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Sample records for 0-4 years living

  1. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged <1 year) should be physically active several times daily - particularly through interactive floor-based play. Toddlers (aged 1-2 years) and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity spread throughout the day, including a variety of activities in different environments, activities that develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits.

  2. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  3. [Overweight and obesity in preschool children (0-4 years): behaviour and views of parents].

    PubMed

    Boere-Boonekamp, M M; L'Hoir, M P; Beltman, M; Bruil, J; Dijkstra, N; Engelberts, A C

    2008-02-09

    Description of unhealthy behaviour and views regarding nutrition, physical exercise and education in families with young children, in relation to specific groups with a high risk of overweight. Cross-sectional study. In wellbaby clinics for infants and toddlers in various sites in The Netherlands 534 parents were requested to fill in questionnaires on nutrition, physical exercise and education. Enquiry into background characteristics took place and several hypotheses were tested. Using a bivariate and multivariate analysis each hypothesis was examined with regard to linkage of the answers to specific high-risk groups. 73% (390 parents) responded. Overweight was found in 15% of the 2-4-year-olds, this included 3.7% with obesity. Relatively often, parents held views and showed behaviour characteristic of an unhealthy lifestyle for young children. For example, approximately 1 out of 7 families was not used to having breakfast. 43% of the respondents considered sweetened milk products approprite substitutes for milk and 39% of the children always had soft drinks at their disposal. One fifth of the parents indicated that they did not have enough time to go out with their child. Approximately 1 out of 10 toddlers aged 2-4 years had a TV in their own room; 22% were allowed to determine whether they wanted to watch TV or not and 9% were allowed to decide how long they watched. Such specific high-risk behaviour was seen in particular in families with non-western mothers, mothers with a low level of education or mothers living on social security. Regular use of child care or a nursery seemed to have some protective effect. In families with children aged 0-4 years, behaviour patterns related to overweight at a later age were frequently observed. In view of the increased incidence of overweight and obesity in young children, initiation of research aimed at optimisation of education is warranted, which should include special attention for the behaviour of parents with regard to

  4. Disability-adjusted life-year burden of abusive head trauma at ages 0-4.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ted R; Steinbeigle, Ryan; Wicks, Amy; Lawrence, Bruce A; Barr, Marilyn; Barr, Ronald G

    2014-12-01

    We estimated the disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) burden of abusive head trauma (AHT) at ages 0 to 4 years in the United States. DALYs are computed by summing years of productive life that survivors lost to disability plus life-years lost to premature death. Surveying a convenience sample of 170 caregivers and pediatricians yielded health-related disability over time according to severity of AHT (measured with the Health Utilities Index, Mark 2). Incidence estimates for 2009 came from Vital Statistics for Mortality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Program Kids' Inpatient Database for hospitalized survivors, and published ratios of 0.894 case treated and released and 0.340 case not diagnosed/treated while in the acute phase per survivor admitted. Survival probability over time after discharge came from published sources. An estimated 4824 AHT cases in 2009 included 334 fatalities within 30 days. DALYs per surviving child averaged 0.555 annually for severe AHT (95% confidence interval: 0.512-0.598) and 0.155 (95% confidence interval: 0.120-0.190) for other cases. Including life-years lost to premature mortality, estimated lifetime burden averaged 4.7 DALYs for mild AHT, 5.4 for moderate AHT, 24.1 for severe AHT, and 29.8 for deaths. On average, DALY loss per 30-day survivor included 7.6 years of lost life expectancy and 5.7 years lived with disability. Estimated burden of AHT incidents in 2009 was 69 925 DALYs or 0.017 DALYs per US live birth. AHT is extremely serious, often resulting in severe physical damage or death. The annual DALY burden several years after mild AHT exceeds the DALY burden of a severe burn. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Differing patterns in thermal injury incidence and hospitalisations among 0-4 year old children from England.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ruth; Tata, Laila J; Kendrick, Denise; Burch, Tiffany; Kennedy, Mary; Orton, Elizabeth

    2016-11-01

    To describe patterns in thermal injury incidence and hospitalisations by age, gender, calendar year and socioeconomic status among 0-4 year olds in England for the period 1998-2013. 708,050 children with linked primary care and hospitalisation data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), respectively. Incidence rates of all thermal injuries (identified in CPRD and/or HES), hospitalised thermal injuries, and serious thermal injuries (hospitalised for ≥72h). Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), estimated using Poisson regression. Incidence rates of all thermal injuries, hospitalised thermal injuries, and serious thermal injuries were 59.5 per 10,000 person-years (95%CI 58.4-60.6), 11.3 (10.8-11.8) and 2.15 (1.95-2.37), respectively. Socioeconomic gradients, between the most and least deprived quintiles, were steepest for serious thermal injuries (IRR 3.17, 95%CI 2.53-3.96). Incidence of all thermal injuries (IRR 0.64, 95%CI 0.58-0.70) and serious thermal injuries (IRR 0.44, 95%CI 0.33-0.59) reduced between 1998/9 and 2012/13. Incidence rates of hospitalised thermal injuries did not significantly change over time. Incidence of all thermal injuries and those hospitalised for ≥72h reduced over time. Steep socioeconomic gradients support continued targeting of preventative interventions to those living in the most deprived areas. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  7. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  8. Development of a global motor rating scale for young children (0-4 years) including eye-hand grip coordination.

    PubMed

    Vaivre-Douret, L; Burnod, Y

    2001-11-01

    A comparative study of the eight motor rating scales available in Western countries demonstrated methodological differences in the choice of items and standardization. We have developed a global motor rating scale that includes items which measure postural-motor, locomotor (PML) and eye-hand grip coordination (EHGC), and which allows the assessment of an average of motor function level (MFL), PML and EHGC development. Scores obtained were used to define the acquisition of motor age based on the skills completed. The items were selected on the basis of the average age at which the function developed in two populations of healthy full-term French infants, followed from birth to 4 months (n = 60) and from 4 months to 4 years (n = 63). Recent French developmental standards (mean age and standard deviation) of acquisition allow the identification of neuro-psychomotor deviations from normal motor behaviour. This includes both static and dynamic motor coordination sequences. Inter-examiner correlations (n = 3) for 15 randomly selected children indicated a coefficient of 0.90. The scale revealed a sequence in the organization of learned postural-motor, locomotor and eye-hand gripping skills which can contribute to the understanding of brain areas implicated in this maturation process.

  9. Leading causes of injury hospitalisation in children aged 0-4 years in New South Wales by injury submechanism: a brief profile by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah

    2012-11-01

    To identify the leading causes of injury in children aged 0-4 years by single year of age using injury submechanisms and present a brief epidemiologic profile of each cause. Hospitalisation data for New South Wales from 1999 to 2009 were used to identify the leading causes of injury for children aged 0-4 years by single year of age. For each leading cause, rates over time and by sex were calculated by single year of age. Associated age and sex risk ratios were estimated. The leading causes of injury for children aged <1, 1 and 2 years were falls while being carried, burns by hot non-aqueous substances and poisoning by other and unspecified pharmaceutical substances, respectively. Falls involving playground equipment ranked first for children aged 3-4 years. Each leading injury cause exhibited an age pattern that remained stable over time and by sex. Age predicted falls while being carried and both age and sex predicted the remaining leading injury causes, with age and sex interacting to predict burns by hot non-aqueous substances. Epidemiologic analysis using single-year age intervals and injury submechanisms results in a clearer picture of injury risk for young children. The findings of this study provide detailed information regarding the leading causes of hospitalised injury in young children by age and sex. Child health-care providers can use this information to focus discussions of child development and injury risk with families of young children and suggest appropriate prevention measures in terms of a child's age and sex. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. (0,4) dualities

    DOE PAGES

    Putrov, Pavel; Song, Jaewon; Yan, Wenbin

    2016-03-29

    We study a class of two-dimensional N = (0; 4) quiver gauge theories that flow to superconformal field theories. We find dualities for the superconformal field theories similar to the 4d N = 2 theories of class S, labelled by a Riemann surface C. The dual descriptions arise from various pair-of-pants decompositions, that involve an analog of the TN theory. Especially, we find the superconformal indices of such theories can be written in terms of a topological field theory on C. In conclusion, we interpret this class of SCFTs as the ones coming from compactifying 6d N = (2; 0)more » theory on CP1 x C. Moreover, some new dualities of (0; 2) and (2; 2) theories are also discussed.« less

  11. (0,4) dualities

    SciTech Connect

    Putrov, Pavel; Song, Jaewon; Yan, Wenbin

    2016-03-29

    We study a class of two-dimensional N = (0; 4) quiver gauge theories that flow to superconformal field theories. We find dualities for the superconformal field theories similar to the 4d N = 2 theories of class S, labelled by a Riemann surface C. The dual descriptions arise from various pair-of-pants decompositions, that involve an analog of the TN theory. Especially, we find the superconformal indices of such theories can be written in terms of a topological field theory on C. In conclusion, we interpret this class of SCFTs as the ones coming from compactifying 6d N = (2; 0) theory on CP1 x C. Moreover, some new dualities of (0; 2) and (2; 2) theories are also discussed.

  12. My Year of Living Dangerously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahar, Emily

    1991-01-01

    A White reporter describes how she changed careers to teach poor Black and Hispanic New York City public intermediate students, focusing on her top math class. After one difficult year, she left teaching but hopes to return some day because she felt she made a difference for a few students. (SM)

  13. Social exclusion, deprivation and child health: a spatial analysis of ambulatory care sensitive conditions in children aged 0-4 years in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Butler, Danielle C; Thurecht, Linc; Brown, Laurie; Konings, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Recent Australian policy initiatives regarding primary health care focus on planning services around community needs and delivering these at the local area. As in many other countries, there has also been a growing concern over social inequities in health outcomes. The aims of the analysis presented here were firstly to describe small area variations in hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) among children aged 0-4 years between 2003 and 2009 in the state of Victoria, Australia, and secondly to explore the relationship of ACSC hospitalisations with socio-economic disadvantage using a comparative analysis of the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and the Composite Score of Deprivation (CSD). This is a cross sectional secondary data analysis, with data sourced from 2003 to 2009 ACSC data from the Victorian State Government Department of Health; the Australian Standard Geographical Classification of remoteness; the Australian 2006 Census of Population and Housing; and AMPCo General Practitioner data from 2010. The relationship between the indexes and child health outcomes was examined through bivariate analysis and visually through a series of maps. The results show there is significant variation in the geographical distribution of the relationship between ACSCs and socio-economic disadvantage, with both indexes capturing important social gradients in child health conditions. However, measures of access, such as geographical accessibility and workforce supply, detect additional small area variation in child health outcomes. This research has important implications for future primary health care policy and planning of services, as these findings confirm that not all areas are the same in terms of health outcomes, and there may be benefit in tailoring mechanisms for identifying areas of need depending on the outcome intended to be affected.

  14. NCCN: 20 Years of Improving Patients' Lives.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W

    2015-05-01

    In his Keynote Address at the NCCN 20th Annual Conference, Robert W. Carlson, MD, reflected on the achievements of NCCN and described how the organization will continue to grow under his leadership. Recognizing that the founding of NCCN was by a group of visionary leaders who came together 20 years ago to assure access of patients to high-quality cancer care, Dr. Carlson said "All our efforts within NCCN are focused on improving the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of patient care, so that our patients can live better lives."

  15. Denver Developmental Test Findings and their Relationship with Sociodemographic Variables in a Large Community Sample of 0-4-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Çelikkiran, Seyhan; Bozkurt, Hasan; Coşkun, Murat

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of developmental problems and relationship with sociodemographic variables in a community sample of young children. Participants included 1000 children (558 males, 442 females, age range 1-48 months, mean 18.4 months, SD 7.8 months). Children were referred generally by their parents for developmental evaluation and consultation in response to a public announcement in a district area in Istanbul, Turkey. An interview form and the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST) were used for sociodemographic data and developmental evaluation. The χ(2) test and Pearson's correlation test were used for data analysis. Seven hundred forty-one out of 1000 children (74.1%) had normal, 140 (14%) had risky, and 119 (11.9%) had abnormal findings on the DDST results. The probability of abnormal findings on the DDST results was significantly higher in males (p=0.003), the 2-4-year-old group (p<0.05), families with more than one child (p=0.001), consanguineous marriages (p<0.01), low parental educational levels and low household income (p<0.01), and in children without a history of breastfeeding (p=0.000). Immigration status and delivery mode did not have a significant effect on the probability of abnormal findings on the DDST results (p>0.05). Sociodemographic factors have a noteworthy impact on development. Determining these factors is important especially during the first years of life.

  16. 2009: the year of living dangerously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Puerto, C.

    2011-11-01

    Tenerife is not Jakarta. Neither is 2009 the year 1965, nor the Museo de la Ciencia y el Cosmos (Museum of Science and the Cosmos) the hotel "Indonesia", meeting point of reporters from around the world. Nor am I the journalist Jill Bryant (Sigourney Weaver) in the Australian Peter Weir film. But 2009, a year of international commitment to Astronomy (and wild economic crisis budget cuts), will be a time in space that many people will remember for how we live, what problems we face and what tools we used to discover together the Universe. Stimulating interest in the stars was our goal in the museum. Playing with all the colours of a filter wheel, our strategy. Energy and creativity were our available resources. We had to innovate and not die trying. Finally, mainstreaming was the concept, the philosophy, in exchange for bold value and ineffable endeavor. The Museo de la Ciencia y el Cosmos accepted the challenge, explored new resources for science communication and made risky bets, many of them hand in hand with the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). A year later, we value the role of this museum in the film.

  17. Reinvestigation of the direct two-proton decay of the long-lived isomer 94Ag(m) [0.4 s, 6.7 MeV, (21+)].

    PubMed

    Cerny, J; Moltz, D M; Lee, D W; Peräjärvi, K; Barquest, B R; Grossman, L E; Jeong, W; Jewett, C C

    2009-10-09

    An attempt to confirm the reported direct one-proton and two-proton decays of the (21+) isomer at 6.7(5) MeV in 94Ag has been made. The 0.39(4) s half-life of the isomer permitted use of a helium-jet system to transport reaction products from the 40Ca + (nat)Ni reaction at 197 MeV to a low-background area; 24 gas DeltaE-(Si)E detector telescopes were used to identify emitted protons down to 0.4 MeV. No evidence was obtained for two-proton radioactivity with a summed energy of 1.9(1) MeV and a branching ratio of 0.5(3)%. Two groups of one-proton radioactivity from this isomer had also been reported; our data confirm the lower energy group at 0.79(3) MeV with its branching ratio of 1.9(5)%.

  18. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the...

  19. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the...

  20. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the...

  1. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the...

  2. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the...

  3. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning § 1601.0-4...

  4. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning § 1601.0-4...

  5. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning § 1601.0-4...

  6. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning § 1601.0-4...

  7. 43 CFR 2361.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 2361.0-4 Section 2361.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... and Protection of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska § 2361.0-4 Responsibility. (a) The...

  8. 43 CFR 2361.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility. 2361.0-4 Section 2361.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... and Protection of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska § 2361.0-4 Responsibility. (a) The...

  9. 43 CFR 2200.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2200.0-4 Section 2200.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2200.0-4 Responsibilities. The Director of the Bureau of Land Management has the responsibility...

  10. 43 CFR 2610.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2610.0-4 Section 2610.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....0-4 Responsibilities. (a) The authority of the Secretary of the Interior to approve the...

  11. 43 CFR 2610.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2610.0-4 Section 2610.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....0-4 Responsibilities. (a) The authority of the Secretary of the Interior to approve the...

  12. 43 CFR 2200.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2200.0-4 Section 2200.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2200.0-4 Responsibilities. The Director of the Bureau of Land Management has the responsibility...

  13. 43 CFR 2400.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 2400.0-4 Section 2400.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2400.0-4 Responsibility. (a) Except where specified to the contrary in this group, the authority of...

  14. 43 CFR 2400.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility. 2400.0-4 Section 2400.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2400.0-4 Responsibility. (a) Except where specified to the contrary in this group, the authority of...

  15. 43 CFR 1784.0-4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1784.0-4 Section 1784.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.0-...

  16. 43 CFR 1784.0-4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 1784.0-4 Section 1784.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.0-...

  17. 43 CFR 2564.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 2564.0-4 Section 2564.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-4 Responsibility. (a) Administration of Indian possessions in trustee towns. As to...

  18. 43 CFR 2564.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility. 2564.0-4 Section 2564.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-4 Responsibility. (a) Administration of Indian possessions in trustee towns. As to...

  19. Lives Through the Years; Styles of Life and Successful Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard H.; Wirths, Claudine G.

    The Kansas City Study of Adult Life developed the concept of Life styles to describe and analyze the general patterns and course of an individual's life, and defined success as the extent to which an individual contributes to, or is a burden to, others' lives. Interviews with 168 people resulted in selected case studies grouped under the life…

  20. Living memorials project: year 1 social and site assessment

    Treesearch

    Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2005-01-01

    The Living Memorials Project (LMP) social and site assessment identified more than 200 public open spaces created, used, or enhanced in memory of the tragic events of September 11, 2001 (9-11). A national registry of these sites is available for viewing and updating online. Researchers interviewed 100 community groups using social ecology methods of observation,...

  1. 78 FR 28606 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Assisted Living Conversion Program Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Assisted Living Conversion Program Fiscal Year... the Assisted Living Conversion Program (ALCP). This announcement contains the names of the grantees... of Federal Domestic Assistance number for this program is 14.314. The Assisted Living Conversion...

  2. 76 FR 52006 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Assisted Living Conversion Program; Fiscal Year 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Assisted Living Conversion Program; Fiscal Year... the Assisted Living Conversion Program (ALCP). This announcement contains the names of the grantees... Federal Domestic Assistance number for this program is 14.314. The Assisted Living Conversion Program is...

  3. 77 FR 3788 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Assisted Living Conversion Program; Fiscal Year 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Assisted Living Conversion Program; Fiscal Year... the Assisted Living Conversion Program (ALCP). This announcement contains the names of the grantees... Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance number for this program is 14.314. The Assisted Living Conversion...

  4. Re-ED: Forty Years Young, Alive and Lively!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn; Cantrell Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces this special journal issue that addresses Re-Education with troubling youth. Highlights the Re-ED (Reeducation of Emotional Disturbed Children) model and its use over the past 40 years. (GCP)

  5. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... §§ 9260.0-4—9260.0-6 ...

  6. Daily living skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder from 2 to 21 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Hus Bal, Vanessa; Kim, So-Hyun; Cheong, Daniel; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Daily living skills (DLS), such as personal hygiene, meal preparation, and money management, are important to independent living. Research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder exhibit impairments in daily living skills relative to their cognitive skills. This study examined predictors of daily living skills attainment and trajectories of daily living skills in a longitudinal sample referred for possible autism spectrum disorder and followed from 2 to 21 years of age. Consistent with previous studies, participants with autism spectrum disorder and nonspectrum diagnoses showed continual development of daily living skills throughout childhood and adolescence. Early childhood nonverbal mental age was the strongest predictor of daily living skills attainment for both diagnostic groups. Group-based modeling suggested two distinct trajectories of daily living skills development for participants with autism spectrum disorder. Skill levels for both groups of young adults with autism spectrum disorder remained considerably below age level expectations. Whereas the “High-DLS” group gained approximately 12 years in daily living skills from T2 to T21, the “Low-DLS” group’s daily living skills improved 3–4 years over the 16- to 19-year study period. Nonverbal mental age, receptive language, and social-communication impairment at 2 years predicted High- versus Low-DLS group membership. Receiving greater than 20 h of parent-implemented intervention before age 3 was also associated with daily living skills trajectory. Results suggest that daily living skills should be a focus of treatment plans for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, particularly adolescents transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:25922445

  7. Comparative studies of how living circumstances influence medication adherence in ≥65 year olds.

    PubMed

    Doggrell, Sheila A; Kairuz, Therése

    2014-02-01

    Resources to help the older aged (≥65 year olds) manage their medicines should probably target those in greatest need. The older-aged have many different types of living circumstances. There are different locations (urban, rural), different types of housing (in the community or in retirement villages), different living arrangements (living alone or with others), and different socioeconomic status (SES) circumstances. However, there has been limited attention to whether these living circumstances affect adherence to medicines in the ≥65 year olds. The aim was to determine whether comparative studies, including logistic regression studies, show that living circumstances affect adherence to medicines by the ≥65 year olds. A literature search of Medline, CINAHL and the Internet (Google) was undertaken. Four comparative studies have not shown differences in adherence to medicines between the ≥65 year olds living in rural and urban locations, but one study shows lower adherence to medicines for osteoporosis in rural areas compared to metropolitan, and another study shows greater adherence to antihypertensive medicines in rural than urban areas. There are no comparative studies of adherence to medicines in the older-aged living in indigenous communities compared to other communities. There is conflicting evidence as to whether living alone, being unmarried, or having a low income/worth is associated with nonadherence. Preliminary studies have suggested that the older-aged living in rental, low SES retirement villages or leasehold, middle SES retirement villages have a lower adherence to medicines than those living in freehold, high SES retirement villages. The ≥65 year olds living in rural communities may need extra help with adherence to medicines for osteoporosis. The ≥65 year olds living in rental or leasehold retirement villages may require extra assistance/resources to adhere to their medicines. Further research is needed to clarify whether living under

  8. One year of Kamchatka volcanoes live observation with VIIRS Nightfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Grigory; Zhizhin, Mikhail; Melnikov, Dmitry; Poyda, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    The work presents new pipeline architecture and one year worth of usage experience of volcanic activity monitoring with VIIRS Nightfire. Multispectral nighttime volcanic activity monitoring system was deployed in Kamchatka in early spring of 2016 and the accumulated time series of detections open up the discussion on sensitivity and fault tolerance of the software. Several significant events of volcanic nature have occurred in the region. Their parameters are summarized and their monitoring results are related to the ground observations. The work discusses perspectives of addition of the new JPSS-1 satellite and nighttime M11 SWIR spectral band.

  9. Child Maltreatment and Adult Living Standards at 50 Years.

    PubMed

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment (abuse and neglect) has established effects on mental health. Less is known about its influence on adult economic circumstances. We aimed to establish associations of child maltreatment with such outcomes and explore potential pathways. We used 1958 British birth cohort data (N = 8076) to examine associations of child neglect and abuse with adult (50 years) long-term sickness absence, not in employment, education or training (NEET), lacking assets, income-related support, poor qualifications, financial insecurity, manual social class, and social mobility. We assessed mediation of associations by 16-year cognition and mental health. Abuse prevalence varied from 1% (sexual) to 10% (psychological); 16% were neglected. A total of 21% experienced 1 maltreatment type, 10% experienced ≥2 types. Sexual and nonsexual abuse were associated with several outcomes; eg, for sexual abuse, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of income-related support was 1.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-2.72). Associations were little affected by potential mediating factors. Neglect was associated with several adult outcomes (eg, aOR of NEET was 1.43 [95% CI, 1.10-1.85]) and associations were mediated by cognition and mental health (primarily by cognition): percent explained varied between 4% (NEET) to 70% (poor qualifications). In general, the risk of poor outcome increased by number of maltreatment types (eg, aOR for long-term sickness absence increased from 1.0 [reference] to 1.76 [95% CI, 1.32-2.35] to 2.69 [95% CI, 1.96-3.68], respectively, for 0, 1, and ≥2 types of maltreatment. Childhood maltreatment is associated with poor midadulthood socioeconomic outcomes, with accumulating risk for those experiencing multiple types of maltreatment. Cognitive ability and mental health are implicated in the pathway to outcome for neglect but not abuse. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Living Arrangements during Childrearing Years and Later Health of African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Robertson, Judy; Kasper, Judith D.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Woodlawn Project (N = 680), this study examined how patterns of living arrangements among a community cohort of African American mothers were associated with later physical and emotional health. We identified eight patterns of stability and transition in living arrangements during the childrearing years. Health…

  11. Living Arrangements during Childrearing Years and Later Health of African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Robertson, Judy; Kasper, Judith D.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Woodlawn Project (N = 680), this study examined how patterns of living arrangements among a community cohort of African American mothers were associated with later physical and emotional health. We identified eight patterns of stability and transition in living arrangements during the childrearing years. Health…

  12. Partner status and mental and physical health of independently living men aged 70 years and older.

    PubMed

    Byles, Julie; Vo, Kha; Thomas, Louise; Mackenzie, Lynette; Kendig, Hal

    2016-06-01

    To describe and compare the mental health and physical functioning of community-dwelling men aged 70 years and over who live alone, and those who live with their partner/spouse. Data were obtained from the baseline survey of the New South Wales 45 and Up Study. Mental health was measured using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and physical health was measured using the Medical Outcome Short Form 36 physical functioning scale. 37 690 community-dwelling men aged 70 years or over were included in the analyses. Men living alone were more likely to have high psychological distress scores and lower physical functioning scores compared to men living with a spouse/partner within each age group, except those 85 and over. Specific health and welfare programs targeted to the increasing number of older men living alone may be needed to address their higher levels of psychological distress and lower levels of physical functioning. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  13. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Law Enforcement,...

  14. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Law Enforcement,...

  15. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Law Enforcement,...

  16. Living Arrangements during Childrearing Years and Later Health of African American Mothers.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate E; Ensminger, Margaret E; Green, Kerry M; Thorpe, Roland J; Robertson, Judy; Kasper, Judith D; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2009-11-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Woodlawn Project (N=680), this study examined how patterns of living arrangements among a community cohort of African American mothers were associated with later physical and emotional health. We identified eight patterns of stability and transition in living arrangements during the childrearing years. Health outcomes include SF-36 Physical Functioning, SF-36 Bodily Pain, depressed mood, and anxious mood. Specific patterns of living arrangements were related to later health, controlling for age, earlier health, education, and poverty. Poverty explained many, but not all, of the relationships between living arrangements and health. Findings underscored the benefits of social support and social integration and highlighted the negative effects of marital dissolution on health.

  17. Living with diabetes—Development of learning patterns over a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Kneck, Åsa; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Eriksson, Lars E.; Lundman, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning involves acquiring new knowledge and skills, and changing our ways of thinking, acting, and feeling. Learning in relation to living with diabetes is a lifelong process where there is limited knowledge of how it is experienced and established over time. It was considered important to explore how learning was developed over time for persons living with diabetes. Aim The aim of the study was to identify patterns in learning when living with diabetes, from recently being diagnosed, and over a 3-year period. Materials and methods A longitudinal qualitative descriptive design was used. Thirteen participants, with both type I and type II diabetes, were interviewed at three different occasions during a 3-year period. Qualitative content analysis was used in different steps in order to distinguish patterns. Findings Five main patterns of learning were identified. Two of the patterns (I and II) were characterized by gradually becoming comfortable living with diabetes, whereas for one pattern (IV) living with diabetes became gradually more difficult. For pattern V living with diabetes was making only a limited impact on life, whereas for Pattern III there was a constant management of obstacles related to illness. The different patterns in the present study showed common and different ways of learning and using different learning strategies at different timespans. Conclusion The present study showed that duration of illness is not of importance for how far a person has come in his own learning process. A person-centered care is needed to meet the different and changing needs of persons living with diabetes in relation to learning to live with a lifelong illness. PMID:25030359

  18. Turkish Early Childhood Teachers' Emotional Problems in Early Years of Their Professional Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotaman, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elaborate on the emotional problems faced by Turkish early childhood teachers in their interaction with students, parents, administrators and colleagues in the first three years of their professional lives. Data for this research consists of in-depth interviews with Turkish kindergarten teachers, where these…

  19. Reflections of a Professor on Nine Years of Living in the Dorms ... I Mean Residence Halls!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Faculty-in-residence programs aim to strengthen the intellectual climate in residential facilities. This article presents the author's reflections on nine years of living in a residence hall as a Faculty-In-Residence (FIR) at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). The author shares an insider's observations on the role he played as a…

  20. Perceptions of Skill Development in a Living-Learning First-Year Experience Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kerri Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of students and faculty involved in a living-learning first-year experience program at a small, liberal arts institution about developing skills for life-long learning including critical thinking, written communication, and reflection and engagement across disciplines. The researcher…

  1. Turkish Early Childhood Teachers' Emotional Problems in Early Years of Their Professional Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotaman, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elaborate on the emotional problems faced by Turkish early childhood teachers in their interaction with students, parents, administrators and colleagues in the first three years of their professional lives. Data for this research consists of in-depth interviews with Turkish kindergarten teachers, where these…

  2. The Relationship between Living Arrangement, Academic Performance, and Engagement among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfour, Denise Shata

    2013-01-01

    One way students become engaged in their undergraduate experience is through place of residence. Factors associated with high academic performance suggest high levels of engagement in campus life. This study investigated the relationship between living arrangement and the academic performance of first-year, full-time undergraduate students. The…

  3. The Impact of a Living Learning Community on First-Year Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Margaret A.; Everett, Jess W.; Whittinghill, Dex

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of an engineering living and learning community (ELC) on first-year engineering students. A control group of non-ELC students was used to compare the experiences of the ELC participants. Analysis of survey data showed that there was significant differences between the ELC students and the…

  4. The Impact of a Living Learning Community on First-Year Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Margaret A.; Everett, Jess W.; Whittinghill, Dex

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of an engineering living and learning community (ELC) on first-year engineering students. A control group of non-ELC students was used to compare the experiences of the ELC participants. Analysis of survey data showed that there was significant differences between the ELC students and the…

  5. Perceptions of Skill Development in a Living-Learning First-Year Experience Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kerri Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of students and faculty involved in a living-learning first-year experience program at a small, liberal arts institution about developing skills for life-long learning including critical thinking, written communication, and reflection and engagement across disciplines. The researcher…

  6. Coudersport Consumer Mathematics Curriculum Guide. 0-4 Level ABE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Donald E., Comp.

    This curriculum guide was designed by the Coudersport, Pennsylvania, school system to be used in teaching 0-4 level mathematics skills to adult basic education students. The guide is intended to provide consumer-oriented, problem-solving material that correlates with those skills found in the Noonan-Spradley Diagnostic Program of Computational…

  7. Condition of live fire-scarred ponderosa pine eleven years after removing partial cross-sections

    Treesearch

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Steven J. McKay

    2008-01-01

    Our objective is to report mortality rates for ponderosa pine trees in Oregon ten to eleven years after removing a fire-scarred partial cross-section from them, and five years after an initial survey of post-sampling mortality. We surveyed 138 live trees from which we removed fire-scarred partial crosssections in 1994/95 and 387 similarly sized, unsampled neighbor...

  8. Overweight and obesity doubled over a 6-year period in young women living in poverty in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Lynnette M; Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; Fernald, Lia C; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2008-03-01

    To document the changes in BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young women living in poverty in a semi-urban community in Mexico. Women who had previously participated in a longitudinal research study (1997-2000) were re-assessed in 2005. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures, and socio-demographic questionnaires were administered. Total and annual rate of change in BMI and change in the prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI > or = 25.0 and > or =30.0) were estimated. Mean age in 2005 was 30.0 +/- 5.7 years (n = 683) and time between recruitment and follow-up was 6.4 +/- 1.0 years. Mean change in BMI was +3.6 +/- 2.7 (range -8.2 to +14.6). In 2005, 500 (73.2%) women were overweight, up from 263 (38.5%) in the original assessment. The prevalence of obesity tripled over the follow-up period (from 9.8% to 30.3%). The mean annual rate of change in BMI was +0.6 (+/-0.4). After adjustment for age and parity at baseline, an annual rate of change of BMI above the sample median (>0.5) was associated with lower levels of formal education. The annual increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample is double that which was reported at a national level in Mexico. An understanding of the determinants of this rapid increase among the women living in poverty in Mexico is urgently needed.

  9. The meaning of living with spinal cord injury 5 to 10 years after the injury.

    PubMed

    DeSanto-Madeya, Susan

    2006-04-01

    A phenomenological study was conducted with 20 spinal cord injured persons and their family members to examine the meaning of living with spinal cord injury 5 to 10 years after the initial injury. Seven themes emerged from the data. The themes are looking for understanding to a life that is unknown, stumbling along an unlit path, viewing self through a stained glass window, challenging the bonds of love, being chained to the injury, moving forward in a new way of life, and reaching normalcy. The uncovered meanings enhance our understanding and appreciation that living with spinal cord injury is a continuous learning experience. The study findings may be useful in the development of self-care strategies and ongoing interventions that focus on maintaining physical and psychological health for both spinal cord injured persons and their family members throughout the course of living with the disability.

  10. Impact of living environment on 2-year mortality in elderly maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Studies on risk factors of mortality in elderly patients with hemodialysis usually focus on comorbidities, nutrition, and inflammation. Discussion on the correlation between living environment and mortality of these patients is limited. A total of 256 elderly hemodialysis patients participated in this 2-year prospective observational study. The subjects were divided into 2 subgroups based on whether they were living in Taipei Basin (n = 63) or not (n = 193). Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained for cross-sectional analysis. Causes of death and mortality rates were also analyzed for each subgroup. Patients in the basin group had a higher incidence of combined protein-energy wasting and inflammation than those in the around basin group. At the end of the 2-year follow-up, 68 patients had died. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that a very advanced age, basin group, serum albumin levels, serum creatinine levels, non-anuria, and the complications of stroke and CAD were associated with 2-year mortality. Meanwhile, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were not associated with 2-year mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that basin group, serum albumin levels, and the complications of stroke and CAD were significant risk factors for 2-year mortality in these patients. The results of this study indicate that factors such as living in the Taipei Basin with higher air pollutant levels in elderly hemodialysis patients is associated with protein-energy wasting and inflammation, as well as 2-year mortality. These findings suggest that among this population, living environment is as important as comorbidities and nutrition. Furthermore, air pollution should be getting more attention especially in the overcrowding Basin topography.

  11. Efficacy and Efficiency of Webcast Orientations Versus Live Resident Orientations: Results of a 2-Year Survey

    PubMed Central

    Andolsek, Kathryn M.; Murphy, Gwen; Pinheiro, Sandro; Petrusa, Emil; Tuck, Tammy; Weinerth, John

    2010-01-01

    Background Beginning a graduate medical education training program is associated with a steep learning curve for incoming residents. Objective To compare the efficacy and efficiency of live versus webcast formats for Institutional Orientation. Methods This 2-year non-blinded study, with a nonrandomized cohort, compares outcomes for trainees oriented Summer 2005 in a ‘‘live-lecture’’ format with trainees oriented Summer 2006 using a webcast format. Outcomes include posttest success, the time required, presentation quality and utility, and cost. Results In 2005, 249 trainees attended the live orientation. Of the 211 who completed the posttest; 132 (63%) passed it within 3 attempts. Of the 241 trainees in 2006, 236 completed the posttest. Of these, 215 (91%) passed it within 3 attempts. Compared to the live-lecture cohort, the webcast cohort rated the posttest as more difficult. Despite performing better, significantly fewer trainees in the webcast cohort rated the posttest as “appropriate” (χ2 =  5 28.57, df 5 1, P , .001). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups on their perceptions of quality and utility of the presentations. While the first year cost of the webcast exceeded that of live lectures, the amortized cost was nearly identical to the live-lecture costs. Discussion As corroborated by resident comments, the web-based approach was more effective because it provided trainees flexibility regarding when to study, options on how to view the material, and opportunities to review it if needed for mastery. We plan to continue using the webcast strategy, revising the content as needed. PMID:21975900

  12. Efficacy and efficiency of webcast orientations versus live resident orientations: results of a 2-year survey.

    PubMed

    Andolsek, Kathryn M; Murphy, Gwen; Pinheiro, Sandro; Petrusa, Emil; Tuck, Tammy; Weinerth, John

    2010-03-01

    Beginning a graduate medical education training program is associated with a steep learning curve for incoming residents. To compare the efficacy and efficiency of live versus webcast formats for Institutional Orientation. This 2-year non-blinded study, with a nonrandomized cohort, compares outcomes for trainees oriented Summer 2005 in a ''live-lecture'' format with trainees oriented Summer 2006 using a webcast format. Outcomes include posttest success, the time required, presentation quality and utility, and cost. In 2005, 249 trainees attended the live orientation. Of the 211 who completed the posttest; 132 (63%) passed it within 3 attempts. Of the 241 trainees in 2006, 236 completed the posttest. Of these, 215 (91%) passed it within 3 attempts. Compared to the live-lecture cohort, the webcast cohort rated the posttest as more difficult. Despite performing better, significantly fewer trainees in the webcast cohort rated the posttest as "appropriate" (χ(2) =  5 28.57, df 5 1, P , .001). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups on their perceptions of quality and utility of the presentations. While the first year cost of the webcast exceeded that of live lectures, the amortized cost was nearly identical to the live-lecture costs. As corroborated by resident comments, the web-based approach was more effective because it provided trainees flexibility regarding when to study, options on how to view the material, and opportunities to review it if needed for mastery. We plan to continue using the webcast strategy, revising the content as needed.

  13. Antioxidant properties of 8.0.4'-neolignans.

    PubMed

    Kónya, K; Varga, Z S; Antus, S

    2001-11-01

    A series of naturally occurring 8.0.4'-neolignans (1a-d, 1g, 2g, 2h) and their analogues (le-f, lh, 1i, 2a-f, 2i) have been synthesized in racemic form starting from commercially available phenols, such as eugenol, isoeugenol and 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol and from aromatic aldehydes, such as piperonal, veratraldehyde and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde. The inhibitory activity of these compounds on superoxide anion (O2.-) release by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) was tested and the structure-activity relationship was also studied.

  14. The relation between non-occupational physical activity and years lived with and without disability.

    PubMed

    Nusselder, W J; Looman, C W N; Franco, O H; Peeters, A; Slingerland, A S; Mackenbach, J P

    2008-09-01

    The effects of non-occupational physical activity were assessed on the number of years lived with and without disability between age 50 and 80 years. Using the GLOBE study and the Longitudinal Study of Aging, multi-state life tables were constructed yielding the number of years with and without disability between age 50 and 80 years. To obtain life tables by level of physical activity (low, moderate, high), hazard ratios were derived for different physical activity levels per transition (non-disabled to disabled, non-disabled to death, disabled to non-disabled, disabled to death) adjusted for age, sex and confounders. Moderate, compared to low non-occupational physical activity reduced incidence of disability (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.86), increased recovery (HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.87), and represents a gain of disability-free years and a loss of years with disability (male 3.1 and 1.2; female 4.0 and 2.8 years). Performing high levels of non-occupational physical activity further reduced incidence, and showed a higher gain in disability-free years (male 4.1; female 4.7), but a similar reduction in years with disability. Among 50-80-year-olds promoting physical activity is a fundamental factor to achieve healthy ageing.

  15. 25 years of live related renal transplantation in children: The Buenos Aires experience

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Eduardo; Ferraris, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The number of pediatric patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) has been steadily growing during the last 10 years all over the world, because of the improvement of medical and surgical treatment of severe urologic malformations and congenital and acquired nephrological disorders. Kidney transplantation (Tx) with a live related donor continues to be the gold standard therapy to treat ESRD in children because of the best final results, the chronic lack of cadaveric donors and the frequent possibility of young patients to have parents or relatives as a source of a potential graft donor. Nowadays almost every pediatric patient can be dialyzed and transplanted, even early in life, if he or she has the possibility of a live related donor. Improvements in pediatric anesthesiology and intensive care have also been very important, in reducing the morbidity and mortality related to Tx procedures. Here we report our experience with Tx for the last 25 years, specially our long experience of live related donor transplantation in children and adolescents with emphasis on technical issues in small children and pediatric patients with severe urologic malformations and bladder dysfunction. We'll make special considerations on the improvement in short and long follow-up with the actual prevention and treatment of graft rejection, due to the new immunosuppressive agents and protocols. PMID:19718302

  16. CO investigation of z = 0.4-1.5 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, A.-L.; Combes, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the results of an IRAM-30 m search for CO emission lines in three galaxies at intermediate redshifts. The idea was to investigate the molecular content of galaxies that are bright in the infrared at z=0.4-1.5, a redshift desert for molecular line studies because poorly investigated as yet. We integrated 8-10 h per source and did not succeed in detecting any of the sources. From our upper limits, we were able to constrain the molecular gas content in these systems to less than 4 to 8 × 10^9~M_⊙, assuming a CO-to-H2 conversion factor (α=0.8~M_⊙/(K km s-1 pc2)). We stress the current difficulty of selecting sources with a detectable molecular content, a problem that will be faced by the ALMA First Science projects.

  17. Luminous Red Galaxies at Z=0.4-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sally; Lindler, Don

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of approx.20,000 luminous red galaxies (LRG's) at z=0.4-0.5 observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In order to differentiate among them, we measured restframe magnitudes, u (3000-3500 A), b (4200-4800 A), and y (5700-6300 A) from the spectra themselves. The galaxies show a significant range in restframe colors and absolute magnitudes. We binned the spectra according to the restframe u-b color and y-band absolute magnitude in order to increase the S/N. We used 3 approaches to estimate the ages and metal content of these binned spectra: via their spectral energy distributions, from spectral-line indices, and by full spectral fitting. The three methods usually produce discordant results

  18. Luminous Red Galaxies at Z=0.4-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sally; Lindler, Don

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of approx.20,000 luminous red galaxies (LRG's) at z=0.4-0.5 observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In order to differentiate among them, we measured restframe magnitudes, u (3000-3500 A), b (4200-4800 A), and y (5700-6300 A) from the spectra themselves. The galaxies show a significant range in restframe colors and absolute magnitudes. We binned the spectra according to the restframe u-b color and y-band absolute magnitude in order to increase the S/N. We used 3 approaches to estimate the ages and metal content of these binned spectra: via their spectral energy distributions, from spectral-line indices, and by full spectral fitting. The three methods usually produce discordant results

  19. Summary results from the NASA Tech House one year live-in

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, I. L.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA Tech House was designed and constructed at the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., to demonstrate and evaluate new technology potentially applicable for conservation of energy and resources and for improvements in safety and security in a single-family residence. All technology items, including solar energy systems and a waste water reuse system, were evaluated under actual living conditions for a one-year period with a family of four living in the house in their normal life style. Results are presented which show overall savings in energy and resources compared to requirements for a defined similar conventional house under the same conditions. Also included are general operational experience and performance data for all the various items and systems of technology incorporated into the house design.

  20. Summary results from the NASA Tech House one year live-in

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, I. L.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA Tech House was designed and constructed at the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., to demonstrate and evaluate new technology potentially applicable for conservation of energy and resources and for improvements in safety and security in a single-family residence. All technology items, including solar energy systems and a waste water reuse system, were evaluated under actual living conditions for a one-year period with a family of four living in the house in their normal life style. Results are presented which show overall savings in energy and resources compared to requirements for a defined similar conventional house under the same conditions. Also included are general operational experience and performance data for all the various items and systems of technology incorporated into the house design.

  1. Myopia, use of eyes, and living habits among men aged 33-37 years.

    PubMed

    Pärssinen, O; Leskinen, A L; Era, P; Heikkinen, E

    1985-08-01

    As a part of a more extensive research project on health and functional capacity among a representative sample of men, the living habits and backgrounds of myopic men between 33 and 37 years of age living in the town of Jyväskylä were studied in comparison with non-myopic men of the same age. The prevalence of a negative spheric equivalent, which was considered as a criterion of myopia, was 25%. It was found that the myopic, on the average, had been more interested in reading from childhood onwards, their educational and occupational status were higher, and their body structure was lighter. As children they had taken less physical exercise, but as adults no difference was found in physical exercise between the myopic and non-myopic.

  2. [We are living longer, but are these additional years spent in good health?].

    PubMed

    Essink-Bot, M L; Deeg, D J H; Nusselder, W J

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in western countries has increased continuously over recent years. The issue at stake is if this rise includes healthy years. The answer depends on the health indicator used, e.g., perceived health, disability, or cognitive impairment. A study by Jagger et al. (2016) provides evidence for an increase in life expectancy without cognitive impairment and an absolute compression of cognitive impairment between 1991 and 2011. Information on life expectancy without cognitive impairment is not yet available for the Netherlands. Similar to England, Dutch trends in life expectancy in excellent or good self-perceived health and in life expectancy without severe disability are favourable, although less pronouncedly so. Dutch and English data suggest that the additional years lived by the population are at least partly spent in good health.

  3. Living related donor liver transplantation in Iranian children: a 12- year experience

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzade, Jafar; Mohsen Dehghani, Seyed; Bahador, Ali; Ali Malek-Hosseini, Seyed

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to describe our results and investigate the survival of below-18-year-old patients undergoing LRDLT and the factors affecting this. Background Living Related Donor Liver Transplantation (LRDLT) has become a good option to provide suitable grafts for children with liver diseases. Using this method, children who have no chance for life can live a much longer life. Patients and methods The present study is a historical cohort study carried on 191 patients below-18-year-sold who had undergone LRDLT for the first time in the Namazi hospital liver transplantation center. Survival rate of the patients was assessed using Kaplan-Meier method. The effect of factors related to the recipients, donors, and the transplantation process on the patients’ survival was also investigated. Results 1, 3, 5 and 11-year survival of patients was 71%, 66%, 65%, and 65%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, age, weight at transplantation, PELD/MELD score, existence of post-transplant complications were found to be effective factors on the patients’ survival. In the multivariate analysis, weight at transplantation, PELD/MELD score, and existence of post-transplant complications were the prognostic variables. Conclusion LRDLT is now well established with satisfactory results in our center. Although the survival rate of the patients is lower than the survival rate reported in other studies, but the survival of the patients who had survived 1 month after the transplantation was comparable to other studies. PMID:24834270

  4. Does life satisfaction predict five-year mortality in community-living older adults?

    PubMed

    St John, Philip D; Mackenzie, Corey; Menec, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Depression and depressive symptoms predict death, but it is less clear if more general measures of life satisfaction (LS) predict death. Our objectives were to determine: (1) if LS predicts mortality over a five-year period in community-living older adults; and (2) which aspects of LS predict death. 1751 adults over the age of 65 who were living in the community were sampled from a representative population sampling frame in 1991/1992 and followed five years later. Age, gender, and education were self-reported. An index of multimorbidity and the Older American Resource Survey measured health and functional status, and the Terrible-Delightful Scale assessed overall LS as well as satisfaction with: health, finances, family, friends, housing, recreation, self-esteem, religion, and transportation. Cox proportional hazards models examined the influence of LS on time to death. 417 participants died during the five-year study period. Overall LS and all aspects of LS except finances, religion, and self-esteem predicted death in unadjusted analyses. In fully adjusted analyses, LS with health, housing, and recreation predicted death. Other aspects of LS did not predict death after accounting for functional status and multimorbidity. LS predicted death, but certain aspects of LS are more strongly associated with death. The effect of LS is complex and may be mediated or confounded by health and functional status. It is important to consider different domains of LS when considering the impact of this important emotional indicator on mortality among older adults.

  5. Living related donor liver transplantation in Iranian children: a 12- year experience.

    PubMed

    Haseli, Najmeh; Hassanzade, Jafar; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Bahador, Ali; Ali Malek-Hosseini, Seyed

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe our results and investigate the survival of below-18-year-old patients undergoing LRDLT and the factors affecting this. Living Related Donor Liver Transplantation (LRDLT) has become a good option to provide suitable grafts for children with liver diseases. Using this method, children who have no chance for life can live a much longer life. The present study is a historical cohort study carried on 191 patients below-18-year-sold who had undergone LRDLT for the first time in the Namazi hospital liver transplantation center. Survival rate of the patients was assessed using Kaplan-Meier method. The effect of factors related to the recipients, donors, and the transplantation process on the patients' survival was also investigated. 1, 3, 5 and 11-year survival of patients was 71%, 66%, 65%, and 65%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, age, weight at transplantation, PELD/MELD score, existence of post-transplant complications were found to be effective factors on the patients' survival. In the multivariate analysis, weight at transplantation, PELD/MELD score, and existence of post-transplant complications were the prognostic variables. LRDLT is now well established with satisfactory results in our center. Although the survival rate of the patients is lower than the survival rate reported in other studies, but the survival of the patients who had survived 1 month after the transplantation was comparable to other studies.

