Science.gov

Sample records for 0-4 hours age

  1. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  2. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged <1 year) should be physically active several times daily - particularly through interactive floor-based play. Toddlers (aged 1-2 years) and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity spread throughout the day, including a variety of activities in different environments, activities that develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits.

  3. Ageing, working hours and work ability.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Sartori, S

    2007-11-01

    The current paper reports the main results of several studies carried out on Italian workers using the work ability index as a complementary tool for workers' periodical health surveillance. The work ability index shows a general decreasing trend over the years, but it changes differently according to working conditions and personal health status. In jobs with higher mental involvement and autonomy, but lower physical constraint, it remains quite constant and high over the years, while it significantly decreases with a steeper trend the higher the physical work load and the lower the job control are. Sex and working hours appear to act concurrently in influencing work ability, particularly in association with more physically demanding jobs. It is therefore necessary to adopt flexible interventions, able to give ageing shift workers a proper support for maintaining a satisfactory work ability, by means of actions addressed both to work organization and psycho-physical conditions.

  4. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  5. (0,4) dualities

    DOE PAGES

    Putrov, Pavel; Song, Jaewon; Yan, Wenbin

    2016-03-29

    We study a class of two-dimensional N = (0; 4) quiver gauge theories that flow to superconformal field theories. We find dualities for the superconformal field theories similar to the 4d N = 2 theories of class S, labelled by a Riemann surface C. The dual descriptions arise from various pair-of-pants decompositions, that involve an analog of the TN theory. Especially, we find the superconformal indices of such theories can be written in terms of a topological field theory on C. In conclusion, we interpret this class of SCFTs as the ones coming from compactifying 6d N = (2; 0)more » theory on CP1 x C. Moreover, some new dualities of (0; 2) and (2; 2) theories are also discussed.« less

  6. (0,4) dualities

    SciTech Connect

    Putrov, Pavel; Song, Jaewon; Yan, Wenbin

    2016-03-29

    We study a class of two-dimensional N = (0; 4) quiver gauge theories that flow to superconformal field theories. We find dualities for the superconformal field theories similar to the 4d N = 2 theories of class S, labelled by a Riemann surface C. The dual descriptions arise from various pair-of-pants decompositions, that involve an analog of the TN theory. Especially, we find the superconformal indices of such theories can be written in terms of a topological field theory on C. In conclusion, we interpret this class of SCFTs as the ones coming from compactifying 6d N = (2; 0) theory on CP1 x C. Moreover, some new dualities of (0; 2) and (2; 2) theories are also discussed.

  7. Social exclusion, deprivation and child health: a spatial analysis of ambulatory care sensitive conditions in children aged 0-4 years in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Butler, Danielle C; Thurecht, Linc; Brown, Laurie; Konings, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Recent Australian policy initiatives regarding primary health care focus on planning services around community needs and delivering these at the local area. As in many other countries, there has also been a growing concern over social inequities in health outcomes. The aims of the analysis presented here were firstly to describe small area variations in hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) among children aged 0-4 years between 2003 and 2009 in the state of Victoria, Australia, and secondly to explore the relationship of ACSC hospitalisations with socio-economic disadvantage using a comparative analysis of the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and the Composite Score of Deprivation (CSD). This is a cross sectional secondary data analysis, with data sourced from 2003 to 2009 ACSC data from the Victorian State Government Department of Health; the Australian Standard Geographical Classification of remoteness; the Australian 2006 Census of Population and Housing; and AMPCo General Practitioner data from 2010. The relationship between the indexes and child health outcomes was examined through bivariate analysis and visually through a series of maps. The results show there is significant variation in the geographical distribution of the relationship between ACSCs and socio-economic disadvantage, with both indexes capturing important social gradients in child health conditions. However, measures of access, such as geographical accessibility and workforce supply, detect additional small area variation in child health outcomes. This research has important implications for future primary health care policy and planning of services, as these findings confirm that not all areas are the same in terms of health outcomes, and there may be benefit in tailoring mechanisms for identifying areas of need depending on the outcome intended to be affected.

  8. Is the "golden age" of the "golden hour" in sepsis over?

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Derek S

    2015-12-29

    The so-called "golden hour" of trauma resuscitation has been applied to a number of disease conditions in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. For example, the "golden hour" as applied to the treatment of critically children and adults with severe sepsis and septic shock is based upon early recognition, early administration of antibiotics, and early reversal of the shock state. However, several clinical studies published over the last decade have called into question this time-honored approach and suggest that overly aggressive fluid resuscitation may cause more harm than good. Perhaps we are finally leaving the "Golden Age" of the "golden hour" and entering a new age in which we are able to use a more personalized approach to fluid management for patients with severe sepsis/septic shock.

  9. School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions of Practice: Differences by Generational Age and Hours Worked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Jun, Jinhyun; Arendt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the influences of school foodservice employees' age and average number of hours worked per week on perceived safe food handling practices, barriers, and motivators. Methods: A bilingual survey (English and Spanish) was developed to assess reported food safety practices, barriers, and motivators to…

  10. CATCOM catalyst 5 atm 1000 hour aging study using No. 2 fuel oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osgerby, I. T.; Olson, B. A.; Lee, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    The durability of the CATCOM catalyst for use in catalytically supported thermal combustion has been demonstrated at 5 atm, complementing a previous 1000 hour durability study at 1 atm. Both of these studies were conducted at about 640 K air preheat temperature at a reference velocity of about 14 m/s; the adiabatic flame temperature of the fuel/air mixture was about 1530 K. The catalyst proved to be capable of low emissions operations after 1000 hours of diesel fuel aging. However, more severe deactivation occurred in the 5 atm test; this was attributed to a loss in kinetic (ignition) activity.

  11. Ageing behavior of extruded Mg–8.2Gd–3.8Y–1.0Zn–0.4Zr (wt.%) alloy containing LPSO phase and γ′ precipitates

    PubMed Central

    Xu, C.; Nakata, T.; Qiao, X. G.; Zheng, M. Y.; Wu, K.; Kamado, S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase and γ′ precipitates on the ageing behavior and mechanical properties of the extruded Mg–8.2Gd–3.8Y–1.0Zn–0.4Zr (wt.%) alloy was investigated. The results show that more β′ phases precipitate during ageing treatment in the LPSO phase containing alloy so that the LPSO phase containing alloy exhibits a higher age-hardening response than the γ′ precipitates containing alloy. The precipitation strengthening induced by β′ precipitates is the greatest contributor to the strength of the peak-aged LPSO-containing alloys. Higher strength is achieved in γ′ precipitates containing alloy due to the more effective strengthening induced by dense nanoscale γ′ precipitates than LPSO phases as well as the higher volume fraction of coarse unrecrystallized grains with strong basal texture. The extruded alloy containing γ′ precipitates after T5 peak-ageing treatment shows ultra-high tensile yield strength of 462 MPa, high ultimate tensile strength of 520 MPa, and superior elongation to failure of 10.6%. PMID:28230211

  12. Do Hours Spent Viewing Television at Ages 3 and 4 Predict Vocabulary and Executive Functioning at Age 5?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of television viewing at ages 3 and 4 on vocabulary and at age 5 on executive functioning in the context of home learning environment and parental scaffolding. Children (N = 263) were seen in the lab when they were 3 years old and then again at ages 4 and 5. Parents completed measures assessing child television viewing and…

  13. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards....

  14. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards....

  15. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards....

  16. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards....

  17. 43 CFR 2361.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 2361.0-4 Section 2361.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... and Protection of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska § 2361.0-4 Responsibility. (a) The...

  18. 43 CFR 2400.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility. 2400.0-4 Section 2400.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2400.0-4 Responsibility. (a) Except where specified to the contrary in this group, the authority of...

  19. 43 CFR 2400.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 2400.0-4 Section 2400.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2400.0-4 Responsibility. (a) Except where specified to the contrary in this group, the authority of...

  20. 43 CFR 2200.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2200.0-4 Section 2200.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2200.0-4 Responsibilities. The Director of the Bureau of Land Management has the responsibility...

  1. 43 CFR 2610.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2610.0-4 Section 2610.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....0-4 Responsibilities. (a) The authority of the Secretary of the Interior to approve the...

  2. 43 CFR 2200.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2200.0-4 Section 2200.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2200.0-4 Responsibilities. The Director of the Bureau of Land Management has the responsibility...

  3. 43 CFR 2610.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2610.0-4 Section 2610.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....0-4 Responsibilities. (a) The authority of the Secretary of the Interior to approve the...

  4. 43 CFR 2361.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility. 2361.0-4 Section 2361.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... and Protection of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska § 2361.0-4 Responsibility. (a) The...

  5. Age-related changes in sleep spindles characteristics during daytime recovery following a 25-hour sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Rosinvil, T.; Lafortune, M.; Sekerovic, Z.; Bouchard, M.; Dubé, J.; Latulipe-Loiselle, A.; Martin, N.; Lina, J. M.; Carrier, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The mechanisms underlying sleep spindles (~11–15 Hz; >0.5 s) help to protect sleep. With age, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain sleep at a challenging time (e.g., daytime), even after sleep loss. This study compared spindle characteristics during daytime recovery and nocturnal sleep in young and middle-aged adults. In addition, we explored whether spindles characteristics in baseline nocturnal sleep were associated with the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery periods in both age groups. Methods: Twenty-nine young (15 women and 14 men; 27.3 y ± 5.0) and 31 middle-aged (19 women and 13 men; 51.6 y ± 5.1) healthy subjects participated in a baseline nocturnal sleep and a daytime recovery sleep after 25 hours of sleep deprivation. Spindles were detected on artifact-free Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep epochs. Spindle density (nb/min), amplitude (μV), frequency (Hz), and duration (s) were analyzed on parasagittal (linked-ears) derivations. Results: In young subjects, spindle frequency increased during daytime recovery sleep as compared to baseline nocturnal sleep in all derivations, whereas middle-aged subjects showed spindle frequency enhancement only in the prefrontal derivation. No other significant interaction between age group and sleep condition was observed. Spindle density for all derivations and centro-occipital spindle amplitude decreased whereas prefrontal spindle amplitude increased from baseline to daytime recovery sleep in both age groups. Finally, no significant correlation was found between spindle characteristics during baseline nocturnal sleep and the marked reduction in sleep efficiency during daytime recovery sleep in both young and middle-aged subjects. Conclusion: These results suggest that the interaction between homeostatic and circadian pressure modulates spindle frequency differently in aging. Spindle characteristics do not seem to be linked with the ability to maintain daytime recovery sleep. PMID

  6. Gender and Age Differences in Hourly and Daily Patterns of Sedentary Time in Older Adults Living in Retirement Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bellettiere, John; Carlson, Jordan A.; Rosenberg, Dori; Singhania, Anant; Natarajan, Loki; Berardi, Vincent; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Moran, Kevin; Crist, Katie; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Background Total sedentary time varies across population groups with important health consequences. Patterns of sedentary time accumulation may vary and have differential health risks. The purpose of this study is to describe sedentary patterns of older adults living in retirement communities and illustrate gender and age differences in those patterns. Methods Baseline accelerometer data from 307 men and women (mean age = 84±6 years) who wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers for ≥ 4 days as part of a physical activity intervention were classified into bouts of sedentary time (<100 counts per minute). Linear mixed models were used to account for intra-person and site-level clustering. Daily and hourly summaries were examined in mutually non-exclusive bouts of sedentary time that were 1+, 5+, 10+, 20+, 30+, 40+, 50+, 60+, 90+ and 120+ minutes in duration. Variations by time of day, age and gender were explored. Results Men accumulated more sedentary time than women in 1+, 5+, 10+, 20+, 30+, 40+, 50+ and 60+ minute bouts; the largest gender-differences were observed in 10+ and 20+ minute bouts. Age was positively associated with sedentary time, but only in bouts of 10+, 20+, 30+, and 40+ minutes. Women had more daily 1+ minute sedentary bouts than men (71.8 vs. 65.2), indicating they break up sedentary time more often. For men and women, a greater proportion of time was spent being sedentary during later hours of the day than earlier. Gender differences in intra-day sedentary time were observed during morning hours with women accumulating less sedentary time overall and having more 1+ minute bouts. Conclusions Patterns identified using bouts of sedentary time revealed gender and age differences in the way in which sedentary time was accumulated by older adults in retirement communities. Awareness of these patterns can help interventionists better target sedentary time and may aid in the identification of health risks associated with sedentary behavior. Future studies

  7. 43 CFR 2564.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 2564.0-4 Section 2564.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-4 Responsibility. (a) Administration of Indian possessions in trustee towns. As to...

  8. 43 CFR 2564.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility. 2564.0-4 Section 2564.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-4 Responsibility. (a) Administration of Indian possessions in trustee towns. As to...

  9. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  10. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  11. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  12. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  13. Work time control and mental health of workers working long hours: the role of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Zołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between work time control and mental health in workers working long hours. The study also attempted to show how that relationship depended on age and gender. Three hundred and six white-collar workers doing clerical work for over 8 h daily were diagnosed on work time control and mental health with the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. The results of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that participants working long hours but having high control over their work time had a significantly higher level of their mental health with regard to somatic complaints and anxiety and marginally higher with regard to social dysfunction than workers with low control over their work time. Male and female workers reported different problems with their mental health depending on what age (stage of life) they were at. It is hypothesized that the work-family conflict, inability to fulfil social commitments and poor working conditions can influence those effects.

  14. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. Link to an...

  15. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  16. Degradation of oxygen reduction reaction kinetics in porous La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ cathodes due to aging-induced changes in surface chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqué, Laura C.; Soldati, Analía L.; Teixeira-Neto, Erico; Troiani, Horacio E.; Schreiber, Anja; Serquis, Adriana C.

    2017-01-01

    The modification of surface composition after long-term operation is one of the most reported degradation mechanisms of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3-δ (LSCFO) cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs). Nevertheless, its effect on the oxygen reduction reaction kinetics of porous LSCFO cathodes has not been yet reliably established. In this work, La- and Sr-enrichment at the LSCFO surface of porous cathodes has been induced after 50 h aging at 800 °C under air. Such cation redistribution can extend up to ∼400 nm depth under the LSCFO surface as detected by high resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy maps acquired inside the cathode pores. The observed surface chemical changes hamper the oxygen surface exchange reaction at the LSCFO/gas interface. Accordingly, a suitable Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the oxygen ion conductivity remains practically unaltered during the aging treatment while the oxygen surface exchange resistance increases up to 1.8 times. As a result, the cathode impedance response deteriorates within the 10-0.1 Hz frequency range during the aging treatment, resulting in a total cathode area specific resistance increase of 150%. The methodology adopted has demonstrated to be very valuable for studying the degradation of SOFC cathodes produced by the modification of surface composition.

  17. Effect of aging on 24-hour changes in dopamine and serotonin turnover and amino acid and somatostatin contents of rat corpus striatum.

    PubMed

    Esquifino, Ana I; Cano, Pilar; Chacon, Fernando; Reyes Toso, Carlos F; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the 24-hour changes in a number of transmitters in the corpus striatum of young and middle-aged male Wistar rats. The contents of excitatory amino acids (glutamate, aspartate) and inhibitory amino acids (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA; taurine, glycine) and of somatostatin were measured in 2-month- and 18- to 20-month-old rats killed at six different time points along the 24-hour cycle. The striatal serotonin and dopamine turnover was also measured. Both young and middle-aged rats showed significant 24-hour variations in striatal glutamate and aspartate contents; only in young rats these variations fitted a cosine function, with acrophase during the first part of rest span. Mesor values of striatal excitatory amino acid contents were lowest in middle-aged rats. Significant 24-hour variations in striatal contents of GABA, taurine, and glycine occurred in young rats, while only striatal GABA exhibited 24-hour changes in middle- aged rats (acrophases during the first part of rest span). For every inhibitory transmitter, the mesor values in middle-aged rats were significantly lower than in young rats. The 24-hour variation of the striatal somatostatin content showed acrophase during the first part of rest span, mesor values and amplitude being lowest in middle-aged rats. Aging rats exhibited significantly higher mesor values of striatal serotonin turnover (34% increase) and lower mesor values of dopamine turnover (69% decrease) than their younger counterparts. Some of the circadian modifications of motor function seen in aging rats could be related to the striatal transmitter changes reported herein.

  18. Correlates of Three Year Transfer Student Retention Rates with Race, Gender, Age, Credit Hours, and Place of Residence at a Regional Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examined the relationship between the three year academic success of transfer students and the variables of race, gender, age, number of transfer credit hours, and place of residence. The study was conducted at Midwestern State University, a public, regional four-year institution and followed the incoming transfer classes of the…

  19. The Correlation between Sex, Age, Educational Background, and Hours of Service on Vigilance Level of ATC Officers in Air Nav Surabaya, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Lalu Muhammad; Suwandi, Tjipto; Hamidah

    2016-01-01

    The vigilance of an Air Traffic Control (ATC) officer determines aviation safety. The number of aviation accidents tends to be increasing in recent years. Aviation accidents may be caused by human errors (i.e. errors made by pilot or ATC officer) or unsafe work condition. Sex, age, educational background, and hours of service might affect…

  20. Bryostatin extends tPA time window to 6 hours following middle cerebral artery occlusion in aged female rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhenjun; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Turner, Ryan C.; Tan, Cong; Li, Xinlan; Hongpaison, Jarin; Alkon, Daniel L.; Simpkins, James W.; Rosen, Charles L.; Huber, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and hemorrhagic transformation (HT) following ischemic/reperfusion injury contributes to post-stroke morbidity and mortality. Bryostatin, a potent protein kinase C (PKC) modulator, has shown promise in treating neurological injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that administration of bryostatin would reduce BBB disruption and HT following acute ischemic stroke; thus, prolonging the time window for administering recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA). Methods Acute cerebral ischemia was produced by reversible occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO) in 18–20-month-old female rats using an autologous blood clot with delayed r-tPA reperfusion. Bryostatin (or vehicle) was administered at 2 hours post-MCAO and r-tPA was administered at 6 hours post-MCAO. Functional assessment, lesion volume, and hemispheric swelling measurements were performed at 24 hours post-MCAO. Assessment of BBB permeability, measurement of hemoglobin, assessment of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels by gel zymography, and measurement of PKCε, PKCα, PKCδ expression by western blot were conducted at 24 hours post-MCAO. Results Rats treated with bryostatin prior to r-tPA administration had decreased mortality and hemispheric swelling when compared with rats treated with r-tPA alone. Administration of bryostatin also limited BBB disruption and HT and down-regulated MMP-9 expression while up-regulating PKCε expression at 24 hours post-MCAO. Conclusions Bryostatin administration ameliorates BBB disruption and reduces the risk of HT by down-regulating MMP-9 activation and up-regulating PKCε. In this proof-of-concept study, bryostatin treatment lengthened the time-to-treatment window and enhanced the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:26189021

  1. [Analysis on prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour and related factors in students aged 9-22 years in China, 2014].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z H; Dong, Y H; Song, Y; Yang, Z P; Ma, J

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To explore the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour and related factors in students aged 9-22 years in China. Methods: A total of 220 159 students (110 039 boys and 110 120 girls) aged 9-22 years who completed the questionnaire of physical activity and lifestyle behaviors were selected from " 2014 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance" for the current study. All the participants were divided into 2 groups, i.e. physical activity time <1 hour and physical activity time ≥1 hour according the suggestion of Central Government, stratified by age and gender. χ(2) tests were used to compare the difference in the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour between boys and girls in every age groups. Univariate and multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to explore the factors that influenced the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour. Results: The boy's prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was 73.3%, with the lowest (57.0%) in 9-years-old group, and highest (82.5%) in 18 years old group. The girl's prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was 79.1%, with the lowest (60.1%) in 9-years-old group, and highest (89.8%) in 21 years old group. Overall, The prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was significantly higher in girls than in boys (P<0.001), and the prevalence were significantly higher in girls than in boys in all the age groups (P<0.001), and it was observed that the prevalence of physical activity <1 hour increased with age in both boys and girls (P<0.001). Multivariate log-binomial regression model found that being girl (PR=1.05, 95%CI: 1.05-1.06), parents' disliking children to participate physical activity (PR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.07-1.09), heavy homework (PR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.12-1.14), long homework time (PR =1.08, 95%CI: 1.07-1.08), long time spending on electronic screen watching (PR=1.01, 95%CI: 1.00-1.01) and disliking physical class (PR=1.11, 95%CI: 1.10-1.12) could be the risk factors for

  2. Walking Up to One Hour Per Week Maintains Mobility as Older Women Age: Findings from an Australian Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Field, Bonnie; Cochrane, Tom; Davey, Rachel; Kinfu, Yohannes

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify determinants of walking and whether walking maintained mobility among women as they transition from their mid-70s to their late 80s. We used 12 years of follow-up data (baseline 1999) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (n = 10,322). Fifteen determinants of walking were included in the analysis and three indicators of mobility. Longitudinal data analyses techniques were employed. Thirteen of the 15 determinants were significant predictors of walking. Women in their mid-70s who walked up to 1 hr per week were less likely to experience loss of mobility in very old age, including reduced likelihood of using a mobility aid. Hence, older women who do no walking should be encouraged to walk to maintain their mobility and their independence as they age, particularly women in their 70s and 80s who smoke, are overweight, have arthritis, or who have had a recent fall.

  3. Phase stability and mechanical properties of c-22 alloy aged in the temperature range 590 to 760 degree c for 16,000 hours

    SciTech Connect

    Edgecumbe Summers, T S; Kumar, M; Mathews, S J; Rebak, R B; Wall, M A

    1998-12-01

    The phase stability of C-22 alloy (UNS #N06022) was studied by aging samples at 593, 649, 704 and 760°C for 2000 h (2.7 mo) and 16,000 h (1.8 yr). The tensile properties and the Charpy impact toughness of these samples were measured in the mill annealed condition as well as after aging. The microstructures of samples aged 16,000 hours were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Preliminary TEM results suggest that m phase forms at all temperatures investigated. Discrete carbide particles in addition to a film with very uniform thickness which appears to be m phase formed on grain boundaries in the sample aged at 593°C. The ordered Ni2(Cr, Mo) phase was also seen in this sample. At the higher aging temperatures, mainly m phase forms covering all the grain boundaries and also distributed throughout the bulk. Although strength increased somewhat with aging, the ductility decreased due to the formation of these grain boundary precipitates and brittle intermetallics.

  4. Phase stability and mechanical properties of C-22 alloy aged in the temperature range 590 to 760 C for 16,000 hours

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, T.S.E.; Wall, M.A.; Kumar, M.; Matthews, S.J.; Rebak, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    The phase stability of C-22 alloy (UNS No. N06022) was studied by aging samples at 593, 649, 704 and 760 C for 2,000 h (2.7 mo) and 16,000 h (1.8 yr). The tensile properties and the Charpy impact toughness of these samples were measured in the mill annealed condition as well as after aging. The microstructures of samples aged 16,000 hours were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Preliminary TEM results suggest that {mu} phase forms at all temperatures investigated. Discrete carbide particles in addition to a film with very uniform thickness which appears to be {mu} phase formed on grain boundaries in the sample aged at 593 C. The ordered Ni{sub 2}(Cr, Mo) phase was also seen in this sample. At the higher aging temperatures, mainly {mu} phase forms covering all the grain boundaries and also distributed throughout the bulk. Although strength increased somewhat with aging, the ductility decreased due to the formation of these grain boundary precipitates and brittle intermetallics.

  5. Luminous Red Galaxies at Z=0.4-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sally; Lindler, Don

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of approx.20,000 luminous red galaxies (LRG's) at z=0.4-0.5 observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In order to differentiate among them, we measured restframe magnitudes, u (3000-3500 A), b (4200-4800 A), and y (5700-6300 A) from the spectra themselves. The galaxies show a significant range in restframe colors and absolute magnitudes. We binned the spectra according to the restframe u-b color and y-band absolute magnitude in order to increase the S/N. We used 3 approaches to estimate the ages and metal content of these binned spectra: via their spectral energy distributions, from spectral-line indices, and by full spectral fitting. The three methods usually produce discordant results

  6. Sex and age-related differences in performance in a 24-hour ultra-cycling draft-legal event – a cross-sectional data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age-related differences in performance in a draft-legal ultra-cycling event. Methods Age-related changes in performance across years were investigated in the 24-hour draft-legal cycling event held in Schötz, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2011 using multi-level regression analyses including age, repeated participation and environmental temperatures as co-variables. Results For all finishers, the age of peak cycling performance decreased significantly (β = −0.273, p = 0.036) from 38 ± 10 to 35 ± 6 years in females but remained unchanged (β = −0.035, p = 0.906) at 41.0 ± 10.3 years in males. For the annual fastest females and males, the age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged at 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years, respectively. For all female and male finishers, males improved significantly (β = 7.010, p = 0.006) the cycling distance from 497.8 ± 219.6 km to 546.7 ± 205.0 km whereas females (β = −0.085, p = 0.987) showed an unchanged performance of 593.7 ± 132.3 km. The mean cycling distance achieved by the male winners of 960.5 ± 51.9 km was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the distance covered by the female winners with 769.7 ± 65.7 km but was not different between the sexes (p > 0.05). The sex difference in performance for the annual winners of 19.7 ± 7.8% remained unchanged across years (p > 0.05). The achieved cycling distance decreased in a curvilinear manner with advancing age. There was a significant age effect (F = 28.4, p < 0.0001) for cycling performance where the fastest cyclists were in age group 35–39 years. Conclusion In this 24-h cycling draft-legal event, performance in females remained unchanged while their age of peak cycling performance decreased and performance in males improved while their age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged. The annual fastest females and males were 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years old, respectively. The sex

  7. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Law Enforcement,...

  8. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Law Enforcement,...

  9. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Law Enforcement,...

  10. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Law Enforcement,...

  11. The quest for effective pain control during suture adjustment after strabismus surgery: a study evaluating supplementation of 2% lidocaine with 0.4% ropivacaine

    PubMed Central

    Palte, Howard D; Cavuoto, Kara M; Sundararaman, Lalitha; Gayer, Steven; Schiffman, Joyce; Capo, Hilda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the addition of 0.4% ropivacaine to the standard 2% lidocaine peribulbar anesthetic block improves pain scores during suture adjustment in patients undergoing strabismus surgery with adjustable sutures. Methods Prospective, double-blind study of 30 adult patients aged 21–84 years scheduled for elective strabismus surgery with adjustable sutures. Patients were divided into two groups of 15 patients each based on the local anesthetic. Group A received 2% lidocaine and Group B received 2% lidocaine/0.4% ropivacaine. Pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) preoperatively and at 2, 4, and 6 hours postoperatively. The Lancaster red-green test was used to measure ocular motility at the same time points. Results The pain scores in the two groups were low and similar at all measurement intervals. The VAS for Group A versus Group B at 2 hours (1.7 versus 2.4, P=0.5) and 4 hours (3.5 versus 3.7, P=0.8) showed no benefit from the addition of ropivacaine. At 6 hours, the VAS (3.7 versus 2.7) was not statistically significant, but the 95% confidence interval indicated that ropivacaine may provide some benefit. A repeated measures ANOVA did not find a statistically significant difference in VAS scores over time (P=0.9). In addition, the duration of akinesia was comparable in both groups (P=0.7). Conclusion We conclude that the 50:50 mixture of 2% lidocaine with 0.4% ropivacaine as compared to 2% lidocaine in peribulbar anesthetic blocks in adjustable-suture strabismus surgery does not produce significant improvements in pain control during the postoperative and adjustment phases. In addition, ropivacaine did not impair return of full ocular motility at 6 hours, which is advantageous in adjustable-suture strabismus surgery. PMID:25609996

  12. Relationship of Exercise, Age, and Gender on Decompression Sickness and Venous Gas Emboli During 2-Hour Oxygen Prebreathe Prior to Hypobaric Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Foster, P. P.; Pilmanis, A. A.; Butler, B. D.; Beltran, E.; Fife, C. E.; Vann, R. D.; Gerth, W. A.; Loftin, K. C.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated four 2-hour oxygen prebreathe protocols combining adynamia (non-walking) and 4 different amounts of exercise for potential use with extravehicular activity (EVA) on the International Space Station. Phase I: upper and lower body exercises using dual-cycle ergometry (75% VO2 max for 10 min). Phase 11: same ergometry plus 24 min of light exercise that simulated space suit preparations. Phase III: same 24 min of light exercise but no ergometry, and Phase IV: 56 min of light exercise without ergometry. After 80 min on 100% O2, the subjects breathed 26.5% O2 - 73.5% N2 for 30 min at 10.2 psi. All subjects performed a series of upper body exercises from a recumbent position for 4 hrs at 4.3 psi to simulate EVA work. Venous gas emboli (VGE) were monitored every 12 min using precordial Doppler ultrasound. The 39 female and 126 male exposures were analyzed for correlations between decompression sickness (DCS) or VGE, and risk variables. The duration and quantity of exercise during prebreathe inversely relates to DCS and VGE incidence. The type and distribution of the 19 cases of DCS were similar to historical cases. There was no correlation of age, gender, body mass index, or fitness level with greater incidence of DCS or all VGE. However there were more Grade IV VGE in males > 40 years (10 of 19) than in those =< 40 years (3 of 107), with p<0.01 from Fisher's Exact Chi square The latency time for VGE was longer (103 min +/- 56 SD, n = 15 versus 53 min +/- 31, n =13) when the ergometry occurred about 15 min into the prebreathe than when performed at the start of the prebreathe, but the order of the ergometry did not influence the overall DCS and VGE incidence. An increasing amount of exercise during prebreathes reduced the risk of DCS during subsequent exposures to 4.3 psi. Age, gender, or fitness level did not correlate with the incidence of DCS or VGE (combination of Grades I-IV). However males greater than 40 years had a higher incidence of Grade IV VGE.

  13. Coudersport Consumer Mathematics Curriculum Guide. 0-4 Level ABE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Donald E., Comp.

    This curriculum guide was designed by the Coudersport, Pennsylvania, school system to be used in teaching 0-4 level mathematics skills to adult basic education students. The guide is intended to provide consumer-oriented, problem-solving material that correlates with those skills found in the Noonan-Spradley Diagnostic Program of Computational…

  14. CO investigation of z = 0.4-1.5 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, A.-L.; Combes, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the results of an IRAM-30 m search for CO emission lines in three galaxies at intermediate redshifts. The idea was to investigate the molecular content of galaxies that are bright in the infrared at z=0.4-1.5, a redshift desert for molecular line studies because poorly investigated as yet. We integrated 8-10 h per source and did not succeed in detecting any of the sources. From our upper limits, we were able to constrain the molecular gas content in these systems to less than 4 to 8 × 10^9~M_⊙, assuming a CO-to-H2 conversion factor (α=0.8~M_⊙/(K km s-1 pc2)). We stress the current difficulty of selecting sources with a detectable molecular content, a problem that will be faced by the ALMA First Science projects.

  15. An Intergenerational Adventure: A Training Curriculum for Older Adult Caregivers Working with School-Age Children during the Hours after School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dale B.

    This training guide was created for organizations in which older adults serve as caregivers for children of 5-14 years of age during the times when they are not in school. The training curriculum was designed so that anyone familiar with the developmental needs of school-age children and the needs and aspirations of older adults would be able to…

  16. The effects of aging for 50,000 hours at 343{degree}C on the mechanical properties of Type 308 stainless steel weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1995-12-01

    The effects of long-term aging at intermediate temperature on the mechanical properties of type 308 stainless steel weld metals have been studied. Three multipass shielded metal-arc welds with ferrite levels of 4, 8, or 12% were aged up to 50,000 h at 343{degrees}C. Tensile and Charpy V-notch specimens were used to determine the effects of aging on the mechanical properties of the weld metal. Aging had little effect on the yield strength of the weld metal, but did result in a slight increase (approximately 5%) in the ultimate tensile strength. The ferrite content had little effect on the yield strength of the materials, but the ultimate tensile strength increased slightly with higher ferrite content. In contrast to the small effect on the tensile properties, the impact properties were significantly degraded by aging. The extent of the degradation increased with increasing ferrite content and continued to increase with increasing aging time, Spinodal decomposition and the precipitation of G-phase particles in the ferrite phase are believed to be responsible for the degradation of the mechanical properties.

  17. Effect of 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation on Auditory and Linguistic Perception: A Comparison among Young Controls, Sleep-Deprived Participants, Dyslexic Readers, and Aging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey; Zukerman, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effects of 24 hr of sleep deprivation on auditory and linguistic perception and to assess the magnitude of this effect by comparing such performance with that of aging adults on speech perception and with that of dyslexic readers on phonological awareness. Method: Fifty-five sleep-deprived young adults were compared with 29…

  18. A 0.4 to 10 GHz airborne electromagnetic environment survey of USA urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of some U.S. metropolitan areas measured terrestrial emissions within the broad frequency spectrum from 0.4 to 10 GHz. A Cessna 402 commercial aircraft was fitted with both nadir-viewing and horizon-viewing antennas and instrumentation, including a spectrum analyzer, a 35 mm continuous film camera, and a magnetic tape recorder. Most of the flights were made at a nominal altitude of 10,000 feet, and Washington, D. C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Chicago were surveyed. The 450 to 470 MHz land-mobile UHF band is especially crowded, and the 400 to 406 MHz space bands are less active. This paper discusses test measurements obtained up to 10 GHz. Sample spectrum analyzer photograhs were selected from a total of 5,750 frames representing 38 hours of data.

  19. 0.4- to 10-GHz airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of United States urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of some U.S. metropolitan areas measured terrestrial emissions within the broad-frequency spectrum from 0.4 to 10 GHz. A Cessna 402 commercial aircraft was fitted with both nadir-viewing and horizon-viewing antennas and instrumentation, including a spectrum analyzer, a 35-mm continuous-film camera, and a magnetic-tape recorder. Most of the flights were made at a nominal altitude of 10,000 ft, and Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Chicago were surveyed. The 450- to 470-MHz land-mobile UHF band is especially crowded, and the 400- to 406-MHz space bands are less active. Test measurements obtained up to 10 GHz are discussed. Sample spectrum-analyzer photographs were selected from a total of 5750 frames representing 38 hours of data.

  20. Cracking the Credit Hour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitinen, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The basic currency of higher education--the credit hour--represents the root of many problems plaguing America's higher education system: the practice of measuring time rather than learning. "Cracking the Credit Hour" traces the history of this time-based unit, from the days of Andrew Carnegie to recent federal efforts to define a credit…

  1. Optical spectroscopy and initial mass function of z = 0.4 red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Baitian; Worthey, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Spectral absorption features can be used to constrain the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in the integrated light of galaxies. Spectral indices used at low redshift are in the far red, and therefore increasingly hard to detect at higher and higher redshifts as they pass out of atmospheric transmission and CCD detector wavelength windows. We employ IMF-sensitive indices at bluer wavelengths. We stack spectra of red, quiescent galaxies around z = 0.4, from the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey. The z = 0.4 red galaxies have 2 Gyr average ages so that they cannot be passively evolving precursors of nearby galaxies. They are slightly enhanced in C and Na, and slightly depressed in Ti. Split by luminosity, the fainter half appears to be older, a result that should be checked with larger samples in the future. We uncover no evidence for IMF evolution between z = 0.4 and now, but we highlight the importance of sample selection, finding that an SDSS sample culled to select archetypal elliptical galaxies at z˜0 is offset toward a more bottom heavy IMF. Other samples, including our DEEP2 sample, show an offset toward a more spiral galaxy-like IMF. All samples confirm that the reddest galaxies look bottom heavy compared with bluer ones. Sample selection also influences age-color trends: red, luminous galaxies always look old and metal-rich, but the bluer ones can be more metal-poor, the same abundance, or more metal-rich, depending on how they are selected.

  2. 100 Hours of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project is a worldwide event consisting of a wide range of public outreach activities, live science center, research observatory webcasts and sidewalk astronomy events. One of the key goals of 100 Hours of Astronomy is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years ago. 100 Hours of Astronomy will take place from 2-5 April when the Moon goes from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing. Saturn will be the other highlight of early evening observing events. This presentation will report on this worldwide public outreach event, its successes and lessons learned, participation and possible follow-up projects and activities.

  3. 100 Hours of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities including live webcasts, observing events and more. One of the key goals of 100HA is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years ago. 100HA will take place from 2-5 April when the Moon goes from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing. Saturn will be the other highlight of early evening observing events. 100 Hours of Astronomy consists of five main events: 1. An opening event featuring the telescope that Galileo used to make his groundbreaking observations. 2. Activities at science centres, planetariums and science museums including live webcasts, live observations by visitors using remotely-operated telescopes, and enhanced outreach programs including public observing sessions held by amateur astronomy groups. 3. Observing sessions and other educational activities in schools groups held by astronomy clubs and others. 4. 24 hours of live webcasts from research observatories around the world, along with observing events and other outreach activities at participating observatories. 5. 24 hours of sidewalk astronomy - public observing sessions in population centres to bring the opportunity to view the Moon, Saturn and other objects to as many people as possible. The annual International Sidewalk Astronomy Night will be held during this event. These primary activities will be scheduled so that each supports the other, leading in order from one to the next and culminating in the world's greatest public observing event. A wrap-up will be held at the IAU General Assembly in 2009 to recognize all participants’ contributions to this unique global event.

  4. After-hours coverage

    PubMed Central

    Bordman, Risa; Wheler, David; Drummond, Neil; White, David; Crighton, Eric

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and content of existing or developing policies and guidelines of medical associations and colleges regarding after-hours care by family physicians and general practitioners, especially legal requirements. DESIGN Telephone survey in fall 2002, updated in fall 2004. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS All national and provincial medical associations, Colleges of Family Physicians, Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, local government offices for the north, and the Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Response to the question: “Does your agency have a policy in place regarding after-hours health care coverage by FPs/GPs, or are there active discussions regarding such a policy?” RESULTS The College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia was the first to institute a policy, in 1995, requiring physicians to make “specific arrangements” for after-hours care of their patients. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta adopted a similar policy in 1996 along with a guideline to aid implementation. In 2002, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Nova Scotia approved a guideline on the Availability of Physicians After Hours. The Saskatchewan Medical Association and the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan formulated a joint policy on medical practice coverage that was released in 2003. Many agencies actively discussed the topic. Provincial and national Colleges of Family Physicians did not have any policies in place. The CMPA does not generate guidelines but released in an information letter in May 2000 a section entitled “Reducing your risk when you’re not available.” CONCLUSION There is increasing interest Canada-wide in setting policy for after-hours care. While provincial Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons have traditionally led the way, a trend toward more collaboration between associations was identified. The effect of policy implementation on physicians

  5. 17 CFR 275.0-4 - General requirements of papers and applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and applications. 275.0-4 Section 275.0-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.0-4 General requirements... date when they are actually received by it. (2) All filings required to be made electronically with...

  6. PV Hourly Simulation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, Jesse; Metzger, Ian

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple general building characteristics and usage information to calculate the energy and cost benefits of solar PV. This tool conducts and complex hourly simulation of solar PV based primarily on the area available on the rooftop. It uses a simplified efficiency calculation method and real panel characteristics. It includes a detailed rate structure to account for time-of-use rates, on-peak and off-peak pricing, and multiple rate seasons. This tool includes the option for advanced system design inputs if they are known. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, incentives and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER G144.9+0.4 IN THE CAMELOPARDALIS OB1 ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chien-Cheng; Chen, W. P.; Panwar, Neelam

    2013-10-01

    Our star-count analysis of the Two Micron All Sky Survey point sources resulted in an identification of the star cluster G144.9+0.4. The cluster was found, but not characterized, by Glushkova et al. We show that the cluster is physically associated with the Cam OB1 association at a distance of about 1 kpc and with an age of 1-2 Myr. Pre-main sequence stars are identified on the basis of photometric and proper motion data. A total of 91 additional OB star candidates was found in subgroups 1A and 1B, a significant increase from the currently known 43 OB stars. The OB members show an age spread that indicates a sustained star formation for at least the last 10-15 Myr. The young cluster G144.9+0.4 represents the latest episode of sequential star formation in this cloud complex.

  8. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  9. Origin of the high permittivity in (La0.4Ba0.4Ca0.2)(Mn0.4Ti0.6)O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Feteira, Antonio; Sinclair, Derek C.

    2005-10-01

    Single-phase cubic (La0.4Ba0.4Ca0.2)(Mn0.4Ti0.6)O3 (LBCMT) was reported by Jha et al. [J. Solid State Chem. 177, 2881 (2004)] to exhibit an extraordinarily high effective permittivity (ɛeff~6980 and 590 at 1 and 100 kHz, respectively) at room temperature. According to x-ray-diffraction analysis, the structure of this perovskite can be fully described on the centrosymmetric space-group Pm3m, which precludes the occurrence of ferroelectricity. In the present work, impedance spectroscopy has shown that LBCMT exhibits a bulk permittivity, Vr~40-45, in accordance with that expected for a cubic, centrosymmetric perovskite. LBCMT is a semiconductor with a bulk resistivity of ~3 kΩ cm at 300 K and an activation energy for conduction of ~0.20 eV which is consistent with an electron hopping conduction mechanism. Finally, it is demonstrated that the high effective permittivity Veff reported previously is not an intrinsic bulk effect arising from hopping conduction between Mn+3 and Mn+4, but is ultimately associated with grain-boundary effects.

  10. Cluster-spin-glass behavior in layered LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fei; Bie, Xiaofei; Chen, Yan; Wei, Yingjin; Liu, Lina; Wang, Chunzhong; Zou, Guangtian; Chen, Gang

    2009-09-01

    Layered LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 has been synthesized by citrate precursor method. Its magnetic properties are investigated by dc magnetization. The high-temperature susceptibility curve follows the Curie-Weiss law with Curie and Weiss constant 1.435(2) emu K/mol Oe and -112(4) K, respectively, larger than those values reported in previous researches, which possibly results from the difference in the synthesis process and sintered temperature. Our dc susceptibility differs from that of the homogeneous spin glass in that below Tirr field cooled (FC) curve continues to rise, while the FC curve is almost flat for homogeneous spin glass. Together with the de Almeida-Thouless line analysis, cluster spin glass is suggested to be the ground state of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2. Frustration parameter |θ|/Tf in this system is estimated to be about four, lower than the value that frustration effect is strong enough to give rise to spin glass state. This fact indicates that the cluster-spin-glass results from the short-range structure disorder rather than the geometrical frustration.

  11. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation of Li(Ni0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4)O2 Cathode Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rumble, C.; Conry, T.E.; Doeff, Marca; Cairns, Elton J.; Penner-Hahn, James. E.; Deb, Aniruddha

    2010-02-02

    Li(Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2-y}Al{sub y}Mn{sub 0.4})O{sub 2} with y=0.05 was investigated to understand the effect of replacement of the cobalt by aluminum on the structural and electrochemical properties. The effect of the substitution was studied by in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), utilizing a novel in situ electrochemical cell, specifically designed for long-term X-ray experiments. The cell was cycled at a moderate rate through a typical Li-ion battery operating voltage range (1.0-4.7 V). XAS measurements were performed at different states-of-charge (SOC) during cycling, at the Ni, Co, and the Mn edges, revealing details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction processes. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure region of the spectra revealed the changes of bond distance and coordination number of Ni, Co, and Mn absorbers as a function of the SOC of the material. The oxidation states of the transition metals in the system are Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 3+}, and Mn{sup 4+} in the as-made material (fully discharged), while during charging the Ni{sup 2+} is oxidized to Ni{sup 4+} through an intermediate stage of Ni{sup 3+}, Co{sup 3+} is oxidized towards Co{sup 4+} and Mn was found to be electrochemically inactive and remains as Mn{sup 4+}. The EXAFS results during cycling show that the Ni-O changes the most, followed by Co-O and Mn-O varies the least. These measurements on this cathode material confirmed that the material retains its symmetry and good structural short-range order leading to the superior cycling reported earlier.

  12. Structural and electrochemical Investigation of Li(Ni0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4)O2 Cathode Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rumble, C.; Conry, T.E.; Doeff, Marca; Cairns, Elton J.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Deb, Aniruddha

    2010-06-14

    Li(Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 0.4})O{sub 2} was investigated to understand the effect of replacement of the cobalt by aluminum on the structural and electrochemical properties. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed, utilizing a novel in situ electrochemical cell, specifically designed for long-term X-ray experiments. The cell was cycled at a moderate rate through a typical Li-ion battery operating voltage range. (1.0-4.7 V) XAS measurements were performed at different states of charge (SOC) during cycling, at the Ni, Co, and the Mn edges, revealing details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction processes. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) region of the spectra revealed the changes of bond distance and coordination number of Ni, Co, and Mn absorbers as a function of the SOC of the material. The oxidation states of the transition metals in the system are Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 3+}, and Mn{sup 4+} in the as-made material (fully discharged), while during charging the Ni{sup 2+} is oxidized to Ni{sup 4+} through an intermediate stage of Ni{sup 3+}, Co{sup 3+} is oxidized toward Co{sup 4+}, and Mn was found to be electrochemically inactive and remained as Mn{sup 4+}. The EXAFS results during cycling show that the Ni-O changes the most, followed by Co-O, and Mn-O varies the least. These measurements on this cathode material confirmed that the material retains its symmetry and good structural short-range order leading to the superior cycling reported earlier.

