuan, Jie; Jin, Kui; Pereira, Paulo J.; Ji, Min; An, De-Yue; Li, Jun; Hatano, Takeshi; Jin, Biao-Bing; Wang, Hua-Bing; Wu, Pei-Heng

    2017-01-01

    We studied the grain boundaries within mechanically formed polycrystalline Ba{}0.6K{}0.4Fe2As2 micro-bridges. By tunneling current across grain boundaries, current-voltage characteristics (IVCs) demonstrated the typical Josephson weak links behavior in micro-bridges. Shapiro steps were observed for the junctions under the microwave radiation at 10 GHz. The temperature dependence of the critical current I c was observed as a shoulder, corresponding to a multi-gap symmetry but not a single-gap s-wave or d-wave.

  2. Structure and substructure analysis of DAFT/FADA galaxy clusters in the [0.4–0.9] redshift range

    SciTech Connect

    Guennou, L.; et al.

    2014-01-17

    Context. The DAFT/FADA survey is based on the study of ~90 rich(masses found in the literature >2 x 10^14 M_⊙)and moderately distant clusters (redshifts 0.4 < z < 0.9), all withHST imaging data available. This survey has two main objectives: to constrain dark energy(DE) using weak lensing tomography on galaxy clusters and to build a database (deepmulti-band imaging allowing photometric redshift estimates, spectroscopic data, X-raydata) of rich distant clusters to study their properties.

  3. Effect of calcium-deficiency upon physical properties of La0.6Ca0.4MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walha, I.; Cheikh-Rouhou, A.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.

    2006-09-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of the calcium-defect La0.6Ca0.4-xxMnO3 (0 x 0.2) perovskite manganites have been investigated. Our powder samples have been prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique at high temperature. Rietveld analysis show that all our synthesized samples crystallize in the orthorhombic perovskite structure with Pnma space group. The Mn atom is coordinated by six oxygen atoms forming an irregular octahedron. With decreasing Ca content the unit cell volume increases. Magnetic measurements as a function of temperature show that all our samples exhibit a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition with decreasing temperature.

  4. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fractional hours of work. 551.521 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work § 551.521 Fractional hours of work. (a) An employee shall be compensated for every minute of regular overtime work. (b...

  5. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) A quarter of an hour shall be the largest fraction of an hour used for crediting irregular or... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work § 551.521... than the full fraction, odd minutes shall be rounded up or rounded down to the nearest full fraction...

  6. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) A quarter of an hour shall be the largest fraction of an hour used for crediting irregular or... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work § 551.521... than the full fraction, odd minutes shall be rounded up or rounded down to the nearest full fraction...

  7. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610... Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) may not accumulate credit hours under an alternative work schedule. Any credit...

  8. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610... Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) may not accumulate credit hours under an alternative work schedule. Any credit...

  9. 76 FR 81133 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... the rule is to limit the ability of drivers to work the maximum number of hours currently allowed, or... weekly hours are associated with an increased risk of crashes and with the chronic health conditions... work the longer hours. DATES: Effective date: February 27, 2012. Compliance date: The rule changes...

  10. "Hour of Code": Can It Change Students' Attitudes toward Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The Hour of Code is a one-hour introduction to computer science organized by Code.org, a non-profit dedicated to expanding participation in computer science. This study investigated the impact of the Hour of Code on students' attitudes towards computer programming and their knowledge of programming. A sample of undergraduate students from two…

  11. Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Cheryl, Ed.; Wolman, Dianne Miller, Ed.; Johns, Michael M. E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Medical residents in hospitals are often required to be on duty for long hours. In 2003 the organization overseeing graduate medical education adopted common program requirements to restrict resident workweeks, including limits to an average of 80 hours over 4 weeks and the longest consecutive period of work to 30 hours in order to protect…

  12. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610... Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) may not accumulate credit hours under an alternative work schedule. Any credit...

  13. Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Cheryl, Ed.; Wolman, Dianne Miller, Ed.; Johns, Michael M. E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Medical residents in hospitals are often required to be on duty for long hours. In 2003 the organization overseeing graduate medical education adopted common program requirements to restrict resident workweeks, including limits to an average of 80 hours over 4 weeks and the longest consecutive period of work to 30 hours in order to protect…

  14. "Hour of Code": Can It Change Students' Attitudes toward Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The Hour of Code is a one-hour introduction to computer science organized by Code.org, a non-profit dedicated to expanding participation in computer science. This study investigated the impact of the Hour of Code on students' attitudes towards computer programming and their knowledge of programming. A sample of undergraduate students from two…

  15. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section, each CBP office shall be open for the transactions of general CBP business between the hours of...