  6. Successful ABO-incompatible living-related intestinal transplantation: a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fan, D M; Zhao, Q C; Wang, W Z; Shi, H; Wang, M; Chen, D L; Zheng, J Y; Li, M B; Wu, G S

    2015-05-01

    ABO-incompatible intestinal transplantation has rarely been performed due to poor patient outcomes. Herein we present a case of successful ABO-incompatible intestinal transplantation with a 2-year follow-up. A 16-year-old female with a history of extensive bowel resection received an ABO-incompatible living donor bowel graft from her father (blood type AB graft into a type A recipient). Posttransplant immunosuppression consisted of an initial anti-CD20, plasmapheresis/intravenous immunoglobulin before transplantation, followed by an anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) induction and splenectomy, and maintenance with tacrolimus and prednisone. Her postoperative course was remarkable for a single episode of rejection on day 14 which responded promptly to treatment with methyprednisolone and ATG. Three months after transplantation, the patient developed an abdominal abscess requiring open surgical drainage. No viral infections were encountered. Posttransplant anti-B antibody titers and anti-B7 donor-specific antibody levels remained low. At a 2-year follow-up, the patient showed a progressive weight gain of 5.0 kg. This case illustrates that ABO-incompatible living-related bowel transplantation is immunologically feasible and is associated with good outcomes for the recipient. The management of blood type antibodies and the use of adequate immunosuppression in the early period of the procedure may be the keys to the success of future cases.

  7. Predictors of employment status change over 2 years in people with schizophrenia living in Europe.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Steven; Johnson, Sonia; Bebbington, Paul E; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Brugha, Traolach S; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Killian, Reinhold; Hansen, Karina; Toumi, Mondher

    2009-01-01

    To examine the associations of job acquisition and loss in a representative, prospective community sample of people with schizophrenia living in the UK, France and Germany. A representative sample of twelve hundred and eight people with schizophrenia were recruited from selected secondary mental health services in the U.K, France and Germany and followed up for 2 years. Information on demographic details, psychotic symptoms and work status was collected. The odds of getting jobs were increased by being resident in Marseille, Leipzig, Hemer and Heilbronn and by a higher regional general population employment rate. The odds were reduced by living in Lyon, a later illness onset, a longer length of illness, a continuous illness course and more severe negative psychotic symptoms. Previous vocational training reduced the odds of losing employment, whilst living in Lyon or Leipzig, harmful use of alcohol and more positive psychotic symptoms at baseline all increased the odds. In addition to illness related factors, area of residence and local labour market conditions appear to be important in explaining employment status change in people with schizophrenia.

  8. Daily living skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder from 2 to 21 years of age.

    PubMed

    Bal, Vanessa Hus; Kim, So-Hyun; Cheong, Daniel; Lord, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Daily living skills (DLS), such as personal hygiene, meal preparation, and money management, are important to independent living. Research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder exhibit impairments in daily living skills relative to their cognitive skills. This study examined predictors of daily living skills attainment and trajectories of daily living skills in a longitudinal sample referred for possible autism spectrum disorder and followed from 2 to 21 years of age. Consistent with previous studies, participants with autism spectrum disorder and nonspectrum diagnoses showed continual development of daily living skills throughout childhood and adolescence. Early childhood nonverbal mental age was the strongest predictor of daily living skills attainment for both diagnostic groups. Group-based modeling suggested two distinct trajectories of daily living skills development for participants with autism spectrum disorder. Skill levels for both groups of young adults with autism spectrum disorder remained considerably below age level expectations. Whereas the "High-DLS" group gained approximately 12 years in daily living skills from T2 to T21, the "Low-DLS" group's daily living skills improved 3-4 years over the 16- to 19-year study period. Nonverbal mental age, receptive language, and social-communication impairment at 2 years predicted High- versus Low-DLS group membership. Receiving greater than 20 h of parent-implemented intervention before age 3 was also associated with daily living skills trajectory. Results suggest that daily living skills should be a focus of treatment plans for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, particularly adolescents transitioning to young adulthood.

  9. Pediatric live-donor kidney transplantation in Mansoura Urology & Nephrology Center: a 28-year perspective.

    PubMed

    El-Husseini, Amr A; Foda, Mohamed A; Bakr, Mohamed A; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Sobh, Mohamed A; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2006-10-01

    Our objective was to evaluate our overall experience in pediatric renal transplantation. Between March 1976 and March 2004, 1,600 live-donor kidney transplantations were carried out in our center; 216 of the patients were 18 years old or younger (mean age 12.9 years). There were 136 male patients and 80 female patients. The commonest causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were renal dysplasia (22%), nephrotic syndrome (20%), hereditary nephritis (16%), and obstructive uropathy (16%). Of the donors, 94% were one-haplotype matched and the rest were identical. Pre-emptive transplantation was performed in 51 (23%) patients. Triple-therapy immunosuppression (prednisone + cyclosporine + azathioprine) was used in 78.2% of transplants. Rejection-free recipients constituted 47.7%. Hypertension (62%) was the commonest complication. A substantial proportion of patients (48%) were short, with height standard deviation score (SDS) less than -1.88. The overall infection rate was high, and the majority (53%) of infections were bacterial. The graft survival at 1 year, 5 years and 10 years were 93.4%, 73.3% and 48.2%, respectively, while the patients' survival at 1, 5 and 10 years were 97.6%, 87.8% and 75.3%, respectively. Despite long-term success results of pediatric renal transplantation in a developing country, there is a risk of significant morbidity.

  10. Growth and thermal properties of GeSePb0.4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, G. K.; Patel, K. D.; Gosai, N. N.; Patel, Ruchita R.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of GeSePb0.4 were grown by Direct Vapor Transport (DVT) technique, in a two zone horizontal furnace with temperature difference of 50 K between growth and source zones. The material crystallizes in the form of shining gray and platelets like crystals at the end of growth cycles. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been used for many years to evaluate thermal stability of material as it will determine the range of stable operation for a device made up out of these materials under investigation. Thermal characteristics of GeSePb0.4 crystals were studied employing thermoanalytical techniques, viz. TGA and DTA. Thermal analysis experiments were carried out with constant heating rate of 10°C/ min in air. The DTA pattern of GeSePb0.4 crystals shows a strong endothermic peak at 472°C. The objective of this study is to determine activation energy and other kinetic parameters of GeSePb0.4 crystals. Broido and Coats-Redfern models are used to evaluate different kinetic parameters of GeSePb0.4 crystals viz. activation energy, entropy, enthalpy, Gibbs mean free energy etc.

  11. [Relapse of Plasmodium malariae malaria 20 years after living in an endemic area].

    PubMed

    Siala, Emna; Khalfaoui, Moncef; Bouratbine, Aida; Hamdi, Samira; Hili, Kamel; Aoun, Karim

    2005-03-12

    Malaria has been eradicated in Tunisia since 1979. Although it continues to be evoked in the case of fever after travel to an endemic zone, its diagnosis is however difficult during relapses, notably when they are delayed. A 50 year-old man having lived in Mauritania from 1978 to 1982 was hospitalized for interstitial pneumopathy and urarthritis. In spite of treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics, the fever accompanied by abundant sweating persisted. A thick blood drop and blood smear was requested and led to the diagnosis of Plasmodium malariae malaria. This observation recalls the possibility of parasitic upsurge of some plasmodial species. It should prompt physicians to be careful and evoke malaria in the case of fever in subjects having stayed, even several years before, in an endemic zone. This would permit early diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Daily Living Skills in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder from 2 to 21?Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Vanessa Hus; Kim, So-Hyun; Cheong, Daniel; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Daily living skills (DLS), such as personal hygiene, meal preparation, and money management, are important to independent living. Research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder exhibit impairments in daily living skills relative to their cognitive skills. This study examined predictors of daily living skills attainment and…

  13. Daily Living Skills in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder from 2 to 21?Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Vanessa Hus; Kim, So-Hyun; Cheong, Daniel; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Daily living skills (DLS), such as personal hygiene, meal preparation, and money management, are important to independent living. Research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder exhibit impairments in daily living skills relative to their cognitive skills. This study examined predictors of daily living skills attainment and…

  14. A Phenomenological Study: The Lived Experience of Former Foster Youth Attending a Four-Year College in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dora Yiu Lam

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the lived experience of eight individuals attending a four-year college who were all part of a campus support program for former foster youth. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand and explore the lived experiences of these unique college students that have gone through the foster care system.…

  15. A Phenomenological Study: The Lived Experience of Former Foster Youth Attending a Four-Year College in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dora Yiu Lam

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the lived experience of eight individuals attending a four-year college who were all part of a campus support program for former foster youth. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand and explore the lived experiences of these unique college students that have gone through the foster care system.…

  16. A Survey of First-Year Biology Student Opinions Regarding Live Lectures and Recorded Lectures as Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simcock, D. C.; Chua, W. H.; Hekman, M.; Levin, M. T.; Brown, S.

    2017-01-01

    A cohort of first-year biology students was surveyed regarding their opinions and viewing habits for live and recorded lectures. Most respondents (87%) attended live lectures as a rule (attenders), with 66% attending more than two-thirds of the lectures. In contrast, only 52% accessed recordings and only 13% viewed more than two-thirds of the…

  17. Living victims of strangulation: a 10-year review of cases in a metropolitan community.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Corey, Tracey S; Weakley-Jones, Barbara; Stewart, Donna

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of reported domestic violence or intimate partner violence has greatly increased, with approximately 1.5 million women violently assaulted annually in the United States by an intimate partner. Strangulation is often seen in violence against women, including domestic violence cases. Strangulation is defined as "a form of asphyxia characterized by closure of the blood vessels or air passages of the neck as a result of external pressure on the neck." This is a 10-year case review of 102 living victims of strangulation who underwent medicolegal evaluation at the Clinical Forensic Medicine Program at a State Medical Examiner's Office serving Southern Indiana and all of Kentucky. The majority of victims (79%) were strangled by an intimate partner, and manual strangulation was the most common method (83%). A total of 38 victims (38%) described a history of domestic violence, and the same number lost consciousness while being strangled. Nine (9%) women were pregnant at the time of the attack, while 13 (13%) had a history of being sexually abused in addition to being strangled. A paucity of cases involved only strangulation, as most of the victims were subjected to myriad forms of blunt force trauma which included not only the head and neck but also other bodily regions. This is a unique presentation of strangulation of living persons as most evidence of strangulation in the forensic literature has been derived from postmortem examinations of the victims. This comprehensive study discussing the examination of a living strangulation victim offers valuable insight into the mechanism and the physical findings involved in the strangulation process.

  18. The Living Filter: Monitoring Nitrate Accumulation after 50 Years of Wastewater Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, J.

    2015-12-01

    As global freshwater sources decline due to environmental contamination and a growing population, more sustainable wastewater renovation techniques will need to be applied to ensure freshwater for future generations. One such example of a sustainable solution is called the Living Filter, located on the campus of Pennsylvania State University. For fifty years, Pennsylvania State University has sprayed treated wastewater onto agricultural fields and forest ecosystems, leaving natural processes to further filter the wastewater. This cyclical process is deemed sustainable because the freshwater is recycled, providing drinking water to an increasing university population and nutrients to agricultural crops, without causing major environmental catastrophes such as fish kills, eutrophication or groundwater contamination. At first glance this project seems sustainable and effective, but for how long can this setup continue without nutrient overloading and environmental contamination? To be truly declared sustainable, the hopeful answer to this question is indefinitely. Using a combination of soil core and monitoring tools, ecosystem indicators such as soil nutrient capacities, moisture levels, and soil characteristics were measured. Comparing data from the initial system installation to present data collected from soil cores showed how ecosystems changed over time. Results revealed that nitrate concentrations were elevated through the profile in all land use types, but the concentrations were below EPA threshold. Soil characteristic analysis including particle size distribution, soil elemental composition, and texture yielded inconclusive results regarding which factors control the nitrate accumulation most significantly. The nitrate depth profile findings suggest that spray irrigation at the Living Filter under the current rates of application has not caused the ultimate stage of nitrogen saturation in the spray irrigation site. Variations in land use present interesting

  19. [Ten years of laparoscopic living kidney donation. From an extravagant to a routine procedure].

    PubMed

    Giessing, M; Fuller, T F; Deger, S; Roigas, J; Tüllmann, M; Liefeldt, L; Budde, K; Fischer, T; Winkelmann, B; Schnorr, D; Loening, S A

    2006-01-01

    Ten years ago the first laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LDN) was performed. Today, LDN is a routine operation in many US-American transplantation centers and an increasing number of centers in Europe are practicing LDN. In this article the different aspects of LDN for donor, kidney, recipient and operating surgeon are evaluated. We performed a literature research concerning LDN and the different aspects. Our own experience, as the largest LDN center in Germany, is part of the evaluation. Laparoscopic extraction of a kidney from a living donor is as safe for the donor as the open approach. At the same time, LDN offers multiple advantages like reduced pain and shorter convalescence. For the donated kidney and the recipient no disadvantages occur from the laparoscopic technique, as long as special intra- and perioperative demands are met. For the operating surgeon multiple developments have expanded the technical armentarium. LDN is safe for donor, recipient and kidney. Central issue of an optimal LDN is sufficient experience with laparoscopic urological techniques.

  20. The impact of a living learning community on first-year engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Margaret A.; Everett, Jess W.; Whittinghill, Dex

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of an engineering living and learning community (ELC) on first-year engineering students. A control group of non-ELC students was used to compare the experiences of the ELC participants. Analysis of survey data showed that there was significant differences between the ELC students and the non-ELC students in how they responded to questions regarding social support, academic support, connectedness to campus, and satisfaction with the College of Engineering and the institution as a whole. Particularly, there were significant differences between ELC and non-ELC students for questions related to feeling like part of an engineering community, having strong relationships with peers, belonging to a supportive peer network, studying with engineering peers, and spending time with classmates outside of class.

  1. Totally changed, yet still the same: patients' lived experiences 5 years beyond bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Natvik, Eli; Gjengedal, Eva; Råheim, Målfrid

    2013-09-01

    Bariatric surgery provides sustainable weight loss and increased quality of life for most, but not all patients. To increase the knowledge of this complex patient group and their needs during follow-up, we aimed to describe the essential meaning of bariatric surgery patients' long-term experiences by using a phenomenological lifeworld approach. Eight patients were interviewed between 5 and 7 years after bariatric surgery. Life after bariatric surgery was described as living with tension, ambivalence, and reinforced attention toward one's own body. The tension was related to embodied change and altered relations to the social world. The patients express an ongoing demand for control of health-related habits and practices, and to not lose control over the body again. Surgical weight loss and improved physical function do not necessarily mean changed health-related habits and practices in the long term. Experiencing weight regain is connected with emotional stress, shame, and self-contempt.

  2. Recovery of activities of daily living among older people one year after hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Córcoles-Jiménez, María Pilar; Villada-Munera, Ascensión; Del Egido-Fernández, María Ángeles; Candel-Parra, Eduardo; Moreno-Moreno, Mónica; Jiménez-Sánchez, María Delirio; Piña-Martínez, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to determine the functional recovery of older people, who were previously independent in activities of daily living (ADLs) and without cognitive impairment, in the year following a fall-related hip fracture. A cohort study was carried out among patients admitted to University General Hospital of Albacete (Spain). Consecutive sampling was performed. Variables included demographic, habitual residence, type of hip fracture, mental status (Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire [SPMSQ] Pfeiffer), and independence in ADLs (according to the Barthel Index [BI]) prior to the fall and after the fracture. For 205 patients, 1 year after surgery, the mean BI score was 78.09 (SD = 25.13); (vs. 90.02 before the hip fracture), 59% showed urinary continence (vs. 79%), and 65% walked without assistance (vs. 82%). Regarding predictors of recovery, results indicate that patients who are older, who suffer complications after hospital discharge, or who reside in nursing homes experience poorer recovery in ADLs. Only 47.9% of the patients regained prior levels of autonomy 1 year after surgery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Dental erosion in 12-year-old school children living in Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septalita, A.; Bahar, A.; Agustanti, A.; Rahardjo, A.; Maharani, D. A.; Rosalien, R.

    2017-08-01

    This study assesses the dental erosion status of 12-year-old Indonesian children and studies the determinants of dental erosion of these children. The survey was performed in 2016 with ethics approval. A multistage cluster proportional to size random sampling method was adopted to select 12-year-old children in 24 primary schools in Jakarta. The parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning their children’s diet and oral health habits. The children were examined by a single calibrated examiner. Detection of dental erosion followed basic erosive wear examination (BEWE) criteria. A total of 487 children participated in the survey. Most children (88%) had at least some signs of erosion (BEWE > 0), with dentin being involved in 50% of the cases (BEWE = 2). Dental erosion was significantly related to gender, the frequencies of citric tea consumption, parent’s dental knowledge, father’s education, and dental caries (OR = 3.148). The 12-year-old Indonesian school children who lived in Jakarta had signs of erosion, although severe erosion was not found. Screening programs should be provided to identify risk groups so early preventive measures can be taken.

  4. How hot is too hot? Live-trapped gray wolf rectal temperatures and 1-year survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    The ability of physically restrained and anesthetized wolves to thermoregulate is lessened and could lead to reduced survival, yet no information is available about this subject. Therefore, we analyzed rectal temperatures related to survival 1 year post-capture from 173 adult (non-pup) gray wolves (Canis lupus) captured in modified foot-hold traps for radiocollaring during June–August, 1988–2011, in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota, USA. The maximum observed rectal temperature (“maxtemp,” ° F, ° C) in each wolf during capture (x = 104.0, 40.0; SD = 2.0, 1.1; min. = 95.9, 35.5; max. = 108, 42.2) was not a significant predictor of survival to 1 year post-capture. Although no weather or morphometric variable was a significant predictor of maxtemps, wolves initially anesthetized with ketamine–xylazine rather than telazol®–xylazine averaged higher maxtemps. This information does not fully address possible effects of high body temperatures related to live-capture and handling of wolves, but it does provide a useful waypoint for future assessments of this relationship and a reassurance to wildlife practitioners that the maxtemps observed in our study did not appear to affect 1-year survival.

  5. An assisted living facility curriculum to introduce geriatrics to first-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Tong, Iris L; Dodd, Kimberly A; Warrier, Sarita S; Pugliese, Louis J; McMackin, Naomi Y; Taylor, Julie Scott

    2015-01-01

    Many U.S. medical schools have developed curricula in geriatric medicine to address the growing older adult population. At our university, the authors have integrated an assisted living facility (ALF) program into a required first-year clinical skills course. During the 2011 to 2012 academic year, an electronic survey was distributed to 109 first-year medical students prior to and after the program. Eighty-eight percent and 85% of students completed the pre- and postintervention survey, respectively. Students reported a positive attitude toward caring for older adults (92.5% post- vs. 80.2% preintervention), an understanding of the medical and social needs of older adults (89.2% post- vs. 38.5% preintervention), an acquisition of the skills to assess the health of older adults (71% post- vs. 14.5% preintervention), and an understanding of ALFs as nonmedical supportive housing (92.5% post- vs. 70.8% preintervention). The authors' curriculum offers an innovative method to integrate geriatrics education early in medical education and to involve medical students in their community.

  6. Becoming Adults: One-Year Impact Findings from the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Erin Jacobs; Skemer, Melanie; Courtney, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The "Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation" is testing whether the "Transitional Living" program, operated by the social service organization Youth Villages, makes a difference in the lives of young people with histories of foster care or juvenile justice custody. The program, which was renamed "YVLifeSet" in…

  7. Live birth outcome, spontaneous pregnancy and adoption up to five years after undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment.

    PubMed

    Volgsten, Helena; Schmidt, Lone

    2017-08-01

    This study is part of a longitudinal cohort undertaken in both women and men to describe live birth outcome after undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in a clinical setting. Another objective was to follow women and men living with children from other alternatives after ART, such as adoption. A total of 439 (80.5%) women and 423 (77.6%) men were included in the baseline cohort (2005-2007). Live birth rate after ART was 24.8% at baseline. Up to 5 years later (2010-2011) the same participants were sent individual postal questionnaires (n = 439). Overall, 278 (63.3%) women and 183 (41.7%) men filled in and returned the questionnaire at follow up. The majority of women (91.7%) and men (93.4%) were living with children. A total of 225 (80.9%) women had a live birth at follow up. Of these, almost three of four (71.6%) had a live birth after ART and more than one of four (28.0%) after spontaneous pregnancies or both. Of these, 52 (26.1%) women had a subsequent live birth after successful ART and 26 (32.9%) women after unsuccessful ART. Nineteen (6.8%) women and 13 (7.1%) men had a child after adoption. Almost one of five (19.1%) women had no live birth at follow up. The majority of women and men were living with children, resulting from a live birth after ART, spontaneous pregnancy and/or adoption up to 5 years later. However, almost one of five had no live birth at follow up. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  8. Yearly transitions of disability profiles in older people living at home.

    PubMed

    Raîche, Michel; Hébert, Réjean; Dubois, Marie-France; Gueye, N'deye Rokhaya; Dubuc, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Planning home services for older people requires extensive knowledge about the progression of disabilities. Disability-based case-mix classifications identify meaningful groups of older people; yet transitions between profiles are mostly unknown. Disability was assessed annually over four years with the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF) in 1410 older people at risk of functional decline aged 75 and over and living at home. The SMAF generates a case-mix classification of 14 Iso-SMAF profiles with progressive mean disability levels. Transitions made by older people were analyzed using a continuous-time, multi-state Markov model to estimate the probabilities of annual transitions into and out of each profile as well as the mean sojourn time in each profile. The probability of staying in a profile tended to decrease as profile severity increased. For profiles 5 and above, recovery to mild profiles 1, 2 and 3 was low, while annual probabilities of death and institutionalization were high (>0.10). The lower disability profiles (1 and 2) evidenced a mean profile sojourn time of over two years, contrary to sojourn times of 18 months or less with the other profiles. The probabilities are identifiable, indicating that a disability-based classification can characterize progression in older people. Since the required resources and costs are known for each profile, these probabilities are very helpful in planning home services for elderly populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy Expenditure of Daily Living Activities in 3- to 6-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Byun, Wonwoo; Barry, Allison; Lee, Jung-Min

    2016-06-01

    There has been a call for updating the Youth Compendium of Energy Expenditure (YCEE) by including energy expenditure (EE) data of young children (ie, < 6-year-old children). Therefore, this study examined the activity EE in 3 to 6 year old children using indirect calorimetry. Using Oxycon Mobile portable indirect calorimetry, both the oxygen consumption (VO2) and the EE of 28 children (Girls: 46%, Age: 4.8 ± 1.0, BMI: 16.4 ± 1.6) were measured while they performed various daily living activities (eg, watching TV, playing with toys, shooting baskets, soccer). Across physical activities, averages of VO2 (ml·kg·min-1), VO2 (L·min-1), and EE ranged from 8.9 ± 1.5 to 33.3 ± 4.8 ml·kg·min-1, from 0.17 ± 0.04 to 0.64 ± 0.16 L·min-1, and from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 3.2 ± 0.7 kcal·min-1, respectively. These findings will contribute to the upcoming YCEE update.

  10. A year long study of the presence of free living amoeba in Spain.

    PubMed

    Magnet, A; Fenoy, S; Galván, A L; Izquierdo, F; Rueda, C; Fernandez Vadillo, C; Del Aguila, C

    2013-12-01

    Free-living amoeba such as Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia mandrillaris can act as opportunistic parasites on a wide range of vertebrates and they are becoming a serious threat to human health due to the resistance of their cysts to harsh environmental conditions, disinfectants, some water treatment practices and their ubiquitous distribution. This work was carried out in order to study the presence of these free-living amoebae (FLA) and their possible seasonality in a continental-Mediterranean climate in different types of water. For this purpose, a total of 223 water samples were collected during one year from four drinking water treatment plants (DWTP), seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and six locations of influence (LI) on four river basins from Spain. Water samples were concentrated using the IDEXX Filta-Max(®) system and analyzed by a triplex real time PCR that detects Acanthamoeba, B. mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri. Agar plates were also seeded for Acanthamoeba culture. From the three FLA studied, N. fowleri was not detected in any sample while B. mandrillaris was found at the entrance of a DWTP; this being, to our knowledge, the first report of these protozoa in water worldwide. On the other hand, the presence of Acanthamoeba observed was higher, 94.6% of the studied points were positive by real time PCR and 85.2% by culture, resulting in 99.1% positive for Acanthamoeba with both methods. All genetically analyzed Acanthamoeba were genotype T4 but nine different T4/DF3 sequences were observed, three of them being described for the first time, assigning new codes. No seasonal distribution of Acanthamoeba was found. These facts should serve as a warning to contact lens wearers of the risk of a poor hygiene when handling their contact lenses. It should also serve as a signal to physicians to consider FLA as a possible causative agent of nervous system infections as well as Acanthamoeba keratitis due to their high environmental presence shown in this

  11. Attitudes toward dental appearance in 50- and 60-Year-old subjects living in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Gunnar E; Johansson, Anders; Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Ordell, Sven; Ekbäck, Gunnar; Unell, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward the importance of general appearance have varied much, not only over time but also among groups of individuals of different age and other characteristics. Whether the situation is similar regarding dental appearance does not seem to have been studied. The aim was to study the differences in attitudes toward dental appearance between two large samples of 50- and 60-year-old subjects. Identical questionnaires were sent to all subjects born in 1942 and 1952 living in two Swedish counties in 2002 (N=17,444; N50=8,881, N60=8,563). The final response rate was 72.2% (N=12,599). In this study, responses to four statements on the importance of dental appearance have been analyzed with respect to gender and age. Many of the responses to the four statements differed with gender and age. To the first statement ("To have beautiful and perfect teeth is very important for how you are treated by other people"), 73% agreed at age 60 compared with 64% at age 50 (p < 0.001). Approximately 90% of the subjects agreed with the second statement ("Minor esthetic imperfections of the teeth have no importance, only they function well"). Logistic regression indicated that several variables were significantly associated with the statements. Besides age and gender, education and self-assessed dental problems were most important. Attitudes toward the importance of dental appearance differed both between genders and age groups in these population samples living in Sweden. The varying attitudes toward dental appearance in the population must be acknowledged in treatment decisions.

  12. Examining the Academic Performance and Retention of First-Year Students in Living-Learning Communities and First-Year Experience Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, John R., II; Rosser, Vicki J.

    2011-01-01

    Institutional data were used to examine the grades and retention of first-year students in 2 types of living learning communities--Academic Theme Floors (ATFs) and Freshman Interest Groups (FIGs)--and a First-Year Experience (FYE) course. Multiple regression revealed students in FIGs earned nominally higher GPAs (standardized [beta] = 0.02, p less…

  13. Examining the Academic Performance and Retention of First-Year Students in Living-Learning Communities and First-Year Experience Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, John R., II; Rosser, Vicki J.

    2011-01-01

    Institutional data were used to examine the grades and retention of first-year students in 2 types of living learning communities--Academic Theme Floors (ATFs) and Freshman Interest Groups (FIGs)--and a First-Year Experience (FYE) course. Multiple regression revealed students in FIGs earned nominally higher GPAs (standardized [beta] = 0.02, p less…

  14. Factors influencing Internet usage in older adults (65 years and above) living in rural and urban Sweden.

    PubMed

    Berner, Jessica; Rennemark, Mikael; Jogréus, Claes; Anderberg, Peter; Sköldunger, Anders; Wahlberg, Maria; Elmståhl, Sölve; Berglund, Johan

    2015-09-01

    Older adults living in rural and urban areas have shown to distinguish themselves in technology adoption; a clearer profile of their Internet use is important in order to provide better technological and health-care solutions. Older adults' Internet use was investigated across large to midsize cities and rural Sweden. The sample consisted of 7181 older adults ranging from 59 to 100 years old. Internet use was investigated with age, education, gender, household economy, cognition, living alone/or with someone and rural/urban living. Logistic regression was used. Those living in rural areas used the Internet less than their urban counterparts. Being younger and higher educated influenced Internet use; for older urban adults, these factors as well as living with someone and having good cognitive functioning were influential. Solutions are needed to avoid the exclusion of some older adults by a society that is today being shaped by the Internet. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Hospitalization of people 50 years old or older living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Pio, Daiana Patrícia Marchetti; Reinato, Lilian Andreia Fleck; Lopes, Letícia Pimenta; Caliari, Juliano de Souza; Gir, Elucir

    2017-01-01

    Identify the rate and predictive factors of the hospitalization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), aged 50 years or older. A quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted at two inpatient units specialized in infectious diseases in a teaching hospital. Data were gathered through individual interviews between August 2011 and February 2015. All ethical precepts were followed. Of the 532 admitted patients, 95 were PLHA 50 years old or older; 30.5% were admitted 3 to 4 times after being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Rate of hospitalization was 17.8%, and being 50 to 60 years old was a protective factor against hospitalization. Identificar a taxa e os fatores preditores para a hospitalização de pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids (PVHA), com idade igual ou superior a 50 anos. Estudo quantitativo, transversal, realizado em duas unidades de internação especializadas em cuidados às doenças infecciosas, de um hospital universitário. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de entrevista individual, no período de agosto de 2011 a fevereiro de 2015. Todos os preceitos éticos foram contemplados. Das 532 internações, 95 eram de PVHA com idade igual ou superior a 50 anos; 56,8% receberam o diagnóstico de HIV/Aids antes de terem completado 50 anos de idade; 30,5% foram hospitalizadas de 3 a 4 vezes após o diagnóstico da infecção pelo HIV/Aids. A taxa de hospitalização foi de 17,8%, e a faixa etária de 50 a 60 anos foi fator de proteção para a hospitalização.

  16. Learning and Living Technologies: A Longitudinal Study of First-Year Students' Frequency and Competence in the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosein, Anesa; Ramanau, Ruslan; Jones, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article presents results from a longitudinal survey of first-year students' time spent on living and learning technologies at university, their frequency of using specific learning technologies and their competence with these tools. Data were analysed from two similar surveys at the start and at the end of the academic year for students…

  17. Live with the Disease Like You Used to Before You Knew You Were Infected: A Qualitative Study Among 10-Year Survivors Living with HIV in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Samuel; Riviera, Vanessa; Jean, Circee Phara; Louis, Marie Jude Jean; Reif, Lindsey K; Severe, Patrice; Rouzier, Vanessa; Johnson, Warren D; Pape, Jean W; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; McNairy, Margaret L; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2017-03-01

    In 2003, the Haitian Study Group on Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO), a nonprofit organization, began administering antiretroviral therapy (ART) to its patients. This practice transformed HIV from a fatal disease to a more manageable chronic condition. However, relatively few studies focus on the experiences of survivors. This study provided a unique opportunity to interview patients who survived at least 10 years after being treated with ART at GHESKIO. The goal of the study was to elicit from patients their perspectives on what enabled them to survive with AIDS. Grounded Theory, a qualitative research method was used to guide data collection, coding, and analysis. Individual interviews were conducted, audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed in Creole, and translated into English. Data saturation was reached at 25 participants. Of which, 64% were women, the mean age was 49, range of 43-55 years, 24% were married, 44% had not completed elementary school, and 72% had no income, the remaining participants had incomes ranging from $1000 to $5000 annually. Qualitative analysis resulted in 681 codes, which were grouped into six categories: being spiritually grounded, having supportive interactions with providers, caring for children, setting personal goals, persevering and living life as usual, and maintaining strict medication adherence practices. The overarching theory was that having a reason to live despite one's circumstances and living life as usual enabled one to survive. Having a strong spiritual foundation coupled with supportive family and providers motivated participants to live and adhere to their ART. As the number of patients who are living longer with HIV in Haiti increases, results from this study will be important in helping tailor interventions that enhance their overall quality of life.

  18. Living the Volcano: A First-Year Study Abroad Experience to Santorini, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, L. A.; Miller, M.; Scarnati, B.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, enrollment in Northern Arizona University's (NAU) Geologic Disasters (GLG112) class has grown to its current 840 students in 7 sections per semester (4% of NAU enrollment). Given this large audience composed of >50% freshmen, the course curriculum was re-designed in 2012 using standards set by NAU's First Year Learning Initiative (FYLI), which seeks to increase academic success early in college. FYLI pedagogical principles include active-learning, frequent feedback, low-stakes assessments, and increased guidance from professors & peer teaching assistants (PTAs). As a result of the successes measured in FYLI courses, we launched a FYLI study abroad experience in 2014. We posed the question, "How can an early-career study abroad experience further develop the attitudes, skills, & behaviors necessary for success?" The pioneering program was NAU in Greece: The Cataclysmic Eruption of Santorini Volcano. Enrollment was limited to freshman & sophomore students who have taken GLG112 (or equivalent). The 3-week program took 9 students, 1 PTA, & 1 faculty member to Santorini (via Athens, 2 days). A detailed itinerary addressed a set of disciplinary & non-disciplinary learning outcomes. Student learning about Santorini volcano and the tectonic setting & hazards of the Aegean Sea occurred on the go - on ferries & private boat trips and during hiking, snorkeling, and swimming. Classroom time was limited to 1 hr/day and frequent assessments were employed. Student products included a geologic field notebook, travel journal, and 3 blog posts pertaining to geologic hazards & life on Santorini. Geologic disasters are ideal topics for early career study abroad experiences because the curriculum is place-based. Student learning benefits immensely from interacting with the land & local populations, whose lives are affected daily by the dangers of living in such geologically hazardous environments. The needs of early career students are unique, however, and must be

  19. Outcome from 5-year live surgical demonstrations in urinary stone treatment: are outcomes compromised?

    PubMed

    Legemate, Jaap D; Zanetti, Stefano P; Baard, Joyce; Kamphuis, Guido M; Montanari, Emanuele; Traxer, Olivier; de la Rosette, Jean Jmch

    2017-05-18

    To compare intra- and post-operative outcomes of endourological live surgical demonstrations (LSDs) and routine surgical practice (RSP) for urinary stones. Consecutive ureterorenoscopic (URS) and percutaneous (PNL) urinary stone procedures over a 5-year period were reviewed. Procedures were divided into LSDs and RSP. Differences between the groups were separately analysed for URS and PNL. Primary outcomes included intra- and post-operative complication rates and grades. Secondary outcomes were operation time, length of hospital stay, stone-free rate, and retreatment rate. Pearson's Chi-square analysis, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic and linear regression were used to compare outcomes between LSDs and RSP. During the study period, we performed 666 URSs and 182 PNLs, and 151 of these procedures were LSDs. Among URSs, the overall intra-operative complication rate was 3.2% for LSDs and 2.5% for RSP (p = 0.72) and the overall post-operative complication rate was 13.7% for LSDs and 8.8% for RSP (p = 0.13). Among PNLs, the overall intra-operative complication rate was 8.9% for LSDs and 5.6% for RSP (p = 0.52) and the overall post-operative complication rate was 28.6% for LSDs and 34.9% for RSP (p = 0.40). For both URSs and PNLs, no statistically significant differences in complication grade scores were observed between LSDs and RSP. Operation time was significantly longer for LSD-URS group, but there was no difference between the PNL groups. There were no significant differences in length of hospital stay and stone-free rate. The retreatment rate was higher in the LSD-URS group compared with RSP-URS group but similar between the PNL groups. Multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusting for confounders, revealed no association between LSD and more or less favourable outcomes as compared to RSP. Live surgical demonstrations do not seem to compromise patients' safety and outcomes when performed by specialised endourologists.

  20. Cumulative live birth rates following IVF in 41- to 43-year-old women presenting with favourable ovarian reserve characteristics.

    PubMed

    van Disseldorp, J; Eijkemans, M J C; Klinkert, E R; te Velde, E R; Fauser, B C; Broekmans, F J M

    2007-04-01

    For women aged 41-43 years old, success rates in IVF are generally poor. This study aimed to assess cumulative live birth rate related to treatment costs over a maximum of three IVF cycles in selected women who were considered to still have adequate ovarian reserve. Fifty-five patients (38% of the total cohort, n = 144) were excluded from IVF treatment based on low antral follicle count (<5 follicles) and/or elevated basal FSH (>15 IU/l). Of those admitted, 66 (74%) actually started and completed a total of 125 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Treatment resulted in 10 live births (8% per cycle). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a realistic cumulative live birth rate after three cycles of 17%. The direct medical costs per live birth were calculated to be approximately 44,000 euro. These results show that selection towards favourable ovarian reserve status in the female age group 41-43 years yielded disappointing results in terms of cumulative live birth rates after IVF. In view of the costs raised per live birth, improvement of selection parameters for treatment in this age group is warranted.

  1. Phase diagram for Bi1-xCaxMnO3 (x < 0.4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuhai; Tyson, Trevor; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Xu, Xiao-Nong

    2008-03-01

    The multiferroic BiMnO3 system, in which ferroelectronic and ferromagnetic orders can coexist, has attracted much research work in the past years for its potential technological applications. For the more general system Bi1-xCaxMnO3, the phase diagram for the Ca rich region (x > 0.4) has been established[1]. In order to understand the multiferroic behavior near the x=0 system, the hole-doped region (00.4) was investigated. We have completed the magnetic, transport, and structural phase diagram of Bi1-xCaxMnO3, by performing detailed structural (XRD and XAFS), magnetization (ZFC/FC) and electrical measurements on Bi1-xCaxMnO3 (00.4), showing the transition form the highly distorted monoclinic phase to the orthorhombic phase. This work is supported by NSF DMR-0512196 and DOE Grant DE-FG02-07ER46402. [1] H. Woo, et al, Phys. Rev. B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 63, 134412/1 (2001).

  2. [MusicPlayTherapy--a parent-child psychotherapy for children 0-4 years old].

    PubMed

    Stumptner, Katrin; Thomsen, Cornelia

    2005-10-01

    The early stage of building up the parent-child relationship is especially important. It is the basis for the child's development of the ability to relate to others and his or her further emotional, social and cognitive development. In this important early phase various risk factors may alienate parents from their intuitive parental competence towards their children. Such interaction problems indicate an intervention in the form of parent-children psychotherapy. This constitutes an entry point for the concept of MusicPlayTherapy (MPT): The early relationship is characterized mainly by complex communication sequences that address the senses at all levels. Therefore, the MPT concept integrates music as medium to communicate and opens up a playing space for play that allows emotions and experiences to be expressed. The components of music such as rhythm, sound, and melody stimulate babies and toddlers to express, play, and communicate preverbally. We work with the child and a parent in the MusicPlayTherapy sessions. Parents learn again to play and thereby learn to reach their children emotionally and to communicate with them. We complement the therapy sessions by counselling sessions with both parents.

  3. Motor function in 90-year olds measured by optoelectronic kinesiology and activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Matousek, M; Baba, S; Sonn, U; Johnels, B; Steg, G; Steen, B

    1994-12-01

    Computer-assisted optoelectronic movement analysis using a Posturo-Locomotor-Manual (PLM) test, and assessment with an ADL (Activities of Daily Living) scale were performed in 36 (18 women and 18 men) 90-year-old subjects as part of a larger study. In the PLM test, the subjects were asked to pick up an object placed on the floor, and carry it to a shelf at the height of their chin and at a distance of 150 cm from the starting position. In the ADL assessment, the subjects were classified as ADL-dependent or independent in each of 4 instrumental (cleaning, shopping, transport and cooking) and 5 personal activities (bathing, dressing, going to the toilet, transfer and feeding). ADL independence was defined as being able to perform ADL activities without assistance from another person. In this study, ADL-dependent subjects performed the PLM test considerably more slowly than the ADL-independent group. A correlation was found in females between poorer ADL performance and slower and less co-ordinated PLM test results. Particularly, the Postural and Locomotor phases representing lower limb mobility correlated to the ADL steps. In males, no such correlation was found, indicating that factors other than mobility were important for ADL performance in this group, e.g., cooking skills. The relationships between the PLM test and the ADL assessment estimating practical motor function could be an indication that the PLM test is not only a strict laboratory method, but also measures components of everyday motor activities. Combined use of optoelectronic measurements and ADL scales will improve measurements of motor performance in elderly persons.

  4. The Relationship between Living Learning Communities and Student Success on First-Year and Second-Year Students at the University of South Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stier, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    The college experience for many students is an exciting and sometimes awe-inspiring journey. For the first time many students find themselves responsible for making life altering decisions that will determine the course of their adult lives for years to come. They are making the decisions to participate in specific academic majors, a variety of…

  5. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces, July 1973 - June 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Satellite radiance measurements and data from meteorological rocketsondes were employed to analyze a series of high-altitude constant pressure charts. The methods of processing the various types of data and the analysis procedure used are described. Broad-scale analyses for the Northern Hemisphere 5-, 2-, and 0.4-mb surfaces are presented for each week of the period from September through April, and on a once-per-month basis for July, August, May, and June. A brief discussion of the variations of the temperature and height fields throughout the year is also given.

  6. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces for July 1974 through June 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Meteorological rocketsonde and satellite radiance data were employed for analyses of a continuing series of high altitude constant pressure charts. The methods of processing, the various types of data utilized and the analysis procedure are described. Broad-scale analyses of temperature and geopotential height for the Northern Hemisphere 5, 2, and 0.4 mb surfaces are presented for each week of the period July 1974 through June 1976. Brief discussions of the variations of the temperature and height fields throughout the two year period are also given.

  7. Twenty-Five Years of Research on the Lived Experience of Being Gifted in School: Capturing the Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Laurence J.; Micko, Karen J.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Through a synthesis of 25 years worth of studies concerning the lived experience of children who are gifted and talented within the context of school, a more comprehensive picture can be presented. The intent is to provide information for teachers, parents, administrators, and psychologists to better understand and support advanced development.…

  8. Leadership Mindsets of First-Year Undergraduate Students: An Assessment of a Leadership-Themed Living Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Allison L.; Odom, Summer F.; Moore, Lori L.; Rotter, Craig

    2016-01-01

    First-year college students in a leadership-themed living-learning community (N= 60) at Texas A&M University were surveyed to examine if participation in the learning community influenced their leadership mindset using hierarchical and systemic thinking preferences. Utilizing a pre-test and post-test methodology, significant differences for…

  9. Leadership Mindsets of First-Year Undergraduate Students: An Assessment of a Leadership-Themed Living Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Allison L.; Odom, Summer F.; Moore, Lori L.; Rotter, Craig

    2016-01-01

    First-year college students in a leadership-themed living-learning community (N= 60) at Texas A&M University were surveyed to examine if participation in the learning community influenced their leadership mindset using hierarchical and systemic thinking preferences. Utilizing a pre-test and post-test methodology, significant differences for…

  10. Twenty-Five Years of Research on the Lived Experience of Being Gifted in School: Capturing the Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Laurence J.; Micko, Karen J.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Through a synthesis of 25 years worth of studies concerning the lived experience of children who are gifted and talented within the context of school, a more comprehensive picture can be presented. The intent is to provide information for teachers, parents, administrators, and psychologists to better understand and support advanced development.…

  11. Five-year antibody persistence in children after one dose of inactivated or live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhilun; Zhu, Xiangjun; Hu, Yuansheng; Liang, Miao; Sun, Jin; Song, Yufei; Yang, Qi; Ji, Haiquan; Zeng, Gang; Song, Lifei; Chen, Jiangting

    2017-02-14

    In China, both inactivated hepatitis A (HA) vaccine and live attenuated HA vaccine are available. We conducted a trial to evaluate 5-year immune persistence induced by one dose of inactivated or live attenuated HA vaccines in children. Subjects with no HA vaccination history had randomly received one dose of inactivated or live attenuated HA vaccine at 18-60 months of age. Anti-HAV antibody concentrations were measured before vaccination and at the first, second, and fifth year after vaccination. Suspected cases of hepatitis A were monitored during the study period. A total of 332 subjects were enrolled and 182 provided evaluable serum samples at all planned time points. seropositive rate at 5 y was 85.9% in the inactivated HA vaccine group and 90.7% in the live attenuated HA vaccine group. GMCs were 76.3% mIU/ml (95% CI: 61.7 - 94.4) and 66.8mIU/ml (95% CI: 57.8 - 77.3), respectively. No significant difference in antibody persistence between 2 groups was found. No clinical hepatitis A case was reported. A single dose of an inactivated or live attenuated HA vaccine at 18-60 months of age resulted in high HAV seropositive rate and anti-HAV antibody concentrations that lasted for at least 5 y.

  12. Nancy Rowe and George Curtis: Deaf Lives in Maine 150 Years Ago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Harlan; Pillard, Richard; Hedberg, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    This article is based on some findings in a larger project concerned with Deaf settlement in Maine. Maine is the site of one of the oldest and largest extended Deaf families in the United States: the Lovejoy-Jellison-Berry family (Jones 1996). However, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, many extended Deaf families lived in Maine.…

  13. Kuwait National Programme for Healthy Living: first 5-year plan (2013-2017).

    PubMed

    Behbehani, Kazem

    2014-01-01

    The Kuwait National Programme for Healthy Living is an initiative to promote the health and well-being for individuals residing in the country. The plan has been created based on current data and available information pertaining to the various lifestyles of the populations living in Kuwait and their impact on health in general and chronic diseases in particular. Leading a healthy lifestyle is important because it means living in an environment, such as the Kuwaiti society, where chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart diseases are significantly reduced. Several factors regarding lifestyles among the various ethnic groups residing in Kuwait have been identified, including inactivity resulting from the lack of need for physical exertion in daily-life activities and social rituals involving the serving of food amongst the various ethnic groups residing in Kuwait. For Kuwaitis and other ethnicities as well, traditional social gatherings include serving food as an integral element of the social ritual. The environments of school and work also contribute to an individual's lifestyle. The goal of the programme is to address the contribution of lifestyle choices and the social environment to health with the goal of creating a healthy environment that will sustain good health and social well-being. This can be accomplished by involving the various stakeholders in promoting the aim of the programme. Finally, addressing the research needs for healthy lifestyle issues can have a huge impact on the outcome of the programmes designed and would aid in creating a healthy living environment.

  14. TRAINING FOR INDEPENDENT LIVING, A COMMUNITY PROGRAM FOR SEVERELY RETARDED ADULTS. A THREE YEAR REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TOBIAS, JACK

    AN OCCUPATIONAL DAY CENTER FOR MENTALLY RETARDED ADULTS WAS ESTABLISHED TO PROVIDE COMMUNITY SERVICES FOR RETARDED PERSONS WHO LIVE AT HOME AND, ALTHOUGH BEYOND SCHOOL AGE, ARE UNABLE TO PARTICIPATE IN SHELTERED WORKSHOP ACTIVITIES. THE STAFF INCLUDES A DIRECTOR, A SOCIAL WORKER, FIVE INSTRUCTORS, A TRAINING SUPERVISOR, AN OFFICE WORKER, AND A…

  15. Student Experiences and Administrator Perceptions of a Leadership Living Learning Community at a Four Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Termika Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to describe the learning experience of 29 freshman students bounded by participating in the Leadership Living Learning Community at Gulf Coast University (pseudonym) for the 2011-2012 school term. This study sought to explore students' experiences and attitudes and administrator perceptions about the…

  16. Nancy Rowe and George Curtis: Deaf Lives in Maine 150 Years Ago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Harlan; Pillard, Richard; Hedberg, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    This article is based on some findings in a larger project concerned with Deaf settlement in Maine. Maine is the site of one of the oldest and largest extended Deaf families in the United States: the Lovejoy-Jellison-Berry family (Jones 1996). However, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, many extended Deaf families lived in Maine.…

  17. Coast Live Oak Thinning Study in the Central Coast of California-Fifth-Year Results

    Treesearch

    Norman H. Pillsbury; John P. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    A long-term thinning study was established in ten stands of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Née) in the Central Coast of California. Information about diameter, basal area, and volume growth and yield has been obtained from unthinned control plots and from plots thinned to 50 and 100 square feet of basal area per acre measured in 1984 and 1989....

  18. Determinants of Living Well With Aphasia in the First Year Poststroke: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Linda E; Hudson, Kyla; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Ryan, Brooke; Simmons-Mackie, Nina

    2017-02-01

    To determine factors that contribute to living well with aphasia in the first 12 months poststroke. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Hospitalized care, ambulatory care, and general community. A referred sample of people (N=58) with a first incidence of aphasia after stroke was assessed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postonset. Participants were recruited through speech-language pathologists in 2 capital cities in Australia. Presence of aphasia was determined through the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised by an experienced speech-language pathologist. Not applicable. The main outcomes were the 5 domains of the Assessment for Living with Aphasia at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months poststroke. The independent variables included demographics, physical functioning, social network, mood, aphasia severity, and a self-rating of successfully living with aphasia at the same time points. Mixed effects modeling was used to determine which factors contributed to the trajectory of each of the 5 domains of participation, impairment, environment, personal factors, and life with aphasia. Higher household income, larger social network size, being a woman, and having milder aphasia were positively associated with the participation domain. Graduate or postgraduate educational levels, low mood, and poor physical functioning were negatively associated with the participation domain. Factors positively associated with other domains included higher income, self-ratings of successfully living with aphasia, and aphasia severity. Low mood was consistently negatively associated with all of the domains. Psychosocial determinants were the most significant predictors of living well with aphasia in the first 12 months postonset. Aphasia rehabilitation needs to attend more to these factors to optimize outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 0.4 Percent Scale Space Launch System Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-15

    0.4 Percent Scale Space Launch System Wind Tunnel Test 0.4 Percent Scale SLS model installed in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 1 for aerodynamic force and movement testing.