  13. Operating Hours Based Inventory Management.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    Total Hours DDG - 993 Hours CG-47 Hours Date Predict/Actual Predict/Actual Predict/Actual 10/82 14,379 17,452 482 1,103 -0- -0- 11/82 15,918...turbine engine, is currently installed on 219 ships in the U. S. Navy. The LM-2500 is the main power plant on the DDG . CG. FFG. DD, P1IM class of ships

  14. Growth and thermal properties of GeSePb0.4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, G. K.; Patel, K. D.; Gosai, N. N.; Patel, Ruchita R.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of GeSePb0.4 were grown by Direct Vapor Transport (DVT) technique, in a two zone horizontal furnace with temperature difference of 50 K between growth and source zones. The material crystallizes in the form of shining gray and platelets like crystals at the end of growth cycles. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been used for many years to evaluate thermal stability of material as it will determine the range of stable operation for a device made up out of these materials under investigation. Thermal characteristics of GeSePb0.4 crystals were studied employing thermoanalytical techniques, viz. TGA and DTA. Thermal analysis experiments were carried out with constant heating rate of 10°C/ min in air. The DTA pattern of GeSePb0.4 crystals shows a strong endothermic peak at 472°C. The objective of this study is to determine activation energy and other kinetic parameters of GeSePb0.4 crystals. Broido and Coats-Redfern models are used to evaluate different kinetic parameters of GeSePb0.4 crystals viz. activation energy, entropy, enthalpy, Gibbs mean free energy etc.

  15. Thermal decomposition study of Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Deshpande, M. P.; Tailor, Jiten P.

    2013-06-01

    The Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis were carried out on the as-grown Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals in inert nitrogen atmosphere. All these thermal analysis were done from ambient temperature to 1223 K. The activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals were determined from the thermal curves using Broido, Horowitz-Metzger (H-M), Piloyan-Novikova (P-N) and Coats-Redfern (C-R) relations. The results are reported in this paper.

  16. Is the Office Hour Obsolete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A colleague can't make a coffee date at a time the author proposes because it would conflict with his office hour. No student has actually made an appointment with him during the hour, but he is committed to being in his office as promised in case someone drops by. The author's reaction to her colleague's faithfulness to his posted office hour…

  17. Breaking the Long Hours Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodz, J.; Kersley, B.; Strebler, M. T.; O'Regan, S.

    Case studies of 12 leading British employers were driven by employers' interest in issues related to working long hours in light of introduction of the Working Time Directive, a European Community initiative enacted into British law that sets limits on working hours per week. Data showed over one-fourth of full-time employees worked over 48 hours…

  18. Extended Library Hours. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Patricia Ann, Comp.; Walters, Carolyn, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to provide a description of how they are responding to demands for greater hours of access and service. Survey responses indicate what hours of access and service libraries are providing and…

  19. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  20. Nitroglycerin 0.4% ointment vs placebo in the treatment of pain resulting from chronic anal fissure: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complications of chronic anal fissure (CAF) treatments are prompting interest in lower-risk therapies. This study was conducted to compare nitroglycerin (NTG) 0.4% ointment with placebo for pain associated with CAF. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with one CAF and moderate-to-severe pain (≥50 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale [VAS]) received 375 mg NTG 0.4% (1.5 mg active ingredient) or 375 mg placebo ointment applied anally every 12 hours for 21 days. The primary end point was change from baseline VAS score in 24-hour pain averaged over days 14–18. Review of data from patients who withdrew early was blinded to treatment. To control for the confounding effects of analgesics, all patients received 650 mg acetaminophen for headache prophylaxis before each application. Results A total of 247 patients were enrolled (NTG, n = 123; placebo, n = 124). The prespecified baseline observation carried forward (BOCF) analysis found no significant difference between groups; however, a last observation carried forward (LOCF) analysis showed a significant advantage for NTG. A post hoc analysis (LOCF/BOCF hybrid) demonstrated a significant adjusted mean difference of −7.0 mm in favor of NTG 0.4% (95% CI −13.6, –0.4; P = .038). Headache was the most common adverse event in the NTG (69.9%) and placebo (47.6%) groups. Conclusions This was the first placebo-controlled study that also controlled for the confounding effects of analgesics used to treat NTG-induced headache. In patients with moderate-to-severe CAF pain, NTG 0.4% ointment effectively reduced CAF pain compared with placebo. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00522041 PMID:23815124

  1. Numerical study on a 0.4 THz second harmonic gyrotron with high power

    SciTech Connect

    Chaojun, Lei; Sheng, Yu; Hongfu, Li; Yinghui, Liu; Xinjian, Niu; Qixiang, Zhao

    2013-07-15

    Terahertz and sub-terahertz science and technology are promising topics today. However, it is difficult to obtain high power source of terahertz wave. In this paper, the mode competition and beam-wave interaction in a gradually tapered cavity are studied to achieve high efficiency of a 0.4THz second harmonic gyrotron in practice. In order to attain high power and stable radiation, the TE{sub 32,5} mode is selected as the operating mode of the desired gyrotron to realize single mode oscillation. The issues of studying on the high-order mode gyrotrons are solved effectively by transforming the generalized telegraphist's equations. The efficiency and output power of the gyrotron under different conditions have been calculated by the code, which is based on the transformed equations. Consequently, the results show that single mode second harmonic radiation with power of over 150 kW at frequency of 0.4 THz could be achieved.

  2. Phase diagram for Bi1-xCaxMnO3 (x < 0.4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuhai; Tyson, Trevor; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Xu, Xiao-Nong

    2008-03-01

    The multiferroic BiMnO3 system, in which ferroelectronic and ferromagnetic orders can coexist, has attracted much research work in the past years for its potential technological applications. For the more general system Bi1-xCaxMnO3, the phase diagram for the Ca rich region (x > 0.4) has been established[1]. In order to understand the multiferroic behavior near the x=0 system, the hole-doped region (00.4) was investigated. We have completed the magnetic, transport, and structural phase diagram of Bi1-xCaxMnO3, by performing detailed structural (XRD and XAFS), magnetization (ZFC/FC) and electrical measurements on Bi1-xCaxMnO3 (00.4), showing the transition form the highly distorted monoclinic phase to the orthorhombic phase. This work is supported by NSF DMR-0512196 and DOE Grant DE-FG02-07ER46402. [1] H. Woo, et al, Phys. Rev. B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 63, 134412/1 (2001).

  3. Patients' assessment of out of hours care in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bollam, Mary J; McCarthy, Mark; Modell, Michael

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 177 patients drawn from 13 north London practices were interviewed shortly after they had sought help from their practice outside normal surgery hours. Patients were asked to describe the process and outcome of their out of hours call, to comment on specific aspects of the consultation, and to access their overall satisfaction with the encounter. Parents seeking consultations for children were least satisfied with the consultation; those aged over 60 responded most positively. Visits from general practitioners were more acceptable than visits from deputising doctors for patients aged under 60, but for patients aged over 60 visits from general practitioners and deputising doctors were equally acceptable. Monitoring of patients' views of out of hours consultations is feasible, and the findings of this study suggest that practices should regularly review the organisation of their out of hours care and discuss strategies for minimising conflict in out of hours calls—particularly those concerning children. PMID:3130934

  4. Effects of air exposure and vacuum storage on Li0.4WO3 studied by photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, A.; Lefeld, N.; Rahman, M. S.; Gesing, Th. M.; Murshed, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    A powder sample of Li0.4WO3 was studied after exposure to air in steps up to a total exposure time of 71 days. Over this period, XPS spectra of the W 4f, O 1s and C 1s level were recorded. The spectra reveal the formation of a OH/CO3 layer rendering the powder insulating. Careful evaluation of the W 4f spectra suggests a single initial state picture in which the electron donated by Li is shared between W ions. We demonstrate how the loss of charge carriers by aging in air can be followed by the fitting parameters. Additionally, the effects of vacuum storage, inducing oxygen vacancies, and subsequent treatment with molecular oxygen are considered.

  5. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces, July 1973 - June 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Satellite radiance measurements and data from meteorological rocketsondes were employed to analyze a series of high-altitude constant pressure charts. The methods of processing the various types of data and the analysis procedure used are described. Broad-scale analyses for the Northern Hemisphere 5-, 2-, and 0.4-mb surfaces are presented for each week of the period from September through April, and on a once-per-month basis for July, August, May, and June. A brief discussion of the variations of the temperature and height fields throughout the year is also given.

  6. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces for July 1974 through June 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Meteorological rocketsonde and satellite radiance data were employed for analyses of a continuing series of high altitude constant pressure charts. The methods of processing, the various types of data utilized and the analysis procedure are described. Broad-scale analyses of temperature and geopotential height for the Northern Hemisphere 5, 2, and 0.4 mb surfaces are presented for each week of the period July 1974 through June 1976. Brief discussions of the variations of the temperature and height fields throughout the two year period are also given.

  7. Microwave properties of Ba0.6K0.4BiO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricano, S.; Bonura, M.; Agliolo Gallitto, A.; Vigni, M. Li; Klinkova, L. A.; Barkovskii, N. V.

    2004-10-01

    We report on field-induced variations of the microwave surface resistance at 9.6 GHz of Ba0.6K0.4BiO3 crystals. Energy losses have been investigated as a function of the static magnetic field in the range of temperatures 4.2 K div T_c. By analyzing the experimental results in the framework of the Coffey and Clem model we determine the temperature dependence of the first-penetration field, upper critical field and depinning frequency. The results show that the pinning energy of this bismuthate superconductor is weaker than those of cuprates.

  8. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludbrook, B. M.; Ruck, B. J.; Granville, S.

    2016-07-01

    We report perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the half-metallic ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si (CFMS) in a MgO/CFMS/Pd trilayer stack. PMA is found for CFMS thicknesses between 1 and 2 nm, with a magnetic anisotropy energy density of KU=1.5 ×106 erg/cm3 for tCFMS=1.5 nm. Both the MgO and Pd layer are necessary to induce the PMA. We measure a tunable anomalous Hall effect, where its sign and magnitude vary with both the CFMS and Pd thickness.

  9. Solar Hot Water Hourly Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel which provides an hourly simulation of a solar hot water heating system (including solar geometry, solar collector efficiency as a function of temperature, energy balance on storage tank and lifecycle cost analysis).

  10. The Dependence of galaxy colors on luminosity and environment at z~0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, H.K.C.; Hsieh, B.C.; Lin, Huan; Gladders, M.D.; /Carnegie Inst. Observ.

    2005-08-01

    The authors analyze the B-R{sub c} colors of galaxies as functions of luminosity and local galaxy density using a large photometric redshift catalog based on the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey. They select two samples of galaxies with a magnitude limit of M{sub R{sub e}} < -18.5 and redshift ranges of 0.2 {le} z < 0.4 and 0.4 {le} x < 0.6 containing 10{sup 5} galaxies each. they model the color distributions of subsamples of galaxies and derive the red galaxy fraction and peak colors of red and blue galaxies as functions of galaxy luminosity and environment. The evolution of these relationships over the redshift range of x {approx} 0.5 to z {approx} 0.05 is analyzed in combination with published results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They find that there is a strong evolution in the restframe peak color of bright blue galaxies in that they become redder with decreasing redshift, while the colors of faint blue galaxies remain approximately constant. This effect supports the ''downsizing'' scenario of star formation in galaxies. While the general dependence of the galaxy color distributions on the environment is small, they find that the change of red galaxy fraction with epoch is a function of the local galaxy density, suggesting that the downsizing effect may operate with different timescales in regions of different galaxy densities.

  11. Structural inhomogeneities in FeTe0.6Se0.4: Relation to superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokeš, K.; Schulze, M.; Hartwig, S.; Schäfer, N.; Landsgesell, S.; Blum, C. G. F.; Abou-Ras, D.; Hacisalihoglu, M. Y.; Ressouche, E.; Ouladdiaf, B.; Büchner, B.; Wurmehl, S.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical and structural phase compositions of two single-crystalline samples prepared with different cooling rates from stoichiometric FeTe0.6Se0.4 melts were studied. Both types of samples were investigated in a very comprehensive way using magnetic and electrical transport measurements combined with X-ray, neutron and electron backscatter diffraction. We show that slowly cooled samples are homogeneous on a microscopic scale with only a small excess of iron. Those slowly cooled samples do not exhibit bulk superconductivity down to 1.8 K. In contrast, fast-cooled samples are superconducting below about 14 K but are composed of several chemical phases: they consist of a matrix preserving the crystal structure of slow-cooled samples, and of core-shell structured dendritic inclusions (about 20-30 vol%). These have different crystal structures and chemical compositions and order magnetically at temperatures far above the superconducting transition temperature of the inhomogeneous samples. These structural and chemical inhomogeneities seem to play a vital role in the superconducting properties of this and similar iron-based systems as they lead to internal stress and act in a similar way as the application of the external pressure that reportedly increase the superconducting transition temperature in many iron pnictides and chalcogenides. We argue that a phase pure, homogeneous and stress-free FeTe0.6Se0.4 is non-superconducting.

  12. Hourly temporal distribution of wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligiannis, Ilias; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The wind process is essential for hydrometeorology and additionally, is one of the basic renewable energy resources. Most stochastic forecast models are limited up to daily scales disregarding the hourly scale which is significant for renewable energy management. Here, we analyze hourly wind timeseries giving emphasis on the temporal distribution of wind within the day. We finally present a periodic model based on statistical as well as hydrometeorological reasoning that shows good agreement with data. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  13. Nontraumatic dental condition-related visits to emergency departments on weekdays, weekends and night hours: findings from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care survey

    PubMed Central

    Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Fischer, Melissa Christine; Sadeghi, Saba Noori; Xiang, Qun; Szabo, Aniko

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the rates of nontraumatic dental condition (NTDC)-related emergency department (ED) visits are higher during the typical working hours of dental offices and lower during night hours, as well as the associated factors. Methods We analyzed data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 1997 through 2007 using multivariate binary and polytomous logistic regression adjusted for survey design to determine the effect of predictors on specified outcome variables. Results Overall, 4,726 observations representing 16.4 million NTDC-related ED visits were identified. Significant differences in rates of NTDC-related ED visits were observed with 40%–50% higher rates during nonworking hours and 20% higher rates on weekends than the overall average rate of 170 visits per hour. Compared with 19–33 year olds, subjects < 18 years old had significantly higher relative rates of NTDC-related ED visits during nonworking hours [relative rate ratio (RRR) = 1.6 to 1.8], whereas those aged 73 and older had lower relative rates during nonworking hours (RRR = 0.4; overall P = 0.0005). Compared with those having private insurance, Medicaid and self-pay patients had significantly lower relative rates of NTDC visits during nonworking and night hours (RRR = 0.6 to 0.7, overall P < 0.0003). Patients with a dental reason for visit were overrepresented during the night hours (RRR = 1.3; overall P = 0.04). Conclusion NTDC-related visits to ED occurred at a higher rate during nonworking hours and on weekends and were significantly associated with age, patient-stated reason for visit and payer type. PMID:24039453

  14. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces for January 1972 through June 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Data from meteorological rocketsonde and satellite radiance measurements were employed to analyze a series of high-altitude synoptic charts. The methods employed for processing the various types of data and the analysis procedure are described. Broad-scale analyses for the Northern Hemisphere 5-, 2-, and 0.4-mb surfaces are presented for each week from September through April and for each month from May through August during the period January 1972 through June 1973. A brief discussion of the height and temperature fields is also given. Circulation and temperature changes associated with a minor stratospheric warming in January and February 1972 and a major stratospheric warming in January and February 1973 are among the discussion items.

  15. On the radial width of CMEs between 0.1 and 0.4 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, N. P.; Forsyth, R. J.; Rouillard, A. P.; Owens, M. J.; Davies, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    The launch of the two STEREO spacecraft in 2006 has heralded a new era of opportunities to make remote observations of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). An example CME on the 16th February 2008 with an approximately circular cross section was tracked through successive images obtained by the Heliospheric Imager (HI) instrument onboard the STEREO-A spacecraft. The cylindrical nature of force-free constant alpha flux ropes is used to determine the radial size of the CME. The radial velocity and longitude of propagation are determined. With these parameters known, the radial size is calculated from the images taking projection effects into account. A power law is obtained for the resulting radial width behaviour with heliocentric distance as the CME travels between 0.1 and 0.4 AU. We compare our results to those obtained in published studies based on in-situ spacecraft observations of ICMEs between 0.3 and 1.0 AU.

  16. Infrared photometry and spectrophotometry of G75.84+0.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipher, J. L.; Soifer, B. T.; Krassner, J.

    1979-01-01

    Photometric mapping of G75.84+0.4 at 12.6 microns is compared with previously published radio maps of the region to deduce the relative dust/gas mass ratio for the dust responsible for the 12.6-micron emission. Spectrophotometry from 2-4 microns and 8-13 microns of the highest-emission-measure region reveals the presence of the fine structure lines of forbidden Ar III at 8.99 microns, forbidden Ne II at 12.78 microns, and forbidden S IV at 10.53 microns. Estimates of the abundance of these ions are made, and the nature of the exciting source is discussed.

  17. First light with a carbon fiber reinforced polymer 0.4 meter telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Christopher C.; Santiago, Freddie; Jungwirth, Matthew E.; Martinez, Ty; Restaino, Sergio R.; Bagwell, Brett; Romeo, Robert

    2014-03-01

    For the passed several years, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been investigating the use of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) material in the construction of a telescope assembly including the optical components. The NRL, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. (CMA) have jointly assembled a prototype telescope and achieved "first light" images with a CFRP 0.4 m aperture telescope. CFRP offers several advantages over traditional materials such as creating structures that are lightweight and low coefficient of thermal expansion and conductivity. The telescope's primary and secondary mirrors are not made from glass, but CFRP, as well. The entire telescope weighs approximately 10 kg while a typical telescope of this size would weigh quite a bit more. We present the achievement of "first light" with this telescope demonstrating the imaging capabilities of this prototype and the optical surface quality of the mirrors with images taken during a day's quiescent periods.

  18. A model of the 0.4-GHz scatterometer. [used for agriculture soil moisture program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1978-01-01

    The 0.4 GHz aircraft scatterometer system used for the agricultural soil moisture estimation program is analyzed for the antenna pattern, the signal flow in the receiver data channels, and the errors in the signal outputs. The operational principal, system sensitivity, data handling, and resolution cell length requirements are also described. The backscattering characteristics of the agriculture scenes are contained in the form of the functional dependence of the backscattering coefficient on the incidence angle. The substantial gains of the cross-polarization term of the horizontal and vertical antennas have profound effects on the cross-polarized backscattered signals. If these signals are not corrected properly, large errors could result in the estimate of the cross-polarized backscattering coefficient. It is also necessary to correct the variations of the aircraft parameters during data processing to minimize the error in the 0 degree estimation. Recommendations are made to improve the overall performance of the scatterometer system.

  19. EUV resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) for k1 0.4 and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Stephen; Howell, Rafael; Jia, Jianjun; Liu, Hua-Yu; Gronlund, Keith; Hansen, Steve; Zimmermann, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    Due to the exponential growth of mobile wireless devices, low-power logic chips continue to drive device scaling. To enable sub-10 nm device scaling at an affordable cost, there is a strong need for single exposure advanced lithography. Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is one of the most promising candidates to support the design rules for sub-10 nm. The aggressive mobile device design rules continue to push the critical dimension (CD) and pitch and put very stringent demands on the lithography performance such as pattern placement control, image contrast, critical dimension uniformity (CDU), and line width roughness (LWR). In this paper we report the latest advances in resolution enhancement techniques to address low k1 challenges in EUV lithography, specifically: minimizing the pattern placement error, enhancing the through-focus contrast, and reducing the impact of stochastic effects. We have developed an innovative source-mask optimization (SMO) method to significantly reduce edge placement errors (EPE) [1] [2]. Aggressive design rules using the state-of-the-art NA of 0.33 of the NXE:3300B and its successor tools can have imaging below k1 = 0.4, which can extend the current process capabilities for single exposure high volume manufacturing (HVM). Burkhardt et al. reported in a previous study that inserting a sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF) within semi-isolated features introduces strong Bossung tilts and best focus shifts, and a general solution for random pitches is not apparent [3]. Kang observed the same issues and proposed to introduce spherical aberrations to correct these effects while having a global impact on the full-chip [4]. In this work we introduce a new methodology to apply SRAFs to improve contrast, reduce best focus shift, and improve process window. Finally, the lower number of photons of EUV and the small feature size brings serious issue of the stochastic effect that causes the line-edge-roughness (LER) and local CD uniformity

  20. On the Fermi-GBM Event 0.4 s after GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, J.; Burgess, J. M.; Savchenko, V.; Yu, H.-F.

    2016-08-01

    In view of the recent report by Connaughton et al., we analyze continuous time-tagged event (TTE) data of Fermi-gamma-ray burst monitor (GBM) around the time of the gravitational-wave event GW 150914. We find that after proper accounting for low-count statistics, the GBM transient event at 0.4 s after GW 150914 is likely not due to an astrophysical source, but consistent with a background fluctuation, removing the tension between the INTEGRAL/ACS non-detection and GBM. Additionally, reanalysis of other short GRBs shows that without proper statistical modeling the fluence of faint events is over-predicted, as verified for some joint GBM-ACS detections of short GRBs. We detail the statistical procedure to correct these biases. As a result, faint short GRBs, verified by ACS detections, with significances in the broadband light curve even smaller than that of the GBM-GW150914 event are recovered as proper non-zero source, while the GBM-GW150914 event is consistent with zero fluence.

  1. K2P2: Reduced data from campaigns 0-4 of the K2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handberg, R.; Lund, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Context. After the loss of a second reaction wheel the Kepler mission was redesigned as the K2 mission, pointing towards the ecliptic and delivering data for new fields approximately every 80 days. The steady flow of data obtained with a reduced pointing stability calls for dedicated pipelines for extracting light curves and correcting these for use in, e.g., asteroseismic analysis. Aims: We provide corrected light curves for the K2 fields observed until now (campaigns 0-4), and provide a comparison with other pipelines for K2 data extraction/correction. Methods: Raw light curves are extracted from K2 pixel data using the "K2-pixel-photometry" (K2P2) pipeline, and corrected using the KASOC filter. Results: The use of K2P2 allows for the extraction of the order of 90 000 targets in addition to 70 000 targets proposed by the community - for these, other pipelines provide no data. We find that K2P2 in general performs as well as, or better than, other pipelines for the tested metrics of photometric quality. In addition to stars, pixel masks are properly defined using K2P2 for extended objects such as galaxies for which light curves are also extracted.

  2. 4. pi. physics. [/sup 40/Ar + KCl, 0. 4 to 1. 8 GeV/A

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, A.

    1980-03-01

    Exclusive ..pi../sup -/ and charged-particle production in collisions of /sup 40/Ar on KCl are studied at incident energies from 0.4 to 1.8 GeV/A. The correlation between the ..pi../sup -/ and the total charged particle multiplicity confines the reaction along a narrow ridge with no exotic islands of pion production. For high multiplicities the system reaches the total disintegration of target and projectile into singly charged fragments and pions. Every 200 MeV/A datum was taken with a central and inelastic trigger. For central collisions the mean ..pi../sup -/ multiplicity increases linearly with the bombarding energy with no marked discontinuities due to the ..delta..(3,3) resonance. At 1.8 GeV/A evidence for nonthermal ..pi../sup -/ production in central collisions is found. The total c.m. energy in ..pi../sup -/ shows linear dependence on the ..pi../sup -/ multiplicity with a slope of epsilon = 300 MeV/..pi../sup -/. Strange particle production in the central collision of 1.8 GeV/A Ar on KCl is seen. 8 figures.

  3. THE SLOAN BRIGHT ARCS SURVEY: SIX STRONGLY LENSED GALAXIES AT z = 0.4-1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Diehl, H. Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Lin, Huan; Tucker, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    We present new results of our program to systematically search for strongly lensed galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. In this study six strong lens systems are presented which we have confirmed with follow-up spectroscopy and imaging using the 3.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Preliminary mass models indicate that the lenses are group-scale systems with velocity dispersions ranging from 464 to 882 km s{sup -1} at z = 0.17 - 0.45 which are strongly lensing source galaxies at z = 0.4 - 1.4. Galaxy groups are a relatively new mass scale just beginning to be probed with strong lensing. Our sample of lenses roughly doubles the confirmed number of group-scale lenses in the SDSS and complements ongoing strong lens searches in other imaging surveys. As our arcs were discovered in the SDSS imaging data they are all bright (r {approx}< 22), making them ideally suited for detailed follow-up studies.

  4. The Sloan Bright Arcs Survey : Six Strongly Lensed Galaxies at z=0.4-1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Diehl, H.Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Lin, Huan; Tucker, Douglas; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    We present new results of our program to systematically search for strongly lensed galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. In this study six strong lens systems are presented which we have confirmed with followup spectroscopy and imaging using the 3.5m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Preliminary mass models indicate that the lenses are group-scale systems with velocity dispersions ranging from 466?878 km s{sup -1} at z = 0.17-0.45 which are strongly lensing source galaxies at z = 0.4-1.4. Galaxy groups are a relatively new mass scale just beginning to be probed with strong lensing. Our sample of lenses roughly doubles the confirmed number of group-scale lenses in the SDSS and complements ongoing strong lens searches in other imaging surveys such as the CFHTLS (Cabanac et al. 2007). As our arcs were discovered in the SDSS imaging data they are all bright (r {approx_equal} 22), making them ideally suited for detailed follow-up studies.

  5. 0.4% dimeticone spray, a novel physically acting household treatment for control of cat fleas.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian M; Brunton, Elizabeth R; Burgess, Ian F

    2014-01-17

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is the most important ectoparasite of cats and dogs worldwide as a cause of irritation and health problems. Most products to control these pests in the household environment rely upon a combination of neurotoxic insecticides and insect growth regulators to inhibit development of flea eggs and larvae into adults. However, some of these are affected by problems of insecticide resistance as well as public concerns about their potential for toxicity in domestic use. Heavy synthetic oils, like the siloxane dimeticone, are currently widely used to treat human ectoparasite infestations, acting by a physical mode of action, and have been used in a variety of presentations for killing all life stages of fleas. We have investigated the activity of low concentrations of high molecular weight dimeticone in a volatile silicone base for ability to immobilise flea life stages without asphyxiating them. We found that cat flea adults and larvae were immobilised by a surface film of dimeticone that inhibited movement of cuticular joints, apparently forming an effective sticky trap. When cocoons were treated the fleas continued to develop within the pupae but failed to emerge. An aerosol spray incorporating 0.4% concentration of dimeticone, for use as a residual household treatment, showed no significant difference in knock down capability compared with that of a widely used pyriproxifen/permethrin spray in a repeat challenge test, with effects persisting to inhibit adult flea emergence in the test arena area for more than 3 weeks after application.

  6. SunPy - Python for Solar Physics, Version 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Perez-Suarez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russel

    2014-06-01

    We presents version 0.4 of SunPy, a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation NumPy, SciPy and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualisation and plotting (matplotlib).SunPy is a data-analysis environment specialising in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric datasets in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  7. Large Scale Structure in Absorption up to z~0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejos, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    We propose to observe and characterize IGM absorption systems associated with Large Scale Structure {LSS} in a statistical manner up to redshift 0.4. For this purpose, we have used a recently published cluster catalog {GMBCG; Hao et al., 2010} to identify massive nodes in the 'cosmic web'. Then, we used cluster pairs with small separations {<20 Mpc} at similar redshifts to identify zones where filaments should reside with high probabilities. Combining the GMBCG cluster catalog with the SDSS DR7 QSO catalog, we selected a single QSO whose sightline passes through a total of 6 predicted filaments {3 of which are independent} and 3 clusters with spectroscopic redshifts at impact parameters <1.5 Mpc. This will considerably increase the sample of known LSS {especially filaments} at low redshift. We propose to observe the QSO with HST/COS using the G130M and G160M gratings to cover the full FUV spectral range at high resolution {R 20000}. We require observations at S/N 10 to ensure a full characterization of HI and OVI lines at small column densities {N 10^13 cm^-2}. These low column densities will allow us to detect broad and shallow HI lines with OVI, believed to be associated with portions of the warm-hot intergalactic medium {WHIM}. Our results will also be suitable for testing an alternative hypothesis which states that the majority of OVI absorbers at low-z are confined within <300 kpc from galaxies and are not directly related to the WHIM {Prochaska et al., 2011; Tumlinson et al., 2011}. Our findings will test our understanding of galaxy formation and the importance of AGN/supernova feedbacks by comparing them with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations.

  8. New composite spectra of Mars, 0.4-5.7 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erard, Stephane; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1997-01-01

    About 15 areas were observed in the equatorial regions of Mars by the infrared spectrometers IRS (Mariner 6 and 7) and ISM (Phobos-2). The comparison between the spectra shows a remarkable consistency between two data sets acquired 20 years apart and calibrated independently. This similarity demonstrates the accuracy of ISM calibration above 2 μm, except for a possible stray light contribution above 2.6 μm, on the order of ∼1–2% of the solar flux at 2.7 μm. Most differences in spectral shapes are related to differences in spectral/spatial resolution and viewing geometries. No important variation in surface properties is detected, except for a spot in southern Arabia Terra which has a much deeper hydration feature in IRS spectra; differences in viewing geometries and spatial resolutions do not seem to account for this difference that could result from shifting or dehydration of surface materials. Composite spectra of several types of bright and dark materials are computed by modeling the thermal emission and are completed with telescopic spectra in the visible range. Modeled reflectance in the 3.0–5.7 μm range is consistent with basalts and palagonites. The bright regions and analog palagonite spectra are different from hematite in this range, but resemble several phyllosilicates. We infer that (1) although hematite dominates the spectra in the 0.4- to 2.5-μm range, the silicate-clay host is spectrally active beyond 3 μm and can be identified from this domain; (2) phyllosilicates such as montmorillonite or smectite may be abundant components of the martian soils, although the domain below 3 μm lacks the characteristic features of the most usual terrestrial clay minerals.

  9. Velocity segregation effects in galaxy clusters at 0.4 ≲ z ≲ 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsanti, S.; Girardi, M.; Biviano, A.; Borgani, S.; Annunziatella, M.; Nonino, M.

    2016-11-01

    Aims: Our study is meant to extend our knowledge of the galaxy color and luminosity segregation in velocity space (VCS and VLS, respectively), to clusters at intermediate and high redshift. Methods: Our sample is a collection of 41 clusters in the 0.4 ≲ z ≲ 1.5 redshift range for a total of 4172 galaxies, 1674 of which are member galaxies of the clusters within 2R200 with photometric or spectroscopic information, as taken from the literature. We perform homogeneous procedures to select cluster members, compute global cluster properties, in particular the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity dispersion σV, and separate blue from red galaxies. Results: We find evidence of VCS in clusters out to z ≃ 0.8 (at the 97-99.99% confidence level, depending on the test), in the sense that the blue galaxy population has a 10-20% larger σV than the red galaxy population. Poor or no VCS is found in the high-z sample at z ≥ 0.8. For the first time, we detect VLS in non-local clusters and confirm that VLS only affects the very luminous galaxies; brighter galaxies have lower velocities. The threshold magnitude of VLS is m3 + 0.5, where m3 is the magnitude of the third brightest cluster galaxy. Current data suggest that the threshold value moves to fainter magnitudes at higher redshift. We also detect (marginal) evidence of VLS for blue galaxies. Conclusions: We conclude that segregation effects can be important tracers of the galaxy evolution and cluster assembly when they are studied up to distant clusters. We also discuss the evidence of VCS at high redshift, which is poor or absent.

  10. Discovery of nine extended ionized gas clouds in a z = 0.4 cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Masafumi; Koyama, Yusei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Gu, Liyi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Hattori, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2015-02-01

    From deep Hα imaging data of Suprime-Cam/Subaru, we discovered nine extended ionized gas clouds (EIG) around galaxies in the Abell 851 cluster (A851) at z = 0.4. We surveyed a 30 × 25 arcmin region, and the EIGs were found only near the cluster center (<2.3 arcmin ∼ 750 kpc). The parent galaxies of the EIGs are star-forming or post-starburst galaxies, all of which are spectroscopically confirmed members of the cluster. Four out of the nine parent galaxies show distortion of stellar distribution in the disk, which can be a sign of recent interaction, and the interaction may have made the EIGs. On the other hand, six parent galaxies (one overlaps those exhibiting distortion) show Hα emission without stars, which implies ram pressure stripping. The spectrum of the brightest parent galaxy shows a post-starburst signature and resembles the Hα stripped galaxies found in the Coma cluster. Meanwhile, two brightest parent galaxies in A851 are more massive than the EIG parent galaxies in the Coma cluster. This is consistent with a “downsizing” of star-forming galaxies, though it is still within the statistical variance. We also analyzed Suprime-Cam data of another z=0.39 cluster, CL0024+17, but found no EIGs. The key difference between A851 and CL0024+17 would be the existence of a subcluster colliding with the main body of A851, in which six or seven out of the nine parent galaxies in A851 exist, and the fraction of EIGs in the subcluster is significantly higher than the main subcluster of A851 and CL0024+17.

  11. Discovery of Nine Extended Ionized Gas Clouds in a z = 0.4 Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Gu, Liyi; Koyama, Yusei; Nakata, Fumiaki; Kodama, Tadayuki; Hattori, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2015-02-01

    From deep Hα imaging data of Suprime-Cam/Subaru, we discovered nine extended ionized gas clouds (EIG) around galaxies in the Abell 851 cluster (A851) at z = 0.4. We surveyed a 30 × 25 arcmin region, and the EIGs were found only near the cluster center (\\lt 2.3 arcmin ˜ 750 kpc). The parent galaxies of the EIGs are star-forming or post-starburst galaxies, all of which are spectroscopically confirmed members of the cluster. Four out of the nine parent galaxies show distortion of stellar distribution in the disk, which can be a sign of recent interaction, and the interaction may have made the EIGs. On the other hand, six parent galaxies (one overlaps those exhibiting distortion) show Hα emission without stars, which implies ram pressure stripping. The spectrum of the brightest parent galaxy shows a post-starburst signature and resembles the Hα stripped galaxies found in the Coma cluster. Meanwhile, two brightest parent galaxies in A851 are more massive than the EIG parent galaxies in the Coma cluster. This is consistent with a “downsizing” of star-forming galaxies, though it is still within the statistical variance. We also analyzed Suprime-Cam data of another z=0.39 cluster, CL0024+17, but found no EIGs. The key difference between A851 and CL0024+17 would be the existence of a subcluster colliding with the main body of A851, in which six or seven out of the nine parent galaxies in A851 exist, and the fraction of EIGs in the subcluster is significantly higher than the main subcluster of A851 and CL0024+17.

  12. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  13. Sagitally focusing scanning monochromator produces 0.4-mm focus (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Sullivan, M.; Fischetti, R.; Rock, L.

    1992-01-01

    A sagitally focusing stage has been constructed for the double-crystal scanning monochromator on beam line X9-A at the NSLS which can be exchanged with the normally used flat crystal stage. The bending device located at 12.0 m from the source is designed to accept a beam up to 200-mm wide. The monochromator with bending stage can be scanned over Bragg angles from 10° to 71° corresponding to photon energies from 11.4 to 2.1 keV with Si-111 crystals. In conjunction with the vertically focusing mirror a point focus of 0.38 mm×0.18 mm [horizontal×vertical, full width at half maximum (FWHM) each] has been achieved at a focal length of 3.8 m (center of a four-circle diffractometer). Focused at the back of the experimental hutch (focal length=5.4 m) the focal size was 0.55 mm×0.30 mm. The measured horizontal width of the focus equals the calculated size of the demagnified source and is independent of the horizontal convergence used. The horizontal focus produced by the crystal is very clean: the full width at 1% of maximum is 1.5 mm and at 0.01% it is about 4 mm. The flux into the focus is 5×1011 photons/s at a photon energy of 7.4 keV and beam current of 200 mA. The average flux density in the center of the focus (FWHM area) is 5×1011 photons/s/mm2. The preliminary crystal presently used has been made from a thin Si plate of 0.4-mm thickness, 80-mm width, and 75-mm length (in the direction of the beam). Steel ribs of 0.6-mm thickness have been glued at 3-mm pitch to the back of the crystal in order to stiffen the plate and reduce anticlastic bending.1 Plates have been glued to this crystal plate to extend the width to size the bending stage. The crystal was cut in 111 orientation with a 4° angle between the lattice planes and the crystal surface. The asymmetric cut was used to increase the angle of incidence and thus decrease the effect of the remaining anticlastic bending. The bending stage has a bending couple at both ends of the crystal in order to produce the

  14. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  15. Effects of Acute Bleeding Followed by Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 or a Crystalloid on Propofol Concentrations, Cerebral Oxygenation, and Electroencephalographic and Haemodynamic Variables in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Venâncio, Carlos; Souza, Almir P.; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Amorim, Pedro; Ferreira, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Bleeding changes the haemodynamics, compromising organ perfusion. In this study, the effects of bleeding followed by replacement with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES) or lactated Ringer's (LR) on cerebral oxygenation and electroencephalogram-derived parameters were investigated. Twelve young pigs under propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia were bled 30 mL/kg and, after a 20-minute waiting period, volume replacement was performed with HES (GHES; N = 6) or LR (GRL; N = 6). Bleeding caused a decrease of more than 50% in mean arterial pressure (P < 0.01) and a decrease in cerebral oximetry (P = 0.039), bispectral index, and electroencephalogram total power (P = 0.04 and P < 0.01, resp.), while propofol plasma concentrations increased (P < 0.01). Both solutions restored the haemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation similarly and were accompanied by an increase in electroencephalogram total power. No differences between groups were found. However, one hour after the end of the volume replacement, the cardiac output (P = 0.03) and the cerebral oxygenation (P = 0.008) decreased in the GLR and were significantly lower than in GHES (P = 0.02). Volume replacement with HES 130/0.4 was capable of maintaining the cardiac output and cerebral oxygenation during a longer period than LR and caused a decrease in the propofol plasma concentrations. PMID:24971192

  16. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  17. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  18. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  19. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  20. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Work hours. 26.205 Section 26.205 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.205 Work hours. (a) Individuals subject to work hour controls. Any individual who performs duties identified in § 26.4(a)(1) through...

  1. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Work hours. 26.205 Section 26.205 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.205 Work hours. (a) Individuals subject to work hour controls. Any individual who performs duties identified in § 26.4(a)(1) through...

  2. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Work hours. 26.205 Section 26.205 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.205 Work hours. (a) Individuals subject to work hour controls. Any individual who performs duties identified in § 26.4(a)(1) through...

  3. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Work hours. 26.205 Section 26.205 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.205 Work hours. (a) Individuals subject to work hour controls. Any individual who performs duties identified in § 26.4(a)(1) through...

  4. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Work hours. 26.205 Section 26.205 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.205 Work hours. (a) Individuals subject to work hour controls. Any individual who performs duties identified in § 26.4(a)(1) through...

  5. High serum lactate level may predict death within 24 hours

    PubMed Central

    Zoubi, Abd Almajid; Kuria, Shiran; Blum, Nava

    2015-01-01

    Background Unexpected death within 24 hours of admission is a real challenge for the clinician in the emergency room. How to diagnose these patients and the right approach to prevent sudden death with 24 hours is still an enigma. The aims of our study were to find the independent factors that may affect the clinical outcome in the first 24 hours of admission to the hospital. Methods We performed a retrospective study defining unexpected death within 24 hours of admission in our Department of Medicine in the last 6 years. We found 43 patients who died within 24 hours of admission, and compared their clinical and biochemical characteristics to 6055 consecutive patients who were admitted in that period of time and did not die within the first 24 hours of admission. The parameters that were used include gender, age, temperature, clinical and laboratory criteria for SIRS, arterial blood lactate, and arterial blood pH. Results Most of the patients who died within 24 hours had sepsis with SIRS. These patients were older (78.6±14.7 vs. 65.2±20.2 years [p<.0001]), had higher lactate levels (8.0±4.8 vs. 2.1±1.8mmol/L [p<.0001]), and lower pH (7.2±0.2 vs. 7.4±0.1 [p<.0001]). Logistic regression analysis found that lactate was the strongest independent parameter to predict death within 24 hours of admission (OR 1.366 [95% CI 1.235–1.512]), followed by old age (OR 1.048 [95% CI 1.048–1.075] and low arterial blood pH (OR 0.007 [CI <0.001–0.147]). When gender was analyzed, pH was not an independent variable in females (only in males). Conclusions The significant independent variable that predicted death within 24 hours of admission was arterial blood lactate level on admission. Older age was also an independent variable; low pH affected only males, but was a less dominant variable. We suggest use of arterial blood lactate level on admission as a bio-marker in patients with suspected sepsis admitted to the hospital for risk assessment and prediction of death within 24

  6. Large linear magnetoresistance in topological crystalline insulator Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, Subhajit; Ghara, Somnath; Guin, Satya N.; Sundaresan, A.; Biswas, Kanishka

    2016-01-15

    Classical magnetoresistance generally follows the quadratic dependence of the magnetic field at lower field and finally saturates when field is larger. Here, we report the large positive non-saturating linear magnetoresistance in topological crystalline insulator, Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te, at different temperatures between 3 K and 300 K in magnetic field up to 9 T. Magnetoresistance value as high as ∼200% was achieved at 3 K at magnetic field of 9 T. Linear magnetoresistance observed in Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te is mainly governed by the spatial fluctuation carrier mobility due to distortions in the current paths in inhomogeneous conductor. - Graphical abstract: Large non-saturating linear magnetoresistance has been evidenced in topological crystalline insulator, Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te, at different temperatures between 3 K and 300 K in magnetic field up to 9 T. - Highlights: • Large non-saturating linear magnetoresistance was achieved in the topological crystalline insulator, Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te. • Highest magnetoresistance value as high as ~200% was achieved at 3 K at magnetic field of 9 T. • Linear magnetoresistance in Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te is mainly governed by the spatial fluctuation of the carrier mobility.

  7. Crystal growth and spin reorientation transition in Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 orthoferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiangyang; Zhang, Kailin; Xu, Kai; Man, Peiwen; Xie, Tao; Wu, Anhua; Ma, Guohong; Cao, Shixun; Su, Liangbi

    2016-04-01

    High quality Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 single crystal has been successfully grown by the floating zone method. Temperature dependence of the magnetizations of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 under ZFC process is studied in the temperature range of 4-300 K. Spin reorientation transition between Γ2 (Gz, Fx) and Γ4 (Gx, Fz) is observed in the temperature range of 170-210 K, which is significantly lower than that of SmFeO3, while much higher than that of ErFeO3. A compensation point (35.8 K) corresponding to zero magnetization and a spontaneous magnetization reversal transition at 49.5 K are observed in Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3. Temperature-induced SRT of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 is systematically studied by THz-TDS range from 40 K to 300 K. The temperature dependence of amplitude of AFM mode coincides well with the magnetization measurement which demonstrate that SRT in Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 can be studied through the amplitude of AFM mode FID emission. The AF mode frequency is almost invariant, while the F mode frequency significantly decreases with increasing temperature, which could be explained by the temperature dependence of anisotropy energy.

  8. Tailoring the surface properties of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ by titanium substitution for improved high voltage cycling performance

    DOE PAGES

    Wolff-Goodrich, Silas; Xin, Huolin L.; Lin, Feng; ...

    2015-07-30

    The present research aims to provide insights into the behavior of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ (NMC442-Ti02) cathode materials under galvanostatic cycling to high potentials, in the context of previous work which predicted that Ti-substituted variants should deliver higher capacities and exhibit better cycling stability than the unsubstituted compounds. It is found that NMC cathodes containing Ti show equivalent capacity fading but greater specific capacity than those without Ti in the same potential range. When repeatedly charged to the same degree of delithiation, NMC cathodes containing Ti showed better capacity retention. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra for Mn and Comore » indicated increased reduction in these elements for NMC cathodes without Ti, indicating that the substitution of Ti for Co acts to suppress the formation of a high impedance rock salt phase at the surface of NMC cathode particles. The results of this study validate the adoption of a facile change to existing NMC chemistries to improve cathode capacity retention under high voltage cycling conditions.« less

  9. Tailoring the surface properties of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ by titanium substitution for improved high voltage cycling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff-Goodrich, Silas; Xin, Huolin L.; Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M.; Nordlund, Dennis; Asta, Mark; Doeff, Marca M.

    2015-07-30

    The present research aims to provide insights into the behavior of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ (NMC442-Ti02) cathode materials under galvanostatic cycling to high potentials, in the context of previous work which predicted that Ti-substituted variants should deliver higher capacities and exhibit better cycling stability than the unsubstituted compounds. It is found that NMC cathodes containing Ti show equivalent capacity fading but greater specific capacity than those without Ti in the same potential range. When repeatedly charged to the same degree of delithiation, NMC cathodes containing Ti showed better capacity retention. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra for Mn and Co indicated increased reduction in these elements for NMC cathodes without Ti, indicating that the substitution of Ti for Co acts to suppress the formation of a high impedance rock salt phase at the surface of NMC cathode particles. The results of this study validate the adoption of a facile change to existing NMC chemistries to improve cathode capacity retention under high voltage cycling conditions.

  10. The Impact of Aluminum and Iron Substitution on the Structure and Electrochemistry of Li[Ni0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4]O2 Materials

    SciTech Connect

    WIlcox, James D.; Rodriguez, Efrain E.; Doeff, Marca M.