  16. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed salary for fluctuating hours. 778.114 Section 778.114... salary for fluctuating hours. (a) An employee employed on a salary basis may have hours of work which fluctuate from week to week and the salary may be paid him pursuant to an understanding with his...

  17. 48 CFR 536.570-5 - Working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working hours. 536.570-5... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 536.570-5 Working hours. Insert 552.236-74, Working Hours, in solicitations and contracts if construction,...

  18. 29 CFR 2530.200b-2 - Hour of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1), (2) and (3) of this section. The employer may round up hours at the end of a computation... each hour for which back pay, irrespective of mitigation of damages, is either awarded or agreed to by... receives a back pay award following a determination that he or she was paid at an unlawful rate for hours...

  19. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section, each CBP office shall be open for the transactions of general CBP business between the hours of 8...

  20. Comparing performance on a simulated 12 hour shift rotation in young and older subjects

    PubMed Central

    Reid, K; Dawson, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To simulate a 12 hour shift rotation and measure the difference in performance if any, between older and younger subjects. Significant reductions in neurobehavioural performance during shift work and particularly night work have long been recognised. There are conflicting reports of the effects of 12 hour shifts on performance, alertness, and safety. Furthermore, research suggests that older shift workers have more sleep disruption and maladaption to shift work. When this is combined with longer hours at work there may be considerable reductions in performance for older compared with younger workers.
METHODS—Thirty two subjects were allocated to groups according to age. Group one had 16 subjects with a mean (SD) age of 21.2 (2.7) years, and group two had 16 subjects with a mean (SD) age of 43.9 (6.8) years. Subjects came to the laboratory for six consecutive days and completed a simulated 12 hour shift rotation consisting of two 12 hour day shifts (0700-1900), followed by two 12 hour night shifts (1900-0700). During the work period subjects completed a computer administered neurobehavioural performance task every hour.
RESULTS—Performance for the older subjects was consistently lower than for the younger subjects. There was a significant difference in performance across the shift between older and younger subjects. There was a significant change in performance across the shifts in the older subjects, such that performance significantly increased across the day shifts and decreased across the night shifts. By contrast, the younger subjects were able to maintain performance across both day shifts and the second night shift.
CONCLUSIONS—There are significant differences in performance of older and younger subjects during a simulated 12 hour shift rotation. Future studies both in the field and the laboratory would be useful in determining whether this is typical and if there are any important consequences for the older worker on 12 hour

  1. Poor safety climate, long work hours, and musculoskeletal discomfort among Latino horse farm workers.

    PubMed

    Swanberg, Jennifer; Clouser, Jessica Miller; Gan, Wenqi; Flunker, John C; Westneat, Susan; Browning, Steven R

    2017-09-03

    This study investigated the prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) and work-related factors associated with elevated MSD among Latino thoroughbred farm workers. Participants (N = 225) were recruited using a community-based purposive sampling approach to participate in in-person interviews. Of these workers, 85% experienced MSD. MSD was divided into tertiles; the upper tertile was defined as elevated. Multivariable Poisson regression revealed associations between any elevated MSD and longer tenure on horse farms, longer work hours, and poor safety climate. Elevated neck/back MSD was associated with longer tenure, longer work hours, and poor safety climate. Elevated upper extremity MSD was associated with age and poor safety climate. Elevated lower extremity MSD was associated with longer tenure, longer work hours, and being female. Musculoskeletal discomfort is common among these workers. Improving safety climate and minimizing long work hours is recommended.