  20. Cardiac Assessment of Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Median 10 Years After Successful Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney Transplantation Compared With Living Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Jørn Petter; Massey, Richard John; Hartmann, Anders; Aakhus, Svend; Endresen, Knut; Günther, Anne; Midtvedt, Karsten; Holdaas, Hallvard; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Horneland, Rune; Øyen, Ole; Jenssen, Trond

    2017-06-01

    In recipients with type 1 diabetes, we aimed to determine whether long-term normoglycemia achieved by successful simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplantation could beneficially affect progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) when compared with transplantation of a kidney-alone from a living donor (LDK). In 42 kidney transplant recipients with functioning grafts who had received either SPK (n = 25) or LDK (n = 17), we studied angiographic progression of CAD between baseline (pretransplant) and follow-up at 7 years or older. In addition, computed tomography scans for measures of coronary artery calcification and echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular systolic function were addressed at follow-up. During a median follow-up time of 10.1 years (interquartile range [IQR], 9.1-11.5) progression of CAD occurred at similar rates (10 of 21 cases in the SPK and 5 of 14 cases in the LDK group; P = 0.49). Median coronary artery calcification scores were high in both groups (1767 [IQR, 321-4035] for SPK and 1045 [IQR, 807-2643] for LDK patients; P = 0.59). Left ventricular systolic function did not differ between the 2 groups. The SPK and LDK recipients were similar in age (41.2 ± 6.9 years vs 40.5 ± 10.3 years; P = 0.80) and diabetes duration at engraftment but with significant different mean HbA1c levels of 5.5 ± 0.4% for SPK and 8.3 ± 1.5% for LDK patients (P < 0.001) during follow-up. In patients with both type 1 diabetes and end-stage renal disease, SPK recipients had similar progression of CAD long-term compared with LDK recipients. Calcification of coronary arteries is a prominent feature in both groups long-term posttransplant.

  1. Coast live oak long-term thinning study--twelve-year results

    Treesearch

    Norman H. Pillsbury; Lawrence E. Bonner; Richard P. Thompson

    2002-01-01

    A long-term thinning study was established in 10 stands of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Née) in the Central Coast of California. Information about diameter, basal area, and volume growth and yield has been obtained from unthinned control plots and from plots thinned to 50 and 100 square feet of basal area per acre measured in 1984, 1989 and 1996...

  2. 17 CFR 275.0-4 - General requirements of papers and applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and applications. 275.0-4 Section 275.0-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.0-4 General requirements... date when they are actually received by it. (2) All filings required to be made electronically with...

  3. Assistive devices in activities of daily living used by persons with age-related macular degeneration: a population study of 85-year-olds living at home.

    PubMed

    Dahlin Ivanoff, S; Sonn, U

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the overall use of assistive devices among persons with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and how it is related to dependence in daily activities. This was a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional population study of 85-year-olds. The most common category of assistive devices was bathing devices followed by mobility devices. The overall use of assistive devices was 82%, and around 80% of the device users were independent in activities of daily living. They were multiple device users (57%) and used more mobility devices and personal assistance in mobility. In conclusion, the ARMD group comprises very frequent users of assistive devices and uses assistive devices to remain independent. This implies that health services should provide assistive devices at an early stage in the disablement process to avoid the development of dependence and should consider the likelihood of multiple health problems when assessing the needs of assistive devices among persons with ARMD.

  4. Living in your own home and being socially connected at 95 years and beyond: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Neville, Stephen; Russell, Julia; Adams, Jeffery; Jackson, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Being socially connected is linked to positively influencing older people's ability to remain living in their own homes and has shown to support independence and enhance well-being. To explore how individuals aged 95 years and older living in their own home remain socially connected. Informed by a critical gerontological approach, semi-structured interviews with eight women and two men aged between 96 and 100 years were undertaken. Following transcription, data were thematically analysed. Three main themes illuminating social connectedness were identified: "Keeping company: staying connected with family and friends", "Doing things together: engaging with paid and unpaid helpers" and "Having pride and enjoyment: continuing with hobbies and interests". It is important that health professionals and social service providers recognise the importance of social connectedness, and provide a range of options to support continuing social connectedness and community engagement for older people.

  5. The Pre-Retirement Years: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnes, Herbert S.; And Others

    This volume examines a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle-aged men. It is based on a unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews among the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971. The data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period,…

  6. Effects of drought season length on live moisture content dynamic in Mediterranean shrubs: 8 years of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Ventura, Andrea; Bortolu, Sara; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean shrubs are an important component of Mediterranean vegetation communities. In this kind of vegetation, live fuel is a relevant component of the available fuel which catches fire and, consequently, its water content plays an important role in determining fire occurrence and spread. In live plant, water content patterns are related to both environmental conditions (e.g. meteorological variables, soil water availability) and ecophysiological characteristics of the plant species. According to projections on future climate, an increase in risk of summer droughts is likely to take place in Southern Europe. More prolonged drought seasons induced by climatic changes are likely to influence general flammability characteristics of fuel. In addition, variations in precipitation and mean temperature could directly affect fuel water status and length of critical periods of high ignition danger for Mediterranean ecosystems. The aims of this work were to analyse the influence of both weather seasonality and inter-annual weather variability on live fuel moisture content within and among some common Mediterranean species, and to investigate the effects of prolonged drought season on live moisture content dynamic. The study was carried out in North Sardinia (Italy). Measurements of LFMC seasonal pattern of two really common and flammable Mediterranean shrub species (Cistus monspeliensis and Rosmarinus officinalis) were performed periodically for 8 years. Meteorological variables were also recorded. Relationships between live fuel moisture content and environmental conditions (i.e. rainfall, air temperature and soil moisture) were investigated and effects of different lengths of drought season on LFMC pattern were analysed. Results showed that distribution and amount of rainfall affected seasonal variation of live fuel moisture content. In particular more prolonged drought seasons caused a longer period in which LFMC was below 95 -100% that is commonly considered as

  7. First light with a carbon fiber reinforced polymer 0.4 meter telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Christopher C.; Santiago, Freddie; Jungwirth, Matthew E.; Martinez, Ty; Restaino, Sergio R.; Bagwell, Brett; Romeo, Robert

    2014-03-01

    For the passed several years, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been investigating the use of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) material in the construction of a telescope assembly including the optical components. The NRL, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. (CMA) have jointly assembled a prototype telescope and achieved "first light" images with a CFRP 0.4 m aperture telescope. CFRP offers several advantages over traditional materials such as creating structures that are lightweight and low coefficient of thermal expansion and conductivity. The telescope's primary and secondary mirrors are not made from glass, but CFRP, as well. The entire telescope weighs approximately 10 kg while a typical telescope of this size would weigh quite a bit more. We present the achievement of "first light" with this telescope demonstrating the imaging capabilities of this prototype and the optical surface quality of the mirrors with images taken during a day's quiescent periods.

  8. Lactic acid bacteria--20 years exploring their potential as live vectors for mucosal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Kobierecka, Patrycja; Bardowski, Jacek; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a diverse group of Gram-positive, nonsporulating, low G + C content bacteria. Many of them have been given generally regarded as safe status. Over the past two decades, intensive genetic and molecular research carried out on LAB, mainly Lactococcus lactis and some species of the Lactobacillus genus, has revealed new, potential biomedical LAB applications, including the use of LAB as adjuvants, immunostimulators, or therapeutic drug delivery systems, or as factories to produce therapeutic molecules. LAB enable immunization via the mucosal route, which increases effectiveness against pathogens that use the mucosa as the major route of entry into the human body. In this review, we concentrate on the encouraging application of Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera for the development of live mucosal vaccines. First, we present the progress that has recently been made in the field of developing tools for LAB genetic manipulations, which has resulted in the successful expression of many bacterial, parasitic, and viral antigens in LAB strains. Next, we discuss the factors influencing the efficacy of the constructed vaccine prototypes that have been tested in various animal models. Apart from the research focused on an application of live LABs as carriers of foreign antigens, a lot of work has been recently done on the potential usage of nonliving, nonrecombinant L. lactis designated as Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM), as a delivery system for mucosal vaccination. The advantages and disadvantages of both strategies are also presented.

  9. Obesity and asymptomatic hypertension among children aged 6-13 years living in Bursa, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Hakan; Nuhoglu, Cagatay; Ursavas, Ismail Serkan; Isildak, Serhat; Basaran, Ebru Onuker; Kilic, Mehmet Yasar

    2013-12-01

    Hypertension is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is known that essential hypertension begins at a very early age. Recently, there have been reports of an increase in childhood hypertension, which has been attributed to an increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Obesity-dependent or independent asymptomatic hypertension can only be determined by random blood pressure measurements in children. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of obesity and asymptomatic hypertension among children living in Bursa, Turkey. One thousand children living in Nilüfer district and being served by the Fethiye Bulvar Family Health Care Center were enrolled in this study. All seven family physicians working at the centre participated in the study. Eighty-five children (8.5%) were determined to be hypertensive. One hundred and twelve children (11.2%) were obese. Blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) increased with age, with peak prevalence of hypertension at age 12 and of obesity at age 10. The prevalence of obesity and hypertension is high among school-age children in Turkey. Family physicians should consistently perform blood pressure and BMI measurements as a part of well child visits through late childhood.

  10. Origin of the high permittivity in (La0.4Ba0.4Ca0.2)(Mn0.4Ti0.6)O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Feteira, Antonio; Sinclair, Derek C.

    2005-10-01

    Single-phase cubic (La0.4Ba0.4Ca0.2)(Mn0.4Ti0.6)O3 (LBCMT) was reported by Jha et al. [J. Solid State Chem. 177, 2881 (2004)] to exhibit an extraordinarily high effective permittivity (ɛeff~6980 and 590 at 1 and 100 kHz, respectively) at room temperature. According to x-ray-diffraction analysis, the structure of this perovskite can be fully described on the centrosymmetric space-group Pm3m, which precludes the occurrence of ferroelectricity. In the present work, impedance spectroscopy has shown that LBCMT exhibits a bulk permittivity, Vr~40-45, in accordance with that expected for a cubic, centrosymmetric perovskite. LBCMT is a semiconductor with a bulk resistivity of ~3 kΩ cm at 300 K and an activation energy for conduction of ~0.20 eV which is consistent with an electron hopping conduction mechanism. Finally, it is demonstrated that the high effective permittivity Veff reported previously is not an intrinsic bulk effect arising from hopping conduction between Mn+3 and Mn+4, but is ultimately associated with grain-boundary effects.

  11. Living with thalidomide: health status and quality of life at 40 years.

    PubMed

    Bent, N; Tennant, A; Neumann, V; Chamberlain, M A

    2007-06-01

    Thalidomide was first synthesized in 1953 and was subsequently marketed as a mild hypnotic and sedative in more than 20 countries. By 2001 it was estimated that there were 5,000 survivors from the 10,000 - 12,000 babies who were, as a result, born with severe abnormalities. For these survivors, recent concerns have emerged about their physical state, in particular their levels of pain and their ability to maintain independence. It was therefore wished to ascertain health status and current concerns amongst a sample of survivors living in the UK. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies was employed. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with a sample drawn from the population affected by thalidomide known to the Thalidomide Trust. Selection of participants was based upon a theoretical sample frame. Postal questionnaires to examine health status and various psychosocial aspects concerned with living with the consequences of thalidomide were sent subsequently to these same participants and to a random sample of those not originally drawn for the qualitative interviews. For the qualitative interviews, 28 agreed to take part; two refused and the remainder did not respond. Those agreeing to interview were representative of the original compensation bands (Chi-Square = 3.929; p = 0.416). Several themes emerged from these interviews, including the effects on work and career; coping in terms of attitude to life, self-image, confidence, self-esteem, stress and emotion; relationships, independent living issues and emergent problems such as pain, quality of life, and anxiety about the future. A postal questionnaire was then sent to those who had agreed to interview (28), plus a random sample of the remaining group who were not initially chosen for the qualitative interviews. In total 82 people were sent the questionnaire, of whom 41 (50%) responded. Two-thirds of responders were female. Seven out of ten lived with a partner, and over half (56%) had

  12. Some years you live like a coyote: Gendered practices of cultural resilience in working rangeland landscapes.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Hailey; Fernández-Giménez, María E

    2016-12-01

    Rangeland researchers are increasingly interested in understanding working rangelands as integrated social-ecological systems and in investigating the contexts of human decision-making processes that support system resilience. U.S. public lands ranchers are key partners in rangeland conservation, but the role of women in building system resilience has not yet been explored. We conducted life-history interviews with 19 ranching women in the Southwestern United States. We analyzed the resulting transcripts by identifying contradictions between women's material practices and traditional discourses in the ranching livelihood that illustrated women's efforts to maintain both a way of life and a living during social and ecological change. These gendered practices of cultural resilience included self-sacrifice during difficult financial times, engagement with non-rancher networks, and efforts to transfer cultural and technical knowledge. We argue that the key part ranchers play in rangeland conservation cannot be fully understood without a consideration of gendered practices of cultural resilience.

  13. Lower respiratory symptoms among residents living near the World Trade Center, two and four years after 9/11.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao; Jones, Rena; Reibman, Joan; Morse, Dale; Hwang, Syni-An

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether residents living near the World Trade Center (WTC) continued to experience respiratory problems several years after September 11, 2001 (9/11). Residents living within one mile of the WTC surveyed after 9/11 responded two and four years later to follow-up surveys that asked about lower respiratory symptoms (LRS), medical history, psychological stress, and indoor environmental characteristics. There were declines in the proportion of residents reporting LRS, new lower respiratory diagnoses, unplanned medical visits, and asthma medication use. However, the proportion of residents reporting any LRS in the affected area at follow-up remained higher than the original proportion in the control area; residents with multiple sources of potential 9/11-related exposures were at greatest risk for LRS at follow-up. Psychological stress, dust/odors, and moisture were significantly associated with LRS at follow-up. These data demonstrate that LRS continue to burden residents living in the areas affected by the WTC disaster.

  14. Living unrelated donor kidney transplantation--a fourteen-year experience.

    PubMed

    Ignjatović, Ljiljana; Jovanović, Dragan; Kronja, Goran; Dujić, Aleksandar; Marić, Mihailo; Ignjatović, Dragan; Hrvacević, Rajko; Kovacević, Zoran; Petrović, Milija; Elaković, Dejan; Marenović, Tomislav; Lukić, Zoran; Trkuljić, Miroljub; Stanković, Bratislav; Maksić, Doko; Butorajac, Josip; Colić, Miodrag; Drasković-Pavlović, Biljana; Kapulica-Kuljić, Nada; Drasković, Nada; Misović, Sidor; Stijelja, Borislav; Milović, Novak; Tosevski, Perica; Filipović, Nikola; Romić, Predrag; Jevtić, Miodrag; Drasković, Miroljub; Vavić, Neven; Rabrenović, Violeta; Paunić, Zoran; Radojević, Milorad; Bjelanović, Zoran; Tomić, Aleksandar; Aleksić, Predrag; Kosević, Branko; Mocović, Dejan; Bancević, Vladimir; Magić, Zvonko; Vojvodić, Danilo; Balint, Bela; Ostojić, Gordana; Tukić, Ljiljana; Murgić, Jadranka; Pervulov, Svetozar; Rusović, Sinisa; Sjenicić, Goran; Vesna, Bućan; Milavić-Vujković, Merica; Jandrić, Dusan; Raicević, Ranko; Mijusković, Mirjana; Obrencević, Katarina; Pilcević, Dejan; Cukić, Zoran; Petrović, Marijana; Petrović, Milica; Tadić, Jelena; Terzić, Brankica; Karan, Zeljko; Bokonjić, Dubravko; Dobrić, Silva; Antunović, Mirjana; Bokun, Radmila; Dimitrijević, Jovan; Vukomanović-Djurdjević, Biserka

    2010-12-01

    In countries without a national organization for retrieval and distribution of organs of the deceased donors, problem of organ shortage is still not resolved. In order to increase the number of kidney transplantations we started with the program of living unrelated - spousal donors. The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcome and renal graft function in patients receiving the graft from spousal and those receiving ghe graft from living related donors. We retrospectively identified 14 patients who received renal allograft from spousal donors between 1996 and 2009 (group I). The control group consisted of 14 patients who got graft from related donor retrieved from the database and matched than with respect to sex, age, kidney disease, immunological and viral pretransplant status, the initial method of the end stage renal disease treatment and ABO compatibility. In the follow-up period of 41 +/- 38 months we recorded immunosuppressive therapy, surgical complications, episodes of acute rejection, CMV infection and graft function, assessed by serum creatinine levels at the beginning and in the end of the follow-up period. All patients had pretransplant negative cross-match. In ABO incompatible patients pretransplant isoagglutinine titer was zero. The patients with a spousal donor had worse HLA matching. There were no significant differences between the groups in surgical, infective, immunological complications and graft function. Two patients from the group I returned to hemodialysis after 82 and 22 months due to serious comorbidities. In spite of the worse HLA matching, graft survival and function of renal grafts from spousal donors were as good as those retrieved from related donors.

  15. How Shall I Live? Constructing a Life Story in the College Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Dan P.; Guo, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This chapter applies the concept of narrative identity to college student development. The authors describe a narrative interview method that can be used to promote the development of a purposeful life story in the college years.

  16. How Shall I Live? Constructing a Life Story in the College Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Dan P.; Guo, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This chapter applies the concept of narrative identity to college student development. The authors describe a narrative interview method that can be used to promote the development of a purposeful life story in the college years.

  17. Examining nutrition among a sample of 3- to 5-year-old children living in rural Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Cory, Allison; Boyle, Kathryn; McClain, Natalie; Sutherland, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    The period of early childhood, defined as three to five years of age, is an important and distinct stage in childhood development. Changes in dietary patterns and composition of diets are exposing children in developing countries to over-nutrition as well as under-nutrition. To describe the nutritional status, dietary patterns, and socio-economic conditions of three to five-year-old children living in rural Jamaica. A convenience sample of 142 children was recruited over a three-year period. Height and weight measurements were collected. Household dietary patterns and socio-economic indicators were available from a small group (n = 6) of parents. Children experiencing both under-nutrition and over-nutrition were identified. Nine percent (n = 13) could be classified as moderately to severely under-nourished, and 6.9% (n = 10) classified as overweight. Frying was a common cooking method, and fruits and vegetables were eaten often. Economic and political changes may place children in developing countries at risk for over-nutrition as well as under-nutrition. The school setting may be an important place to address nutritional issues. This analysis describes the nutritional status of a sample of three to five-year-old children living in rural Jamaica and provides suggestions for future research.

  18. Effect of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness in children: a 4 year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies detected associations between physical fitness, living area, and sports participation in children. Yet, their scientific value is limited because the identification of cause-and-effect relationships is not possible. In a longitudinal approach, we examined the effects of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness development in primary school children from classes 3 to 6. Methods One-hundred and seventy-two children (age: 9–12 years; sex: 69 girls, 103 boys) were tested for their physical fitness (i.e., endurance [9-min run], speed [50-m sprint], lower- [triple hop] and upper-extremity muscle strength [1-kg ball push], flexibility [stand-and-reach], and coordination [star coordination run]). Living area (i.e., urban or rural) and sports club participation were assessed using parent questionnaire. Results Over the 4 year study period, urban compared to rural children showed significantly better performance development for upper- (p = 0.009, ES = 0.16) and lower-extremity strength (p < 0.001, ES = 0.22). Further, significantly better performance development were found for endurance (p = 0.08, ES = 0.19) and lower-extremity strength (p = 0.024, ES = 0.23) for children continuously participating in sports clubs compared to their non-participating peers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sport club programs with appealing arrangements appear to represent a good means to promote physical fitness in children living in rural areas. PMID:24886425

  19. Cluster-spin-glass behavior in layered LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fei; Bie, Xiaofei; Chen, Yan; Wei, Yingjin; Liu, Lina; Wang, Chunzhong; Zou, Guangtian; Chen, Gang

    2009-09-01

    Layered LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 has been synthesized by citrate precursor method. Its magnetic properties are investigated by dc magnetization. The high-temperature susceptibility curve follows the Curie-Weiss law with Curie and Weiss constant 1.435(2) emu K/mol Oe and -112(4) K, respectively, larger than those values reported in previous researches, which possibly results from the difference in the synthesis process and sintered temperature. Our dc susceptibility differs from that of the homogeneous spin glass in that below Tirr field cooled (FC) curve continues to rise, while the FC curve is almost flat for homogeneous spin glass. Together with the de Almeida-Thouless line analysis, cluster spin glass is suggested to be the ground state of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2. Frustration parameter |θ|/Tf in this system is estimated to be about four, lower than the value that frustration effect is strong enough to give rise to spin glass state. This fact indicates that the cluster-spin-glass results from the short-range structure disorder rather than the geometrical frustration.

  20. Years of life lived with disease and years of potential life lost in children who die of cancer in the United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    de Blank, Peter M; Ostrom, Quinn T; Rouse, Chaturia; Wolinsky, Yingli; Kruchko, Carol; Salcido, Joanne; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-04-01

    Incidence and survival rates are commonly reported statistics, but these may fail to capture the full impact of childhood cancers. We describe the years of potential life lost (YPLL) and years of life lived with disease (YLLD) in children and adolescents who died of cancer in the United States to estimate the impact of childhood cancer in the United States in 2009. We examined mortality data in 2009 among children and adolescents <20 years old in both the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) datasets. YPLL and YLLD were calculated for all deaths due to cancer. Histology-specific YPLL and YLLD of central nervous system (CNS) tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma were estimated using SEER. There were 2233 deaths and 153,390.4 YPLL due to neoplasm in 2009. CNS tumors were the largest cause of YPLL (31%) among deaths due to cancer and were the cause of 1.4% of YPLL due to all causes. For specific histologies, the greatest mean YPLL per death was due to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (78.0 years lost). The histology with the highest mean YLLD per death in children and adolescents who died of cancer was primitive neuroectodermal tumor (4.6 years lived). CNS tumors are the most common solid malignancy in individuals <20 years old and have the highest YPLL cost of all cancers. This offers the first histology-specific description of YPLL in children and adolescents and proposes a new measure of cancer impact, YLLD, in individuals who die of their disease. YPLL and YLLD complement traditional indicators of mortality and help place CNS tumors in the context of other childhood malignancies.

  1. Living Transdisciplinary Curriculum: Teachers' Experiences with the International Baccalaureate's Primary Years Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Michael J.; Drake, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated curriculum that is transdisciplinary in nature seems to be a good fit for 21st Century learning. There are, however, few examples of transdisciplinary curriculum at the K to 12 level. One exception is the International Baccalaureate's Primary Years Programme (PYP) which features transdisciplinary curriculum for students from ages 3…

  2. Improving Children's Lives, Transforming the Future--25 Years of Child Rights in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapid economic growth in South Asia, strong inequalities persist and children pay a heavy price. This publication examines latest trends and data on children in the eight countries of the region. It highlights what has been achieved in the 25 years since the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child--and what remains to be done.

  3. Living with the long-term consequences 11-13 years after stroke: A phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Erikson, Anette; Karlsson, Gunnar; Tham, Kerstin

    2016-11-11

    To follow up an original research project of persons 11-13 years after stroke, in order to describe and understand the impact of stroke on everyday life experienced during these years. Eleven persons who had had a stroke were interviewed 11-13 years after the original research project. Data were collected and analysed using the empirical phenomenological psychological method. Three main characteristics were identified from analysis of participants' experiences during the years after stroke: () going through the loss of the previous life; () struggling to reclaim the former existence; () finding meaning in a "new" and different world. This study provides an understanding of the complexity of the lost connection between body and world occurring for a long time after stroke. This understanding provides support for the need for long-term and intermittent support and guidance to enable the re-creation of meaning and participation in everyday life in order to find a "new" self-identity after stroke, especially among persons with residual cognitive impairment.

  4. New Voices in the Field: The Work Lives of First-Year Assistant Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartzell, Gary N.; And Others

    New assistant principals find their new leadership role quite different from their previous work as teachers. This book, based on a 5-year study, addresses the realities of day-to-day life for new assistant principals (APs) in secondary schools. The book presents the actual experiences of men and women who made the transition from teacher to…

  5. Association of acculturation, nativity, and years living in the United States with biobanking among individuals of Mexican descent.

    PubMed

    Lopez, David S; Fernandez, Maria E; Cano, Miguel Angel; Mendez, Claudia; Tsai, Chu-Lin; Wetter, David W; Strom, Sara S

    2014-03-01

    Biobanking is the collection of human biospecimens (tissues, blood, and body fluids) and their associated clinical and outcome data. Hispanics are less likely to provide biologic specimens for biobanking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of acculturation, nativity status, and years living in the United States with participation in biobanking among individuals of Mexican descent. Participants were 19,212 adults of Mexican descent enrolled in an ongoing population-based cohort in Houston, TX. Participants were offered the opportunity to provide a blood, urine, or saliva sample for biobanking. Acculturation was assessed with the bidimensional acculturation scale for Hispanics and scores were categorized into "low acculturation," "bicultural," and "high-acculturation." After multivariable adjustment, we found an increased likelihood of participation in biobanking among individuals classified as "bicultural" as compared with "highly acculturated" individuals [OR, 1.58; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.10-2.26]. The associations of nativity status and years living in the United States with biobanking were not statistically significant. After stratifying by gender, the associations of acculturation, nativity status, and years living in the United States with biobanking were not statistically significant. Although individuals of Mexican descent who were "bicultural" were more likely to participate in biobanking than individuals who were "highly acculturated," the difference in rates of participation among acculturation categories was small. The high participation rate in biospecimen collection is likely due to extensive community-engaged research efforts. Future studies are warranted to understand individuals' participation in biobanking. Community-engaged research efforts may increase Hispanics' participation in biobanking. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(3); 402-8. ©2014 AACR.

  6. Interdisciplinarity, Debate And Movie Clips As Highly Motivating Factors In Live Shows - Five Years Of Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stengler, E.; Sirera, J. M.

    2011-09-01

    A live show on any subject that includes experiments and continuous interaction with the audience is a well known approach for EPO activities that many are carrying out all over. We present such an initiative with some added ingredients such as interdisciplinarity, the use of movie clips, and especially the debate between the two presenters, a debate that is all the more attractive to the public if it not fully staged but closely represents their actual points of view. José Montesinos, from the "Orotava" Canarian Foundation for the History of Science, is and plays the role of the more mature math professor who has grown weary of the overrated value given in science to mathematics and its consequences. This poses a constant challenge to his colleague, Erik Stengler, from the Science Museum of Tenerife, the young down-to-earth hands-on scientist, who defends the usual view that science and technology are to be judged by their achievements, which have brought about the advancement of modern society. With this approach and as a collaboration between our institutions, we have produced and toured highly successful activities on: Einstein and Relativity (from 2005 to 2008, "Einstein Goes To School," including a theatre play); circularity, the number π, forces of inertia and the Newtonian revolution (in 2008/2009, "The Tension Between Circularity and The Straight Line"); and the foundations of modern astronomy (in 2009/2010 "Kepler and Galileo, Messengers of the Stars"). Audiences were very varied - students, adult students, general public, prison inmates, teachers - and all appreciated the presentations as fun, thought-provoking and highly motivating, and valued especially the interdisciplinary character of the activity. Movie clips have shown to be especially useful to recover the attention of the young when they lose the thread due to the short attention spans they presently have.

  7. Live broadcast lectures on complete denture prosthodontics at Tokyo Medical and Dental University: comparison of two years.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Maiko; Kanazawa, Manabu; Sunaga, Masayo; Kinoshita, Atsuhiro; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2013-03-01

    A live broadcasting system was developed as part of dental education with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) at Tokyo Medical and Dental University. The purpose of this study was to utilize this system in complete denture prosthodontics, especially for the procedure of making a definitive impression with custom tray border molding in edentulous patients, and to evaluate its effectiveness. Live broadcast lectures on complete denture prosthodontics were given to fourth-year students in 2009 (fifty-nine students) and in 2010 (sixty-five students). To evaluate this lecture, a questionnaire was distributed to the students and faculty members after the lecture. Almost all the students and faculty members rated the lecture as good. Students commented that the lecture was "intelligible," "inspiring," "improved understanding," "good because they could ask questions in real time," "helped to know the actual time," "good for all the students to see the same case," and "close to real experience and induced a sense of tension." The results of this study suggested that a live broadcast lecture would help students experience the real clinical situation and aid in teaching complete denture prosthodontics.

  8. Condition of live fire-scarred ponderosa pine trees six years after removing partial cross sections

    Treesearch

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Steven J. McKay

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to document the effect of fire-history sampling on the mortality of mature ponderosa pine trees in Oregon. We examined 138 trees from which fire-scarred partial cross sections had been removed five to six years earlier, and 386 similarly sized, unsampled neighbor trees, from 78 plots distributed over about 5,000 ha. Mortality was low for both groups....

  9. Carbon dioxide emitted from live stems of tropical trees is several years old.

    PubMed

    Muhr, Jan; Angert, Alon; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I; Muñoz, Waldemar Alegria; Kraemer, Guido; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Trumbore, Susan E

    2013-07-01

    Storage carbon (C) pools are often assumed to contribute to respiration and growth when assimilation is insufficient to meet the current C demand. However, little is known of the age of stored C and the degree to which it supports respiration in general. We used bomb radiocarbon ((14)C) measurements to determine the mean age of carbon in CO2 emitted from and within stems of three tropical tree species in Peru. Carbon pools fixed >1 year previously contributed to stem CO2 efflux in all trees investigated, in both dry and wet seasons. The average age, i.e., the time elapsed since original fixation of CO2 from the atmosphere by the plant to its loss from the stem, ranged from 0 to 6 years. The average age of CO2 sampled 5-cm deep within the stems ranged from 2 to 6 years for two of the three species, while CO2 in the stem of the third tree species was fixed from 14 to >20 years previously. Given the consistency of (14)C values observed for individuals within each species, it is unlikely that decomposition is the source of the older CO2. Our results are in accordance with other studies that have demonstrated the contribution of storage reserves to the construction of stem wood and root respiration in temperate and boreal forests. We postulate the high (14)C values observed in stem CO2 efflux and stem-internal CO2 result from respiration of storage C pools within the tree. The observed age differences between emitted and stem-internal CO2 indicate an age gradient for sources of CO2 within the tree: CO2 produced in the outer region of the stem is younger, originating from more recent assimilates, whereas the CO2 found deeper within the stem is older, fueled by several-year-old C pools. The CO2 emitted at the stem-atmosphere interface represents a mixture of young and old CO2. These observations were independent of season, even during a time of severe regional drought. Therefore, we postulate that the use of storage C for respiration occurs on a regular basis challenging

  10. A survey of first-year biology student opinions regarding live lectures and recorded lectures as learning tools.

    PubMed

    Simcock, D C; Chua, W H; Hekman, M; Levin, M T; Brown, S

    2017-03-01

    A cohort of first-year biology students was surveyed regarding their opinions and viewing habits for live and recorded lectures. Most respondents (87%) attended live lectures as a rule (attenders), with 66% attending more than two-thirds of the lectures. In contrast, only 52% accessed recordings and only 13% viewed more than two-thirds of the available recordings. Respondents regarded lectures as efficient for information delivery (75%), and 89% enjoyed live lectures because they were useful for learning (89%), understanding coursework (94%), and keeping up with the subject (93%). Lecture enjoyment was driven less by entertainment (34%) or interaction with the lecturers (47%), although most students preferred an entertaining lecturer to a factual expert (72%). Exam marks were positively correlated with the number of lectures attended (P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with the number of recordings viewed (P < 0.05), although marks were similar for lecture attenders and nonattenders (P > 0.05). Lecture attenders mostly missed lectures to complete assessments during the same week (68%), whereas nonattenders were more likely to miss lectures due to outside commitments or preference for study from books or recorded lectures (P < 0.001). Recordings were used to replace missed lectures (64%), rather than for revision, and were viewed mostly alone (96%) in one sitting (65%). Only 22% of respondents agreed that some lectures could be replaced by recordings, but 59% agreed with having some videoconference lectures from experts on another campus. Overall, this cohort showed a clear preference for live lectures over recordings, with limited support for synchronous videoconference lectures. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Growth and characterization of In0.6Se0.4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, P. B.; Desai, H. N.; Dhimmar, J. M.; Modi, B. P.

    2017-05-01

    In0.6Se0.4 crystals have been grown by using the Bridgman/Stockbarger method. The freshly cleaved crystals obtained from ingot have mirror-like surface. The compositional, morphological and structural properties of In0.6Se0.4 semiconductor crystals have been analysed using energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) techniques. It was observed from EDAX result that the ratio of weight (%) and atomic (%) of In and Se in In0.6Se0.4 crystals were 1.6 and 1.1 respectively. SEM image showed that In0.6Se0.4 crystals have smooth, homogenous and layered surface. The XRD spectra showed that obtained In0.6Se0.4 crystals had hexagonal and orthorhombic structure. The structural parameters: average crystallite size, average lattice strain, dislocation density and domain population were determined from XRD spectra.

  12. Immune function in a free-living bird varies over the annual cycle, but seasonal patterns differ between years.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, Arne; Matson, Kevin D; Both, Christiaan; Tieleman, B Irene

    2012-11-01

    A central hypothesis of eco-immunology proposes trade-offs between immune defences and competing physiological and behavioural processes, leading to immunological variation within and among annual-cycle stages, as has been revealed for some species. However, few studies have simultaneously investigated patterns of multiple immune indices over the entire annual cycle in free-living birds, and none has investigated the consistency of seasonal patterns across multiple years. We quantified lysis, agglutination, haptoglobin, leukocyte profiles, and body mass in free-living skylarks (Alauda arvensis) through two complete annual cycles and within and between four breeding seasons. The skylarks' annual cycle is characterised by annually repeated changes in energy and time budgets, social structure and diet. If trade-offs relating to these cyclic changes shape evolution, predictable intra-annual immune patterns may result. Alternatively, intra-annual immune patterns may vary among years if fluctuating environmental changes affect the cost-benefit balances of immune function. We found significant variation in immune indices and body mass across the annual cycle, and these patterns differed between years. Immune parameters differed between four breeding seasons, and in all years, lysis and agglutination increased as the season progressed independent of average levels. Population-level patterns (intra-annual, inter-annual, within breeding season) were consistent with within-individual patterns based on repeated measurements. We found little evidence for sex differences, and only haptoglobin was correlated (negatively) with body mass. We conclude that immune modulation is not simply a pre-programmed phenomenon that reflects predictable ecological changes. Instead, fluctuating environmental conditions that vary among years likely contribute to the immunological variation that we observed.

  13. Probing the secret lives of rocks - the next 25 years of fission track thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleadow, A. J.; Kohn, B. P.

    2011-12-01

    Much has been achieved over ~40 years to realize the dream of using the annealing record of fission tracks in minerals to reconstruct the thermal histories of rocks. The technology of fission track analysis stabilised about 25 years ago based on neutron-irradiation, the external detector method (EDM) for uranium estimation, zeta calibration against independently-dated age standards, measurement of horizontal confined track lengths, and estimation of compositionally-controlled kinetic parameters. This approach has produced consistent data sets useful for thermal history modeling with increasingly sophisticated fission track annealing algorithms. Among the major limitations of this conventional approach, however, are the labour-intensive character of analysis, which limits data quality and quantity, individual-specific calibrations, and very long sample turn-around times. Important technical innovations now underway, however, are likely to transform the technology of fission track analysis over the next few years. The first is substitution of Laser Ablation ICP-MS for the EDM to estimate sample U [1]. This approach is still limited to a small number of laboratories, but is likely to accelerate with the proliferation of suitable instruments. The advantages for fission track analysis are rapid sample turnaround times and probably, improved analytical precision. The second is the emergence of new methods for autonomous image capture and automatic image analysis of fission tracks based on a new generation of high-precision, motorised microscopes, coupled with new software systems [2]. This approach can work with the conventional EDM, but particularly lends itself to automated LA-ICP-MS analysis. In minerals, such as apatite, automated recognition and counting of fission tracks dramatically reduces microscope time compared to manual measurements. This has the potential to improve counting statistics, data quality and calibration. Track length measurements are no longer

  14. Living related liver transplantation in adults: first year experience at the University of Liège.

    PubMed

    Detry, O; De Roover, A; Delwaide, J; Coimbra, C; Kaba, A; Joris, J; Damas, P; Meurisse, M; Honoré, P

    2004-04-01

    Living related liver transplantation (LRLT) in adult recipients has been recently developed to overcome the organ donor shortage, but LRLT leaves the healthy donors at risk of serious post-operative complications, or even death. The aim of this paper is to report the prospective evaluation of the initial experience of adult LRLT at the University of Liège. From March 2002 till March 2003, in a consecutive series of 35 adult liver transplantations, five recipients (mean age: 51 years) underwent LRLT, including one retransplantation. Indications for transplantation were autoimmune hepatitis, hepatitis B virus related cirrhosis with hepatocarcinoma (two cases), hepatitis C virus related cirrhosis with hepatocarcinoma, and ischemic intrahepatic bile duct necrosis 10 years after primary liver transplantation. Mean age of the donors was 34 years (range: 21-53 years). All donation cases were intra familial at first degree. The right lobe was used as a graft in four cases and the left lobe in one case. All right lobe donors developed transient hyperbilirubinemia and hypocoagulation for 4 to 6 days. No severe complication (transfusion, bile duct fistula, reintervention, rehospitalization) nor significant long-term sequelae were observed in the donors. In the recipients, graft function was immediate, and there was no small-for-size syndrome. One recipient developed biliary fistula treated by reoperation. One recipient died from invasive aspergillosis 11 days after the procedure. The four other recipients were alive without recurrence of the disease at follow-up. This report confirmed that LRLT may be a valuable alternative to cadaveric liver transplantation in the era of organ donor shortage. However, even if there was no severe complication for the donors in our preliminary experience, LRLT puts healthy living donors at risk of significant morbidity and even death.

  15. [Health-related quality of life evaluation of elderly aged 65 years and over living at home].

    PubMed

    Jalenques, I; Auclair, C; Rondepierre, F; Gerbaud, L; Tourtauchaux, R

    2015-06-01

    To assess health-related quality of life in French adults aged 65 years and over, living at home, with a specific self-administered questionnaire, the LEIPAD, cross-culturally adapted in French. Elderly completed socio-demographic and medical questionnaires, a questionnaire about negative life events during the last 12 months and the LEIPAD. Data of 195 subjects (mean age: 72.6 years, men: 56.5%) were analyzed. The response rates to the LEIPAD scales were superior to 90%. Elderly reported on the whole a good health-related quality of life. Age had a negative effect on quality on life, which deteriorates over years. Age was correlated to the scales "Physical function", "Self-care", "Cognitive functioning" and "Sexual functioning". Elderly hospitalized in the last year had worse quality of life with a significant difference for "Physical function" scale. The number of health problems was positively correlated to "Physical function" scale. Elderly declaring at least one health problem had worse quality of life for this scale. Problems in couple, materials and financial problems had also negative effects on health-related quality of life. Our study highlights a good health-related quality of life for the majority of these adults aged 65 years and over, as well as the negative effect of age, health, couple, materials and financial problems on their quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The nutritional intake of a free-living healthy French population : a four-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, A S; Faisant, C; Nourhashemi, F; Lanzmann-Petithory, D; Tome, D; Vellas, B

    2000-01-01

    To contribute to a better definition of the nutritional requirements of the healthy elderly and to improved knowledge the effects of age on these requirements. We studied the nutritional intake of 96 elderly persons who had met criteria of good health status in 1993 at a four-year interval. The nutritional intake of the elderly subjects who remained healthy during the four-year interval (18 men and 64 women), was considered to globally correspond to their nutritional needs. The nutritional intake was evaluated by a three-day food record. The mean baseline weight of the subjects who remained in good health during the four years was 72,6 +/- 9,5 kg for men and 60,1 +/- 9,3 kg for women. In four years, mean weight remained globally stable. But in cross-sectional analysis, weight tended to decrease with the age of the subjects. This decrease was significant for women in 1993. Mean baseline intake was nearly 29 kcal/kg. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses showed that it changed only slightly with age. Though global energy intake varied slighlty in four years, we have observed some changes in the composition of this caloric intake. For men and women, protein intake tended to decrease in four years (respectively -0,4% and -0,6%), carbohydrate intake to decrease (respectively -1,1% and -2,7%) and fat intake to increase (respectively +2,1% and +2,9%). These variations were not significant except for fat and carbohydrate intakes in women. In 1993, for a majority of subjects, the intakes of iron, and vitamins C and B12 were higher and the intakes of calcium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6 and B9 were lower than the French recommendations. In four years, mean intake did not change significantly, except for calcium intake in women (-8,8%). In this study, healthy aging was associated with a mean caloric intake close to 29 kcal/kg which is near the upper limits of recommendations (between 25 and 30 kcal/kg/d). These intakes, like those of macronutrients and micronutrients changed

  17. Cosmic rays in the surroundings of SNR G35.6–0.4

    DOE PAGES

    Torres, Diego F.; Li, Hui; Chen, Yang; ...

    2011-11-02

    HESS J1858+020 is a TeV gamma-ray source that was reported to have no clearly catalogued counterpart at any wavelength. However, it has been recently proposed that this source is indirectly associated with the radio source, re-identified as a supernova remnant (SNR), G35.6–0.4. The latter has been found to be middle-aged (~30 kyr) and to have nearby molecular clouds (MCs). HESS J1858+020 was proposed to be the result of the interaction of protons accelerated in the SNR shell with target ions residing in the clouds. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog does not list any source coincident withmore » the position of HESS J1858+020, but some lie close. Here, we analyse more than 2 years of data obtained with the Fermi-LAT for the region of interest, and consider whether it is indeed possible that the closest LAT source, 1FGL J1857.1+0212c, is related to HESS J1858+020. We conclude it is not, and we impose upper limits on the GeV emission originating from HESS J1858+020. Using a simplified 3D model for the cosmic ray propagation out from the shell of the SNR, we consider whether the interaction between SNR G35.6–0.4 and the MCs nearby could give rise to the TeV emission of HESS J1858+020 without producing a GeV counterpart. If so, the pair of SNR/TeV source with no GeV detection would be reminiscent of other similarly aged SNRs, such as some of the TeV hotspots near W28, for which cosmic ray diffusion may be used to explain their multifrequency phenomenology. Furthermore, for HESS J1858+020, we found that although the phase space in principle allows such a GeV–TeV non-correlation to appear, usual and/or observationally constrained values of the parameters (e.g., diffusion coefficients and cloud–SNR likely distances) would disfavour it.« less

  18. Cosmic rays in the surroundings of SNR G35.6–0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Diego F.; Li, Hui; Chen, Yang; Cillis, Analía; Caliandro, Andrea G.; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Y.

    2011-11-02

    HESS J1858+020 is a TeV gamma-ray source that was reported to have no clearly catalogued counterpart at any wavelength. However, it has been recently proposed that this source is indirectly associated with the radio source, re-identified as a supernova remnant (SNR), G35.6–0.4. The latter has been found to be middle-aged (~30 kyr) and to have nearby molecular clouds (MCs). HESS J1858+020 was proposed to be the result of the interaction of protons accelerated in the SNR shell with target ions residing in the clouds. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog does not list any source coincident with the position of HESS J1858+020, but some lie close. Here, we analyse more than 2 years of data obtained with the Fermi-LAT for the region of interest, and consider whether it is indeed possible that the closest LAT source, 1FGL J1857.1+0212c, is related to HESS J1858+020. We conclude it is not, and we impose upper limits on the GeV emission originating from HESS J1858+020. Using a simplified 3D model for the cosmic ray propagation out from the shell of the SNR, we consider whether the interaction between SNR G35.6–0.4 and the MCs nearby could give rise to the TeV emission of HESS J1858+020 without producing a GeV counterpart. If so, the pair of SNR/TeV source with no GeV detection would be reminiscent of other similarly aged SNRs, such as some of the TeV hotspots near W28, for which cosmic ray diffusion may be used to explain their multifrequency phenomenology. Furthermore, for HESS J1858+020, we found that although the phase space in principle allows such a GeV–TeV non-correlation to appear, usual and/or observationally constrained values of the parameters (e.g., diffusion coefficients and cloud–SNR likely distances) would disfavour it.

  19. A partial nuclear genome of the Jomons who lived 3000 years ago in Fukushima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Hideaki; Kryukov, Kirill; Jinam, Timothy A; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Saso, Aiko; Suwa, Gen; Ueda, Shintaroh; Yoneda, Minoru; Tajima, Atsushi; Shinoda, Ken-ichi; Inoue, Ituro; Saitou, Naruya

    2017-01-01

    The Jomon period of the Japanese Archipelago, characterized by cord-marked ‘jomon' potteries, has yielded abundant human skeletal remains. However, the genetic origins of the Jomon people and their relationships with modern populations have not been clarified. We determined a total of 115 million base pair nuclear genome sequences from two Jomon individuals (male and female each) from the Sanganji Shell Mound (dated 3000 years before present) with the Jomon-characteristic mitochondrial DNA haplogroup N9b, and compared these nuclear genome sequences with those of worldwide populations. We found that the Jomon population lineage is best considered to have diverged before diversification of present-day East Eurasian populations, with no evidence of gene flow events between the Jomon and other continental populations. This suggests that the Sanganji Jomon people descended from an early phase of population dispersals in East Asia. We also estimated that the modern mainland Japanese inherited <20% of Jomon peoples' genomes. Our findings, based on the first analysis of Jomon nuclear genome sequence data, firmly demonstrate that the modern mainland Japanese resulted from genetic admixture of the indigenous Jomon people and later migrants. PMID:27581845

  20. A year of living dangerously: the tobacco control community meets the global settlement.

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, M; Daynard, R; Roemer, R

    1998-01-01

    Momentum toward Congressional action on tobacco issues began with the announcement in June 1997 of a proposed "global tobacco settlement" between the tobacco industry, a group of state Attorneys General, and private class action lawyers. For the next year, tobacco issues received unprecedented national attention, culminating in the U.S. Senate's consideration and ultimate defeat of the McCain tobacco bill. Through the proposed settlement, the Attorneys General and others involved in talks with the industry sought to reduce tobacco use by attempting to forge a "win-win" solution for all parties. In exchange for money and public health concessions, the industry would be granted sweeping protection from litigation and thus a stable environment in which to operate. Members of the public health community responded to the "global tobacco settlement" in very different ways. The authors explore how different visions of possibilities and practicalities were played out in the fight for strong Federal tobacco control legislation and attempt to draw lessons for the future. Images p489-a p491-a p492-a p495-a p496-a PMID:9847920

  1. A partial nuclear genome of the Jomons who lived 3000 years ago in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Hideaki; Kryukov, Kirill; Jinam, Timothy A; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Saso, Aiko; Suwa, Gen; Ueda, Shintaroh; Yoneda, Minoru; Tajima, Atsushi; Shinoda, Ken-Ichi; Inoue, Ituro; Saitou, Naruya

    2017-02-01

    The Jomon period of the Japanese Archipelago, characterized by cord-marked 'jomon' potteries, has yielded abundant human skeletal remains. However, the genetic origins of the Jomon people and their relationships with modern populations have not been clarified. We determined a total of 115 million base pair nuclear genome sequences from two Jomon individuals (male and female each) from the Sanganji Shell Mound (dated 3000 years before present) with the Jomon-characteristic mitochondrial DNA haplogroup N9b, and compared these nuclear genome sequences with those of worldwide populations. We found that the Jomon population lineage is best considered to have diverged before diversification of present-day East Eurasian populations, with no evidence of gene flow events between the Jomon and other continental populations. This suggests that the Sanganji Jomon people descended from an early phase of population dispersals in East Asia. We also estimated that the modern mainland Japanese inherited <20% of Jomon peoples' genomes. Our findings, based on the first analysis of Jomon nuclear genome sequence data, firmly demonstrate that the modern mainland Japanese resulted from genetic admixture of the indigenous Jomon people and later migrants.