    2009-07-23

    Li[Ni0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4]O2 (0<_y<_0.2) (M=Al) and Li[Ni0.4Co0.15Fe0.05Mn0.4]O2 compounds were prepared in order to investigate the effect of replacement of all or part of the cobalt on the structural and electrochemical properties. The impact of substitution on the structure has been examined by both x-ray and neutron diffraction experiments. The incorporation of aluminum has minimal effect on the anti-site defect concentration, but leads to structural changes that affect electrochemical performance. The most important effect is an opening of the lithium slab dimension upon substitution, which results in improved rate performance compared to the parent compound. In contrast, the lithium slab dimension is not affected by iron substitution and no rate enhancement effect is observed. The cycling stability of aluminum containing materials is superior to both the parent material and iron-substituted materials.

  11. Effects of synthesis methods on the performance of Pt + Rh/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 three-way catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Zongcheng; Song, Liyun; Liu, Xiaojun; Jiao, Jiao; Li, Jinzhou; He, Hong

    2014-03-01

    The 0.7 wt% Pt + 0.3 wt% Rh/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 catalysts were fabricated via different methods, including ultrasonic-assisted membrane reduction (UAMR) co-precipitation, UAMR separation precipitation, co-impregnation, and sequential impregnation. The catalysts were physico-chemically characterized by N2 adsorption, XRD, TEM, and H2-TPR techniques, and evaluated for three-way catalytic activities with simulated automobile exhaust. UAMR co-precipitation- and UAMR separation precipitation-prepared catalysts exhibited a high surface area and metal dispersion, wide λ window and excellent conversion for NOx reduction under lean conditions. Both fresh and aged catalysts from UAMR-precipitation showed the high surface areas of ca. 60-67 m(2)/g and 18-22 m(2)/g, respectively, high metal dispersion of 41%-55%, and small active particle diameters of 2.1-2.7 nm. When these catalysts were aged, the catalysts prepared by the UAMR method exhibited a wider working window (Δλ = 0.284-0.287) than impregnated ones (Δλ = 0.065-0.115) as well as excellent three-way catalytic performance, and showed lower T50 (169°C) and T90 (195°C) for NO reduction than the aged catalysts from impregnation processes, which were at 265 and 309°C, respectively. This implied that the UAMR-separation precipitation has important potential for industrial applications to improve catalytic performance and thermal stability. The fresh and aged 0.7 wt% Pt + 0.3 wt% Rh/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 catalysts prepared by the UAMR-separation precipitation method exhibited better catalytic performance than the corresponding catalysts prepared by conventional impregnation routes.

  12. Dynamic evaluation of RPI's 0.4 scale unmanned Martian roving vehicle model. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, A. G.

    1973-01-01

    A design for a Mars Roving Vehicle is presented in a three dimensional model considering three degrees of freedom. In addition, the physical characteristics of the 0.4 scale RPI-MRV are presented along with the basic dynamic responses.

  13. Environmental degradation properties of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ and Y 0.6Ca 0.4Ba 1.6La 0.4Cu 3O 7-δ thin film structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ji-Ping; Lo, Rung-Kuang; Savoy, Steven M.; Arendt, Mark; Armstrong, Jeff; Yang, Du-Yu; Talvacchio, John; McDevitt, John T.

    1997-02-01

    Utilization of the high temperature superconductor, YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ, in commercial applications is becoming increasingly feasible. Before full advantage of this material can be taken, however, the lifetime, oxygen stability and processability of this ambient reactive superconductor must be improved. Corrosion resistance of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ and a cation substituted compound, Y 0.6Ca 0.4Ba 1.6La 0.4Cu 3O 7-δ, were studied and their lifetimes in aqueous environments were determined. Results indicate a dramatic enhancement in the stability against environmental degradation for the cation substituted phase. Important mechanistic factors responsible for the enhanced corrosion resistance of the substituted phase over the parent compound are discussed.

  14. The effectiveness of electrolyte additives in fluorinated electrolytes for high voltage Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2]O2/graphite pouch Li-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Petibon, R.; Xiao, A.; Lamanna, W. M.; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of electrolyte additives in fluorinated electrolytes containing 1 M LiPF6/fluoroethylene carbonate:bis (2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) carbonate (1:1 w:w) were studied in high voltage Li(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2)O2/graphite pouch cells tested to 4.5 V. The results showed that fluorinated electrolytes containing prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone alone or in combination with other additives exhibited significant improvements in terms of coulombic efficiency and charge endpoint capacity slippage during UHPC cycling, voltage drop during storage, as well as capacity retention during long-term cycling compared with state-of-the-art ethylene carbonate-based (ethylene carbonate: ethylmethyl carbonate 3:7) or sulfolane-based electrolytes (sulfolane: ethylmethyl carbonate 3:7) with some promising additive blends. These results indicate that fluorinated electrolytes offer an interesting alternative for high voltage Li-ion batteries.

  15. A new, high energy Sn-C/Li[Li(0.2)Ni(0.4)/3Co(0.4)/3Mn(1.6/3)]O2 lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Wang, Jun; Bresser, Dominic; Li, Jie; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2014-08-13

    In this paper we report a new, high performance lithium-ion battery comprising a nanostructured Sn-C anode and Li[Li0.2Ni0.4/3Co0.4/3Mn1.6/3]O2 (lithium-rich) cathode. This battery shows highly promising long-term cycling stability for up to 500 cycles, excellent rate capability, and a practical energy density, which is expected to be as high as 220 Wh kg(-1) at the packaged cell level. Considering the overall performance of this new chemistry basically related to the optimized structure, morphology, and composition of the utilized active materials as demonstrated by XRD, TEM, and SEM, respectively, the system studied herein is proposed as a suitable candidate for application in the lithium-ion battery field.

  16. Characterization and Electrochemical Performance of SubstitutedLiNi0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4O2 (0<_y<_0.2) Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, James D.; Doeff, Marca M.

    2007-11-28

    A complete series of LiNi0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4O2 (0<_y<_0.2) materials have been synthesized and investigated as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. When cycled between 2.0 and 4.3 V vs. Li/Li+ at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2, stable capacities of ~;;160 mAh/g for y=0 to ~;;110 mAh/g for y=0.2 are achieved. Upon increasing the current density, it is found that all materials containing aluminum show reduced polarization and improved rate performance. The optimal performance at all current densities was found for the compound with y=0.05. The effect of aluminumsubstitution on the crystal structure of the host is discussed.

  17. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  18. 47 CFR 0.403 - Office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Office hours. 0.403 Section 0.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General Information General § 0.403 Office hours. The main offices of the Commission are open from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Monday...

  19. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  20. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  1. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  2. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  3. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  4. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  5. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  6. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  7. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  8. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  9. 47 CFR 0.403 - Office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Office hours. 0.403 Section 0.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General Information General § 0.403 Office hours. The main offices of the Commission are open from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Monday...

  10. 47 CFR 0.403 - Office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Office hours. 0.403 Section 0.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General Information General § 0.403 Office hours. The main offices of the Commission are open from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Monday...

  11. A SUBCHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO 0, 0.4, 1.4 OR 4.0 PPM ACROLEIN.

    SciTech Connect

    KUTZMAN,R.S.

    1981-10-01

    Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.4, 1.4, or 4.0 ppm acrolein for 62 days. The major objective of the study was to relate the results of a series of pulmonary function tests to biochemical and pathological alterations observed in the lung. Cytological and reproductive potential endpoints were also assessed after acrolein exposure. Rats were exposed to acrolein for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 62 days. Mortality was observed only in the 4.0 ppm chamber where 32 of 57 exposed males died; however, none of the 8 exposed females died. Most of the mortality occurred within the first 10 exposure days. Histologic examination indicated that the animals died of acute bronchopneumonia. The surviving males and females exposed to 4.0 ppm acrolein gained weight at a significantly slower rate than control animals. The growth of both sexes in the 0.4 and 1.4 ppm groups was similar to that of their respective controls. Histopathologic examination of animals after 62 days of exposure revealed bronchiolar epithelial necrosis and sloughing, bronchiolar edema with macrophages, and focal pulmonary edema in the 4.0 ppm group. These lesions were, in some cases, associated with edema of the trachea and peribronchial lymph nodes, and acute rhinitis which indicated an upper respiratory tract effect of acrolein. Of particular interest was the variability of response between rats in the 4.0 ppm group, some not affected at all while others were moderately affected. Intragroup variability in toxicity was also apparent in the 1.4 ppm exposure group where only 3 of 31 animals examined had lesions directly related to acrolein exposure. Extra respiratory organs appeared unaffected.

  12. No differences in metabolic outcomes between nadir GH 0.4 and 1.0 ng/mL during OGTT in surgically cured acromegalic patients (observational study)

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Cheol Ryong; Choe, Eun Yeong; Hong, Jae Won; Kim, Eui Hyun; Park, Se Hee; Kim, Sun Ho; Lee, Eun Jig

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Metabolic impairment is the common cause for mortality in acromegalic patients. In this study, long-term improvements of metabolic parameters were evaluated according to 2 different remission criteria. This was an observational cohort study before and up to 1 year after transsphenoidal adenomectomy (TSA). Participants were 187 patients with acromegaly. At 6 months after TSA, remitted patients with age- and sex-matched normalized IGF-1 were divided into 2 groups: remission 1 (R1), nadir growth hormone (GH) below 0.4 ng/mL; and remission 2 (R2), nadir GH between 0.4 and 1.0 ng/mL in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Metabolic parameters during serial OGTTs were evaluated for 12 months. Remission was achieved in 157 (R1–136; R2–21) patients. Immediate postoperative metabolic parameters including body weight, body mass index, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid in OGTT were all significantly improved in R1 and R2. HOMA-%β and HOMA-IR scores also improved in both R1 and R2. These improvements persisted for duration (12 months) of this study. However, no difference was present in metabolic parameters between R1 and R2. Although the patients with preoperative adrenal insufficiency presented significantly increased HOMA scores before TSA, there was no difference between classifications of deficient pituitary axes and changes of metabolic parameters after TSA. Remitted patients exhibited rapid restoration of metabolic parameters immediate postoperative period. Long-term improvements in metabolic parameters were not different between the 2 different nadir GH cut-offs, 0.4 and 1.0 ng/mL. PMID:27310957

  13. Thermally activated flux flow in superconducting epitaxial FeSe0.6Te0.4 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, D.; Choi, W. J.; Seo, Y. I.; Seo, Sehun; Lee, Sanghan; Kwon, Yong Seung

    The thermally activated flux flow effect has been studied in epitaxial FeSe0.6Te0.4 thin film grown by a PLD method through the electrical resistivity measurement under various magnetic fields for B//c and B//ab. The results showed that the thermally activated flux flow effect is well described by the nonlinear temperature-dependent activation energy. The evaluated apparent activation energy U0 (B) is one order larger than the reported results and showed the double-linearity in both magnetic field directions. Furthermore, the FeSe0.6Te0.4 thin film shows the anisotropy of 5.6 near Tc and 2D-like superconducting behavior in thermally activated flux flow region. In addition, the vortex glass transition and the temperature dependence of the high critical fields were determined.

  14. Dimensionality dependent magnetic and magnetocaloric response of La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 manganite.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M S; Ahmed, Faheem; Koo, Bon Heun

    2014-11-01

    We report the sol-gel synthesis and impact of reduced dimensionality on the magnetocaloric properties of La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 manganite. The synthesized powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and magnetization measurements. The XRD results indicated that the La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 nanoparticles have single phase nature with orthorhombic structure. FE-SEM results suggested that the nanoparticles are agglomerated and crystallite size increases with the annealing temperature. Magnetization measurements show that the La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 nanoparticles exhibit transition temperature (T(c)) below room temperature. The transition temperature was found to increase with the increasing the crystallite size. Maximum in magnetic entropy change, (ΔS(M))(max) shows interesting behaviour and was found to vary with the particle size. At magnetic field of 1 T, the value of (ΔS(M))(max) - 0.13 J/kg K was observed at 213 K for the sample annealed at 600 degrees C. Also, the increment in the value of (ΔS(M))(max) was observed at higher annealing temperature. This study shows that the magnetic entropy of pervoskite manganite can be tuned by tuning the crystallite size of the manganites.

  15. Au@Co0.4S core-shell nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and evaluation of photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warjri, Wandibahun; Negi, Devendra P. S.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, Au@Co0.4S core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared core-shell nanoparticles was evaluated by studying the degradation of methyl orange (MO) spectrophotometerically under visible light irradiation. Under optimum experimental conditions, 68.9% of the dye was degraded during 50 min of irradiation. Control experiments showed negligible degradation of MO in the absence of the photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. A good correlation was obtained between the concentration of the dye adsorbed on the surface of the Au@Co0.4S core-shell nanoparticles and its degradation efficiency. The as-prepared nanoparticles showed good recyclability for the degradation of MO. The mechanistic studies suggested that the valence band holes of the Co0.4S nanoparticles were scavenged by the MO molecules resulting in the degradation of the dye.

  16. Effects of annealing, acid and alcoholic beverages on Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Taen, T.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Shi, Z. X.; Tamegai, T.

    2013-01-01

    We have systematically investigated and compared different methods to induce superconductivity in the iron chalcogenide Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4, including annealing in a vacuum, N2, O2 and I2 atmospheres and immersing samples into acid and alcoholic beverages. Vacuum and N2 annealing are proved to be ineffective in inducing superconductivity in a Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal. Annealing in O2 and I2 and immersion in acid and alcoholic beverages can induce superconductivity by oxidizing the excess Fe in the sample. Superconductivity in O2 annealed samples is of a bulk nature, while I2, acid and alcoholic beverages can only induce superconductivity near the surface. By comparing the different effects of O2, I2, acid and alcoholic beverages we propose a scenario to explain how the superconductivity is induced in the non-superconducting as-grown Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4.

  17. Critical international normalized ratio results after hours

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Darlene; Sean McMurtry, M.; George-Phillips, Kirsten; Bungard, Tammy J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether the timing of notification of critical international normalized ratio (INR) results (during or after clinic hours) altered the clinician’s ability to affect same-day patient care. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting The Anticoagulation Management Service at the University of Alberta Hospital in Edmonton. Participants A total of 276 patients with critical INR results (> 5.0) separated by at least 30 days were identified to have 200 critical INR results reported during clinic hours and 200 reported after hours. Main outcome measures Differences in the proportion of patients with critical INR results having same-day care altered (by changing warfarin dose, administering vitamin K, or referring for assessment) between those with results reported during clinic hours compared with those with results reported after clinic hours. Differences by highly critical INR results (> 9.0 vs ≤ 9.0) and whether patients experienced thromboembolism or bleeding within 30 days were also assessed. Results Same-day patient care was affected for 174 out of 200 (87.0%) critical INR results reported during clinic hours compared with 101 out of 200 (50.5%) reported after clinic hours (P < .001). The most common reason for not being able to intervene was that warfarin had already been taken. Warfarin dose alteration was the most frequent change (97.1% during clinic hours and 96.0% after hours). When patients with INRs greater than 9.0 were assessed separately, the ability to affect care increased for INRs reported both during and after clinic hours (92.9% and 63.6%, respectively), largely attributable to oral vitamin K use. Overall, thromboembolic and major bleeding event rates were low and were similar in both groups. Conclusion Same-day care was less likely to be affected by critical INR results communicated after hours, most commonly because the patient had already taken their daily warfarin dose. However, after-hours care was still

  18. What are 12-hour shifts good for?

    PubMed

    In the UK many hospitals use 12-hour shifts, believing it to be a cost-efficient means of providing 24-hour nursing care on wards. While healthcare organisations need to find ways to deliver nursing care around the clock and efficiency is a key consideration, nurse leaders have raised concerns about ' whether nurses can function effectively and safely when working long hours (Calkin, 2012; Rogers et al, 2004). In this Policy Plus, we focus specifically on what is known about the impact of shift length on patient safety, employee health and quality of care.

  19. Estimation of peak winds from hourly observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Two closely related methods to obtain estimates of the hourly peak wind at Cape Kennedy were compared by statistical tests. The methods evaluated the Monin-Obukhov stability length and the standard deviation of the hourly observed wind speed, so as to augment the latter quantity by F standard deviations. F is an optimized factor. A third method utilizing an optimized gust factor was also applied to the hourly wind. The latter procedure estimated 2952 peak winds with an rms error of 2.81 knots, an accuracy which was not surpassed by the other methods. Peak ground wind speed data were developed for use in space shuttle design operation analyses.

  20. Two-Step Tuberculin Skin Testing in School-Going Adolescents with Initial 0-4 Millimeter Responses in a High Tuberculosis Prevalence Setting in South India

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Maitreyi; Selvam, Sumithra; Jesuraj, Nelson; Bennett, Sean; Doherty, Mark; Grewal, Harleen M. S.; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background The utility of two-step tuberculin skin testing among adolescents in high tuberculosis prevalence settings is not well established. Objectives To determine the proportion and determinants of a 0-4 mm response to an initial standard tuberculin skin test (TST) and evaluating 'boosting' with repeat testing. Methods Adolescents between 11 and 18 years attending schools/colleges underwent a TST; those with a response of between 0–4 mm had a repeat TST 1-4 weeks later. Results Initial TST was done for 6608/6643 participants; 1257 (19%) developed a 0-4 mm response to the initial TST. Younger age and under-nutrition were more likely to be associated with a 0-4 mm response, while the presence of BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) scar and higher socio-economic class were less likely to be associated with a 0-4 mm response. On repeat testing boosting was seen in 13.2% (145/1098; ≥ 6 mm over the initial test) while 4.3% showed boosting using a more conservative cutoff of a repeat TST ≥ 10 mm with an increment of at least 6 mm (47/1098). History of exposure to a tuberculosis (TB) case was associated with enhanced response. Conclusion The proportion of adolescents who demonstrated boosting on two-step TST testing in our study was relatively low. As a result repeat testing did not greatly alter the prevalence of TST positivity. However, the two-step TST helps identify individuals who can potentially boost their immune response to a second test, and thus, prevents them from being misclassified as those with newly acquired infection, or tuberculin converters. While two-step tuberculin skin testing may have a limited role in population- level TST surveys, it may be useful where serial tuberculin testing needs to be performed to distinguish those who show an enhanced response or boosters from those who indeed have a new infection, or converters. PMID:24039716

  1. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  2. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  3. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  4. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  5. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  6. 24-hour rhythmicity of seizures in refractory focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Menezes Cordeiro, Inês; Santos, Ana Catarina; Peralta, Rita; Paiva, Teresa; Bentes, Carla

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence of seizures in specific types of epilepsies can follow a 24-hour nonuniform or nonrandom pattern. We described the 24-hour pattern of clinical seizures in patients with focal refractory epilepsy who underwent video-electroencephalography monitoring. Only patients who were candidates for epilepsy surgery with an unequivocal seizure focus were included in the study. A total of 544 seizures from 123 consecutive patients were analyzed. Specific time of seizures were distributed along 3- or 4-hour time blocks or bins throughout the 24-hour period. The mean age of the subjects was 37.7 years, with standard deviation of 11.5 years, median of 37. The majority were females (70/56%). The majority of patients had a seizure focus located in the mesial temporal lobe (102/83%) and in the neocortical temporal lobe (13/11%). The remaining patients had a seizure focus located in the extratemporal lobe (8/6%). The most common etiology was mesial temporal sclerosis (86/69.9%). Nonuniform seizure distribution was observed in seizures arising from the temporal lobe (mesial temporal lobe and neocortical temporal lobe), with two peaks found in both 3- and 4-hour bins: 10:00-13:00/16:00-19:00 and 08:00-12:00/16:00-20:00 respectively (p=0.004). No specific 24-hour pattern was identified in seizures from extratemporal location. The 24-hour rhythmicity of seizure distribution is recognized in certain types of epilepsy, but studies on the topic are scarce. Their replication and validation is therefore needed. Our study confirms the bimodal pattern of temporal lobe epilepsy independently of the nature of the lesion. However, peak times differ between different studies, suggesting that the ambient, rhythmic exogenous factors or environmental/social zeitgebers, may modulate the 24-hour rhythmicity of seizures. Characterization of these 24-hour patterns of seizure occurrence can influence diagnosis and treatment in selected types of epilepsy, such as the case of temporal lobe

  7. A high temperature study on thermodynamic, thermal expansion and electrical properties of BaCe0.4Zr0.4Y0.2O3-δ proton conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basbus, J. F.; Arce, M. D.; Prado, F. D.; Caneiro, A.; Mogni, L. V.

    2016-10-01

    BaCe0.4Zr0.4Y0.2O3-δ (BCZY) was synthesized by solid state reaction, calcined and sintered at 1600 °C for 12 h. Crystal structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Morphology and porosity were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Crystalline structure, oxygen non-stoichiometry, linear expansion and electrical conductivity were characterized under oxidizing and reducing atmosphere by high temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), dilatometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. Chemical stability under CO2-rich atmosphere was evaluated by TG. BCZY electrical conductivity was studied by EIS under O2-containing atmosphere with water vapor (2% H2O) and heavy water vapor (2% D2O) in order to evaluate protonic conductivity. Throughout these techniques, interstitial proton incorporation/loss was observed under oxidizing and reducing atmosphere, between 300 and 500 °C. The conductivity presents two contributions. The bulk conductivity at high frequencies takes the same value regardless wet oxidizing or reducing atmosphere, decreasing its value in presence of D2O vapor supporting H-conductivity. On the other hand, the grain boundary conductivity was strongly dependent on the nature of wet atmosphere.

  8. Effect of sintering temperature on the structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 potential for radar absorbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, K.; Sadhana, K.; Matteppanavar, S.; Liu, Hsiang-Lin

    2017-02-01

    Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 nanopowders were prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion method, densified at different temperatures 400-700 °C/4 h using conventional sintering method. The grain sizes of all the samples vary between 18 nm and 30 nm. The hysteresis loops show high saturation magnetization and low coercivity, indicating magnetically soft behaviour of the material. The real and imaginary parts of permittivity is almost constant upto 1 GHz and increases with further increase of frequency. The permeability is ruled by Snoek's law, the values of μ‧ increases with increase of temperature and the resonance frequency increases with an increase of temperature. The reflection coefficient is however increasing with sintering temperature and the maximum loss is observed in the range of 100 MHz-1 GHz. Sample sintered at 700 °C has shown maximum reflection loss and this loss occurs due to absorption, destructive interference and multiple internal reflections in the sample. Quality factor is constant upto 380 MHz and increases with frequency for all the samples sintered at different temperatures. The TC for all the samples is above 230 °C. The room temperature EPR spectra confirm the oxidation state of Fe3+. The g-factor is in the range of 2.

  9. Degree of corneal anesthesia after topical application of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in normal equids.

    PubMed

    Little, Erika; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathy; Little, William; Sithole, Fortune; St Jean, Guy

    2016-10-01

    Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution has been widely used off-label in horses and donkeys, despite lack of data demonstrating efficacy and safety in these species. The objective of this study was to assess anesthetic efficacy of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in horses (n = 5) and donkeys (n = 24) and compare the effects with 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. The baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Donkeys (n = 12) and horses (n = 5) in group A received sterile ophthalmic solutions 0.4% oxybuprocaine with fluorescein (also termed benoxinate with fluorescein, abbreviated as ben + flu) instilled in one eye and 0.9% sterile sodium chloride solution (NaCl) with fluorescein (Na + flu) in the contralateral eye. Donkeys (n = 12) and horses (n = 5) in group B received sterile ophthalmic solutions (ben + flu) in one eye and 0.5% proparacaine with fluorescein (prop + flu) in the contralateral eye. The CTT was measured at 1 and 5 min post-application and at 5-minute intervals until 75 min after treatment. The CTT changes over time differed significantly between oxybuprocaine-treated and control eyes (P < 0.001). The CTT continued to decrease throughout the duration of the study when compared with baseline values. No statistically significant difference in onset, depth, or duration of corneal anesthesia was found between oxybuprocaine and proparacaine treated eyes during the time of the study. Interestingly, horses were shown to have a significantly more sensitive cornea than donkeys (P = 0.002). Oxybuprocaine and proparacaine reduced corneal sensitivity in donkeys and horses. No local irritation was observed with 0.4% oxybuprocaine.

  10. Magneto-trions in a GaMnAs/Ga0.6Al0.4As Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalitha, D.; Peter, A. John; Lee, Chang Woo

    2014-09-01

    Magneto bound exciton and the charged exciton in a GaMn0.02As/Ga0.6Al0.4As quantum dot are reported with the spatial confinement effect. The numerical calculations are carried out with the inclusion of exchange interaction between the carrier and the magnetic impurities. The binding energies of exciton and the trions and the optical transition energy are obtained as a function of dot radius. Numerical computations are followed using exact diagonalization method. The spin polaronic energy of the exciton and the charged excitons are obtained using a mean field theory in the presence of magnetic field strength. The magnetization of Mn ion impurities as a function of dot radius is investigated. The effective g-factor of conduction (valence) band electron (hole) is obtained in the GaMnAs quantum dot. The magnetic field induced size dependence of effective Landé g-factor is computed. The result shows that (i) the geometrical dependence on sp-d exchange interaction in the GaMn0.02As/Ga0.6Al0.4As quantum dot has great influence with the geometrical confinement, (ii) the monotonic behavior of effective g-factor with the reduction of dot radius is observed, (iii) the Landé factor is more sensitive if the geometrical confinement effect is included and (iv) the value of effective g-factor increases when the spatial confinement is enhanced for all the dot radii. Our results show that the effective Landé g-factor can be manipulated negative to positive values in the GaMn0.02As/Ga0.4Al0.6As quantum dot.

  11. Thermal equation of state of magnesiowüstite (Mg 0.6Fe 0.4)O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kostak, Paul

    2002-02-01

    Volume measurements for magnesiowüstite (Mg 0.6Fe 0.4)O, were carried out up to pressures of 10.1 GPa in the temperature range 300-1273 K, using energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. These data allow reliable determination of the temperature dependence of the bulk modulus and good constraint on the thermal expansitivity at ambient pressure which was previously not known for magnesiowüstite. From these data, thermal and elastic parameters were derived from various approaches based on the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS) and on the relevant thermodynamic relations. The results from three different equations of state are remarkably consistent. With (∂ K T/∂ P) T fixed at 4, we obtained K0=158(2) GPa, ( ∂KT/ ∂T) P=-0.029(3) GPa K -1, ( ∂KT/ ∂T) V=-3.9(±2.3)×10 -3 GPa K -1, and αT=3.45(18)×10 -5+1.14(28)×10 -8T. The K0, (∂ K T/∂ T) P, and (∂ K T/∂ T) V values are in agreement with those of Fei et al. (1992) and are similar to previously determined values for MgO. The zero pressure thermal expansitivity of (Mg 0.6Fe 0.4)O is found to be similar to that for MgO ( Suzuki, 1975). These results indicate that, for the compositional range x=0-0.4 in (Mg 1- xFe x)O, the thermal and elastic properties of magnesiowüstite exhibit a dependence on the iron content that is negligibly small, within uncertainties of the experiments. They are consequently insensitive to the Fe-Mg partitioning between (Mg, Fe)SiO 3 perovskite and magnesiowüstite when applied to compositional models of the lower mantle. With the assumption that (Mg 0.6Fe 0.4)O is a Debye-like solid, a modified equation of heat capacity at constant pressure is proposed and thermodynamic properties of geophysically importance are calculated and tabulated at high temperatures.

  12. Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2

    DOE PAGES

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2014-10-13

    We report on the magnetic, magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties of Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. The title compound exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H ≥ 40 kOe and a small but non negligible negative MR for H ≤ 30 kOe. The maximum positive MR reaches 13% at H = 80 kOe. The magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes as functions of temperature each show two anomalies: a broad dome-like maximum below 20 K and a relatively sharp peak at higher temperature. As a result, observed behaviors are unique among other binary and mixed lanthanide compounds.

  13. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, 1-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces for July 1976 through June 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Meteorological rocketsonde and satellite radiance data are employed for analyses of a continuing series of high-altitude constant-pressure charts. The automated methods of data processing and the objective analysis procedures are described. Broad-scale analyses of temperature and geopotential height for the Northern Hemisphere 5-, 2-, 1-, and 0.4-mb surfaces are presented for each week of the period July 1976 through June 1977. Brief discussions of the variations of the temperature and height fields throughout the period are also given.

  14. An observation of nanotwin lamellae in Cd 0.6Mn 0.4Te crystal by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, M. A.; Azoulay, M.; Collins, W. E.; Burger, A.; Silberman, E.

    1993-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to examine the structure of freshly cleaved Cd 0.6Mn 0.4Te surfaces. The present report complements previous results obtained with X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy which showed the existence of microtwins. The AFM analysis was performed under ambient conditions and yielded nanometer scale resolution images of single twin lamellae that ranged between 20 and 100 nm in width. This is a first observation using AFM of such a substructure, which we interpret as evidence for the presence of nonotwins.

  15. Interpreting observations of edge-on gravitationally unstable accretion flows. The case of G10.6-0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab

    2017-01-01

    Context. Gravitational collapse of molecular cloud or cloud core/clump may lead to the formation of geometrically flattened, rotating accretion flow surrounding the new born star or star cluster. Gravitational instability may occur in such accretion flow when the gas to stellar mass ratio is high (e.g., over 10%). Aims: This paper takes the OB cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4 as an example. We introduce the enclosed gas mass around its central ultra compact (UC) Hii region, address the gravitational stability of the accreting gas, and outline the observed potential signatures of gravitational instability. Methods: The dense gas accretion flow around the central UC Hii region in G10.6-0.4 is geometrically flattened, and is in an approximately edge-on projection. The position-velocity (PV) diagrams of various molecular gas tracers on G10.6-0.4 consistently show asymmetry in the spatial- and the velocity domain. We deduce the morphology of the dense gas accretion flow by modeling velocity distribution of the azimuthally asymmetric gas structures, and by directly de-projecting the PV diagrams. Results: We find that within the 0.3 pc radius, an infall velocity of 1-2 km s-1 may be required to explain the observed PV diagrams. In addition, the velocity distribution traced in the PV diagrams can be interpreted by spiral arm-like structures, which may be connected with exterior infalling gas filaments. We propose that the morphology of dense gas structures appears very similar to the spatially resolved gas structures around the OB cluster-forming region G33.92+0.11 with similar gas mass and size, which is likely, however, to be in an approximately face-on projection. Conclusions: The dense gas accretion flow around G10.6-0.4 appears to be Toomre-unstable, which is consistent with the existence of large-scale spiral arm-like structures, and the formation of localized gas condensations. The proposed approaches for data analyses may be applied to the observations of Class 0/I

  16. Unexpected superconductivity at nanoscale junctions made on the topological crystalline insulator Pb0.6Sn0.4Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shekhar; Aggarwal, Leena; Roychowdhury, Subhajit; Aslam, Mohammad; Gayen, Sirshendu; Biswas, Kanishka; Sheet, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    Discovery of exotic phases of matter from the topologically non-trivial systems not only makes the research on topological materials more interesting but also enriches our understanding of the fascinating physics of such materials. Pb0.6Sn0.4Te was recently shown to be a topological crystalline insulator. Here, we show that by forming a mesoscopic point-contact using a normal non-superconducting elemental metal on the surface of Pb0.6Sn0.4Te, a superconducting phase is created locally in a confined region under the point-contact. This happens when the bulk of the sample remains to be non-superconducting, and the superconducting phase emerges as a nano-droplet under the point-contact. The superconducting phase shows a high transition temperature Tc that varies for different point-contacts and falls in a range between 3.7 K and 6.5 K. Therefore, this Letter presents the discovery of a superconducting phase on the surface of a topological crystalline insulator, and the discovery is expected to shed light on the mechanism of induced superconductivity in topologically non-trivial systems in general.

  17. Magnetic and structural transitions in La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2 single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Jiaqiang; Nandi, S.; Saparov, Bayrammurad I.; ...

    2015-01-05

    La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2 single crystals have been grown out of an NaAs flux in an alumina crucible and characterized by measuring magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, specific heat, as well as single-crystal x-ray and neutron diffraction. La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2 single crystals show a structural phase transition from a high-temperature tetragonal phase to a low-temperature orthorhombic phase at Ts=125 K. This structural transition is accompanied by an anomaly in the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity, anisotropic magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat. Concomitant with the structural phase transition, the Fe moments order along the a direction with an ordered moment of 0.7(1) μB at T=5 K. Finally,more » the low-temperature stripe antiferromagnetic structure is the same as that in other AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds. La0.5₋xNa0.5+xFe2As2 provides a material platform for the study of iron-based superconductors where the electron-hole asymmetry could be studied by simply varying the La/Na ratio.« less

  18. Electron spin resonance studies of Bi0.6Ca(0.4-x)SrxMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, Joji; Singh, R.

    2010-05-01

    The temperature dependent electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out on Bi0.6Ca(0.4-x)SrxMnO3 (0≤x≤0.4). The variation of charge ordering temperature, TCO, and Néel temperature, TN, are obtained from plots of double integrated (DI) intensity and linewidth (ΔH) of the ESR signal as a function of temperature. In the temperature range T>TCO, the sample is in the paramagnetic phase and the magnetic interactions are dominated by ferromagnetic (FM) spin correlations. In the range TN

  19. Localized recombining plasma in G166.0+4.3: A supernova remnant with an unusual morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Hideaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Nobukawa, Kumiko Kawabata; Itou, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    We observed the Galactic mixed-morphology supernova remnant G166.0+4.3 with Suzaku. The X-ray spectrum in the western part of the remnant is well represented by a one-component ionizing plasma model. The spectrum in the northeastern region can be explained by two components. One is an Fe-rich component with electron temperature kT_e = 0.87_{-0.03}^{+0.02}keV. The other is a recombining plasma (RP) component of lighter elements with kTe = 0.46 ± 0.03 keV, initial temperature kTinit = 3 keV (fixed), and ionization parameter n_et = (6.1_{-0.4}^{+0.5}) × 10^{11}cm-3 s. As the formation process of the recombining plasma, both rarefaction and thermal conduction scenarios are considered. The former would not be favored since we found the recombining plasma only in the northeastern region, whereas the latter would explain the origin of the RP. In the latter scenario, an RP is anticipated where blast waves in part of the remnant are in contact with cool dense gas. The emission measure suggests higher ambient gas density in the northeastern region. The morphology of the radio shell and a GeV gamma ray emission also suggest a molecular cloud in the region.

  20. Shape Comparison Between 0.4–2.0 and 20–60 lm Cement Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Holzer, L.; Flatt, R; Erdogan, S; Bullard, J; Garboczi, E

    2010-01-01

    Portland cement powder, ground from much larger clinker particles, has a particle size distribution from about 0.1 to 100 {micro}m. An important question is then: does particle shape depend on particle size? For the same cement, X-ray computed tomography has been used to examine the 3-D shape of particles in the 20-60 {micro}m sieve range, and focused ion beam nanotomography has been used to examine the 3-D shape of cement particles found in the 0.4-2.0 {micro}m sieve range. By comparing various kinds of computed particle shape data for each size class, the conclusion is made that, within experimental uncertainty, both size classes are prolate, but the smaller size class particles, 0.4-2.0 {micro}m, tend to be somewhat more prolate than the 20-60 {micro}m size class. The practical effect of this shape difference on the set-point was assessed using the Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory to simulate the hydration of five cement powders. Results indicate that nonspherical aspect ratio is more important in determining the set-point than are the actual shape details.

  1. Martian atmosphere modeling between 0.4 and 3.5 microns - Comparison of theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Fischbein, W. L.; Hilgeman, T.; Smith, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    A model of the lower atmosphere of Mars has been constructed that combines aerosol absorption and scattering with a line-by-line analysis of CO2 and H2O in a multilayer radiative transfer program. Aerosol composition previously inferred from the NASA Lear Jet Observatory data was used to measure the optical complex indices of refraction of appropriate Martian analogs from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. The aerosol vertical particle density scale was deduced using the Viking camera observations of the soil and sky intensities between 0.4 and 1.0 microns in comparison with those modeled using a multilayer Mie scattering program. A comparison of observed Mars atmospheric absorptions was made with those obtained using Lorentz, Voigt, and Doppler line profiles in a multilayer model of the CO2 and H2O. The Voigt line profile of CO2 absorption at approximately 4976 kaysers was then combined in a multilayer aerosol model of the Martian atmosphere. An evaluation of the effect on the line shape was made using several aerosol loadings.

  2. Effects of synthetic colloids on oxidative stress and inflammatory response in hemorrhagic shock: comparison of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5, and succinylated gelatin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study compared the effects of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5, and succinylated gelatin on oxidative stress and the inflammatory response in a rodent hemorrhagic shock model. Methods Sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized adult male Wistar rats (200 g to 220 g) were subjected to a severe volume-controlled hemorrhage using arterial blood withdrawal (30 mL/kg to 33 mL/kg) and resuscitated with a colloid solution at the same volume as blood withdrawal (hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5, or succinylated gelatin). Arterial blood gas parameters were monitored. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the liver, lungs, intestine, and brain were measured two hours after resuscitation. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 in the intestine were also measured. Results Infusions of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, but not hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 or succinylated gelatin, significantly reduced MDA levels and MPO activity in the liver, intestine, lungs and brain, and it also inhibited the production of TNF-α in the intestine two hours after resuscitation. However, no significant difference between hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 and succinylated gelatin was observed. Conclusions Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, but not hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 or succinylated gelatin, treatment after hemorrhagic shock ameliorated oxidative stress and the inflammatory response in this rat model. No significant differences were observed after hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 or succinylated gelatin administration at doses of approximately 33 mL/kg. PMID:23849347

  3. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  4. After-hours coverage: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andrew L

    2004-05-01

    Among the problems facing many radiology groups today is how to cover after-hours studies, because the demand is increasing while the number of available radiologists is still relatively low. There are a number of possible solutions, each of which has its own pros and cons, and no solution is right for every group. Recently, there have been a number of companies whose sole business is providing outside teleradiology coverage of after-hours radiology studies, sometimes referred to as "nighthawk" services. This article describes one group's decision-making process in choosing to hire a nighttime teleradiology provider as well as its subsequent experiences and ideas for future solutions.

  5. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA.

  6. Performance tests of an AGIPD 0.4 assembly at the beamline P10 of PETRA III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Marras, A.; Klyuev, A.; Westermeier, F.; Trunk, U.; Graafsma, H.

    2013-06-01

    The Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) is a novel detector system, currently under development by a collaboration of DESY, the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, the University of Hamburg and the University of Bonn, and is primarily designed for use at the European XFEL. To verify key features of this detector, an AGIPD 0.4 test chip assembly was tested at the P10 beamline of the PETRA III synchrotron at DESY. The test chip successfully imaged both the direct synchrotron beam and single 7.05 keV photons at the same time, demonstrating the large dynamic range required for XFEL experiments. X-ray scattering measurements from a test sample agree with standard measurements and show the chip's capability of observing dynamics at the microsecond time scale.

  7. Liquid hot NAGMA cooled to 0.4 K: benchmark thermochemistry of a gas-phase peptide.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Christopher M; Moore, Kevin B; Raston, Paul L; Agarwal, Jay; Moody, Grant H; Shirley, Caitlyne C; Schaefer, Henry F; Douberly, Gary E

    2014-10-16

    Vibrational spectroscopy and helium nanodroplet isolation are used to determine the gas-phase thermochemistry for isomerization between conformations of the model dipeptide, N-acetylglycine methylamide (NAGMA). A two-stage oven source is implemented to produce a gas-phase equilibrium distribution of NAGMA conformers, which is preserved when individual molecules are captured and cooled to 0.4 K by He nanodroplets. With polarization spectroscopy, the IR spectrum in the NH stretch region is assigned to a mixture of two conformers having intramolecular hydrogen bonds composed of either five- or seven-membered rings, C5 and C7, respectively. The C5 to C7 interconversion enthalpy and entropy, obtained from a van't Hoff analysis, are -4.52 ± 0.12 kJ/mol and -12.4 ± 0.2 J/(mol · K), respectively. The experimental thermochemistry is compared to high-level electronic structure theory computations.

  8. Dielectric and magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline Cu0.4Co0.6Fe2O4 ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadoun, Priya; Sharma, Jyoti; Prashant, B. L.; Dolia, S. N.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Saxena, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    The mixed copper cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (Cu0.4Co0.6Fe2O4) have been synthesized by sol-gel auto combustion route with aqueous metal nitrates and citric acid as the precursor. The crystal structure has been analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) method. XRD reveals the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used for morphological studies. The dielectric measurements at room temperature show the decrease in dielectric constant with increasing frequency which is attributed to Maxwell Wagner model and conduction mechanism in ferrites.The magnetic measurements show ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature and large coercivity is observed on cooling down the temperature to 20K.

  9. Evidence for orbital order and its relation to superconductivity in FeSe0.4Te0.6.

    PubMed

    Singh, Udai R; White, Seth C; Schmaus, Stefan; Tsurkan, Vladimir; Loidl, Alois; Deisenhofer, Joachim; Wahl, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of nematic electronic states accompanied by a structural phase transition is a recurring theme in many correlated electron materials, including the high-temperature copper oxide- and iron-based superconductors. We provide evidence for nematic electronic states in the iron-chalcogenide superconductor FeSe0.4Te0.6 from quasi-particle scattering detected in spectroscopic maps. The symmetry-breaking states persist above T c into the normal state. We interpret the scattering patterns by comparison with quasi-particle interference patterns obtained from a tight-binding model, accounting for orbital ordering. The relation to superconductivity and the influence on the coherence length are discussed.

  10. Testing Einstein's weak equivalence principle with a 0.4-nanosecond giant pulse of the Crab pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing

    2016-11-01

    Einstein's weak equivalence principle (EEP) can be tested through the arrival time delay between photons with different frequencies. Assuming that the arrival time delay is solely caused by the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, we show that a "nano-shot" giant pulse with a time delay between energies corrected for all known effects, e.g., Δ t <0.4 ns , from the Crab pulsar poses a new upper limit on the deviation from the EEP, i.e., Δ γ <(0.6 - 1.8 )×10-15 . This result provides the hitherto most stringent constraint on the EEP, improving by at least 2 to 3 orders of magnitude from the previous results based on fast radio bursts.

  11. THE INTERSTELLAR BUBBLES OF G38.9-0.4 AND THE IMPACT OF STELLAR FEEDBACK ON STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kerton, Charles R.; Arvidsson, Kim E-mail: chipk@uwyo.edu E-mail: karvidsson@adlerplanetarium.org

    2013-06-10

    We present a study of the star formation (SF) region G38.9-0.4 using publicly available multiwavelength Galactic plane surveys from ground- and space-based observatories. This region is composed of four bright mid-IR bubbles and numerous infrared dark clouds. Two bubbles, N 74 and N 75, each host a star cluster anchored by a single O9.5V star. We identified 162 young stellar objects (YSOs) and classify 54 as stage I, 7 as stage II, 6 as stage III, and 32 as ambiguous. We do not detect the classical signposts of triggered SF, i.e., star-forming pillars or YSOs embedded within bubble rims. We conclude that feedback-triggered SF has not occurred in G38.9-0.4. The YSOs are preferentially coincident with infrared dark clouds. This leads to a strong correlation between areal YSO mass surface density and gas mass surface density with a power law slope near 1.3, which closely matches the Schmidt-Kennicutt Law. The correlation is similar inside and outside the bubbles and may mean that the SF efficiency is neither enhanced nor suppressed in regions potentially influenced by stellar feedback. This suggests that gas density, regardless of how it is collected, is a more important driver of SF than stellar feedback. Larger studies should be able to quantify the fraction of all SF that is feedback-triggered by determining the fraction SF, feedback-compressed gas surrounding H II regions relative to that already present in molecular clouds.

  12. Early life adversity and/or posttraumatic stress disorder severity are associated with poor diet quality, including consumption of trans fatty acids, and fewer hours of resting or sleeping in a US middle-aged population: A cross-sectional and prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gavrieli, Anna; Farr, Olivia M; Davis, Cynthia R; Crowell, Judith A; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life adversity (ELA) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with poorer psychological and physical health. Potential underlying mechanisms and mediators remain to be elucidated, and the lifestyle habits and characteristics of individuals with ELA and/or PTSD have not been fully explored. We investigated whether the presence of ELA and/or PTSD are associated with nutrition, physical activity, resting and sleeping and smoking. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 151 males and females (age: 45.6±3.5 y, BMI: 30.0±7.1kg/m2) underwent anthropometric measurements, as well as detailed questionnaires for dietary assessment, physical activity, resting and sleeping, smoking habits and psychosocial assessments. A prospective follow-up visit of 49 individuals was performed 2.5 years later and the same outcomes were assessed. ELA and PTSD were evaluated as predictors, in addition to a variable assessing the combined presence/severity of ELA–PTSD. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance after adjusting for several socioeconomic, psychosocial and anthropometric characteristics. Results Individuals with higher ELA or PTSD severity were found to have a poorer diet quality (DASH score: p=0.006 and p=0.003, respectively; aHEI-2010 score: ELA p=0.009), including further consumption of trans fatty acids (ELA p=0.003); the differences were significantly attenuated null after adjusting mainly for education or income and/or race. Further, individuals with higher ELA severity reported less hours of resting and sleeping (p=0.043) compared to those with zero/lower ELA severity, and the difference remained significant in the fully adjusted model indicating independence from potential confounders. When ELA and PTSD were combined, an additive effect was observed on resting and sleeping (p=0.001); results remained significant in the fully adjusted model. They also consumed more energy from trans fatty acids (p=0.017) tended to smoke more (p=0

  13. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  14. Stunden-abstract (Class-Hour Plan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Heinz-Otto

    1977-01-01

    Offers a class-hour plan for Grade 11 on the theme of "James Thurber, 'The Peacelike Mongoose' - Discussion of Text," dividing the treatment into stages: Introduction and Reading, Text Elucidation, Comprehension Check, Summarizing Content, Reflection, Written Homework. Possible alternative approaches are discussed. (Text is in German.)…

  15. Wage and Hour Farm Labor Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Catherine

    This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…

  16. Accommodating to Restrictions on Residents' Working Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Henry W., Jr.; Seltzer, Vicki L.