  2. The Effect of Fatherhood on Employment Hours: Variation by Birth Timing, Marriage and Coresidence

    PubMed Central

    Weinshenker, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the life course paradigm, I assess how the effect of fatherhood on employment hours varies by age of becoming a parent and time elapsed since the birth. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – 1979 Cohort from 1979 to 2002 (N = 28,514 observations), separate effects are estimated based on fathers’ marital status and co-residence with own children. Only unmarried men who became fathers before 24 work longer hours immediately after a first birth, but in the long run, most early fathers work fewer hours as a result of parenthood. Over time, unmarried but coresident men who became fathers between 24 and 29 increase their hours, as do married, coresident men who delayed fatherhood until 30 or older. However, the latter increase is moderated by support for egalitarian gender roles. The findings shed light on the contemporary transition to adulthood and on men’s work-family balance. PMID:28280281

  3. Council tax valuation bands and contacts with a GP out-of-hours service

    PubMed Central

    Beale, Norman; Taylor, Gordon; Gwynne, Mark; Peart, Carole

    2006-01-01

    UK GPs are no longer responsible for the organisation of out-of-hours care for their patients, but resources remains capitation-based. This cross-sectional study tests whether council tax valuation bands can predict the demand for such services. All out-of-hours contacts made by patients in North Wiltshire over 4 months were classified by council tax band; frequencies compared with official population statistics. Council tax band predicts out-of-hours GP workload irrespective of age and sex: the more modest the home, the higher the GP contact rate. It may prove more difficult to sustain out-of-hours services in deprived parts of the UK. PMID:16611518

  4. The Effect of Fatherhood on Employment Hours: Variation by Birth Timing, Marriage and Coresidence.

    PubMed

    Weinshenker, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the life course paradigm, I assess how the effect of fatherhood on employment hours varies by age of becoming a parent and time elapsed since the birth. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 Cohort from 1979 to 2002 (N = 28,514 observations), separate effects are estimated based on fathers' marital status and co-residence with own children. Only unmarried men who became fathers before 24 work longer hours immediately after a first birth, but in the long run, most early fathers work fewer hours as a result of parenthood. Over time, unmarried but coresident men who became fathers between 24 and 29 increase their hours, as do married, coresident men who delayed fatherhood until 30 or older. However, the latter increase is moderated by support for egalitarian gender roles. The findings shed light on the contemporary transition to adulthood and on men's work-family balance.

  5. Spontaneous running activity in male rats - Effect of age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Dolkas, C. B.; Sims, C.; Reaven, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    Variations in the intensity and the patterns of spontaneous running activity in wheel cages were studied in male rats aged 7 weeks to one year. Daily running records were obtained for periods of 12 mo, and 24-hour recordings were made for selected runners in order to study variations in running activity during the day. The data indicate that for rats running over two miles/day, the maximum running intensity can be divided into two groups: a group of high achievers running 8 miles/day; and a group of moderate achievers running 4.8 miles/day. For both groups spontaneous activity reached a maximum after 4-5 weeks. An hourly pattern of running activity during the day was identified in rats of increasing age who averaged 9.0, 4.5, 2.6, and 1.2 miles/day, respectively. Progressive losses were observed in both the speed and the duration of spontaneous running as the rats increased in age, with the intensity of exercise falling below 2 miles/day after 7-8 months of age.

  6. High mobility holes in a strained Ge quantum well grown on a thin and relaxed Si{sub 0.4}Ge{sub 0.6}/LT-Si{sub 0.4}Ge{sub 0.6}/Si(001) virtual substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Myronov, M.; Leadley, D. R.; Shiraki, Y.

    2009-03-02

    Epitaxial growth of a compressively strained Ge quantum well (QW) on an ultrathin, 345 nm thick, Si{sub 0.4}Ge{sub 0.6}/LT-Si{sub 0.4}Ge{sub 0.6}/Si(001) virtual substrate (VS) has been demonstrated. The VS, grown with a low temperature Si{sub 0.4}Ge{sub 0.6} seed layer on a Si(001) substrate, is found to be fully relaxed and the Ge QW is fully strained. The temperature dependence of Hall mobility and carrier density clearly indicates a two-dimensional hole gas in the Ge QW. At room temperature, which is more relevant for electronic devices applications, the samples show a very high Hall mobility of 1235 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} at a carrier density of 2.36x10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}.