  2. A marriage full of surprises: forty-five years living with glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Engel, Paul C

    2011-09-01

    Detailed kinetic studies of bovine glutamate dehydrogenase [GDH] from the 1960s revealed complexities that remain to be fully explained. In the absence of heterotropic nucleotide regulators the enzyme follows a random pathway of substrate addition but saturation with ADP enforces a compulsory-order mechanism in which glutamate is the leading substrate. The rate dependence on NAD(P)(+) concentration is complex and is probably only partly explained by negative binding cooperativity. Bovine GDH eluded successful analysis by crystallographers for 30 years but the final structural solution presented in this symposium at last provides a comprehensible framework for much of the heterotropic regulation, focussing attention on an antenna region in the C-terminal tail, a structure that is missing in the slightly smaller hexameric GDHs of lower organisms. Nonetheless, our studies with one such smaller (clostridial) GDH reveal that even without the antenna the underlying core structure still mediates homotropic cooperativity, and the ability to generate a variety of mutants has made it possible to start to dissect this machinery. In addition, this short personal review discusses a number of unresolved issues such as the significance of phospholipid inhibition and of specific interaction with mRNA, and above all the question of why it is necessary to regulate an enzyme reputedly maintaining its reactants at equilibrium and whether this might be in some way related to its coexistence with an energy-linked transhydrogenase.

  3. Medication Adherence in 13- to 24-Year-Old Youth Living With HIV.

    PubMed

    Chenneville, Tiffany; Machacek, Marielle; St John Walsh, Audra; Emmanuel, Patricia; Rodriguez, Carina

    Despite advances in HIV medicine, adherence presents as a barrier to effective treatment for youth. We designed this study to assess medication knowledge, adherence, and factors affecting adherence in youth with HIV. Participants were 72 youth ages 13 to 24 years with perinatally or behaviorally acquired HIV. Demographic data were collected and a self-report adherence interview was administered. Interviews were audio-recorded to allow for qualitative data analysis. Self-reported adherence varied depending on the framing of questions, with participants reporting greater adherence when asked how many doses they had missed within the past 7 days compared to results from a 7-day recall interview. At least 74% of the sample said they sometimes forgot to take their medication. A taxonomic approach to the qualitative analysis revealed internal and external facilitators and barriers to adherence. Findings suggest a need for education and provider support to include strategies to improve adherence. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Frustrating Lives of Climate Scientists - 45 Years of Warm, Cold, Wet and Dry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, O. B.; Hartwick, V.; Urata, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Mariner 9 arrived at Mars in November 1971, where it revealed giant volcanoes and dry river valleys some of which originated from rainfall or runoff. Some geologists think there were oceans, tidal waves, craters that filled to their rims and then overflowed or didn't overflow, and river deltas reaching into the ancient seas and lakes. Climate scientists have stumbled through a 45 year-long chain of failed explanations for these geologic data. CO2 in greater abundance than now is likely involved, but not sufficient. Adding CH4 , CO2 clouds, or SO2 have faltered on further study. Three ideas are still being kicked around, two of which are able to make Mars warm, but may have geologic issues. First, is the idea of adding H2 to the CO2, which warms sufficiently in climate models. However, the large quantities needed are a challenge to outgassing models. Second, is impacts, the largest of which would mobilize most of the water in the regolith. Geologists object that the water from impacts would not last long enough to carve rivers. However, no one has explored the concurrent generation of the regolith by these impacts, which would create a loose, easily erodible surface. Are the rivers all in ancient regolith? If some rivers are in bedrock it would be harder to explain by impacts. Finally, impacts may triggered water/cloud greenhouses. Such a climate state would be long lasting, requires only a modest background atmosphere of carbon dioxide, and would fade away when the carbon dioxide dropped below a few hundred mbar. However, not all climate models have been able to produce such water driven greenhouse warming. In this talk I will outline the history of these climate models, point to evidence that might discriminate between them, describe how the water greenhouse models work or don't work, and suggest some new projects that might be done to decide just how warm and wet Mars may have been.

  5. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation of Li(Ni0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4)O2 Cathode Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rumble, C.; Conry, T.E.; Doeff, Marca; Cairns, Elton J.; Penner-Hahn, James. E.; Deb, Aniruddha

    2010-02-02

    Li(Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2-y}Al{sub y}Mn{sub 0.4})O{sub 2} with y=0.05 was investigated to understand the effect of replacement of the cobalt by aluminum on the structural and electrochemical properties. The effect of the substitution was studied by in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), utilizing a novel in situ electrochemical cell, specifically designed for long-term X-ray experiments. The cell was cycled at a moderate rate through a typical Li-ion battery operating voltage range (1.0-4.7 V). XAS measurements were performed at different states-of-charge (SOC) during cycling, at the Ni, Co, and the Mn edges, revealing details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction processes. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure region of the spectra revealed the changes of bond distance and coordination number of Ni, Co, and Mn absorbers as a function of the SOC of the material. The oxidation states of the transition metals in the system are Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 3+}, and Mn{sup 4+} in the as-made material (fully discharged), while during charging the Ni{sup 2+} is oxidized to Ni{sup 4+} through an intermediate stage of Ni{sup 3+}, Co{sup 3+} is oxidized towards Co{sup 4+} and Mn was found to be electrochemically inactive and remains as Mn{sup 4+}. The EXAFS results during cycling show that the Ni-O changes the most, followed by Co-O and Mn-O varies the least. These measurements on this cathode material confirmed that the material retains its symmetry and good structural short-range order leading to the superior cycling reported earlier.

  6. Structural and electrochemical Investigation of Li(Ni0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4)O2 Cathode Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rumble, C.; Conry, T.E.; Doeff, Marca; Cairns, Elton J.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Deb, Aniruddha

    2010-06-14

    Li(Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 0.4})O{sub 2} was investigated to understand the effect of replacement of the cobalt by aluminum on the structural and electrochemical properties. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed, utilizing a novel in situ electrochemical cell, specifically designed for long-term X-ray experiments. The cell was cycled at a moderate rate through a typical Li-ion battery operating voltage range. (1.0-4.7 V) XAS measurements were performed at different states of charge (SOC) during cycling, at the Ni, Co, and the Mn edges, revealing details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction processes. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) region of the spectra revealed the changes of bond distance and coordination number of Ni, Co, and Mn absorbers as a function of the SOC of the material. The oxidation states of the transition metals in the system are Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 3+}, and Mn{sup 4+} in the as-made material (fully discharged), while during charging the Ni{sup 2+} is oxidized to Ni{sup 4+} through an intermediate stage of Ni{sup 3+}, Co{sup 3+} is oxidized toward Co{sup 4+}, and Mn was found to be electrochemically inactive and remained as Mn{sup 4+}. The EXAFS results during cycling show that the Ni-O changes the most, followed by Co-O, and Mn-O varies the least. These measurements on this cathode material confirmed that the material retains its symmetry and good structural short-range order leading to the superior cycling reported earlier.

  7. Risk Factors Associated with Malnutrition in One-Year-Old Children Living in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Serene A.; Casapía, Martín; Blouin, Brittany; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Rahme, Elham; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children under two years of age are in the most critical window for growth and development. As mobility increases, this time period also coincides with first exposure to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in tropical and sub-tropical environments. The association between malnutrition and STH infection, however, has been understudied in this vulnerable age group. Methodology/Principal Findings A nested cross-sectional survey was conducted in 12 and 13-month old children participating in a deworming trial in Iquitos, an STH-endemic area of the Peruvian Amazon. An extensive socio-demo-epi questionnaire was administered to the child's parent. Length and weight were measured, and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development were administered to measure cognition, language, and fine motor development. Stool specimens were collected to determine the presence of STH. The association between malnutrition (i.e. stunting and underweight) and STH infection, and other child, maternal, and household characteristics, was analyzed using multivariable Poisson regression. A total of 1760 children were recruited between September 2011 and June 2012. Baseline data showed a prevalence of stunting and underweight of 24.2% and 8.6%, respectively. In a subgroup of 880 randomly-allocated children whose specimens were analyzed by the Kato-Katz method, the prevalence of any STH infection was 14.5%. Risk factors for stunting in these 880 children included infection with at least one STH species (aRR = 1.37; 95% CI 1.01, 1.86) and a lower development score (aRR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99). A lower development score was also a significant risk factor for underweight (aRR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.95). Conclusions The high prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting, and its association with STH infection and lower developmental attainment in early preschool-age children is of concern. Emphasis should be placed on determining the most cost

  8. A 3-year follow-up of stroke patients: relationships between activities of daily living and personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Elmståhl, S; Sommer, M; Hagberg, B

    1996-01-01

    The importance of some personality characteristics for improvement of activities of daily life (ADL) was studied in sixty-six stroke patients, initially admitted to geriatric rehabilitation (n=37) or the department of medicine (n=29), 3 years after stroke. Outcome measurements were activities of daily life and motor and mental functions assessed using the Activity Index (AI) by Hamrin and Wohlin (1982). Neuroticism and extroversion were measured with the Eysenck Personality Inventory Scale. Preferred coping strategies were assessed from interviews on how the patients handle difficult events. Major improvements of ADL and motor functions were seen the first year after stroke. There was no major differences between patients admitted, either to geriatric rehabilitation or traditional medical wards regarding the outcome measurements except for better eating ability in the former group 3 years later. Subjects living alone showed deteriorated ADL functions after 3 years. Extrovert personality and active coping strategy predicted improved ADL functions. Multiple regression analyses with AI as the dependent variable proved active coping to predict functional outcome. In conclusion; increased knowledge about personality characteristics can improve possibilities for a more individual rehabilitation program.

  9. Effect of unilateral nephrectomy on urinary angiotensinogen levels in living kidney donors: 1 year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kendi Celebi, Zeynep; Peker, Ahmet; Kutlay, Sim; Kocak, Senem; Tuzuner, Acar; Erturk, Sehsuvar; Keven, Kenan; Sengul, Sule

    2017-01-01

    Urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT) has recently been proposed as a marker of kidney injury and activated intrarenal renin-angiotensin system. We investigated the effects of living donor nephrectomy on uAGT levels, blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria and compensatory hypertrophy in the remaining kidney of living kidney donors. Twenty living kidney donors were included in the study and followed for 1 year. uAGT levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay preoperatively and postoperatively at the 15th day, 1, 6 and 12 months. Four donors were excluded from the study due to lack of data. The mean baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was 98 ± 15 ml/min/1.73 m². Serum creatinine, uAGT/creatinine, uAGT/protein levels were higher and estimated glomerular filtration rate was lower than baseline values at all time periods. Urinary protein/creatinine levels increased after donor nephrectomy, but after 6 months they returned to baseline values. Renal volume increased after nephrectomy, but these changes did not show any correlation with uAGT/creatinine, uAGT/protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate or systolic/diastolic blood pressures. uAGT/creatinine at 6 months and urinary protein/creatinine ratio at 12 months showed a positive correlation ( P=0.008, r=0.639). After donor nephrectomy, increasing uAGT levels can be the result of activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system affecting the compensatory changes in the remaining kidney. The long-term effects of increased uAGT levels on the remaining kidney should be examined more closely in future studies.

  10. Vascular complications in biliary atresia patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation: Analysis of 110 patients over 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Vasavada, Bhavin; Chen, Chao Long

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vascular complications are very common in pediatric living donor liver transplants. We present our experience in vascular complications in biliary atresia patients undergoing liver transplantation. Materials and Methods: All the patients who have undergone living donor liver transplant for biliary atresia from January 2003 to March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. P value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Total 110 patients have undergone living donor liver transplantation for biliary atresia between January 2003 and March 2013. There were 56 males and 54 females. Median age at transplant was 13.5 months. Eleven were primary transplants and 99 were post KASAI procedure. One hundred left lateral, four left lobe, and four right lobe grafts were used. Twenty-two patients developed vascular complications. Twelve patients developed hepatic artery thrombosis. Eleven patients of hepatic artery thrombosis were managed with redo hepatic artery anastomosis and one patient managed with radial artery interposition graft. Five patients developed portal vein stenosis and were managed by portal vein stenting. Five patients developed portal vein thrombosis and portal vein thrombectomy and re-anastomosis were done. One patient developed stenosis at the site of venous anastomosis and was managed by stenting. One patient developed both hepatic artery thrombosis and portal vein thrombosis and eventually succumbed to these complications. Out of five cases who died in this study, two had vascular complications. Graft/recipient weight ratio (GRWR) greater than 2.5 was significantly associated with vascular complications (P = 0.017). Conclusion: Vascular complications are frequently seen in liver transplantation for biliary atresia. Large for size grafts, weight less than 10 kg, age less than 1 year, and prolonged warm ischemia time is significantly associated with vascular complications. PMID:26166981

  11. Individual hemoglobin mass response to normobaric and hypobaric "live high-train low": A one-year crossover study.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Anna; Troesch, Severin; Saugy, Jonas J; Schmitt, Laurent; Cejuela-Anta, Roberto; Faiss, Raphael; Steiner, Thomas; Robinson, Neil; Millet, Grégoire P; Wehrlin, Jon P

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare individual hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) changes following a live high-train low (LHTL) altitude training camp under either normobaric hypoxia (NH) or hypobaric hypoxia (HH) conditions in endurance athletes. In a crossover design with a one-year washout, 15 male triathletes randomly performed two 18-day LHTL training camps in either HH or NH. All athletes slept at 2,250 meters and trained at altitudes <1,200 meters. Hbmass was measured in duplicate with the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method before (pre) and immediately after (post) each 18-day training camp. Hbmass increased similarly in HH (916-957 g, 4.5 ± 2.2%, P < 0.001) and in NH (918-953 g, 3.8 ± 2.6%, P < 0.001). Hbmass changes did not differ between HH and NH (P = 0.42). There was substantial interindividual variability among subjects to both interventions (i.e., individual responsiveness or the individual variation in the response to an intervention free of technical noise): 0.9% in HH and 1.7% in NH. However, a correlation between intraindividual ΔHbmass changes (%) in HH and in NH (r = 0.52, P = 0.048) was observed. HH and NH evoked similar mean Hbmass increases following LHTL. Among the mean Hbmass changes, there was a notable variation in individual Hbmass response that tended to be reproducible.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to compare individual hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) response to normobaric and hypobaric live high-train low using a same-subject crossover design. The main findings indicate that hypobaric and normobaric hypoxia evoked a similar mean increase in Hbmass following 18 days of live high-train low. Notable variability and reproducibility in individual Hbmass responses between athletes was observed, indicating the importance of evaluating individual Hbmass response to altitude training. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. DC-Bias-Superposition Characteristics of Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 Nanopowders Synthesized by Auto-Combustion.

    PubMed

    Sadhana, K; Sandhya, R; Praveena, K

    2015-06-01

    Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 nanopowders were prepared by auto-combustion method. The as-synthesized powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and the powders were densified at different temperatures 400 degrees C, 500 degrees C, 600 degrees C and 700 degrees C/4 hrs using conventional sintering method. The sintered samples were characterized by XRD and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The bulk densities of the samples were increased with an increase of sintering temperature. The grain sizes of all the samples vary in between 18 nm to 30 nm. The hysteresis loops show high saturation magnetization and low coercivity, indicates that it is a soft material. The incremental permeability (permeability with magnetic field superposition) was influenced by both ΔM and H(c). A sample with higher initial permeability and favoured the attainment of a higher incremental permeability. The Q-factor was mainly determined by the sintered density and microstructure. To summarize, a uniform and dense microstructure with relatively small average grain size is favourable for obtaining better dc-bias-superposition characteristics, including permeability and Q-factor.

  13. Evaluation of Women over 20 Years Living in the Province of Samsun in Terms of Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aker, Servet; Öz, Hatice; Tunçel, Ebru Kaynar

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess women aged over 20 living in the province of Samsun in terms of risk of breast cancer. Materials and Methods The study population of this descriptive research consisted of 410,377 women aged over 20 living within the administrative borders of the province of Samsun. Stratified systematic sampling was employed in the selection of an 800-member sample. A questionnaire was used drawn up by the authors and inquiring into women’s demographic characteristics and risk factors for breast cancer. Surveys were performed between 01.04.2013 and 30.06.2013 at face-to-face interviews at individuals’ home addresses. The Gail model was used in calculating women’s risk levels for breast cancer. Results 3.1% of women had a first-degree relative (mother, sister or daughter) with a history of breast cancer; 1.4% of women had a history of breast cancer and 8.0% a history of benign breast changes, while 50.4% of women who had entered the menopause were overweight or obese. We determined that 11.3% of women had a high risk of contracting breast cancer within the following 5 years. Conclusion Determining the distribution of risk factors for breast cancer is important in terms of identifying the at-risk group and will represent the basis for developing future programs.

  14. Your friends know how long you will live: a 75-year study of peer-rated personality traits.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Joshua J; Connolly, James J; Garrison, S Mason; Leveille, Madeleine M; Connolly, Seamus L

    2015-03-01

    Although self-rated personality traits predict mortality risk, no study has examined whether one's friends can perceive personality characteristics that predict one's mortality risk. Moreover, it is unclear whether observers' reports (compared with self-reports) provide better or unique information concerning the personal characteristics that result in longer and healthier lives. To test whether friends' reports of personality predict mortality risk, we used data from a 75-year longitudinal study (the Kelly/Connolly Longitudinal Study on Personality and Aging). In that study, 600 participants were observed beginning in 1935 through 1938, when they were in their mid-20s, and continuing through 2013. Male participants seen by their friends as more conscientious and open lived longer, whereas friend-rated emotional stability and agreeableness were protective for women. Friends' ratings were better predictors of longevity than were self-reports of personality, in part because friends' ratings could be aggregated to provide a more reliable assessment. Our findings demonstrate the utility of observers' reports in the study of health and provide insights concerning the pathways by which personality traits influence health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Late-Life Exercise and Difficulty with Activities of Daily Living: an 8-Year Nationwide Follow-up Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ku, Po-Wen; Fox, Kenneth R; Gardiner, Paul A; Chen, Li-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have shown that low levels of exercise in later life are associated with the progression of difficulties with activities of daily living. However, few have assessed the independent effect of exercise components on difficulty in performing activities of daily living and explored whether the relationship between exercise and activities of daily living is reciprocal. This study aimed to examine, in a nationally representative sample of older Taiwanese, the independent effect of the frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise on difficulty with activities of daily living. A secondary objective was to explore the degree to which the relationship of late-life exercise with activities of daily living is bi-directional. Data from a fixed cohort (n = 1268, aged 70+) in 1999 with 8 years of follow-up were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation models with multivariate adjustment were performed. Participants engaging in higher levels of exercise had less difficulty with subsequent activities of daily living. Among the components of exercise, only duration, especially 30 min or more per session, was associated with fewer difficulties with activities of daily living. The relationship between exercise and activities of daily living was reciprocal, although the influence of activities of daily living on subsequent exercise levels was weaker. Exercise in later life may be able to minimize the difficulties in activities of daily living and help maintain the mobility and independence of older adults.

  16. Estimation of single-year-of-age counts of live births, fetal losses, abortions, and pregnant women for counties of Texas.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bismark; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2017-05-08

    We provide a methodology for estimating counts of single-year-of-age live-births, fetal-losses, abortions, and pregnant women from aggregated age-group counts. As a case study, we estimate counts for the 254 counties of Texas for the year 2010. We use interpolation to estimate counts of live-births, fetal-losses, and abortions by women of each single-year-of-age for all Texas counties. We then use these counts to estimate the numbers of pregnant women for each single-year-of-age, which were previously available only in aggregate. To support public health policy and planning, we provide single-year-of-age estimates of live-births, fetal-losses, abortions, and pregnant women for all Texas counties in the year 2010, as well as the estimation method source code.

  17. Family function of the families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Joh, Ju-Youn; Shin, Il-Seon

    2015-03-01

    Marriages between Korean men and immigrant women from elsewhere in Asia have increased rapidly during recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship within families consisting of immigrant women and to identify the relevant factors. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a baseline study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and family APGAR (adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve) scores were measured. Family APGAR has been widely used to study the relationship of family function and health problems in the busy clinician's office. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the baseline study results. Family APGAR scores were higher at the 3-year follow-up than those at baseline. Changes in family APGAR scores were found to be influenced by the birthplace, reported subjective ability to read Korean, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale score.

  18. New composite spectra of Mars, 0.4-5.7 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erard, Stephane; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1997-01-01

    About 15 areas were observed in the equatorial regions of Mars by the infrared spectrometers IRS (Mariner 6 and 7) and ISM (Phobos-2). The comparison between the spectra shows a remarkable consistency between two data sets acquired 20 years apart and calibrated independently. This similarity demonstrates the accuracy of ISM calibration above 2 μm, except for a possible stray light contribution above 2.6 μm, on the order of ∼1–2% of the solar flux at 2.7 μm. Most differences in spectral shapes are related to differences in spectral/spatial resolution and viewing geometries. No important variation in surface properties is detected, except for a spot in southern Arabia Terra which has a much deeper hydration feature in IRS spectra; differences in viewing geometries and spatial resolutions do not seem to account for this difference that could result from shifting or dehydration of surface materials. Composite spectra of several types of bright and dark materials are computed by modeling the thermal emission and are completed with telescopic spectra in the visible range. Modeled reflectance in the 3.0–5.7 μm range is consistent with basalts and palagonites. The bright regions and analog palagonite spectra are different from hematite in this range, but resemble several phyllosilicates. We infer that (1) although hematite dominates the spectra in the 0.4- to 2.5-μm range, the silicate-clay host is spectrally active beyond 3 μm and can be identified from this domain; (2) phyllosilicates such as montmorillonite or smectite may be abundant components of the martian soils, although the domain below 3 μm lacks the characteristic features of the most usual terrestrial clay minerals.

  19. Living the Later Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Doris

    1974-01-01

    In China, older people are very much a part of society, playing a responsible role in planning and fulfilling the aims of the school, factory, commune, or street committee. Retired Workers' Centers and rural communes provide for the social, physical, and educational needs of the elderly. (MW)

  20. Family adaptability and cohesion in families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: A 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Kim, Sun; Joh, Ju-Youn

    2015-06-01

    South Korea's low birth rate, aging society, and female migration to urban areas due to industrialization have caused an accelerated inflow of Asian female immigrants into Korea to marry Korean men, especially in rural areas. This study was performed to determine how family function of multicultural families changes over time and what factors affect the changes in family function of multicultural families. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a 1st wave study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III) scores were measured. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the 1st wave study results. The mean family adaptability score was 24.6 in the 1st wave study and 26.1 at the 3-year follow-up. The average family cohesion score was 31.0 in the 1st wave study and 36.7 at the 3-year follow-up. There was a statistically significant increase in family cohesion after 3 years (P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, age difference between husband and wife (P = 0.019) and subjective SES (P < 0.001) were found to be significantly correlated with positive changes of cohesion scores. Family adaptability did not change over time; however, conversely, family cohesion increased. The age difference between husband and wife and the subjective SES had a positive association with the changes in family cohesion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Two hundred living donor kidney transplantations under alemtuzumab induction and tacrolimus monotherapy: 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tan, H P; Donaldson, J; Basu, A; Unruh, M; Randhawa, P; Sharma, V; Morgan, C; McCauley, J; Wu, C; Shah, N; Zeevi, A; Shapiro, R

    2009-02-01

    Alemtuzumab has been used in off-label studies of solid organ transplantation. We extend our report of the first 200 consecutive living donor solitary kidney transplantations under alemtuzumab pretreatment with tacrolimus monotherapy and subsequent spaced weaning to 3 years of follow-up. We focused especially on the causes of recipient death and graft loss, and the characteristics of rejection. The actuarial 1-, 2- and 3-year patient and graft survivals were 99.0% and 98.0%, 96.4% and 90.8% and 93.3% and 86.3%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of acute cellular rejection (ACR) at the following months was 2%years were 1.4 +/- 0.6 and 58.7 +/- 21.6 and 1.5 +/- 0.7 and 54.9 +/- 20.9, respectively. Fifty (25%) recipients had a total of 89 episodes of ACR. About 88.7% of ACR episodes were Banff 1, and of those, 82% were steroid-sensitive. Nine (4.5%) recipients had antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). About 76.5% were weaned but only 46% are currently on spaced dose (qod or less) tacrolimus monotherapy, and 94.4% remained steroid-free from the time of transplantation. Infectious complications were uncommon. This experience suggests the 3-year efficacy of this approach.

  2. Outcomes of neurogenic bowel management in individuals living with a spinal cord injury for at least 10 years.

    PubMed

    Adriaansen, Jacinthe J; van Asbeck, Floris W; van Kuppevelt, Dirk; Snoek, Govert J; Post, Marcel W

    2015-05-01

    To describe bowel management and its outcomes in individuals living with a spinal cord injury (SCI) for at least 10 years. Cross-sectional multicenter study. Dutch community. Individuals (N=258; age range, 28-65y) who acquired their SCI between 18 and 35 years of age, who were at least 10 years post-SCI, and who used a wheelchair for their daily mobility. Not applicable. The International SCI Bowel Function Basic Data Set, the neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) score, and a single item on satisfaction with bowel management. Mean time since injury (TSI) was 24±9 years. Seventy-four percent used ≥1 conservative bowel management method, specifically digital evacuation (35%) and mini enemas (31%). Transanal irrigation (TAI) and surgical interventions were used by 11% and 8%, respectively. Perianal problems were reported by 45% of the participants. Severe NBD was present in 36% of all participants and in 40% of those using a conservative method. However, only 14% were (very) dissatisfied with their current bowel management. Dissatisfaction with bowel management was significantly associated with constipation and severe NBD. With increasing TSI, there was a nonsignificant trend observed toward a decline in dissatisfaction with bowel management and a significant decline in severe NBD. Although satisfaction rates were high, more than a third of the participants reported severe NBD and perianal problems. Apart from severe NBD, there were no significant associations between bowel problems and TSI. Conservative methods were most often used, but some of these methods were also significantly associated with the presence of severe NBD. Longitudinal research is necessary to provide more knowledge concerning the course of NBD with increasing TSI. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermal decomposition study of Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Deshpande, M. P.; Tailor, Jiten P.

    2013-06-01

    The Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis were carried out on the as-grown Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals in inert nitrogen atmosphere. All these thermal analysis were done from ambient temperature to 1223 K. The activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals were determined from the thermal curves using Broido, Horowitz-Metzger (H-M), Piloyan-Novikova (P-N) and Coats-Redfern (C-R) relations. The results are reported in this paper.

  4. Food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, 10 years after the invasion of Iraq: data from a household survey.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Hala; Sassine, AnnieBelle J; Seyfert, Karin; Nord, Mark; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2014-07-14

    Iraqi refugees in Lebanon are vulnerable to food insecurity because of their limited rights and fragile livelihoods. The objective of the present study was to assess household food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, almost 10 years after the invasion of Iraq. A representative survey of 800 UN High Commissioner for Refugees-registered refugee households in Lebanon was conducted using multi-stage cluster random sampling. We measured food insecurity using a modified US Department of Agriculture household food security module. We collected data on household demographic, socio-economic, health, housing and dietary diversity status and analysed these factors by food security status. Hb level was measured in a subset of children below 5 years of age (n 85). Weighted data were used in univariate and multivariate analyses. Among the Iraqi refugee households surveyed (n 630), 20·1% (95% CI 17·3, 23·2) were found to be food secure, 35·5% (95% CI 32·0, 39·2) moderately food insecure and 44·4% (95% CI 40·8, 48·1) severely food insecure. Severe food insecurity was associated with the respondent's good self-reported health (OR 0·3, 95% CI 0·2, 0·5), length of stay as a refugee (OR 1·1, 95% CI 1·0, 1·2), very poor housing quality (OR 3·3, 95% CI 1·6, 6·5) and the number of children in the household (OR 1·2, 95% CI 1·0, 1·4), and resulted in poor dietary diversity (P< 0·0001). Anaemia was found in 41% (95% CI 30·6, 51·9) of children below 5 years of age, but was not associated with food insecurity. High food insecurity, low diet quality and high prevalence of anaemia in Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon call for urgent programmes to address the food and health situation of this population with restricted rights.

  5. Activities of daily living in nursing home and home care settings: a retrospective 1-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Wha; Cho, Eunhee; Yim, Eun Shil; Lee, Hye Sun; Ko, Yu Kyung; Kim, Bok Nam; Kim, Sinhye

    2015-02-01

    Korea introduced universal long-term care insurance (LTCI) for physically dependent older adults in 2008. Older adults, their family members, and policy makers in Korea want to know patient outcomes in different care modalities because older adults who have a similar functional status and LTC needs can choose either nursing home care or home care. The aim of this study was to compare activities of daily living (ADLs) in nursing home care and home care settings for physically dependent older adults in Korea. A retrospective 1-year cohort study using national LTCI data. This study used the LTCI dataset from the National Health Insurance Service in Korea. Participants were identified from among those in the LTCI dataset who enrolled from July 2008 to June 2010. We extracted a sample consisting of 22,557 older adults who consistently received either nursing home care (n = 11,678) or home care (n = 10,879) for 1 year. The outcome variable was change in ADLs after 1 year. Covariates were an older adult's home geographical region, LTC level, age, sex, primary caregiver, Medicaid beneficiary status, bedridden status, medical diagnosis, baseline ADLs, cognitive function, behavioral problems, nursing and special treatment, and rehabilitation needs. Multiple regression analysis of all participants unmatched and a paired t-test with a propensity-score-matched cohort were performed to explain the association of changes in ADLs with the types of LTC. Multiple regression analysis with all participants (n = 22,557) unmatched showed that compared with older adults who received home care, those who received nursing home care had deteriorated further in terms of ADLs after 1 year (β = 0.44108, P < .0001). After propensity-score matching, paired t-test analysis also found that the ADLs of older adults had deteriorated less in the home care group compared with the nursing home group after 1 year (P < .0001). The ADLs of older adults who received home care showed significantly less

  6. Experience with live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka strain) in healthy Japanese subjects; 10-year survey at pediatric clinic.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, T; Nishimura, N; Kajita, Y

    2000-05-08

    Live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka strain, Biken Institute, Osaka, Japan) was administered to 973 healthy individuals over a 10-year period (1987-1997) at the pediatric clinic of Showa Hospital in Japan. We evaluated the relevant serological and clinical data, which were collected by questionnaire. Seroconversion by the immune adherence hemagglutination method was documented in 94% (805/860) of the initially seronegative subjects. Of the initially seropositive subjects, 56% (63/113) showed enhancement of antibody after vaccination. Reactions to the vaccine were generally insignificant, except for a rash at the injection site, seen in the first 3 days post-administration in 17% (41/241) of the recently vaccinated subjects. In March 1998, we conducted a survey of 559 of the initially seronegative subjects who had received the vaccine 0.6-10. 8 (mean 5.4) years earlier. Of these subjects, 21% (119/559) contracted breakthrough varicella. However, their symptoms were milder than those caused by natural varicella seen in unvaccinated children. Seroconversion was demonstrated in 92% (109/119) of these cases. The incidence of breakthrough disease decreased with a rise in postvaccination antibody titer to >==32. Four of the subjects (0.7% of 559) developed herpes zoster following vaccination, two of whom had earlier exhibited breakthrough varicella. Lesions in one case of zoster, without breakthrough varicella, appeared on the cervical dermatome at the injection site. The vaccine was safe and effective. However, there was a relatively high incidence of rash at the injection site with certain lot numbers used in recent years which warrants investigation.

  7. 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment: new drug. Not useful for anal fissures.

    PubMed

    2008-04-01

    (1) Anal fissures are very painful but often heal spontaneously. After eliminating other diagnoses, various treatments can be tried while waiting for fissures to heal: warm seat baths, local anaesthetics, and adequate fibre and fluid intake. (2) Clinical evaluation of glyceryl trinitrate 0.4% ointment, a nitrate derivative, is mainly based on a double-blind trial versus excipient in 193 adults with "chronic" fissures. This trial failed to show a clinically relevant analgesic effect of glyceryl trinitrate 0.4%, with only a 3-mm difference versus the excipient on a 100-mm pain rating scale. In another trial including 229 patients, neither 0.2% nor 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate was more effective on pain than placebo. (3) Another placebo-controlled trial including 304 adults treated for 8 weeks showed no efficacy of various doses of glyceryl trinitrate, versus the excipient, on the healing of anal fissures. (4) The most frequent adverse effect, as expected with a nitrate derivative, is headache, which affects about two-thirds of patients and is severe in 20% of cases. Abrupt-onset hypotension is a risk during concomitant use of other vasodilatory drugs. (5) There are no data on pregnant women exposed to glyceryl trinitrate. (6) In summary, glyceryl trinitrate 0.4% ointment does not reduce the pain linked to chronic anal fissures, but it does carry a risk of sometimes severe headache. It is best to continue using simple, non-aggressive treatments.

  8. Association Between Social Participation and 3-Year Change in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether social participation (SP) in older adults is associated with ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Prospective cohort study. Two local municipalities of Nara, Japan. Individuals aged 65 to 96 (n = 2,774 male, n = 3,586 female) free of IADL disability at baseline. SP and IADLs were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. SP was categorized into five types and assessed using the number and type of social activities. IADLs were evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression analysis stratified according to sex was used to examine change in IADLs according to SP, with nonparticipation as a reference. During the 3-year follow-up, 13.6% of men and 9.0% of women reported IADL decline. After adjusting for age, family structure, body mass index, pension, occupation, medical treatment, self-rated health, drinking, smoking, depression, cognitive function, and activities of daily living, participation in various social activities was inversely associated with change in IADLs in women but not men. Participation in the following types of social activities had significant inverse associations with IADL disability: hobby clubs (odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.49-0.94) for men and local events (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.48-0.95), hobby clubs (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.36-0.79), senior citizen clubs (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.56-0.97), and volunteer groups (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.32-0.99) for women. Participation in a variety of different types of social activities was associated with change in IADLs over the 3 years of this study in women, and participation in hobby clubs was associated with change in IADLs in men and women. Recommending that community-dwelling elderly adults participate in social activities appropriate for their sex may promote successful aging. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics

  9. Living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: results of prospective patient selection by Kyushu University Criteria in 7 years.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Hideaki; Itoh, Shinji; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Ikegami, Toru; Harimoto, Norifumi; Soejima, Yuji; Harada, Noboru; Morita, Kazutoyo; Toshima, Takeo; Motomura, Takashi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-09-07

    Expanding patient selection beyond the Milan criteria in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has long been a matter for debate. We have used the Kyushu University Criteria - maximum tumor diameter <5 cm or des-γ-carboxy prothrombin <300 mAU/ml - in LDLT for HCC since June 2007. The aim of the present study was to present the results of our prospective patient selection by Kyushu University Criteria and to confirm whether or not our criteria were justified. The entire study period was divided into the pre-Kyushu era (July 1999-May 2007) and the Kyushu era (June 2007-November 2014). Eighty-nine and 90 patients underwent LDLT for HCC in the pre-Kyushu era and the Kyushu era, respectively. In the pre-Kyushu era, there were significant differences in recurrence-free and disease-specific survival between the beyond-Milan and the within-Milan patients. In the Kyushu era, however, the differences in recurrence-free and disease-specific survival between the beyond-Milan and the within-Milan patients disappeared. The 5-year overall patient survival in the Kyushu era was 89.4%. Our selection criteria enabled a considerable number of beyond-Milan patients to undergo LDLT without jeopardizing the recurrence-free, and disease-specific, and overall patient survival. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Free-living amoebae and their associated bacteria in Austrian cooling towers: a 1-year routine screening.

    PubMed

    Scheikl, Ute; Tsao, Han-Fei; Horn, Matthias; Indra, Alexander; Walochnik, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely spread in the environment and known to cause rare but often serious infections. Besides this, FLA may serve as vehicles for bacterial pathogens. In particular, Legionella pneumophila is known to replicate within FLA thereby also gaining enhanced infectivity. Cooling towers have been the source of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in the past and are thus usually screened for legionellae on a routine basis, not considering, however, FLA and their vehicle function. The aim of this study was to incorporate a screening system for host amoebae into a Legionella routine screening. A new real-time PCR-based screening system for various groups of FLA was established. Three cooling towers were screened every 2 weeks over the period of 1 year for FLA and Legionella spp., by culture and molecular methods in parallel. Altogether, 83.3 % of the cooling tower samples were positive for FLA, Acanthamoeba being the dominating genus. Interestingly, 69.7 % of the cooling tower samples were not suitable for the standard Legionella screening due to their high organic burden. In the remaining samples, positivity for Legionella spp. was 25 % by culture, but overall positivity was 50 % by molecular methods. Several amoebal isolates revealed intracellular bacteria.

  11. Sociodemographic and lifestyle statistics of oldest old people (>80 years) living in ikaria island: the ikaria study.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Chrysohoou, Christina; Siasos, Gerasimos; Zisimos, Konstantinos; Skoumas, John; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-02-24

    Background. There are places around the world where people live longer and they are active past the age of 100 years, sharing common behavioral characteristics; these places (i.e., Sardinia in Italy, Okinawa in Japan, Loma Linda in California and Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica) have been named the "Blue Zones". Recently it was reported that people in Ikaria Island, Greece, have also one of the highest life expectancies in the world, and joined the "Blue Zones". The aim of this work work was to evaluate various demographic, lifestyle and psychological characteristics of very old (>80 years) people participated in Ikaria Study. Methods. During 2009, 1420 people (aged 30+) men and women from Ikaria Island, Greece, were voluntarily enrolled in the study. For this work, 89 males and 98 females over the age of 80 yrs were studied (13% of the sample). Socio-demographic, clinical, psychological and lifestyle characteristics were assessed using standard questionnaires and procedures. Results. A large proportion of the Ikaria Study's sample was over the age of 80; moreover, the percent of people over 90 were much higher than the European population average. The majority of the oldest old participants reported daily physical activities, healthy eating habits, avoidance of smoking, frequent socializing, mid-day naps and extremely low rates of depression. Conclusion. Modifiable risk factors, such as physical activity, diet, smoking cessation and mid-day naps, might depict the "secrets" of the long-livers; these findings suggest that the interaction of environmental, behavioral together with clinical characteristics may determine longevity. This concept must be further explored in order to understand how these factors relate and which are the most important in shaping prolonged life.

  12. Commuting, Transitions and Belonging: The Experiences of Students Living at Home in Their First Year at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorny, Helen; Holley, Debbie; Kane, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    In this study, our cross-case analysis of students' lives challenges the conventional home-university model of transition and highlights the importance of acknowledging the influence of this complex symbiotic relationship for students who attend university and live at home. We argue that as with stay-at-home holidays, or "staycations",…

  13. Numerical study on a 0.4 THz second harmonic gyrotron with high power

    SciTech Connect

    Chaojun, Lei; Sheng, Yu; Hongfu, Li; Yinghui, Liu; Xinjian, Niu; Qixiang, Zhao

    2013-07-15

    Terahertz and sub-terahertz science and technology are promising topics today. However, it is difficult to obtain high power source of terahertz wave. In this paper, the mode competition and beam-wave interaction in a gradually tapered cavity are studied to achieve high efficiency of a 0.4THz second harmonic gyrotron in practice. In order to attain high power and stable radiation, the TE{sub 32,5} mode is selected as the operating mode of the desired gyrotron to realize single mode oscillation. The issues of studying on the high-order mode gyrotrons are solved effectively by transforming the generalized telegraphist's equations. The efficiency and output power of the gyrotron under different conditions have been calculated by the code, which is based on the transformed equations. Consequently, the results show that single mode second harmonic radiation with power of over 150 kW at frequency of 0.4 THz could be achieved.

  14. Design study of a 0.4 THz 100 kW pulsed gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, E.M.

    2011-07-01

    We present a status of development of a 0.4 THz, 100 kW pulsed gyrotron at UNIST 0.4 THz, 100 kW gyrotron is currently under design for a remote radioactive material detection. A magnetic injection gun (MIG) is used for the electron gun with a beam voltage of 70 kV and beam current of 10 A with a pulse duration of 10 usec. A second harmonic cavity for the gyrotron interaction is considered for the high power THz gyrotron. Numerical optimization of the electron gun design and the cavity is performed in the study. In this paper, we briefly report the design study of the gyrotron. (author)

  15. Long-term durability of CCA and ACA : how is 0.4 doing?

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow; Cherilyn A. Hatfield; Bessie Woodward

    2010-01-01

    For decades the phrase “point 4” was synonymous with wood treated for use in contact with the ground. In this paper we review how and why the 0.4 lb/ft3 (6.4 kg/m3) retention became such an accepted standard, and then evaluate how well this retention has performed in long term stake testing. Data from plots near Saucier,...

  16. Risk factors of hypertension among adults aged 35-64 years living in an urban slum Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Olack, Beatrice; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Smeeth, Liam; Montgomery, Joel M; Kiwanuka, Noah; Breiman, Robert F

    2015-12-17

    Hypertension is an emerging public health problem in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and urbanization is considered to favor its emergence. Given a paucity of information on hypertension and associated risk factors among urban slum dwellers in SSA, we aimed to characterize the distribution of risk factors for hypertension and investigate their association with hypertension in an urban slum in Kenya. We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey among adults 35 years and older living in Kibera slum Nairobi, Kenya. Trained interviewers collected data on socio demographic characteristics and self reported health behaviours using modified World Health Organization stepwise surveillance questionnaire for chronic disease risk factors. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed following standard procedures. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis and odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to identify risk factors associated with hypertension. A total of 1528 adults were surveyed with a mean age of 46.7 years. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 29.4 % (95 % CI 27.0-31.7). Among the 418 participants classified as hypertensive, over one third (39.0 %) were unaware they had hypertension. Prevalence of current smoking and alcohol consumption was 8.5 and 13.1 % respectively. Over one quarter 26.2 % participants were classified as overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥25 to ≤29.9 kg/m(2)), and 17 % classified as obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Overweight, obesity, current smoking, some level of education, highest wealth index, moderate physical activity, older age and being widowed were each independently associated with hypertension. When fit in a multivariable logistic regression model, being a widow [AOR = 1.7; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.6)], belonging to the highest wealth index [AOR = 1.6; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.5)], obesity [AOR = 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.1)] and moderate physical activity [AOR = 1.9; (95 % CI

  17. Documented brief intervention not associated with resolution of unhealthy alcohol use one year later among VA patients living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily C; Lapham, Gwen T; Bobb, Jennifer F; Rubinsky, Anna D; Catz, Sheryl L; Shortreed, Susan M; Bensley, Kara M; Bradley, Katharine A

    2017-07-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is particularly risky for patients living with HIV (PLWH). Brief interventions reduce drinking among patients with unhealthy alcohol use, but whether its receipt in routine outpatient settings is associated with reduced drinking among PLWH with unhealthy alcohol use is unknown. We assessed whether PLWH who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use were more likely to resolve unhealthy drinking one year later if they had brief alcohol intervention (BI) documented in their electronic health record in a national sample of PLWH from the Veterans Health Administration. Secondary VA clinical and administrative data from the electronic medical record (EMR) were used to identify all positive alcohol screens (AUDIT-C score≥5) documented among PLWH (10/01/09-5/30/13) followed by another alcohol screen documented 9-15months later. Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models assessed the association between brief intervention (advice to reduce drinking or abstain documented in EMR) and resolution of unhealthy alcohol use (follow-up AUDIT-C<5 with ≥2 point reduction). Overall 2101 PLWH with unhealthy drinking (10/01/09-5/30/13) had repeat alcohol screens 9-15months later. Of those, 77% had brief intervention documented after their first screen, and 61% resolved unhealthy alcohol use at follow-up. Documented brief intervention was not associated with resolution [Adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.96, (95% CI 0.90-1.02)]. Documented brief intervention was not associated with resolving unhealthy alcohol use at follow-up screening among VA PLWH with unhealthy alcohol use. Effective methods of resolving unhealthy alcohol use in this vulnerable population are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Live-In 'School Sitters' Are Saving This District Thousands of Dollars Each Year -- and Cutting Vandalism as Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Vandal Watch is a program in which families, who live in mobile homes adjacent to school buildings, respond to buzzes from electronic sensors wired to the trailer and report unexpected sounds or sights within the school. (WM)

  19. Memoirs of an amnesiac--two years with brain cancer, or the outer space of living with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Dor-Ner, A D

    1991-11-01

    Alexandra Dane Dor-Ner ("Ali" to friends) was a photographer, writer, and a producer of programs on child development. In February 1989, at the age of 41, she was diagnosed with malignant brain cancer. During the following months she underwent brain surgery, radiation, and implant radiation. Throughout her treatment, she continued to work on a novel and write stores and literary criticism. A volunteer in hospitals before her illness, she now became very active in a support group of brain tumor patients and often served as a first resource and contact for others diagnosed with brain cancer. All was very accomplished; her award-winning photographs have been exhibited in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, and her articles and pictures were published in books, periodicals, and newspapers around the world. A native of Boston, Ali lived for 17 years in Israel, where she joined a group of photographers documenting disappearing neighborhoods in Jerusalem. She was awarded first prize in the "Israel Through the Camera's Eye" competition in 1977. She also taught English and photography in Israeli high schools. Ali traveled extensively on photographic assignments. Early in their 22-year marriage, she and her husband circumnavigated the globe on a freighter, producing a documentary film of the voyage. "Memoirs of an Amnesiac" was written while Ali was a student at the Warren Wilson College Writers' Program in North Carolina; she intended to explore the compensatory aspects of her disease. In February 1991, within days of completing the piece, Ali had a third brain operation to remove a regrowth of cancerous tumor cells, as well as necrotic tissue. Two days later, she was again operated on to remove blood clots resulting from the previous surgery. For the next 12 weeks she fought to regain her ability to walk, talk, and write. In May, she underwent a fifth operation to relieve pressure in the brain. She was still in the hospital when she learned, to her great pleasure

  20. Optical spectroscopy and initial mass function of z = 0.4 red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Baitian; Worthey, Guy

    2017-05-01

    Spectral absorption features can be used to constrain the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in the integrated light of galaxies. Spectral indices used at low redshift are in the far red, and therefore increasingly hard to detect at higher and higher redshifts as they pass out of atmospheric transmission and CCD detector wavelength windows. We employ IMF-sensitive indices at bluer wavelengths. We stack spectra of red, quiescent galaxies around z = 0.4 from the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey. The z = 0.4 red galaxies have 2 Gyr average ages so that they cannot be passively evolving precursors of nearby galaxies. They are slightly enhanced in C and Na, and slightly depressed in Ti. Split by luminosity, the fainter half appears to be older, a result that should be checked with larger samples in the future. We uncover no evidence for IMF evolution between z = 0.4 and now, but we highlight the importance of sample selection, finding that an SDSS sample culled to select archetypal elliptical galaxies at z ˜ 0 is offset towards a more bottom-heavy IMF. Other samples, including our DEEP2 sample, show an offset towards a more spiral galaxy-like IMF. All samples confirm that the reddest galaxies look bottom-heavy compared with bluer ones. Sample selection also influences age-colour trends: red, luminous galaxies always look old and metal rich, but the bluer ones can be more metal poor, the same abundance or more metal rich, depending on how they are selected.

  1. Optical spectroscopy and initial mass function of z = 0.4 red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Baitian; Worthey, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Spectral absorption features can be used to constrain the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in the integrated light of galaxies. Spectral indices used at low redshift are in the far red, and therefore increasingly hard to detect at higher and higher redshifts as they pass out of atmospheric transmission and CCD detector wavelength windows. We employ IMF-sensitive indices at bluer wavelengths. We stack spectra of red, quiescent galaxies around z = 0.4, from the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey. The z = 0.4 red galaxies have 2 Gyr average ages so that they cannot be passively evolving precursors of nearby galaxies. They are slightly enhanced in C and Na, and slightly depressed in Ti. Split by luminosity, the fainter half appears to be older, a result that should be checked with larger samples in the future. We uncover no evidence for IMF evolution between z = 0.4 and now, but we highlight the importance of sample selection, finding that an SDSS sample culled to select archetypal elliptical galaxies at z˜0 is offset toward a more bottom heavy IMF. Other samples, including our DEEP2 sample, show an offset toward a more spiral galaxy-like IMF. All samples confirm that the reddest galaxies look bottom heavy compared with bluer ones. Sample selection also influences age-color trends: red, luminous galaxies always look old and metal-rich, but the bluer ones can be more metal-poor, the same abundance, or more metal-rich, depending on how they are selected.