    1991-01-01

    In response to New York State legislation limiting house staff working hours, a survey of obstetrics and gynecology resident programs (n=26) was conducted. Results were used to construct a prototype call schedule and a hypothetical monthly schedule indicating how a single resident would function without violating any state regulations. (MSE)

  17. 47 CFR 73.1730 - Specified hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specified hours. 73.1730 Section 73.1730 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES... experimental period), § 73.1250 (Broadcasting emergency information) and § 73.1740 (Minimum operating schedule)....

  18. 24-Hour Access: Responding to Students' Need for Late Library Hours at the University of Denver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Bethany B.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Denver's Penrose Library saw a substantial increase in use as a result of several new and enhanced services over a six-year period. In turn, longer operating hours and increased staffing for a 24-hours-a-day, five-days-a-week (24 x 5) operating schedule was funded. This case study analyzes student need for longer library hours…

  19. General practice after-hours incentive funding: a rationale for change.

    PubMed

    Neil, Amanda L; Nelson, Mark R; Richardson, Tracy; Mann-Leonard, Meghan; Palmer, Andrew J

    2015-07-20

    After-hours incentive funding for general practice was introduced in 1998 through the introduction of the Practice Incentives Program (PIP). In 2010, a national audit of the PIP identified after-hours incentive funding as having the greatest levels of non-compliance across 12 PIP components. The audit specified the need for secondary data sources to ensure practice compliance. In this article, we examine the drivers of the 1998-2013 PIP mechanism to inform development of a fair, transparent and auditable after-hours incentive funding scheme for Tasmania. The PIP after-hours incentive funding mechanism paid, at diminishing levels, for anticipated burden of care (practice size), claimed method of providing care (stream) and remoteness of practice. Increasing remoteness rather than practice size or stream is the primary determinant of urgent after-hours attendances per practice in Tasmania; after-hours attendances to residential aged care facilities are unrelated to individual practice location or stream but concentrated in urban areas. The PIP after-hours incentive funding mechanism does not preferentially support practices that provide after-hours care and arguably led to perverse incentives. A new after-hours incentive funding mechanism embodying pre-specified objectives - such as support for (unavoidable) burden and/or provision of care to residential aged care facilities - is required. Claimed provision is considered an inappropriate funding determinant.

  20. SPECTROSCOPIC SIGNATURE OF ALFVEN WAVES DAMPING IN A POLAR CORONAL HOLE UP TO 0.4 SOLAR RADII

    SciTech Connect

    Bemporad, A.; Abbo, L.

    2012-06-01

    Between 2009 February 24 and 25, the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) spectrometer on board the Hinode spacecraft performed special 'sit and stare' observations above the south polar coronal hole continuously over more than 22 hr. Spectra were acquired with the 1'' slit placed off-limb covering altitudes up to 0.48 R{sub Sun} (3.34 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} Mm) above the Sun surface, in order to study with EIS the non-thermal spectral line broadenings. Spectral lines such as Fe XII {lambda}186.88, Fe XII {lambda}193.51, Fe XII {lambda}195.12, and Fe XIII {lambda}202.04 are observed with good statistics up to high altitudes and they have been analyzed in this study. Results show that the FWHM of the Fe XII {lambda}195.12 line increases up to {approx_equal} 0.14 R{sub Sun }, then decreases higher up. EIS stray light has been estimated and removed. Derived electron density and non-thermal velocity profiles have been used to estimate the total energy flux transported by Alfven waves off-limb in the polar coronal hole up to {approx_equal} 0.4 R{sub Sun }. The computed Alfven wave energy flux density f{sub w} progressively decays with altitude from f{sub w} {approx_equal} 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at 0.03 R{sub Sun} down to f{sub w} {approx_equal} 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at 0.4 R{sub Sun }, with an average energy decay rate of {Delta}f{sub w} /{Delta}h {approx_equal} -4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} erg cm{sup -1}. Hence, this result suggests energy deposition by Alfven waves in a polar coronal hole, thus providing a significant source for coronal heating.

  1. Electric System Intra-hour Operation Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Meng, PNNL Da; Guillen, PNNL Zoe; PNNL,

    2014-03-07

    ESIOS is a software program developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that performs intra-hour dispatch and automatic generation control (AGC) simulations for electric power system frequency regulation and load/variable generation following. The program dispatches generation resources at minute interval to meet control performance requirements, while incorporating stochastic models of forecast errors and variability with generation, load, interchange and market behaviors. The simulator also contains an operator model that mimics manual actions to adjust resource dispatch and maintain system reserves. Besides simulating generation fleet intra-hour dispatch, ESIOS can also be used as a test platform for the design and verification of energy storage, demand response, and other technologies helping to accommodate variable generation.

  2. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    PubMed

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours.

  3. Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kwac, J; Flora, J; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing US deployment of residential advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) has made hourly energy consumption data widely available. Using CA smart meter data, we investigate a household electricity segmentation methodology that uses an encoding system with a pre-processed load shape dictionary. Structured approaches using features derived from the encoded data drive five sample program and policy relevant energy lifestyle segmentation strategies. We also ensure that the methodologies developed scale to large data sets.

  4. Visible and near-infrared (0.4-2.5 μm) reflectance spectra of playa evaporite minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, James K.

    1991-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR; 0.4–2.4 μm) reflectance spectra were recorded for 35 saline minerals that represent the wide range of mineral and brine chemical compositions found in playa evaporite settings. The spectra show that many of the saline minerals exhibit diagnostic near-infrared absorption bands, chiefly attributable to vibrations of hydrogen-bonded structural water molecules. VNIR reflectance spectra can be used to detect minor hydrate phases present in mixtures dominated by anhydrous halite or thenardite, and therefore will be useful in combination with X ray diffraction data for characterizing natural saline mineral assemblages. In addition, VNIR reflectance spectra are sensitive to differences in sample hydration state and should facilitate in situ studies of minerals that occur as fragile, transitory dehydration products in natural salt crusts. The use of spectral reflectance measurements in playa studies should aid in mapping evaporite mineral distributions and may provide insight into the geochemical and hydrological controls on playa mineral and brine development.

  5. Strongly enhanced current densities in Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 + Sn superconducting tapes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, He; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Xianping; Zhang, Haitao; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Qianjun; Ma, Yanwei; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Improving transport current has been the primary topic for practical application of superconducting wires and tapes. However, the porous nature of powder-in-tube (PIT) processed iron-based tapes is one of the important reasons for low critical current density (Jc) values. In this work, the superconducting core density of ex-situ Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 + Sn tapes, prepared from optimized precursors, was significantly improved by employing a simple hot pressing as an alternative route for final sintering. The resulting samples exhibited optimal critical temperature (Tc), sharp resistive transition, small resistivity and high Vickers hardness (Hv) value. Consequently, the transport Jc reached excellent values of 5.1 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T and 4.3 × 104 A/cm2 in 14 T at 4.2 K, respectively. Our tapes also exhibited high upper critical field Hc2 and almost field-independent Jc. These results clearly demonstrate that PIT pnictide wire conductors are very promising for high-field magnet applications. PMID:24663054

  6. Unconventional superconductivity in Ba(0.6)K(0.4)Fe2As2 from inelastic neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Christianson, A D; Goremychkin, E A; Osborn, R; Rosenkranz, S; Lumsden, M D; Malliakas, C D; Todorov, I S; Claus, H; Chung, D Y; Kanatzidis, M G; Bewley, R I; Guidi, T

    2008-12-18

    A new family of superconductors containing layers of iron arsenide has attracted considerable interest because of their high transition temperatures (T(c)), some of which are >50 K, and because of similarities with the high-T(c) copper oxide superconductors. In both the iron arsenides and the copper oxides, superconductivity arises when an antiferromagnetically ordered phase has been suppressed by chemical doping. A universal feature of the copper oxide superconductors is the existence of a resonant magnetic excitation, localized in both energy and wavevector, within the superconducting phase. This resonance, which has also been observed in several heavy-fermion superconductors, is predicted to occur when the sign of the superconducting energy gap takes opposite values on different parts of the Fermi surface, an unusual gap symmetry which implies that the electron pairing interaction is repulsive at short range. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy shows no evidence of gap anisotropy in the iron arsenides, but such measurements are insensitive to the phase of the gap on separate parts of the Fermi surface. Here we report inelastic neutron scattering observations of a magnetic resonance below T(c) in Ba(0.6)K(0.4)Fe(2)As(2), a phase-sensitive measurement demonstrating that the superconducting energy gap has unconventional symmetry in the iron arsenide superconductors.

  7. Discovery of an obscured globular cluster associated with GX 354+0 /=4U/MXB 1728-34/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Hertz, P.

    1981-07-01

    A diffuse infrared source identified as the most heavily obscured globular cluster yet found, was observed using the NASA 3m infrared telescope facility and Einstein positions for the X-ray source GX 354+0 (=4U/MXB 1728-34). Color excesses were measured to 1.4 + or - 0.3 for E(J-H) and 0.63 + or - 0.07 for E(H-K), and the visual extinction was determined at 10.6 + or - 1.3. The magnitude of several giant branch stars imply the cluster to be at a distance of 10.0 + or - 3.9 kpc, if metal rich, or 5.2 + or - 1.4 kpc, if metal poor. A single burst from MXB 1728-34 was observed with a blackbody temperature and cluster distance that indicated the luminosity to be not less than 10 times the Eddington limit for a neutron star model. This identification brings to 11 the number of compact X-ray sources in globular clusters, and reinforces the connection between GX sources, bursters, and globular clusters.

  8. Resonant Spin Excitation in the High Temperature Superconductor Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, Andrew D; Goremychkin, E. A.; Osborn, R.; Rosenkranz, Stephen; Lumsden, Mark D; Malliakas, C.; Todorov, L.; Claus, H.; Chung, D.Y.; Kanatzidis, M.; Bewley, Robert I.; Guidi, T.

    2008-12-18

    A new family of superconductors containing layers of iron arsenide has attracted considerable interest because of their high transition temperatures (T{sub c}), some of which are >50 K, and because of similarities with the high-{sub c} copper oxide superconductors. In both the iron arsenides and the copper oxides, superconductivity arises when an antiferromagnetically ordered phase has been suppressed by chemical doping. A universal feature of the copper oxide superconductors is the existence of a resonant magnetic excitation, localized in both energy and wavevector, within the superconducting phase. This resonance, which has also been observed in several heavy-fermion superconductors is predicted to occur when the sign of the superconducting energy gap takes opposite values on different parts of the Fermi surface, an unusual gap symmetry which implies that the electron pairing interaction is repulsive at short range. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy shows no evidence of gap anisotropy in the iron arsenides, but such measurements are insensitive to the phase of the gap on separate parts of the Fermi surface. Here we report inelastic neutron scattering observations of a magnetic resonance below T{sub c} in Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, a phase-sensitive measurement demonstrating that the superconducting energy gap has unconventional symmetry in the iron arsenide superconductors.

  9. Efficacy of ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) against stem borers and leaffolder insect-pests of basmati rice.

    PubMed

    Sarao, P S; Kaur, H

    2014-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three kharif seasons from 2009 to 2011 at Sudhar village, Ludhiana and Rice Research Area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Four doses of Ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) a new chemistry @ 20, 30, 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check Cartap hydrochloride 4 G @ 1000 g a.i. ha(-1) was tested against stem borers and leaffolder infesting basmati rice. Over the years, dead heart in all the Ferterra doses and standard check (1.01-1.80%) were at par70 DAT, whereas, at 80 DAT doses @ 40, 50 and standard check were at par (1.04-1.13%) but significantly better than lower doses and untreated control. Similarly, over the years, Ferterra doses @ 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) was significantly better than control in reducing white ear incidence, whereas, at 30 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check intermediately reduced the white ears incidence. Leaffolder infestation at all the Ferterra doses were at par with standard check 70 DAT (2.69-3.87%), whereas, 80 DAT, Ferterra doses @ 30, 40, 50 and standard check were at par (2.95-3.49%) but significantly better than lower dose and untreated control. Over the years the cost : benefit ratio was maximum (1 : 23.67) in the Ferterra @40 g a.i. ha(-1) dose followed by 50 g a.i. ha(-1) dose.

  10. Structure cristalline de type alluaudite K0.4Na3.6Co(MoO4)3

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Rawia; Fakhar Bourguiba, Noura; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    A new triple molybdate, potassium sodium cobalt tris­(molybdate), K0.4Na3.6Co(MoO4)3, was synthesized using solid-state reactions. The Co2+ and one Na+ cation are located at the same general site, each with occupancy 0.5. Another site (site symmetry 2) is occupied by Na+ and K+ cations, with occupancies of 0.597 (7) and 0.402 (6), respectively. The other two Na+ cations and one of the two Mo atoms lie on special positions (site symmetries -1, 2 and 2, respectively). The structure is characterized by M 2O10 (M = Co/Na) dimers, which are linked by MoO4 tetra­hedra, forming infinite layers. The latter are connected firstly by insertion of one type of MoO4 tetra­hedra and secondly by sharing corners with the other type of MoO4 tetra­hedra. This results in an open three-dimensional framework with the cavities occupied by the Na+ and K+ cations. The structure is isotypic with Na3In2As3O12 and Na3In2P3O12. A comparison is made with structures such as K2Co2(MoO4)3 and β-NaFe2(MoO4)3 and their differences are discussed. PMID:25705436

  11. THE HIGH-VELOCITY MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING REGION G10.6-0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang Qizhou E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t

    2010-12-20

    We report the arcsecond resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the {sup 12}CO (2-1) transition in the massive cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4. In these observations, the high-velocity {sup 12}CO emission is resolved into individual outflow systems, which have a typical size scale of a few arcseconds. These molecular outflows are energetic and are interacting with the ambient molecular gas. By inspecting the shock signatures traced by CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HCN emissions, we suggest that abundant star formation activities are distributed over the entire 0.5 pc scale dense molecular envelope. The star formation efficiency over one global free-fall timescale (of the 0.5 pc molecular envelope, {approx}10{sup 5} years) is about a few percent. The total energy feedback of these high-velocity outflows is higher than 10{sup 47} erg, which is comparable to the total kinetic energy in the rotational motion of the dense molecular envelope. From order-of-magnitude estimations, we suggest that the energy injected from the protostellar outflows is capable of balancing the turbulent energy dissipation. No high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow associated with the central OB cluster is directly detected, which can be due to the photoionization.

  12. Critical phenomena in Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 perovskite manganese oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hcini, Sobhi; Zemni, Sadok; Baazaoui, M.ed; Dhahri, Jamila; Vincent, Henri; Oumezzine, M.ed

    2012-05-01

    We studied the critical phenomena of perovskite-manganite compound Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 around its Curie temperature. Experimental results based on magnetic measurements using Banerjee criterion revealed that the sample exhibits the second-order paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition. It is found that the critical behaviour analysis and Kouvel-Fisher method show that the 3D- Heisenberg model is the best one to describe the critical phenomena around the critical point. Critical exponents β = 0.3785(6) and γ = 1.304(12) at TC = 320 K are obtained. The critical exponent δ = 4.7183(2) is determined separately from the isothermal magnetization at TC. These critical exponents fulfil the Widom scaling relation δ = 1 + γ/β. Based on the critical exponents, the magnetization-field-temperature (M-H-T) data around TC collapses into two curves obeying the single scaling equation M(H,ɛ)=|f(H/|) with ɛ = (T - TC)/TC is the reduced temperature.

  13. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-11-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal.

  14. Rates of zinc and trace metal release from dissolving sphalerite at pH 2.0-4.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, M.R.; Gemery-Hill, P. A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Taylor, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    High-Fe and low-Fe sphalerite samples were reacted under controlled pH conditions to determine nonoxidative rates of release of Zn and trace metals from the solid-phase. The release (solubilization) of trace metals from dissolving sphalerite to the aqueous phase can be characterized by a kinetic distribution coefficient, (Dtr), which is defined as [(Rtr/X(tr)Sph)/(RZn/X(Zn) Sph)], where R is the trace metal or Zn release rate, and X is the mole fraction of the trace metal or Zn in sphalerite. This coefficient describes the relationship of the sphalerite dissolution rate to the trace metal mole fraction in the solid and its aqueous concentration. The distribution was used to determine some controls on metal release during the dissolution of sphalerite. Departures from the ideal Dtr of 1.0 suggest that some trace metals may be released via different pathways or that other processes (e.g., adsorption, solubility of trace minerals such as galena) affect the observed concentration of metals. Nonoxidative sphalerite dissolution (mediated by H+) is characterized by a "fast" stage in the first 24-30 h, followed by a "slow" stage for the remainder of the reaction. Over the pH range 2.0-4.0, and for similar extent of reaction (reaction time), sphalerite composition, and surface area, the rates of release of Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb from sphalerite generally increase with lower pH. Zinc and Fe exhibit the fastest rates of release, Mn and Pb have intermediate rates of release, and Cd and Cu show the slowest rates of release. The largest variations in metal release rates occur at pH 2.0. At pH 3.0 and 4.0, release rates show less variation and appear less dependent on the metal abundance in the solid. For the same extent of reaction (100 h), rates of Zn release range from 1.53 ?? 10-11 to 5.72 ?? 10-10 mol/m2/s; for Fe, the range is from 4.59 ?? 10-13 to 1.99 ?? 10-10 mol/m2/s. Trace metal release rates are generally 1-5 orders of magnitude slower than the Zn or Fe rates

  15. Simulation study of electric-guided delivery of 0.4µm monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols to the ostiomeatal complex.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Yuan, Jiayao Eddie; Si, Xiuhua April

    2016-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of rhinosinusitis, current inhalation therapy shows limited efficacy due to extremely low drug delivery efficiency to the paranasal sinuses. Novel intranasal delivery systems are needed to enhance targeted delivery to the sinus with therapeutic dosages. An optimization framework for intranasal drug delivery was developed to target polydisperse charged aerosols to the ostiomeatal complex (OMC) with electric guidance. The delivery efficiency of a group of charged aerosols recently reported in the literature was numerically assessed and optimized in an anatomically accurate nose-sinus model. Key design variables included particle charge number, particle size and distribution, electrode strength, and inhalation velocity. Both monodisperse and polydisperse aerosol profiles were considered. Results showed that the OMC delivery efficiency was highly sensitive to the applied electric field and electrostatic charges carried by the particles. Through the synthesis of electric-guidance and point drug release, focused deposition with significantly enhanced dosage in the OMC can be achieved. For 0.4 µm charged aerosols, an OMC delivery efficiency of 51.6% was predicted for monodisperse aerosols and 34.4% for polydisperse aerosols. This difference suggested that the aerosol profile exerted a notable effect on intranasal deliveries. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the OMC deposition fraction was highly sensitive to the charge and size of particles and was less sensitive to the inhalation velocity considered in this study. Experimental studies are needed to validate the numerically optimized designs. Further studies are warranted to investigate the targeted OMC delivery with both electric and acoustics controls, the latter of which has the potential to further deliver the drug particles into the sinus cavity.

  16. CO EMISSION IN OPTICALLY OBSCURED (TYPE-2) QUASARS AT REDSHIFTS z Almost-Equal-To 0.1-0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Krips, M.; Neri, R.; Cox, P. E-mail: neri@iram.fr

    2012-07-10

    We present a search for CO emission in a sample of 10 type-2 quasar host galaxies with redshifts of z Almost-Equal-To 0.1-0.4. We detect CO(J = 1-0) line emission with {>=}5{sigma} in the velocity integrated intensity maps of five sources. A sixth source shows a tentative detection at the {approx}4.5{sigma} level of its CO(J = 1-0) line emission. The CO emission of all six sources is spatially coincident with the position at optical, infrared, or radio wavelengths. The spectroscopic redshifts derived from the CO(J = 1-0) line are very close to the photometric ones for all five detections except for the tentative detection for which we find a much larger discrepancy. We derive gas masses of {approx}(2-16) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} for the CO emission in the six detected sources, while we constrain the gas masses to upper limits of M{sub gas} {<=} 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} for the four non-detections. These values are of the order or slightly lower than those derived for type-1 quasars. The line profiles of the CO(J = 1-0) emission are rather narrow ({approx}<300 km s{sup -1}) and single peaked, unveiling no typical signatures for current or recent merger activity, and are comparable to that of type-1 quasars. However, at least one of the observed sources shows a tidal-tail-like emission in the optical that is indicative of an ongoing or past merging event. We also address the problem of detecting spurious {approx}5{sigma} emission peaks within the field of view.

  17. Nature of the absorbing gas associated with a galaxy group at z˜0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péroux, Céline; Rahmani, Hadi; Quiret, Samuel; Pettini, Max; Kulkarni, Varsha; York, Donald G.; Straka, Lorrie; Husemann, Bernd; Milliard, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    We present new Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of quasar field Q2131-1207 with a log N(H I} = 19.50 ± 0.15 sub-damped Lyman α at zabs = 0.42980. We detect four galaxies at a redshift consistent with that of the absorber where only one was known before this study. Two of these are star-forming galaxies, while the ones further away from the quasar (>140 kpc) are passive galaxies. We report the metallicities of the H II regions of the closest objects (12 + log(O/H) = 8.98 ± 0.02 and 8.32 ± 0.16) to be higher or equivalent within the errors to the metallicity measured in absorption in the neutral phase of the gas (8.15 ± 0.20). For the closest object, a detailed morphokinematic analysis indicates that it is an inclined large rotating disc with Vmax = 200 ± 3 km s-1. We measure the masses to be Mdyn = 7.4 ± 0.4 × 1010 M⊙ and Mhalo = 2.9 ± 0.2 × 1012 M⊙. Some of the gas seen in absorption is likely to be corotating with the halo of that object, possibly due to a warped disc. The azimuthal angle between the quasar line-of-sight and the projected major axis of the galaxy on the sky is 12° ± 1° which indicates that some other fraction of the absorbing gas might be associated with accreting gas. This is further supported by the galaxy to gas metallicity difference. Based on the same arguments, we exclude outflows as a possibility to explain the gas in absorption. The four galaxies form a large structure (at least 200 kpc wide) consistent with a filament or a galaxy group so that a fraction of the absorption could be related to intragroup gas.

  18. Ba0.4Rb0.6Mn2As2: A prototype half-metallic ferromagnet

    DOE PAGES

    Pandey, Abhishek; Johnston, D. C.

    2015-11-02

    Half-metallic ferromagnetism (FM) in single-crystal Ba0.39(1)Rb0.61(1)Mn2As2 below its Curie temperature TC = 103(2) K is reported. The magnetization M versus applied magnetic field H isotherm data at 1.8 K show complete polarization of the itinerant doped-hole magnetic moments that are introduced by substituting Rb for Ba. Here, the material exhibits extremely soft FM, with unobservably small remanent magnetization and coercive field. Surprisingly, and contrary to typical itinerant FMs, the M(H) data follow the Arrott-plot paradigm that is based on a mean-field theory of local-moment FMs. The in-plane electrical resistivity data are fitted well by an activated-T2 expression for T ≤more » TC, whereas the data sharply deviate from this model for T > TC. Hence the activated-T2 resistivity model is an excellent diagnostic for determining the onset of half-metallic FM in this compound, which in turn demonstrates the presence of a strong correlation between the electronic transport and magnetic properties of the material. Together with previous data on 40% hole-doped Ba0.6K0.4Mn2As2, these measurements establish 61%-doped Ba0.39Rb0.61Mn2As2 as a prototype for a class of half-metallic ferromagnets in which all the itinerant carriers in the material are ferromagnetic.« less

  19. Ethylene Oxide: Acute Four-Hour and One-Hour Inhalation Toxicity Testing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Snellings, William M.; Nachreiner, Donald J.; Pottenger, Lynn H.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene oxide was tested on groups of rats for either 4-hour or 1-hour inhalation exposure, followed by 14 days of observation. Groups of five Sprague-Dawley rats/sex were exposed, and clinical signs and mortality were recorded. Clinical signs noted included irregular breathing, absence of certain reflexes, and tremors. Rats that died had moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The calculated LC50 values, reported as ppm by volume (with 95% confidence limits), were as follows. 4-hour LC50 values were 1972 (1887 to 2061) ppm for males; 1537 (1391 to 1698) ppm for females; 1741 (1655 to 1831) ppm for the combined sexes. The 1-hour LC50 values were 5748 (5276 to 6262) ppm for males; 4439 (4034 to 4884) ppm for females; 5029 (4634 to 5459) ppm for the combined sexes. PMID:21785591

  20. The Hours: between safety and servitude.

    PubMed

    Charles, Marilyn

    2004-09-01

    This paper explores the issue of how character is created and re-created in the context of relationships. This theme, salient in the recent film The Hours, has been particularly problematic for creative women, who are often caught in tensions between self-development and relationship. Two case examples are given, in counterpoint to the film and to illustrations from Woolf's life and work. Through these various lenses, we can consider the complex interplays between our conjectures as to the expected price of relationship, and the actual price exacted as our various dramas unfold.

  1. 20130416_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-04-24

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 4/16/13.

  2. Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data 20130731

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-08-30

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 7/1/13 to 7/31/13.

  3. 20140430_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-05-05

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 April to 30 April 2014.

  4. Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-07-15

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 6/1/13 to 6/30/13

  5. Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia: the first 48 hours.

    PubMed

    Ringenberg, Q S; Doll, D C

    1990-08-01

    The initial care of patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia can be lifesaving. Such patients are most often treated at tertiary care centers where resident physicians, working under the supervision of a subspecialist, are responsible for the diagnosis and initial treatment. During the first 48 hours, the house officer must recognize and understand the management of perilous complications such as hyperleukocytosis, hemorrhage, and infection. Specific lifesaving measures will grant the patient and his physicians sufficient time to reach a decision regarding the initiation of curative induction chemotherapy.

  6. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L.; Folkard, S.; Tucker, P.; Macdonald, I.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. METHODS: Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. RESULTS: The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. CONCLUSIONS: There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.   PMID:9624275

  7. Development of a global motor rating scale for young children (0-4 years) including eye-hand grip coordination.

    PubMed

    Vaivre-Douret, L; Burnod, Y

    2001-11-01

    A comparative study of the eight motor rating scales available in Western countries demonstrated methodological differences in the choice of items and standardization. We have developed a global motor rating scale that includes items which measure postural-motor, locomotor (PML) and eye-hand grip coordination (EHGC), and which allows the assessment of an average of motor function level (MFL), PML and EHGC development. Scores obtained were used to define the acquisition of motor age based on the skills completed. The items were selected on the basis of the average age at which the function developed in two populations of healthy full-term French infants, followed from birth to 4 months (n = 60) and from 4 months to 4 years (n = 63). Recent French developmental standards (mean age and standard deviation) of acquisition allow the identification of neuro-psychomotor deviations from normal motor behaviour. This includes both static and dynamic motor coordination sequences. Inter-examiner correlations (n = 3) for 15 randomly selected children indicated a coefficient of 0.90. The scale revealed a sequence in the organization of learned postural-motor, locomotor and eye-hand gripping skills which can contribute to the understanding of brain areas implicated in this maturation process.

  8. [Seven hour shifts versus 12 hours in intensive nursing care: going against the tide].

    PubMed

    Moreno Arroyo, M C; Jerez González, J A; Cabrera Jaime, S; Estrada Masllorens, J M; López Martín, A

    2013-01-01

    Working in shifts has an impact on the well being of health care professionals, affecting their quality of life. The main objective of this study is to describe the consequences of 12hours work shifts versus 7hours for nursing professionals working in intensive care units. A cost-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals of Barcelona, these being the Hospital Clínico and Hospital Vall d'Hebron (of 7hour and 12hour shifts, respectively). The data was collected through a questionnaire having 29 closed questions that was anonymous and self-administered. The questionnaire was based on two scales: Standard Shiftwork Index and Shiftwork. locus of control. Data was processed through SPSS V.18.0. The target population consisted of 85 people, for whom 52 surveys were valid: 22 in Hospital Clínico of Barcelona and 30 in Hospital Vall d'Hebron. Professionals working a 12-hour shift express higher levels of work and family conciliation, especially in the case of leisure time to enjoy (×2: 10.635 p=0.031) and family-friends time dedication as well as lower levels of perceived fatigue. No differences were found between type of shift and ease of development of professional work, even though the 12-hour shift has higher levels.

  9. Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36: Spectroscopy from 0.4 to 2.4 Micrometer and Meteorite Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Beth Ellen; Binzel, Richard P.; Howell, Ellen S.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Ockert-Bell, Maureen; Christensen, Phil; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; DeMeo, Francesca; Lauretta, Dante S.; Connolly, Harold, Jr.; Soderberg, Alicia; Hergenrother, Carl; Lim, Lucy; Emery, Josh; Mueller, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We present reflectance spectra from 0.4 to 2.4 ?m of Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36, the target of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft mission. The visible spectral data were obtained at the McDonald Observatory 2.1-m telescope with the ES2 spectrograph. The infrared spectral data were obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility using the SpeX instrument. The average visible spectrum is combined with the average near-infrared wavelength spectrum to form a composite spectrum. We use three methods to constrain the compositional information in the composite spectrum of Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 (hereafter RQ36). First, we perform a least-squares search for meteorite spectral analogs using 15,000 spectra from the RELAB database. Three most likely meteorite analogs are proposed based on the least-squares search. Next, six spectral parameters are measured for RQ36 and their values are compared with the ranges in parameter values of the carbonaceous chondrite meteorite classes. A most likely meteorite analog group is proposed based on the depth of overlap in parameter values. The results of the least-squares search and the parametric comparisons point to CIs and/or CMs as the most likely meteorite analogs for RQ36, and COs and CHs as the least likely. RQ36 has a spectrally blue continuum slope that is also observed in carbonaceous chondrites containing magnetite. We speculate that RQ36 is composed of a CM1 -like material. Finally, we compare RQ36 to other B-type asteroids measured by Clark et al. (Clark, B.E. et al. [2010]. J. Geophys. Res. 115, E06005). The results of this comparison are inconclusive. RQ36 is comparable to Themis spectral properties in terms of its albedo, visible spectrum, and near-infrared spectrum from 1.1 to 1.45 micrometers. However, RQ36 is more similar to Pallas in terms of its near-infrared spectrum from 1.6 to 2.3 micrometers. Thus it is possible that B-type asteroids form a spectral continuum and that RQ36 is a transitional object, spectrally

  10. Probing the cool interstellar and circumgalactic gas of three massive lensing galaxies at z = 0.4-0.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedy, Fakhri S.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Rauch, Michael; Wilson, Michelle L.; Zabludoff, Ann

    2016-05-01

    We present multisightline absorption spectroscopy of cool gas around three lensing galaxies at z = 0.4-0.7. These lenses have half-light radii re = 2.6-8 kpc and stellar masses of log M*/M⊙ = 10.9-11.4, and therefore resemble nearby passive elliptical galaxies. The lensed QSO sightlines presented here occur at projected distances of d = 3-15 kpc (or d ≈ 1-2 re) from the lensing galaxies, providing for the first time an opportunity to probe both interstellar gas at r ˜ re and circumgalactic gas at larger radii r ≫ re of these distant quiescent galaxies. We observe distinct gas absorption properties among different lenses and among sightlines of individual lenses. Specifically, while the quadruple lens for HE 0435-1223 shows no absorption features to very sensitive limits along all four sightlines, strong Mg II, Fe II, Mg I, and Ca II absorption transitions are detected along both sightlines near the double lens for HE 0047-1756, and in one of the two sightlines near the double lens for HE 1104-1805. The absorbers are resolved into 8-15 individual components with a line-of-sight velocity spread of Δ v ≈ 300-600 km s-1. The large ionic column densities, log N ≳ 14, observed in two components suggest that these may be Lyman limit or damped Ly α absorbers with a significant neutral hydrogen fraction. The majority of the absorbing components exhibit a uniform supersolar Fe/Mg ratio with a scatter of <0.1 dex across the full Δ v range. Given a predominantly old stellar population in these lensing galaxies, we argue that the observed large velocity width and Fe-rich abundance pattern can be explained by SNe Ia enriched gas at radius r ˜ re. We show that additional spatial constraints in line-of-sight velocity and relative abundance ratios afforded by a multisightline approach provide a powerful tool to resolve the origin of chemically enriched cool gas in massive haloes.

  11. The future intensification of hourly precipitation extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prein, Andreas F.; Rasmussen, Roy M.; Ikeda, Kyoko; Liu, Changhai; Clark, Martyn P.; Holland, Greg J.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme precipitation intensities have increased in all regions of the Contiguous United States (CONUS) and are expected to further increase with warming at scaling rates of about 7% per degree Celsius (ref. ), suggesting a significant increase of flash flood hazards due to climate change. However, the scaling rates between extreme precipitation and temperature are strongly dependent on the region, temperature, and moisture availability, which inhibits simple extrapolation of the scaling rate from past climate data into the future. Here we study observed and simulated changes in local precipitation extremes over the CONUS by analysing a very high resolution (4 km horizontal grid spacing) current and high-end climate scenario that realistically simulates hourly precipitation extremes. We show that extreme precipitation is increasing with temperature in moist, energy-limited, environments and decreases abruptly in dry, moisture-limited, environments. This novel framework explains the large variability in the observed and modelled scaling rates and helps with understanding the significant frequency and intensity increases in future hourly extreme precipitation events and their interaction with larger scales.

  12. Workplace status and risk of hypertension among hourly and salaried aluminum manufacturing employees

    PubMed Central

    Clougherty, Jane Ellen; Eisen, Ellen A; Slade, Martin D; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cullen, Mark R

    2009-01-01

    An inverse relationship between workplace status and morbidity is well established; higher job status has been associated with reduced risks of heart disease, hypertension, and injury. Most research on job status, however, has focused on salaried populations, and it remains unclear whether job status operates similarly among hourly workers. Our objectives were to examine whether hourly status itself influences risk of hypertension after adjustment for socioeconomic confounders, and to explore the role of fine-scale job grade on hypertension incidence within hourly and salaried groups. We examined data for 14,999 aluminum manufacturing employees in 11 plants across the U.S., using logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, race/ ethnicity and other individual characteristics. Propensity score restriction was used to identify comparable groups of hourly and salaried employees, reducing confounding by socio-demographic characteristics. Job grade (coded 1 through 30, within hourly and salaried groups) was examined as a more refined measure of job status. Hourly status was associated with an increased risk of hypertension, after propensity restriction and adjustment for confounders. The observed effect of hourly status was stronger among women, although the propensity-restricted cohort was disproportionately male (96 %). Among salaried workers, higher job grade was not consistently associated with decreased risk; among hourly employees, however, there was a significant trend, with higher job grades more protective against hypertension. Increasing the stringency of hypertension case criteria also increased the risk of severe or persistent hypertension for hourly employees. PMID:19027215

  13. Structure and substructure analysis of DAFT/FADA galaxy clusters in the [0.4-0.9] redshift range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guennou, L.; Adami, C.; Durret, F.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Ulmer, M. P.; Clowe, D.; LeBrun, V.; Martinet, N.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Basa, S.; Benoist, C.; Biviano, A.; Cappi, A.; Cypriano, E. S.; Gavazzi, R.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Jullo, E.; Just, D.; Limousin, M.; Márquez, I.; Mazure, A.; Murphy, K. J.; Plana, H.; Rostagni, F.; Russeil, D.; Schirmer, M.; Slezak, E.; Tucker, D.; Zaritsky, D.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The DAFT/FADA survey is based on the study of ~90 rich (masses found in the literature >2 × 1014 M⊙) and moderately distant clusters (redshifts 0.4 < z < 0.9), all with HST imaging data available. This survey has two main objectives: to constrain dark energy (DE) using weak lensing tomography on galaxy clusters and to build a database (deep multi-band imaging allowing photometric redshift estimates, spectroscopic data, X-ray data) of rich distant clusters to study their properties. Aims: We analyse the structures of all the clusters in the DAFT/FADA survey for which XMM-Newton and/or a sufficient number of galaxy redshifts in the cluster range are available, with the aim of detecting substructures and evidence for merging events. These properties are discussed in the framework of standard cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. Methods: In X-rays, we analysed the XMM-Newton data available, fit a β-model, and subtracted it to identify residuals. We used Chandra data, when available, to identify point sources. In the optical, we applied a Serna & Gerbal (SG) analysis to clusters with at least 15 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts available in the cluster range. We discuss the substructure detection efficiencies of both methods. Results: XMM-Newton data were available for 32 clusters, for which we derive the X-ray luminosity and a global X-ray temperature for 25 of them. For 23 clusters we were able to fit the X-ray emissivity with a β-model and subtract it to detect substructures in the X-ray gas. A dynamical analysis based on the SG method was applied to the clusters having at least 15 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts in the cluster range: 18 X-ray clusters and 11 clusters with no X-ray data. The choice of a minimum number of 15 redshifts implies that only major substructures will be detected. Ten substructures were detected both in X-rays and by the SG method. Most of the substructures detected both in X-rays and with the SG method are probably at their first

  14. Stability, precision, and near-24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, C. A.; Duffy, J. F.; Shanahan, T. L.; Brown, E. N.; Mitchell, J. F.; Rimmer, D. W.; Ronda, J. M.; Silva, E. J.; Allan, J. S.; Emens, J. S.; Dijk, D. J.; Kronauer, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of circadian period in humans was thought to differ from that of other species, with the period of the activity rhythm reported to range from 13 to 65 hours (median 25.2 hours) and the period of the body temperature rhythm reported to average 25 hours in adulthood, and to shorten with age. However, those observations were based on studies of humans exposed to light levels sufficient to confound circadian period estimation. Precise estimation of the periods of the endogenous circadian rhythms of melatonin, core body temperature, and cortisol in healthy young and older individuals living in carefully controlled lighting conditions has now revealed that the intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker averages 24.18 hours in both age groups, with a tight distribution consistent with other species. These findings have important implications for understanding the pathophysiology of disrupted sleep in older people.

  15. Probing the local structure of crystalline ZITO: In 2-2xSn xZn xO 3 ( x≤0.4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoel, Cathleen A.; Gaillard, Jean-François; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2010-04-01

    The local structure of In 2O 3 cosubstituted with Zn and Sn (In 2-2xSn xZn xO 3, x≤0.4 or ZITO) was determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) for x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4. The host bixbyite In 2O 3 structure is maintained up to the enhanced substitution limit ( x=0.4). The EXAFS spectra are consistent with random substitution of In by the smaller Zn and Sn cations, a result that is consistent with the "good-to-excellent" conductivities reported for ZITO.

  16. 24 hours stay after hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Eeden, Yannick N T; De Turck, Bruno J G; Van Den Eeden, Frank M C

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — The length of stay after total hip arthroplasty has been reduced to 2–4 days after implementing fast-track surgery. We investigated whether a new time-based patient-centered primary direct anterior approach (DAA) total hip arthroplasty (THA) treatment protocol in a specialized clinic, with a planned length of stay of about 24 hours, could be achieved in all patients or only in a selected group of patients. Patients and methods — We analyzed prospectively collected data in a cohort of 378 consecutive patients who underwent a primary direct anterior THA as a patient-centered time-based procedure between March 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015. Patients with complicated medical comorbidity and those over the age of 85 were excluded from the study. The average length of stay was recorded and all complications, re-admissions, and reoperations were registered and analyzed. The primary outcome measures were length of stay and complication rate, at discharge and 90 days postoperatively. Results — The average length of stay for all patients was 26 hours. All patients were discharged from the clinic on the day after the operation and were able to continue their recovery at home or in a rehabilitation facility. The overall complication rate within 3 months of surgery was 6%. The 3-month re-admission rate and the 3-month reoperation rate were both 2%. Interpretation — Performing a time-based, patient-centered fast-track program for DAA total hip arthroplasty can result in a standardized length of stay of about 24 hours and a high level of patient satisfaction with few complications, re-admissions, and reoperations. PMID:27658640

  17. 24 hours stay after hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Van Den Eeden, Yannick N T; De Turck, Bruno J G; Van Den Eeden, Frank M C

    2017-02-01

    Background and purpose - The length of stay after total hip arthroplasty has been reduced to 2-4 days after implementing fast-track surgery. We investigated whether a new time-based patient-centered primary direct anterior approach (DAA) total hip arthroplasty (THA) treatment protocol in a specialized clinic, with a planned length of stay of about 24 hours, could be achieved in all patients or only in a selected group of patients. Patients and methods - We analyzed prospectively collected data in a cohort of 378 consecutive patients who underwent a primary direct anterior THA as a patient-centered time-based procedure between March 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015. Patients with complicated medical comorbidity and those over the age of 85 were excluded from the study. The average length of stay was recorded and all complications, re-admissions, and reoperations were registered and analyzed. The primary outcome measures were length of stay and complication rate, at discharge and 90 days postoperatively. Results - The average length of stay for all patients was 26 hours. All patients were discharged from the clinic on the day after the operation and were able to continue their recovery at home or in a rehabilitation facility. The overall complication rate within 3 months of surgery was 6%. The 3-month re-admission rate and the 3-month reoperation rate were both 2%. Interpretation - Performing a time-based, patient-centered fast-track program for DAA total hip arthroplasty can result in a standardized length of stay of about 24 hours and a high level of patient satisfaction with few complications, re-admissions, and reoperations.

  18. Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group.

  19. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensable hours of work. 553.221 Section 553.221 Labor... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.221 Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part...

  20. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensable hours of work. 553.221 Section 553.221 Labor... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.221 Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part...

  1. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensable hours of work. 553.221 Section 553.221 Labor... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.221 Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part...

  2. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  3. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  4. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  5. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  6. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  7. Adult immunization—Need of the hour

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, P. Srinivas; Ganta, Avani; Kattimani, Vivekanand S.; Tiwari, Rahul V. C.

    2016-01-01

    Immunization is the process or the act of making individuals immune, which is usually done during childhood. Everyone is aware about immunization during childhood, however, very few know about adult immunization. This led us to review the adult immunization literature for the preventive strategies through various vaccination protocols. Adults do require vaccination protocols with booster doses for hepatitis B, Shingles, communicable diseases, traveler's diseases, etc. In this context, this article revises much of the available adult immunization literature and presents comprehensive guidelines. This article will increase the awareness regarding the importance of vaccination for adults to prevent a variety of conditions prevalent in our country as well as epidemics. The article comprehensively provides insights into the available vaccination and preventive strategy of human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in this part of the review. We strongly recommend all the health care professionals to educate their co-professionals and the public to use the benefits of adult immunization. It is the need of the hour and reduces the burden of treatment and increases productivity. PMID:27583212

  8. Life of a Six-Hour Hurricane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Kay L.; Molinari, John

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Claudette developed from a weak vortex in 6 h as deep convection shifted from downshear into the vortex center, despite ambient vertical wind shear exceeding 10 m/s. Six hours later it weakened to a tropical storm, and 12 h after the hurricane stage a circulation center could not be found at 850 hPa by aircraft reconnaissance. At hurricane strength the vortex contained classic structure seen in intensifying hurricanes, with the exception of 7-12 C dewpoint depressions in the lower troposphere upshear of the center. These extended from the 100-km radius to immediately adjacent to the eyewall, where equivalent potential temperature gradients reached 6 K/km. The dry air was not present prior to intensification, suggesting that it was associated with vertical shear-induced subsidence upshear of the developing storm. It is argued that weakening of the vortex was driven by cooling associated with the mixing of dry air into the core, and subsequent evaporation and cold downdrafts. Evidence suggests that this mixing might have been enhanced by eyewall instabilities after the period of rapid deepening. The existence of a fragile, small, but genuinely hurricane-strength vortex at the surface for 6 h presents difficult problems for forecasters. Such a "temporary hurricane" in strongly sheared flow might require a different warning protocol than longer-lasting hurricane vortices in weaker shear.

  9. School-age children development

    MedlinePlus

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. School-age child development describes the expected physical, emotional, and mental abilities ... to 2 hours a day. Images School age child development References Feigelman S. Middle childhood. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman ...

  10. 76 FR 16852 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Assessing the Safety Impact of the Exemption From the 14-Hour...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... of the Exemption From the 14-Hour Provision of the Hours of Service Rule for Certain Pyrotechnics... 2003 final rule, driving after the 14th hour from the beginning of the work day was prohibited; rest... allowed to exclude off-duty and sleeper berth time of any length in the calculation of the 14-hour...