  7. Impact of 24-hour helpline service for people with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Farrukh; Asim-Bin-Zafar; Riaz, Musarrat; Ghafoor, Erum; Rehman, Rabia Abdul; Uddin, Qutub

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact and effectiveness of 24-hour helpline service in providing information and educating patients about self-management of diabetes. Method: The study was conducted at Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology (BIDE), a tertiary diabetes care center, Karachi, Pakistan. People with diabetes attending the outpatient department from November 2012 to October 2014 were included in this study. After providing diabetes education, a helpline number was provided for emergency situations. Calls of registered patients were received by diabetes educators stationed at the BIDE around the clock. Data was collected through specially designed interface of HMS (health management system) in which the current complaint of caller and the advice of educator was recorded. Result: A total of 4842 calls were received. Out of those, 4268 (88%) were made by Type-2 diabetics and 526 calls (10%) were made by Type-1 diabetics. The average age of patients was 47.6 years. Three seventy-four calls (7.7%) were received with complaint of Hypoglycemia (72-80mg/dl). Six hundred and ninety-eight calls (14.4%) were received with complaint of hyperglycemia (>200mg/dl). Insulin dose was adjusted on 935 calls (19.3%). Calls regarding other special situations such as (insulin handling, technique, medicine information) 2014 (41.6%) were received. Conclusion: Station based 24-hour telephonic helpline service is an effective tool for providing continuous support to people with diabetes and their families, for the self-management of diabetes. It can help in the management of various acute complication of diabetes, thereby preventing unnecessary hospital visits and admission. PMID:28811807

  8. Preparation and results of a 24-hour orbital flight.

    PubMed

    Titov, G S

    1963-01-01

    The space age presents man with unprecedented opportunities for discovery and for cooperative endeavors to benefit all mankind. My flight of August 6-7, 1961 was conducted for the purpose of determining whether man can stay and work effectively and whether all systems of the spaceship can operate successfully during a period of 24 hours in space. The flight of Vostok II represents an experimental step in a logical sequence which included the first earth orbiting flight of USSR citizen Yuri A. Gagarin. Preparation for the flight included the study of theoretical and applied subjects, testing in various kinds of apparatus which provide acceleration, heat and isolation experience, brief airborne weightless flights and parachute landings, in addition to extensive training in a real spacecraft having simulators for normal and emergency contingencies of space flight. The actual flight was therefore carried out with a sense of confidence and familiarity and with continuous close radio contact with ground centers from whom my fellow cosmonauts served as spokesmen. Sequential boosters totaling 600 000 kg thrust placed the 4731 kg spaceship into a perfect orbit varying in altitude from 178-246 km in a plane 64 degrees 58' inclined to the equator. The spaceship made 17 orbits around the earth landing 25 hours, 18 minutes after take-off. The cabin had full atmospheric pressure and a comfortable habitability which could be extended for 10 days. I was able to maneuver the spaceship and perform many other control functions, make observations and take pictures of the earth and its cloud cover, eat meals and sleep all with good efficiency. I experienced mild symptoms suggestive of seasickness which were aggravated by head turning, ameliorated by sleep and entirely relieved by resumption of g-loading during descent. Altogether analyses of the physical and structural performance of the spaceship and the continuously monitored physiological responses of the pilot indicate that all

  9. Career satisfaction and retention of a sample of women physicians who work reduced hours.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Rosalind C; Gareis, Karen C; Carr, Phyllis L

    2005-03-01

    To better understand the career satisfaction and factors related to retention of women physicians who work reduced hours and are in dual-earner couples in comparison to their full-time counterparts. Survey of a random sample of female physicians between 25 and 50 years of age working within 25 miles of Boston, whose names were obtained from the Board of Registration in Medicine in Massachusetts. Interviewers conducted a 60-minute face-to-face closed-ended interview after interviewees completed a 20-minute mailed questionnaire. Fifty-one full-time physicians and 47 reduced hours physicians completed the study; the completion rate was 49.5%. The two groups were similar in age, years as a physician, mean household income, number of children, and presence of an infant in the home. Reduced hours physicians in this sample had a different relationship to experiences in the family than full-time physicians. (1) When reduced hours physicians had low marital role quality, there was an associated lower career satisfaction; full-time physicians report high career satisfaction regardless of their marital role quality. (2) When reduced hours physicians had low marital role or parental role quality, there was an associated higher intention to leave their jobs than for full-time physicians; when marital role or parental role quality was high, there was an associated lower intention to leave their jobs than for full-time physicians. (3) When reduced hours physicians perceived that work interfering with family was high, there was an associated greater intention to leave their jobs that was not apparent for full-time physicians. Women physicians in this sample who worked reduced hours had stronger relationships between family experiences (marital and parental role quality and work interference with family) and professional outcomes than had their full-time counterparts. Both career satisfaction and intention to leave their employment are correlated with the quality of home life for