  2. Microwave properties of Ba0.6K0.4BiO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricano, S.; Bonura, M.; Agliolo Gallitto, A.; Vigni, M. Li; Klinkova, L. A.; Barkovskii, N. V.

    2004-10-01

    We report on field-induced variations of the microwave surface resistance at 9.6 GHz of Ba0.6K0.4BiO3 crystals. Energy losses have been investigated as a function of the static magnetic field in the range of temperatures 4.2 K div T_c. By analyzing the experimental results in the framework of the Coffey and Clem model we determine the temperature dependence of the first-penetration field, upper critical field and depinning frequency. The results show that the pinning energy of this bismuthate superconductor is weaker than those of cuprates.

  3. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludbrook, B. M.; Ruck, B. J.; Granville, S.

    2016-07-01

    We report perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the half-metallic ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si (CFMS) in a MgO/CFMS/Pd trilayer stack. PMA is found for CFMS thicknesses between 1 and 2 nm, with a magnetic anisotropy energy density of KU=1.5 ×106 erg/cm3 for tCFMS=1.5 nm. Both the MgO and Pd layer are necessary to induce the PMA. We measure a tunable anomalous Hall effect, where its sign and magnitude vary with both the CFMS and Pd thickness.

  4. Impact of continuous in-home rehabilitation on quality of life and activities of daily living in elderly clients over 1 year.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Miyuki; Tomohisa, Hisao; Higaki, Kazuo

    2017-02-08

    To verify the effect of in-home rehabilitation on quality of life and activities of daily living in elderly clients. In this non-randomized controlled intervention trial, elderly participants were separated into a rehabilitation or a non-rehabilitation group (n = 100 each). The non-rehabilitation group received basic in-home nursing care, including assistance with cooking, cleaning, toileting, meals and medication. The rehabilitation group received a physical treatment program provided by a licensed professional once a week and basic nursing care in the home. For each group, quality of life and activities of daily living were assessed approximately every 3 months over a 1-year period. Quality of life was evaluated using the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, and activities of daily living were evaluated based on the Functional Independence Measure. The rehabilitation group showed statistically significant improvements in both quality of life and activities of daily living. In contrast, the non-rehabilitation group, although showing slight improvement in quality of life at 9 months, showed almost no effects at the other time-points and no significant changes in activities of daily living over the course of the study. The results of the present study suggest that long-term continuous in-home rehabilitation might improve quality of life and activities of daily living in elderly clients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Living in two homes-a Swedish national survey of wellbeing in 12 and 15 year olds with joint physical custody.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Malin; Modin, Bitte; Fransson, Emma; Rajmil, Luis; Berlin, Marie; Gustafsson, Per A; Hjern, Anders

    2013-09-22

    The practice of joint physical custody, where children spend equal time in each parent's home after they separate, is increasing in many countries. It is particularly common in Sweden, where this custody arrangement applies to 30 per cent of children with separated parents. The aim of this study was to examine children's health-related quality of life after parental separation, by comparing children living with both parents in nuclear families to those living in joint physical custody and other forms of domestic arrangements. Data from a national Swedish classroom study of 164,580 children aged 12 and 15-years-old were analysed by two-level linear regression modelling. Z-scores were used to equalise scales for ten dimensions of wellbeing from the KIDSCREEN-52 and the KIDSCREEN-10 Index and analysed for children in joint physical custody in comparison with children living in nuclear families and mostly or only with one parent. Living in a nuclear family was positively associated with almost all aspects of wellbeing in comparison to children with separated parents. Children in joint physical custody experienced more positive outcomes, in terms of subjective wellbeing, family life and peer relations, than children living mostly or only with one parent. For the 12-year-olds, beta coefficients for moods and emotions ranged from -0.20 to -0.33 and peer relations from -0.11 to -0.20 for children in joint physical custody and living mostly or only with one parent. The corresponding estimates for the 15-year-olds varied from -0.08 to -0.28 and from -0.03 to -0.13 on these subscales. The 15-year-olds in joint physical custody were more likely than the 12-year-olds to report similar wellbeing levels on most outcomes to the children in nuclear families. Children who spent equal time living with both parents after a separation reported better wellbeing than children in predominantly single parent care. This was particularly true for the 15-year-olds, while the reported

  6. The Dependence of galaxy colors on luminosity and environment at z~0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, H.K.C.; Hsieh, B.C.; Lin, Huan; Gladders, M.D.; /Carnegie Inst. Observ.

    2005-08-01

    The authors analyze the B-R{sub c} colors of galaxies as functions of luminosity and local galaxy density using a large photometric redshift catalog based on the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey. They select two samples of galaxies with a magnitude limit of M{sub R{sub e}} < -18.5 and redshift ranges of 0.2 {le} z < 0.4 and 0.4 {le} x < 0.6 containing 10{sup 5} galaxies each. they model the color distributions of subsamples of galaxies and derive the red galaxy fraction and peak colors of red and blue galaxies as functions of galaxy luminosity and environment. The evolution of these relationships over the redshift range of x {approx} 0.5 to z {approx} 0.05 is analyzed in combination with published results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They find that there is a strong evolution in the restframe peak color of bright blue galaxies in that they become redder with decreasing redshift, while the colors of faint blue galaxies remain approximately constant. This effect supports the ''downsizing'' scenario of star formation in galaxies. While the general dependence of the galaxy color distributions on the environment is small, they find that the change of red galaxy fraction with epoch is a function of the local galaxy density, suggesting that the downsizing effect may operate with different timescales in regions of different galaxy densities.

  7. Structural inhomogeneities in FeTe0.6Se0.4: Relation to superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokeš, K.; Schulze, M.; Hartwig, S.; Schäfer, N.; Landsgesell, S.; Blum, C. G. F.; Abou-Ras, D.; Hacisalihoglu, M. Y.; Ressouche, E.; Ouladdiaf, B.; Büchner, B.; Wurmehl, S.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical and structural phase compositions of two single-crystalline samples prepared with different cooling rates from stoichiometric FeTe0.6Se0.4 melts were studied. Both types of samples were investigated in a very comprehensive way using magnetic and electrical transport measurements combined with X-ray, neutron and electron backscatter diffraction. We show that slowly cooled samples are homogeneous on a microscopic scale with only a small excess of iron. Those slowly cooled samples do not exhibit bulk superconductivity down to 1.8 K. In contrast, fast-cooled samples are superconducting below about 14 K but are composed of several chemical phases: they consist of a matrix preserving the crystal structure of slow-cooled samples, and of core-shell structured dendritic inclusions (about 20-30 vol%). These have different crystal structures and chemical compositions and order magnetically at temperatures far above the superconducting transition temperature of the inhomogeneous samples. These structural and chemical inhomogeneities seem to play a vital role in the superconducting properties of this and similar iron-based systems as they lead to internal stress and act in a similar way as the application of the external pressure that reportedly increase the superconducting transition temperature in many iron pnictides and chalcogenides. We argue that a phase pure, homogeneous and stress-free FeTe0.6Se0.4 is non-superconducting.

  8. Characterization of a young open cluster G144.9+0.4 in Cam OB1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Wen-Ping; Panwar, Neelam

    2013-06-01

    Open clusters are good laboratories to study stellar evolution and dynamical interaction among member stars. We are carrying out a program to identify uncharted clusters using sky-survey data. Our preliminary result is finding stellar density enhancement using the 2MASS Point Source Catalog in Galactic latitude |b| < 50 deg. One such density peak (G144.9+0.4), located in the Cam OB1 association, is a young star cluster centered at (ℓ,b) = (144.904,+0.434), first recognized but not well characterized, by Glushkova et al. [8]. We used the PPMXL proper motions to constrain the membership. Our analysis yields a distance of 1.0 kpc. G144.9+0.4 is hence physically related to the Cam OB1 association. Based on the 2MASS and WISE colors, seven classical T-Tauri Star candidates are found within the cluster, though, three of these have proper motions inconsistent with members. One of the kinematic members has been confirmed by spectroscopy to be a CTTS.

  9. Factors associated with poor mental health among Guatemalan refugees living in Mexico 20 years after civil conflict.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Miriam; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Nackerud, Larry; Kaiser, Reinhard; Varese, Luis

    2003-08-06

    From 1981 to 2001, 46 000 refugees who fled the 36-year civil conflict in Guatemala for Chiapas, Mexico were under the protection of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. To estimate the prevalence of mental illness and factors associated with poor mental health of underserved Guatemalan refugee communities located in Chiapas, Mexico, since 1981 and to assess need for mental health services. Cross-sectional survey of 183 households in 5 Mayan refugee camps in Chiapas representing an estimated 1546 residents (adults and children) conducted November-December 2000. Symptom criteria of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression as measured by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (Hopkins-25). One adult (aged > or =16 years) per household (n = 170 respondents) who agreed to participate was included in the analysis, representing an estimated 93% of households. All respondents reported experiencing at least 1 traumatic event with a mean of 8.3 traumatic events per individual. Of the respondents, 20 (11.8%) had all symptom criteria for PTSD. Of the 160 who completed the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, 87 (54.4%) had anxiety symptoms and 62 (38.8%) had symptoms of depression. Witnessing the disappearance of family members (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-15.50), being close to death (AOR, 4.19, 95% CI, 1.03-17.00), or living with 9 to 15 persons in the same home (AOR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.19-11.39) were associated with symptoms of PTSD. There was a protective factor found for lacking sufficient food (AOR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.59). Elevated anxiety symptoms were associated with witnessing a massacre (AOR, 10.63; 95% CI, 4.31-26.22), being wounded (AOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 0.95-10.89), and experiencing 7 to 12 traumatic events (AOR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.14-6.27) and 13 to 19 traumatic events (AOR, 2.26; 95% CI, 0.65-7.89). Elevated symptoms of depression were associated with being a woman (AOR, 3

  10. Vitamin A status of 20- to 59-year-old adults living in Seoul and the metropolitan area, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungah; Kim, Young-Nam

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of retinol and carotenoids were estimated in assessing the vitamin A status of Korean adults living in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were collected from 106 healthy subjects (33 males and 73 females) aged 20-59 years. Fasting blood samples of the subjects were obtained and plasma retinol and carotenoids were analyzed. The daily vitamin A intakes (mean ± SD) were 887.77 ± 401.35 µg retinol equivalents or 531.84 ± 226.42 µg retinol activity equivalents. There were no significant differences in vitamin A intakes among age groups. The retinol intake of subjects was 175.92 ± 129.87 µg/day. The retinol intake of the subjects in their 50's was significantly lower than those in their 20's and 30's (P < 0.05). Provitamin A carotenoid intakes were 3,828.37 ± 2,196.29 µg/day β-carotene, 472.57 ± 316.68 µg/day α-carotene, and 412.83 ± 306.46 µg/day β-cryptoxanthin. Approximately 17% of the subjects consumed vitamin A less than the Korean Estimated Average Requirements for vitamin A. The plasma retinol concentration was 1.22 ± 0.34 µmol/L. There was no significant difference in plasma retinol concentrations among age groups. However, the concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein of subjects in their 50's were significantly higher than those of in their 20's. Only one subject had a plasma retinol concentration < 0.70 µmol/L indicating marginal vitamin A status. Plasma retinol concentration in 30% of the subjects was 0.70- < 1.05 µmol/L, which is interpreted as the concentration possibly responsive to greater intake of vitamin A. In conclusion, dietary intakes and status of vitamin A were generally adequate in Korean adults examined in this study. PMID:22413040

  11. Estimation of years lived with disability due to noncommunicable diseases and injuries using a population-representative survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji In; Jung, Hae Hyuk

    2017-01-01

    The Global Burden of Disease 2010 and the WHO Global Health Estimates of years lived with disability (YLDs) uses disability-weights obtained from lay health-state descriptions, which cannot fully reflect different disease manifestations, according to severity, treatment, and environment. The aim of this study was to provide population-representative YLDs of noncommunicable diseases and injuries using a prevalence-based approach, with the disability weight measured in subjects with specific diseases or injuries. We included a total of 44969 adults, who completed the EQ-5D questionnaire as participation in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2014. We estimated the prevalence of each of 40 conditions identified from the noncommunicable diseases and injuries in the WHO list. Modified condition-specific disability-weight was determined from the adjusted mean difference of the EQ-5D index between the condition and reference groups. Condition-specific YLDs were calculated as the condition's prevalence multiplied by the condition's disability-weight. All-cause YLDs, estimated as "number of population × (1 - mean score of EQ-5D)" were 2165 thousands in 39044 thousand adults aged ≥20. The combined YLDs for all 40 conditions accounted for 67.6% of all-cause YLDs, and were 1604, 2126, 8749, and 12847 per 100000 young (age 20-59) males, young females, old (age ≥60) males, and old females, respectively. Back pain/osteoarthritis YLDs were exceptionally large (442/40, 864/146, 2037/836, and 4644/3039 per 100000 young males, young females, old males, and old females, respectively). Back pain, osteoarthritis, depression, diabetes, periodontitis, and stroke accounted for 22.3%, 9.1%, 4.6%, 3.3%, 3.2%, and 2.9% of all-cause YLDs, respectively. In conclusion, this estimation of YLDs using prevalence rates and disability-weights measured in a population-representative survey may form the basis for population-level strategies to prevent age

  12. Estimation of years lived with disability due to noncommunicable diseases and injuries using a population-representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji In

    2017-01-01

    The Global Burden of Disease 2010 and the WHO Global Health Estimates of years lived with disability (YLDs) uses disability-weights obtained from lay health-state descriptions, which cannot fully reflect different disease manifestations, according to severity, treatment, and environment. The aim of this study was to provide population-representative YLDs of noncommunicable diseases and injuries using a prevalence-based approach, with the disability weight measured in subjects with specific diseases or injuries. We included a total of 44969 adults, who completed the EQ-5D questionnaire as participation in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2014. We estimated the prevalence of each of 40 conditions identified from the noncommunicable diseases and injuries in the WHO list. Modified condition-specific disability-weight was determined from the adjusted mean difference of the EQ-5D index between the condition and reference groups. Condition-specific YLDs were calculated as the condition’s prevalence multiplied by the condition’s disability-weight. All-cause YLDs, estimated as “number of population × (1 − mean score of EQ-5D)” were 2165 thousands in 39044 thousand adults aged ≥20. The combined YLDs for all 40 conditions accounted for 67.6% of all-cause YLDs, and were 1604, 2126, 8749, and 12847 per 100000 young (age 20−59) males, young females, old (age ≥60) males, and old females, respectively. Back pain/osteoarthritis YLDs were exceptionally large (442/40, 864/146, 2037/836, and 4644/3039 per 100000 young males, young females, old males, and old females, respectively). Back pain, osteoarthritis, depression, diabetes, periodontitis, and stroke accounted for 22.3%, 9.1%, 4.6%, 3.3%, 3.2%, and 2.9% of all-cause YLDs, respectively. In conclusion, this estimation of YLDs using prevalence rates and disability-weights measured in a population-representative survey may form the basis for population-level strategies to prevent age

  13. Prevalence of behavior problems in three-year-old children living near Three Mile Island: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cornely, P; Bromet, E

    1986-07-01

    The Behavior Screening Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to determine whether 2 1/2-3 1/2 yr old children living near the TMI nuclear reactor were more disturbed than children living near another nuclear plant or near a fossil-fuel facility in Pennsylvania when assessed 2 1/2 yr later. The prevalence of behavior problems was 11%. Differences among the sites in overall rates and individual symptoms were small. Perceptions of environmental stress among the TMI sample of mothers were unrelated to BSQ scores, whereas in the comparison sites, where unemployment was rising, economic concerns were meaningfully related to the BSQ.

  14. Time trends in prevalence of activities of daily living (ADL) disability and survival: comparing two populations (aged 78+ years) living in a rural area in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sjölund, Britt-Marie; Wimo, Anders; Qiu, Chengxuan; Engström, Maria; von Strauss, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to study time trends in prevalence of disability in ADL and survival among men and women 78 years and older comparing two cohorts. The study was a time trend study based on two population-based community cohorts, the Nordanstig Project (NP), collected 1995-1998 and the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Nordanstig (SNAC-N), collected 2001-2003. The participants were people aged 78 years and older from the NP cohort (N=303) and from the SNAC-N cohort (N=406). All were clinically examined by physicians and nurses using standardized protocols. Disability was defined as a need for assistance in one or more ADL activities. The prevalence of disability and survival were compared using logistic and Cox models. The prevalence of ADL disability was stable for men, while women became more disabled in ADL during the time period, OR 2.36 (1.12-4.94). There was no significant difference in survival time between the cohorts in either ADL disabled persons or non-disabled persons. There was a tendency for increased survival for non-disabled persons in SNAC-N compared with NP, although not significant; this was particularly true for women. In general, women survived longer than men did regardless of whether they were ADL disabled or not. The time trends for ADL disability found in the study show that ADL disability had increased in women but not in men. More studies are needed to identify risk factors for ADL disability with a view to preventing it in time.

  15. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces for January 1972 through June 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Data from meteorological rocketsonde and satellite radiance measurements were employed to analyze a series of high-altitude synoptic charts. The methods employed for processing the various types of data and the analysis procedure are described. Broad-scale analyses for the Northern Hemisphere 5-, 2-, and 0.4-mb surfaces are presented for each week from September through April and for each month from May through August during the period January 1972 through June 1973. A brief discussion of the height and temperature fields is also given. Circulation and temperature changes associated with a minor stratospheric warming in January and February 1972 and a major stratospheric warming in January and February 1973 are among the discussion items.

  16. Infrared photometry and spectrophotometry of G75.84+0.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipher, J. L.; Soifer, B. T.; Krassner, J.

    1979-01-01

    Photometric mapping of G75.84+0.4 at 12.6 microns is compared with previously published radio maps of the region to deduce the relative dust/gas mass ratio for the dust responsible for the 12.6-micron emission. Spectrophotometry from 2-4 microns and 8-13 microns of the highest-emission-measure region reveals the presence of the fine structure lines of forbidden Ar III at 8.99 microns, forbidden Ne II at 12.78 microns, and forbidden S IV at 10.53 microns. Estimates of the abundance of these ions are made, and the nature of the exciting source is discussed.

  17. A 0.4-THz Second Harmonic Gyrotron with Quasi-Optical Confocal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaotong; Fu, Wenjie; Yan, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Mode density is very relevant for harmonic gyrotron cavity. Theoretical investigations suggest that quasi-optical confocal waveguide performs low mode density and good mode-selective character. By selecting the appropriate mode and optimizing the cavity parameters, the quasi-optical confocal cavity is suitable for high-harmonic terahertz gyrotron without mode competition. In order to verify the theoretical analysis, a 0.4-THz second harmonic gyrotron has been designed and experimented. Driven by a 40-kV, 4.75-A electron beam and 7.51-T magnetic field, the gyrotron prototype could generate 6.44 kW of output power at 395.35 GHz, which corresponds to an electron efficiency of 3.4%. There is no mode competition between the second harmonic and fundamental observed in the experiments.

  18. On the radial width of CMEs between 0.1 and 0.4 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, N. P.; Forsyth, R. J.; Rouillard, A. P.; Owens, M. J.; Davies, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    The launch of the two STEREO spacecraft in 2006 has heralded a new era of opportunities to make remote observations of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). An example CME on the 16th February 2008 with an approximately circular cross section was tracked through successive images obtained by the Heliospheric Imager (HI) instrument onboard the STEREO-A spacecraft. The cylindrical nature of force-free constant alpha flux ropes is used to determine the radial size of the CME. The radial velocity and longitude of propagation are determined. With these parameters known, the radial size is calculated from the images taking projection effects into account. A power law is obtained for the resulting radial width behaviour with heliocentric distance as the CME travels between 0.1 and 0.4 AU. We compare our results to those obtained in published studies based on in-situ spacecraft observations of ICMEs between 0.3 and 1.0 AU.

  19. A 0.4 to 10 GHz airborne electromagnetic environment survey of USA urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of some U.S. metropolitan areas measured terrestrial emissions within the broad frequency spectrum from 0.4 to 10 GHz. A Cessna 402 commercial aircraft was fitted with both nadir-viewing and horizon-viewing antennas and instrumentation, including a spectrum analyzer, a 35 mm continuous film camera, and a magnetic tape recorder. Most of the flights were made at a nominal altitude of 10,000 feet, and Washington, D. C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Chicago were surveyed. The 450 to 470 MHz land-mobile UHF band is especially crowded, and the 400 to 406 MHz space bands are less active. This paper discusses test measurements obtained up to 10 GHz. Sample spectrum analyzer photograhs were selected from a total of 5,750 frames representing 38 hours of data.

  20. 0.4- to 10-GHz airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of United States urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of some U.S. metropolitan areas measured terrestrial emissions within the broad-frequency spectrum from 0.4 to 10 GHz. A Cessna 402 commercial aircraft was fitted with both nadir-viewing and horizon-viewing antennas and instrumentation, including a spectrum analyzer, a 35-mm continuous-film camera, and a magnetic-tape recorder. Most of the flights were made at a nominal altitude of 10,000 ft, and Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Chicago were surveyed. The 450- to 470-MHz land-mobile UHF band is especially crowded, and the 400- to 406-MHz space bands are less active. Test measurements obtained up to 10 GHz are discussed. Sample spectrum-analyzer photographs were selected from a total of 5750 frames representing 38 hours of data.

  1. A model of the 0.4-GHz scatterometer. [used for agriculture soil moisture program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1978-01-01

    The 0.4 GHz aircraft scatterometer system used for the agricultural soil moisture estimation program is analyzed for the antenna pattern, the signal flow in the receiver data channels, and the errors in the signal outputs. The operational principal, system sensitivity, data handling, and resolution cell length requirements are also described. The backscattering characteristics of the agriculture scenes are contained in the form of the functional dependence of the backscattering coefficient on the incidence angle. The substantial gains of the cross-polarization term of the horizontal and vertical antennas have profound effects on the cross-polarized backscattered signals. If these signals are not corrected properly, large errors could result in the estimate of the cross-polarized backscattering coefficient. It is also necessary to correct the variations of the aircraft parameters during data processing to minimize the error in the 0 degree estimation. Recommendations are made to improve the overall performance of the scatterometer system.

  2. 0.4- to 10-GHz airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of United States urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of some U.S. metropolitan areas measured terrestrial emissions within the broad-frequency spectrum from 0.4 to 10 GHz. A Cessna 402 commercial aircraft was fitted with both nadir-viewing and horizon-viewing antennas and instrumentation, including a spectrum analyzer, a 35-mm continuous-film camera, and a magnetic-tape recorder. Most of the flights were made at a nominal altitude of 10,000 ft, and Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Chicago were surveyed. The 450- to 470-MHz land-mobile UHF band is especially crowded, and the 400- to 406-MHz space bands are less active. Test measurements obtained up to 10 GHz are discussed. Sample spectrum-analyzer photographs were selected from a total of 5750 frames representing 38 hours of data.

  3. Complexity Variations in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field between 0.4 and 5.3 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weygand, J. M.; Kivelson, M.; Velli, M.; Gekelman, W. N.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Walker, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated how the character of magnetic fluctuations of solar wind plasma depends on radial distance from the Sun. We use measurements of the magnetic field taken at different distances from the Sun by different spacecraft: Helios between 0.4 and 1 AU, ACE and Wind at about 1 AU, and Ulysses at about 5.3 AU. Data intervals are selected to contain only what appear to be random fluctuations and to exclude solar wind structures such as coronal mass ejections, co-rotating interaction regions, heliospheric current sheets, shocks, etc. With these data we calculate the Jensen-Shannon complexity as a function of permutation entropy. Jensen-Shannon complexity maps indicate if the fluctuations in the magnetic fields are stochastic (low complexity and high entropy), or if they exhibit minimal or maximal complexity and lower entropy. The Jensen-Shannon complexity values determined from the spacecraft measurements evolve from moderate complexity and high entropy at 0.4 AU to lower complexity and higher entropy farther from the Sun. We interpret these data to mean that as the solar wind plasma expands outward, the magnetic field fluctuations evolve from chaotic (i.e., low dimensionality, deterministic fluctuations) to turbulent (i.e., low dimensionality, non-deterministic fluctuations). By separating the magnetic fluctuations into slow solar wind (<450 km/s) and fast solar wind (>550 km/s), we find that the younger solar wind (transported outward rapidly) has higher complexity than the older solar wind (transported outward slowly). These results can be tested by Solar Probe Plus to be launched in 2018.

  4. Towards a postponement of activities of daily living dependence and mobility limitations: Trends in healthy life years in old age in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lagergren, Mårten; Johnell, Kristina; Schön, Pär; Danielsson, Maria

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the development of healthy life expectancy from 65 years (HLE65) in Sweden in the period 1980-2011 using the health indicators activities of daily living (ADL) and mobility limitations within the framework of the postponement, compression and expansion theories. Sources of data for the HLE computations were Swedish national mortality statistics and the nationwide Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions, conducted biennially by Statistics Sweden since 1974. We used the Sullivan method for calculations of HLE and a decomposition into mortality and disability effects was made. Life expectancy at age 65 (LE65) increased by 3.1 years for women and 4.0 years for men from 1980-1985 to 2006-2011. HLE65 calculated according to ADL and mobility limitations increased more rapidly than LE65 for both men and women ( p<0.05). Our results for trends in the Swedish LE65 and HLE65, computed on the basis of ADL and mobility limitations and using the Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions study, are in line with the postponement hypothesis and there is also a tendency for compression. Thus the years with ADL dependence and mobility limitations are postponed to a higher age and the numbers of these years have decreased.

  5. Physical activity and functional fitness in institutionalized vs. independently living elderly: a comparison of 70-80-year-old city-dwellers.

    PubMed

    Król-Zielińska, Magdalena; Kusy, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Jacek; Osiński, Wiesław

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the level of energy expenditure due to physical activity (EEPA) and functional fitness (FF) in 59 women and 82 men aged 70-80 years, divided into three groups: permanent residents in assisted-living facilities (ALFs), participants in adult day care centers (DCCs) and older people living independently, members in community senior centers (CSCs). EEPA and FF were analyzed taking into consideration sex differences. The energy expenditure tended to be lower in DCCs and ALFs subjects than in CSCs members, but significant differences were obtained only in women. Women in different living settings differed only in endurance. In men, the differences were clear in most tests (endurance, strength, agility/dynamic balance) except for flexibility. Institutionalization was connected with a significantly lower level of FF and equalization of sex differences. Education seemed to be an important factor influencing the level of FF in men.

  6. Live Healthy, Live Longer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  7. Elective single embryo transfer in women less than age 38 years reduces multiple birth rates, but not live birth rates, in United States fertility clinics.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Abigail C; Boulet, Sheree L; Duran, Eyup; Munch, Erika; Kissin, Dmitry M; Van Voorhis, Bradley J

    2016-10-01

    To determine the effect of elective single ET (eSET) on live birth and multiple birth rates by a cycle-level and clinic-level analysis. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. Patient ages <35 and 35-37 years old. None. Clinics were divided into groups based on eSET rate for each age group and aggregate rates of live birth per ET and multiple birth per delivery were calculated. A cycle-level analysis comparing eSET and double ET (DET) live birth and multiple birth rates was also performed, stratified based on total number (2, 3, or 4+) of embryos available, embryo stage, and patient age. There was a linear decrease in multiple birth rate with increasing eSET rate and no significant difference in clinic-level live birth rates for each age group. Cycle-level analysis found slightly higher live birth rates with double ET, but this was mainly observed in women aged 35-37 years or with four or more embryos available for transfer, and confirmed the marked reduction in multiple births with eSET. Our study showed a marked and linear reduction in multiple birth rates, and important, little to no effect on clinic-level live birth rates with increasing rates of eSET supporting the growing evidence that eSET is effective in decreasing the high multiple birth rates associated with IVF and suggests that eSET should be used more frequently than is currently practiced. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Outcome of Hepatitis B Virus Infection After Living-Donor Liver Transplant: A Single-center Experience Over 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Nafady-Hego, Hanaa; Elgendy, Hamed; Nafady, Asmaa; Uemoto, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    Despite living-donor liver transplant being a life-saving therapy for patients with hepatitis B virus with or without hepatocellular carcinoma, outcomes for patients with these diseases are worse. Hepatitis B virus recurrence or relapse of hepatocellular carcinoma can result in subsequent graft loss or patient death. In this study, we discuss the postoperative outcomes of patients with hepatitis B virus infection after living-donor liver transplant. We retrospectively analyzed 125 patients with hepatitis B virus-related end-stage liver disease, comparing results with 1228 control patients who had other pathologies, including hepatitis C virus, combined hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, and neither virus. Survival rates of patients with hepatitis B virus did not differ from the control groups (P > .05). Patients with concurrent hepatitis B virus and hepatocellular carcinoma were significantly older (P < .0001), had critical status (P < .0001), had chronic underlying pathology (P = .001), lower graft-to-recipient body weight ratio (P = .047), needed more intraoperative plasma transfusion, and experienced more rejection episodes than those without hepatocellular carcinoma. Of interest, in 5 patients who had hepatitis B virus recurrence after living-donor liver transplant, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was significantly higher than those who did not have recurrence (P = .015). In addition, 2 patients had hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence in the form of peritoneal metastasis, with both patients having high preoperative alpha-fetoprotein levels. Our study provides details on long-term outcomes of patients with hepatitis B virus infection who had undergone living-donor liver transplant. Based on our results, we suggest that prolonged antiviral prophylactic therapy in the form of hepatitis B immunoglobulin with either lamivudine or entecavir be considered for patients who associated with risk factors to prevent postoperative recurrence.

  9. [Long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (H2-strain)-a study on the result of 15 years' follow up].

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Fang-cheng; Mao, Zi-an; Jiang, Li-min; Wu, Jie; Chen, Yue-qing; Jiang, Qi; Chen, Nian-liang; Chai, Shao-ai; Mao, Jiang-sen

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness of live attenuated hepatitis A (HA) vaccine (H2 strain) after one dose injection, through a 15 years' follow up observation. A total of 220 children with negative anti-HAV antibody (aged 1-3 y) were involved and followed up in Jiaojiang district, Taizhou city, Zhejiang province. Indicators would include seroconversion and geometric mean titer (GMT) levels after inoculation the vaccine with single dose at 2 m, 12 m, 6 years, 10 years and 15 years. Epidemiological observation was carried out within the 15 years to evaluate the relationship between vaccine coverage, the incidence of HA and the overall effectiveness. In the studied population, serum was tested by ELISA (calibrated by WHO international reference) and ABBOTT Axsym HAVAB mEIA. Seroconversion rates were found to be 98.6% and 81.3% after 2 months and 15 years of inoculation and slowly decreased. GMT level was 128 mIU/ml after 15 years, significantly higher than the required protective level of 20 mIU/ml, recommended by WHO experts. Effectiveness through the 15-year follow up program showed a significant correlation between vaccine coverage and incidence of HA in 1-15 years aged group (Kendall-Rank test, τ =-0.931, P<0.01). There was no HA case seen among the observed accumulated 236 413 person-year vaccines, compared to 4 HA cases discovered in the 27 206 person-year of the non-vaccinees. The overall protective rate reached 100%. Through a mass vaccination program on children, the whole population established an immune-defence to enable the incidence of HA decreased by 96.7%. The long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (H2 strain) after one dose injection could last as long as 15 years.

  10. EUV resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) for k1 0.4 and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Stephen; Howell, Rafael; Jia, Jianjun; Liu, Hua-Yu; Gronlund, Keith; Hansen, Steve; Zimmermann, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    Due to the exponential growth of mobile wireless devices, low-power logic chips continue to drive device scaling. To enable sub-10 nm device scaling at an affordable cost, there is a strong need for single exposure advanced lithography. Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is one of the most promising candidates to support the design rules for sub-10 nm. The aggressive mobile device design rules continue to push the critical dimension (CD) and pitch and put very stringent demands on the lithography performance such as pattern placement control, image contrast, critical dimension uniformity (CDU), and line width roughness (LWR). In this paper we report the latest advances in resolution enhancement techniques to address low k1 challenges in EUV lithography, specifically: minimizing the pattern placement error, enhancing the through-focus contrast, and reducing the impact of stochastic effects. We have developed an innovative source-mask optimization (SMO) method to significantly reduce edge placement errors (EPE) [1] [2]. Aggressive design rules using the state-of-the-art NA of 0.33 of the NXE:3300B and its successor tools can have imaging below k1 = 0.4, which can extend the current process capabilities for single exposure high volume manufacturing (HVM). Burkhardt et al. reported in a previous study that inserting a sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF) within semi-isolated features introduces strong Bossung tilts and best focus shifts, and a general solution for random pitches is not apparent [3]. Kang observed the same issues and proposed to introduce spherical aberrations to correct these effects while having a global impact on the full-chip [4]. In this work we introduce a new methodology to apply SRAFs to improve contrast, reduce best focus shift, and improve process window. Finally, the lower number of photons of EUV and the small feature size brings serious issue of the stochastic effect that causes the line-edge-roughness (LER) and local CD uniformity

  11. Predictors for dioxin accumulation in residents living in Da Nang and Bien Hoa, Vietnam, many years after Agent Orange use.

    PubMed

    Pham, Diem T; Nguyen, Hang M; Boivin, Thomas G; Zajacova, Anna; Huzurbazar, Snehalata V; Bergman, Harold L

    2015-01-01

    Agent Orange (AO) was the main defoliant used by the US in Vietnam from 1961 to 1971; AO was contaminated with dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD). Three major dioxin “hot spots” remain from previous AO storage and use at former US bases at Bien Hoa, Da Nang, and Phu Cat, posing potential health risks for Vietnamese living on or near these hot spots. We evaluated potential risk factors contributing to serum TCDD levels in Vietnamese residents at and near contaminated sites in Da Nang and Bien Hoa, Vietnam. We used multiple linear regression to analyze possible associations of blood dioxin concentrations with demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and dietary risk factors for residents living on or near these hot spots. For the Da Nang study, fish farming on the site, living on property flooded from monsoon rains, and age were among the factors showing significant positive associations with serum TCDD concentrations. For the Bien Hoa study, fish farmers working at this site and their immediate family members had significantly higher serum TCDD concentrations. Our results suggest that water-related activities, especially fish-farming, at the hot spots increased the risk of exposure to dioxin.

  12. On the Fermi-GBM Event 0.4 s after GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, J.; Burgess, J. M.; Savchenko, V.; Yu, H.-F.

    2016-08-01

    In view of the recent report by Connaughton et al., we analyze continuous time-tagged event (TTE) data of Fermi-gamma-ray burst monitor (GBM) around the time of the gravitational-wave event GW 150914. We find that after proper accounting for low-count statistics, the GBM transient event at 0.4 s after GW 150914 is likely not due to an astrophysical source, but consistent with a background fluctuation, removing the tension between the INTEGRAL/ACS non-detection and GBM. Additionally, reanalysis of other short GRBs shows that without proper statistical modeling the fluence of faint events is over-predicted, as verified for some joint GBM-ACS detections of short GRBs. We detail the statistical procedure to correct these biases. As a result, faint short GRBs, verified by ACS detections, with significances in the broadband light curve even smaller than that of the GBM-GW150914 event are recovered as proper non-zero source, while the GBM-GW150914 event is consistent with zero fluence.

  13. SunPy - Python for Solar Physics, Version 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Perez-Suarez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russel

    2014-06-01

    We presents version 0.4 of SunPy, a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation NumPy, SciPy and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualisation and plotting (matplotlib).SunPy is a data-analysis environment specialising in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric datasets in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  14. 0.4% dimeticone spray, a novel physically acting household treatment for control of cat fleas.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian M; Brunton, Elizabeth R; Burgess, Ian F

    2014-01-17

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is the most important ectoparasite of cats and dogs worldwide as a cause of irritation and health problems. Most products to control these pests in the household environment rely upon a combination of neurotoxic insecticides and insect growth regulators to inhibit development of flea eggs and larvae into adults. However, some of these are affected by problems of insecticide resistance as well as public concerns about their potential for toxicity in domestic use. Heavy synthetic oils, like the siloxane dimeticone, are currently widely used to treat human ectoparasite infestations, acting by a physical mode of action, and have been used in a variety of presentations for killing all life stages of fleas. We have investigated the activity of low concentrations of high molecular weight dimeticone in a volatile silicone base for ability to immobilise flea life stages without asphyxiating them. We found that cat flea adults and larvae were immobilised by a surface film of dimeticone that inhibited movement of cuticular joints, apparently forming an effective sticky trap. When cocoons were treated the fleas continued to develop within the pupae but failed to emerge. An aerosol spray incorporating 0.4% concentration of dimeticone, for use as a residual household treatment, showed no significant difference in knock down capability compared with that of a widely used pyriproxifen/permethrin spray in a repeat challenge test, with effects persisting to inhibit adult flea emergence in the test arena area for more than 3 weeks after application.

  15. K2P2: Reduced data from campaigns 0-4 of the K2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handberg, R.; Lund, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Context. After the loss of a second reaction wheel the Kepler mission was redesigned as the K2 mission, pointing towards the ecliptic and delivering data for new fields approximately every 80 days. The steady flow of data obtained with a reduced pointing stability calls for dedicated pipelines for extracting light curves and correcting these for use in, e.g., asteroseismic analysis. Aims: We provide corrected light curves for the K2 fields observed until now (campaigns 0-4), and provide a comparison with other pipelines for K2 data extraction/correction. Methods: Raw light curves are extracted from K2 pixel data using the "K2-pixel-photometry" (K2P2) pipeline, and corrected using the KASOC filter. Results: The use of K2P2 allows for the extraction of the order of 90 000 targets in addition to 70 000 targets proposed by the community - for these, other pipelines provide no data. We find that K2P2 in general performs as well as, or better than, other pipelines for the tested metrics of photometric quality. In addition to stars, pixel masks are properly defined using K2P2 for extended objects such as galaxies for which light curves are also extracted.

  16. THE SLOAN BRIGHT ARCS SURVEY: SIX STRONGLY LENSED GALAXIES AT z = 0.4-1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Diehl, H. Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Lin, Huan; Tucker, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    We present new results of our program to systematically search for strongly lensed galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. In this study six strong lens systems are presented which we have confirmed with follow-up spectroscopy and imaging using the 3.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Preliminary mass models indicate that the lenses are group-scale systems with velocity dispersions ranging from 464 to 882 km s{sup -1} at z = 0.17 - 0.45 which are strongly lensing source galaxies at z = 0.4 - 1.4. Galaxy groups are a relatively new mass scale just beginning to be probed with strong lensing. Our sample of lenses roughly doubles the confirmed number of group-scale lenses in the SDSS and complements ongoing strong lens searches in other imaging surveys. As our arcs were discovered in the SDSS imaging data they are all bright (r {approx}< 22), making them ideally suited for detailed follow-up studies.

  17. The Sloan Bright Arcs Survey : Six Strongly Lensed Galaxies at z=0.4-1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Diehl, H.Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Lin, Huan; Tucker, Douglas; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    We present new results of our program to systematically search for strongly lensed galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. In this study six strong lens systems are presented which we have confirmed with followup spectroscopy and imaging using the 3.5m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Preliminary mass models indicate that the lenses are group-scale systems with velocity dispersions ranging from 466?878 km s{sup -1} at z = 0.17-0.45 which are strongly lensing source galaxies at z = 0.4-1.4. Galaxy groups are a relatively new mass scale just beginning to be probed with strong lensing. Our sample of lenses roughly doubles the confirmed number of group-scale lenses in the SDSS and complements ongoing strong lens searches in other imaging surveys such as the CFHTLS (Cabanac et al. 2007). As our arcs were discovered in the SDSS imaging data they are all bright (r {approx_equal} 22), making them ideally suited for detailed follow-up studies.

  18. 4. pi. physics. [/sup 40/Ar + KCl, 0. 4 to 1. 8 GeV/A

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, A.

    1980-03-01

    Exclusive ..pi../sup -/ and charged-particle production in collisions of /sup 40/Ar on KCl are studied at incident energies from 0.4 to 1.8 GeV/A. The correlation between the ..pi../sup -/ and the total charged particle multiplicity confines the reaction along a narrow ridge with no exotic islands of pion production. For high multiplicities the system reaches the total disintegration of target and projectile into singly charged fragments and pions. Every 200 MeV/A datum was taken with a central and inelastic trigger. For central collisions the mean ..pi../sup -/ multiplicity increases linearly with the bombarding energy with no marked discontinuities due to the ..delta..(3,3) resonance. At 1.8 GeV/A evidence for nonthermal ..pi../sup -/ production in central collisions is found. The total c.m. energy in ..pi../sup -/ shows linear dependence on the ..pi../sup -/ multiplicity with a slope of epsilon = 300 MeV/..pi../sup -/. Strange particle production in the central collision of 1.8 GeV/A Ar on KCl is seen. 8 figures.

  19. Efficacy of ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) against stem borers and leaffolder insect-pests of basmati rice.

    PubMed

    Sarao, P S; Kaur, H

    2014-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three kharif seasons from 2009 to 2011 at Sudhar village, Ludhiana and Rice Research Area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Four doses of Ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) a new chemistry @ 20, 30, 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check Cartap hydrochloride 4 G @ 1000 g a.i. ha(-1) was tested against stem borers and leaffolder infesting basmati rice. Over the years, dead heart in all the Ferterra doses and standard check (1.01-1.80%) were at par70 DAT, whereas, at 80 DAT doses @ 40, 50 and standard check were at par (1.04-1.13%) but significantly better than lower doses and untreated control. Similarly, over the years, Ferterra doses @ 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) was significantly better than control in reducing white ear incidence, whereas, at 30 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check intermediately reduced the white ears incidence. Leaffolder infestation at all the Ferterra doses were at par with standard check 70 DAT (2.69-3.87%), whereas, 80 DAT, Ferterra doses @ 30, 40, 50 and standard check were at par (2.95-3.49%) but significantly better than lower dose and untreated control. Over the years the cost : benefit ratio was maximum (1 : 23.67) in the Ferterra @40 g a.i. ha(-1) dose followed by 50 g a.i. ha(-1) dose.

  20. The process of striving for an ordinary, everyday life, in young children living with cancer, at six months and one year post diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Laura; Björk, Maria; Enskär, Karin; Knutsson, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    Health care focus is shifting from solely looking at surviving cancer to elements of attention relating to living with it on a daily basis.The young child's experiences are crucial to providing evidence based care. The aim of this study was to explore the everyday life of young children as expressed by the child and parents at six months and one year post diagnosis. Interviews were conducted with children and their parents connected to a paediatric oncology unit in Southern Sweden. A qualitative content analysis of interview data from two time points, six months and one year post diagnosis, was carried out. The process of living with cancer at six months and at one year post diagnosis revealed the child's striving for an ordinary, everyday life. Experiences over time of gaining control, making a normality of the illness and treatment and feeling lonely were described. Nurses have a major role to play in the process of striving for a new normal in the world post-diagnosis, and provide essential roles by giving the young child information, making them participatory in their care and encouraging access to both parents and peers. Understanding this role and addressing these issues regularly can assist the young child in the transition to living with cancer. Longitudinal studies with young children are vital in capturing their experiences through the cancer trajectory and necessary to ensure quality care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of breast cancer on living an everyday life 4.5-5 years post-diagnosis - a qualitative prospective study of 39 women.

    PubMed

    Salander, Pär; Lilliehorn, Sara; Hamberg, Katarina; Kero, Anneli

    2011-04-01

    The survival of women with breast cancer has improved. There are many studies available describing different aspects of how the illness and its treatment affect the women. Usually these studies are cross-sectional and focus on assessments of a sample of women at a single point in time during post-treatment. These studies are important but of limited value if we are interested in understanding more about breast cancer in a life context. The present study is a contribution. A consecutive sample of 39 women was followed up by means of repeated thematic interviews about how they lived their lives, from the end of radiation therapy to a point four years later, i.e. 4.5-5 years post diagnosis. Four different groups of women emerged. Largely, the first group evaluated the cancer initiated transformation of their lives in a positive way. The breast cancer helped them depart from a career treadmill or to positive interpersonal experiences. In the second group the cancer and its treatment seemed to pass without marked traces. The cancer made a difference for the third group, but both in positive and negative ways. A different life perspective or improved relationships were weighted against troublesome side effects from treatment. Finally, in the fourth group a bodily decline due to side effects and other health problems was predominant and this obstructed their chances of living a good life. The narratives showed that being diseased by breast cancer has different impacts depending on how the woman lives her life - it is very much a matter of transition in a life context. The results are furthermore discussed in relation to adaptation and coping theory.

  2. The abilities of improved schizophrenia patients to work and live independently in the community: a 10-year long-term outcome study from Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Amresh Kumar; Stitt, Larry; Thakar, Meghana; Shah, Nilesh; Chinnasamy, Gurusamy

    2009-01-01

    Background The outcome of first episode schizophrenia has several determinants. Socioecological factors, particularly living conditions, migration, community and culture, not only affect the level of risk but also the outcome. Mega cities around the world show a unique socioecological condition that has several challenges for mental health. The present study reports on the long-term status of patients with schizophrenia in such a mega city: Mumbai, India. Aim This study aims to reveal the long-term outcome of patients suffering from schizophrenia with special reference to clinical symptoms and social functioning. Methods The cohort for this study was drawn from a 10-year follow-up of first episode schizophrenia. Patients having completed 10 years of consistent treatment after first hospitalisation were assessed on psychopathological and recovery criteria. Clinical as well as social parameters of recovery were evaluated. Descriptive statistics with 95% confidence intervals are provided. Results Of 200 patients recruited at the beginning of this study, 122 patients (61%) were present in the city of Mumbai at the end of 10-year follow-up study period. Among 122 available patients, 101 patients (50.5%) were included in the assessment at the end of 10-year follow-up study period, 6 patients (3.0%) were excluded from the study due to changed diagnosis, and 15 patients (7.5%) were excluded due to admission into long-term care facilities. This indicates that 107 out of 122 available patients (87.7%) were living in the community with their families. Out of 101 (50.5%) patients assessed at the end of 10 years, 61 patients (30.5%) showed improved recovery on the Clinical Global Impression Scale, 40 patients (20%) revealed no improvement in the recovery, 43 patients (72.9%) were able to live independently, and 24 patients (40%) were able to find employment. Conclusion With 10 years of treatment, the recovery rate among schizophrenia patients in Mumbai was 30.5%. Among the

  3. Analysis of the 50-year records of the atmospheric deposition of long-lived radionuclides in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Igarashi, Y; Aoyama, M

    2008-11-01

    Long-lived anthropogenic radionuclides ((137)Cs, (90)Sr, and Pu isotopes) have been determined in monthly atmospheric deposition samples collected in Japan since 1956. The maximum annual deposition occurred in 1963 after the large-scale atmospheric nuclear weapons testing of 1961-1962. In the 1980s, the fallout from the Chinese nuclear weapons tests was observed and the released radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident affected radioactive deposition in Japan until the early 1990s. Recently, the deposition rates have been boosted by the resuspension of radionuclides in deposited particles, the (239,240)Pu content of which may originate from dusts from the East Asian continent deserts and arid areas.

  4. Discovery of nine extended ionized gas clouds in a z = 0.4 cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Masafumi; Koyama, Yusei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Gu, Liyi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Hattori, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2015-02-01

    From deep Hα imaging data of Suprime-Cam/Subaru, we discovered nine extended ionized gas clouds (EIG) around galaxies in the Abell 851 cluster (A851) at z = 0.4. We surveyed a 30 × 25 arcmin region, and the EIGs were found only near the cluster center (<2.3 arcmin ∼ 750 kpc). The parent galaxies of the EIGs are star-forming or post-starburst galaxies, all of which are spectroscopically confirmed members of the cluster. Four out of the nine parent galaxies show distortion of stellar distribution in the disk, which can be a sign of recent interaction, and the interaction may have made the EIGs. On the other hand, six parent galaxies (one overlaps those exhibiting distortion) show Hα emission without stars, which implies ram pressure stripping. The spectrum of the brightest parent galaxy shows a post-starburst signature and resembles the Hα stripped galaxies found in the Coma cluster. Meanwhile, two brightest parent galaxies in A851 are more massive than the EIG parent galaxies in the Coma cluster. This is consistent with a “downsizing” of star-forming galaxies, though it is still within the statistical variance. We also analyzed Suprime-Cam data of another z=0.39 cluster, CL0024+17, but found no EIGs. The key difference between A851 and CL0024+17 would be the existence of a subcluster colliding with the main body of A851, in which six or seven out of the nine parent galaxies in A851 exist, and the fraction of EIGs in the subcluster is significantly higher than the main subcluster of A851 and CL0024+17.