  11. Composition and phase analysis of nanocrystalline BaxSr1-xFe12O19 (x = 1.0; 0.6; and 0.4) by using general structure analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunanto, Y. E.; Jobiliong, E.; Adi, Wisnu Ari

    2016-03-01

    Single phase of nanocrystalline BaxSr1-xFe12O19 (x = 1.0; 0.6; and 0.4) was successfully synthesized by mechanical milling method and thermal process. Stoichiometric quantities of analytical-grade SrCO3, BaCO3, and Fe2O3, were mixed and milled using a high-energy milling. The mixture of all precursors was sintered at a temperature of 1000 °C for 10 hours. The refinement of x-ray diffraction trace for all samples confirmed a single phase material with a hexagonal structure. The increase of the amount of strontium content in the barium atoms in the BaxSr1-xFe12O19 system can decrease the lattice parameter which have been successfully substituted into the barium atoms. The calculation result of cationic distribution showed that the BaxSr1-xFe12O19 (x = 0.6) and (x = 0.4) samples have nominal composition of Ba0,61Sr0,39Fe12O19 and Ba0,37Sr0,63Fe12O19, respectively. Results of the mean of crystallite size evaluation for respective powder materials showed that the BaxSr1-xFe12O19 (x = 1.0; 0.6; and 0.4) samples have the crystallite size of 22 nm, 25 nm and 34 nm, respectively. We concluded that the cationic distribution of barium atoms was successfully substituted by strontium atoms approaching the nominal stoichiometric composition.

  12. Sunny hours and variations in the prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren according to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies (ISAAC) Phase III in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Fernández-Espinar, Jorge Fuertes; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; González-Díaz, Carlos; Carvajal-Urueña, Ignacio; Busquet-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; de Andoin, Nagore García; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo; Varela, Angel López-Silvarrey; García-Hernández, Gloria

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relationship between the prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years and 13-14 years and the mean annual sunny hours (MASH) in Spain, and to explore predictive models for asthma prevalence. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies (ISAAC) Phase III 2002-2003, and climate and socio-economic variables from official sources. Nine centres were studied and a further four centres, two of which are in ISAAC, to test the predictive models. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted prevalence rates of asthma for each centre, and multiple regression models to study the effects of MASH and other meteorological and socio-economic variables. The adjusted prevalence rate of asthma decreased 0.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.8%] for the 6-7 years group and 1.1% (95% CI 0.8-1.3%) for the 13-14 years group with an increase in the MASH of 100 h. Relative humidity was negatively associated with asthma in the older age group, and gross province product per capita (GPP) was positively associated with asthma in the younger age group. The predictive models, which included MASH, gender, relative humidity, and GPP, anticipated prevalence rates of asthma without significant differences between the levels observed and those expected in 9 of the11 measurements carried out. The results indicate that sunny hours have a protective effect on the prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren.

  13. Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour contingency exposures to airborne chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hector D.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a 'typical' mission. A set of 'contingency SMACs' is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related 'contingency' releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.

  14. Spontaneous running activity in male rats - Effect of age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Dolkas, C. B.; Sims, C.; Reaven, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    Variations in the intensity and the patterns of spontaneous running activity in wheel cages were studied in male rats aged 7 weeks to one year. Daily running records were obtained for periods of 12 mo, and 24-hour recordings were made for selected runners in order to study variations in running activity during the day. The data indicate that for rats running over two miles/day, the maximum running intensity can be divided into two groups: a group of high achievers running 8 miles/day; and a group of moderate achievers running 4.8 miles/day. For both groups spontaneous activity reached a maximum after 4-5 weeks. An hourly pattern of running activity during the day was identified in rats of increasing age who averaged 9.0, 4.5, 2.6, and 1.2 miles/day, respectively. Progressive losses were observed in both the speed and the duration of spontaneous running as the rats increased in age, with the intensity of exercise falling below 2 miles/day after 7-8 months of age.

  15. Comparing performance on a simulated 12 hour shift rotation in young and older subjects

    PubMed Central

    Reid, K; Dawson, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To simulate a 12 hour shift rotation and measure the difference in performance if any, between older and younger subjects. Significant reductions in neurobehavioural performance during shift work and particularly night work have long been recognised. There are conflicting reports of the effects of 12 hour shifts on performance, alertness, and safety. Furthermore, research suggests that older shift workers have more sleep disruption and maladaption to shift work. When this is combined with longer hours at work there may be considerable reductions in performance for older compared with younger workers.
METHODS—Thirty two subjects were allocated to groups according to age. Group one had 16 subjects with a mean (SD) age of 21.2 (2.7) years, and group two had 16 subjects with a mean (SD) age of 43.9 (6.8) years. Subjects came to the laboratory for six consecutive days and completed a simulated 12 hour shift rotation consisting of two 12 hour day shifts (0700-1900), followed by two 12 hour night shifts (1900-0700). During the work period subjects completed a computer administered neurobehavioural performance task every hour.
RESULTS—Performance for the older subjects was consistently lower than for the younger subjects. There was a significant difference in performance across the shift between older and younger subjects. There was a significant change in performance across the shifts in the older subjects, such that performance significantly increased across the day shifts and decreased across the night shifts. By contrast, the younger subjects were able to maintain performance across both day shifts and the second night shift.
CONCLUSIONS—There are significant differences in performance of older and younger subjects during a simulated 12 hour shift rotation. Future studies both in the field and the laboratory would be useful in determining whether this is typical and if there are any important consequences for the older worker on 12 hour

  16. The Effect of Fatherhood on Employment Hours: Variation by Birth Timing, Marriage and Coresidence

    PubMed Central

    Weinshenker, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the life course paradigm, I assess how the effect of fatherhood on employment hours varies by age of becoming a parent and time elapsed since the birth. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – 1979 Cohort from 1979 to 2002 (N = 28,514 observations), separate effects are estimated based on fathers’ marital status and co-residence with own children. Only unmarried men who became fathers before 24 work longer hours immediately after a first birth, but in the long run, most early fathers work fewer hours as a result of parenthood. Over time, unmarried but coresident men who became fathers between 24 and 29 increase their hours, as do married, coresident men who delayed fatherhood until 30 or older. However, the latter increase is moderated by support for egalitarian gender roles. The findings shed light on the contemporary transition to adulthood and on men’s work-family balance. PMID:28280281

  17. The Effect of Fatherhood on Employment Hours: Variation by Birth Timing, Marriage and Coresidence.

    PubMed

    Weinshenker, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the life course paradigm, I assess how the effect of fatherhood on employment hours varies by age of becoming a parent and time elapsed since the birth. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 Cohort from 1979 to 2002 (N = 28,514 observations), separate effects are estimated based on fathers' marital status and co-residence with own children. Only unmarried men who became fathers before 24 work longer hours immediately after a first birth, but in the long run, most early fathers work fewer hours as a result of parenthood. Over time, unmarried but coresident men who became fathers between 24 and 29 increase their hours, as do married, coresident men who delayed fatherhood until 30 or older. However, the latter increase is moderated by support for egalitarian gender roles. The findings shed light on the contemporary transition to adulthood and on men's work-family balance.

  18. Fabrication of magnetic Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 nanocomposite for visible-light-driven photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ziling; Wu, Dan; Wang, Wei; Tan, Fatang; Ng, Tsz Wai; Chen, Jianguo; Qiao, Xueliang; Wong, Po Keung

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial inactivation by magnetic photocatalysts has now received growing interests due to the easy separation for recycle and reuse of photocatalysts. In this study, magnetic Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 photocatalyst was prepared by a facile two-step precipitation method. Multiple techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffused reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were employed to characterize the structure, morphology and physicochemical properties of the photocatalyst. The as-obtained Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 possessing magnetic property was easily collected from the reaction system by a magnet. Under white light-emitting-diode (LED) lamp irradiation, Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 nanocomposite could completely inactivate 7-log of Escherichia coli K-12 within 5 h. More importantly, almost no decrease of photocatalytic efficiency in bacterial inactivation was observed even after five consecutive cycles, demonstrating Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 exhibited good stability for reuse. The low released rate of Fe2+/Fe3+ and Zn2+ from Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 composite further indicated the photocatalyst showed low cytotoxicity to bacterium and high stability under LED lamp irradiation. Facile preparation, high photocatalytic efficiency, good stability and reusability, and magnetic recovery property endow Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 nanocomposite to be a promising photocatalytic material for bacterial inactivation.

  19. Test plan and preliminary report of airborne electromagentic environment survey over USA urban areas 0.4 to 18.0 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic environment survey is described of five urban areas where terrestrially-generated radio-frequency interference was measured over the frequency range from 0.4 to 18.0 GHz. A chartered Cessna 402 aircraft contained necessary measurement test equipment, including the receiving antennas mounted beneath the fuselage. Urban areas including Washington, D.C.; Baltimore, MD; Philadelphia, PA; New York, NY; Chicago, ILL; and Palestine, TX were surveyed. A flight test plan and preliminary test results for the 0.4 to 1.4 GHz frequency range, are included; a final test report describes more detailed results.

  20. Preparation and results of a 24-hour orbital flight.

    PubMed

    Titov, G S

    1963-01-01

    The space age presents man with unprecedented opportunities for discovery and for cooperative endeavors to benefit all mankind. My flight of August 6-7, 1961 was conducted for the purpose of determining whether man can stay and work effectively and whether all systems of the spaceship can operate successfully during a period of 24 hours in space. The flight of Vostok II represents an experimental step in a logical sequence which included the first earth orbiting flight of USSR citizen Yuri A. Gagarin. Preparation for the flight included the study of theoretical and applied subjects, testing in various kinds of apparatus which provide acceleration, heat and isolation experience, brief airborne weightless flights and parachute landings, in addition to extensive training in a real spacecraft having simulators for normal and emergency contingencies of space flight. The actual flight was therefore carried out with a sense of confidence and familiarity and with continuous close radio contact with ground centers from whom my fellow cosmonauts served as spokesmen. Sequential boosters totaling 600 000 kg thrust placed the 4731 kg spaceship into a perfect orbit varying in altitude from 178-246 km in a plane 64 degrees 58' inclined to the equator. The spaceship made 17 orbits around the earth landing 25 hours, 18 minutes after take-off. The cabin had full atmospheric pressure and a comfortable habitability which could be extended for 10 days. I was able to maneuver the spaceship and perform many other control functions, make observations and take pictures of the earth and its cloud cover, eat meals and sleep all with good efficiency. I experienced mild symptoms suggestive of seasickness which were aggravated by head turning, ameliorated by sleep and entirely relieved by resumption of g-loading during descent. Altogether analyses of the physical and structural performance of the spaceship and the continuously monitored physiological responses of the pilot indicate that all

  1. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section, each CBP office shall be open for the transactions of general CBP business between the hours of...

  2. 48 CFR 536.570-5 - Working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working hours. 536.570-5... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 536.570-5 Working hours. Insert 552.236-74, Working Hours, in solicitations and contracts if construction,...

  3. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed salary for fluctuating hours. 778.114 Section 778.114... salary for fluctuating hours. (a) An employee employed on a salary basis may have hours of work which fluctuate from week to week and the salary may be paid him pursuant to an understanding with his...

  4. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed salary for fluctuating hours. 778.114 Section 778.114... salary for fluctuating hours. (a) An employee employed on a salary basis may have hours of work which fluctuate from week to week and the salary may be paid him pursuant to an understanding with his...

  5. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed salary for fluctuating hours. 778.114 Section 778.114... salary for fluctuating hours. (a) An employee employed on a salary basis may have hours of work which fluctuate from week to week and the salary may be paid him pursuant to an understanding with his...

  6. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed salary for fluctuating hours. 778.114 Section 778.114... salary for fluctuating hours. (a) An employee employed on a salary basis may have hours of work which fluctuate from week to week and the salary may be paid him pursuant to an understanding with his...

  7. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed salary for fluctuating hours. 778.114 Section 778.114... salary for fluctuating hours. (a) An employee employed on a salary basis may have hours of work which fluctuate from week to week and the salary may be paid him pursuant to an understanding with his...

  8. "Hour of Code": Can It Change Students' Attitudes toward Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The Hour of Code is a one-hour introduction to computer science organized by Code.org, a non-profit dedicated to expanding participation in computer science. This study investigated the impact of the Hour of Code on students' attitudes towards computer programming and their knowledge of programming. A sample of undergraduate students from two…

  9. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) A quarter of an hour shall be the largest fraction of an hour used for crediting irregular or... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work § 551.521... than the full fraction, odd minutes shall be rounded up or rounded down to the nearest full fraction...

  10. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) A quarter of an hour shall be the largest fraction of an hour used for crediting irregular or... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work § 551.521... than the full fraction, odd minutes shall be rounded up or rounded down to the nearest full fraction...

  11. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section, each CBP office shall be open for the transactions of general CBP business between the hours of...

  12. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section, each CBP office shall be open for the transactions of general CBP business between the hours of...

  13. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section, each CBP office shall be open for the transactions of general CBP business between the hours of...

  14. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610... Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) may not accumulate credit hours under an alternative work schedule. Any credit...

  15. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610... Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) may not accumulate credit hours under an alternative work schedule. Any credit...

  16. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610... Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) may not accumulate credit hours under an alternative work schedule. Any credit...

  17. Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Cheryl, Ed.; Wolman, Dianne Miller, Ed.; Johns, Michael M. E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Medical residents in hospitals are often required to be on duty for long hours. In 2003 the organization overseeing graduate medical education adopted common program requirements to restrict resident workweeks, including limits to an average of 80 hours over 4 weeks and the longest consecutive period of work to 30 hours in order to protect…

  18. Mothers' and Fathers' Work Hours, Child Gender, and Behavior in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sarah; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth; Strazdins, Lyndall; Jacoby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between typical parental work hours (including nonemployed parents) and children's behavior in two-parent heterosexual families. Child behavior was measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at ages 5, 8, and 10 in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study ("N" = 4,201 child-year…

  19. Evaluating a New Retirement Planning Program--Results with Hourly Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Edmund W.

    1979-01-01

    Reports approach used to evaluate the National Council on the Aging-Industry Consortium Retirement Planning Program, citing results for the first tryout with hourly workers. Summarizes participants' responses to pre- and post-workshops on personal financial planning action. Gains in planning achievement were substantial. (MF)

  20. Minds on Earth Hour--A Theme for Sustainability in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ärlemalm-Hagsér, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This educational science article illustrates education for sustainability in a theme about Earth Hour (energy conservation) in one Swedish preschool. This case study is based on audio recordings of dialogues between children aged five to six years and preschool teachers. It is guided by critical theory, which is also used as a conceptual tool to…

  1. Comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational male marathoners and 24-hour ultramarathoners

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Of the anthropometry and training variables used to predict race performance in a 24-hour ultrarun, the personal best marathon time is the strongest predictor in recreational male 24-hour ultramarathoners. This finding raises the question of whether similarities exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners. Methods The association between age, anthropometric variables (ie, body mass, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, skeletal muscle mass, limb circumference, and skinfold thickness at the pectoral, mid axillary, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, front thigh, and medial calf sites), previous experience and training characteristics (ie, volume, speed, and personal best time), and race time for 79 male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and 126 male recreational marathoners was investigated using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results The 24-hour ultramarathoners were older (P < 0.05), had a lower circumference at both the upper arm (P < 0.05) and thigh (P < 0.01), and a lower skinfold thickness at the pectoral, axillary, and suprailiac sites (P < 0.05) compared with the marathoners. During training, the 24-hour ultramarathoners were running for more hours per week (P < 0.001) and completed more kilometers (P < 0.001), but were running slower (P < 0.01) compared with the marathoners. In the 24-hour ultramarathoners, neither anthropometric nor training variables were associated with kilometers completed in the race (P > 0.05). In the marathoners, percent body fat (P < 0.001) and running speed during training (P < 0.0001) were related to marathon race times. Conclusion In summary, differences in anthropometric and training predictor variables do exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners for race performance. PMID:24198595

  2. Fabrication and magnetic property of BaSm(x)Fe(12-x)O19 (x < or = 0.4) nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Xian-Feng, Meng; Li-Ju, Guo

    2012-03-01

    BaSm(x)Fe(12-x)O19 (x < or = 0.4) ferrite nanofibers were prepared by sol-gel method from starting reagents of metal salts and citric acid. These nanofibers were characterized by TG-DTA, FTIR, SEM, XRD and VSM. These results show that the BaSm(x)Fe(12-x)O19 (x < or = 0.4) ferrite nanofibers were obtained subsequently from calcination at 750 degrees C for 1 h. The BaSm(x)Fe(12-x)O19 (x < or = 0.4) microstructure and magnetic property are mainly influenced by chemical composition and heat-treatment temperature. The grain sizes of BaSm0.3Fe11.7O19 ferrite nanofibers are in a nanoscale from 40 nm to 62 nm corresponding to the calcination temperature from 750 degrees C to 1050 derees C. The saturation magnetization of BaSm(x)Fe(12-x)O19 ferrite nanofiber calcined at 950 degrees C for 1 h initially decreases with the Sm content from 0 to 0.3 and then increases with a further Sm content, while the coercivity exhibits a continuous increase from 348 kA x m(-1) (x = 0) to 427 kA x m(-1) (x = 0.4). The differences of magnetic properties are attributed to lattice distortion and enhancement for the anisotropy energy.

  3. Portable PVS-02 spectrometer for transfer of the spectral radiance scale in the 0.4-2.5 μm range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Yu. V.; Rogovets, A. V.; Khomitsevich, A. D.; Tsikman, I. M.

    2010-11-01

    We describe selection of an optical layout and calculation of the spectral sensitivity and measurement uncertainty in a portable spectrometer. The spectrometer is used for transfer of the brightness scale in the 0.4-2.5 μm range from one brightness reference standard to another.

  4. Resistive switching characteristics of Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices constructed on plastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2012-07-01

    In this study, Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6Al devices are fabricated on plastic substrates using the sputtering method at room temperature. The ratio of O/S in the zinc oxysulfide thin film is confirmed to be 0.4/0.6 from the Auger depth profiling. The Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices show unipolar resistive switching behaviors and the ratio of the measured resistance in the low-resistance state (LRS) to that in the high-resistance state (HRS) is above 10(4). The conduction mechanism of the LRS is governed by Ohm's law. On the other hand, in the HRS, the conduction mechanism at low voltages is controlled by Ohm's law, but that at high voltages results from the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism. The Ohmic and Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanisms observed in the LRS and HRS support the filament model of unipolar resistive switching. The memory characteristics of the Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices are retained for 10(4) sec without any change.

  5. 2,445 Hours of Code: What I Learned from Facilitating Hour of Code Events in High School Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a school librarian's experience with initiating an Hour of Code event for her school's student body. Hadi Partovi of Code.org conceived the Hour of Code "to get ten million students to try one hour of computer science" (Partovi, 2013a), which is implemented during Computer Science Education Week with a goal of…

  6. Controlled synthesis and microwave absorption properties of Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/PANI composite via an in-situ polymerization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Ji, Guangbin; Zhang, Baoshan; Tang, Dongming; Yang, Yi; Du, Youwei

    2015-03-01

    The binary composites of conducting polyaniline (PANI) and nickle zinc ferrite were synthesized by an in-situ polymerization process, and the electromagnetic absorption properties of the composites were also investigated. The FT-IR spectra present the peaks of PANI (1562, 1481, 1301, 1109, and 799 cm-1) and the bonds of NiZn ferrite (579 and 390 cm-1), indicating the existence of both NiZn ferrite particles and PANI in the composites. With the increasing ratio of nickle zinc ferrite, the composites distributes in irregular compared with pure PANI and Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4. The TG curves of the pure PANI and PANI/Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 composites with different molar ratios clearly show the increase percentage of the ferrite in the composites. Furthermore, we found that the excellent electromagnetic absorption properties and wide absorption bandwidth can be achieved by adjusting proper molar ratios Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 to PANI. The maximum reflection loss of Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/PANI can reach to -41 dB at 12.8 GHz and the bandwidth exceeding -10 dB can reach to 5 GHz with the absorber thickness of 2.6 mm at the molar ratio of 1:2. This can be attributed to the enhancing magnetic loss and the better impedance matching. Therefore, Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/PANI ferrite composites can become a new kind of candidate in the field of the microwave absorbing.

  7. Investigation of Low Temperature Non-Linear Magnetization Behavior in Al and Ga - Substituted La0.4Bi0.6Mno3 Manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, Vijaylakshmi; v, Punith Kumar; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David; David C Jiles Team; Vijaylakshmi Dayal Collaboration

    Low temperature magnetization measurements have been carried out for the samples containing Al and Ga at B-site in La0.4Bi0.6MnO3 manganites. The magnetization (M) vs. T(K) data shows strong ferromagnetic behavior with highest magnetization of 6.45 emu/g for La0.4Bi0.6Mn0.95Al0.05O3 and 5.40 emu/g for La0.4Bi0.6Mn0.90Al0.1O3 samples respectively for an applied magnetic field of H =100 Oe at T =20 K. Similarly at T =20 K for La0.4Bi0.6Mn0.95Ga0.05O3 the highest magnetization (MS) was found to be 5.44 emu/g and for La0.4Bi0.6Mn0.90Ga0.1O3 the MS is 5.05 emu/g. The decrease in magnetization with both Al and Ga substitution produces magnetic dilution with increasing concentrations. Both Al and Ga substituted samples exhibit non-linear behavior in their magnetization (MNL) curves around 40 -120 K due to the frustrations arising from mismatch in their magnetic spin arrangements. The quantity non linear susceptibility, χNL = - MNL/H, diverges as the temperature approaches the frustrated region Tf from above (i.e.TC) . Further from dχNL/dT vs. T(K) plots and critical analysis with unusual critical exponent's γ and β gives an experimental evidence for the observed non linearity and magnetic frustration.

  8. Correlations of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in 8 hour and 24 hour urinary samples determined by dual column gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sjölin, K E; Nyholm, K K

    1980-05-01

    The correlations of beta-aminoisobutyric acid values in 8 hour and 24 hour urinary samples from 23 healthy persons were determined. beta-AIB in the 8 hour urinary samples was measured by gas chromatography and the 24 hour excretion was calculated from the results of three 8 hour determinations. Simultaneous determinations of urinary creatinine were performed by Jaffe's reaction. Based on the 8 hour values of urinary beta-AIB the results demonstrated a constant excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid within the 24 hour periods in both low and high excretors. The precision in distinguishing low and high 24 hour excretors of beta-AIB by using 8 hour values was 91%. If 8 hour values of beta-AIB were related to creatinine the same precision for this calculated ratio was 96.5%. However, for high excretors of beta-AIB, failures were 24.5% by using the 8 hour excretion of beta-AIB as indicator, but only 6.5% by using the ratio.

  9. Seasonal blood pressure changes: an independent relationship with temperature and daylight hours.

    PubMed

    Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Morabito, Marco; Massetti, Luciano; Rapi, Stefano; Orlandini, Simone; Mancia, Giuseppe; Gensini, Gian Franco; Parati, Gianfranco

    2013-04-01

    Seasonal blood pressure (BP) changes have been found to be related to either outdoor or indoor temperature. No information regarding the independent effects of temperature measured proximally to the patient, the personal-level environmental temperature (PET), is available. Inclusion of daylight hours in multivariate analysis might allow exploring the independent interaction of BP with seasonality. To investigate whether ambulatory BP monitoring is affected by PET or by seasonality, 1897 patients referred to our hypertension units underwent ambulatory BP monitoring with a battery-powered temperature data logger fitted to the carrying pouch of the monitor. Predictors of 24-hour daytime and nighttime BP and of morning BP surge were investigated with a multivariate stepwise regression model, including age, sex, body mass index, antihypertensive treatment, office BP, ambulatory heart rate, PET, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and daylight hours as independent variables. At adjusted regression analysis, daytime systolic BP was negatively related to PET (-0.14; 95% confidence interval, -0.25 to -0.02); nighttime BP was positively related to daylight hours (0.63; 0.37-0.90); and morning BP surge was negatively related to daylight hours (-0.54; -0.87 to -0.21). These results provide new evidence that PET and seasonality (daylight hours) are 2 independent predictors of ambulatory BP monitoring.

  10. Electrochemically influenced cation inter-diffusion and Co3O4 formation on La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 infiltrated into SOFC cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Xueyan; Lee, Shiwoo; Chen, Yun; ...

    2015-06-18

    Nanosized LSC electrocatalyst was infiltrated into a porous scaffold cathode composed of Sm2O3-doped CeO2 (SDC) and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) in a commercial button solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). To understand the stability of cathodes infiltrated with LSC, the infiltrated composite cells were subjected to both electrochemical operating and thermal aging states at 750 °C for 1500 h. Nanostructure and local chemistry evolution of La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 (LSC) infiltrated cathodes upon operation and aging were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. After operation, the LSC remained a cubic perovskite, and the crystal grains exhibit comparable size to as-infiltrated LSC grains. Inter-diffusion of Fe from themore » LSCF to a Fe-incorporated LSC layer developed on the LSCF backbone. However, only sharp interfaces were observed between LSC and SDC backbone in the as-infiltrated cathode and such interfaces remain after operation. The infiltrated LSC on the SDC backbone also retains granular particle morphology. Furthermore, newly grown Co3O4 nanocrystals were found in the operated cathode. After thermal aging, on the other hand, cation inter-diffusion across the interfaces of the infiltrate particles and the cathode backbones is less than that from the operated cells. Lastly, the following hypothesis is proposed: Co3O4 forms on LSC arising from local charge balancing between cobalt and oxygen vacancies.« less

  11. Twenty-four hour profiles of four hormones under constant routine.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, M; Ishibashi, K; Enomoto, T; Nakajima, T; Shibui, K; Hirokawa, G; Okawa, M

    1998-04-01

    We studied the circadian features of melatonin, cortisol, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and growth hormone (GH) together with rectal temperature during 36 h continuous forced wakefulness without physical exercise under dim light condition (constant routine). Subjects consisted of four healthy men aged 22-24 years. Blood sampling was conducted hourly, and food and water were supplied bi-hourly during the constant routine. Melatonin, TSH and cortisol displayed clear circadian rhythms under constant routine condition. While GH secretion was unlikely to be driven solely by the circadian pacemaker, its suppression round BT nadir may indicate that GH secretion was modulated to some extent by circadian rhythm.

  12. Effects of the association between a calcium hydroxide paste and 0.4% chlorhexidine on the development of the osteogenic phenotype in vitro.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Leonardo, Mário Roberto; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; de Castro, Larissa Moreira Spinola; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco

    2008-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether the association between a calcium hydroxide paste (Calen paste) and 0.4% chlorhexidine (CHX) affects the development of the osteogenic phenotype in vitro. With rat calvarial osteogenic cell cultures, the following parameters were assayed: cell morphology and viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, total protein content, bone sialoprotein immunolocalization, and mineralized nodule formation. Comparisons were carried out by using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test (level of significance, 5%). The results showed that the association between Calen paste and 0.4% CHX did not affect the development of the osteogenic phenotype. No significant changes were observed in terms of cell shape, cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and the total amount of bone-like nodule formation among control, Calen, or Calen + CHX groups. The strategy to combine Ca(OH)(2) and CHX to promote a desirable synergistic antibacterial effect during endodontic treatment in vivo might not significantly affect osteoblastic cell biology.

  13. Bulk Superconductivity in Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 Induced by Removal of Excess Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yue; Zhang, Shuo; Zhuang, Jincheng; Yuan, Feifei; Li, Xiong; Shi, Zhixiang; Yamada, Tatsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi

    2014-06-01

    Experimental evidences from transport, magnetic, and magneto-optical (MO) image measurements confirmed that arsenic (As) vapor annealing was another effective way to induce bulk superconductivity with isotropic, large, and homogenous superconducting critical current density (Jc) in Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal. Since As is an exotic and easily detectable heavy element to Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal, As vapor annealing is very advantageous for the study of annealing mechanism. Detailed micro-structural and elemental analyses exclude the possibility that intercalating or doping effect may happen in the other post-annealing methods, proving that Fe reacts with As on the surface of the crystal and the reaction itself acts as a driving force to drag excess Fe out. The removal of excess Fe results in the good superconductivity performance.

  14. Improvement in elastic properties of CuAl{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.6}O{sub 4} spinel ferrite by rapid thermal cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, K. B. Shah, S. J. Pathak, T. K. Vasoya, N. H. Lakhani, V. K.; Yahya, A. K.

    2014-04-24

    The elastic properties of spinel ferrite composition, CuAl{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.6}O{sub 4}, quenched from final sintering temperature of 1373 K to liquid nitrogen temperature (∼ 80K) have been studied by means of X-ray powder diffractometry and pulse echo-overlap technique (9 MHz) at 300 K. The magnitude of elastic constants is found to enhance by 15% compared to slowly-cooled counterpart. The observed mechanical strengthening has been discussed in the light of compressive stress on the surface, with tensile stresses at interior regions and corresponding changes in structural parameters. The B{sub o}/G{sub o} ratio indicates the brittle nature of CuAl{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.6}O{sub 4}.

  15. Microwave anneal effect on magnetic properties of Ni 0.6Zn 0.4Fe 2O 4 nano-particles prepared by conventional hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongzhu; Xie, Yanyu; Wang, Peihong; Ma, Yongqing; Jin, Shaowei; Liu, Xiansong

    2011-12-01

    Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferrite nano-particles with a crystallite size of about 20 nm were prepared by the conventional hydrothermal method, followed by annealing in a microwave oven for 7.5-15 min. The microstructure and magnetic properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The microwave annealing process has slight effect on the morphology and size of Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferrite nano-particles. However it reduces the lattice parameter and enhances the densification of the particles, and then greatly increases the saturation magnetization (50-56 emu/g) and coercive force of the samples as compared to the non-annealing condition. The microwave annealing process is an effective way to rapidly synthesize high performance ferrite nano-particle.

  16. Growth and interface engineering in thin-film Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 /SrMoO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radetinac, Aldin; Ziegler, Jürgen; Vafaee, Mehran; Alff, Lambert; Komissinskiy, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    Epitaxial heterostructures of ferroelectric Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 and highly conducting SrMoO3 were grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrates. Surface oxidation of the SrMoO3 film is suppressed using a thin cap interlayer of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3-δ grown in reduced atmosphere. As shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the Mo4+ valence state of the SrMoO3 films is stable upon annealing of the sample in oxygen up to 600 °C. The described oxygen interface engineering enables utilization of the highly conducting material SrMoO3 in multilayer oxide ferroelectric varactors.

  17. The energy band diagram and photovoltaic characteristic of nano p-AgInTe2/n-CdS{0.4}Se{0.6} heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Barry, A. M. A.

    2007-12-01

    Nano p-AgInTe{2}/n-CdS{0.4}Se{0.6} heterojunction was constructed. The dark current voltage characteristics of the prepared junction have been investigated in a temperature range from 303 to 423 K. The operating conduction mechanism was found to be Pool-Frenkel emission for T > 323 K and V < +0.8 volt. The supposed band diagram of p-AgInTe{2}/n-CdS{0.4}Se{0.6} heterojunction is exhibited. Analysis of the photovoltaic characteristic, at room temperature and under illumination of 2.7 W/m2, lead to the determination of some solar cell parameters, such as; the short circuit current, the open circuit voltage, the fill factor and the power conversion efficiency.

  18. Magnetic excitations of the charge stripe electrons below half doping in La2 -xSrxNiO4 (x = 0.45 , 0.4 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, P. G.; Giblin, S. R.; Hradil, K.; Mole, R. A.; Cermak, P.; Prabhakaran, D.

    2017-02-01

    The low energy magnetic excitation spectrum of charge stripe ordered La2 -xSrxNiO4 , x =0.4 and x =0.45 samples, were studied by neutron scattering. Two excitation modes are observed in both materials, one from the ordered magnetic moments, and a second mode consistent with pseudo-one-dimensional antiferromagnetic excitations of the charge stripe electrons (q-1D). The dispersion of the q-1D excitation follows the same relation as in x =1 /3 composition, with even spectral weight in the two counterpropagating branches of the x =0.4 sample, however in the x =0.45 sample only one dispersion branch has any measurable spectral weight. The evolution of the q-1D excitations on doping to the checkerboard charge ordered phase is discussed.

  19. One-step method to grow Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 single crystals without fluxing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlei; Gao, Zhaoshun; Yao, Chao; Wang, Lei; Qi, Yanpeng; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Xianping; Ma, Yanwei

    2011-06-01

    Single crystals of Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 have been successfully grown without using any fluxing agent through a simple one-step method. X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrate that they have high crystalline quality and c-axis orientation. The onset transition temperature is up to 38 K, while the zero resistivity temperature reaches 36.7 K. Both the R-T and M-T data show very sharp superconducting transitions and the transition width is about 0.4 K. We also found that the samples possess very large current carrying ability and high upper critical field, indicating potential applications requiring very high field. The above simple and safe one-step technique of single crystal growth can be effective in other systems of Fe-based superconductors.

  20. Angle-resolved environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: A new laboratory setup for photoemission studies at pressures up to 0.4 Torr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangolini, F.; Åhlund, J.; Wabiszewski, G. E.; Adiga, V. P.; Egberts, P.; Streller, F.; Backlund, K.; Karlsson, P. G.; Wannberg, B.; Carpick, R. W.

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents the development and demonstrates the capabilities of a new laboratory-based environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system incorporating an electrostatic lens and able to acquire spectra up to 0.4 Torr. The incorporation of a two-dimensional detector provides imaging capabilities and allows the acquisition of angle-resolved data in parallel mode over an angular range of 14° without tilting the sample. The sensitivity and energy resolution of the spectrometer have been investigated by analyzing a standard Ag foil both under high vacuum (10-8 Torr) conditions and at elevated pressures of N2 (0.4 Torr). The possibility of acquiring angle-resolved data at different pressures has been demonstrated by analyzing a silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO2) sample. The collected angle-resolved spectra could be effectively used for the determination of the thickness of the native silicon oxide layer.

  1. Unexpected magnetism, Griffiths phase, and exchange bias in the mixed lanthanide Pr0.6Er0.4Al2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Paudyal, D.; Jayasekara, W. T.; Calder, S.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A. I.; Gschneidner, K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2014-06-01

    We report an unusual coexistence of ferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism, and metamagnetism in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. In addition, this compound retains a clear Griffiths phase behavior even at 1 kOe magnetic field and shows a large exchange bias after field cooling from the paramagnetic state. The crystal-field excitations and opposite exchange interactions between nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor rare earth sites explain these behaviors.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Ni0.5Zn0.4Cu0.1Fe2O4 as a magnetic feeder for electromagnetic transmitter application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie, Afza; Pransisco, Prengki; Guan, Beh Hoe; Annur, Robithoh

    2016-11-01

    Material ferrites with composition Ni0.5Zn0.4Cu0.1Fe2O4 has been successfully synthesized through sol gel method in difference calcination temperature 600 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C respectively. The temperatures calcination of the material was obtained from thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) results. Phase and crystallite size of material were investigated using X-Ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructure, shape and distribution particles of Ni0.5Zn0.4Cu0.1Fe2O4 were examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Magnetic properties were investigated using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Initial permeability and magnetic loss factor were examined by impedance analyzer. Computer simulation technique (CST) was used to simulate electromagnetic transmitter (antenna) with magnetic feeder. The thermo-gravimetric analysis result shows that the total weight loss of Ni0.5Zn0.4Cu0.1Fe2O4 was completed at temperature 572 °C. XRD result shows single phase and no secondary phase was detected and it has a variation of crystallite size in the range of 0.2 to 1.3 nm. The HRTEM result exhibits microstructure particle in interval value of 46-89 nm with agglomeration shape. The highest magnetic saturation was founded at highest calcination temperature 900 °C. The Initial permeability and relative loss factor of the material were 187 and 0.03 respectively. Electromagnetic transmitter with magnetic feeder Ni0.5Zn0.4Cu0.1Fe2O4 exhibits magnitude of magnetic field 1.03×10-6 tesla, which is higher as compared to the transmitter without magnetic feeder with magnitude magnetic field 8.4×10-14 Tesla.

  3. Detection of gamma-ray emission in the region of the supernova remnants G296.5+10.0 and G166.0+4.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    52 months of accumulated observations by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnants G296.5+10.0 (PKS 1209-51/52) and G166.0+4.3 (VRO 42.05.01) are analysed. GeV emission is detected coincident with the position of the sources at the ≃5σ and 11σ levels above the background, respectively, for the best-fitting spectral and spatial scenarios. The gamma-ray spectrum of the sources can be described with a power law in energy. G166.0+4.3 shows a soft GeV spectrum while that of G296.5+10.0 is flat (in the νFν representation). The origin of the gamma-ray emission from the sources is explored. Both leptonic and hadronic mechanisms can account for the high-energy emission from G296.5+10.0, while a leptonic scenario is preferred for G166.0+4.3.

  4. The Evaluation of Hydroxyethyl Starch (6% HES 130/0.4) Solution’s Potential Preventive Effects on Coagulation Status in Women with Gynecologic Malignancies Using Rotation Thromboelastography

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Meltem Olga; Bilir, Ayten; Öge, Tufan; Kuş, Gökhan; Mutlu, Fezan Şahin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of in vitro hemodilution with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 solution on the coagulation status of women with gynecologic malignancies by using rotation thromboelastogram (ROTEM®). Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients with gynecological tumors scheduled for anesthesia were enrolled. Blood samples were diluted by 20% with 6% HES (130/0.4) solution. Results: In the INTEM assay, clotting time (CT) (p<0.01) and clot formation time (CFT) (p<0.001) were significantly increased and maximum maximum clot formation (MCF) (p< 0.001) was significantly decreased in HES hemodilution compared with the undiluted control samples. In the EXTEM assay, there was a similar significant increase in increase in CFT (p<0.01) and a decrease in maximum a decrease in MCF (p<0.01) in HES hemodilution when compared with control samples. Conclusion: HES 130/0.4 solution causes significant hypocoagulable changes in the thromboelastographic profile of gynecologic cancer patients in vitro. PMID:25330518

  5. Spin fluctuations in Sr1.6Ba0.4RuO4 : An inelastic neutron scattering study with polarization analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. W.; Guo, H.; Liu, C.-F.; Bourdarot, F.; Schmidt, W.; Skoulatos, M.; Komarek, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present inelastic neutron scattering measurements on the ruthenate Sr1.6Ba0.4RuO4 which is on the hitherto almost unknown Ba-substituted side of the doping phase diagram of Sr2 -xAexRuO4 (Ae = Ca, Ba). Unlike the Ca-substituted side of the phase diagram no (quasi)static magnetic peaks can be observed in Sr1.6Ba0.4RuO4 . Instead, incommensurate spin fluctuations can be observed around q0=(±0.3 ,±0.3 ,0 ) . Both the absolute intensity of χ''(Q ,ω ) and its energy and temperature dependence as well as the anisotropy ratio χc''/χa,b '' resemble the ones in Sr2RuO4 . Hence, a random potential implied by the substitution of huge Ba ions as well as the induced increase of interatomic distances has less impact on the magnetic properties than octahedral tilts implied by Ca substitution. Moreover, any ferromagnetic spin fluctuations are either absent in Sr1.6Ba0.4RuO4 or below the detection limit.

  6. Evaluation of a twelve-hour/day shift schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.

    1986-06-18

    In April 1985, the operating crews at the Fast Flux Test Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8-hour to a 12-hour a day work schedule. The primary purpose of the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. A program was established to evaluate the effects on plant performance, operator alertness, attrition, sleep, health, job satisfaction, and off-the-job satisfaction. Preliminary results from that evaluation program indicate that the 12-hour shift schedule is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility.

  7. Migration plans and hours of work in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Gillin, E D; Sumner, D A

    1985-01-01

    "This article describes characteristics of prospective migrants in the Malaysian Family Life Survey and investigates how planning to move affects hours of work. [The authors] use ideas about intertemporal substitution...to discuss the response to temporary and permanent wage expectations on the part of potential migrants. [An] econometric section presents reduced-form estimates for wage rates and planned migration equations and two-stage least squares estimates for hours of work. Men currently planning a move were found to work fewer hours. Those originally planning only a temporary stay at their current location work more hours."

  8. Maternal Work Hours and Adolescents’ School Outcomes Among Low-Income Families in Four Urban Counties

    PubMed Central

    GENNETIAN, LISA A.; LOPOO, LEONARD M.; LONDON, ANDREW S.

    2008-01-01

    We examine how changes in maternal work hours affect adolescent children’s school participation and performance outcomes using data from interviews in 1998 and 2001 with approximately 1,700 women who, in May 1995, were welfare-reliant, single mothers of adolescents living in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty in Cuyahoga (Cleveland), Los Angeles, Miami-Dade, and Philadelphia counties. Analyses control for a broad array of mothers’ characteristics, including their psychological and physical health, experiences with domestic violence and substance abuse, as well as unobserved time-invariant characteristics. In fixed-effects models, we find unfavorable effects of increased maternal work hours on three of six outcomes: skipping school, performing above average, and parental contact about behavior problems. Adolescent-aged sons seem to be particularly sensitive to changes in mothers’ hours of work. PMID:18390290

  9. Number of Instructional Days/Hours in the School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    While state requirements vary on the number of instructional days and/or hours in the school year, the majority of states require 180 days of student instruction. Most also specify the minimum length of time that constitutes an instructional day. Some states set instructional time in terms of days, some specify hours, and some provide…

  10. Teaching Even 100 Hours a Week Leaves Children behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleibermann, Erik

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares that despite all the efforts he puts in his teaching, 30 percent of his 150 students still fail. However, when he calculate the needed hours to appropriately cover all the needs of his students, he realized that even 100 hours of teaching each week is not enough to have all his students succeed. The author…

  11. Estimating Software Effort Hours for Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallshein, Corinne C.

    2010-01-01

    Software Cost Estimation (SCE) uses labor hours or effort required to conceptualize, develop, integrate, test, field, or maintain program components. Department of Defense (DoD) SCE can use initial software data parameters to project effort hours for large, software-intensive programs for contractors reporting the top levels of process maturity,…

  12. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  13. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  14. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  15. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  16. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  17. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  18. 21 CFR 1316.45 - Filings; address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filings; address; hours. 1316.45 Section 1316.45 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.45 Filings; address; hours. Documents required...

  19. Night Owl: Maryland's After-Hours Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Deborah C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses "Night Owl," a Maryland public library's after hours telephone reference service. Issues include project start-up, user profiles, types of questions, volume, after hours reference accessibility, security, costs, service limits, publicity, staffing, and employee turnover. Similar services in other states are cited. (Contains six…

  20. 49 CFR 228.7 - Hours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hours of duty. 228.7 Section 228.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Records...

  1. 49 CFR 228.7 - Hours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hours of duty. 228.7 Section 228.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Records...

  2. 49 CFR 228.7 - Hours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hours of duty. 228.7 Section 228.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Records...

  3. Fun Hour: A Social Program for Kids with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes Fun Hour, a social program for kids with disabilities. This YMCA program in Pennsylvania focuses on social interaction and peer relationships. The Fun Hour program started in March 2006 on Friday nights with 20 kids and their families. It has celebrated its first anniversary, and the kids that have been in the…

  4. 29 CFR 2530.200b-2 - Hour of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1), (2) and (3) of this section. The employer may round up hours at the end of a computation... each hour for which back pay, irrespective of mitigation of damages, is either awarded or agreed to by... receives a back pay award following a determination that he or she was paid at an unlawful rate for...

  5. 29 CFR 2530.200b-2 - Hour of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1), (2) and (3) of this section. The employer may round up hours at the end of a computation... each hour for which back pay, irrespective of mitigation of damages, is either awarded or agreed to by... receives a back pay award following a determination that he or she was paid at an unlawful rate for...

  6. (Updated) Fort Detrick Gate Hours Change Effective April 10 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Fort Detrick gate hours will change beginning Friday, April 10. The new hours were recently provided by the U.S. Army Garrison (USAG), Fort Detrick. NCI will continue to work with the USAG to address questions that may arise. Note that no changes have been made for facilities outside of the Fort Detrick campus (e.g., the Advanced Technology Research Facility).

  7. Is the Professor In? Faculty Presence during Office Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfund, Rory A.; Rogan, Jessica D.; Burnham, Bryan R.; Norcross, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were conducted on the availability of full-time faculty during their posted office hours. In the first, we surveyed students and faculty at a single university on their estimates of the percentage of faculty present during office hours. Students ("N" = 380) and faculty ("N" = 176) estimated that 77% and 83% of…

  8. 47 CFR 87.423 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hours of operation. 87.423 Section 87.423 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.423 Hours of operation. The control tower must render a...

  9. 47 CFR 87.423 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hours of operation. 87.423 Section 87.423 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.423 Hours of operation. The control tower must render a...

  10. 47 CFR 87.423 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hours of operation. 87.423 Section 87.423 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.423 Hours of operation. The control tower must render a...

  11. 47 CFR 87.423 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hours of operation. 87.423 Section 87.423 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.423 Hours of operation. The control tower must render a...

  12. 47 CFR 87.423 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hours of operation. 87.423 Section 87.423 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.423 Hours of operation. The control tower must render a...

  13. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules...

  14. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours....

  15. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of...

  16. 17 CFR 171.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business address; hours. 171.3 Section 171.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO... MEMBER RESPONSIBILITY ACTIONS General Provisions § 171.3 Business address; hours. The principal office...

  17. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials identified in...

  18. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of...

  19. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of...

  20. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in...

  1. 17 CFR 10.4 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business address; hours. 10.4 Section 10.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.4 Business address; hours. The Office of Proceedings is located at Three...

  2. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours....

  3. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours....

  4. 17 CFR 10.4 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business address; hours. 10.4 Section 10.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.4 Business address; hours. The Office of Proceedings is located at Three...

  5. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules...

  6. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules...