  10. Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation: a multi-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T; Batty, G David; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jokela, Markus; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kumari, Meena; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Shipley, Martin J; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Steptoe, Andrew; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Hamer, Mark; Ferrie, Jane E; Virtanen, Marianna; Tabak, Adam G

    2017-09-07

    Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working long hours (≥55 per week) and those working standard 35-40 h/week. In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium, the study population was 85 494 working men and women (mean age 43.4 years) with no recorded atrial fibrillation. Working hours were assessed at study baseline (1991-2004). Mean follow-up for incident atrial fibrillation was 10 years and cases were defined using data on electrocardiograms, hospital records, drug reimbursement registers, and death certificates. We identified 1061 new cases of atrial fibrillation (10-year cumulative incidence 12.4 per 1000). After adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status, individuals working long hours had a 1.4-fold increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with those working standard hours (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.13-1.80, P = 0.003). There was no significant heterogeneity between the cohort-specific effect estimates (I2 = 0%, P = 0.66) and the finding remained after excluding participants with coronary heart disease or stroke at baseline or during the follow-up (N = 2006, hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.05-1.76, P = 0.0180). Adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as obesity, risky alcohol use and high blood pressure, had little impact on this association. Individuals who worked long hours were more likely to develop atrial fibrillation than those working standard hours.

  11. Spin glass behavior in LaCo1 -xRhxO3 (x =0.4 , 0.5, and 0.6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Manna, K.; Luetkens, H.; Hoelzel, M.; Komarek, A. C.

    2016-11-01

    We studied the magnetic ground state of Co/Rh-disordered LaCo1 -xRhxO3 (x =0.4 , 0.5, and 0.6) by means of powder neutron diffraction (PND), muon spin relaxation (μ SR ), ac susceptibility, isothermal magnetic relaxation, and heat capacity measurements. The dc magnetic susceptibility measurements exhibit a cusp around the freezing temperature Tf of all studied compounds. PND measurements show no indications of long-range magnetic ordering down to 4 K in all studied samples. μ SR experiments on these compounds show a peak in the muon spin relaxation rate around Tf. However, no spontaneous muon spin precession can be observed evidencing the short-range nature of the magnetic ordering. For the x =0.5 sample ac susceptibility measurements show that Tf shifts to higher temperatures with increasing frequency and becomes suppressed by a dc biasing field. All these observations indicate that the Co/Rh-disordered LaCo1 -xRhxO3 system is a spin glass for x =0.4 , 0.5, and 0.6.

  12. Intrinsic Gilbert damping constant in epitaxial Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.6}Si Heusler alloys films

    SciTech Connect

    Kwilu, Augustin L. Sahashi, Masashi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Ando, Yasuo

    2015-05-07

    The (001)-oriented and (110)-oriented epitaxial grown Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.6}Si films were fabricated by magnetron sputtering technique in order to investigate the annealing temperature dependence of the intrinsic Gilbert damping constant (α). The stuck films, deposited on MgO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} a-plane substrates, respectively, were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 550 °C. The X-ray diffraction analysis was conducted to confirm that all the films were epitaxially grown. In addition, the ferromagnetic resonance measurements as well as the vibrating sample magnetometer were carried out to determine their magnetic properties. A small α of 0.004 was recorded for the sample with 001-oriented Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.6}Si (CFMS (001)) and 110-oriented CFMS (CFMS (110)) annealed at 450 °C.

  13. Spin-phonon coupling in epitaxial S r0.6B a0.4Mn O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goian, V.; Langenberg, E.; Marcano, N.; Bovtun, V.; Maurel, L.; Kempa, M.; Prokscha, T.; Kroupa, J.; Algarabel, P. A.; Pardo, J. A.; Kamba, S.

    2017-02-01

    Spin-phonon coupling is investigated in epitaxially strained S r1 -xB axMn O3 thin films with perovskite structure by means of microwave (MW) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. In this work we focus on the S r0.6B a0.4Mn O3 composition grown on (LaAlO3) 0.3(Sr2AlTaO6 ) 0.7 substrate. The MW complex electromagnetic response shows a decrease in the real part and a clear anomaly in the imaginary part around 150 K. Moreover, it coincides with a 17 % hardening of the lowest-frequency polar phonon seen in IR reflectance spectra. In order to further elucidate this phenomenon, low-energy muon-spin spectroscopy was carried out, signaling the emergence of antiferromagnetic order with Néel temperature (TN) around 150 K. Thus, our results confirm that epitaxial S r0.6B a0.4Mn O3 thin films display strong spin-phonon coupling below TN, which may stimulate further research on tuning the magnetoelectric coupling by controlling the epitaxial strain and chemical pressure in the S r1 -xB axMn O3 system.