  5. Velocity segregation effects in galaxy clusters at 0.4 ≲ z ≲ 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsanti, S.; Girardi, M.; Biviano, A.; Borgani, S.; Annunziatella, M.; Nonino, M.

    2016-11-01

    Aims: Our study is meant to extend our knowledge of the galaxy color and luminosity segregation in velocity space (VCS and VLS, respectively), to clusters at intermediate and high redshift. Methods: Our sample is a collection of 41 clusters in the 0.4 ≲ z ≲ 1.5 redshift range for a total of 4172 galaxies, 1674 of which are member galaxies of the clusters within 2R200 with photometric or spectroscopic information, as taken from the literature. We perform homogeneous procedures to select cluster members, compute global cluster properties, in particular the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity dispersion σV, and separate blue from red galaxies. Results: We find evidence of VCS in clusters out to z ≃ 0.8 (at the 97-99.99% confidence level, depending on the test), in the sense that the blue galaxy population has a 10-20% larger σV than the red galaxy population. Poor or no VCS is found in the high-z sample at z ≥ 0.8. For the first time, we detect VLS in non-local clusters and confirm that VLS only affects the very luminous galaxies; brighter galaxies have lower velocities. The threshold magnitude of VLS is m3 + 0.5, where m3 is the magnitude of the third brightest cluster galaxy. Current data suggest that the threshold value moves to fainter magnitudes at higher redshift. We also detect (marginal) evidence of VLS for blue galaxies. Conclusions: We conclude that segregation effects can be important tracers of the galaxy evolution and cluster assembly when they are studied up to distant clusters. We also discuss the evidence of VCS at high redshift, which is poor or absent.

  6. Discovery of Nine Extended Ionized Gas Clouds in a z = 0.4 Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Gu, Liyi; Koyama, Yusei; Nakata, Fumiaki; Kodama, Tadayuki; Hattori, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2015-02-01

    From deep Hα imaging data of Suprime-Cam/Subaru, we discovered nine extended ionized gas clouds (EIG) around galaxies in the Abell 851 cluster (A851) at z = 0.4. We surveyed a 30 × 25 arcmin region, and the EIGs were found only near the cluster center (\\lt 2.3 arcmin ˜ 750 kpc). The parent galaxies of the EIGs are star-forming or post-starburst galaxies, all of which are spectroscopically confirmed members of the cluster. Four out of the nine parent galaxies show distortion of stellar distribution in the disk, which can be a sign of recent interaction, and the interaction may have made the EIGs. On the other hand, six parent galaxies (one overlaps those exhibiting distortion) show Hα emission without stars, which implies ram pressure stripping. The spectrum of the brightest parent galaxy shows a post-starburst signature and resembles the Hα stripped galaxies found in the Coma cluster. Meanwhile, two brightest parent galaxies in A851 are more massive than the EIG parent galaxies in the Coma cluster. This is consistent with a “downsizing” of star-forming galaxies, though it is still within the statistical variance. We also analyzed Suprime-Cam data of another z=0.39 cluster, CL0024+17, but found no EIGs. The key difference between A851 and CL0024+17 would be the existence of a subcluster colliding with the main body of A851, in which six or seven out of the nine parent galaxies in A851 exist, and the fraction of EIGs in the subcluster is significantly higher than the main subcluster of A851 and CL0024+17.

  7. Large Scale Structure in Absorption up to z~0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejos, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    We propose to observe and characterize IGM absorption systems associated with Large Scale Structure {LSS} in a statistical manner up to redshift 0.4. For this purpose, we have used a recently published cluster catalog {GMBCG; Hao et al., 2010} to identify massive nodes in the 'cosmic web'. Then, we used cluster pairs with small separations {<20 Mpc} at similar redshifts to identify zones where filaments should reside with high probabilities. Combining the GMBCG cluster catalog with the SDSS DR7 QSO catalog, we selected a single QSO whose sightline passes through a total of 6 predicted filaments {3 of which are independent} and 3 clusters with spectroscopic redshifts at impact parameters <1.5 Mpc. This will considerably increase the sample of known LSS {especially filaments} at low redshift. We propose to observe the QSO with HST/COS using the G130M and G160M gratings to cover the full FUV spectral range at high resolution {R 20000}. We require observations at S/N 10 to ensure a full characterization of HI and OVI lines at small column densities {N 10^13 cm^-2}. These low column densities will allow us to detect broad and shallow HI lines with OVI, believed to be associated with portions of the warm-hot intergalactic medium {WHIM}. Our results will also be suitable for testing an alternative hypothesis which states that the majority of OVI absorbers at low-z are confined within <300 kpc from galaxies and are not directly related to the WHIM {Prochaska et al., 2011; Tumlinson et al., 2011}. Our findings will test our understanding of galaxy formation and the importance of AGN/supernova feedbacks by comparing them with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations.

  8. Role of 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment after haemorrhoidectomy: results of a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Franceschilli, Luana; D'Ugo, Stefano; de Luca, Elisabetta; Cadeddu, Federica; Milito, Giovanni; di Lorenzo, Nicola; Gaspari, Achille L; Sileri, Pierpaolo

    2013-03-01

    Conventional haemorrhoidectomy (CH) is well known to cause significant post-operative pain and delayed return to daily activities. Both surgical wounds and sphincterial apparatus spasms are likely responsible for the pain. In this study, we evaluated the role of glyceryl trinitrate ointment (GTN) in reducing post-operative pain, ameliorating wound healing and recovery after CH. Between 01/08 and 12/11, 203 patients with symptomatic haemorrhoids were enrolled in the study and received (103 patients) or not (100 patients) 0.4 % GTN ointment for 6 weeks after surgery. Pain was assessed using a 10-cm linear visual analogue scale (VAS). Data on post-operative pain, wound secretion and bleeding, return to normal activities and complications were recorded. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney tests. GTN-treated group experienced significantly less pain during the first week after surgery (p < 0.0001). This difference was more evident starting from post-operative day 4 (p < 0.0001). A significant higher percentage of untreated patients experienced severe pain (mean VAS score > 7) (10 % vs 31 %). There were significant differences in terms of secretion time (p = 0.0052) and bleeding time (p = 0.02) in favor of GTN. In addition, the duration of itching was less in the GTN group (p = 0.0145). Patients treated with GTN were able to an early return to daily activities compared to untreated (p < 0.0001). Fifteen GTN-treated patients (14.6 %) discontinued the application because of local discomfort and headache. GTN ointment enhances significantly post-operative recovery, reducing pain in terms of duration and intensity. This effect might be secondary to a faster wound healing expressed by reduced secretion, bleeding and itching time.

  9. Family Connectedness Moderates the Association between Living Alone and Suicide Ideation in a Clinical Sample of Adults 50 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Bonnie; Heisel, Marnin J.; Speice, Jenny; Franus, Nathan; Conwell, Yeates; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether living alone is significantly associated with expression of suicide ideation among mood-disordered mental health patients and whether degree of family connectedness moderates the association between living alone and expression of suicide ideation. Design Cross-sectional survey design. Setting Inpatient and outpatient mental health services in Rochester, New York. Participants 130 mood disordered inpatients and outpatients 50 years or older. Measurements Patients completed a demographics form, an interviewer-rated measure of current suicide ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), and a self-report measure of family connectedness derived from the Reasons for Living Scale – Older Adult version (RFL-OA). Results Patients who reported greater family connectedness were significantly less likely to report suicide ideation; this protective effect was strongest for those living with others (Wald’s χ2(df=1)=3.987, p=.046, O.R.=.905; 95% C.I.=.821–.998). A significant main effect of family connectedness on suicide ideation suggested that having a stronger connection to family members decreased the likelihood of reporting suicide ideation (Wald’s χ2(df=1)=9.730, p=.002, O.R.=.852; 95% C.I.=.771–.942). Conclusions These results suggest potential value in assessing the quality of interpersonal relationships when conducting a suicide risk assessment among depressed middle-aged and older adults. PMID:22048322

  10. The Perceived Effects of a Four-Year-Old Kindergarten Program on Children Living in a Native American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouimette, Larry William

    2009-01-01

    This case study examined the extent to which a voluntary public-school 4-year-old kindergarten program in a Native American Community integrates the cultural context of the community, influences student social and academic growth, and prepares students for kindergarten. This qualitative study interviewed 4-year-old kindergarten teachers,…

  11. Spectral Modeling of the 0.4-2.5 μm Phobos CRISM dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Roush, Ted; Dalle Ore, Cristina; Marzo, Giuseppe A.; Simioni, Emanuele

    2017-04-01

    We present the spectral modeling of the 0.4-2.5 μm MRO/CRISM Phobos dataset. After applying a statistical clustering technique, based on a K-means partitioning algorithm, we identified eight separate clusters in the Phobos CRISM data, extending the surface coverage beyond the previous analyses of Fraeman et al. (2012, 2014). Each resulting cluster is characterized by an average and its associated variability. We modeled these different spectra using a radiative transfer code based on the approach of Shkuratov et al. (1999). We used the optical constants of the model proposed by Pajola et al. (2013) in our effort, i.e. the Tagish Lake meteorite (TL) and the Mg-rich pyroxene glass (PM80). The Shkuratov model is used in an algorithm that iteratively, and simultaneously changes the relative abundance and grain sizes of the selected components to minimize the differences between the model and observations using a chi-squared criterion. The best-fitting models were achieved with a simple intimate mixture showing that the relative percentages of TL and PM80 vary between 80-20% and 95-5%, respectively, and grain sizes for TL are 12-14 μm and 20-22 μm for PM80. This work aims to return a detailed picture of the surface properties of Phobos identifying specific areas that may be of interest for future planetary exploration, as the proposed Japanese Mars Moon eXploration (MMX) sample return mission. Acknowledgements: We make use of the public NASA-Planetary Data System MRO-CRISM spectral data of Phobos. M.P. was supported for this research by an appointment to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Post-doctoral Program at the Ames Research Center administered by Universities Space Research Association (USRA) through a contract with NASA. References: Fraeman et al. 2012, J. Geophy. Res, E00J15, 10.1029/2012JE004137; Fraeman et al., 2014, Icarus, 229, 196-205, 10.1016/icarus.2013.11.021; Shkuratov, Y. et al. (1999), Icarus, 137, 235. Pajola et al., 2013

  12. Living in danger: previous violence, socioeconomic position, and mortality risk among women over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Trygged, Sven; Hedlund, Ebba; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women has many negative consequences. In this short report the authors investigate patterns of mortality among women experiencing violence leading to inpatient care from 1992 to 2006. Do women who are victims of severe violence have an increased mortality risk (a) in general? (b) by violence? (c) by suicide? Does socioeconomic position have any bearing on the mortality risk? The study was based on Swedish national registers, where 6,085 women exposed to violence resulting in inpatient care were compared with a nonexposed population sample of 55,016 women. Women of all social strata previously exposed to severe violence and treated in hospital had a highly increased risk of premature death from all-cause mortality, violence, or suicide. Women previously exposed to severe violence continue to live a life in danger. There is need for a societal response to support and protect these women against further violence after discharge from hospital.

  13. LIPID PROFILE OF POLISH PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS AGED 35-55 YEARS LIVING IN THE DISTRICT OF PLESZEW.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Karolina; Matyjaszczyk, Piotr; Zaporowska-STACHOWIAK, Iwona; Kostrzewska, Magdalena; Piorunek, Tomasz; Minczykowskp, Andrzej; Bryl, Wieslaw

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, more than half of the adult population suffers from lipid disorders. Among the 18 million Polish people with hypercholesterolemia, over 10.8 million are unaware of this problem. To estimate the lipid profile of selected primary care patients in the district of Pleszew (Western Poland), general practitioners (GPs) recruited 681 patients aged 35-55 years in 2011. Fasting serum lipids were evaluated. We found statistically significant differences in all lipid parameters between all younger (35-45 years) and older (46-55 years) patients, between all female and male subjects, between women and men ages 35-45 years; in total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) between younger and older female population; in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG between women and men ages 46-55 years. Dyslipidemia, both, newly detected and previously treated, was detected in 591 patients (86.8%): 322 females (84.3%) and 269 males (90.0%). The highest percentage of lipid disorders was found in males aged 46-55 years (91.9%) and the lowest among women aged 35-45 years (78.0%). Age and gender differences in the prevalence of dyslipidemia proved of statistical importance. Among 155 patients on lipid-lowering therapy, only 28 subjects (18.1%) reached the target value of serum lipids. The prevalence of lipid disorders among primary care patients aged 35-55 years in the district of Pleszew was significantly high, and it was proved that dyslipidemia is statistically prominent in males and older patients. Polish healthcare professionals should make more efforts to improve the detection and treatment of lipid disorders.

  14. Live Poultry Trade in Southern China Provinces and HPAIV H5N1 Infection in Humans and Poultry: The Role of Chinese New Year Festivities

    PubMed Central

    Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Jia, Beibei; Guo, Fusheng; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Martin, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Background The number of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype (HPAIV H5N1) over the past 5 years has been drastically reduced in China but sporadic infections in poultry and humans are still occurring. In this study, we aimed to investigate seasonal patterns in the association between the movement of live poultry originating from southern China and HPAIV H5N1 infection history in humans and poultry in China. Methodology/Principal Findings During January to April 2010, longitudinal questionnaire surveys were carried out monthly in four wholesale live bird markets (LBMs) in Hunan and Guangxi provinces of South China. Using social network analysis, we found an increase in the number of observed links and degree centrality between LBMs and poultry sources in February and March compared to the months of January and April. The association of some live poultry traders (LPT’s) with a limited set of counties (within the catchment area of LBMs) in the months of February and March may support HPAIV H5N1 transmission and contribute to perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 virus circulation among certain groups of counties. The connectivity among counties experiencing human infection was significantly higher compared to counties without human infection for the months of January, March and April. Conversely, counties with poultry infections were found to be significantly less connected than counties without poultry infection for the month of February. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that temporal variation in live poultry trade in Southern China around the Chinese New Year festivities is associated with higher HPAIV H5N1 infection risk in humans and poultry. This study has shown that capturing the dynamic nature of poultry trade networks in Southern China improves our ability to explain the spatiotemporal dissemination in avian influenza viruses in China. PMID:23166751

  15. Live poultry trade in Southern China provinces and HPAIV H5N1 infection in humans and poultry: the role of Chinese New Year festivities.

    PubMed

    Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Jia, Beibei; Guo, Fusheng; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Martin, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The number of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype (HPAIV H5N1) over the past 5 years has been drastically reduced in China but sporadic infections in poultry and humans are still occurring. In this study, we aimed to investigate seasonal patterns in the association between the movement of live poultry originating from southern China and HPAIV H5N1 infection history in humans and poultry in China. During January to April 2010, longitudinal questionnaire surveys were carried out monthly in four wholesale live bird markets (LBMs) in Hunan and Guangxi provinces of South China. Using social network analysis, we found an increase in the number of observed links and degree centrality between LBMs and poultry sources in February and March compared to the months of January and April. The association of some live poultry traders (LPT's) with a limited set of counties (within the catchment area of LBMs) in the months of February and March may support HPAIV H5N1 transmission and contribute to perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 virus circulation among certain groups of counties. The connectivity among counties experiencing human infection was significantly higher compared to counties without human infection for the months of January, March and April. Conversely, counties with poultry infections were found to be significantly less connected than counties without poultry infection for the month of February. Our results show that temporal variation in live poultry trade in Southern China around the Chinese New Year festivities is associated with higher HPAIV H5N1 infection risk in humans and poultry. This study has shown that capturing the dynamic nature of poultry trade networks in Southern China improves our ability to explain the spatiotemporal dissemination in avian influenza viruses in China.

  16. Sagitally focusing scanning monochromator produces 0.4-mm focus (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Sullivan, M.; Fischetti, R.; Rock, L.

    1992-01-01

    A sagitally focusing stage has been constructed for the double-crystal scanning monochromator on beam line X9-A at the NSLS which can be exchanged with the normally used flat crystal stage. The bending device located at 12.0 m from the source is designed to accept a beam up to 200-mm wide. The monochromator with bending stage can be scanned over Bragg angles from 10° to 71° corresponding to photon energies from 11.4 to 2.1 keV with Si-111 crystals. In conjunction with the vertically focusing mirror a point focus of 0.38 mm×0.18 mm [horizontal×vertical, full width at half maximum (FWHM) each] has been achieved at a focal length of 3.8 m (center of a four-circle diffractometer). Focused at the back of the experimental hutch (focal length=5.4 m) the focal size was 0.55 mm×0.30 mm. The measured horizontal width of the focus equals the calculated size of the demagnified source and is independent of the horizontal convergence used. The horizontal focus produced by the crystal is very clean: the full width at 1% of maximum is 1.5 mm and at 0.01% it is about 4 mm. The flux into the focus is 5×1011 photons/s at a photon energy of 7.4 keV and beam current of 200 mA. The average flux density in the center of the focus (FWHM area) is 5×1011 photons/s/mm2. The preliminary crystal presently used has been made from a thin Si plate of 0.4-mm thickness, 80-mm width, and 75-mm length (in the direction of the beam). Steel ribs of 0.6-mm thickness have been glued at 3-mm pitch to the back of the crystal in order to stiffen the plate and reduce anticlastic bending.1 Plates have been glued to this crystal plate to extend the width to size the bending stage. The crystal was cut in 111 orientation with a 4° angle between the lattice planes and the crystal surface. The asymmetric cut was used to increase the angle of incidence and thus decrease the effect of the remaining anticlastic bending. The bending stage has a bending couple at both ends of the crystal in order to produce the

  17. Phobos spectral clustering: first results using the MRO-CRISM 0.4-2.5 micron dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; Roush, T. L.; Marzo, G. A.; Simioni, E.

    2016-12-01

    Whether Phobos is a captured asteroid or it formed in situ around Mars, is still an outstanding question within the scientific community. The proposed Japanese Mars Moon eXploration (MMX) sample return mission has the chief scientific objective to solve this conundrum, reaching Phobos in early 2020s and returning Phobos samples to Earth few years later. Nonetheless, well before surface samples are returned to Earth, there are important spectral datasets that can be mined in order to constrain Phobos' surface properties and address implications regarding Phobos' origin. One of these is the MRO-CRISM multispectral observations of Phobos. The MRO-CRISM visible and infrared observations (0.4-2.5 micron) are here corrected for incidence and emission angles of the observation. Unlike previous studies of the MRO-CRISM data that selected specific regions for analyses, we apply a statistical technique that identifies different clusters based on a K-means partitioning algorithm. Selecting specific wavelength ranges of Phobos' reflectance spectra permits identification of possible mineralogical compounds and the spatial distribution of these on the surface of Phobos. This work paves the way to a deeper analysis of the available dataset regarding Phobos, potentially identifying regions of interest on the surface of Phobos that may warrant more detailed investigation by the MXX mission as potential sampling areas. Acknowledgments: M. Pajola was supported for this research by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Ames Research Center administered by USRA.

  18. THE HIGH-VELOCITY MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING REGION G10.6-0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang Qizhou E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t

    2010-12-20

    We report the arcsecond resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the {sup 12}CO (2-1) transition in the massive cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4. In these observations, the high-velocity {sup 12}CO emission is resolved into individual outflow systems, which have a typical size scale of a few arcseconds. These molecular outflows are energetic and are interacting with the ambient molecular gas. By inspecting the shock signatures traced by CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HCN emissions, we suggest that abundant star formation activities are distributed over the entire 0.5 pc scale dense molecular envelope. The star formation efficiency over one global free-fall timescale (of the 0.5 pc molecular envelope, {approx}10{sup 5} years) is about a few percent. The total energy feedback of these high-velocity outflows is higher than 10{sup 47} erg, which is comparable to the total kinetic energy in the rotational motion of the dense molecular envelope. From order-of-magnitude estimations, we suggest that the energy injected from the protostellar outflows is capable of balancing the turbulent energy dissipation. No high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow associated with the central OB cluster is directly detected, which can be due to the photoionization.

  19. Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities and…

  20. Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  1. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  2. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  3. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  4. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  5. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  6. A Phenomenology Study of First-Year Teachers Looking at the Shared Lived Experience of Learning to Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Brandon Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the phenomenon of how first-year teachers learn to evaluate students learning by (letter) grades. Grades seem simple enough; but in reality, each grade carries serious consequences with it--for either good or bad. For example, grades affect benefits/consequences at home; they affect placement in remedial or advanced courses;…

  7. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  8. Journal of a Living Experiment: A Documentary History of the First Ten Years of Teachers and Writers Collaborative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopate, Phillip, Ed.

    Intended to celebrate the first 10 years of Teachers and Writers Collaborative (the original organization which sent poets, novelists, and other artists into the schools on a regular basis), this book contains 29 articles, diaries, letters, manifestos, graphics, and memoirs. The book contains the following articles: (1) "Roots and…

  9. Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  10. Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities and…

  11. A Phenomenology Study of First-Year Teachers Looking at the Shared Lived Experience of Learning to Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Brandon Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the phenomenon of how first-year teachers learn to evaluate students learning by (letter) grades. Grades seem simple enough; but in reality, each grade carries serious consequences with it--for either good or bad. For example, grades affect benefits/consequences at home; they affect placement in remedial or advanced courses;…

  12. Comparison of 2-year effects of once and twice weekly water exercise on activities of daily living ability of community dwelling frail elderly.

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisuke; Kaneda, Koichi; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Nomura, Takeo

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that water exercise improves the activities of daily living (ADL) ability of the frail elderly, but the specific frequency and intensity of such programs is unclear. This study aims at comparing the effects of once- and twice-weekly water exercise on the ADL ability of frail elderly receiving nursing care for 2 years. The design is a prospective randomized longitudinal study. Participants were assigned to two different exercise groups (Group 1 and Group 2). Group 1 participated in a 60-min exercise session once a week, for 2 years, while Group 2 attended the session twice a week. Exercise sessions were divided into a 10-min warm-up on land and 50 min of exercise in water. The 50-min water exercise program consisted of 20 min walking, 10 min ADL exercise, 10 min stretching and strength exercises, and 10 min relaxation in water. ADL ability and lower muscle strength were measured before the beginning of exercise and 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after the program had started. Significant group differences occurred for bathing transfer and stair climbing at the 2-year measurement. These results suggested that at least twice-weekly water exercise was necessary to maintain the ADL ability and KEX of the frail elderly during the 1-year water exercise period and for one additional year afterward.

  13. Prevalence of dental caries in 5-year-old Greek children and the use of dental services: evaluation of socioeconomic, behavioural factors and living conditions.

    PubMed

    Mantonanaki, Magdalini; Koletsi-Kounari, Haroula; Mamai-Homata, Eleni; Papaioannou, William

    2013-04-01

    To assess dental caries and use of dental services experience in 5-year-old children attending public kindergartens in Attica, Greece and to examine the influence of certain socioeconomic factors and living conditions as well as dental behaviours and attitudes. In this cross-sectional study, a random and stratified sample of 605 Greek children was examined using decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces and simplified debris indices. The use of dental services was measured by children's dental visits (any dental visit up to the age of 5 years). Care Index was also calculated. Risk indicators were assessed by a questionnaire. Zero-inflated Poisson and Logistic Regression Analysis were generated to test statistical significant associations. The prevalence of dental caries was 16.5%. Care Index was 32% and dental visits were reported for the 84% of the children. Medium Socio-Economic Level (SEL) was associated with no detectable caries. High SEL was related to decreased decayed, missing, filled teeth values, while female gender and rented houses had the opposite effect. The age of the mother (35-39 years) and the higher SEL were related to higher levels of dental services use. It is suggested that there are differences in the experience of dental caries and use of dental services among preschool children in Attica, which are related to demographic, socioeconomic factors and living conditions. Dental public polices should focus on groups with specific characteristics in order to improve oral health levels of disease-susceptible populations. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  14. How to spend the summer? Free-living dormice (Glis glis) can hibernate for 11 months in non-reproductive years.

    PubMed

    Hoelzl, Franz; Bieber, Claudia; Cornils, Jessica S; Gerritsmann, Hanno; Stalder, Gabrielle L; Walzer, Chris; Ruf, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Edible dormice are arboreal rodents adapted to yearly fluctuations in seed production of European beech, a major food source for this species. In years of low beech seed abundance, dormice skip reproduction and non-reproductive dormice fed ad libitum in captivity can display summer dormancy in addition to winter hibernation. To test whether summer dormancy, that is, a very early onset of hibernation, actually occurs in free-living dormice, we monitored core body temperature (Tb) over ~12 months in 17 animals during a year of beech seeding failure in the Vienna Woods. We found that 8 out of 17 dormice indeed re-entered hibernation as early as in June/July, with five of them having extreme hibernation durations of 11 months or more (total range: 7.8-11.4 months). Thus, we show for the first time that a free-living mammal relying on natural food resources can continuously hibernate for >11 months. Early onset of hibernation was associated with high body mass in the spring, but the distribution of hibernation onset was bimodal with prolonged hibernation starting either early (prior to July 28) or late (after August 30). This could not be explained by differences in body mass alone. Animals with a late hibernation onset continued to maintain high nocturnal Tb's throughout summer but used short, shallow torpor bouts (mean duration 7.44 ± 0.9 h), as well as occasional multiday torpor for up to 161 h.

  15. Twenty Years of Experience in Pediatric Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Focus on Hepatic Artery Reconstruction, Complications, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Seda-Neto, João; Antunes da Fonseca, Eduardo; Pugliese, Renata; Candido, Helry L; Benavides, Marcel R; Carballo Afonso, Rogério; Neiva, Romerito; Porta, Gilda; Miura, Irene K; Teng, Hsiang W; Iwase, Fernanda C; Rodrigues, Mônica L; Carneiro de Albuquerque, Luis Augusto; Kondo, Mario; Chapchap, Paulo

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) increases morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation (LT). The identification of risk factors for HAT may aid transplant teams in the development of strategies aimed at reducing HAT. This article describes the risk factors for HAT and outcomes after LT. This report describes a retrospective study (1995 to 2015) of primary pediatric living donor LT (LDLT). Pretransplant and technical variables were included in the study. Binary logistic regression was used for data analysis. This study included 656 primary LDLT. The median age, body weight, and pediatric end-stage liver disease score at the time of transplant were 13 months, 8.4 kg and 15, respectively. Twenty-one (3.2%) patients developed HAT. Intraoperative HAT (odds ratio, 62.63; 95% confidence interval, 12.64-310.19; P < 0.001) and the use of liver grafts with a graft-to-recipient weight ratio less than 1.1% (odds ratio, 24.46; 95% confidence interval, 4.55-131.56; P < 0.001) retained statistical significance in the multivariate model. Patient and graft survivals were significantly worse in cases with HAT. The overtime trend analysis revealed a decrease in the incidence of HAT (P = 0.008) and an increase in the use of 2-arterial anastomosis (P < 0.001). A graft-to-recipient weight ratio of 1.1% or less and intraoperative HAT were independently associated with HAT. Trend analysis further revealed a significant reduction in the incidence of HAT over time, as well as the increased use of 2 hepatic arteries for anastomosis during graft implantation. The double artery anastomosis may represent an extra protection to pediatric recipients undergoing LDLT.

  16. Unreliable Bodies: A Follow-up Twenty Years Later by a Mother and Daughter about the Impact of Illness and Disability on their Lives.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Kaethe; Worthen, Miranda

    2017-03-01

    We are a mother and daughter, both health care professionals, who offer a follow-up to an article we published twenty years ago about the impact of each other's ongoing, serious medical problems on our relationship. In this article, we contribute a long-term perspective on the differences between having an illness that is well or poorly understood by medical professionals and the lay community. We also discuss health in the context of identity formation and life stage, as during this interval the daughter left home, graduated college, married, and had two children. Also in this period, the mother survived a third breast cancer and other life-threatening illnesses. We discuss the impact of these experiences on each other and in other important relationships in our lives. Current discourses on daughters of breast cancer survivors do not fit our experience and we speculate about why our story differs. We find that although we continue to contend with serious medical issues that impact our own, each other's, and our families' lives, nonetheless, our lives are rich, rewarding, and "appropriate" for our life stage. That is the news. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  17. Three-year trials of personal therapy among schizophrenic patients living with or independent of family, II: Effects on adjustment of patients.

    PubMed

    Hogarty, G E; Greenwald, D; Ulrich, R F; Kornblith, S J; DiBarry, A L; Cooley, S; Carter, M; Flesher, S

    1997-11-01

    Previous analyses of the personal and social adjustment of outpatients with schizophrenia have either relied on the assessment of unrepresentative patients who survived without relapse or used analyses that included relapse assessments, a potential confound when different rates of relapse existed among treatment conditions. The authors' goal was to conduct a study of the effects of personal therapy on outcome that was designed to take into consideration the effects of relapse. They evaluated the effectiveness of personal therapy over 3 years after hospital discharge among 151 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The patients were randomly assigned to receive personal therapy or contrasting therapies in one of two concurrent trials. One trial included patients who were living with family (N = 97); the other included patients who were living independent of family (N = 54). Patients were assessed at 6-month intervals over 3 years of treatment on measures of personal and social adjustment; patients who relapsed and restabilized and those who did not relapse were included. Personal therapy had positive effects on broad components of social adjustment (role performance) but had few differential effects on symptoms, and patients receiving personal therapy remained more anxious than patients who received family or supportive therapy. For patients who were living with family, personal therapy led to better outcomes in overall performance than did the other treatments. Although family therapy had only one positive effect on patients' social adjustment, the personal adjustment (residual symptoms) of patients who received family therapy appeared to improve more than that of patients receiving personal or supportive therapy. For patients not living with family, personal therapy was more successful than supportive therapy in improving work performance and relationships out of the home. Longitudinal effects of personal therapy on symptoms were similar to those

  18. Internalizing the threat of risk-a qualitative study about adolescents’ experience living with screening-detected celiac disease 5 years after diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass screening could identify those with unrecognized celiac disease (CD), but the experience of being detected through screening and living with screening-detected CD should be explored before considering this as acceptable intervention. For this study we invited screening-detected adolescents to describe their experience living with screening-detected CD five years after diagnosis with the aim to explore how their perceptions, practices, and beliefs evolved. Methods Adolescents who were diagnosed through a population-based CD screening were invited to write narratives after being diagnosed. Of 153 adolescents who were eventually diagnosed through the screening, 91 wrote narratives one year after diagnosis and 72 five years after diagnosis. A qualitative content analysis resulted in a theme and categories that describe the experience living with screening-detected CD five years after diagnosis. Results The overall theme – Internalizing the threat of risk – illustrates that being detected through screening and the internalized threat of future health complications have impacted how these adolescents felt about the diagnosis, coped with the gluten-free diet (GFD), and thought about CD screening. This theme is supported by four categories: maintaining an imposed disease identity describes how they continued to define their diagnosis in relation to the screening. They also expressed moving from forced food changes to adapted diet routines by describing habits, routines, coping strategies, and the financial burden of the GFD. They had enduring beliefs of being spared negative consequences, however, even after five years, some doubted they had CD and worried that being detected and eating a GFD might not be beneficial, i.e. continuing to fear it is “all in vain”. Conclusions There was maintenance and evolution in the perceptions, practices, and beliefs of the adolescents after five years. Some have adjusted to the disease and adapted new habits and

  19. The association of low birth weight with serum C reactive protein in 3-year-old children living in Cuba: A population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Josefina Venero-Fernández, Silvia; Fundora-Hernández, Hermes; Batista-Gutierrez, Lourdes; Suárez-Medina, Ramón; de la C Mora-Faife, Esperanza; García-García, Gladys; Del Valle-Infante, Ileana; Gómez-Marrero, Liem; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2017-05-06

    Low birthweight is associated with a decreased risk of childhood leukemia and an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in adult life. Possible biological mediators include systemic innate immunity and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that birthweight was inversely associated with serum high sensitivity C reactive protein assay (hsCRP), a measure of both innate immunity and systemic inflammation. Data on birthweight and current anthropometric measures along with a range of exposures were collected at 1 and 3 years of age in a population-based cohort study of young children living in Havana, Cuba. A total of 986 children aged 3-years-old provided blood samples that were analyzed for serum hsCRP levels. Nearly 49% of children had detectable hsCRP levels in their serum. Lower birthweight was linearly associated with the natural log of hsCRP levels (beta coefficient -0.70 mg L(-1) per kg increase in birthweight, 95% CI: -1.34 to -0.06). This was attenuated but still present after adjustment for the child's sex and municipality (-0.65 mg L(-1) per kg birthweight; 95% CI: -1.38 to +0.08). There were no associations between growth from birth or anthropometric measures at 3 years and systemic inflammation. Birthweight was inversely associated with serum hsCRP levels in children aged 3 years living in Cuba. These observations provide a potential mechanism that is present at the age of 3 years to explain the association between low birthweight and both decreased childhood leukemia and increased cardiovascular disease in adults. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Adjustment of a Population of South African Children of Mothers Living With/and Without HIV Through Three Years Post-Birth.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tomlinson, Mark; Scheffler, Aaron; Harris, Danielle M; Nelson, Sandahl

    2016-06-03

    Mothers living with HIV (MLH) and their children are typically studied to ensure that perinatal HIV transmission is blocked. Yet, HIV impacts MLH and their children lifelong. We examine child outcomes from pregnancy to 3 years post-birth among a peri-urban population of pregnant MLH and mothers without HIV (MWOH). Almost all pregnant women in 12 neighborhoods (98 %; N = 584) in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited and repeatedly assessed within 2 weeks of birth (92 %), at 6 months (88 %), 18 months (84 %), and 3 years post-birth (86 %). There were 186 MLH and 398 MWOH. Controlling for neighborhood and repeated measures, child and maternal outcomes were contrasted over time using longitudinal random effects regression analyses. For measures collected only at 3 years, outcomes were analyzed using multiple regressions. Compared to MWOH, MLH had less income, more informal housing and food insecurity, used alcohol more often during pregnancy, and were more depressed during pregnancy and over time. Only 4.8 % of MLH's children were seropositive; seropositive children were excluded from additional analyses. Children of MLH tended to have significantly lower weights (p < .10) over time (i.e., lower weight-for-age Z-scores) and were also hospitalized significantly more often than children of MWOH (p < .01). Children of MLH and MWOH died at similar rates (8.5 %) and were similar in social and behavioral adjustment, vocabulary, and executive functioning at 3 years post-birth. Despite living in households with fewer resources and having more depressed mothers, only the physical health of children of MLH is compromised, compared to children of MWOH. In township neighborhoods with extreme poverty, social, behavioral, language, and cognitive functioning appear similar over the first three years of life between children of MLH and MWOH.

  1. Changes over 20 years in macronutrient intake and body mass index in 11- to 12-year-old adolescents living in Northumberland.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, E S; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Matthews, J N S; Hackett, A; Moynihan, P J; Mathers, J C; Adamson, A J

    2004-08-01

    Monitoring adolescent diets over time enables the assessment of the effectiveness of public health messages which are particularly important in vulnerable groups such as adolescents. In 2000, 424 children aged 11-12 years old completed two 3 d estimated dietary records. On the fourth day one nutritionist interviewed each child to clarify the information in the diary and foods were quantified with the aid of food models. Nutrient intake was calculated using computerised food tables. These children attended the same seven schools in the same Northumberland area as the 11- to 12-year-old children who recorded their diet using the same method in 1980 (n 405) and 1990 (n 379), respectively. Height and weight, and parental occupation were recorded in all three surveys for each child. Height and weight were used to calculate BMI, weight was used to estimate BMR and parental occupation was used to determine social class. Comparing the macronutrient intakes in 2000 with 1980 and 1990, energy intakes (EI) fell in boys (to 8.45 MJ) and girls (to 7.60 MJ). This fall may, at least in part, be due to an increase in low energy reporting. For 1980, 1990 and 2000 the percentage of boys with EI:BMR below 1.1 was 6, 15 and 23 %, respectively; for girls, 3, 14 and 18 %, respectively. Percentage energy from fat was unchanged between 1980 and 1990 but fell to 35 % (about 76 g/d) in 2000, alongside a 3 % increase in percentage energy from starch (30 %). Percentage energy from non-milk extrinsic sugars remained above recommendations (16 %; about 82 g/d). The number of overweight and obese children increased from 11 % to 30 % between 1980 and 2000. Positive changes have occurred in the Northumbrian adolescent diet but social inequalities, reported in previous surveys, remain.

  2. Tubular maximum phosphate reabsorption capacity in living kidney donors is independently associated with one year recipient GFR.

    PubMed

    van Londen, Marco; Aarts, Brigitte M; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan; de Borst, Martin H

    2017-10-04

    The donor glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured before kidney donation is a strong determinant of recipient graft outcome. No tubular function markers have been identified that can similarly be used in donors to predict recipient outcomes. In the current study we investigated whether the predonation tubular maximum reabsorption capacity of phosphate (TmP-GFR), which may be considered as a functional tubular marker in healthy kidney donors, is associated with recipient GFR at one year after transplantation, a key determinant of long-term outcome. We calculated the predonation TmP-GFR from serum and 24h-urine phosphate and creatinine levels in 165 kidney donors, and recipient 125I-iothalamate GFR and eGFR (CKD-EPI) at 12 months after transplantation. Kidney donors were 51±10 years old, 47% were men, and mean GFR was 118±26 mL/min. The donor TmP-GFR was associated with recipient GFR 12 months after transplantation (GFR 6.0 mL/min lower per 1 mg/dL decrement of TmP-GFR), which persisted after multivariable adjustment for donor age, sex, predonation GFR and blood pressure and other potential confounders. Results were highly similar when eGFR at 12 months was taken as the outcome. Tubular damage markers KIM-1 and NGAL were low and not associated with recipient GFR. A lower donor TmP-GFR before donation, which may be considered to represent a functional measure of tubular phosphate reabsorption capacity, is independently associated with a lower recipient GFR one year after transplantation. These data are the first to link donor tubular phosphate reabsorption with recipient GFR post-transplantation. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology.

  3. Electrochemical synthesis of photosensitive nano-nest like CdSe0.6Te0.4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Surendra K.; Thombare, Jagannath V.; Dubal, Deepak P.; Fulari, Vijay J.

    2013-10-01

    Polycrystalline CdSe0.6Te0.4 thin films were deposited on stainless steel and ITO coated glass (ITO) substrates by using simple and inexpensive electrodeposition method. CdSe0.6 Te0.4 films are characterized by different characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and contact angle measurement. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the films are polycrystalline with hexagonal crystal structure. FE-SEM studies reveal that the entire substrate surface is covered with CdSe0.6 Te0.4 nano-nest. Formation of CdSe0.6Te0.4 compound was confirmed from the FTIR studies. Optical absorption study shows the presence of direct transition and a considerable band gap, Eg = 1.7 eV. Surface wettability with solid-liquid interface showed hydrophilic nature with water contact angle 57° (<90°). Further photovoltaic activity of CdSe0.6Te0.4 films were studied by forming the photoelectrochemical cell having CdSe0.6Te0.4/1 M (Na2S + S + NaOH)/C cell configuration. The efficiency and fill factor of these PEC cells are found to be 0.64% and 0.49 respectively.

  4. Live-born infants of 24 to 28 weeks' gestation: survival and sequelae at two years of age.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, W H; Rickards, A L; Ford, G W; Ryan, M M; Lissenden, J V

    1985-01-01

    The survival rate of infants born alive between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation has increased significantly in this tertiary care centre, from about 9% in the first cohort studied (1966-1970), to 19.5% in the second cohort (1971-1974) and 50.3% in the third cohort (1977-1982); the borderline of practical viability decreased from 27 to 24 weeks over the years of the study. The number of mothers with a history of prior termination of pregnancy increased about sixfold from the second to the third cohorts but the rate of premature births increased by only 50%. The augmented survival rate was accompanied by an increase in the prevalence and total number of children with cerebral palsy, but bilateral blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity and severe sensorineural deafness were reduced. When 96% of children in the third cohort were assessed at two years of age. 13% had severe handicaps, 59% were considered normal and in 24% some handicap was suspected. The serious handicap rate was 28% for children born at 24-26 weeks compared with 8.5% for those born at 27-28 weeks of gestation.

  5. Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-years for 32 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2015: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Fitzmaurice, Christina; Allen, Christine; Barber, Ryan M; Barregard, Lars; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Brenner, Hermann; Dicker, Daniel J; Chimed-Orchir, Odgerel; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Fleming, Tom; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Hancock, Jamie; Hay, Roderick J; Hunter-Merrill, Rachel; Huynh, Chantal; Hosgood, H Dean; Johnson, Catherine O; Jonas, Jost B; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kumar, G Anil; Kutz, Michael; Lan, Qing; Larson, Heidi J; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S; Lopez, Alan D; MacIntyre, Michael F; Marczak, Laurie; Marquez, Neal; Mokdad, Ali H; Pinho, Christine; Pourmalek, Farshad; Salomon, Joshua A; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Sandar, Logan; Sartorius, Benn; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shackelford, Katya A; Shibuya, Kenji; Stanaway, Jeff; Steiner, Caitlyn; Sun, Jiandong; Takahashi, Ken; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Wagner, Joseph A; Wang, Haidong; Westerman, Ronny; Zeeb, Hajo; Zoeckler, Leo; Abd-Allah, Foad; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Alabed, Samer; Alam, Noore K; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Alem, Girma; Alemayohu, Mulubirhan Assefa; Ali, Raghib; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Amare, Azmeraw; Amoako, Yaw; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Atnafu, Niguse; Awasthi, Ashish; Saleem, Huda Ba; Barac, Aleksandra; Bedi, Neeraj; Bensenor, Isabela; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabé, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem; Binagwaho, Agnes; Boneya, Dube; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Chiang, Peggy; Chibueze, Chioma; Chitheer, Abdulaal; Choi, Jee-Young; Cowie, Benjamin; Damtew, Solomon; das Neves, José; Dey, Suhojit; Dharmaratne, Samath; Dhillon, Preet; Ding, Eric; Driscoll, Tim; Ekwueme, Donatus; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Farvid, Maryam; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fernandes, Joao; Fischer, Florian; G/Hiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebru, Alemseged; Gopalani, Sameer; Hailu, Alemayehu; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huybrechts, Inge; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; James, Spencer; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jee, Sun Ha; Kasaeian, Amir; Kedir, Muktar Sano; Khader, Yousef S; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Daniel; Leigh, James; Linn, Shai; Lunevicius, Raimundas; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Marcenes, Wagner; Markos, Desalegn; Melaku, Yohannes A; Meles, Kidanu G; Mendoza, Walter; Mengiste, Desalegn Tadese; Meretoja, Tuomo J; Miller, Ted R; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Nagel, Gabriele; Nand, Devina; Le Nguyen, Quyen; Nolte, Sandra; Ogbo, Felix A; Oladimeji, Kelechi E; Oren, Eyal; Pa, Mahesh; Park, Eun-Kee; Pereira, David M; Plass, Dietrich; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rana, Saleem M; Søreide, Kjetil; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Shaikh, Masood Ali; She, Jun; Shiue, Ivy; Shore, Hirbo Roba; Shrime, Mark G; So, Samuel; Soneji, Samir; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tadese, Fentaw; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thakur, J S; Tran, Bach Xuan; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S Chudi; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wubshet Terefe, Mamo; Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin; Yimam, Hassen Hamid; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew; Murray, Christopher J L; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-04-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning. To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data. Cancer incidence was calculated by dividing mortality estimates through the modeled MI ratios. To calculate cancer prevalence, MI ratios were used to model survival. To calculate YLDs, prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights. The YLLs were estimated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the reference life expectancy. DALYs were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Countries were categorized by SDI quintiles to summarize results. In 2015, there were 17.5 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.7 million deaths. Between 2005 and 2015, cancer cases increased by 33%, with population aging contributing 16%, population growth 13%, and changes in age-specific rates contributing 4%. For men, the most common cancer globally was prostate cancer (1.6 million cases). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs in men (1.2 million deaths and 25.9 million DALYs). For women, the most common cancer was breast cancer (2.4 million cases). Breast cancer was also the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs for women (523 000 deaths and 15.1 million DALYs). Overall, cancer caused 208.3 million DALYs worldwide in 2015 for both sexes combined. Between 2005 and 2015, age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in

  6. Healthy active living: a residence community-based intervention to increase physical activity and healthy eating during the transition to first-year university.

    PubMed

    Brown, Denver M Y; Bray, Steve R; Beatty, Kevin R; Kwan, Matthew Y W

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effects of a Healthy Active Living (HAL) community intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and psychosocial mediators of physical activity among students transitioning into university. Sixty undergraduate students were assigned to reside in either the HAL community or no-treatment control residence and completed questionnaire measures at the beginning and end of the academic year. Students living in the HAL community reported significantly more MVPA (F[1, 58]=19.93, p<.001, ηp2=.26) and greater FVC (F[1, 56]=3.12, p=.08, ηp2=.05) compared with controls. Participants in the HAL condition also scored significantly higher in action planning (F[1, 58]=4.79, p<.05, ηp2=.08), partially mediating the effect of the intervention on MVPA. A peer-delivered healthy lifestyles intervention targeting first-year university students appears to be effective in preserving or enhancing health behaviors and cognitions during their transition into university life.

  7. An evaluation on levels of knowledge, attitude and behavior of people at 65 years and above about alternative medicine living in Ankara.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Ozlem; Santaş, Fatih; Yıldırım, Hasan Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to determine the knowledge, attitude and behavioral levels of people at and above 65 years of age, living in Ankara (Turkey) about alternative medicine. The study was carried out between March - April 2010 through survey application of 200 participants by selective random sampling from the population. Data obtained as a result of the survey were analyzed by SPSS program. The study revealed that 83.5% of the participants believed in alternative therapy methods but 16.5% of them did not. It is concluded that herbal therapy methods are the most frequently used methods with a 63% rate among other alternative therapy methods. When status of the participants was analyzed it was found that it was found that 69% received the information about alternative medicines from their family while 53.5% received it from television This study revealed that alternative medicine is profoundly used by people above 65 years of age in Ankara.

  8. Dual dietary intake problems among under-five years old children living in an armed conflict area of southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jeharsae, Rohani; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2011-09-01

    This survey examined nutritional intake and the effects of armed conflict on energy-protein inadequacy amonng children aged one to less than five years. Fifty health centers were randomly selected. Three children were randomly selected from each 12-month old interval age groups in each health center. Four hundred seventy eight children and their primary caregivers were recruited. Food intake was collected from a single 24-hour food recall and was computed to percentage of the Thai Dietary Reference Intake (DRI). Violent event rates were classified by quartiles. Dietary intake stratified by age groups was examined. Logistic regression was used to examine association between armed conflict and inadequacy of food intake. Average of DRI was above 100% for both energy and protein intake. Snacks contributed to one-fourth of energy intake. Inadequacy of energy and protein intake was 27% and 7%, respectively. There was no association between armed conflict and inadequacy of energy and protein consumption.

  9. Nucleoside analogue therapy following one-year course of hepatitis B immunoglobulin in preventing hepatitis B virus reactivation after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kawagishi, Naoki; Takeda, Ikuo; Miyagi, Shigehito; Satoh, Kazushige; Akamatsu, Yorihiro; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Satomi, Susumu

    2010-12-01

    The combination therapy with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and nucleoside analogue is well tolerated for the hepatitis B recipients after liver transplantation, but its cost is an important problem in these days. Here we report the efficacy of nucleoside analogue therapy following one-year course of HBIG plus nucleoside analogue after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Out of 103 LDLTs, we selected 14 recipients who received the post-transplant therapy against reactivation of hepatitis B virus for more than 30 months. Those were eight patients with chronic hepatitis B, three with fulminant hepatitis, and three whose donors were positive for antibody to HB core antigen (HBc). During two days after the operation, HBIG (40,000 units) was administered, and the serum level of antibody to HB surface antigen (HBs) was maintained at around 150 IU/L for one year by monthly administration of HBIG. After one year, HBIG was withdrawn. A nucleoside analogue was administered daily from just after LDLT, and it was continued up to the present. Among the 14 patients, two recipients had recurrence of hepatitis B. Three patients, including one patient with recurrence of hepatitis B, died due to hepatocellular carcinoma or its associated cirrhosis; namely, their deaths are unrelated to hepatitis B-related diseases. The remaining 11 patients are leading normal lives. In conclusion, nucleoside analogue therapy after one-year course of HBIG plus nucleoside analogue is feasible and cost-effective in preventing HBV reactivation. But the patients are still at risk of breakthrough and some patients may need continued prophylaxis with HBIG.