  7. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials identified in...

  8. The 1973 dust storm on Mars: Maps from hourly photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The hourly progress of the 1973 major Martian storm was mapped using photographic images from the International Planetary Patrol. Two series of 20 daily maps show the semi-hourly positions of the storm brightenings in red light and blue light. The maps indicate that the 1973 storm had many similarities to the 1971 storm.

  9. Workweeks of 41 Hours or More and Premium Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The survey conducted in May, 1975 by the Bureau of Census showed that both the number of employees working more than the standard 40-hour workweek and the number receiving premium pay for hours in excess of the standard were substantially fewer than in the previous year. About 14.1 million wage and salary employees worked overtime in May, 1975…

  10. Hour-glass ceilings: Work-hour thresholds, gendered health inequities.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Huong; Strazdins, Lyndall; Welsh, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Long workhours erode health, which the setting of maximum weekly hours aims to avert. This 48-h limit, and the evidence base to support it, has evolved from a workforce that was largely male, whose time in the labour force was enabled by women's domestic work and care giving. The gender composition of the workforce has now changed, and many women (as well as some men) combine care-giving with paid work, a change viewed as fundamental for gender equality. However, it raises questions on the suitability of the work time limit and the extent it is protective of health. We estimate workhour-mental health thresholds, testing if they vary for men and women due to gendered workloads and constraints on and off the job. Using six waves of data from a nationally representative sample of Australian adults (24-65 years), surveyed in the Household Income Labour Dynamics of Australia Survey (N = 3828 men; 4062 women), our study uses a longitudinal, simultaneous equation approach to address endogeneity. Averaging over the sample, we find an overall threshold of 39 h per week beyond which mental health declines. Separate curves then estimate thresholds for men and women, by high or low care and domestic time constraints, using stratified and pooled samples. We find gendered workhour-health limits (43.5 for men, 38 for women) which widen further once differences in resources on and off the job are considered. Only when time is 'unencumbered' and similar time constraints and contexts are assumed, do gender gaps narrow and thresholds approximate the 48-h limit. Our study reveals limits to contemporary workhour regulation which may be systematically disadvantaging women's health.

  11. Study of magnetic transition and magnetic entropy changes of Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 and Pr0.6Sr0.4Mn0.9Fe0.1O3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasri, Abir.; Hlil, E. K.; Lehlooh, A.-F.; Ellouze, M.; Elhalouani, F.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we analyze the magnetic transition and magnetic entropy change \\vertΔ SM\\vert of Pr0.6Sr0.4Mn1- x Fe x O3 samples. Using Arrott plots, we report that the phase transition for Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 sample is of second order, while the Pr0.6Sr0.4Mn0.9Fe0.1O3 sample exhibits a first-order magnetic phase transition. From the magnetization measurements at temperature close to the Curie temperature, the magnetic entropy change, \\vertΔ SM\\vert and the Relative Cooling Power (RCP) have been estimated. The maximum of magnetic entropy change \\vertΔ S_M^{max}\\vert reaches, under an applied magnetic field of 5T, 3.58 and 3.66J/kg K for Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 and Pr0.6Sr0.4Mn0.9Fe0.1O3, respectively. The RCP values have been estimated to 159.37 and 223.52J/kg. For both samples, the \\vertΔ SM\\vert values evaluated using the Maxwell theory were found in accordance with those calculated by the Landau theory.

  12. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and thermo-chemical stability of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, M.; Hashimoto, S.; Sato, K.; Yashiro, K.; Mizusaki, J.

    2013-01-15

    The oxygen nonstoichiometry of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} has been the topic of various reports in the literature, but has been exclusively measured at high oxygen partial pressures, pO{sub 2}, and/or elevated temperatures. For applications of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}}, such as solid oxide fuel cell cathodes or oxygen permeation membranes, knowledge of the oxygen nonstoichiometry and thermo-chemical stability over a wide range of pO{sub 2} is crucial, as localized low pO{sub 2} could trigger failure of the material and device. By employing coulometric titration combined with thermogravimetry, the oxygen nonstoichiometry of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} was measured at high and intermediate pO{sub 2} until the material decomposed (at log(pO{sub 2}/bar) Almost-Equal-To -4.5 at 1073 K). For a gradually reduced sample, an offset in oxygen content suggests that La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} forms a 'super-reduced' solid solution before decomposing. When the sample underwent alternate reduction-oxidation, a hysteresis-like pO{sub 2} dependence of the oxygen content in the decomposition pO{sub 2} range was attributed to the reversible formation of ABO{sub 3} and A{sub 2}BO{sub 4} phases. Reduction enthalpy and entropy were determined for the single-phase region and confirmed interpolated values from the literature. - Graphical abstract: Oxygen nonstoichiometry (shown as 3-{delta}) of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of pO{sub 2} at 773-1173 K. The experimental data were obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and coulometric titration (measured either by a simple reduction (CT1) or a 'two-step-forward one-step-back' reduction-oxidation (CT2) procedure). D1 and D2 denote the decomposition pO{sub 2}. The solid lines are the fit to the thermogravimetry and CT1 data. The dashed lines represent the non-equilibrium region where the sample shows a super-reduced state. Highlights: Black

  13. Twenty four hour pulse pressure predicts long term recurrence in acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsivgoulis, G; Spengos, K; Zakopoulos, N; Manios, E; Xinos, K; Vassilopoulos, D; Vemmos, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The impact of different blood pressure (BP) components during the acute stage of stroke on the risk of recurrent stroke is controversial. The present study aimed to investigate by 24 hour BP monitoring a possible association between acute BP values and long term recurrence. Methods: A total of 339 consecutive patients with first ever acute stroke underwent 24 hour BP monitoring within 24 hours of ictus. Known stroke risk factors and clinical findings on admission were documented. Patients given antihypertensive medication during BP monitoring were excluded. The outcome of interest during the one year follow up was recurrent stroke. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyse association of casual and 24 hour BP recordings with one year recurrence after adjusting for stroke risk factors, baseline clinical characteristics, and secondary prevention therapies. Results: The cumulative one year recurrence rate was 9.2% (95% CI 5.9% to 12.3%). Multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed age, diabetes mellitus, and 24 hour pulse pressure (PP) as the only significant predictors for stroke recurrence. The relative risk for one year recurrence associated with every 10 mm Hg increase in 24 hour PP was 1.323 (95% CI 1.019 to 1.718, p = 0.036). Higher casual PP levels were significantly related to an increased risk of one year recurrence on univariate analysis, but not in the multivariate Cox regression model. Conclusions: Elevated 24 hour PP levels in patients with acute stroke are independently associated with higher risk of long term recurrence. Further research is required to investigate whether the risk of recurrent stroke can be reduced to a greater extent by decreasing the pulsatile component of BP in patients with acute stroke. PMID:16170077

  14. Time spent sitting during and outside working hours in bus drivers: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J.; Biddle, Stuart J.H.; Clemes, Stacy A.

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional pilot study objectively measured sedentary and non-sedentary time in a sample of bus drivers from the East Midlands, United Kingdom. Participants wore an activPAL3 inclinometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary. Driver's blood pressure, heart rate, waist circumference and body composition were measured objectively at the outset. The proportions of time spent sedentary and non-sedentary were calculated during waking hours on workdays and non-workdays and during working-hours and non-working-hours on workdays. 28 (85% of those enrolled into the study) provided valid objective monitoring data (89.3% male, [median ± IQR] age: 45.2 ± 12.8 years, BMI 28.1 ± 5.8 kg/m2). A greater proportion of time was spent sitting on workdays than non-workdays (75% [724 ± 112 min/day] vs. 62% [528 ± 151 min/day]; p < 0.001), and during working-hours than non-working-hours (83% [417 ± 88 min/day] vs. 68% [307 ± 64 min/day]; p < 0.001) on workdays. Drivers spent less than 3% of their overall time stepping. Bus drivers accumulate high levels of sitting time during working-hours and outside working-hours. Interventions are urgently needed in this at-risk group, which should focus on reducing sitting and increasing movement during breaks and increasing physical activity during leisure time to improve cardiovascular health. PMID:26844184

  15. Time spent sitting during and outside working hours in bus drivers: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J; Biddle, Stuart J H; Clemes, Stacy A

    2016-06-01

    This cross-sectional pilot study objectively measured sedentary and non-sedentary time in a sample of bus drivers from the East Midlands, United Kingdom. Participants wore an activPAL3 inclinometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary. Driver's blood pressure, heart rate, waist circumference and body composition were measured objectively at the outset. The proportions of time spent sedentary and non-sedentary were calculated during waking hours on workdays and non-workdays and during working-hours and non-working-hours on workdays. 28 (85% of those enrolled into the study) provided valid objective monitoring data (89.3% male, [median ± IQR] age: 45.2 ± 12.8 years, BMI 28.1 ± 5.8 kg/m(2)). A greater proportion of time was spent sitting on workdays than non-workdays (75% [724 ± 112 min/day] vs. 62% [528 ± 151 min/day]; p < 0.001), and during working-hours than non-working-hours (83% [417 ± 88 min/day] vs. 68% [307 ± 64 min/day]; p < 0.001) on workdays. Drivers spent less than 3% of their overall time stepping. Bus drivers accumulate high levels of sitting time during working-hours and outside working-hours. Interventions are urgently needed in this at-risk group, which should focus on reducing sitting and increasing movement during breaks and increasing physical activity during leisure time to improve cardiovascular health.

  16. The crossover effect of spouses’ long working hours on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation

    PubMed Central

    YOON, Jin-Ha; KANG, Mo-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    To examine the association between spouses’ weekly working hours (SWWH) and psychological symptoms such as depressive symptom and suicidal ideation. We used data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2012). We collected information about general characteristics, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and working hours. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, a sample of 8,056 house units was used for analysis. A multiple logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between SWWH and depressive symptoms, as well as suicidal ideation, to estimate the odds ratio (OR). The relationship between SWWH and psychological symptoms were linear in husbands, and J-shaped in wives. ORs for husbands’ depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation increased according to increase in SWWH (p-values for trend were 0.0045 and <0.001, respectively). Crude ORs for wives’ depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation decreased until SWWH of 40 to 49 hours, but increased after SWWH of 40 to 49 hours (all p-values were below 0.01). Similar trends were observed after adjustment for age, obesity, household income, and one’s own weekly working hours, up to 1.33 and 1.57 in husbands, and 1.29 and 1.32 in wives, respectively. SWWH is negatively associated with mental health. PMID:27052574

  17. Spatial characteristics of extreme rainfall over China with hourly through 24-hour accumulation periods based on national-level hourly rain gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yongguang; Xue, Ming; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiong; Tao, Zuyu

    2016-11-01

    Hourly rainfall measurements of 1919 national-level meteorological stations from 1981 through 2012 are used to document, for the first time, the climatology of extreme rainfall in hourly through 24-h accumulation periods in China. Rainfall amounts for 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-h periods at each station are constructed through running accumulation from hourly rainfall data that have been screened by proper quality control procedures. For each station and for each accumulation period, the historical maximum is found, and the corresponding 50-year return values are estimated using generalized extreme value theory. Based on the percentiles of the two types of extreme rainfall values among all the stations, standard thresholds separating Grade I, Grade II and Grade III extreme rainfall are established, which roughly correspond to the 70th and 90th percentiles for each of the accumulation periods. The spatial characteristics of the two types of extreme rainfall are then examined for different accumulation periods. The spatial distributions of extreme rainfall in hourly through 6-h periods are more similar than those of 12- and 24-h periods. Grade III rainfall is mostly found over South China, the western Sichuan Basin, along the southern and eastern coastlines, and in the large river basins and plains. There are similar numbers of stations with Grade III extreme hourly rainfall north and south of 30°N, but the percentage increases to about 70% south of 30°N as the accumulation period increases to 24 hours, reflecting richer moisture and more prolonged rain events in southern China. Potential applications of the extreme rainfall climatology and classification standards are suggested at the end.

  18. Thermoelectric and mechanical properties of multi-wall carbon nanotube doped Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 thermoelectric material

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fei; Wang, Hsin; Menchhofer, Paul A; Kiggans, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Since many thermoelectrics are brittle in nature with low mechanical strength, improving their mechanical properties is important in fabrication of devices such as thermoelectric power generators and coolers. In this work, multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated into polycrystalline Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 through powder processing, which increased the flexural strength from 32 MPa to 90 MPa. Electrical and thermal conductivities were both reduced in the CNT containing materials, leading to unchanged figure of merit. Dynamic Young s modulus and shear modulus of the composites were lower than the base material, which is likely related to the grain boundary scattering due to the CNTs.

  19. Evidence for multi-gap symmetry from grain boundary effects in polycrystalline {{Ba}}_{0.6}{{\\rm{K}}}_{0.4}{{Fe}}_{2}{{As}}_{2} microbridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Zhou, Xian-Jing; Gao, Zhao-Shun; Wu, Hao; He, Ge; Yuan, Jie; Jin, Kui; Pereira, Paulo J.; Ji, Min; An, De-Yue; Li, Jun; Hatano, Takeshi; Jin, Biao-Bing; Wang, Hua-Bing; Wu, Pei-Heng

    2017-01-01

    We studied the grain boundaries within mechanically formed polycrystalline Ba{}0.6K{}0.4Fe2As2 micro-bridges. By tunneling current across grain boundaries, current-voltage characteristics (IVCs) demonstrated the typical Josephson weak links behavior in micro-bridges. Shapiro steps were observed for the junctions under the microwave radiation at 10 GHz. The temperature dependence of the critical current I c was observed as a shoulder, corresponding to a multi-gap symmetry but not a single-gap s-wave or d-wave.

  20. Significant enhancement in energy density of polymer composites induced by dopamine-modified Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu; Shen, Yang; Hu, Penghao; Lin, Yuanhua; Li, Ming; Nan, C. W.

    2012-10-01

    Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) nanofibers prepared via electrospinning and modified by dopamine are used as dielectric fillers in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based composites. With 4.4 vol. % of BST nanofibers, the extractable energy density of the BST/PVDF composites is more than doubled as compared with pure PVDF matrix. Such significant enhancement is attributed to the combined effect of both surface modification by dopamine and large aspect ratio of the BST nanofibers. Paraelectric or anti-ferroelectric fillers of large aspect ratio may serve as a general strategy for enhanced electric energy density in polymer composites.

  1. Measurements of electron-proton elastic cross sections for 0.4 < Q{sup 2} < 5.5 (GeV/c){sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Christy; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Christopher Armstrong; John Arrington; Razmik Asaturyan; Steven Avery; O. Baker; Douglas Beck; Henk Blok; C.W.Bochna; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Maurice Bouwhuis; Herbert Breuer; D.S.Brown; Antje Bruell; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cochran; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; B.Fox; Liping Gan; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Garrow; David Gaskell; Ashot Gasparian; Don Geesaman; Paul Gueye; Mark Harvey; Roy Holt; Xiaodong Jiang; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; Yongguang Liang; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; J.W.Martin; Kevin McIlhany; Daniella Mckee; David Meekins; M.A.Miller; Richard Milner; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Robert Mueller; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Thomas O'neill; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Buz Piercey; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Joerg Reinhold; E.Rollinde; Philip Roos; Adam Sarty; Reyad Sawafta; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; C.Smith; Stepan Stepanyan; Steffen Strauch; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Raphael Tieulent; Alicia Uzzle; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Feng Xiong; Lulin Yuan; Markus Zeier; Benedikt Zihlmann; Vitaliy Ziskin

    2004-01-01

    We report on precision measurements of the elastic cross section for electron-proton scattering performed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The measurements were made at 28 unique kinematic settings covering a range in momentum transfer of 0.4 < Q{sup 2} < 5.5 (/rm GeV/c){sup 2}. These measurements represent a significant contribution to the world's cross section data set in the Q{sup 2} range where a large discrepancy currently exists between the ratio of electric to magnetic proton form factors extracted from previous cross section measurements and that recently measured via polarization transfer in Hall A at Jefferson Lab.

  2. Structure and substructure analysis of DAFT/FADA galaxy clusters in the [0.4–0.9] redshift range

    SciTech Connect

    Guennou, L.; et al.

    2014-01-17

    Context. The DAFT/FADA survey is based on the study of ~90 rich(masses found in the literature >2 x 10^14 M_⊙)and moderately distant clusters (redshifts 0.4 < z < 0.9), all withHST imaging data available. This survey has two main objectives: to constrain dark energy(DE) using weak lensing tomography on galaxy clusters and to build a database (deepmulti-band imaging allowing photometric redshift estimates, spectroscopic data, X-raydata) of rich distant clusters to study their properties.

  3. Development of two supercritical airfoils with a thickness-to-chord ratio of 0.20 and design lift coefficients of 0.3 and 0.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernell, L. S.

    1976-01-01

    Two supercritical airfoils were developed specifically for application to span distributed loading cargo aircraft. These airfoils have a thickness-to-chord ratio of 0.20 and design lift coefficients of 0.3 and 0.4, and were derived by modifying a recently developed supercritical airfoil having a thickness-to-chord ratio of 0.18 and a design lift coefficient of 0.5. The aerodynamic characteristics were calculated using a theoretical method which computes the flow field about an airfoil having supercritical surface velocities.

  4. Relation between oxygen stoichiometry and thermodynamic properties and the electronic structure of nonstoichiometric perovskite La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ.

    PubMed

    Bychkov, S F; Sokolov, A G; Popov, M P; Nemudry, A P

    2016-10-26

    Continuous phase diagram 3 - δ - log pO2 - T of the nonstoichiometric perovskite La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ was obtained in a gas flow reactor by means of the quasi-equilibrium oxygen release technique. The thermodynamic properties of oxides were determined as a function of oxygen nonstoichiometry. Within the framework of the itinerant electron model, the dependence of the oxide nonstoichiometry on the oxygen activity was related to the density of electronic states near the Fermi level.

  5. Effect of jump length of electrons on the physical properties of Mn-doped Co 0.6Zn 0.4Fe 2O 4 ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Saadawy, M.; Barakat, M. M.

    2000-05-01

    The system Co 0.6Zn 0.4Mn xFe 2- xO 4 was prepared by the general ceramic method. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the spinel cubic structure. The dielectric constant, electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility were studied as a function of the jump length of electrons at the B sites of the above compositions. The increase of the jump length of electrons increase the electrical conductivity, dielectric constant and magnetic susceptibility which confirms that the jumping of electrons is predominant in the electrical behavior of ferrites.

  6. Coexistence of, and Competition between, Superconductivity and Charge-Stripe Order in La1.6-xNd0.4SrxCuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, J. M.; Axe, J. D.; Ichikawa, N.; Moodenbaugh, A. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Uchida, S.

    1997-01-01

    Previously we have presented evidence for stripe order of holes and spins in La1.6-xNd0.4SrxCuO4 with x = 0.12. Here we show, via neutron diffraction measurements of magnetic scattering, that similar order occurs in crystals with x = 0.15 and 0.20. Zero-field-cooled magnetization measurements show that all three compositions are also superconducting, with the superconducting transition temperature increasing as the low-temperature staggered magnetization decreases. These results directly demonstrate an intimate connection between stripe correlations and superconductivity.

  7. Hard X-ray diffraction study of charge stripe order in La1.48Nd0.4Sr0.12CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, M. v.; Vigliante, A.; Niemöller, T.; Ichikawa, N.; Frello, T.; Madsen, J.; Wochner, P.; Uchida, S.; Andersen, N. H.; Tranquada, J. M.; Gibbs, D.; Schneider, J. R.

    1998-03-01

    High-energy photon diffraction is used to investigate the charge ordering previously studied by neutron diffraction in La1.48Nd0.4Sr0.12CuO4. Besides confirming the existence of superlattice peaks due to charge order, the temperature dependence of the peak intensity, width, and position has been determined with improved precision. Furthermore, we show that the scattered intensity has a sinusoidial modulation along c*, consistent with long-range Coulomb interactions between ordered charges within the CuO2 planes.

  8. Chalcohalide glasses: The effect of covalent versus ionic bonding in (CuI)0.6(Sb2Se3)0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Philip S.; Xin, Shuqin

    2002-02-01

    The Cu-Cu partial structure factor and related difference functions were measured for the four-component chalcohalide glass (CuI)0.6(Sb2Se3)0.4 by using the method of isotopic substitution in neutron diffraction. The Cu-Cu nearest-neighbors reside at a large distance of 4.06(3) Å, by contrast with metal chalcogenide glasses of high modifier content, and the corresponding coordination number is 1.9(3). Local structural motifs centered on Cu and Sb are deduced using a scheme where there is exclusive heteropolar bonding but where Cu-Sb and Se-I contacts are disallowed.

  9. Far-Infrared Photometry with an 0.4-Meter Liquid Helium Cooled Balloon-Borne Telescope. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    A 0.4-meter aperture, liquid helium cooled multichannel far-infrared balloon-borne telescope was constructed to survey the galactic plane. Nine new sources, above a 3-sigma confidence level of 1300 Jy, were identified. Although two-thirds of the scanned area was more than 10 degrees from the galactic plane, no sources were detected in that region; all nine fell within 10 degrees and eight of those within 4 degrees of the galactic equator. Correlations with visible, compact H lines associated with radio continuum and with sources displaying spectra steeply rising between 11 and 20 microns were noted, while stellar objects were not detected.

  10. Effect of calcium-deficiency upon physical properties of La0.6Ca0.4MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walha, I.; Cheikh-Rouhou, A.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.

    2006-09-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of the calcium-defect La0.6Ca0.4-xxMnO3 (0 x 0.2) perovskite manganites have been investigated. Our powder samples have been prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique at high temperature. Rietveld analysis show that all our synthesized samples crystallize in the orthorhombic perovskite structure with Pnma space group. The Mn atom is coordinated by six oxygen atoms forming an irregular octahedron. With decreasing Ca content the unit cell volume increases. Magnetic measurements as a function of temperature show that all our samples exhibit a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition with decreasing temperature.

  11. 34 CFR 668.9 - Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title IV, HEA program assistance. 668.9 Section 668.9 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 668.9 Relationship between...

  12. 34 CFR 668.9 - Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title IV, HEA program assistance. 668.9 Section 668.9 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 668.9 Relationship between...

  13. 34 CFR 668.9 - Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title IV, HEA program assistance. 668.9 Section 668.9 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 668.9 Relationship between...

  14. 34 CFR 668.9 - Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title IV, HEA program assistance. 668.9 Section 668.9 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 668.9 Relationship between...

  15. 34 CFR 668.9 - Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title IV, HEA program assistance. 668.9 Section 668.9 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 668.9 Relationship between...

  16. Report of 1,000 Hour Catalyst Longevity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Ginosar

    2009-06-01

    This report presents the results of a 1,000 hour, high-pressure, catalyst longevity test for the decomposition of concentrated sulfuric acid. The reaction is used for both the sulfur-iodine (S-I) cycle and hybrid sulfur cycle. By the time of the delivery date of April 17, 2009, for project milestone no. 2NIN07TC050114, the 1% Pt/TiO2 catalyst had been in the reaction environment for 658 hours. During the first 480 hours of testing, the catalyst activity provided stable, near-equilibrium yields of 46.8% SO2 and 22.8% O2. However, product yields declined at sample exposure times >480 hours. At 658 hours of operation, catalyst activity (based on oxygen yield) declined to 57% relative to the stable period of catalyst activity. Thus, as of April 17, this catalyst did not provide the desired stability level of <10% degradation per 1,000 hours. The experiment was terminated on April 27, after 792 hours, when a fitting failed and the catalyst was displaced from the reactor such that the sample could not be recovered. Oxygen conversion at the end of the experiment was 12.5% and declining, suggesting that at that point, catalyst activity had decreased to 54% of the initial level.

  17. A Trial of Extending Hemodialysis Hours and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Meg J; Zuo, Li; Gray, Nicholas A; de Zoysa, Janak R; Chan, Christopher T; Gallagher, Martin P; Monaghan, Helen; Grieve, Stuart M; Puranik, Rajesh; Lin, Hongli; Eris, Josette M; Zhang, Ling; Xu, Jinsheng; Howard, Kirsten; Lo, Serigne; Cass, Alan; Perkovic, Vlado

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between increased hemodialysis hours and patient outcomes remains unclear. We randomized (1:1) 200 adult recipients of standard maintenance hemodialysis from in-center and home-based hemodialysis programs to extended weekly (≥24 hours) or standard (target 12-15 hours, maximum 18 hours) hemodialysis hours for 12 months. The primary outcome was change in quality of life from baseline assessed by the EuroQol 5 dimension instrument (3 level) (EQ-5D). Secondary outcomes included medication usage, clinical laboratory values, vascular access events, and change in left ventricular mass index. At 12 months, median weekly hemodialysis hours were 24.0 (interquartile range, 23.6-24.0) and 12.0 (interquartile range, 12.0-16.0) in the extended and standard groups, respectively. Change in EQ-5D score at study end did not differ between groups (mean difference, 0.04 [95% confidence interval, -0.03 to 0.11]; P=0.29). Extended hours were associated with lower phosphate and potassium levels and higher hemoglobin levels. Blood pressure (BP) did not differ between groups at study end. Extended hours were associated with fewer BP-lowering agents and phosphate-binding medications, but were not associated with erythropoietin dosing. In a substudy with 95 patients, we detected no difference between groups in left ventricular mass index (mean difference, -6.0 [95% confidence interval, -14.8 to 2.7] g/m(2); P=0.18). Five deaths occurred in the extended group and two in the standard group (P=0.44); two participants in each group withdrew consent. Similar numbers of patients experienced vascular access events in the two groups. Thus, extending weekly hemodialysis hours did not alter overall EQ-5D quality of life score, but was associated with improvement in some laboratory parameters and reductions in medication burden. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00649298).

  18. Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours Maps and Data of Model-Based Small Area Estimates - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours is defined as a person 18 years of age or older who must have reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes in his/her life, and now does not smoke at all but it has been less than 365 days since completely stopped smoking cigarettes, or now smoke everyday or some days but reported that have made attempt of quitting for more than 24 hours in the past 12 months.

  19. Single crystal growth, magnetic and thermal properties of perovskite YFe0.6Mn0.4O3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tao; Shen, Hui; Zhao, Xiangyang; Man, Peiwen; Wu, Anhua; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jiayue

    2016-11-01

    High quality YFe0.6Mn0.4O3 single crystal was grown by floating zone technique using a four-mirror-image-furnace under flowing air. Powder X-ray diffraction gives well evidence that the specimen has an orthorhombic structure, with space group Pbnm. Temperature dependence of the magnetizations of YFe0.6Mn0.4O3 single crystal were studied under ZFC and FC modes in the temperature range from 5 K to 400 K. A clear spin reorientation transition behavior (Γ4→Γ1) is observed in the temperature range of 322-316 K, due to the substitution of Mn at the Fe site of YFeO3. Its Néel temperature is around 385 K. Moreover, the spin reorientation is verified by the change of magnetic hysteresis loops of the sample along [001] axis in the temperature range of 50-385 K. The thermal properties of the sample were measured by the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from 300 K to 500 K, which also clearly appear anomaly in the spin reorientation region.

  20. Two-step polarization switching mediated by a nonpolar intermediate phase in Hf0.4Zr0.6O2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Hyuk; Kim, Han Joon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Yu Jin; Moon, Taehwan; Kim, Keum Do; Hyun, Seung Dam; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-07-21

    The broken ferroelectric hysteresis loop achieved from a Hf0.4Zr0.6O2 film was interpreted based on the first order phase transition theory. The two-step polarization switching, which was expected from the theory, could be observed by dynamic pulse switching measurement. The variations in the interfacial capacitance values along with switching time and number of switching cycles could also be estimated from the pulse switching test. Being different from the one-step polarization switching in other ferroelectric films, two-step polarization switching produced two slanted plateau regions where the estimated interfacial capacitance values were different from each other. This could be understood based on the quantitative model of the two-step polarization switching with the involvement of an intermediate nonpolar phase. The Hf0.4Zr0.6O2 film was changed from antiferroelectric-like to ferroelectric-like with the increasing number of electric field cycles, which could be induced by the field driven phase change.

  1. Optical absorption, piezoelectric effect and second harmonic generation studies of single crystal AgGaGe3Se7.6Te0.4 solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myronchuk, G. L.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Kityk, I. V.; Krymus, A. S.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Rudysh, M. Ya.; Shchepanskyi, P. A.; Piasecki, M.

    2017-03-01

    Spectral features of absorption were studied for novel AgGaGe3Se7.6Te0.4 solid-state alloys at different temperatures. The synthesized crystals structure parameters are obtained by the X-ray Rietveld refinement method. During increasing temperature from 100 up to 300 K, the energy gap of AgGaGe3Se7.6Te0.4 decreases linearly from 2.05 up to 1.94 eV at a rate 5.7 × 10-4 eV/K. The magnitudes of piezoelectric coefficients are significantly changed and demonstrate substantial anisotropy. At room temperature, these values are equal to 5.2 pm/V ( d 11), 31.5 pm/V ( d 22) and 35.5 pm/V ( d 33). It is crucial that with an increasing temperature the piezoelectric efficiencies are increased. We have explored temperature and laser-induced changes of piezoelectric coefficients.

  2. Effect of synthetic conditions on the electrochemical properties of LiMn 0.4Fe 0.6PO 4/C synthesized by sol-gel technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Kwang; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S.; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Ahn, Hyo-Jun

    Carbon-coated LiMn 0.4Fe 0.6PO 4 (LMFP) was synthesized by sol-gel technique using citric acid as foaming agent and carbon precursor. To evaluate the effect of synthetic conditions on the electrochemical properties of LMFP for use as cathode active material, the carbon-coated olivines were synthesized by a two-step thermal treatment at different temperatures. The composites were characterized by elemental analysis, XRD, SEM, TEM, Raman microprobe spectroscopy and their electrochemical properties were also studied. The composite that shows the better electrochemical performance has more porous structure, lower D/G band ratio in Raman spectra, and charge and discharge capacities of same 155 mAh g -1 with higher material utilization of 97% at 0.1 C-rate (0.05 mA cm -2). The material exhibiting the better performance was also incorporated in a polymer electrolyte hosted in an electrospun P(VdF-HFP) membrane. The lithium polymer battery composed of LiMn 0.4Fe 0.6PO 4 cathode and polymer electrolyte showed a good cycling performance with the initial discharge capacity of 146 mAh g -1.

  3. High magnetic field phase diagram in electron-doped manganites La0.4Ca0.6Mn1−yCryO3

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chengliang; Hu, Ni; Yang, Ming; Xia, Shuangcheng; Wang, Haowen; Wang, Junfeng; Xia, Zhengcai; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We report the charge-order to ferromagnetic phase transition induced by pulsed high magnetic field and impurity doping effects in manganites La0.4Ca0.6(Mn1−yCry)O3 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.2). Significant charge-order suppression and ferromagnetic tendency upon the Cr3+-doping are evidenced, and three different ground states are identified, namely the charge-order state, the phase separated state, and the spin-glass like state. Phase diagram in the H-y plane at 4.2 K is determined by the high magnetic field study, in which the charge-order and ferromagnetic phase boundary is clearly figured out. The critical magnetic field for melting the charge-order phase of La0.4Ca0.6MnO3 is revealed to reach up to 46 T at 4.2 K. Interestingly, distinct responses of the three states to the high magnetic field are observed, indicating the special physics regarding the charge order melting process in each state. The mechanism of the doping induced charge-order suppression and ferromagnetism promotion can be understood by the competition between the antiferromagnetic interaction of Cr-Mn and local enhancement of electron hopping by Cr3+. PMID:24811441

  4. Enhanced critical current properties in Ba0.6K0.4+xFe2As2 superconductor by overdoping of potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Lei; Gao, Zhaoshun; Yao, Chao; Wang, Dongliang; Qi, Yanpeng; Zhang, Xianping; Ma, Yanwei

    2011-01-01

    Phase-pure polycrystalline Ba0.6K0.4+xFe2As2 with 0≤x≤0.1 were prepared using a one-step solid-state reaction method. We found that overdoping of potassium can improve the critical current density (Jc). High-field Jc for samples with x =0.1 is three times higher than that for samples with x =0. Overdoping of K has minimal effect on the critical transition temperature (Tc). Less than 0.5 K degradations in Tc was measured for samples with x =0.1. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed high concentration of dislocations in samples with x =0.1, resulting in enhanced flux pining. Further analyses on magnetization loops for powder samples confirm that K overdoping can promote intragrain Jc. Our results indicate that slight excess of K in Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 superconductor is beneficial to high-field applications.

  5. A New Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 -Silicon Hybrid Metamaterial Device in Terahertz Regime.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Du, Ting; Xu, Ningning; Ding, Chunfeng; Li, Hui; Sheng, Quan; Liu, Ming; Yao, Jianquan; Wang, Zhiyong; Lou, Xiaojie; Zhang, Weili

    2016-05-01

    Metamaterials, offering unprecedented functionalities to manipulate electromagnetic waves, have become a research hotspot in recent years. Through the incorporation of active media, the exotic electromagnetic behavior of metamaterials can be dramatically empowered by dynamic control. Many ferroelectric materials such as BaSrTiO3 (abbreviated as BST), exhibiting strong response to external electric field, hold great promise in both microwave and terahertz tunable devices. A new active Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 -silicon hybrid metamaterial device, namely, a SRR (square split-ring resonator)-BaSrTiO3 thin film-silicon three-layer structure is fabricated and intensively studied. The active Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 thin film hybrid metamaterial, with nanoscale thickness, delivers a transmission contrast up to ≈79% due to electrically enabled carrier transport between the ferroelectric thin film and silicon substrate. This work has significantly increased the low modulation rate of ferroelectric based devices in terahertz range, a major problem in this field remaining unresolved for many years. The proposed BST metamaterial is promising in developing high-performance real world photonic devices for terahertz technology.

  6. VUV spectroscopy of complex fluoride systems Na0.4(Y1-xREx)0.6F2.2 (RE3+ = Nd3+, Tm3+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhov, V. N.; Uvarova, T. V.; Kirm, M.; Vielhauer, S.

    2016-05-01

    Emission and excitation spectra as well as luminescence decay kinetics of complex non-stoichiometric fluoride crystals Na0.4(Y1-xNdx)0.6F2.2 (x = 0.005, 0.05, 0.2, 1) and Na0.4(Y1-xTmx)0.6F2.2 (x = 0.0005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1) have been studied in the VUV spectral range at liquid-helium (T ∼ 10 K) temperatures. It has been shown that these crystals show intense broad-band VUV luminescence due to the interconfiguration 5d-4f transitions in Nd3+ and Tm3+ ions. Remarkable concentration quenching is observed for Nd3+ 5d-4f luminescence whereas fast (spin-allowed) 5d-4f luminescence of Tm3+ shows no concentration quenching for the studied doping level up to 10%. The spin-allowed 5d-4f luminescence of Tm3+ in these crystals was found to be rather weak compared to spin-forbidden 5d-4f luminescence because of efficient nonradiative relaxation from higher-energy 5d states of Tm3+ to the lowest-energy 5d level responsible for spin-forbidden 5d-4f luminescence. The studied fluoride systems can be considered as promising active media for the development of VUV solid state lasers with optical pumping.

  7. Spin-phonon coupling in epitaxial S r0.6B a0.4Mn O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goian, V.; Langenberg, E.; Marcano, N.; Bovtun, V.; Maurel, L.; Kempa, M.; Prokscha, T.; Kroupa, J.; Algarabel, P. A.; Pardo, J. A.; Kamba, S.

    2017-02-01

    Spin-phonon coupling is investigated in epitaxially strained S r1 -xB axMn O3 thin films with perovskite structure by means of microwave (MW) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. In this work we focus on the S r0.6B a0.4Mn O3 composition grown on (LaAlO3) 0.3(Sr2AlTaO6 ) 0.7 substrate. The MW complex electromagnetic response shows a decrease in the real part and a clear anomaly in the imaginary part around 150 K. Moreover, it coincides with a 17 % hardening of the lowest-frequency polar phonon seen in IR reflectance spectra. In order to further elucidate this phenomenon, low-energy muon-spin spectroscopy was carried out, signaling the emergence of antiferromagnetic order with Néel temperature (TN) around 150 K. Thus, our results confirm that epitaxial S r0.6B a0.4Mn O3 thin films display strong spin-phonon coupling below TN, which may stimulate further research on tuning the magnetoelectric coupling by controlling the epitaxial strain and chemical pressure in the S r1 -xB axMn O3 system.

  8. Spin glass behavior in LaCo1 -xRhxO3 (x =0.4 , 0.5, and 0.6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Manna, K.; Luetkens, H.; Hoelzel, M.; Komarek, A. C.

    2016-11-01

    We studied the magnetic ground state of Co/Rh-disordered LaCo1 -xRhxO3 (x =0.4 , 0.5, and 0.6) by means of powder neutron diffraction (PND), muon spin relaxation (μ SR ), ac susceptibility, isothermal magnetic relaxation, and heat capacity measurements. The dc magnetic susceptibility measurements exhibit a cusp around the freezing temperature Tf of all studied compounds. PND measurements show no indications of long-range magnetic ordering down to 4 K in all studied samples. μ SR experiments on these compounds show a peak in the muon spin relaxation rate around Tf. However, no spontaneous muon spin precession can be observed evidencing the short-range nature of the magnetic ordering. For the x =0.5 sample ac susceptibility measurements show that Tf shifts to higher temperatures with increasing frequency and becomes suppressed by a dc biasing field. All these observations indicate that the Co/Rh-disordered LaCo1 -xRhxO3 system is a spin glass for x =0.4 , 0.5, and 0.6.

  9. Magnetization reversal behavior of SmCo6.6Nb0.4 nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Q.; Yue, M.; Wu, Q.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhang, D. T.; Lu, Q. M.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the recoil loops of SmCo6.6Nb0.4 nanoflakes prepared by the surfactant-assisted high energy ball milling (SA-HEBM) were systematically studied. The recoil loop openness was observed in both the aligned and non-aligned samples. Reversible and irreversible portions of the demagnetization process derived from the recoil loop were also investigated. For both the aligned and non-aligned samples, reversible portion (▵mrev) is too small to determine the coercivity. Irreversible portion (▵mirrev) shows similar tendency, i.e. increasing slowly at low reverse field and then growing up rapidly after a critical field (nucleation field Hno). The demagnetization process can be described as following: the reversible demagnetization is dominant when the applied reverse field is lower than 8 kOe, under which the irreversible nucleation also occurs. The reverse domain walls are pinned by the grain boundaries until the reverse field is larger than 8 kOe. With increasing field, the pinning effects are weakened and the rapid reversible demagnetization starts. Finally, the demagnetization process is accomplished. The values of ΔM in the Henkel plots are totally opposite for the aligned and non-aligned SmCo6.6Nb0.4 nanoflakes.

  10. Low Power Resistive Oxygen Sensor Based on Sonochemical SrTi0.6Fe0.4O2.8 (STFO40)

    PubMed Central

    Stratulat, Alisa; Serban, Bogdan-Catalin; de Luca, Andrea; Avramescu, Viorel; Cobianu, Cornel; Brezeanu, Mihai; Buiu, Octavian; Diamandescu, Lucian; Feder, Marcel; Ali, Syed Zeeshan; Udrea, Florin

    2015-01-01

    The current paper reports on a sonochemical synthesis method for manufacturing nanostructured (typical grain size of 50 nm) SrTi0.6Fe0.4O2.8 (Sono-STFO40) powder. This powder is characterized using X ray-diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and results are compared with commercially available SrTi0.4Fe0.6O2.8 (STFO60) powder. In order to manufacture resistive oxygen sensors, both Sono-STFO40 and STFO60 are deposited, by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) method, on an SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) micro-hotplate, employing a tungsten heater embedded within a dielectric membrane. Oxygen detection tests are performed in both dry (RH = 0%) and humid (RH = 60%) nitrogen atmosphere, varying oxygen concentrations between 1% and 16% (v/v), at a constant heater temperature of 650 °C. The oxygen sensor, based on the Sono-STFO40 sensing layer, shows good sensitivity, low power consumption (80 mW), and short response time (25 s). These performance are comparable to those exhibited by state-of-the-art O2 sensors based on STFO60, thus proving Sono-STFO40 to be a material suitable for oxygen detection in harsh environments. PMID:26205267

  11. Evolution of superconducting and transport properties in annealed FeTe1-xSex (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) multiband superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yue; Taen, Toshihiro; Yamada, Tatsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Pyon, Sunseng; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the superconducting and transport properties in FeTe1-xSex (0.1 ≤slant x ≤slant 0.4) single crystals prepared by O2-annealing. The sharp superconducting transition width observed in the magnetization measurement and the small residual resistivity prove the high quality of the crystals. All the crystals manifest large, homogeneous, and isotropic critical current density Jc with a self-field value over 105 A cm-2 at 2 K. The large and field-robust critical current densities prove that the superconductivity in FeTe1-xSex (0.1 ≤slant x ≤slant 0.4) is in bulk nature. The values of anisotropy parameter close to Tc for crystals with different Se doping levels all reside in the range of 2-3. Hall coefficients RH remain positive and at an almost constant value at high temperatures, followed by a sudden decrease before reaching Tc, which indicates that the electron-type charge carriers become dominant at low temperatures. Furthermore, the characteristic temperature for the sudden decrease in RH gradually increases with Se doping.

  12. Evaluation of a 12-hour/day shift schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.

    1986-06-01

    In April 1985, the operating crews at the Fast Flux Test Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8- to a 12-hour/day work schedule. The primary purpose of the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. A program was established to evaluate the effects on plant performance, operator alertness, attrition, sleep, health, job satisfaction, and off-the-job satisfaction. Preliminary results from that evaluation program indicate that the 12-hour shift schedule is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility.

  13. Discovery of Recombining Plasma in G166.0+4.3: A Mixed-Morphology Supernova Remnant with an Unusual Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, H.; Uchida, H.; Tsuru, T. G.; Tanaka, T.; Itou, M.; Nobukawa, M.; Nobukawa, K. K.

    2016-06-01

    Mixed-morphology supernova remnants (MM-SNRs) have center-filled thermal X-ray emissions in a synchrotron radio shell. From the X-ray spectra of several MM-SNRs (e.g., W49B: Ozawa et al. 2009; IC 443: Yamaguchi et al. 2009), the Suzaku satellite has recently discovered recombining plasmas (RPs) characterized by a higher ionization temperature (kTz) than an electron temperature (kTe), while most of shell-like SNRs are explained as collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE: kTz = kTe) or ionizing plasma (IP: kTz < kTe). The formation process of the RPs have not been understood yet. G166.0+4.3 is a Galactic SNR whose synchrotron radio emission is extremely asymmetric: A large bipolar structure in southwest (Wing region) with a smaller semicircle shell in northeast (Shell region). From a previous X-ray observation with XMM-Newton, Bocchino et al. (2009) classified G166.0+4.3 as a MM-SNR and reported that the plasma is explained by a typical IP model. However, the origin of the unusual structure is still unclear. We have performed a long-time (totally 230 ks) observation of G166.0+4.3 with the Suzaku satellite in 2014. From the spectral analysis of the Wing region, we confirmed that the plasma is well represented by an IP model with kTe of 0.85 keV. Applying a similar IP model to the Shell region, however, we found excesses at ˜2.0 keV and ˜2.6 keV corresponding to SiXIII Lyα (2.0 keV) and the edge of a radiative recombining continuum of SiXIII (2.67 keV) + SXIV Lyα (2.63 keV), respectively. This fact indicates a sign of an RP in the Shell region of G166.0+4.3. We explained the spectrum as an RP model whose electron temperature is 0.46 keV which is smaller than that of the IP model in Wing region. We also found that the Fe-rich ejecta asymmetrically spread over the Wing region. These results suggest an inhomogeneous ambient medium in the vicinity of G166.0+4.3 which provides a clue to the cause of the unusual morphology. A supportive evidence is shown by a recent

  14. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  15. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  16. 29 CFR 778.324 - Effect on hourly rate employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special... is accompanied by a new agreement altering the mode of compensation from an hourly rate basis to...

  17. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  18. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  19. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  20. Balancing Authority Cooperation Concepts - Intra-Hour Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, Matthew; Samaan, Nader; Milligan, Michael; Guo, Tao; Liu, Guangjuan; Toolson, Jacob

    2013-03-29

    The overall objective of this study was to understand, on an Interconnection-wide basis, the effects intra-hour scheduling compared to hourly scheduling. Moreover, the study sought to understand how the benefits of intra-hour scheduling would change by altering the input assumptions in different scenarios. This report describes results of three separate scenarios with differing key assumptions and comparing the production costs between hourly scheduling and 10-minute scheduling performance. The different scenarios were chosen to provide insight into how the estimated benefits might change by altering input assumptions. Several key assumptions were different in the three scenarios, however most assumptions were similar and/or unchanged among the scenarios.

  1. 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, M.

    2008-11-01

    The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities taking place from 2--5 April. A high-profile opening event will include presentation of Galileo's original telescope. Webcasts of international science center discussions and 24 hours of webcasts from professional research observatories will follow. A 24-hour global star party will occur on the last day. The Moon's phase will range from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing, and Saturn will also be well placed for early evening observing events. Amateur astronomers will be encouraged to present educational events in schools as well as non-traditional venues. Online resources will include advertising, educational and how-to materials.