  14. Observations of gamma radiation between 0. 4 MeV and 7 MeV at balloon altitudes using a Compton telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, J.A.; Webber, W.R.; Friling, L.A.; Macri, J.; Hsieh, L.

    1981-09-15

    Results are presented from a balloon flight at Palestine, Texas, in 1978 to measure the atmospheric and diffuse ..gamma..-ray flux in the energy range 0.4--7.0 MeV. The observations were made with a Compton telescope which included pulse-shape discrimination of the first scattering detector and a time-of-flight system between the first and second detector elements. The total downward ..gamma..-ray flux at 3.7 g cm/sup -2/ is given by the spectrum 3.1 x 10/sup -2/ x E/sup -1.74/ (photons cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ MeV/sup -1/ sr/sup -1/) for 0.50.4 MeV

  15. Low Power Resistive Oxygen Sensor Based on Sonochemical SrTi0.6Fe0.4O2.8 (STFO40)

    PubMed Central

    Stratulat, Alisa; Serban, Bogdan-Catalin; de Luca, Andrea; Avramescu, Viorel; Cobianu, Cornel; Brezeanu, Mihai; Buiu, Octavian; Diamandescu, Lucian; Feder, Marcel; Ali, Syed Zeeshan; Udrea, Florin

    2015-01-01

    The current paper reports on a sonochemical synthesis method for manufacturing nanostructured (typical grain size of 50 nm) SrTi0.6Fe0.4O2.8 (Sono-STFO40) powder. This powder is characterized using X ray-diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and results are compared with commercially available SrTi0.4Fe0.6O2.8 (STFO60) powder. In order to manufacture resistive oxygen sensors, both Sono-STFO40 and STFO60 are deposited, by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) method, on an SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) micro-hotplate, employing a tungsten heater embedded within a dielectric membrane. Oxygen detection tests are performed in both dry (RH = 0%) and humid (RH = 60%) nitrogen atmosphere, varying oxygen concentrations between 1% and 16% (v/v), at a constant heater temperature of 650 °C. The oxygen sensor, based on the Sono-STFO40 sensing layer, shows good sensitivity, low power consumption (80 mW), and short response time (25 s). These performance are comparable to those exhibited by state-of-the-art O2 sensors based on STFO60, thus proving Sono-STFO40 to be a material suitable for oxygen detection in harsh environments. PMID:26205267

  16. Evolution of superconducting and transport properties in annealed FeTe1-xSex (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) multiband superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yue; Taen, Toshihiro; Yamada, Tatsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Pyon, Sunseng; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the superconducting and transport properties in FeTe1-xSex (0.1 ≤slant x ≤slant 0.4) single crystals prepared by O2-annealing. The sharp superconducting transition width observed in the magnetization measurement and the small residual resistivity prove the high quality of the crystals. All the crystals manifest large, homogeneous, and isotropic critical current density Jc with a self-field value over 105 A cm-2 at 2 K. The large and field-robust critical current densities prove that the superconductivity in FeTe1-xSex (0.1 ≤slant x ≤slant 0.4) is in bulk nature. The values of anisotropy parameter close to Tc for crystals with different Se doping levels all reside in the range of 2-3. Hall coefficients RH remain positive and at an almost constant value at high temperatures, followed by a sudden decrease before reaching Tc, which indicates that the electron-type charge carriers become dominant at low temperatures. Furthermore, the characteristic temperature for the sudden decrease in RH gradually increases with Se doping.