  10. Physical exercise and functional fitness in independently living vs institutionalized elderly women: a comparison of 60- to 79-year-old city dwellers.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Hélio L; Sousa, Nelson; Simão, Roberto; Pereira, Fabio Dutra; Vilaça-Alves, José

    2015-01-01

    To compare functional fitness (FF) levels among independent-living (IL) and day care (DC) elderly women of different age groups and to analyze changes in FF after 8 months of participation in an exercise program intervention for the IL elderly women. A total of 674 elderly women were divided into four IL groups with age in the range of 60-64 years (IL60-64, n=149), 65-69 years (IL65-69, n=138), 70-74 years (IL70-74, n=135), and 75-79 years (IL75-79, n=83), and four DC groups with age in the range of 60-64 years (DC60-64, n=35), 65-69 years (DC65-69, n=34), 70-74 years (DC70-74, n=47), and 75-79 years (DC75-79, n=53). The intervention consisted of a multimodal exercise training, 3 days per week for 8 months. Senior Fitness Test battery performances were obtained at baseline and after 8-month intervention. Significant differences were identified between all IL groups and DC groups in all FF tests (P<0.001), except between IL70-74 and DC70-74 in the chair sit-and-reach. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) identified significant improvements in all FF tests between pre- and posttests in the IL groups (P<0.001), except in the chair sit-and-reach for the IL70-74. ANCOVA also showed a significant declining performance in all FF tests for DC groups (P<0.001), except in the chair sit-and-reach for the DC70-74 and DC75-79. IL women are more fit than institutionalized DC elderly women. The multimodal training was effective in improving all FF components related to daily living activities, in all age groups. In contrast, institutionalized elderly showed a clear tendency to worsen their FF over the time.

  11. External validation of a proposed prognostic model for the prediction of 1-year postoperative eGFR after living donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Ulf; Gwiasda, Jill; Oldhafer, Felix; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Arelin, Viktor; Gueler, Faikah; Richter, Nicolas; Klempnauer, Juergen; Schrem, Harald

    2017-08-21

    The goal of this study was to externally validate the recently proposed prognostic model for the prediction of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) 1 year after living donor nephrectomy. 130 living kidney donors (median age at donation 52.3 years, range 24.7-75.6 years) were investigated before and after donation between March 2000 and April 2016. Preoperative eGFR values varied between 61.7 and 148.4 ml/min (mean: 89, median: 88). Observed eGFR 1 year after transplantation (±45 days) ranged between 36.3 and 97.1 ml/min (mean: 55, median: 53). 70.8% of donors displayed eGFR values < 60 ml/min 1 year after donation. Predicted eGFR 1 year after donation was determined using the prognostic model proposed by Benoit et al. (Int Urol Nephrol 49(5):793-801. doi: 10.1007/s11255-017-1559-1 , 2017): postoperative eGFR ml/min/1.73 m(2) = 31.71 + (0.521 × eGFR in ml/min prior to donation -0.314 × Age in years at donation). Pearson correlation and receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC-curve) were used to assess external validity of the proposed prognostic model to predict postoperative eGFR in ml/min and eGFR < 60 ml/min. The correlation between predicted and observed eGFR 1 year after donation was significant (p < 0.001; R (2) = 0.594). The area under the ROC-curve (AUROC) demonstrated a high sensitivity and specificity for predicted eGFR values < 60 ml/min (AUROC = 0.866). The proposed prognostic model for the prediction of postoperative eGFR was successfully validated in our cohort. We therefore consider the model as generally applicable.

  12. Physical exercise and functional fitness in independently living vs institutionalized elderly women: a comparison of 60- to 79-year-old city dwellers

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Hélio L; Sousa, Nelson; Simão, Roberto; Pereira, Fabio Dutra; Vilaça-Alves, José

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare functional fitness (FF) levels among independent-living (IL) and day care (DC) elderly women of different age groups and to analyze changes in FF after 8 months of participation in an exercise program intervention for the IL elderly women. Materials and methods A total of 674 elderly women were divided into four IL groups with age in the range of 60–64 years (IL60–64, n=149), 65–69 years (IL65–69, n=138), 70–74 years (IL70–74, n=135), and 75–79 years (IL75–79, n=83), and four DC groups with age in the range of 60–64 years (DC60–64, n=35), 65–69 years (DC65–69, n=34), 70–74 years (DC70–74, n=47), and 75–79 years (DC75–79, n=53). The intervention consisted of a multimodal exercise training, 3 days per week for 8 months. Senior Fitness Test battery performances were obtained at baseline and after 8-month intervention. Results Significant differences were identified between all IL groups and DC groups in all FF tests (P<0.001), except between IL70–74 and DC70–74 in the chair sit-and-reach. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) identified significant improvements in all FF tests between pre- and posttests in the IL groups (P<0.001), except in the chair sit-and-reach for the IL70–74. ANCOVA also showed a significant declining performance in all FF tests for DC groups (P<0.001), except in the chair sit-and-reach for the DC70–74 and DC75–79. Conclusion IL women are more fit than institutionalized DC elderly women. The multimodal training was effective in improving all FF components related to daily living activities, in all age groups. In contrast, institutionalized elderly showed a clear tendency to worsen their FF over the time. PMID:25941443

  13. Two-step tuberculin skin testing in school-going adolescents with initial 0-4 millimeter responses in a high tuberculosis prevalence setting in South India.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Maitreyi; Selvam, Sumithra; Jesuraj, Nelson; Bennett, Sean; Doherty, Mark; Grewal, Harleen M S; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The utility of two-step tuberculin skin testing among adolescents in high tuberculosis prevalence settings is not well established. To determine the proportion and determinants of a 0-4 mm response to an initial standard tuberculin skin test (TST) and evaluating 'boosting' with repeat testing. Adolescents between 11 and 18 years attending schools/colleges underwent a TST; those with a response of between 0-4 mm had a repeat TST 1-4 weeks later. Initial TST was done for 6608/6643 participants; 1257 (19%) developed a 0-4 mm response to the initial TST. Younger age and under-nutrition were more likely to be associated with a 0-4 mm response, while the presence of BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) scar and higher socio-economic class were less likely to be associated with a 0-4 mm response. On repeat testing boosting was seen in 13.2% (145/1098; ≥ 6 mm over the initial test) while 4.3% showed boosting using a more conservative cutoff of a repeat TST ≥ 10 mm with an increment of at least 6 mm (47/1098). History of exposure to a tuberculosis (TB) case was associated with enhanced response. The proportion of adolescents who demonstrated boosting on two-step TST testing in our study was relatively low. As a result repeat testing did not greatly alter the prevalence of TST positivity. However, the two-step TST helps identify individuals who can potentially boost their immune response to a second test, and thus, prevents them from being misclassified as those with newly acquired infection, or tuberculin converters. While two-step tuberculin skin testing may have a limited role in population- level TST surveys, it may be useful where serial tuberculin testing needs to be performed to distinguish those who show an enhanced response or boosters from those who indeed have a new infection, or converters.

  14. Prevalence of sarcopenia in Germany and the corresponding effect of osteoarthritis in females 70 years and older living in the community: results of the FORMoSA study

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Teschler, Marc; Goisser, Sabine; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel C; Freiberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although sarcopenia represents a challenging burden for health care systems around the world, its prevalence in the elderly population varies widely. The primary aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling (CD) German women aged 70 years and older; the secondary aim was to assess the effect of osteoarthritis (OA) on sarcopenia prevalence in this cohort. Methods A total of 689 Caucasian females 18–35 years old and 1,325 CD females 70 years+ living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were assessed during the initial phase of the FORMoSA research project. Anthropometry, total and regional muscle mass, were assessed by segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. Further 10 m walking speed and handgrip strength were evaluated to apply the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition of sarcopenia. Covariates were determined by questionnaires and interviews. Results Applying the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People of two standard deviations below the mean value for appendicular skeletal muscle mass of a reference cohort of the young cohort (5.66 kg/m2), low gait speed (≤0.8 m/s), and low grip strength (<20 kg), the prevalence of sarcopenia in CD German females 70 years and older was 4.5% (70–79 years: 2.8% vs ≥80 years: 9.9%; P<0.001). Participants with OA at the hip and lower limbs (n=252) exhibited significantly higher rates of sarcopenia (OA: 9.1 vs non-OA: 3.5%). Of importance, anthropometric, demographic, health, and lifestyle parameters (except exercise participation) of our cohorts corresponded with Bavarian or German data for CD women 70 years+. Conclusion The prevalence of sarcopenia in CD German females 70 years+ is relatively low. However, participants with OA at the hip or lower limbs were at increased risk for sarcopenia. PMID:26491272

  15. Rejection is a strong graft survival predictor in live donor pediatric renal transplantation using cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids: 5-year outcomes in a single Mexican center.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Mier, G; Enriquez-De Los Santos, H; Méndez-López, M T; Avila-Pardo, S F; Budar-Fernandez, L F; Gonzalez-Velazquez, F

    2013-05-01

    Long-term graft function and survival are of particular importance in children assuming that they have a longer transplantation life span than most adults. Because acute rejection episodes (ARE) continue to have a serious impact on graft loss, we analyzed the effects of ARE on 5-year survival and function in our population. Fifty-seven living donor kidney transplant recipients (34 males) younger than 18 years of age (13.5 ± 2.6 years; range, 5-17) were follow up for at feast 12 months using cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid therapy with or without induction treatment between February 2003 and December 2010. ARE incidence during the first 12 months following transplantation was 14%. One-, 3- and 5-year serum creatinine values were 1.24 ± 0.39, 2.16 ± 2.39, and 1.76 ± 0.9 mg/dL, respectively. Mean calculated creatinine clearances (Schwartz) at 1, 3, and 5 years were 82.5 ± 24.8, 64.7 ± 24.1, and 67 ± 27.5 mL/min*1.73 m(2), respectively. Patient/graft survival rates were 96/85%, 90/72%, and 88/65% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Patients who experienced an ARE within 12 months following transplantation displayed a reduced 5-year graft survival rate (37.5%) versus those who did not (78%; P = .005). Patients who did not have an ARE during 60 months had a higher graft survival rate (76%) than those who had ARE (33%; P = .001). Patient without basiliximab induction showed a lower 5-year graft survival rate (61% vs 100%; P = not significant [NS]). ARE is an important risk factor for graft loss in the pediatric kidney transplant population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The 339 Years of Living Dangerously in Indonesia: Earthquakes and Tsunamis in the Indonesian Region from 1538 to 1877

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. A.; Major, J.

    2013-05-01

    Using 339 years of Dutch records of geophysical events in Indonesia and tsunami modeling, we have identified previously unknown mega-thrust earthquake sources in eastern Indonesia that caused severe devastation in the past and are likely to reoccur in the near future. Indonesia has experienced some of the most extreme geohazards known (Toba, Krakatoa, Tambora, Indian Ocean tsunami). Although most of well known events occurred in western Indonesia, historical records reveal that eastern Indonesia is actually more hazardous. Strain rates in eastern Indonesia are twice those in Sumatra and tsunamis are much more frequent. Adding to the disaster potential in Indonesia is its rapid population growth and urbanization, especially in coastal regions. When the events documented in historical records reoccur in eastern Indonesia, as they have in western Indonesia, ten times more people and assets will be in harms way. Arthur Wichmann's Die Erdbeben Des Indischen Archipels [The Earthquakes of the Indian Archipelago] (1918) documents >100 destructive earthquakes and 68 tsunamis between 1600 and 1877. The largest and best documented are the events of 1629, 1674 and 1852 in the Banda Sea region, 1770 and 1859 in the Molucca Sea region, 1820 in Makassar, 1857 in Dili, Timor, 1815 in Bali and Lombak, 1699, 1771, 1780, 1815, 1848 and 1852 in Java and 1799, 1833 and 1861 in Sumatra. All of these events caused damage over a broad region notwithstanding high seismic attenuation rates, and are associated with years of temporal and spatial clustering of earthquakes. Several tsunami are recorded with run-up heights > 15 meters. Many islands were engulfed and coastal communities washed away. The earthquakes associated with these events were felt over a region as large as the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake in Japan and were followed by decades of aftershocks. Over the past 160 years no major shallow earthquakes have struck eastern Indonesia, which is characterized as an area incapable of mega

  17. Ten-year trends in dietary intake, health status and mortality rates in free-living elderly people.

    PubMed

    Toffanello, E D; Inelmen, E M; Minicuci, N; Campigotto, F; Sergi, G; Coin, A; Miotto, F; Enzi, G; Manzato, E

    2010-04-01

    To explore the trends of food preferences and nutrient intake over a 10-year follow-up in a group of successfully aging elderly. Longitudinal study. City of Padua, Italy. Randomly stratified sample of 97 men and 94 women born between 1913 and 1918. The study involved a dietary assessment conducted in 1988/89 and repeated in 1999. Data were collected by means of a modified validated dietary history. Nutrient and energy intake remained fairly stable over a decade, despite changes in eating habits, with a higher intake of sweets and a lower consumption of soft drinks in both genders. All individuals significantly increased their daily intake of water. Despite changes in eating habits, no significant decline in total energy and macronutrient intake was recorded in a decade in our elderly. The increased daily consumption of water and decreased use of soft drinks would suggest that these people were still receptive to nutritional advice even in very old age, while the increase in their sweet-eating might be because aging itself increases a person's sweet tooth, and this could be regarded as an age-related effect on dietary habits.

  18. Elderly persons in the risk zone. Design of a multidimensional, health-promoting, randomised three-armed controlled trial for "prefrail" people of 80+ years living at home.

    PubMed

    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve; Gosman-Hedström, Gunilla; Edberg, Anna-Karin; Wilhelmson, Katarina; Eklund, Kajsa; Duner, Anna; Ziden, Lena; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Landahl, Sten

    2010-05-26

    The very old (80+) are often described as a "frail" group that is particularly exposed to diseases and functional disability. They are at great risk of losing the ability to manage their activities of daily living independently. A health-promoting intervention programme might prevent or delay dependence in activities of daily life and the development of functional decline. Studies have shown that those who benefit most from a health-promoting and disease-preventive programme are persons with no, or discrete, activity restrictions. The three-armed study "Elderly in the risk zone" is designed to evaluate if multi-dimensional and multi-professional educational senior meetings are more effective than preventive home visits, and if it is possible to prevent or delay deterioration if an intervention is made when the persons are not so frail. In this paper the study design, the intervention and the outcome measures as well as the baseline characteristics of the study participants are presented. The study is a randomised three-armed single-blind controlled trial with follow-ups 3 months, 1 and 2 years. The study group should comprise a representative sample of pre-frail 80-year old persons still living at home in two municipalities of Gothenburg. To allow for drop-outs, it was estimated that a total of about 450 persons would need to be included in the study. The participants should live in their ordinary housing and not be dependent on the municipal home help service or care. Further, they should be independent of help from another person in activities of daily living and be cognitively intact, having a score of 25 or higher as assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). We believe that the design of the study, the randomisation procedure, outcome measurements and the study protocol meetings should ensure the quality of the study. Furthermore, the multi-dimensionality of the intervention, the involvement of both the professionals and the senior citizens in the

  19. Buying Years to Extinction: Is Compensatory Mitigation for Marine Bycatch a Sufficient Conservation Measure for Long-Lived Seabirds?

    PubMed Central

    Forero, Manuela G.; Oro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Along the lines of the ‘polluter pays principle’, it has recently been proposed that the local long-line fishing industry should fund eradication of terrestrial predators at seabird breeding colonies, as a compensatory measure for the bycatch caused by the fishing activity. The measure is economically sound, but a quantitative and reliable test of its biological efficacy has never been conducted. Here, we investigated the demographic consequences of predator eradication for Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea, breeding in the Mediterranean, using a population model that integrates demographic rates estimated from individual life-history information with experimental measures of predation and habitat structure. We found that similar values of population growth rate can be obtained by different combinations of habitat characteristics, predator abundance and adult mortality, which explains the persistence of shearwater colonies in islands with introduced predators. Even so, given the empirically obtained values of survival, all combinations of predator abundance and habitat characteristics projected a decline in shearwater numbers. Perturbation analyses indicated that the value and the sensitivity of shearwater population growth rates were affected by all covariates considered and their interactions. A decrease in rat abundance delivered only a small increase in the population growth rate, whereas a change in adult survival (a parameter independent of rat abundance) had the strongest impact on population dynamics. When adult survival is low, rat eradication would allow us to “buy” years before extinction but does not reverse the process. Rat eradication can therefore be seen as an emergency measure if threats on adult survival are eliminated in the medium-term period. For species with low fecundity and long life expectancy, our results suggest that rat control campaigns are not a sufficient, self-standing measure to compensate the biological toll of long

  20. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity from four to 16 years old children living in the Mexico-USA border.

    PubMed

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jones, Elizabeth G; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among Mexicans is alarming in both the child and adult populations. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity in pre-school (PS), elementary (ES), and middle high (MHS) public school children from Tijuana. From February to April of 2011, a bietapic random sample was selected by cluster method of 30 PS, 30 ES, and 30 MHS children. And a sample of 30 groups for each level was chosen. Twenty elementary teachers and eight graduate students were trained at one central location on how to take anthropometric measurements using a portable scale, a stadiometer, and a measuring tape to determine weight, height, and waist circumference. Body Mass Index values were computed and compared to age/gender BMI percentiles according to WHO criteria. Waist circumference for-age at the 90th percentile from NHANES III (Mexican-American) was used to define abdominal obesity. The sample was composed of 646 PS children, 961 ES children, and 1,095 MHS children. Their ages ranged from 4- 16 years. Results showed an overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in younger than 5y preschool children (> 2 SD) of 23.1%, in ≥ 5 y PS (> 1 SD) of 33.8%, in ES children of 46.3%, and in MHS children of 41.9%. Abdominal obesity in PS children was 18%, in ES children was 16.7%, and in MHS children was 15.2%. These results warrant immediate and comprehensive actions to prevent a critical public health problem in Mexico.

  1. Better living through chemistry, constant monitoring, and prompt interventions: 26 years on home parenteral nutrition without major complications.

    PubMed

    Forchielli, Maria Luisa; Richardson, Denise; Folkman, Judah; Gura, Kathleen; Lo, Clifford W

    2008-01-01

    We discuss 26 y of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in an otherwise healthy patient with severe short bowel syndrome demonstrating a decrease in life-threatening complications after various management changes. The patient is a 41-y-old male with a midgut volvulus from malrotation who developed short bowel syndrome and has been HPN dependent since the age of 15 y. His surgical and nutritional data were collected retrospectively and prospectively and included nutritional history, anthropometric parameters, laboratory results, activity levels and types, and treatments for complications. His entire HPN course has been prospectively followed. Since becoming HPN dependent, the patient's energy intake range has been 20-45 kcal.kg(-1).d(-1), with 0.8-1.6 g of protein.kg(-1).d(-1). He receives HPN with electrolytes, multivitamins, and trace elements nightly and his intravenous fat emulsion ranges from one to seven times per week. Adjustments to magnesium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin E, and carnitine are often required. During his first years of HPN, he had six episodes of catheter-related sepsis and two central venous catheter occlusions. The current central venous catheter has been in place for >13 y without infection or replacement. He developed mild osteopenia but has maintained an active lifestyle without fractures. In the second and third decades of HPN, episodes of hepatic dysfunction occurred, with improvement or resolution using various interventions including oral fish oil. This case illustrates the successful management of a life-long HPN-dependent patient in whom PN complications have been minimized, including a very recent occurrence of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis.

  2. [Physical activity of 9 and 15 year old Icelandic children - Public health objectives and relations of physical activity to gender, age, anthropometry and area of living].

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Arngrimsson, Sigurbjorn Arni; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Johannsson, Erling

    2011-02-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess to what degree nine and fifteen year old Icelandic children followed the national physical activity (PA) guidelines for children set forth by the Icelandic Public Health Institute, which recommend no less than 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity a day (MVPA). The study was conducted between September 2003 and January 2004 at eighteen randomly selected schools in the capital area of Reykjavik and towns and rural areas in the northeast. All nine years old (N=662) and fifteen years old (N=661) students were offered to participate. Half of the children were randomly chosen to partake in the PA part of the study where 176 nine-year-old and 162 fifteen-year-old children yielded usable data. We measured participants' height, weight and skinfold thickness and their PA by ActiGraph™ with respect to moderate-to-vigorous intensity (defined as counts >3400 cpm) and average volume. Only 5% of 9-year-old and 9% of 15 year-old students followed the recommended PA guidelines of at least 60 minutes a day of MVPA. MVPA was positively associated with sex (being a boy) and age, but negatively associated with skinfold thickness. Those living in the capital area of Reykjavik rather than in smaller towns and rural areas were likelier to accrue more minutes of MVPA per day. The results highlight the importance of developing PA interventions targeting children of school age. It is important to research and evaluate different ways as to how these interventions should best be conducted. Key words: physical activity, children, body composition, accelerometers.

  3. Crystal growth and spin reorientation transition in Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 orthoferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiangyang; Zhang, Kailin; Xu, Kai; Man, Peiwen; Xie, Tao; Wu, Anhua; Ma, Guohong; Cao, Shixun; Su, Liangbi

    2016-04-01

    High quality Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 single crystal has been successfully grown by the floating zone method. Temperature dependence of the magnetizations of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 under ZFC process is studied in the temperature range of 4-300 K. Spin reorientation transition between Γ2 (Gz, Fx) and Γ4 (Gx, Fz) is observed in the temperature range of 170-210 K, which is significantly lower than that of SmFeO3, while much higher than that of ErFeO3. A compensation point (35.8 K) corresponding to zero magnetization and a spontaneous magnetization reversal transition at 49.5 K are observed in Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3. Temperature-induced SRT of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 is systematically studied by THz-TDS range from 40 K to 300 K. The temperature dependence of amplitude of AFM mode coincides well with the magnetization measurement which demonstrate that SRT in Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 can be studied through the amplitude of AFM mode FID emission. The AF mode frequency is almost invariant, while the F mode frequency significantly decreases with increasing temperature, which could be explained by the temperature dependence of anisotropy energy.

  4. Large linear magnetoresistance in topological crystalline insulator Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, Subhajit; Ghara, Somnath; Guin, Satya N.; Sundaresan, A.; Biswas, Kanishka

    2016-01-15

    Classical magnetoresistance generally follows the quadratic dependence of the magnetic field at lower field and finally saturates when field is larger. Here, we report the large positive non-saturating linear magnetoresistance in topological crystalline insulator, Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te, at different temperatures between 3 K and 300 K in magnetic field up to 9 T. Magnetoresistance value as high as ∼200% was achieved at 3 K at magnetic field of 9 T. Linear magnetoresistance observed in Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te is mainly governed by the spatial fluctuation carrier mobility due to distortions in the current paths in inhomogeneous conductor. - Graphical abstract: Large non-saturating linear magnetoresistance has been evidenced in topological crystalline insulator, Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te, at different temperatures between 3 K and 300 K in magnetic field up to 9 T. - Highlights: • Large non-saturating linear magnetoresistance was achieved in the topological crystalline insulator, Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te. • Highest magnetoresistance value as high as ~200% was achieved at 3 K at magnetic field of 9 T. • Linear magnetoresistance in Pb{sub 0.6}Sn{sub 0.4}Te is mainly governed by the spatial fluctuation of the carrier mobility.

  5. Associations between physical activity, screen time, and fitness among 6- to 10-year-old children living in Edmonton, Canada.

    PubMed

    Potter, Morgan; Spence, John C; Boulé, Normand G; Stearns, Jodie A; Carson, Valerie

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe fitness levels; examine associations between physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and fitness; and examine sex-moderating effects in a sample of children. Participants were 649 children (age, 7.8 ± 0.6 years; 52.4% female) from Edmonton, Canada. Hours/week of PA and ST were parent-reported. PA was also objectively measured with pedometers and expressed in increments of 1000 steps/day. Fitness components (i.e., vertical jump, sit-and-reach, waist circumference, grip strength, predicted maximal oxygen consumption, push-ups, partial curl-ups, overall fitness) were measured according to the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness, and Lifestyle Approach protocols and expressed as z scores or low/high fitness. Positive associations were observed between PA and overall fitness for both the complete (subjective: β = 0.009, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.001-0.017) and partial (≥3 available fitness measures; subjective: β = 0.006, 95% CI: 0.000-0.011; objective: β = 0.025, 95% CI: 0.007-0.042) fitness scores. Subjective (β = 0.011, 95% CI: 0.000-0.022) and objective (β = 0.043, 95% CI: 0.008-0.078) PAs were positively associated with vertical jump. Children with higher objective PA were more likely to be in the high push-ups group (odds ratio = 1.156, 95% CI: 1.054-1.267). PA was positively associated with predicted maximal oxygen uptake (subjective: β = 0.040, 95% CI: 0.018-0.063; objective: β = 0.084, 95% CI: 0.012-0.157) and grip strength (subjective: β = 0.025, 95% CI: 0.011-0.040) in boys only. ST was negatively associated with grip strength (β = -0.016, 95% CI: -0.028 to -0.004) in boys. PA was associated with several components of fitness, especially in boys. However, few associations were observed between ST and fitness. Promoting regular PA in young children may address declining fitness levels.

  6. Use of the Barthel index, activities of daily living, in dermatologic surgery in patients aged 80 years and older.

    PubMed

    Pascual, José C; Belinchón, Isabel; Ramos, José M

    2015-02-01

    Dermatologists often attend elderly patients with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). There is a lack of information regarding the optimum treatment for elderly patients with NMSC. The objective of this study was to describe changes in the Barthel Index (BI) after dermatologic surgery for NMSC in patients aged 80 years and older. A prospective observational study was carried out in patients aged 80 years and older diagnosed with NMSC and treated with conventional dermatologic surgery. BI was performed by direct interview with the patients and/or their caregiver before the surgery, seven and 30 days after the surgery. A total of 180 dermatologic surgeries were performed in 144 patients. The average age of the patients was 84.2 years. There were 84 men (58.3%) and 60 women (41.7%). Mean BI score was 85.9 at baseline, 85.3 on day 7 after surgery, and 85.6 on day 30, showing minimal changes after dermatologic surgery. Changes in the BI occurred mainly in dressing, toilet use, transfers, mobility (on level surfaces) and walking stairs. Activities of daily living were not significantly affected in patients aged 80 years and older, after dermatologic surgery for NMSC. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Increasing Number and Proportion of Adverse Obstetrical Outcomes among Women Living with HIV in the Ottawa Area: A 20-Year Clinical Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Sarah; Spaans, Johanna N.; Balfour, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence and associated risks with adverse obstetrical outcomes among women living with HIV are not well measured. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes among women with HIV. Methods. This 20-year (1990–2010) clinical case series assessed the prevalence of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV receiving care at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH). General estimating equation modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, while controlling for year of childbirth clustering. Results. At TOH, there were 127 deliveries among 94 women (1990–2010): 22 preterm births, 9 births with low birth weight, 12 births small for gestational age, and 4 stillbirths. Per year, the odds of adverse obstetrical outcomes increased by 15% (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03–1.30). Psychiatric illness (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.12–6.24), teen pregnancy (AOR: 3.35, 95% CI: 1.04–1.46), and recent immigrant status (AOR: 7.24, 95% CI: 1.30–40.28) were the strongest correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes. Conclusions. The increasing number and proportion of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV over the past 20 years highlight the need for social supports and maternal and child health interventions, especially among adolescents, new immigrants, and those with a history of mental illness. PMID:27528877

  8. Obesity, Apolipoprotein E ε4, and Difficulties in Activities of Daily Living Among Older Adults: a 6-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Jung; Steptoe, Andrew; Ku, Po-Wen

    2017-04-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased physical limitations among older adults, although few studies have adjusted for important covariates. There is limited information about the relationship between apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms and physical limitations, and the findings have been inconsistent. This study examined the longitudinal associations of obesity and APOE ε4 with difficulties in activities of daily living (ADLs) over a 6-year follow-up period controlling for multiple covariates. Data were analyzed from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) in Taiwan collected in 2000 and 2006, involving a cohort of 639 participants (mean age = 66). Body mass index (BMI) was used to define obesity at a baseline, and the APOE genotype was classified into an APOE ε4 carrier and non-carrier status. The combination of basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs) was used to define impaired ADLs. APOE ε4 carriers had greater difficulties in combined ADLs (incident rate ratio; IRR = 1.87, 95 % CI = 1.40-2.51) than non-carriers. Obese but not overweight adults had greater difficulties in activities of daily living (IRR = 1.59, 95 % CI = 1.20-2.10) compared with the normal/underweight group. Obese older adults without APOE ε4 had greater subsequent difficulties in ADLs than non-obese non-carriers. Among APOE ε4 carriers, obesity was not a significant risk factor for the development of impaired ADLs in older adults, indicating an interaction between genotype and obesity. The interaction between genotype and obesity phenotype adds new information about the determinants of physical impairment.

  9. On the Na xNi 0.6Co 0.4O 2System: Physical and Electrochemical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadoune, I.; Maazaz, A.; Ménétrier, M.; Delmas, C.

    1996-02-01

    Sodium chemical deintercalation from the NaNi0.6Co0.4O2phase was realized by using iodine as oxidizing agent. The Na0.58Ni0.6Co0.4O2phase obtained was used as the positive electrode in sodium batteries. Several structural transformations were observed during discharge (intercalation reaction). The magnetic and electrical study of the NaxNi0.6Co0.4O2(x= 1, 0.80, 0.58) phases shows clearly that NiIII(t62e1in LS configuration) is preferentially oxidized to the tetravalent state compared to CoIII(t62e0in LS configuration). The sodium diffusion coefficient was also calculated in the solid solution domains. It shows that the diffusion kinetics is faster when sodium ions are situated in a prismatic environment.

  10. Tailoring the surface properties of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ by titanium substitution for improved high voltage cycling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff-Goodrich, Silas; Xin, Huolin L.; Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M.; Nordlund, Dennis; Asta, Mark; Doeff, Marca M.

    2015-07-30

    The present research aims to provide insights into the behavior of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ (NMC442-Ti02) cathode materials under galvanostatic cycling to high potentials, in the context of previous work which predicted that Ti-substituted variants should deliver higher capacities and exhibit better cycling stability than the unsubstituted compounds. It is found that NMC cathodes containing Ti show equivalent capacity fading but greater specific capacity than those without Ti in the same potential range. When repeatedly charged to the same degree of delithiation, NMC cathodes containing Ti showed better capacity retention. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra for Mn and Co indicated increased reduction in these elements for NMC cathodes without Ti, indicating that the substitution of Ti for Co acts to suppress the formation of a high impedance rock salt phase at the surface of NMC cathode particles. The results of this study validate the adoption of a facile change to existing NMC chemistries to improve cathode capacity retention under high voltage cycling conditions.

  11. Tailoring the surface properties of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ by titanium substitution for improved high voltage cycling performance

    DOE PAGES

    Wolff-Goodrich, Silas; Xin, Huolin L.; Lin, Feng; ...

    2015-07-30

    The present research aims to provide insights into the behavior of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ (NMC442-Ti02) cathode materials under galvanostatic cycling to high potentials, in the context of previous work which predicted that Ti-substituted variants should deliver higher capacities and exhibit better cycling stability than the unsubstituted compounds. It is found that NMC cathodes containing Ti show equivalent capacity fading but greater specific capacity than those without Ti in the same potential range. When repeatedly charged to the same degree of delithiation, NMC cathodes containing Ti showed better capacity retention. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra for Mn and Comore » indicated increased reduction in these elements for NMC cathodes without Ti, indicating that the substitution of Ti for Co acts to suppress the formation of a high impedance rock salt phase at the surface of NMC cathode particles. The results of this study validate the adoption of a facile change to existing NMC chemistries to improve cathode capacity retention under high voltage cycling conditions.« less

  12. The Impact of Aluminum and Iron Substitution on the Structure and Electrochemistry of Li[Ni0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4]O2 Materials

    SciTech Connect

    WIlcox, James D.; Rodriguez, Efrain E.; Doeff, Marca M.

    2009-07-23

    Li[Ni0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4]O2 (0<_y<_0.2) (M=Al) and Li[Ni0.4Co0.15Fe0.05Mn0.4]O2 compounds were prepared in order to investigate the effect of replacement of all or part of the cobalt on the structural and electrochemical properties. The impact of substitution on the structure has been examined by both x-ray and neutron diffraction experiments. The incorporation of aluminum has minimal effect on the anti-site defect concentration, but leads to structural changes that affect electrochemical performance. The most important effect is an opening of the lithium slab dimension upon substitution, which results in improved rate performance compared to the parent compound. In contrast, the lithium slab dimension is not affected by iron substitution and no rate enhancement effect is observed. The cycling stability of aluminum containing materials is superior to both the parent material and iron-substituted materials.

  13. The "CEO" of women's work lives: how Big Five Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness predict 50 years of work experiences in a changing sociocultural context.

    PubMed

    George, Linda G; Helson, Ravenna; John, Oliver P

    2011-10-01

    Few long-term longitudinal studies have examined how dimensions of personality are related to work lives, especially in women. We propose a life-course framework for studying work over time, from preparatory activities (in the 20s) to descending work involvement (after age 60), using 50 years of life data from the women in the Mills Longitudinal Study. We hypothesized differential work effects for Extraversion (work as pursuit of rewards), Openness (work as self-actualization), and Conscientiousness (work as duty) and measured these 3 traits as predictor variables when the women were still in college. In a prospective longitudinal design, we then studied how these traits predicted the women's subsequent work lives from young adulthood to age 70 and how these effects depended on the changing sociocultural context. Specifically, the young adulthood of the Mills women in the mid-1960s was rigidly gender typed and family oriented; neither work nor education variables at that time were predicted from earlier personality traits. However, as women's roles changed, later work variables became related to all 3 traits, as expected from current Big Five theory and research. For example, early personality traits predicted the timing of involvement in work, the kinds of jobs chosen, and the status and satisfaction achieved, as well as continued work participation and financial security in late adulthood. Early traits were also linked to specific cultural influences, such as the traditional feminine role, the women's movement, and graduate education for careers.

  14. Significance of occlusal force for dietary fibre and vitamin intakes in independently living 70-year-old Japanese: from SONIC Study.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Chisato; Ikebe, Kazunori; Kagawa, Ryosuke; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Okada, Tadashi; Takeshita, Hajime; Tada, Sayaka; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Kurushima, Yuko; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Kamide, Kei; Masui, Yukie; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Arai, Yasumichi; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2014-05-01

    The number of teeth has frequently been used as an indicator of oral health in investigations of food intake; however, this measure does not represent the efficacy of the masticatory performance. Masticatory performance may be more important for food selection and avoidance than number of remaining teeth. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of occlusal force with habitual dietary intakes in independently living older Japanese. The study population was 757 community-dwelling people aged 69-71 years old. Bilateral maximal occlusal force in the intercuspal position was measured with pressure-sensitive sheets. Removable denture wearers kept their dentures in place during the measurements. Dietary habits during the preceding month were assessed using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire that measures consumption frequencies of selected food commonly consumed and calculates energy-adjusted dietary intakes. Linear trends of food and nutrient intakes with decreasing occlusal force were tested after adjusting for gender and socioeconomic factors. After adjusting for socioeconomic status and the number of remaining teeth, decline of occlusal force was significantly associated with lower intakes of vegetables, vitamins A, C, B6, folate, and dietary fibre (P for trend<0.05). In contrast, number of teeth was significantly associated only with calcium and zinc, controlling for occlusal force. It is concluded that occlusal force was significantly associated with intakes of vitamins and dietary fibre rather than number of remaining teeth in independently living older Japanese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Education, occupation and health status of people of age five years or more living in a high density urban area in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Watts, T E; Siziya, S

    1997-09-01

    To find out the education, occupation and health status of people aged five years or more living in a high density urban area in Zimbabwe. Cross sectional. Households in Chitungwiza. Persons of age five years or more available in a household at the time of the survey. In 1990 and 1993, 822 and 1,023 people were surveyed, respectively. Educational level, employment, rate of smoking, nutritional status, blood pressure level, and rate of disability. After the age of 24 years, more males than females were observed in both periods. A much higher proportion (x2 = 20.34, df = 1, p < 0.001) of women were in informal employment in 1993 (28.6%) than in 1990 (12.9%). Meanwhile, about an equal proportion of men were in the informal sector in both periods (12.0% and 10.4% in 1990 and 1993, respectively). For females of age 15 years or more, fewer (40.8%) had attained secondary education than males (76.4%) in 1990 (x2 = 50.2, df = 1, p < 0.001). Overall, 208 (36.1%) men and eight (1.3%) women of age 15 years or more smoked. Raised blood pressure for both sexes increased significantly with age (x2 for linear trend = 20.21 for men and 65.81 for women, df = 1, p < 0.001 for both sexes). More women of age 45 years or more had raised blood pressure than men (x2 = 4.67, df = 1, p = 0.031). Many more women (8.0%) than men (0.7%) had a Ponderal Index of greater than 27 (x2 = 19.33, df = 1, p < 0.001). A total of 12 (1.5%) persons were disabled. Raised blood pressure and obesity mainly affected women and interventions to improve their health is recommended.

  16. Low Prevalence of Pneumococcal Carriage and High Serotype and Genotype Diversity among Adults over 60 Years of Age Living in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Santos Paulo, Ana Cristina; Valadares, Idalina; Martins, Sara; Breia, Fátima; Brito-Avô, António; Morais, Ana; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Sá-Leão, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease is frequent at the extremes of age. While several studies have looked at colonization among young children, much less is known among the elderly. We aimed to evaluate pneumococcal carriage among elderly adults living in Portugal. Between April 2010 and December 2012, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs of adults over 60 years of age, living in an urban area (n = 1,945) or in a rural area (n = 1,416), were obtained. Pneumococci were isolated by culture-based standard procedures, identified by optochin susceptibility, bile solubility and PCR screening for lytA and cpsA, and characterized by antibiotype, serotype, and MLST. Associations between pneumococcal carriage, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated by univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression. The global prevalence of carriage was 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8–2.8). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, smoking, being at a retirement home, and living in a rural area increased the odds of being a pneumococcal carrier by 4.4-fold (95% CI: 1.9–9.2), 2.0-fold (95% CI: 1.1–3.6) and 2.0-fold (95% CI: 1.2–3.5), respectively. Among the 77 pneumococcal isolates, 26 serotypes and 40 STs were identified. The most prevalent serotypes were (in decreasing order) 19A, 6C, 22F, 23A, 35F, 11A, and 23B, which accounted, in total, for 60.0% of the isolates. Most isolates (93.5%) had STs previously described in the MLST database. Resistance to macrolides, non-susceptibility to penicillin and multidrug resistance were found in 19.5%, 11.7%, and 15.6% of the isolates, respectively. We conclude that the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in the elderly, in Portugal, as determined by culture-based methods, is low. Serotype and genotype diversity is high. Living in a rural area, in a retirement home, and being a smoker increased the risk of pneumococcal carriage. This study contributes to the establishment of a baseline that may be used to monitor how novel

  17. The healthy aged: Descriptive analysis by sex of cognitively functioning elderly patients 80 years and older living independently in the community.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Marshall; Pike, Andrea; McCrate, Farah; Parsons, Karen; Parsons, Wanda; Pitcher, Heather; Buehler, Sharon; Gadag, Veeresh; Miller, Robert; Sclater, Anne

    2015-03-01

    To describe a population of cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older who are livingin dependently in the community. Descriptive cross-sectional study based on the enrolment cohort of a randomized controlled trial. St John's, Nfld. A total of 236 cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older living independently in the community. Demographic characteristics including age, sex, marital status, and education; health status and quality of life measured by the Short Form-36 and the CASP-19 (control, autonomy, self-realization,and pleasure); use of formal and informal community services;satisfaction with family physician care as measured by the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-18; and use of health care resources (family physician visits, emergency department visits,hospitalizations, and laboratory and diagnostic imaging tests). Overall, 66.5% of those in the group were women and the average age was 85.5 years. A quarter had postsecondary diplomas or degrees; 54.7% were widowed (69.4% of women and 25.3% of men). The cohort scored well in terms of health status and quality of life, with a range of scores on the Short Form–36 from 57.5 to 93.5 out of 100, and a score of 44 out of 57 on the CASP-19; they were satisfied with the care received from family physicians, with scores between 3.8 and 4.3 out of 5 on the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-18; and use of health services was low-70% had no emergency department visits in the previous year and 80% had not used any laboratory or diagnostic services. Seniors aged 80 years and older living in dependently are involved in the social fabric of society. They are generally well educated, slightly more than half are widowed,and two-thirds are female. They score well on scales that measure well-being and quality of life, and they use few health services. They are the healthy aged. NCT00452465 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

  18. Activities of daily living after hip fracture: profile and rate of recovery during 2 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, T; González-Montalvo, J I; Gotor, P; Madero, R; Otero, A

    2011-05-01

    In this study 509 hip fracture patients were followed-up during 24 months measuring their recuperation in activities of daily living. The different activities measured had both different profile and probability of recovery. Recovery of pre-fracture functional level is a goal of hip fracture treatment. The objective of this study was to measure recovery of previous functional level for ambulation and for the activities of daily living during the 24 months after osteoporotic hip fracture. This is a longitudinal prospective study of the patients admitted to the orthopaedics department of a university hospital for hip fracture and followed up by a geriatrician during three years (2003-2005). Demographic, clinical, functional and treatment data were collected during hospitalisation. Telephone follow-up was made at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data were analysed by survival analysis applying the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Five hundred and nine patients were included. The mean age was 84.5 (SD 6.3) years. The activities with lower probability of recovery to the previous level at 24 months were climbing stairs, chair/bed transfers, ambulation, dressing, bathing and use of toilet (between 67.5% and 76% recovery). The activities with higher probability of recovery were grooming, feeding and bladder and bowel control (between 86.3% and 95.4%). Recovery of previous performance level for ambulation, chair/bed transfers, use of toilet, feeding, grooming and bladder control occurred primarily during the first 6 months, whereas recovery of bathing, dressing and climbing stairs occurred mainly in the first 12 months after the fracture. The activities with lower likelihood of recovery were ambulation, chair/bed transfers, climbing stairs, use of toilet, bathing and dressing. Time of recovery varied by activity; bathing, dressing and climbing stairs were the activities with the longest recovery time.

  19. Impact of clinical, psychological, and social factors on decreased Tinetti test score in community-living elderly subjects: a prospective study with two-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Manckoundia, Patrick; Thomas, Frédérique; Buatois, Séverine; Guize, Louis; Jégo, Bertrand; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Benetos, Athanase

    2008-06-01

    Balance and gait are essential to maintain physical autonomy, particularly in elderly people. Thus the detection of risk factors of balance and gait impairment appears necessary in order to prevent falls and dependency. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of demographic, social, clinical, psychological, and biological parameters on the decline in balance and gait assessed by the Tinetti test (TT) after a two-year follow-up. This prospective study was conducted among community-living, young elderly volunteers in the centre "Investigations Preventives et Cliniques" and "Observatoire De l'Age" (Paris, France). Three hundred and forty-four participants aged 63.5 on average were enrolled and performed the TT twice, once at inclusion and again two years later. After the two-year follow-up, two groups were constituted according to whether or not there was a decrease in the TT score: the "TT no-deterioration" group comprised subjects with a decrease of less than two points and the "TT deterioration" group comprised those with a decrease of two points or more. Selected demographic, social, clinical, psychological, and biological parameters for the two groups were then compared. Statistical analysis showed that female sex, advanced age, high body mass index, osteoarticular pain, and a high level of anxiety all have a negative impact on TT score. Knowledge of predictive factors of the onset or worsening of balance and gait disorders could allow clinicians to detect young elderly people who should benefit from a specific prevention program.

  20. Early conversion from cyclosporine to everolimus following living-donor kidney transplantation: outcomes at 5 years posttransplant in the randomized ZEUS trial.

    PubMed

    Sommerer, Claudia; Budde, Klemens; Zeier, Martin; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Reinke, Petra; Eisenberger, Ute; Mühlfeld, Anja; Arns, Wolfgang; Stahl, Rolf; Heller, Katharina; Wolters, Heiner H; Suwelack, Barbara; Klehr, Hans Ulrich; Hauser, Ingeborg A; Stangl, Manfred; Nadalin, Silvio; Dürr, Michael; Porstner, Martina; May, Christoph; Wimmer, Peter; Witzke, Oliver; Lehner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    To assess 5-year efficacy, renal, and safety outcomes following early conversion from cyclosporine to everolimus vs. a standard cyclosporine-based regimen in living-donor kidney transplant (LDKT) recipients. The ZEUS study was a randomized, open-label, 1-year, multicenter study in which 300 de novo kidney transplant recipients continued to receive cyclosporine or converted to everolimus at 4.5 months post-transplant, with annual follow-up visits to 5 years post-transplant. Of the 80 LDKT patients who were randomized, 75 completed the 1-year core study and 60 attended the 5-year follow-up visit. At year 5, 15/31 (48.4%) everolimus patients and 20/29 (69.0%) cyclosporine patients remained on the study drug. Mean adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at year 5 in LDKT recipients was 67.2 vs. 60.8 mL/min/1.73m2 for everolimus vs. cyclosporine (mean difference 6.4 mL/min/1.73m2; p = 0.031). For patients who remained on study drug, the mean difference was 13.2 mL/min/1.73m2 (p = 0.003), but no significant difference was seen in patients who switched from study drug (mean -2.6 mL/min/1.73m2, p = 0.701). Patient and graft survival rates were similar with everolimus and cyclosporine. Biopsy-proven acute rejection occurred in 22.0% vs. 7.5% of LDKT patients randomized to everolimus vs. cyclosporine (p = 0.116). Only 1 LDKT patient discontinued everolimus due to adverse events during years 1 - 5. Early initiation of everolimus with calcineurin-inhibitor (CNI) withdrawal after LDKT improved graft function to 5 years post-transplant compared to standard CNI-based therapy. The renal benefit was concentrated in patients who remained on everolimus. An increase in mild acute rejection was not associated with long-term graft loss.