  2. Growth of Optoelectronic Device-Quality INDIUM(0.4) GALLIUM(0.6)ARSENIDE on Gallium Arsenide by Molecular Beamepitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Paulo Roberto Fogaca

    The present investigation develops a novel approach to growing optoelectronic device-quality In_{0.4}Ga_{0.6}As epitaxial layers on GaAs substrates employing the molecular beam epitaxy technique. Experimental work was performed in a Varian GEN II MBE system configured with sources for Ga, Al, In, Be (p-type dopant), Si (n-type dopant), and As_2. Growth and characterization of In_ xGa_{1-x}As layers of various compositions was carried out to investigate the strain relief processes in the In _ xGa_{1-x}As/GaAs material system. These materials were characterized via transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, photoluminescence, absorption, and Hall-effect analyses. A multi-stage strain-relief buffer system was developed to prevent threading dislocations from reaching high indium content (x > 0.3) In_ xGa_{1-x}As epitaxial layers. Cross-sectional and planar transmission electron microscopy studies revealed high indium content In_ xGa_{1-x}As epitaxial layers grown on such a buffer system to have a dramatic reduction in dislocation density, with best values being in the 10^6 cm ^{-2} range, in sharp contrast to layers grown directly in GaAs substrates. These In_ xGa_{1-x}As epilayers also exhibited excellent electronic properties. For example, Hall-effect measurements on buffered In_{0.4}Ga_{0.6}As layers indicated the room-temperature electron concentrations to be around 5 times 10^{15} cm^ {-3} while electron mobilities were around 4,500 cm^2 V^{ -1} s^{-1}. Strong band-edge photoluminescence was recorded from such buffered epilayers, the luminescence peak occurring at 1.4 μm at room temperature and having a linewidth around 7 meV at 13K. The efficacy of the designed buffer system is evidenced by the fabrication for the first time of a high sensitivity, planar In_{0.4 }Ga_{0.6}As/GaAs p-i-n photodetector presenting a quantum efficiency of 42%, a responsivity of 0.45 A/W at 1.3 mum, and dark current of 3 times 10^ {-7} A at -2.5 V, for an

  3. Thermoelectric and mechanical properties of Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 prepared by using encapsulated melting and hot extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woo-Jin; Kim, Il-Ho

    2017-03-01

    Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 solid solutions were synthesized by using encapsulated melting (EM) and were consolidated by using hot extrusion (HE), and their thermoelectric and mechanical properties were examined and compared with those of specimens prepared by using hot pressing (HP). The relative densities of all hot-extruded specimens were higher than 97%. The basal plane (00 l) was preferentially orientated parallel, rather than perpendicular, to the HE direction. The values of the orientation factor ( F) were as follows: F max = 0.082 for specimens hot-extruded at 723 K and F max = 0.115 for specimens hot-pressed at 723 K. Thus, the crystallographic anisotropy was not high. From the pole figure and the electron backscatter diffraction analyses, the microstructures and the crystallinities of the HE specimens were found to be similar and comparable to those of the HP specimens. A bending strength of 57 MPa and a Vickers hardness of 74 Hv were obtained for Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 hot-extruded at 698 K, which were superior to the corresponding properties of the HP specimens. However, the mechanical properties degraded with increasing HE temperature owing to the occurrence of grain growth. All specimens exhibited a negative temperature dependence for the electrical conductivity, indicating a degenerate semiconductor behavior. All Seebeck coefficients showed positive signs ( p-type conduction); they attained peak values at 373 K and then decreased with increasing temperature owing to intrinsic conduction. The HE specimens exhibited lower values of the power factor than the HP specimens did because of the lower electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the former. The thermal conductivity was lower than 1.0 Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, and it increased slightly with increasing temperature. The maximum figure of merit, ZT max = 1.04, and the average figure of merit, ZT ave = 0.87, were achieved at 323 K for Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 hot-extruded at 698 K.

  4. Optical waveguide properties of Ca0.4Ba0.6Nb2O6 crystal formed by oxygen ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Zhou, Yu-Fan; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Lian; Song, Hong-Lian; Qiao, Mei; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2015-07-01

    We report the fabrication of a planar optical waveguide in a Ca0.4Ba0.6Nb2O6 crystal by irradiation with 6.0 MeV oxygen ions. We measured the guiding mode by the prism-coupling method at 633 nm and 1539 nm. The near-field intensity distributions were measured by the end-face coupling setup at a wavelength of 633 nm. The reflectivity calculation method (RCM) was used for reconstructing refractive index profiles. SRIM was used to simulate the electronic and nuclear stopping power caused by oxygen ion irradiation, and the finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) was used to simulate the near-field intensity distributions. Micro-Raman spectra were measured at room temperature in air to study the differences between the substrate and waveguide region.

  5. Synthesis, Characterization and Exploration of Multiferroic Properties in Nano-Crystalline Tb1-xYxMnO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4).

    PubMed

    Shukla, R; Chakraborty, Keka R; Mandal, B P; Kaushik, S D; Mukadam, M D; Lawes, G; Naik, R; Kumarasiri, A; Siruguri, V; Yusuf, S M; Tyagil, A K

    2016-04-01

    We report the synthesis and electric properties of nano-crystalline Tb1-xYxMnO3 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) compounds prepared by gel-combustion method. These samples were characterized by a number of techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, specific-heat measurement, neutron diffraction, and magnetic field dependent pyrocurrent measurement. All the samples crystallize in the orthorhombic structure with space group Pnma at room temperature. Anomalies were observed in low temperature specific-heat measurement corresponding to magnetic and electric phase transitions. The magnetic phase transitions occurred at ~35, ~22-28 and ~7 K for all the samples. Signatures of coupling between magnetic and electric order parameters were revealed by pyrocurrent measurements carried out in presence of magnetic fields.

  6. Electrical and Optical Properties of ZnS:Sb, Te Grown from Sb0.4Te0.6 Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Masahiro; Kanie, Hisashi; Yoshida, Iwao; Sano, Masatoshi; Aoki, Masaharu

    1992-04-01

    ZnS crystals doped with Sb and Te were grown from an Sb0.4Te0.6 solution by means of a temperature-difference method. The grown crystals were transparent and platelike with a cubic structure. The Te concentration in the grown crystals varied from 0.10 atom% to 0.20 atom% as the growth temperature rose from 700°C to 1000°C, whereas the Sb concentration was 0.01 atom% in the entire range of growth temperature. All the crystals showed n-type conduction. The resistivity of the crystals grown at 700°C was 104 Ω\\cdotcm. They showed blue luminescence at room temperature. The emission intensity was higher than that of ZnS:Te.

  7. Synthesis and structure of the monolayer hydrate K 0.3CoO 2·0.4H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Lee, Y.; Si, W.; Vogt, T.

    2005-06-01

    The monolayer hydrate (MLH) K 0.3CoO 2·0.4H 2O was synthesized from K 0.6CoO 2 by extracting K + cations using K 2S 2O 8 as an oxidant and the subsequent intercalation of water between the layers of edge-sharing CoO 6 octahedra. A hexagonal structure (space group P6 3/ mmc) with lattice parameters a=2.8262(1) Å, c=13.8269(6) Å similar to the MLH Na 0.36CoO 2·0.7H 2O was established using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. The K/H 2O layer in the K-MLH is disordered, which is in contrast to the Na-MLH. At low temperatures metallic and paramagnetic behavior was found.

  8. Crystal-Orientation-Modulated Exchange Bias in Orthorhombic-YMnO3/La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 Multiferroic Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dongxing; Gong, Junlu; Jin, Chao; Li, Peng; Bai, Haili

    2015-07-15

    The magnetic properties of the all-oxide multiferroic heterostructures composed of orthorhombic YMnO3 (YMO) with E-type antiferromagnetic and double-exchange ferromagnetic (FM) La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 (LSMO) were studied. An orientation-modulated exchange bias effect, which is related to the interfacial Mn-O-Mn bond angle, was discovered. Because of the large bond angle in YMO/LSMO(100) heterostructures, a strong exchange coupling at the interface is formed. This strong exchange coupling sustains an FM phase in YMO at the interface region. The FM phase with strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy contributes to the vertical shift and exchange bias effect in (100) orientation heterostructures. When LSMO (110) and (111) were layered with YMO, the Mn-O-Mn bond angle was reduced, leading to a weakened exchange coupling at the interface, and only a relatively small exchange bias at low temperatures was visible.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and low field magnetotransport of Nd0.6Sr0.4MnO3/CrO3 composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, A. M.; Mohamed, H. F.; Diab, A. K.; Mohamed, Sara A.

    2017-02-01

    (Nd0.6Sr0.4MnO3)1-x/(CrO3)x with x = 0.0-0.030 step 0.005 weight% composites have been prepared by the solid state reaction process. The X-ray and scanning electron microscopic manifest that all composites are a single orthorhombic phase and there are no CrO3 grains separated from NdSrMnO matrix. The electrical measurements have revealed an increase of resistivity and a decrease of metal semiconductor transition with increasing CrO3. The composite x = 0.025 has largest magnetoresistance nearly one hundred percent at room temperature.

  10. Large oxygen-isotope effect in Sr0.4K0.6BiO3: Evidence for phonon-mediated superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guo-Meng; Conder, K.; Angst, M.; Kazakov, S. M.; Karpinski, J.; Maciejewski, M.; Bougerol, C.; Pshirkov, J. S.; Antipov, E. V.

    2000-11-01

    The oxygen-isotope effect has been investigated in a recently discovered superconductor Sr0.4K0.6BiO3. This compound has a distorted perovskite structure and becomes superconducting at about 12 K. Upon replacing 16O with 18O by 60-80 %, the Tc of the sample is shifted down by 0.32-0.50 K, corresponding to an isotope exponent of αO=0.40(5). This isotope exponent is very close to that for a similar bismuthate superconductor Ba1-xKxBiO3 with Tc=30 K. The very distinctive doping and Tc dependencies of αO observed in bismuthates and cuprates suggest that bismuthates should belong to conventional phonon-mediated superconductors while cuprates might be unconventional superconductors.

  11. 0.4 μJ, 7 kW ultrabroadband noise-like pulse direct generation from an all-fiber dumbbell-shaped laser.

    PubMed

    Chen, He; Chen, Shengping; Jiang, Zongfu; Hou, Jing

    2015-12-01

    We report the direct generation of 0.4 μJ, 7 kW ultrabroadband picosecond noise-like pulses from an Yb-doped all-fiber oscillator based on dual nonlinear optical loop mirrors (NOLMs). Under the highest pump power, the average power of the main output port reached 1.4 W, and the 3 dB spectral bandwidths reached 76 nm and 165 nm from the two output ports, respectively. The design of dual-NOLMs shows both exceptional compactness in construction and distinct flexibility on the engineering of the mode-locking behaviors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a watt-level dual-NOLM-based fiber laser. Based on this laser, the pulse energy and peak power of picosecond noise-like pulse from an all-fiber oscillator have been elevated by an order of magnitude.

  12. The morphology of GM1 x/SM 0.6-x/Chol 0.4 planar bilayers supported on SiO 2 surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yanli; Tero, Ryugo; Imai, Yosuke; Hoshino, Tyuji; Urisu, Tsuneo

    2008-07-01

    Ganglioside GM1 (GM1), sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol) are dominant lipid components of rafts in plasma membranes. The morphology of GM1 x/SM 0.6-x/Chol 0.4 SPBs on SiO 2 surfaces has been studied by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy at various ratios of GM1/SM ( x = 0-0.25). The unique changes in morphology depending on the GM1 concentrations are qualitatively explained by hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic interactions between SM and Chol, and by hydrogen bonding and the steric effects between bulky GM1 headgroups under Ca 2+ existing conditions and the electrostatic repulsion between the negative charges of GM1 headgroups under Ca 2+ nonexisting conditions.

  13. Structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of Bi0.8Ba0.2Fe0.6Mn0.4O3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangi, Manisha; Sanghi, S.; Agarwal, A.; Kaswan, K.; Jangra, S.; Singh, O.

    2016-05-01

    Polycrystalline Bi0.8Ba0.2Fe0.6Mn0.4O3 ceramic was synthesized via conventional two stage solid state reaction method. The crystal structure is examined via powder x-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement revealed that the sample has a rhombohedral crystal structure (space group R3c). The dielectric response of the sample was analyzed in the frequency range 10 Hz to 5 MHz at different temperature. The values of dielectric constant (ɛ') and dielectric loss factor (tan δ) increases with increasing temperature at different frequencies which may be the result of increase in the number of charge carriers and their mobilities due to the thermal activation. M-H hysteresis loop was recorded at room temperature up to a field of 15 kOe which shows that there is slightly enhancement in magnetization with co-doping.

  14. Improvement of critical current density in thallium-based (Tl,Bi)Sr(1.6)Ba(0.4)Ca2Cu3O(x) superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Z. F.; Wang, C. A.; Wang, J. H.; Miller, D. J.; Goretta, K. C.

    1995-01-01

    Epitaxial (Tl,Bi)Sr(1.6)Ba(0.4)Ca2Cu3O(x) ((Tl,Bi)-1223) thin films on (100) single crystal LaAlO3 substrates were synthesized by a two-step procedure. Phase development, microstructure, and relationships between film and substrate were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Resistance versus temperature, zero-field-cooled and field cooled magnetization, and transport critical current density (J(sub c)) were measured. The zero-resistance temperature was 105-111 K. J(sub c) at 77 K and zero field was greater than 2 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm. The films exhibited good flux pinning properties.

  15. Microstructural and dielectric properties of Ba0.6Sr0.4Ti1-xZrxO3 based combinatorial thin film capacitors library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guozhen; Wolfman, Jérôme; Autret-Lambert, Cécile; Sakai, Joe; Roger, Sylvain; Gervais, Monique; Gervais, François

    2010-12-01

    Epitaxial growth of Ba0.6Sr0.4Ti1-xZrxO3 (0≤x≤0.3) composition spread thin film library on SrRuO3/SrTiO3 layer by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is reported. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy studies showed an accurate control of the film phase and composition by combinatorial PLD. A complex evolution of the microstructure and morphology with composition of the library is described, resulting from the interplay between epitaxial stress, increased chemical pressure, and reduced elastic energy upon Zr doping. Statistical and temperature-related capacitive measurements across the library showed unexpected variations in the dielectric properties. Doping windows with enhanced permittivity and tunability are identified, and correlated to microstructural properties.

  16. Critical current densities of Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 superconductors estimated from AC susceptibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setoyama, Subaru; Kinoshita, Junichi; Akune, Tadahiro; Sakamoto, Nobuyoshi; Murakami, Kouji; Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Kiuchi, Masaru; Otabe, Edmund Soji; Matsushita, Teruo; Ge, Jun; Ni, Baorong; Wang, Lei; Qi, Yanpeng; Zhang, Xianping; Gao, Zhaoshun; Ma, Yanwei

    2013-01-01

    AC susceptibilities (real χ‧ and imaginary χ″) of Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (122 type) polycrystalline with Ag addition are analysed by the grained Bean model. A variety of characteristics, double peak in χ″ and shoulder transition in χ‧, appear in the model simulation. Comparing the measured χ‧ and χ″ with the model allows more clear insight on the polycrystalline structure. Estimated critical current densities Jcg and Jcℓ of the grain and the link in the iron-based pnictides show that the addition of 20 wt.% Ag increases Jcℓ 9 times larger. Improvement of intergrain characteristics with Ag addition is clearly indicated.

  17. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-winglet model designed at M = 0.8, C sub L = 0.4 using linear aerodynamic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results have been presented herein for a subsonic transport type wing fitted with winglets. Wind planform was chosen to be representative of wings used on current jet transport aircraft, while wing and winglet camber surfaces were designed using two different linear aerodynamic design methods. The purpose of the wind tunnel investigation was to determine the effectiveness of these linear aerodynamic design computer codes in designing a non-planar transport configuration which would cruise efficiently. The design lift coefficient was chosen to be 0.4, at a design Mach number of 0.8. Force and limited pressure data were obtained for the basic wing, and for the wing fitted with the two different winglet designs, at Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.70, 0.75 and 0.80 over an angle of attack range of -2 to +6 degrees, at zero sideslip. The data have been presented without analysis to expedite publication.

  18. Brillouin light scattering study of Co2Cr0.6Fe0.4Al and Co2FeAl Heusler compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaier, O.; Hamrle, J.; Trudel, S.; Conca Parra, A.; Hillebrands, B.; Arbelo, E.; Herbort, C.; Jourdan, M.

    2009-04-01

    The thermal magnonic spectra of Co2Cr0.6Fe0.4Al (CCFA) and Co2FeAl were investigated using Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectroscopy. For CCFA, the exchange constant A (exchange stiffness D) is found to be 0.48 ± 0.04 µerg cm-1 (203 ± 16 meV Å2), while for Co2FeAl the corresponding values of 1.55 ± 0.05 µerg cm-1 (370 ± 10 meV Å2) were found. The observed asymmetry in the BLS spectra between the Stokes and anti-Stokes frequencies was assigned to an interplay between the asymmetrical profiles of hybridized Damon-Esbach and perpendicular standing spin-wave modes, combined with the optical sensitivity of the BLS signal to the upper side of the CCFA or Co2FeAl film.

  19. Orbital Reconstruction Enhanced Exchange Bias in La0.6Sr0.4MnO3/Orthorhombic YMnO3 Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dongxing; Jin, Chao; Li, Peng; Wang, Liyan; Feng, Liefeng; Mi, Wenbo; Bai, Haili

    2016-01-01

    The exchange bias in ferromagnetic/multiferroic heterostructures is usually considered to originate from interfacial coupling. In this work, an orbital reconstruction enhanced exchange bias was discovered. As La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 (LSMO) grown on YMnO3 (YMO) suffers a tensile strain (a > c), the doubly degenerate eg orbital splits into high energy 3z2 − r2 and low energy x2 − y2 orbitals, which makes electrons occupy the localized x2 − y2 orbital and leads to the formation of antiferromagnetic phase in LSMO. The orbital reconstruction induced antiferromagnetic phase enhances the exchange bias in the LSMO/YMO heterostructures, lightening an effective way for electric-field modulated magnetic moments in multiferroic magnetoelectric devices. PMID:27090614

  20. Isotropic Kink and Quasiparticle Excitations in the Three-Dimensional Perovskite Manganite La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}MnO_{3}.

    PubMed

    Horiba, Koji; Kitamura, Miho; Yoshimatsu, Kohei; Minohara, Makoto; Sakai, Enju; Kobayashi, Masaki; Fujimori, Atsushi; Kumigashira, Hiroshi

    2016-02-19

    In order to reveal the many-body interactions in three-dimensional perovskite manganites that show colossal magnetoresistance, we performed an in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}MnO_{3} and investigated the behavior of quasiparticles. We observed quasiparticle peaks near the Fermi momentum in both the electron and the hole bands, and clear kinks throughout the entire hole Fermi surface in the band dispersion. This isotropic behavior of quasiparticles and kinks suggests that polaronic quasiparticles produced by the coupling of electrons with Jahn-Teller phonons play an important role in the colossal magnetoresistance properties of the ferromagnetic metallic phase of three-dimensional manganites.

  1. Current dependence of colossal anisotropic magnetoresistance in La 0.3 Pr 0.4 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 microbridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, J.; Jung, J.; Chow, K. H.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the bias current on the in-plane colossal anisotropic magnetoresistance (C-AMR) is investigated in spatially confined La 0.3 Pr 0.4 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 microbridges. Dramatic increases of the C-AMR are found when the bias current is reduced. For example, in one of the samples, the C-AMR changed from ˜900% to over ˜24 000% as the current is decreased from 1 μA to 10 nA. The results indicate that the bias current can be used to manipulate the C-AMR in spatially confined manganite thin films via changes to the nature of the anisotropic percolation within the samples.

  2. Quench behavior of Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2/Ag tapes with AC and DC transport currents at different temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Guomin; Yang, Hua; Li, Zhenming; Liu, Wei; Jing, Liwei; Yu, Hui; Liu, Guole

    2016-09-01

    In applications, superconducting wires may carry AC or DC transport current. Thus, it is important to understand the behavior of normal zone propagation in conductors and magnets under different current conditions in order to develop an effective quench protection system. In this paper, quench behavior of Ag sheathed Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Sr-122 in the family of iron-based superconductor) tapes with AC and DC transport current is reported. The measurements are performed as a function of different temperature (20 K-30 K), varying transport current and operating frequency (50 Hz-250 Hz). The focus of the research is the minimum quench energy (MQE), the normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV) and the comparison of the related results with AC and DC transport current.

  3. Fabrication of highly ordered Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si Heusler alloy films on Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Takeo; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ono, Atsuo; Ando, Yasuo

    2016-08-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Si(100)/MgO/Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si (CFMS) Heusler alloy thin films were systematically investigated. Highly B2-ordered CFMS Heusler films with an ordering parameter of ca. 70-80% were obtained by both the insertion of a very thin Mg layer into the Si/MgO interfaces to prevent oxidation of the Si surface and the optimization of the annealing temperature for the CFMS films. The prepared CFMS films exhibited high magnetization close to that of the CFMS bulk. Such highly B2-ordered CFMS films are very useful for realizing high spin injection efficiency in Si because of the half-metallicity of the CFMS films.

  4. Structural and optical properties of annealed and illuminated (Ag3AsS3)0.6(As2S3)0.4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenyak, I. P.; Neimet, Yu. Yu.; Rati, Y. Y.; Stanko, D.; Kranjčec, M.; Kökényesi, S.; Daróci, L.; Bohdan, R.

    2014-11-01

    (Ag3AsS3)0.6(As2S3)0.4 thin films were deposited upon a quartz substrate by rapid thermal evaporation. Structural studies of the as-deposited, annealed and illuminated films were performed using XRD, scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Surfaces of all the films were found to be covered with Ag-rich crystalline micrometer sized cones. Thermal annealing leads to mechanical deformation of part of the cones and their detachment from the base film surface while the laser illumination leads to the new formations appearance on the surface of thin films. The spectroscopic studies of optical transmission spectra for as-deposited, annealed and illuminated thin films were carried out. The optical absorption spectra in the region of its exponential behaviour were analysed, the dispersion dependences of refractive index as well as their variation after annealing and illumination were investigated.

  5. Double-blind investigation of R-42470 (terconazole cream 0.4%) and clotrimazole (cream 1%) for the topical treatment of mycotic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Del Palacio-Hernanz, A; Sanz-Sanz, F; Rodriquez-Noriega, A

    1984-06-01

    A total of 78 patients took part in a double-blind randomized comparison of the efficacy, acceptability and tolerance of a new antifungal terconazole (R-42470) (cream 0.4%) with the well established and clinically effective clotrimazole (cream 1%) for the topical treatment of mycotic vaginitis. Five grams of cream were applied to the vagina for 7 consecutive days. Twenty non-pregnant and 19 pregnant patients were included in each group. Clinical and mycological controls were carried out one week and one month after completion of therapy and 89.7% of the patients treated with terconazole responded to therapy and 82.1% patients treated with clotrimazole were cured. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference when the results of the terconazole treated patients and the clotrimazole group were compared.

  6. Characterization of phase transformation during hot compressive deformation in a β-stabilized Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.4W–0.15B alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong Huang, Lan; Li, Huizhong; He, Yuehui

    2015-07-15

    A β-stabilized Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.4W–0.15B (at.%) alloy was hot deformed by uniaxial compression and the phase evolution during the compression was characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. The results show that modest deformation stress during hot compression restrains the γ → α transformation and the decomposition of β phase. The restrained γ → α transformation is a result of a modified equilibrium of the γ and α phases due to the applied stress, and the restrained β decomposition is a kinetic effect due to the decelerated diffusion of β-stabilizing elements caused by the compressive stress. - Highlights: • In β-stabilized TiAl alloys, hot deformation has great influence on the equilibrium of the γ, α, and β phases. • Deformation restrains the γ → α transformation. • Deformation inhibits the decomposition of the β phase.

  7. LaNi1-xCoxO3-δ (x=0.4 to 0.7) cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells by infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzan, Aleksander; Ovtar, Simona; Chen, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Performance of LaNi1-xCoxO3-δ (LNC) (x=0.4 to 0.7) as a cathode in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is evaluated. Symmetrical cathode/electrolyte/cathode cells for electrochemical testing are prepared by infiltration of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) backbone with LNC solutions. It is showed that the cathode infiltrated with LaNi0.5Co0.5O3-δ (LNC155) has the lowest polarization resistance and activation energy, 197 mΩ cm2 at 600 °C and 0.91 eV, respectively. Therefore it is the most promising material of the LNC group for electrochemical applications. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that none of the materials is single-phased after heat treatment at 800 °C as they contain residues of La2O3 and La2NiO4-δ

  8. Four-frequency polarizing microscope for recording plasma images in the wavelength range 0.4-1.1 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Vasin, B. L.; Mal'kova, S. V.; Osipov, M. V.; Puzyrev, V. N.; Saakyan, A. T.; Starodub, A. N.; Fedotov, S. I.; Fronya, A. A.; Shutyak, V. G.

    2010-12-15

    The optical scheme and design of a four-frequency polarizing microscope intended for simultaneous recording of plasma images in the wavelength range 0.4-1.1 {mu}m with the spatial resolution 12 {mu}m in the entire spectral range are described. The effectiveness of such a microscope in studies of plasmas produced on interaction of laser radiation with a target is demonstrated. The plasma images are obtained at the frequencies {omega}{sub 0}, (3/2){omega}{sub 0}, 2{omega}{sub 0}, and (5/2){omega}{sub 0}, where {omega}{sub 0} corresponds to the frequency of heating radiation. The transformation coefficient that characterizes the efficiency of conversion of heating radiation into the 2{omega}{sub 0}, (3/2){omega}{sub 0}, and (5/2){omega}{sub 0} harmonics generated in the plasma is determined.

  9. Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2014-10-13

    We report on the magnetic, magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties of Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. The title compound exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H ≥ 40 kOe and a small but non negligible negative MR for H ≤ 30 kOe. The maximum positive MR reaches 13% at H = 80 kOe. The magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes as functions of temperature each show two anomalies: a broad dome-like maximum below 20 K and a relatively sharp peak at higher temperature. As a result, observed behaviors are unique among other binary and mixed lanthanide compounds.

  10. Magnetron-sputtered La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 nanocomposite interlayer for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyev, A. A.; Ionov, I. V.; Shipilova, A. V.; Kovalchuk, A. N.; Syrtanov, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    A thin layer of a La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) is deposited between the electrolyte and the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3/Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 (LSCF/CGO) cathode layer of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) by pulsed magnetron sputtering using an oxide target of LSCF. The films were completely dense and well adherent to the substrate. The effects of annealing in temperature range from 200 to 1000 °C on the crystalline structure of the LSCF films have been studied. The films of nominal thickness, 250-500 nm, are crystalline when annealed at temperatures above 600 °C. The crystalline structure, surface topology, and morphology of the films were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. To study the electrochemical characteristics of the deposited-film, solid oxide fuel cells using 325-nm LSCF films as interlayer between the electrolyte and the cathode have been fabricated. The LSCF interlayer improves the overall performance of the SOFC by increasing the interfacial area between the electrolyte and cathode. The electrolyte-supported cells with the interlayer have 30% greater, overall power output compared to that achieved with the cells without interlayer. The LSCF interlayer could also act as a transition layer that improves adhesion and relieves both thermal stress and lattice strain between the cathode and the electrolyte. Our results demonstrate that pulsed magnetron sputtering provides a low-temperature synthesis route for realizing ultrathin nanocrystalline LSCF film layers for intermediate- or low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

  11. Extinction law in the range 0.4-4.8 μm and the 8620 Å DIB towards the stellar cluster Westerlund 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damineli, A.; Almeida, L. A.; Blum, R. D.; Damineli, D. S. C.; Navarete, F.; Rubinho, M. S.; Teodoro, M.

    2016-12-01

    The young stellar cluster Westerlund 1 (Wd 1: l = 339.6°, b = -0.4°) is one of the most massive in the local Universe, but accurate parameters are pending on better determination of its extinction and distance. Based on our photometry and data collected from other sources, we have derived a reddening law for the cluster line-of-sight representative of the Galactic plane (-5° < b <+5°) in the window 0.4-4.8 μm: The power-law exponent α = 2.13 ± 0.08 is much steeper than those published a decade ago (1.6-1.8) and our index RV = 2.50 ± 0.04 also differs from them, but in very good agreement with recent works based on deep surveys in the inner Galaxy. As a consequence, the total extinction AKs = 0.74 ± 0.08 (AV = 11.40 ± 2.40) is substantially smaller than previous results (0.91-1.13), part of which (AKs = 0.63 or AV = 9.66) is from the interstellar medium. The extinction in front of the cluster spans a range of ΔAV ˜8.7 with a gradient increasing from SW to NE across the cluster face, following the same general trend of warm dust distribution. The map of the J - Ks colour index also shows a trend of reddening in this direction. We measured the equivalent width of the diffuse interstellar band at 8620 Å (the `GAIA DIB') for Wd 1 cluster members and derived the relation AKs = 0.612 EW - 0.191 EW2. This extends the Munari et al. relation, valid for EB-V < 1, to the non-linear regime (AV > 4).

  12. Magnetocaloric effect in pristine and Bi-doped Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 manganite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daivajna, Mamatha D.; Rao, Ashok

    2016-11-01

    Near room temperature, magnetocaloric effect in pristine and Bi-doped Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 manganites has been studied using in-field heat capacity measurements. The Debye temperature (θD) for the pristine sample was estimated to be 522 K and its value increases to 530 K for the Bi-doped sample with x=0.05. The entropy associated with paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transition is found to be 2.4 J/mol K and 2.3 J/mol K for x=0 and 0.05 compositions respectively. The estimated values of adiabatic temperature ∆Tad for the samples with x=0 and x=0.05 are respectively 2.2 K and 1.9 K for 0-6 Tesla. The maximum isothermal change in entropy, ∆SM for the sample Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 with transition temperature 306 K is found to be 2.7 J/kg-K with application of external magnetic field of 2 T and for Bi-doped sample (with x=0.05) the isothermal change in entropy reduces to 2.0 J/kg-K. The calculated maximum values of the isothermal entropy changes, ∆SM for the pristine sample, vary in the range 1.7-3.9 J/kg-K for a magnetic field change of 1-6 T. The present results suggest that these compounds can be possible candidates as magnetic refrigerants. This results in a large relative cooling power (RCP) around 93.5 J kg-1 K for the pristine sample under an application of magnetic field of 2 T. On contrary, with Bi-doping, RCP decreases to 56 J kg-1 K at external field of 2 T.

  13. Sleep, sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance while on watch in a simulated 4 hours on/8 hours off maritime watch system.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Wessel M A; Kircher, Albert; Dahlgren, Anna; Lützhöft, Margareta; Barnett, Mike; Kecklund, Göran; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2013-11-01

    Seafarer sleepiness jeopardizes safety at sea and has been documented as a direct or contributing factor in many maritime accidents. This study investigates sleep, sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance in a simulated 4 h on/8 h off watch system as well as the effects of a single free watch disturbance, simulating a condition of overtime work, resulting in 16 h of work in a row and a missed sleep opportunity. Thirty bridge officers (age 30 ± 6 yrs; 29 men) participated in bridge simulator trials on an identical 1-wk voyage in the North Sea and English Channel. The three watch teams started respectively with the 00-04, the 04-08, and the 08-12 watches. Participants rated their sleepiness every hour (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale [KSS]) and carried out a 5-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) test at the start and end of every watch. Polysomnography (PSG) was recorded during 6 watches in the first and the second half of the week. KSS was higher during the first (mean ± SD: 4.0 ± 0.2) compared with the second (3.3 ± 0.2) watch of the day (p < 0.001). In addition, it increased with hours on watch (p < 0.001), peaking at the end of watch (4.1 ± 0.2). The free watch disturbance increased KSS profoundly (p < 0.001): from 4.2 ± 0.2 to 6.5 ± 0.3. PVT reaction times were slower during the first (290 ± 6 ms) compared with the second (280 ± 6 ms) watch of the day (p < 0.001) as well as at the end of the watch (289 ± 6 ms) compared with the start (281 ± 6 ms; p = 0.001). The free watch disturbance increased reaction times (p < 0.001) from 283 ± 5 to 306 ± 7 ms. Similar effects were observed for PVT lapses. One third of all participants slept during at least one of the PSG watches. Sleep on watch was most abundant in the team working 00-04 and it increased following the free watch disturbance. This study reveals that-within a 4 h on/8 h off shift system-subjective and

  14. How many hours do people sleep in Bangladesh? A country-representative survey.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Fakir M; Khan, Safayet; Akter, Tahera; Jhohura, Fatema T; Reja, Saifur; Islam, Akramul; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated total sleep time in the Bangladeshi population and identified the proportion of the population at greater risk of developing chronic diseases due to inadequate sleep. Using a cross-sectional survey, total sleep time was captured and analysed in 3968 respondents aged between 6 and 106 years in 24 (of 64) districts in Bangladesh. Total sleep time was defined as the hours of total sleep in the previous 24 h. We used National Sleep Foundation (2015) guidelines to determine the recommended sleep hours in different age categories. Less or more than the recommended total sleep time (in hours) was considered 'shorter' and 'longer' sleep time, respectively. Linear and multinomial logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between demographic variables and estimated risk of shorter and longer total sleep time. The mean (±standard deviation) total sleep time of children (6-13 years), teenagers (14-17 years), young adults and adults (18-64 years) and older adults (≥65 years) were 8.6 (±1.1), 8.1 (±1.0), 7.7 (±0.9) and 7.8 (±1.4) h, respectively, which were significantly different (P < 0.01). More than half of school-age children (55%) slept less than, and 28.2% of older adults slept longer than, recommended. Residents in all divisions (except Chittagong) in Bangladesh were less likely to sleep longer than in the Dhaka division. Rural populations had a 3.96× greater chance of sleeping for a shorter time than urban residents. The Bangladeshi population tends to sleep for longer and/or shorter times than their respective recommended sleep hours, which is detrimental to health.

  15. It’s five o’clock somewhere: An examination of the association between happy hour drinking and negative consequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to understand which young adults’ drinking behaviors change in the presence of happy hour specials, the ways in which they change, and whether a link exists between happy hour drinking behavior and negative outcomes. Methods Using data collected from bar-going respondents (n = 1,423) within a print survey administered to a general college sample (n = 2,349), we identify significant differences in changes in happy hour behavior between demographic groups using χ2 tests and determine whether this behavior is related to six negative alcohol-related outcomes using logistical and ordinary least squares regression models with a variety of controls, including age of onset and frequency of use. Results Women, students under 21, non-athletes, members of Greek-affiliated organizations, more affluent and unemployed students, and students living on campus were more likely to change their drinking behavior in the presence of happy hour specials. In general, the most robust predictors of negative events are gender, alcohol use frequency, age of alcohol use onset, and increasing drinking due to happy hours/bar specials. While it was linked to various negative and illegal behaviors, altered happy hour drinking was not associated with an increased likelihood of an alcohol-related arrest. Conclusions This study lends support to the idea that alcohol price specials should be regulated in an effort to reduce high consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. Future research into the relationship between happy hour drinking and negative outcomes is necessary and should examine the impact of happy hour advertisements, different types of specials, and the timing of happy hours. PMID:24758616

  16. Vision, Training Hours, and Road Testing Results in Bioptic Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Bradley E.; Flom, Roanne E.; Bullimore, Mark A.; Raasch, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bioptic telescopic spectacles (BTS) can be used by people with central visual acuity that does not meet the state standards to obtain an unrestricted driver’s license. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among visual and demographic factors, training hours, and the results of road testing for bioptic drivers. Methods A retrospective study of patients who received an initial daylight bioptic examination at the Ohio State University and subsequently received a bioptic license was conducted. Data were collected on vision including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and visual field. Hours of driver training and results of Highway Patrol road testing were extracted from records. Relationships among vision, training hours, and road testing were analyzed. Results Ninety-seven patients who completed a vision examination between 2004 and 2008 and received daylight licensure with BTS were included. Results of the first Highway Patrol road test were available for 74 patients. The median interquartile range (IQR) hours of training prior to road testing was 21±17 hours, (range of 9 to 75 hours). Candidates without previous licensure were younger (p< 0.001) and had more documented training (p< 0.001). Lack of previous licensure and more training were significantly associated with having failed a portion of the Highway Patrol test and points deducted on the road test. Conclusions New bioptic drivers without previous non-bioptic driving experience required more training and performed more poorly on road testing for licensure than those who had previous non-bioptic licensure. No visual factor was predictive of road testing results after adjustment for previous experience. The hours of training received remained predictive of road testing outcome even with adjustment for previous experience. These results suggest that previous experience and trainer assessments should be investigated as potential predictors of road safety in bioptic drivers in

  17. Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Instrumented Spinal Fusion Surgery: A Comparative Analysis of 24-Hour and 72-Hour Dosages

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Vineet Thomas; Ravichandran, Mirunalini; Achimuthu, Rajamani

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study. Purpose To compare the efficacy of 24-hour and 72-hour antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing surgical site infections (SSIs). Overview of Literature Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgical practice has become a universally accepted protocol for minimizing postoperative complications related to infections. Although prophylaxis is an accepted practice, a debate exists with regard to the antibiotic type and its administration duration for various surgical procedures. Methods Our institute is a tertiary care hospital with more than 100 spinal surgeries per year for various spine disorders in the department of orthopedics. We conducted this prospective study in our department from June 2012 to January 2015. A total of 326 patients were enrolled in this study, with 156 patients in the 72-hour antibiotic prophylaxis group (group A) and 170 patients in the 24-hour group (group B). Cefazolin was the antibiotic used in both groups. Two surgeons were involved in conducting all the spinal procedures. Our study compared SSIs among patients undergoing instrumented spinal fusion. Results The overall rate of SSIs was 1.8% with no statistical difference between the two groups. Conclusions The 24-hour antimicrobial prophylaxis is as effective as the 72-hour dosage in instrumented spinal fusion surgery. PMID:27994776

  18. Twenty four hour care in inner cities: two years' out of hours workload in east London general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, A. E.; Jewell, J. A.; Robson, J.

    1989-01-01

    Two inner city general practices in east London jointly provide care outside normal working hours without using deputising services for about 14,000 patients. The statistics on workload were reviewed for 1987 and 1988. An overall rate of face to face consultations of 4.1 per patient per year was recorded, there being 115,965 consultations over two years for a mean list size of 14,174 patients. Four per cent (4737) of such consultations were outside normal working hours. The annual rate of visiting outside normal hours was 128.1 per 1000 patients in 1987 (1793 visits) and 131.5 per 1000 in 1988 (1888 visits). The rates of night visiting were 18.8 (262 visits) and 18.9 (271 visits) per 1000 patients in 1987 and 1988 respectively. Only 24% of all the requests for medical help out of hours (1483/6220) were dealt with by advice given on the telephone. The high rates of consultation outside normal working hours with only a small proportion being dealt with on the telephone alone may be explained by indices of deprivation. Local rotas for out of hours work are a good compromise between meeting the needs of patients and doctors in deprived areas, but there are financial implications for inner cities. PMID:2506972

  19. Strength of initially virgin martensites at - 196 °C after aging and tempering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldis, George T.; Cohen, Morris

    1983-06-01

    The compressive strength at -196°C of martensites in Fe-0.26 pct C-24 pct Ni, Fe-0.4 pct C-21 pct Ni, and Fe-0.4 pct C-18 pct Ni-3 pct Mo alloys, all with subzero M temperatures, has been determined in the virgin condition and after one hour at temperatures from -80 to +400 °C. The effects of ausforming (20 pct reduction in area of the austenite by swaging at room temperature prior to the martensitic transformation) were also investigated. For the unausformed martensites, aging at temperatures up to 0 °C results in relatively small increases in strength. Above 0 °C, the age hardening increment increases rapidly, reaching a maximum at 100 °C. Above 100 °C, the strength decreases continuously with increasing tempering temperature except for the molybdenum-containing alloy, which exhibits secondary hardening on tempering at 400 °C. For the ausformed martensites, the response to aging at subzero temperatures is greater than for unausformed material. Strength again passes through a maximum on aging at 100 °C. However, on tempering just above 100 °C, the ausformed materials show a slower rate of softening than the unausformed martensites. The strengthening produced by the ausforming treatment is largest for the Fe-0.4 pct C-18 pct Ni-3 pct Mo alloy, but there is no evidence of carbide precipitation in the deformed austenite to a°Count for this effect of molybdenum.

  20. Results of a 1462 hour ammonia arcjet endurance test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, J. E.; Goodfellow, K. D.

    1992-07-01

    A total of 1462 hours of operaton were demonstrated in an endurance test of a 30 kWe-class ammonia arcjet operated at 10 kWe. The propellant flow rate was 0.170 g/s, and the measured performance increased from approximately 650 s specific impulse at 36 percent efficiency at the beginning of the test to 675 s at 39 percent near the end. The voltage increased and the current dropped slightly over the first 400 hours, and then remained approximately constant for the remainder of the test. The test, scheduled for 1500 hours, was terminated after an insulator in the rear of the engine failed. Post-test examination of the electrodes revealed only minimal damage. Although there was evidence of a number of mass transport processes occurring in the discharge chamber, the primary life-limiting wear mechanisms appear to be cathode tip erosion and constrictor melting.

  1. A survey of systems for after-hours care.

    PubMed

    Rosen, R A

    1991-01-01

    As part of medical care contracts and in response to patient needs for access, HMOs offer a full system of medical care, with 24-hour-per-day, 365-day-per-year coverage for emergencies. As economic units, HMOs strive to efficiently use staff, facilities and financial resources to provide these services. With high quality a goal for all medical services, the HMO needs to shape its emergency care coverage system to satisfy patient needs. Competitive forces and facility availability will play an important role in shaping the design of emergency and after-hours care in each medical community. This article will focus on patient needs, provider considerations, and HMO plan concerns for emergency and after-hours care.

  2. Results of a 1462 hour ammonia arcjet endurance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, J. E.; Goodfellow, K. D.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 1462 hours of operaton were demonstrated in an endurance test of a 30 kWe-class ammonia arcjet operated at 10 kWe. The propellant flow rate was 0.170 g/s, and the measured performance increased from approximately 650 s specific impulse at 36 percent efficiency at the beginning of the test to 675 s at 39 percent near the end. The voltage increased and the current dropped slightly over the first 400 hours, and then remained approximately constant for the remainder of the test. The test, scheduled for 1500 hours, was terminated after an insulator in the rear of the engine failed. Post-test examination of the electrodes revealed only minimal damage. Although there was evidence of a number of mass transport processes occurring in the discharge chamber, the primary life-limiting wear mechanisms appear to be cathode tip erosion and constrictor melting.

  3. EISCAT Space Debris during the IPY- A 5000-Hour Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, J.; Jehn, R.; Krag, H.

    2009-03-01

    During the International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007-2009, EISCAT measured space debris at its Svalbard radar (ESR, latitude 78.2°N), simultaneously with the standard ionospheric measurement. From the 239 000 events which were recorded in 5060 hours only a "Quality Set" (QS) was extracted for further analysis. The QS essentially consists of 101 complete 24-hour beam park debris measurements, between 13 Mar 2007 and 10 Feb 2008, and contains about 95 000 events. The data provide a relatively dense sampling of the debris environment above ESR in the first year following the Chinese ASAT event, in January 2007. The QS is freely available in the web.

  4. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C-1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  5. Icosahedral quasicrystalline (Ti1.6V0.4Ni)100-xScx alloys: Synthesis, structure and their application in Ni-MH batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wen; Yi, Jianhong; Zheng, Biju; Wang, Limin

    2013-06-01

    Thanks to the revolutionary discovery of 5-fold symmetry contributed by Shechtman, quasicrystal is now recognized as another solid-state existing form. As the second largest class of quasicrystals, titanium-based icosahedral quasicrystals are very promising for hydrogen storage applications owing to their inherent abundant interstitial sites and favorable hydrogen-metal chemistry. In this context, (Ti1.6V0.4Ni)100-xScx (x=0.5-6) quaternary icosahedral quasicrystals have been successfully synthesized via arc-melting and subsequent melt-spinning techniques, and then their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen is explored. When the molar ratio of Sc addition is under 1%, a maximum discharge capacity of about 270 mA h g-1 can be delivered. With further increasing Sc amount to 6%, good cycling stability as well as significantly retarded self-discharge rate (capacity retention 94% after 24 h relaxation) is observed. But meanwhile, the discharge capacities fall into 250-240 mA h g-1, and the electrocatalytic activity improvement is highly demanded.

  6. Exciton-phonon interaction in Al0.4Ga0.6N/Al0.53Ga0.47N multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ya-Li; Jin, Peng; Liu, Gui-Peng; Wang, Wei-Ying; Qi, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Chang-Qing; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2016-08-01

    The exciton-phonon interaction in Al0.4Ga0.6N/Al0.53Ga0.47N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) is studied by deep-ultraviolet time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). Up to four longitudinal-optical (LO) phonon replicas of exciton recombination are observed, indicating the strong coupling of excitons with LO phonons in the MQWs. Moreover, the exciton-phonon coupling strength in the MQWs is quantified by the Huang-Rhys factor, and it keeps almost constant in a temperature range from 10 K to 120 K. This result can be explained in terms of effects of fluctuations in the well thickness in the MQWs and the temperature on the exciton-phonon interaction. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB619306), the Beijing Science and Technology Project, China (Grant No. Z151100003315024), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61404132).