  17. Single crystal growth, magnetic and thermal properties of perovskite YFe0.6Mn0.4O3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tao; Shen, Hui; Zhao, Xiangyang; Man, Peiwen; Wu, Anhua; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jiayue

    2016-11-01

    High quality YFe0.6Mn0.4O3 single crystal was grown by floating zone technique using a four-mirror-image-furnace under flowing air. Powder X-ray diffraction gives well evidence that the specimen has an orthorhombic structure, with space group Pbnm. Temperature dependence of the magnetizations of YFe0.6Mn0.4O3 single crystal were studied under ZFC and FC modes in the temperature range from 5 K to 400 K. A clear spin reorientation transition behavior (Γ4→Γ1) is observed in the temperature range of 322-316 K, due to the substitution of Mn at the Fe site of YFeO3. Its Néel temperature is around 385 K. Moreover, the spin reorientation is verified by the change of magnetic hysteresis loops of the sample along [001] axis in the temperature range of 50-385 K. The thermal properties of the sample were measured by the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from 300 K to 500 K, which also clearly appear anomaly in the spin reorientation region.

  18. A New Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 -Silicon Hybrid Metamaterial Device in Terahertz Regime.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Du, Ting; Xu, Ningning; Ding, Chunfeng; Li, Hui; Sheng, Quan; Liu, Ming; Yao, Jianquan; Wang, Zhiyong; Lou, Xiaojie; Zhang, Weili

    2016-05-01

    Metamaterials, offering unprecedented functionalities to manipulate electromagnetic waves, have become a research hotspot in recent years. Through the incorporation of active media, the exotic electromagnetic behavior of metamaterials can be dramatically empowered by dynamic control. Many ferroelectric materials such as BaSrTiO3 (abbreviated as BST), exhibiting strong response to external electric field, hold great promise in both microwave and terahertz tunable devices. A new active Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 -silicon hybrid metamaterial device, namely, a SRR (square split-ring resonator)-BaSrTiO3 thin film-silicon three-layer structure is fabricated and intensively studied. The active Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 thin film hybrid metamaterial, with nanoscale thickness, delivers a transmission contrast up to ≈79% due to electrically enabled carrier transport between the ferroelectric thin film and silicon substrate. This work has significantly increased the low modulation rate of ferroelectric based devices in terahertz range, a major problem in this field remaining unresolved for many years. The proposed BST metamaterial is promising in developing high-performance real world photonic devices for terahertz technology.

  19. Two-step polarization switching mediated by a nonpolar intermediate phase in Hf0.4Zr0.6O2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Min Hyuk; Kim, Han Joon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Yu Jin; Moon, Taehwan; Kim, Keum Do; Hyun, Seung Dam; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-07-01

    The broken ferroelectric hysteresis loop achieved from a Hf0.4Zr0.6O2 film was interpreted based on the first order phase transition theory. The two-step polarization switching, which was expected from the theory, could be observed by dynamic pulse switching measurement. The variations in the interfacial capacitance values along with switching time and number of switching cycles could also be estimated from the pulse switching test. Being different from the one-step polarization switching in other ferroelectric films, two-step polarization switching produced two slanted plateau regions where the estimated interfacial capacitance values were different from each other. This could be understood based on the quantitative model of the two-step polarization switching with the involvement of an intermediate nonpolar phase. The Hf0.4Zr0.6O2 film was changed from antiferroelectric-like to ferroelectric-like with the increasing number of electric field cycles, which could be induced by the field driven phase change.

  20. High magnetic field phase diagram in electron-doped manganites La0.4Ca0.6Mn1−yCryO3

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chengliang; Hu, Ni; Yang, Ming; Xia, Shuangcheng; Wang, Haowen; Wang, Junfeng; Xia, Zhengcai; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We report the charge-order to ferromagnetic phase transition induced by pulsed high magnetic field and impurity doping effects in manganites La0.4Ca0.6(Mn1−yCry)O3 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.2). Significant charge-order suppression and ferromagnetic tendency upon the Cr3+-doping are evidenced, and three different ground states are identified, namely the charge-order state, the phase separated state, and the spin-glass like state. Phase diagram in the H-y plane at 4.2 K is determined by the high magnetic field study, in which the charge-order and ferromagnetic phase boundary is clearly figured out. The critical magnetic field for melting the charge-order phase of La0.4Ca0.6MnO3 is revealed to reach up to 46 T at 4.2 K. Interestingly, distinct responses of the three states to the high magnetic field are observed, indicating the special physics regarding the charge order melting process in each state. The mechanism of the doping induced charge-order suppression and ferromagnetism promotion can be understood by the competition between the antiferromagnetic interaction of Cr-Mn and local enhancement of electron hopping by Cr3+. PMID:24811441