  7. Comparative alteration mineral mapping using visible to shortwave infrared (0.4-2.4 μm) Hyperion, ALI, and ASTER imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, B.E.; Crowley, J.K.; Zimbelman, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Hyperion imaging spectrometer data covering an area in the Central Andes between Volcan Socompa and Salar de Llullaillaco were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks associated with several young volcanic systems. Six ALI channels in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range (0.4-1.0 ??m) were useful for discriminating between ferric-iron alteration minerals based on the spectral shapes of electronic absorption features seen in continuum-removed spectra. Six ASTER channels in the short wavelength infrared (1.0-2.5 ??m) enabled distinctions between clay and sulfate mineral types based on the positions of band minima related to Al-OH vibrational absorption features. Hyperion imagery embedded in the broader image coverage of ALI and ASTER provided essential leverage for calibrating and improving the mapping accuracy of the multispectral data. This capability is especially valuable in remote areas of the earth where available geologic and other ground truth information is limited.

  8. Tunable metal-insulator transition in Nd1-xYxNiO3 (x = 0.3, 0.4) perovskites thin film at near room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Tao; Qi, Zeming; Wang, Yuyin; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Guobin; Liu, Miao

    2015-07-01

    Metal-insulator transition (MIT) occurs due to the charge disproportionation and lattice distortions in rare-earth nickelates. Existing studies revealed that the MIT behavior of rare-earth nickelates is fairly sensitive to external stress/pressure, suggesting a viable route for MIT strain engineering. Unlike applying extrinsic strain, the MIT can also be modulated by through rare-earth cation mixing, which can be viewed as intrinsic quantum stress. We choose Nd1-XYXNiO3 (x = 0.3, 0.4) perovskites thin films as a prototype system to exhibit the tunable sharp MIT at near room temperature. By adjusting Y concentration, the transition temperature of the thin films can be changed within the range of 340-360 K. X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and in situ infrared spectroscopy are employed to probe the structural and optical property variation affected by composition and temperature. The infrared transmission intensity decreases with temperature across the MIT, indicating a pronounced thermochromic effect. Meanwhile, the XAFS result exhibits that the crystal atomistic structure changes accompanying with the Y atoms incorporation and MIT phase transition. The heavily doped Y atoms result in the pre-edge peak descent and Ni-O bond elongation, suggesting an enhanced charge disproportionation effect and the weakening of hybridization between Ni-3d and O-2p orbits.

  9. Magnetic AC loss of a mono-Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 tape/Ag in perpendicular field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Guomin; Yu, Hui; Huang, Miaomiao; Yuan, Weijia

    2016-12-01

    The magnetic AC losses of monofilament Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2/Ag tapes are measured in the temperature range between 20 K and 30 K both in perpendicular and parallel field. The loss, measured by the standard magnetization technique, is determined from the area of the hysteresis loop using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in a cyclic field of amplitude up to 7 T. The results in perpendicular field are compared to that of the parallel-field loss and theoretical calculation of magnetization loss at various temperatures. There is a reasonable agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental results even in high field. The magnetic critical current density (Jc) of the tape, obtained by the magnetic hysteresis measurements M(H), are investigated in two field directions and in the temperature range from 5 K to 30 K. The comparison between the magnetic Jc in both field directions and the transport Jc of the tape are also done at various temperatures and fields. The anisotropy of Jc (Γ = Jcab /Jcc) is very small.

  10. Color of postponed magnetic noise in K0.4[Cr (CN) 6 ] [Mn (R /S )-pn ] (R /S ) -pn H0.6 molecular ferrimagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgunov, R. B.; Talantsev, A. D.

    2016-10-01

    Exotic conditions for the existence and evolution of nonlinear spin ensembles (domain walls, spin solitons, skyrmions) in molecular-based magnets are incarnated in the macroscopic response of magnetization corresponding to collective stochastic behavior. The molecular ferrimagnet K0.4[Cr (CN) 6 ] [Mn (R /S )-pn ] (R /S ) -pn H0.6 manifests three types of magnetic relaxation: (a) continuous decay of magnetic moment, (b) stepwise relaxation by stochastic magnetization jumps, and (c) a single jump of magnetization in threshold magnetic field. Continuous relaxation at 20-50 K is provided by domain wall movement described in the frames of a strong pinning model, while a low-temperature continuous component of relaxation does not follow this model. Stepwise stochastic relaxation was observed below 8 K in both a sweeping reverse magnetic field and a stationary reverse magnetic field. Statistical treatment of the postponed magnetization jumps revealed a multimodal amplitude distribution of stochastic magnetization jumps corresponding to magnetic moment transitions between few clear distinguishable levels. Spectral density of magnetization jumps in a stationary magnetic field corresponds to white noise, while spectral density in a sweeping magnetic field manifests pink noise ˜1 /f provided by self-organized criticality. Postponed emission of magnetic noise in the 10-6-5 ×10-1Hz frequency range was observed in stationary conditions in contrast to Barkhausen noise.

  11. Optical studies of carriers’ vertical transport in the alternately-strained ZnS{sub 0.4}Se{sub 0.6}/CdSe superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Evropeytsev, E. A. Sorokin, S. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Sedova, I. V.; Klimko, G. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Toropov, A. A.

    2015-03-15

    We present the results of theoretical modelling and experimental optical studies of the alternatively-strained CdSe/ZnS{sub y}Se{sub 1−y} (y = 0.4) superlattice (SL) with effective band-gap E{sub g}{sup eff} ∼ 2.580 eV and a thickness of ∼300 nm, which was grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a GaAs substrate. The thicknesses and composition of the layers of the superlattice are determined on the basis of the SL minibands parameters calculated implying both full lattice matching of the SL as a whole to a GaAs substrate and high efficiency of photoexcited carriers transport along the growth axis. Photoluminescence studies of the transport properties of the structure (including a superlattice with one enlarged quantum well) show that the characteristic time of the diffusion of charge carriers at 300 K is shorter than the times defined by recombination processes. Such superlattices seem to be promising for the formation of a wide-gap photoactive region in a multijunction solar cell, which includes both III–V and II–VI compounds.

  12. Improper Ferroelectric Contributions in the Double Perovskite Pb2Mn0.6Co0.4WO6 System with a Collinear Magnetic Structure.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Fabio; Righi, Lara; Mezzadri, Francesco; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry D; Delmonte, Davide; Pernechele, Chiara; Cabassi, Riccardo; Bolzoni, Fulvio; Solzi, Massimo; Calestani, Gianluca

    2016-05-02

    The physical characterization and the extended crystallographic study of the double perovskite system Pb2Mn0.6Co0.4WO6 indicate an improper ferroelectric contribution to the polarization induced by the magnetic ordering. In the paramagnetic phase, the compound displays a centrosymmetric orthorhombic double perovskite structure with the Pmcn1' symmetry. The structure is strongly distorted by the lead stereoactivity. Magnetization measurements show two magnetic transitions at 188 and 9 K, but the time-of-flight neutron diffraction data provide evidence for a long-range magnetic ordering only below the second transition. Quantitative structure refinements combined with a comprehensive symmetry analysis indicate the Pm'c21' magnetic space group to be the adequate symmetry to describe the structural distortions and spin ordering in the ground state of the system. The symmetry implies a coexistence of a spontaneous ferromagnetic moment and a ferroelectric polarization along the orthogonal b- and c-axes, respectively, in the long-range ordered structure. Macroscopic measurements confirm the presence of the spontaneous polarization also below the first transition at 188 K, where only short-range magnetic correlations are evidenced by diffuse scattering in neutron diffraction.

  13. Method of Estimating the Long-term Rupture Strength of 11Cr-2W-0.4Mo-1Cu-Nb-V Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Manabu

    2015-05-01

    Long-term rupture data of 11Cr-2W-0.4Mo-1Cu-Nb-V steel were analyzed using an exponential equation for stress regarding time to rupture as a thermal activation process. The fitness was compared with the usually employed method assuming power-law creep. In the exponential method, rupture data are classified into several groups according to the thermal activation process; the activation energy, Q; the activation volume, V; then, the Larson-Miller constant, C, values are calculated, and a regression equation is obtained for each data group. The fitness level of the equation was satisfactorily high for each group. The values of Q, V, and C were unusually small for a data group where an unexpected drop in rupture strength was observed. The critical issue is how to comprehend signs of degradation within the short term. We can observe several signs at a creep time of approximately one-tenth of the times of the degradation events. The small values of Q and V indicate that completely softened regions form and creep locally, which is consistent with previous observations. From both metallurgical considerations and the variations of Q and V, it is suggested that the rate of the unexpected drop in strength is mitigated after further long-term creep.

  14. Mechanochemical synthesis of pnictide compounds and superconducting Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 bulks with high critical current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, J. D.; Jiang, J.; Polyanskii, A. A.; Hellstrom, E. E.

    2013-07-01

    BaFe2As2 (Ba-122) and Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (K-doped Ba-122) powders were successfully synthesized from the elements using a reaction method that incorporates a mechanochemical reaction using high-impact ball milling. Mechanically activated, self-sustaining reactions (MSRs) were observed while milling the elements together to form these compounds. After the MSR, the Ba-122 phase had formed, the powder had an average grain size <1 μm, and the material was effectively mixed. X-ray diffraction confirmed Ba-122 was the primary phase present after milling. Heat treatment of the K-doped MSR powder at high temperature (1120 ° C) and pressure yielded dense samples with high phase purity, but only granular current flow could be visualized by magneto-optical imaging. In contrast, a short, low temperature (600 ° C) heat treatment at ambient pressure resulted in global current flow throughout the bulk sample even though the density was lower and impurity phases were more prevalent. An optimized heat treatment involving a two-step, low temperature (600 ° C) heat treatment of the MSR powder produced bulk material with very high critical current density above 0.1 MA cm-2 at 4.2 K and self-field (SF).

  15. Study of magnetic, structural and magnetocaloric properties of La0.6Pr0.4Mn2Si2 under high pressures and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaštil, J.; Arnold, Z.; Isnard, O.; Skourski, Y.; Kamarád, J.; Itié, J. P.

    2017-02-01

    The structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La0.6Pr0.4Mn2Si2 compound were measured in wide range of temperature, magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure. The structural study up to 10 GPa confirmed the existence of critical Mn-Mn distance 0.2883 nm for the ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition at room temperature. The results demonstrated the crucial role of the volume in the suppression of the ferromagnetic phase above the transition temperature T1=168 K under pressure. The huge pressure shift of the transition temperature T1, dT1/dp=230 K/GPa, was observed. Based on our magnetization measurement the low temperature transition at T2=30 K is connected with reorientation of Mn moment and the rare-earth sublattice is not ordered in this case. The direct magnetocaloric measurement showed moderate values of the adiabatic temperature change connected with the magnetic transition at Tc and T1 and confirmed the first order character of the transition at T1 and second order character of the transition at Tc.

  16. Doping effects of Co and Cu on superconductivity and magnetism in Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z T; Yang, Z R; Li, L; Ling, L S; Zhang, C J; Pi, L; Zhang, Y H

    2013-01-23

    We report on the investigation of Co and Cu substitution effects on superconductivity and magnetism in Fe(1+y)Te(0.6)Se(0.4) single crystals. The parent Fe(1.01)Te(0.59)Se(0.41) shows a nodeless bulk superconductivity as revealed in heat capacity measurement, which is gradually suppressed by either Co or Cu doping. It is found that the Co or Cu doping mainly serves as scatterers rather than charge carrier doping, which is in agreement with the DFT calculation (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 157004) reported by Wadati et al. In comparison with Cu doping, Co doping shows a stronger influence on magnetism while a less evident suppression effect on superconductivity. Upon substitution of Co for Fe, a Schottky heat capacity anomaly develops gradually at low temperatures, implying the existence of a paramagnetic moment in the Co-doped samples. In contrast, Cu doping may mainly serve as non-magnetic scatterers, where no Schottky anomaly is observed.

  17. Hot pressing to enhance the transport Jc of Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 superconducting tapes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, He; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Xianping; Dong, Chiheng; Zhang, Haitao; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Qianjun; Ma, Yanwei; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Tian, Huanfang; Li, Jianqi

    2014-01-01

    High-performance Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Sr-122) tapes have been successfully fabricated using hot pressing (HP) process. The effect of HP temperatures (850–925°C) on the c-axis texture, resistivity, Vickers micro-hardness, microstructure and critical current properties has been systematically studied. Taking advantage of high degree of c-axis texture, well grain connectivity and large concentration of strong-pinning defects, we are able to obtain an excellent Jc of 1.2 × 105 A/cm2 at 4.2 K and 10 T for Sr-122 tapes. More importantly, the field dependence of Jc turns out to be very weak, such that in 14 T the Jc still remains ~ 1.0 × 105 A/cm2. These Jc values are the highest ever reported so far for iron-pnictide wires and tapes, achieving the level desired for practical applications. Our results clearly strengthen the position of iron-pnictide conductors as a competitor to the conventional and MgB2 superconductors for high field applications. PMID:25374068

  18. HYDROGEN CHLORIDE IN DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS ALONG THE LINE OF SIGHT TO W31C (G10.6-0.4)

    SciTech Connect

    Monje, R. R.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Roueff, E.; Gerin, M.; De Luca, M.; Neufeld, D. A.; Godard, B.

    2013-04-10

    We report the detection of hydrogen chloride, HCl, in diffuse molecular clouds on the line of sight toward the star-forming region W31C (G10.6-0.4). The J = 1-0 lines of the two stable HCl isotopologues, H{sup 35}Cl and H{sup 37}Cl, are observed using the 1b receiver of the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The HCl line is detected in absorption, over a wide range of velocities associated with diffuse clouds along the line of sight to W31C. The analysis of the absorption strength yields a total HCl column density of a few 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, implying that HCl accounts for {approx}0.6% of the total gas-phase chlorine, which exceeds the theoretical model predictions by a factor of {approx}6. This result is comparable to those obtained from the chemically related species H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} and HCl{sup +}, for which large column densities have also been reported on the same line of sight. The source of discrepancy between models and observations is still unknown; however, the detection of these Cl-bearing molecules provides key constraints for the chlorine chemistry in the diffuse gas.

  19. Resistive Switching and Modulation of Pb(Zr0.4Ti0.6)O3/Nb:SrTiO3 Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu; Wang, Zhan Jie; Chen, Yan Na; Cui, Jian Zhong

    2016-12-07

    In this work, epitaxial Pb(Zr0.4Ti0.6)O3 (PZT) thin films with different thicknesses were deposited on Nb-doped SrTiO3 (NSTO) single-crystal substrates by chemical solution deposition (CSD), and their ferroelectric resistive switching behaviors were investigated. The results showed that the maximum ON/OFF ratio up to 850 could be obtained in the PZT/NSTO heterostructure with the 150 nm thick PZT film. On the basis of the Schottky-Simmons model and the modified semiconductor theory, we also evaluated the interfacial built-in field and the depletion layer at the PZT/NSTO interface, which can be modulated strongly by the ferroelectric polarization, but are independent of the thickness of the PZT thin films. It is clear that the ferroelectric resistive switching is related to the ferroelectric polarization and modulated by the thickness of ferroelectric films. Therefore, there is an optimal thickness of the PZT film for the maximum ON/OFF ratio due to the ferroelectricity and conductivity mutually restricting. It can be expected that by adjusting the ferroelectricity and conductivity of the ferroelectric thin film and its thickness, the maximum switching ratio can be further improved.

  20. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics of two V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft configurations at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P.; Durston, D. A.; Lummus, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to measure the aerodynamic characteristics of two horizontal attitude takeoff and landing V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concepts. In one concept, a jet diffuser ejector was used for the vertical lift system; the other used a remote augmentation lift system (RALS). Wind tunnel tests to investigate the aerodynamic uncertainties and to establish a data base for these types of concepts were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.2 to 2.0. The present report covers tests, conducted in the 11 foot transonic wind tunnel, for Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. Detailed effects of varying the angle of attack (up to 27 deg), angle of sideslip (-4 deg to +8 deg), Mach number, Reynolds number, and configuration buildup were investigated. In addition, the effects of wing trailing edge flap deflections, canard incidence, and vertical tail deflections were explored. Variable canard longitudinal location and different shapes of the inboard nacelle body strakes were also investigated.

  1. Hot Corrosion Studies of Detonation-Gun-Sprayed NiCrAlY + 0.4 wt.% CeO2 Coated Superalloys in Molten Salt Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Subhash; Jayaganthan, R.; Prakash, Satya

    2011-08-01

    Rare earth oxide (CeO2) has been incorporated in NiCrAlY alloy and hot corrosion resistance of detonation-gun-sprayed NiCrAlY + 0.4 wt.% CeO2 coatings on superalloys, namely, superni 75, superni 718, and superfer 800H in molten 40% Na2SO4-60% V2O5 salt environment were investigated at 900 °C for 100 cycles. The coatings exhibited characteristic splat globular dendritic structure with diameter similar to the original powder particles. The weight change technique was used to establish corrosion kinetics. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive analysis (FE-SEM/EDAX), and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. Coated superfer 800H alloy showed the highest corrosion resistance among the examined superalloys. CeO2 was found to be distributed in the coating along the splat boundaries, whereas Al streaks distributed non-uniformly. The main phases observed for the coated superalloys are oxides of Ni, Cr, Al, and spinels, which are suggested to be responsible for developing corrosion resistance.

  2. Effect of morphology of nonmetallic inclusions on tensile properties of quenched and tempered 0.4C-Cr-Mo-Ni steel

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Yoshiyuki

    1995-03-01

    Several 0.4C-Cr-Mo-Ni steels with different sulfur and calcium levels have been studied to determine the effect of the morphology of nonmetallic inclusions on the mechanical properties of quenched and tempered low-alloy structural steels. Stringy MnS inclusions appearing in the steel containing sulfur at a commercial level produced a remarkable anisotropy in the fracture ductility ({var_epsilon}{sub f}) for tempers of 473 and 923 K. The fine elliptical MnS inclusions that precipitated in the desulfurized steels at low sulfur levels of 0.002 mass% had a detrimental effect on the {var_epsilon}{sub f} for the temper of 473 K but a beneficial effect on the {var_epsilon}{sub f} for the temper of 923 K. Fine particle inclusions that appeared in the calcium-treated steel coupled with a low sulfur content of 0.002 mass% were quite effective in improving the isotropy regarding the fracture ductility for tempers of 473 and 923 K. However, two cluster types of composite inclusions associated with the calcium-treated steel containing sulfur at a commercial level produced a detrimental effect on the isotropy regarding the {var_epsilon}{sub f} independent of the tempering conditions. The results are described and discussed.

  3. Avalanches and hysteresis at the structural transition in stripe-ordered La1.48Nd0.4Sr0.12CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baity, P. G.; Saraswat, Garima; Popović, Dragana; Sasagawa, T.

    The coupling or intertwining of lattice, spin and charge orders and their effects on superconductivity are of great current interest in the physics of cuprates. The rare-earth-doped cuprate La1.48Nd0.4Sr0.12CuO4 (LNSCO), for example, exhibits a first-order structural phase transition (SPT) from the low-temperature orthorhombic (LTO) to the low-temperature tetragonal (LTT) phase, with the onset of the static charge stripe order roughly coinciding with the SPT. We present out-of-plane magnetoresistance measurements around the LTO-LTT transition in LNSCO single crystals with H ∥ c up to 12 T and H ∥ ab up to 9 T. Hysteresis is observed for both field orientations, but for H ∥ c we also find evidence for the existence of metastable states and collective dynamics in the form of avalanches and return point memory. Such behavior indicates that, in LNSCO, the LTO-LTT structural transition can be driven with H. A detailed analysis of the avalanche statistics is used to determine their size and field dependence, and to extract information about the domain structure and dynamics of domain walls. Our results shed light on the interplay of lattice, spin and charge degrees of freedom in stripe-ordered La-based cuprates. Supported by NSF DMR-1307075 and NHMFL via NSF DMR-1157490 and the State of Florida.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Fe0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferrite magnetic nanoclusters using simple thermal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Ibrahim; Zamanian, Ali; Behnamghader, Aliasghar

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents experimental results regarding the effect of the quantity of solvent on formation of the Fe-Zn ferrite nanoparticles during thermal decomposition. A ternary system of Fe0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 has been synthesized by a thermal decomposition method using metal acetylacetonate in high temperature boiling point solvent and oleic acid. The X-ray diffraction study was used to determine phase purity, crystal structure, and average crystallite size of iron-zinc ferrite nanoparticles. The average crystallite size of nanoparticles was increased from 13 nm to 37 nm as a result of reducing the solvent from 30 ml to 10 ml in a synthesis batch. The diameter of particles and morphology of the particles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Mid and far Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurement confirmed monophasic spinel structure of ferrite. Furthermore, the DC magnetic properties of the samples were studied using the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The largest Fe-Zn ferrite nanoparticles exhibited a relatively high saturation magnetization of 96 emu/g. Moreover, Low-field AC susceptibility measurement indicated blocking temperature of nanoparticles around 170-200 K.

  5. Particle size dependence of magnetic features for Ni0.6-xCuxZn0.4Fe2O4 spinel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Ni0.6-xCuxZn0.4Fe2O4 (x=0-0.5) ferrite nanoparticles were prepared using a reverse micelle process. Micron size particles were also synthesized by a sol-gel process. Mean particle size of ferrite nanoparticles is approximately in the range of 2-10 nm as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy and Langevin function. The heating thermograms of samples confirmed that there were no hydroxides in the ferrites fabricated via reverse micelles. The XRD results confirmed the formation of single phase of spinel ferrite particles for whole series of samples. The results of FTIR analysis indicated that the functional groups were formed on both nano and micron size particles. A vibrating sample magnetometer was employed to probe magnetic properties of nanosize and micron size samples. It was found that with an increase in the amount of copper in nanosize and micron size ferrites, the saturation magnetization increases. Magnetic susceptibility of nanoparticles was studied by the measurement of a.c. magnetic susceptibility versus temperature at different frequencies. The phenomenological Néel-Brown and Vogel-Fulcher models were employed to distinguish between the interacting or non-interacting system. Results exhibited that there is strong interaction between fine particles.

  6. The radial width of a Coronal Mass Ejection between 0.1 and 0.4 AU estimated from the Heliospheric Imager on STEREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, N. P.; Rouillard, A. P.; Davies, J. A.; Owens, M. J.; Forsyth, R. J.; Davis, C. J.; Harrison, R. A.

    2009-11-01

    On 15-17 February 2008, a CME with an approximately circular cross section was tracked through successive images obtained by the Heliospheric Imager (HI) instrument onboard the STEREO-A spacecraft. Reasoning that an idealised flux rope is cylindrical in shape with a circular cross-section, best fit circles are used to determine the radial width of the CME. As part of the process the radial velocity and longitude of propagation are determined by fits to elongation-time maps as 252±5 km/s and 70±5° respectively. With the longitude known, the radial size is calculated from the images, taking projection effects into account. The radial width of the CME, S (AU), obeys a power law with heliocentric distance, R, as the CME travels between 0.1 and 0.4 AU, such that S=0.26 R0.6±0.1. The exponent value obtained is compared to published studies based on statistical surveys of in situ spacecraft observations of ICMEs between 0.3 and 1.0 AU, and general agreement is found. This paper demonstrates the new opportunities provided by HI to track the radial width of CMEs through the previously unobservable zone between the LASCO field of view and Helios in situ measurements.

  7. Balancing act: Evidence for a strong subdominant d-wave pairing channel in Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2

    DOE PAGES

    Böhm, T.; Kemper, A. F.; Moritz, B.; ...

    2014-12-18

    We present detailed measurements of the temperature-dependent Raman spectra of optimally doped Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 and analyze the low-temperature spectra based on local-density-approximation band-structure calculations and the subsequent estimation of effective Raman vertices. Experimentally, a narrow, emergent mode appears in the B1g (dx2-y2) Raman spectra only below Tc, well into the superconducting state and at an energy below twice the energy gap on the electron Fermi-surface sheets. The Raman spectra can be reproduced quantitatively with estimates for the magnitude and momentum-space structure of an A1g (s-wave) pairing gap on different Fermi-surface sheets, as well as the identification of the emergent sharp featuremore » as a Bardasis-Schrieffer exciton. Formed as a Cooper-pair bound state in a subdominant dx2-y2 channel, the binding energy of the exciton relative to the gap edge shows that the coupling strength in the subdominant channel is as strong as 60% of that in the dominant s-wave channel. This result suggests that dx2-y2 may be the dominant pairing symmetry in Fe-based superconductors that lack central hole bands.« less

  8. Creating Reactivity with Unstable Endmembers using Pressure and Temperature: Synthesis of Bulk Cubic Mg0.4 Fe0.6 N.

    PubMed

    Serghiou, George; Ji, Gang; Odling, Nicholas; Reichmann, Hans J; Morniroli, Jean-Paul; Boehler, Reinhard; Frost, Dan J; Wright, Jonathan P; Wunder, Bernd

    2015-12-07

    Alloy and nitride solid solutions are prominent for structural, energy and information processing applications. There are frequently however barriers to making them. We remove barriers to reactivity here using pressure with a new synthetic approach. We target pressures where the reasons for cubic endmember nitride instability can become the driving force for cubic nitride solid solution stability. Using this approach we form a novel rocksalt Mg0.4 Fe0.6 N solid solution at between 15 and 23 GPa and up to 2500 K. This is a system where, neither an alloy nor a nitride solid solution form at ambient conditions and bulk MgN and FeN endmembers do not form, either at ambient or at high pressure. The new nitride is formed, by removing endmember lattice mismatch with pressure, allowing a stabilizing redistribution of valence electrons upon heating. This approach can be employed for a range of normally unreactive systems. Mg, Fe and enhanced nitrogen presence, may also indicate a richer reaction chemistry in our planets interior.

  9. Temperature-Dependent Flow Behavior and Microstructural Evolution During Compression of As-Cast Mg-7.7Al-0.4Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Rahul R.; Prabhu, Nityanand; Hodgson, Peter D.; Kashyap, Bhagwati P.

    2016-10-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties improve substantially by hot working. This aspect in as-cast Mg-7.7Al-0.4Zn (AZ80) alloy is investigated by compression tests over temperature range of 30-439°C and at strain rates of 5 × 10-2, 10-2, 5 × 10-4 and 10-4 s-1. The stress exponent ( n) and activation energy ( Q) were evaluated and analyzed for high-temperature deformation along with the microstructures. Upon deformation to a true strain of 0.80, which corresponds to the pseudo-steady-state condition, n and Q were found to be 5 and 151 kJ/mol, respectively. This suggests the dislocation climb-controlled mechanism for deformation. Prior to attaining the pseudo-steady-state condition, the stress-strain curves of AZ80 Mg alloy exhibit flow hardening followed by flow softening depending on the test temperature and strain rate. The microstructures obtained upon deformation revealed dissolution of Mg17Al12 particles with concurrent grain growth of α-matrix. The parameters like strain rate sensitivity and activation energy were analyzed for describing the microstructure evolution also as a function of strain rate and temperature. This exhibited similar trend as seen for deformation per se. Thus, the mechanisms for deformation and microstructure evolution are suggested to be interdependent.

  10. Stable ferroelectric perovskite structure with giant axial ratio and polarization in epitaxial BiFe0.6Ga0.4O3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen; Xiao, Juanxiu; Liu, Huajun; Yang, Ping; Ke, Qingqing; Ji, Wei; Yao, Kui; Ong, Khuong P; Zeng, Kaiyang; Wang, John

    2015-02-04

    Ferroelectric perovskites with strongly elongated unit cells (c/a > 1.2) are of particular interest for realizing giant polarization induced by significant ionic off-center displacements. Here we show that epitaxial BiFe0.6Ga0.4O3 (BFGO) thin films exhibit a stable super-tetragonal-like structure with twinning domains regardless of film thickness and substrate induced strain, evidenced with high resolution X-ray diffractometry (HR-XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The origin of the structural stability of BFGO is investigated by the first-principles calculation. The ferroelectric properties of BFGO are studied by PFM, first-principles calculation and macroscopic polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis measurement. A giant ferroelectric polarization of ∼150 μC/cm(2) is revealed by the first-principles calculations and confirmed by experiments. Our studies provide an alternative pathway of employing Ga-substitution other than the extensively studied strain engineering to stabilize the supertetragonal structure in BiFeO3-based epitaxial thin films.

  11. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in Fe-doped La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 with short-range ferromagnetic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, T. A.; Thanh, T. D.; Ho, T. O.; Phan, M. H.; Phan, The-Long; Yu, S. C.

    2015-05-01

    The magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of La0.6Ca0.4Mn1-xFexO3 (x = 0-0.04) compounds fabricated by solid-state reaction have been studied. Magnetization measurements versus temperature revealed a decrease of the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition temperature (TC) with increasing Fe-doping content. The TC values determined for the samples with x = 0, 0.02 and 0.04 are about 260, 254 and 236 K, respectively. Based on magnetic-field dependences of magnetization, M(H), the magnetic entropy change (ΔSm) of the samples were calculated. Under an applied field change ΔH = 30 kOe, the maximum |ΔSmax| value decreases from 5.74 Jkg-1 K-1 for x = 0 to about 2.62 Jkg-1 K-1 for x = 0.04. These values correspond to relative cooling powers 140-180 J/kg, which are comparable to those of other manganites. Analyzing magnetic-field dependences of |ΔSm| for the samples indicates their power-law relation. Based on Banerjee's criteria and Franco's universal curves related to the magnetic-entropy change, we assess magnetic order existing in the samples.

  12. Silver infiltrated La 0.6Sr 0.4Co 0.2Fe 0.8O 3 cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakito, Y.; Hirano, A.; Imanishi, N.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.; Liu, Y.

    Porous La 0.6Sr 0.4Co 0.2Fe 0.8O 3 (LSCF) electrodes on anode support cells were infiltrated with AgNO 3 solutions in citric acid and ethylene glycol. Two types of solid oxide fuel cells with the LSCF-Ag cathode, Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSCF-Ag and Ni-Ce 0.9Gd 0.1O 1.95(GDC)/GDC/LSCF-Ag, were examined in a temperature range 530-730 °C under air oxidant and moist hydrogen fuel. The infiltration of about 18 wt.% Ag fine particles into LSCF resulted in the enhancement of the power density of about 50%. The maximum power density of Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSCF was enhanced from 0.16 W cm -2 to 0.25 W cm -2 at 630 °C by infiltration of AgNO 3. No significant degradation of out-put power was observed for 150 h at 0.7 V and 700 °C. The Ni-GDC/GDC/LSCF-Ag cell showed the maximum power density of 0.415 W cm -2 at 530 °C.

  13. Compton scattering in jets: A mechanism for approximately 0.4 and less than or approximately 0.2 MeV line production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skibo, J. G.; Dermer, C. D.; Ramaty, R.

    1994-01-01

    We show that gamma-ray line emission at approximately 0.4 and less than or approximately 0.2 MeV can be produced by Compton scattering of beamed radiation in the jets of Galactic black hole candidates. This mechanism has the novel feature of not invoking the presence of e(exp +)-e(exp -) pairs. To produce the two lines, we employ a symmetric double-sided jet with bulk flow velocity of about 0.5c and incident beam radiation with a hard energy spectrum. We show that the two lines can be seen at viewing-angle cosines relative to the jet ranging from 0.2 to 0.6. This comprises 40% of the total solid angle. In addition, the line radiation is approximately 10% polarized. Depending on the bulk flow and viewing angle, the model can produce lines at other energies as well. In particular, a broad feature near 1 MeV can be seen by viewing the jet close to its axis. Our model can also accommodate single-line spectra if the beamed gamma-ray emission or the jets themselves are asymmetric.

  14. K2 variable catalogue - II. Machine learning classification of variable stars and eclipsing binaries in K2 fields 0-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, D. J.; Kirk, J.; Lam, K. W. F.; McCormac, J.; Osborn, H. P.; Spake, J.; Walker, S.; Brown, D. J. A.; Kristiansen, M. H.; Pollacco, D.; West, R.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    We are entering an era of unprecedented quantities of data from current and planned survey telescopes. To maximize the potential of such surveys, automated data analysis techniques are required. Here we implement a new methodology for variable star classification, through the combination of Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm) and the more common Random Forest (RF) supervised machine learning technique. We apply this method to data from the K2 mission fields 0-4, finding 154 ab-type RR Lyraes (10 newly discovered), 377 δ Scuti pulsators, 133 γ Doradus pulsators, 183 detached eclipsing binaries, 290 semidetached or contact eclipsing binaries and 9399 other periodic (mostly spot-modulated) sources, once class significance cuts are taken into account. We present light-curve features for all K2 stellar targets, including their three strongest detected frequencies, which can be used to study stellar rotation periods where the observed variability arises from spot modulation. The resulting catalogue of variable stars, classes, and associated data features are made available online. We publish our SOM code in PYTHON as part of the open source PYMVPA package, which in combination with already available RF modules can be easily used to recreate the method.

  15. Multiferroic Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4-BaTiO3 nanostructures: Magnetoelectric coupling, dielectric, and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Kuldeep Chand; Singh, Sukhdeep; Tripathi, S. K.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    Multiferroic nanostructures of Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4-BaTiO3 (NZF/BT) have been prepared by two synthesis routes, i.e., chemical combustion (CNZF/BT) and hydrothermal (HNZF/BT). The synthesis of CNZF/BT results in nanoparticles of average size 4 nm at 500 °C annealing. However, the synthesis of HNZF/BT with hydrolysis temperature 180 °C/48 h shows nanowires of diameter 3 nm and length >150 nm. A growth mechanism in the fabrication of nanoparticles and wires is given. X-ray diffraction is used to identify the crystalline phase. The transmission electron microscopy shows the dimensions of NZF/BT nanostructures. The ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity, and magnetoelectric coupling show more enhancements in HNZF/BT nanowires than CNZF/BT nanoparticles. The observed polarization depends upon shape of nanostructures, tetragonal phase, and epitaxial strain. The tension induced by the surface curvature of nanowire counteracts the near-surface depolarizing effect and meanwhile leads to unusual enhancement of polarization. The ferromagnetism depends upon superficial spin canting, spin pinning of nanocomposite, and oxygen vacancy clusters. The magnetoelectric coefficient as the function of applied dc magnetizing field under ac magnetic field 5 Oe and frequency 1093 Hz is measured. The nanodimensions of NZF/BT are observed dielectric constant up to 120 MHz. The optical activity of NZF/BT nanostructures is shown by Fluorescence spectra.

  16. Critical analysis of the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition in Pr0.55K0.05Sr0.4MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaljaoui, R.; Pękała, M.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Vanderbemden, Ph.

    2016-02-01

    The critical properties of monovalent doped manganite Pr0.55K0.05Sr0.4MnO3 around the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition were investigated through various methods: the modified Arrott plots (MAP), the Kouvel-Fisher method and the critical isotherm analysis. Data obtained near Tc were examined in the framework of the mean field theory, the 3D-Heisenberg model, the 3D-Ising model, and tricritical mean field. The deduced critical exponents values obtained using MAP method were found to be β=0.44(4) with TC≈303 K and γ=1.04(1) with TC≈302 K. Kouvel-Fisher method supplies the critical values to be β=0.41(2) with TC≈302 K and γ=1.09(1) with TC≈302 K. The obtained critical parameters show a tendency towards the mean-field behavior, suggesting the existence of long-range ferromagnetic order in the compound studied. The exponent δ deduced separately from isotherm analysis at T=303 K was found to obey to the Widom scaling relation δ=1+γ/β. The reliability of obtained exponents was confirmed by using the universal scaling hypothesis. The itinerant character of ferromagnetism in the present system was also tested by using Rhodes-Wohlfarth's criterion.

  17. Iodine Excretion in 24-hour Urine Collection and Its Dietary Determinants in Healthy Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Since seaweed is a common component of the Japanese diet, iodine intake in Japanese is expected to be high. However, urinary iodine excretion, measured using 24-hour urine samples, and its dietary determinants are not known. Methods Apparently healthy adults aged 20 to 69 years living in 20 areas throughout Japan were recruited in February and March, 2013. Urinary iodine excretion was evaluated using 24-hour urine collected from 713 subjects (362 men and 351 women), and the difference among age groups was assessed. The association between dietary intake of food groups and urinary iodine excretion was assessed among 358 subjects who completed a semi-weighed 4-day diet record (DR) and urine collection. The correlations between iodine intake and iodine excretion were also evaluated, and correlation coefficients were calculated for iodine intake in the DR of the overlapping day or the DR 1 day before and after urine collection. Results Median iodine excretion in 24-hour urine was 365 µg, and excretion was significantly higher in older subjects. Iodine intake estimated by the DRs was significantly correlated with urinary iodine excretion when DRs and urine collection were obtained on the same day (r = 0.37). After adjustment for confounding factors, iodine excretion was significantly associated with intakes of kelp and soup stock from kelp and fish. Conclusions Although multiple measurements for urinary iodine are required to confirm our results, this study showed the current iodine status of healthy Japanese adults. The results suggest that kelp and fish are the main contributors to Japanese iodine status measured by 24-hour urine. PMID:27374137

  18. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  19. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  20. 76 FR 5324 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... public listening session and on-line comment and question session. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that it will... rulemaking (NPRM) on hours-of-service (HOS) requirements, which it published in the Federal Register on December 29, 2010. Specifically, the Agency wants to know what factors, issues, and data it should...

  1. The Afterschool Hours: A New Focus for America's Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Mark; Hutchinson, Audrey M.; Frant, Nina

    2005-01-01

    During a typical week, as many as 14 million children and youth across the United States lack adult supervision during non-school hours. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the lack of structured and supervised afterschool programs in American communities contributes to a higher incidence of drug and alcohol use and delinquent…

  2. 17 CFR 232.12 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Standard Time or Eastern Daylight Saving Time, whichever is currently in effect, provided that hours for..., whichever is currently in effect. (c) Submissions by direct transmission. Electronic filings and other documents may be submitted by direct transmission, via dial-up modem or Internet, to the Commission each...

  3. Using the Film "The Hours" to Teach Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Quinn M.

    2006-01-01

    The popular film "The Hours" (S. Rudin, R. Fox, & S. Daldry, 2002), which portrays several characters struggling with mood disorders and other mental health problems, is discussed as an effective tool for teaching diagnosis. The author discusses the movie and characters, the methods used to incorporate the film into instruction, and students'…

  4. Virtual Office Hours: A Communication Tool for Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlic, Craig A.; Walker, Matthew J.

    The design and implementation of a World Wide Web (WWW) based instructional tool titled Virtual Office Hours (VOH) is described as implemented in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of California Los Angeles. The project is designed to facilitate communication between faculty and students through on-line access to all…

  5. Water-soluble vitamin levels in extended hours hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Natalie; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Linehan, Leanne; Corradini, AnnMarie; Kerr, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    Patients on extended hours (>15 h/week) hemodialysis may be at a higher risk of deficiency of water-soluble vitamins than conventional (≤15 h/week) hemodialysis patients due to their increased weekly hours of dialysis. We compared serum levels of the water-soluble vitamins in a group of extended and conventional hours hemodialysis patients. Predialysis serum levels of vitamin C, vitamin B12, thiamine, pyridoxine, and folate were measured in 52 patients: 26 extended group and 26 conventional group. Information on patient's intake of vitamin supplements and dialysis regimen was obtained. Data were log transformed due to the skewed distribution of the results. Median vitamin C levels were significantly lower in the extended group (0.30 vs. 1.14 mg/dL, P<0.001), with 7 patients having a level <0.18 mg/dL. Thiamine levels were also lower in the extended group (median 211 vs. 438.5 nmol/L, P=0.0005). However, extended patients had higher levels of pyridoxine (23.2 vs. 11.1 ng/mL, P=0.03). Vitamin B12 and folate levels were not significantly different between the groups. There was significant variability in vitamin supplement prescription in both groups, and dietary data were not obtained. This study showed a high incidence of vitamin C deficiency in extended hours hemodialysis patients, suggesting that supplementation is warranted. It also supports an ongoing role for multivitamin supplementation in conventional hemodialysis patients.

  6. 75 FR 54543 - Changes to NARA Facilities' Hours of Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION 36 CFR Parts 1253, 1254, and 1280 RIN 3095-AB68 Changes to NARA Facilities' Hours of Operation AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is proposing to revise its regulations...

  7. Office Hours--None: An E-Mail Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atamian, Rubik; DeMoville, Wig

    1998-01-01

    In a college accounting course, two faculty members experimented with a new approach to office hours, with all communication between students and teachers other than classroom dialog. Through electronic mail and other methods of data transmission. This included distribution of course syllabus, reading lists, study materials, and exams, and…

  8. Resident work hours: the five stages of grief.

    PubMed

    Barone, James E; Ivy, Michael E

    2004-05-01

    The authors describe their reactions, as surgical educators, to the mandate of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education to reduce resident work hours. They explain these reactions in terms of Dr. Elizabeth Kübler-Ross's five stages of grief: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and finally acceptance ("which should not be mistaken for a happy stage"). The authors describe each stage of grief and use it to make specific comments on the difficulties that the mandate imposes. They then reveal that their views about the work-hours regulations differ: Dr. Ivy now sees them as an opportunity to grow and improve, and likens the resistance to the new restrictions to that of Europeans to the printing press. But Dr. Barone ("the older of the coauthors and a known curmudgeon") is not so sure, and shares many of the concerns described earlier in the five stages of grief, even though he has outwardly accepted the work-hours rules and insists on full compliance by his residents and faculty. In particular, he is saddened that some residents feel they have the absolute right to go home regardless of the situation on the surgery service, and this feeling is validated by the work-hours rules.

  9. Storing hydroelectricity to meet peak-hour demand

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports on pumped storage plants which have become an effective way for some utility companies that derive power from hydroelectric facilities to economically store baseload energy during off-peak hours for use during peak hourly demands. According to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in Palo Alto, Calif., 36 of these plants provide approximately 20 gigawatts, or about 3 percent of U.S. generating capacity. During peak-demand periods, utilities are often stretched beyond their capacity to provide power and must therefore purchase it from neighboring utilities. Building new baseload power plants, typically nuclear or coal-fired facilities that run 24 hours per day seven days a week, is expensive, about $1500 per kilowatt, according to Robert Schainker, program manager for energy storage at the EPRI. Schainker the that building peaking plants at $400 per kilowatt, which run a few hours a day on gas or oil fuel, is less costly than building baseload plants. Operating them, however, is more expensive because peaking plants are less efficient that baseload plants.

  10. 29 CFR 778.100 - The maximum-hours provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION The Overtime Pay... hours and overtime compensation for employees who are within the general coverage of the Act and are not... permitted for the employment of such employees in any workweek without extra compensation for overtime,...

  11. 76 FR 28207 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Service of Drivers AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice..., regarding Hours of Service of Drivers. This correction replaces an incorrect docket number with the correct.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Thomas Yager, Chief, Driver and Carrier Operations...

  12. Achieving the Best: Gender and the Literacy Hour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Helen

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 30 British elementary children investigated the relationship between reading and gender and attitudes towards the literacy hour. Findings indicate boys wanted shorter time spans of learning activities, preferred independent work, and liked computer work. Both sexes liked working in small groups and disliked sharing their work…

  13. Educating Future Accountants: Alternatives for Meeting the 150-Hour Requirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Celia; Tanner, Margaret

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 19% of 2,000 accountants in states with 150-hour education requirement indicated their preference for the following options: bachelor's degree in accounting/master's in taxation, bachelor's in accounting/management information systems, bachelor's in accounting, master of business administration, accounting bachelor's and master's,…

  14. Work Hours, Retirement and Supportive Relations among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal

    2010-01-01

    While the literature widely acknowledges the importance of social support to the health, well-being and performance of older adults, little is known about the way in which occupational conditions affect older employees’ access to social support over time and whether these effects are maintained after retirement. Accordingly, in the current study we examine the degree to which work hours have longer term effects on the amount and type of support older individuals receive from intimate coworkers, family and non-work friends, and whether these effects are attenuated or intensified for those who retire. Longitudinal data were collected from a random sample of members of nine unions, 6 months prior to their retirement eligibility (T1) and approximately one year after Time 1 (T2). Our findings indicate that while retirement attenuates the positive association between Time 1 work hours and subsequent coworkers' support as well as the negative relationship between Time 1 work hours and subsequent non-work friends support, retirement fails to attenuate the negative effect of Time 1 work hours on subsequent family support. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:20485475

  15. "Rosetta" Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and "Philae's" Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014 the "Rosetta" mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its "Philae" lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more…

  16. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  17. Bridging the Gap from Gates to Microprocessors in Ten Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Allen L.

    The advent of microprocessor technology requires that the teaching of computer basics become a part of undergraduate digital electronics courses. This paper describes a laboratory-oriented approach to basic instruction requiring less than 10 hours student study time. The technique utilizes a programmed text and a small 4-bit computer,…

  18. The 150-Hour Requirement for CPA Licensure: One Institution's Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Virtually all states now require candidates for the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) examination and subsequent licensure to have completed 150 semester hours of college education. The rationale behind this requirement is to improve the preparation of students entering the profession and to increase their chances of successful completion of the…

  19. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Functions and Responsibilities of Finance Board § 905.3 Location and business hours. (a) Location. All office units of the Finance Board are located at 1777...

  20. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Functions and Responsibilities of Finance Board § 905.3 Location and business hours. (a) Location. All office units of the Finance Board are located at 1777...