  1. Health care seeking patterns and out of pocket payments for children under five years of age living in Katchi Abadis (slums), in Islamabad, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 1990, Pakistan has faced an unprecedented rate of urbanization, thereby resulting in the uncontrolled proliferation of slums (Katchi Abadis) in all large cities. These areas lack the basic municipal services such as safe water supply, sanitation and waste collection. There is limited access to quality health care services, both curative and preventive. Therefore, communities living in katchi abadis are faced with health seeking challenges and catastrophic expenditure to pay for health care services (formal or informal). Methods This cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted in Islamabad, using a semi-structured questionnaire with mothers of children 5 years of age. There are 34 katchi abadis, 11 are recognized by the Capital Development Authority, out of which seven were included in the study. The calculated sample size was 207. Main findings Average household income was found to be Pak Rupee 10,000 (approx.US$100) per month. Diarrhea, fever, common cold and cough were common illnesses among under 5 children. Approximately 43% of the mothers were illiterate and they preferred consulting a private doctor or a private dispenser in the katchi abadi. Mother’s level of education was significantly associated with the type of health provider consulted. Majority had to spend out of pocket, while many either borrowed money from relatives or friends or sold a household item. Delay in seeking health care added to the out of pocket expense. The mean cost on child’s treatment was approximately PkRs400 (approximately US$ 4) for a single consultation. Conclusion There are several factors associated with health seeking behavior of mothers of children under the age of 5 years, living in the katchi abadis of Islamabad. The latter population group is one of the most vulnerable given their poor standard of living conditions. A multi-sectoral approach is needed to address the provision of basic amenities, the availability of safety nets to pay for health

  2. Attitudes and perceptions of adults of 60 years and older towards in-home monitoring of the activities of daily living with contactless sensors: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Claes, Veerle; Devriendt, Els; Tournoy, Jos; Milisen, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Contactless monitoring is increasingly used to enhance qualitative and cost-effective care for older persons. Succesful integration of this technology in older peoples' daily lives, depends on their acceptance of these systems. The primary purpose was to explore attitudes and perceptions of adults of 60 years and older towards contactless monitoring of the activities of daily living. A questionnaire was developed, validated and used in a cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample (n=245). The results were presented using descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses to explore variables associated with willingness to install the technology. Descriptive statistics indicate that adults of 60 years and older find contactless monitoring useful for various purposes (e.g. to remain living at home longer, safely and independently; for timely detection of emergency situations and gradually emerging health problems). They agree to share collected information with professional caregivers and own access to the data is valued. Respondents like to take part in diverse decisions about the monitoring (e.g. about the rooms in which it is installed, the type of sensors used and access of third parties to collected information). However, several concerns were expressed related to the functioning and financing of contactless monitoring. Bivariate analyses show that both socio-demographic factors (e.g. age, receiving professional home care) and attitudes and perceptions towards contactless monitoring (e.g. on its potential usefulness, on the availability of collected information, on the functional requirements and financial costs of the system and on the use of video cameras) can promote or impede acceptance of the technology. This explorative study indicates that older adults are willing to incorporate contactless monitoring in later life or when their health declines. They agree to share collected information with professional caregivers and clearly demand for participation in

  3. Health care seeking patterns and out of pocket payments for children under five years of age living in Katchi Abadis (slums), in Islamabad, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Aneeqa; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Ronis, Katrina A

    2014-04-16

    Since 1990, Pakistan has faced an unprecedented rate of urbanization, thereby resulting in the uncontrolled proliferation of slums (Katchi Abadis) in all large cities. These areas lack the basic municipal services such as safe water supply, sanitation and waste collection. There is limited access to quality health care services, both curative and preventive. Therefore, communities living in katchi abadis are faced with health seeking challenges and catastrophic expenditure to pay for health care services (formal or informal). This cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted in Islamabad, using a semi-structured questionnaire with mothers of children 5 years of age. There are 34 katchi abadis, 11 are recognized by the Capital Development Authority, out of which seven were included in the study. The calculated sample size was 207. Average household income was found to be Pak Rupee 10,000 (approx.US$100) per month. Diarrhea, fever, common cold and cough were common illnesses among under 5 children. Approximately 43% of the mothers were illiterate and they preferred consulting a private doctor or a private dispenser in the katchi abadi. Mother's level of education was significantly associated with the type of health provider consulted. Majority had to spend out of pocket, while many either borrowed money from relatives or friends or sold a household item. Delay in seeking health care added to the out of pocket expense. The mean cost on child's treatment was approximately PkRs400 (approximately US$ 4) for a single consultation. There are several factors associated with health seeking behavior of mothers of children under the age of 5 years, living in the katchi abadis of Islamabad. The latter population group is one of the most vulnerable given their poor standard of living conditions. A multi-sectoral approach is needed to address the provision of basic amenities, the availability of safety nets to pay for health care is crucial to avoid catastrophic expenditure

  4. Dynamic evaluation of RPI's 0.4 scale unmanned Martian roving vehicle model. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, A. G.

    1973-01-01

    A design for a Mars Roving Vehicle is presented in a three dimensional model considering three degrees of freedom. In addition, the physical characteristics of the 0.4 scale RPI-MRV are presented along with the basic dynamic responses.

  5. A systematic review of third-generation hydroxyethyl starch (HES 130/0.4) in resuscitation: safety not adequately addressed.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Christiane S; Kohl, Matthias; Reinhart, Konrad

    2011-03-01

    Hydroxyethyl starches (HES) are widely used for intravascular volume therapy in surgical, emergency, and intensive care patients. There are safety concerns with regard to coagulopathy, renal failure, pruritus, tissue storage, and mortality. Third-generation HES 130/0.4 is considered to have an improved risk profile. A common rationale for the use of HES is the belief that 3 to 4 times more crystalloid than colloid volume is needed to achieve similar hemodynamic end points. Our goal was to assess whether published studies on HES 130/0.4 resuscitation are sufficiently well designed to draw conclusions about the safety of this compound. In addition, we wanted to assess crystalloid-to-colloid fluid ratios in studies with goal-directed fluid regimen. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials in which HES 130/0.4 is used for resuscitation. We identified 56 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with HES 130/0.4 in. acute hypovolemia, mainly from the elective surgical setting (n = 45). Surgical studies were small-sized (median 25 patients in the HES groups, range 10 to 90) and of short duration (median 12 hours, range 0.5 to 144 hours). The median cumulative HES dose was 2465 mL (range 328 to 6229 mL), corresponding to 35 mL/kg in a 70-kg patient, the daily dose limit being 50 mL/kg. End points mostly addressed variable surrogate outcomes. Sixty percent of control fluids were other HES solutions, gelatins, or dextran, which have a similar risk profile. Without exception, these studies were not designed for clinically important safety outcomes, primarily because they were too small, used mostly inadequate control fluids, and had inappropriately short observation periods. Therefore, and also because of heterogeneity of patient groups and outcome definitions, results from these studies cannot be pooled. These studies do not allow any conclusion about the safety of HES 130/0.4. There is a common belief that 3 to 4 times more crystalloid than colloid volume is necessary

  6. Characterization and Electrochemical Performance of SubstitutedLiNi0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4O2 (0<_y<_0.2) Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, James D.; Doeff, Marca M.

    2007-11-28

    A complete series of LiNi0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4O2 (0<_y<_0.2) materials have been synthesized and investigated as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. When cycled between 2.0 and 4.3 V vs. Li/Li+ at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2, stable capacities of ~;;160 mAh/g for y=0 to ~;;110 mAh/g for y=0.2 are achieved. Upon increasing the current density, it is found that all materials containing aluminum show reduced polarization and improved rate performance. The optimal performance at all current densities was found for the compound with y=0.05. The effect of aluminumsubstitution on the crystal structure of the host is discussed.

  7. The effectiveness of electrolyte additives in fluorinated electrolytes for high voltage Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2]O2/graphite pouch Li-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Petibon, R.; Xiao, A.; Lamanna, W. M.; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of electrolyte additives in fluorinated electrolytes containing 1 M LiPF6/fluoroethylene carbonate:bis (2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) carbonate (1:1 w:w) were studied in high voltage Li(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2)O2/graphite pouch cells tested to 4.5 V. The results showed that fluorinated electrolytes containing prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone alone or in combination with other additives exhibited significant improvements in terms of coulombic efficiency and charge endpoint capacity slippage during UHPC cycling, voltage drop during storage, as well as capacity retention during long-term cycling compared with state-of-the-art ethylene carbonate-based (ethylene carbonate: ethylmethyl carbonate 3:7) or sulfolane-based electrolytes (sulfolane: ethylmethyl carbonate 3:7) with some promising additive blends. These results indicate that fluorinated electrolytes offer an interesting alternative for high voltage Li-ion batteries.

  8. A new, high energy Sn-C/Li[Li(0.2)Ni(0.4)/3Co(0.4)/3Mn(1.6/3)]O2 lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Wang, Jun; Bresser, Dominic; Li, Jie; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2014-08-13

    In this paper we report a new, high performance lithium-ion battery comprising a nanostructured Sn-C anode and Li[Li0.2Ni0.4/3Co0.4/3Mn1.6/3]O2 (lithium-rich) cathode. This battery shows highly promising long-term cycling stability for up to 500 cycles, excellent rate capability, and a practical energy density, which is expected to be as high as 220 Wh kg(-1) at the packaged cell level. Considering the overall performance of this new chemistry basically related to the optimized structure, morphology, and composition of the utilized active materials as demonstrated by XRD, TEM, and SEM, respectively, the system studied herein is proposed as a suitable candidate for application in the lithium-ion battery field.

  9. The Food Environment Through the Camera Lenses of 9- to 13-Year-Olds Living in Urban, Low-Income, Midwestern Households: A Photovoice Project.

    PubMed

    Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery

    2015-01-01

    To pilot Photovoice methodology with low-income, urban 9- to 13-year-olds to gain insight about their food environment and to determine whether this methodology was engaging and acceptable to them. Photovoice methodology was used to allow children to represent their food environment. Twenty male and 9 female, low-income, 9- to 13-year-old children participated. Quantitative photograph analysis included quantity taken and usable internal/external and social environment and healthfulness categorizations. Qualitative analysis was conducted through open coding of interview transcripts. A total of 345 usable photos were taken by the children (n = 29), depicting both healthy and unhealthy foods. Four themes were identified (1) food characteristics; (2) social environment; (3) kitchen, cooking, and dining environments; and (4) food insecurity. Unhealthy food was most readily available to children. Children reported a lack of functioning kitchen equipment and multiple physical and environmental challenges to consuming a healthy diet. Food insecurity was prevalent. Food stamps and food pantries were used to fill gaps in the home food supply. Photovoice can be effective in engaging children in conversation about their food environment and increases understanding of their experiences with food. Photovoice can provide insight into the household food environments. This information can be used to tailor interventions to better reflect the living environment and eating behaviors in low-income populations. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A low-cost, sustainable, second generation system for surveillance of people living with HIV in Spain: 10-year trends in behavioural and clinical indicators, 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Diez, M; Diaz, A; Garriga, C; Pons, M; Ten, A; Marcos, H; Gutierrez, G; Moreno, S; Gonzalez-Garcia, J; Barrios, Am; Arponen, S; Garcia, Mt; Royo, Mc; Toledo, J; Gonzalez, G; Aranguren, R; Izquierdo, A; Viloria, Lj; Elizalde, L; Martinez, E; Castrillejo, D; Lopez, I; Redondo, C; Cano, A; The Hospital Survey Study Group, C

    2014-05-22

    A second-generation surveillance system of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been implemented in Spain. Behavioural and clinical data were collected between 2002 and 2011 through an annual one-day, cross-sectional survey in public hospitals, including all in- and outpatients receiving HIVrelated care on the survey day. Mean age increased over time (from 38.7 years in 2002 to 43.8 years in 2011) and 68.4% of the 7,205 subjects were male. The proportion of migrants increased from 6.1% to 15.9%, while people who inject or used to inject drugs (PWID and Ex-PWID) decreased and men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals increased. Unprotected intercourse at last sex increased among MSM and PWID/Ex-PWID. Patients receiving antiretroviral treatment increased significantly from 76.0% to 88.2% as did those with CD4 T-cell counts ≥350 (from 48.2% to 66.9%) and viral copies <200 (from 47.0% to 85.2%). HIV-infected people with hepatitis C virus RNA decreased from 36.0% in 2004 to 29.9% in 2011, while those with HBsAg remained stable at around 4.4%. Implementation of a low-cost, sustainable system for second-generation surveillance in people living with HIV is feasible. In Spain, the information obtained has helped to define and refine public health policy and document treatment effectiveness.

  11. Total fluoride intake and excretion in children up to 4 years of age living in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas.

    PubMed

    Zohoori, F V; Buzalaf, M A R; Cardoso, C A B; Olympio, K P K; Levy, F M; Grizzo, L T; Mangueira, D F B; Sampaio, F C; Maguire, A

    2013-10-01

    Fractional fluoride retention is important during the early years of life when considering the risk of development of dental fluorosis. This study aimed to measure fractional fluoride retention in young children. The objectives were to investigate the relationships between fractional fluoride retention and total daily fluoride intake, age, and body mass index (BMI). Twenty-nine healthy children, up to 4 yr of age, participated; 14 lived in a fluoridated area (0.64 μg ml(-1) of fluoride in drinking water) and 15 lived in a non-fluoridated area (0.04 μg ml(-1) of fluoride in drinking water). The total daily fluoride intake of each child was calculated from the daily dietary fluoride intake and toothpaste ingestion (if fluoride toothpaste was used). Total daily fluoride excretion was measured by collecting voided urine and faeces over a 24-h period, and fractional fluoride retention was calculated by dividing the amount of fluoride retained in the body (total daily fluoride intake minus total daily fluoride excretion) by the total daily fluoride intake. Nine children were excluded from data analysis because of suspected invalid samples. Mean (range) fractional fluoride retention for the remaining 20 children was 0.61 (0.06-0.98). There were no statistically significant correlations between fractional fluoride retention and either age or BMI. However, fractional fluoride retention was correlated with total daily fluoride intake: fractional fluoride retention = 1 - exp (-C × total daily fluoride intake), where C = 28.75 (95% CI = 19.75-37.75). The wide variation in fluoride retention in young children could have important implications when recommendations for fluoride use are being considered. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  12. Live Donors of the Initial Observational Study of Uterus Transplantation-Psychological and Medical Follow-Up Until 1 Year After Surgery in the 9 Cases.

    PubMed

    Kvarnström, Niclas; Järvholm, Stina; Johannesson, Liza; Dahm-Kähler, Pernilla; Olausson, Michael; Brännström, Mats

    2017-03-01

    The first prospective observational study of uterus transplantation was initiated in 2013 with live donation to 9 women with absolute uterine factor infertility. We explored the medical complications and psychosocial wellbeing of the donors during the first postoperative year. Complications were registered and graded according to the Clavien-Dindo (C-D) classification. Symptoms related to the surgery were registered. Data on length of hospital stay, sick leave, socioeconomic parameters, and life events were obtained. Psychological evaluations (Psychological General Well-Being, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS], SF-36) questionnaires focusing on quality of life, mood, and relationship, were conducted at inclusion and at 3, 6, and 12 months after uterus donation. One major surgical complication (C-D IIIb) occurred. A ureteric-vaginal fistula developed 2 weeks after uterus procurement. The fistula was surgically repaired. Two self-reported and transient complications (C-D I) were noted (nocturia, meralgia paresthetica). Hospital stays of all donors were 6 days and median sick leave was 56 days (range, 14-132). At inclusion, median scores exceeded the normative values of the Swedish population in Psychological General Well-Being and Dyadic Adjustment Scale. HADS-Anxiety was detected preoperatively in 1 donor. Two donors exceeded 10-point declines in SF-36 summary scores and increased their HADS scores by 6 points during the observation period. All donors returned to their predonation levels of physical health. The results support that it is feasible to retrieve a uterus safely from a live donor. Further studies are needed to better evaluate the method.

  13. Thermally activated flux flow in superconducting epitaxial FeSe0.6Te0.4 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, D.; Choi, W. J.; Seo, Y. I.; Seo, Sehun; Lee, Sanghan; Kwon, Yong Seung

    The thermally activated flux flow effect has been studied in epitaxial FeSe0.6Te0.4 thin film grown by a PLD method through the electrical resistivity measurement under various magnetic fields for B//c and B//ab. The results showed that the thermally activated flux flow effect is well described by the nonlinear temperature-dependent activation energy. The evaluated apparent activation energy U0 (B) is one order larger than the reported results and showed the double-linearity in both magnetic field directions. Furthermore, the FeSe0.6Te0.4 thin film shows the anisotropy of 5.6 near Tc and 2D-like superconducting behavior in thermally activated flux flow region. In addition, the vortex glass transition and the temperature dependence of the high critical fields were determined.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER G144.9+0.4 IN THE CAMELOPARDALIS OB1 ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chien-Cheng; Chen, W. P.; Panwar, Neelam

    2013-10-01

    Our star-count analysis of the Two Micron All Sky Survey point sources resulted in an identification of the star cluster G144.9+0.4. The cluster was found, but not characterized, by Glushkova et al. We show that the cluster is physically associated with the Cam OB1 association at a distance of about 1 kpc and with an age of 1-2 Myr. Pre-main sequence stars are identified on the basis of photometric and proper motion data. A total of 91 additional OB star candidates was found in subgroups 1A and 1B, a significant increase from the currently known 43 OB stars. The OB members show an age spread that indicates a sustained star formation for at least the last 10-15 Myr. The young cluster G144.9+0.4 represents the latest episode of sequential star formation in this cloud complex.

  15. BVR Photometry Of An Inverted-spectrum, Flat-spectrum Radio Source With The Rowan 0.4-meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Erick; Diekewicz, A.

    2012-01-01

    Several galaxies have been selected for an exploratory campaign with 0.4-meter telescope atop Science Hall at Rowan University. These galaxies exhibit inverted radio spectra on the basis of fluxes in the GB6 and VLA FIRST catalogs and have SDSS magnitudes in g-band less than 15.5. The results of BVR photometry of one of these galaxies, CGCG 215-024, are presented. These are the first results from an ongoing campaign to expand the function of the observatory atop Science Hall. Efforts to mitigate bulding vibration and light pollution in future work will be presented. The authors would like to acknowledge Ric and Jean Edelman for their gift that funded the 0.4-meter telescope.

  16. Hydroxyethyl starch 6%, 130/0.4 vs. a balanced crystalloid solution in cardiopulmonary bypass priming: a randomized, prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the advent of cardiopulmonary bypass, many efforts have been made to avoid the complications related with it. Any component of the pump participates in occurrence of these adverse events, one of which is the type of prime solution. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 with a commonly used balanced electrolyte solution on postoperative outcomes following coronary bypass surgery. Methods Two hundred patients undergoing elective coronary bypass surgery were prospectively studied. The patients were randomized in to two groups. First group received a balanced electrolyte solution and the second group received 6% hydoxyethyl starch 130/0.4 as prime solution. The postoperative outcomes of the patients were studied. Results The mean age of the patients was 61.81 ± 10.12 in the crystalloid group whereas 61.52 ± 9.29 in the HES group. There were 77 male patients in crystalloid group and 74 in HES group. 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 did not have any detrimental effects on renal and pulmonary functions. The intensive care unit stay and postoperative hospital length of stay were shorter in hydroxyethyl starch group (p < 0.05 for each). Hydroxyethyl starch did not increase postoperative blood loss, amount of blood and fresh frozen plasma used, but it decreased platelet concentrate requirement. It did not have any effect on occurrence of post-coronary bypass atrial fibrillation (p > 0.05). Conclusions 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 when used as a prime solution did not adversely affect postoperative outcomes including renal functions and postoperative blood transfusion following coronary bypass surgery. PMID:23566712

  17. Influence of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 on hemostasis as measured by viscoelastic device analysis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Christiane S; Reuter, Dorit; Loesche, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Michael; Reinhart, Konrad

    2011-11-01

    Hydroxyethyl starch solutions (HES) are plasma volume expanders which affect hemostasis. Newer HES 130/0.4 is said to be safer. Reevaluation of published evidence is necessary after the recent retraction of studies. Systematic review of studies assessing HES 130/0.4 effects on hemostasis by thrombelastography (TEG, ROTEM) or Sonoclot (SCR) in comparison with crystalloid or albumin control fluids was performed. Only studies which provided statistical comparisons between study fluids were analyzed. Studies were divided into in vitro or in vivo hemodilution studies. We assessed study quality, HES effects which differed significantly from controls, values outside normal range, degree of hemodilution, and cumulative HES dose. Seventeen in vitro and seven in vivo hemodilution studies were analyzed. Four studies reported quality control measures. Nineteen studies (all 15 ROTEM studies, 3 of 5 in vitro TEG, and 1 of 2 SCR studies) showed a significant hypocoagulatory effect of HES 130/0.4 on clot formation, while clotting time was not uniformly affected. Three in vivo TEG studies with low HES doses or cancer patients found mixed or nonsignificant results. In studies which provided normal ranges (n = 9), more values were outside normal ranges in the HES than in the control groups (87/122 vs. 58/122, p < 0.001). Dose effects were apparent in the in vitro studies, which investigated higher dilutions up to 80%. In vivo studies were fewer and did not investigate doses >40 ml/kg. HES 130/0.4 administration results in a weaker and smaller clot. Until results from well-designed clinical trials are available, safer fluids should be chosen for patients with impaired coagulation.

  18. Soliton excitations in the quasi-one-dimensional conductor Rb 2Pt(CN) 4(FHF) 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pană, O.; Giurgiu, L. V.; Knorr, S.; Rahmer, J.; Grupp, A.; Mehring, M.

    2001-08-01

    The authors have studied the soliton generation process in the quasi-one-dimensional platinum Rb 2Pt(CN) 4(FHF) 0.4 compound. Under the Peierls-transition temperature TP, a periodic lattice distortion accompanied by a charge density wave (CDW) with commensurability N=5 condensates. Local depinning of the CDW generates a soliton-antisoliton pair. The energy spectrum of the 5d z2 Pt electrons along with charges and spins of all soliton types are calculated.

  19. Fatigue as a long-term risk factor for limitations in instrumental activities of daily living and/or mobility performance in older adults after 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Mueller-Schotte, Sigrid; Bleijenberg, Nienke; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Decline in the performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and mobility may be preceded by symptoms the patient experiences, such as fatigue. The aim of this study is to investigate whether self-reported non-task-specific fatigue is a long-term risk factor for IADL-limitations and/or mobility performance in older adults after 10 years. Methods A prospective study from two previously conducted cross-sectional studies with 10-year follow-up was conducted among 285 males and 249 females aged 40–79 years at baseline. Fatigue was measured by asking “Did you feel tired within the past 4 weeks?” (males) and “Do you feel tired?” (females). Self-reported IADLs were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Mobility was assessed by the 6-minute walk test. Gender-specific associations between fatigue and IADL-limitations and mobility were estimated by multivariable logistic and linear regression models. Results A total of 18.6% of males and 28.1% of females were fatigued. After adjustment, the odds ratio for fatigued versus non-fatigued males affected by IADL-limitations was 3.3 (P=0.023). In females, the association was weaker and not statistically significant, with odds ratio being 1.7 (P=0.154). Fatigued males walked 39.1 m shorter distance than those non-fatigued (P=0.048). For fatigued females, the distance was 17.5 m shorter compared to those non-fatigued (P=0.479). Conclusion Our data suggest that self-reported fatigue may be a long-term risk factor for IADL-limitations and mobility performance in middle-aged and elderly males but possibly not in females. PMID:27877027

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 Cervicovaginal Shedding Among Women Living With HIV-1 and Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Burkina Faso: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Low, Andrea J; Nagot, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A; Konate, Issouf; Kania, Dramane; Segondy, Michel; Meda, Nicolas; van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) replication is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA shedding and genital ulcer disease (GUD) in a cohort of women living with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) in Burkina Faso. Participants were screened for cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA, GUD, cervicovaginal and systemic HIV-1 RNA, and reproductive tract infections every 3-6 months over 8 years. Associations with HSV-2 shedding and quantity were examined using random-effects logistic and linear regression, respectively. Of the 236 women with data on HSV-2 shedding, 151 took ART during the study period. Cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA was detected in 42% of women (99 of 236) in 8.2% of visits (151 of 1848). ART was associated with a reduction in the odds of HSV-2 shedding, which declined for each year of ART use (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], .59-.92). In the multivariable model, the impact of ART was primarily associated with suppression of systemic HIV-1 RNA (adjusted OR, 0.32; 95% CI, .15-.67). A reduction in the odds of GUD was also observed during ART, mainly in those with HIV-1 suppression (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, .25-1.11). ART is strongly associated with a decrease in cervicovaginal HSV-2 shedding, and the impact was sustained over several years. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. Effects of annealing, acid and alcoholic beverages on Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Taen, T.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Shi, Z. X.; Tamegai, T.

    2013-01-01

    We have systematically investigated and compared different methods to induce superconductivity in the iron chalcogenide Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4, including annealing in a vacuum, N2, O2 and I2 atmospheres and immersing samples into acid and alcoholic beverages. Vacuum and N2 annealing are proved to be ineffective in inducing superconductivity in a Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal. Annealing in O2 and I2 and immersion in acid and alcoholic beverages can induce superconductivity by oxidizing the excess Fe in the sample. Superconductivity in O2 annealed samples is of a bulk nature, while I2, acid and alcoholic beverages can only induce superconductivity near the surface. By comparing the different effects of O2, I2, acid and alcoholic beverages we propose a scenario to explain how the superconductivity is induced in the non-superconducting as-grown Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4.

  2. Dimensionality dependent magnetic and magnetocaloric response of La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 manganite.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M S; Ahmed, Faheem; Koo, Bon Heun

    2014-11-01

    We report the sol-gel synthesis and impact of reduced dimensionality on the magnetocaloric properties of La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 manganite. The synthesized powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and magnetization measurements. The XRD results indicated that the La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 nanoparticles have single phase nature with orthorhombic structure. FE-SEM results suggested that the nanoparticles are agglomerated and crystallite size increases with the annealing temperature. Magnetization measurements show that the La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 nanoparticles exhibit transition temperature (T(c)) below room temperature. The transition temperature was found to increase with the increasing the crystallite size. Maximum in magnetic entropy change, (ΔS(M))(max) shows interesting behaviour and was found to vary with the particle size. At magnetic field of 1 T, the value of (ΔS(M))(max) - 0.13 J/kg K was observed at 213 K for the sample annealed at 600 degrees C. Also, the increment in the value of (ΔS(M))(max) was observed at higher annealing temperature. This study shows that the magnetic entropy of pervoskite manganite can be tuned by tuning the crystallite size of the manganites.

  3. Au@Co0.4S core-shell nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and evaluation of photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warjri, Wandibahun; Negi, Devendra P. S.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, Au@Co0.4S core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared core-shell nanoparticles was evaluated by studying the degradation of methyl orange (MO) spectrophotometerically under visible light irradiation. Under optimum experimental conditions, 68.9% of the dye was degraded during 50 min of irradiation. Control experiments showed negligible degradation of MO in the absence of the photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. A good correlation was obtained between the concentration of the dye adsorbed on the surface of the Au@Co0.4S core-shell nanoparticles and its degradation efficiency. The as-prepared nanoparticles showed good recyclability for the degradation of MO. The mechanistic studies suggested that the valence band holes of the Co0.4S nanoparticles were scavenged by the MO molecules resulting in the degradation of the dye.

  4. [Effect of double anaesthetic Colicursi (tetracaine 0.1% and oxybuprocaine 0.4%) on central and paracentral corneal thickness].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rey, J A; Giráldez, M J; García-Resúa, C; Yebra-Pimentel, E

    2009-01-01

    To study the effect of 1 drop of combined topical anaesthesia (tetracaine 0.1% and oxybuprocaine 0.4%) on central corneal thickness (CCT) values and at 2.5 mm from the corneal centre in nasal, temporal, superior and inferior hemi meridians, monitored by Orbscan over a period of 16 minutes. The corneal thickness of 12 right eyes of 12 young healthy men was determined using the Orbscan Topography System. Values were determined at the centre and paracentral regions 2.5 mm from the centre every 2 minutes for 16 minutes before and after the administration of 1 drop of double anaesthetic Colircusi which contains tetracaine 0.1% and oxybuprocaine 0.4%. There was no obvious trend of central and paracentral corneal thickness value change before and after administration of Colircusi (paired ANOVA, p>0.05). Although corneal thickness variation was not statistically significant, higher differences were observed at the 6 minute time-point for CCT and at 8 minutes for nasal paracentral corneal thickness. One drop of double anaesthetic Colircusi with tetracaine 0.1% and oxibuprocaine 0.4% does not produce any significant change in central corneal thickness or in paracentral regions 2.5 mm from the centre (nasal, temporal, superior and inferior hemi meridians).

  5. Tobacco Smoking and Its Association with Illicit Drug Use among Young Men Aged 15-24 Years Living in Urban Slums of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885

  6. [Mental health status and related factors among first generation Japanese returnees from China and Chinese spouses living in Japan for ten years or more].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiuying; Ishigaki, Kazuko; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine mental health status and related factors among 1st generation Japanese returnees from China and Chinese spouses living in Japan for ten years or more. The subjects were 99 individuals (mean age= 63.9 years), all 1st generation Japanese returnees and their Chinese spouses, living in the Kanto region of Japan. The subjects completed a questionnaire survey, which included items regarding demographics, state of social activity in Japan, self-care behavior, the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) Index of Competence and physical health. The questionnaire survey also incorporated the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ12). The results of the survey were first analyzed by T- and chi2-tests. Logistic regression analysis was then performed in order to identify factors related to the GHQ12. The participants scored high scores on the GHQ12, with 72.7% showing a potential for mental health problems (GHQ12 more than 3). Major complaints were "cannot do useful things" 74.7%, "don't feel happy" 72.7%, "feeling under psychological strain" 59.6%, "unable to make decisions" 57.6%, "feeling depressed" 56.6%, "feeling worried and cannot sleep" 55.5%. The results of the logistic regression analysis revealed that those with potential mental health problems had a higher language barrier (OR: 5.48, 95%CI: 1.52-19.82), fewer providers of health care information (OR: 5.25, 95%CI: 1.32-20.95), fewer voluntary conversations with young people (OR: 3.51, 95%CI: 1.05-11.74), and lower self-rated health (OR: 15.49, 95%CI: 4.11-58.48). In this study, Japanese returnees and their Chinese spouses were found to have mental health problems, significantly associated with a high language barrier, limited information on health care, few conversations with young people, and low self-rated health. Our findings suggest that this population requires immediate assistance to improve their mental health. Furthermore, comprehensive and culturally sensitive

  7. A 2-year assessment of the main environmental factors driving the free-living bacterial community structure in Lake Bourget (France).

    PubMed

    Berdjeb, Lyria; Ghiglione, Jean François; Domaizon, Isabelle; Jacquet, Stéphan

    2011-05-01

    Despite the considerable attention that has been paid to bacterioplankton over recent decades, the dynamic of aquatic bacterial community structure is still poorly understood, and long-term studies are particularly lacking. Moreover, how the environment governs diversity patterns remains a key issue in aquatic microbial ecology. In this study, we used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA gene fragments and multivariable statistical approaches to explore the patterns of change in the free-living bacterial community in the mesotrophic and mono-meromictic Lake Bourget (France). A monthly sampling was conducted over two consecutive years (2007 and 2008) and at two different depths characterizing the epi- and hypolimnion of the lake (2 and 50 m, respectively). Temporal shifts in the bacterial community structure followed different patterns according to depth, and no seasonal reproducibility was recorded from 1 year to the next. Our results showed that the bacterial community structure displayed lower diversity at 2 m (22 bands) compared to 50 m (32 bands) and that bacterial community structure dynamics followed dissimilar trends between the two depths. At 2 m, five shifts in the bacterial community structure occurred, with the temporal scale varying between 2 and 8 months whereas, at 50 m, four shifts in the bacterial community structure took place at 50 m, with the temporal scale fluctuating between 3 and 13 months. More than 60% of the bacterial community structure variance was explained by seven variables at 2 m against eight at 50 m. Nutrients (PO(4)-P, NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N) and temperature were responsible for 49.6% of the variance at 2 m whereas these nutrients, with dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a accounting for 59.6% of the variance at 50 m. Grazing by ciliates played also a critical role on the bacterial community structure at both depths. Our results suggest that the free-living bacterial community structure in the epi

  8. Living status and frequency of eating out-of-home foods in relation to nutritional adequacy in 4,017 Japanese female dietetic students aged 18-20 years: A multicenter cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Satomi; Asakura, Keiko; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Living status (e.g., living with family or alone) may affect dietary habits. We compared nutritional adequacy according to living status and the frequency of eating out-of-home foods in young Japanese women. Female dietetic students (aged 18-20 years; n = 4,017) participated in a cross-sectional multicenter study, which was conducted in 85 dietetic schools in 35 of 47 prefectures in Japan. Habitual dietary intake was assessed with a validated diet history questionnaire. Nutritional adequacy was determined based on the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese, 2015, for two goals: preventing non-communicable chronic disease (a tentative dietary goal for preventing lifestyle-related diseases [DG] that tracks five nutrients) and avoiding insufficient intake of mainly vitamins and minerals (estimated average requirement [EAR] that tracks 14 nutrients). Women living with their family were less likely to meet DG nutrient levels, but more likely to meet EAR nutrient levels compared with those living alone. In contrast, women living alone had more inadequate nutrients with EAR and fewer nutrients with not-meeting DG than those living with families. A higher frequency of eating out-of-home was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of not-meeting DG nutrient levels only in the women living with their family. The prevalence of nutritional adequacy varied based on living status. In addition, women living with their family and those with a high frequency of eating out-of-home foods had the highest prevalence of not-meeting DG. Effective ways of improving dietary quality among young Japanese women differ by living status. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A New Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 -Silicon Hybrid Metamaterial Device in Terahertz Regime.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Du, Ting; Xu, Ningning; Ding, Chunfeng; Li, Hui; Sheng, Quan; Liu, Ming; Yao, Jianquan; Wang, Zhiyong; Lou, Xiaojie; Zhang, Weili

    2016-05-01

    Metamaterials, offering unprecedented functionalities to manipulate electromagnetic waves, have become a research hotspot in recent years. Through the incorporation of active media, the exotic electromagnetic behavior of metamaterials can be dramatically empowered by dynamic control. Many ferroelectric materials such as BaSrTiO3 (abbreviated as BST), exhibiting strong response to external electric field, hold great promise in both microwave and terahertz tunable devices. A new active Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 -silicon hybrid metamaterial device, namely, a SRR (square split-ring resonator)-BaSrTiO3 thin film-silicon three-layer structure is fabricated and intensively studied. The active Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 thin film hybrid metamaterial, with nanoscale thickness, delivers a transmission contrast up to ≈79% due to electrically enabled carrier transport between the ferroelectric thin film and silicon substrate. This work has significantly increased the low modulation rate of ferroelectric based devices in terahertz range, a major problem in this field remaining unresolved for many years. The proposed BST metamaterial is promising in developing high-performance real world photonic devices for terahertz technology.

  10. Somatic complaints and refrain from buying prescribed medications. Results from a cross-sectional study on people 60 years and older living in Kaunas (Lithuania)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of medicines by elderly people is a growing area of concern in social pharmacy. A significant proportion of older people do not follow the recommendations from physicians and refrain from buying prescribed medications. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations between self-rated health, somatic complaints and refraining from buying prescribed medications by elderly people. Findings Data was collected in a cross-sectional study in 2009. We received 624 completed questionnaires (response rate – 48.9%) from persons aged 60–84 years living in Kaunas (Lithuania). Somatic complaints were measured with the 24 item version of the Giessen Complaint List (GBB-24). Logistic regression (Enter model) was used for evaluation of the associations between refraining from buying medications and somatic complaints. These associations were measured using odds ratio (OR) and calculating the 95% confidence interval (CI). The mean scores in total for the GBB scale and sub-scales (exhaustion, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular) were lowest among respondents who did not refrain from buying prescribed medications (means for GBB-24 scale: 21.04 vs. 24.82; p=0.001). Logistic regression suggests that somatic complaints were associated with a increased risk of refraining from buying prescribed medications (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.15-1.60). Conclusions Somatic complaints were significantly associated with the decision to refrain from buying prescribed medications. PMID:23351159

  11. Psychological need satisfaction and well-being in adults aged 80 years and older living in residential homes: using a self-determination theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Claude; Martinent, Guillaume; Durmaz, Neriman

    2014-08-01

    Based on the self-determination theory (SDT), this study aims to examine the psychological needs satisfaction of the elderly living in residential homes and their relationship with indicators of well-being, and then to test the contribution of each need on these indicators. Participants (N=100; Mage=86.7 years, SD=3.78) completed the measures of psychological needs satisfaction, purpose in life, personal growth and geriatric depression. Cluster analyses showed two distinct profiles: one profile with a high satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs and another profile with a low satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs. These profiles did not differ in terms of residents' characteristics, health problems and functional limitations. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that the participants with the profile of a high satisfaction of psychological needs have significantly higher levels of purpose in life and personal growth than participants with the profile of a low satisfaction of psychological needs, and no effect of cluster membership on depressive feelings was reported. Moreover, for all participants, relatedness need satisfaction was significantly and positively related to personal growth, and autonomy and relatedness needs satisfaction was related to purpose of life. In conclusion, our results offer evidence that old age can be fruitful and, in consistent with SDT, show that autonomy and relatedness need satisfaction is positively associated with indicators of well-being such as purpose in life and personal growth, considered as essential components of optimal functioning.

  12. Breastfeeding Knowledge and Practices among Mothers of Children under 2 Years of Age Living in a Military Barrack in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinyinka, Modupe Rebekah; Olatona, Foluke Adenike; Oluwole, Esther Oluwakemi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human milk is uniquely superior as a source of nutrition for infants, and breastfeeding has many benefits. This study determined the breastfeeding knowledge and practices of women who have children aged 0-2 years living in a Naval Barracks. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among 220 women in a Naval Barracks selected using systematic random sampling method. Pre tested questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers, and data was analyzed using Epi info 2000 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 19. Results: There was generally fair knowledge about breastfeeding among the women. Most of the respondents (97.3%) had ever breastfed their babies, 56.5% of them initiated breastfeeding within an hour of delivery, 24.1% admitted that they gave pre lacteal feeds, 74.1% practiced exclusive breastfeeding for a mean period of 4.98 months and 30.7% engaged in bottle-feeding. Several factors were significantly associated with breastfeeding practices. Conclusions: Breastfeeding practices varied among the respondents despite the fair knowledge. Global Health Implications: This study reveals the need to educate women and communities worldwide particularly in low-income countries about good breastfeeding practices. Targeting these women will help to improve maternal and child health. PMID:27622007

  13. Effectiveness of the live attenuated and the inactivated influenza vaccine in two-year-olds - a nationwide cohort study Finland, influenza season 2015/16.

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Hanna; Baum, Ulrike; Syrjänen, Ritva; Ikonen, Niina; Sundman, Jonas; Jokinen, Jukka

    2016-09-22

    Although widely recommended, influenza vaccination of children is part of the national vaccination programme only in few countries. In addition to Canada and the United States (US), in Europe Finland and the United Kingdom have introduced live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) for healthy children in their programmes. On 22 June 2016, the US Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices, voted against further use of LAIV due to no observed vaccine effectiveness (VE) over three consecutive influenza seasons (2013/14 to 2015/16). We summarise the results of a nationwide, register-based cohort study (N=55,258 of whom 8,086 received LAIV and 4,297 TIV); all outcome (laboratory-confirmed influenza), exposure (vaccination) and confounding variable data were retrieved from four computerised national health registers, which were linked via a unique personal identity code assigned to all permanent Finnish residents regardless of nationality. Our study provides evidence of moderate effectiveness against any laboratory-confirmed influenza of the quadrivalent LAIV vaccine (VE: 51%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 28-66%) as well as the inactivated trivalent vaccine (VE: 61%; 95% CI: 31-78%) among two-year-olds during the influenza season 2015/16 in Finland. Based on these data, Finland will continue using LAIV for young children in its National Immunisation Programme this coming influenza season. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  14. Viral etiology of respiratory infections in children under 5 years old living in tropical rural areas of Senegal: The EVIRA project.

    PubMed

    Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye; Diop, Ousmane M; Sarr, Fatoumata Diene; Goudiaby, Deborah; Malou-Sompy, Hubert; Ndiaye, Kader; Vabret, Astrid; Baril, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    Acute respiratory infection is one of the leading causes of child morbidity, especially in developing countries. Viruses are recognized as the predominant causative agents of acute respiratory infections. In Senegal, few data concerning the causes of respiratory infections are available, and those known relate mainly to classical influenza infections. Clinical and virological surveillance of acute respiratory infections was carried out in a rural community in children less than 5 years old. A standardized questionnaire was used and a nasopharyngeal swab sample was collected from each patient. These samples were tested for the detection of 20 respiratory viruses by multiplex RT-PCR or by viral culture. A total of 82 acute respiratory episodes were included, and 48 (58.5%) were found to be positive, with a total of 55 viral detections; several samples were positive for two (n = 5) or 3 (n = 1) viruses. Ten different viruses were identified: influenza viruses A, B, and C (n = 25), human respiratory syncytial virus type A (n = 13), rhinoviruses (n = 8), human coronaviruses type 229E and NL63 (n = 6), parainfluenza viruses 3 and 4 (n = 2), and bocavirus (n = 1). These results provide evidence on the importance and the diversity of viruses as causative agents of acute respiratory infections in children living in a rural community in Senegal. The establishment of sentinel surveillance sites could help estimate the burden of acute respiratory infection in the pediatric population and should help prepare the health care systems to identify and respond to new viral respiratory emergencies.

  15. Electrochemical performance of LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 prepared by different molten salt flux: LiNO3-LiCl and LiNO3-KNO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayana, M.; James, Joseph; U. V., Varadaraju

    2017-10-01

    LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 material synthesized at different temperatures by using LiNO3-LiCl and LiNO3-KNO3 molten salt as a reaction medium. The phase purity of the samples obtained by powder X-ray diffraction measurement which suggests layered α-NaFeO2 type is obtained at 800-900 °C using LiNO3-LiCl flux and at 750-850 °C using LiNO3-KNO3 flux. The surface morphology change with flux media at different temperature are obtained by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The galvanostatic cycling results show that the high stable reversible discharge capacity of 155 (±3) mAh g-1 obtained for treated compound at 900 °C for 1 h (using LiNO3-LiCl) with coloumbic efficiency of 99%. The reversible discharge capacity of 140 and 130 (±3) mAh g-1 obtained for treated compound at 750 and 850 °C, respectively (using LiNO3-KNO3).

  16. A high temperature study on thermodynamic, thermal expansion and electrical properties of BaCe0.4Zr0.4Y0.2O3-δ proton conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basbus, J. F.; Arce, M. D.; Prado, F. D.; Caneiro, A.; Mogni, L. V.

    2016-10-01

    BaCe0.4Zr0.4Y0.2O3-δ (BCZY) was synthesized by solid state reaction, calcined and sintered at 1600 °C for 12 h. Crystal structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Morphology and porosity were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Crystalline structure, oxygen non-stoichiometry, linear expansion and electrical conductivity were characterized under oxidizing and reducing atmosphere by high temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), dilatometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. Chemical stability under CO2-rich atmosphere was evaluated by TG. BCZY electrical conductivity was studied by EIS under O2-containing atmosphere with water vapor (2% H2O) and heavy water vapor (2% D2O) in order to evaluate protonic conductivity. Throughout these techniques, interstitial proton incorporation/loss was observed under oxidizing and reducing atmosphere, between 300 and 500 °C. The conductivity presents two contributions. The bulk conductivity at high frequencies takes the same value regardless wet oxidizing or reducing atmosphere, decreasing its value in presence of D2O vapor supporting H-conductivity. On the other hand, the grain boundary conductivity was strongly dependent on the nature of wet atmosphere.

  17. Effect of sintering temperature on the structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 potential for radar absorbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, K.; Sadhana, K.; Matteppanavar, S.; Liu, Hsiang-Lin

    2017-02-01

    Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 nanopowders were prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion method, densified at different temperatures 400-700 °C/4 h using conventional sintering method. The grain sizes of all the samples vary between 18 nm and 30 nm. The hysteresis loops show high saturation magnetization and low coercivity, indicating magnetically soft behaviour of the material. The real and imaginary parts of permittivity is almost constant upto 1 GHz and increases with further increase of frequency. The permeability is ruled by Snoek's law, the values of μ‧ increases with increase of temperature and the resonance frequency increases with an increase of temperature. The reflection coefficient is however increasing with sintering temperature and the maximum loss is observed in the range of 100 MHz-1 GHz. Sample sintered at 700 °C has shown maximum reflection loss and this loss occurs due to absorption, destructive interference and multiple internal reflections in the sample. Quality factor is constant upto 380 MHz and increases with frequency for all the samples sintered at different temperatures. The TC for all the samples is above 230 °C. The room temperature EPR spectra confirm the oxidation state of Fe3+. The g-factor is in the range of 2.

  18. Hypothalamic GnRH-I and its precursor during photorefractoriness onset in free-living male Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) of different year classes.

    PubMed

    Meddle, Simone L; Wingfield, John C; Millar, Robert P; Deviche, Pierre J

    2006-01-15

    The termination of seasonal breeding in most photoperiodic passerines is heralded by spontaneous gonadal regression as a result of long day exposure. This phenomenon is termed absolute photorefractoriness and this insensitivity to long days may only be dissipated by short photoperiod exposure. The timing of the transition to a photorefractory stage in adult free-living male Dark-eyed Juncos is age-dependent. Second-year males (SY, entering their first breeding season) molt earlier, suggesting that they become refractory earlier, than older males (ASY). We determined whether the earlier onset of photorefractoriness in SY males concurs with decreased expression of hypothalamic GnRH-I or its precursor, pro-GnRH-GAP. Male SY and ASY juncos were caught at the end of the breeding season either during, or following, testicular regression. Immunoreactivity for GnRH-I and pro-GnRH-GAP was found in perikarya in the preoptic area, and fibers in the median eminence. The number and size of cells immunoreactive for GnRH-I and pro-GnRH-GAP did not significantly differ with age or time of year. In ASY juncos, there was a significant decrease in both GnRH-I and pro-GnRH-GAP staining density at the median eminence following testicular regression at a time of photorefractoriness onset. Density of pro-GnRH-GAP at the median eminence was also reduced following testicular regression in SY males but GnRH-I staining density did not change. Thus, age-class differences in the transition to photorefractoriness do not appear to result from differences in GnRH-I synthesis. Instead, the regulation of GnRH-I secretion by non-photoperiodic factors may determine photorefractoriness onset.

  19. Conjoined Unification Venoplasty for Double Portal Vein Branches of Right Liver Graft: 1-Year Experience at a High-Volume Living Donor Liver Transplantation Center.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shin; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Kim, Ki-Hun; Park, Gil-Chun; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Autologous portal Y-graft (PYG) interposition has been regarded as the standard procedure for reconstruction of double portal vein (PV) orifices of right liver grafts during living donor liver transplantation, but it has the drawback of being vulnerable to functional PV stenosis. A refined technique of conjoined unification venoplasty (CUV) was developed to secure PV reconstruction. We reviewed the surgical experience on reconstruction of graft double PVs in 28 cases during a 1-year period of 2014. Computational simulation and modeling studies led us to develop CUV, which consists of placing a unification patch between two graft PV orifices and overlying the coverage with a crotch-opened autologous PYG, the shape of which provides a wide range of tolerance for alignment mismatching in PV anastomosis. During the 1-year study period, the numbers of patients using autologous PYG interposition, circumferential PV fencing with greater saphenous vein, homograft vein interposition, and CUV were 11, 3, 1, and 0, respectively, for 6 months before implementing CUV, and 5, 1, 1, and 6, respectively, for 6 months after implementing CUV. PV complications occurred in 2 of 16 patients with autologous PYG interposition, but no complications were observed in 12 patients operated on using other techniques including CUV. The drawback of conventional autologous PYG interposition can be overcome technically by CUV, which secures PV patency through hemodynamic-compliant offset of anatomical discrepancy and anastomotic alignment mismatching. We believe that CUV could be a useful and effective technical option for reconstruction of right liver grafts with two graft PVs.

  20. Weight gain and reduced energy expenditure in low-income Brazilian women living in slums: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Florêncio, Telma M M T; Bueno, Nassib B; Clemente, Ana P G; Albuquerque, Fabiana C A; Britto, Revilane P A; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Sawaya, Ana L

    2015-08-14

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible changes in anthropometric and biochemical parameters in low-income women living in the outskirts of Maceió (northeast Brazil), and to explore the possible role of dietary intake and physical activity in these changes. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a cohort of mothers of malnourished children who attended the Center for Nutritional Recovery and Education, an outreach programme of the Federal University of Alagoas. Socio-economic, anthropometric, biochemical and dietary intake data were assessed at baseline and after a follow-up period of 4 years. Energy expenditure (using doubly labelled water) and physical activity (using triaxial accelerometers) were assessed only in a subgroup of women after 4 years. A total of eighty-five women were assessed. Participants showed an altered biochemical profile, increased systolic blood pressure, decreased thyroid hormone levels, and body-weight gain. However, dietary intakes of the participants did not include large quantities of highly processed and high-glycaemic index foods. The energy intake of the participants did not differ from their total energy expenditure (7990.3 (7173.7-8806.8) v. 8798.1 (8169.0-9432.4) kJ, respectively; P= 0.084). Multivariate analyses showed a significant effect of time spent watching television (β = 0.639 (0.003 to 1.275); P= 0.048) and dietary diversity score (β = -1.039 ( -2.010 to -0.067); P = 0.036) on weight gain. The present study indicates that poor women, who are mothers of malnourished children and have a reasonably balanced dietary intake, exhibit weight gain and are at risk of developing chronic diseases.

  1. Comparison of intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of a herpes zoster live-attenuated vaccine in adults aged ≥50 years: a randomised non-inferiority clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Diez-Domingo, Javier; Weinke, Thomas; Garcia de Lomas, Juan; Meyer, Claudius U; Bertrand, Isabelle; Eymin, Cécile; Thomas, Stéphane; Sadorge, Christine

    2015-02-04

    Zostavax(®) is a live, attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine developed specifically for the prevention of HZ and PHN in individuals aged ≥50 years. During the clinical development of Zostavax, which was mainly in the US, the vaccine was administrated by the subcutaneous (SC) route. In Europe, many healthcare professionals prefer administering vaccines by the intramuscular (IM) route. This was an open-label, randomised trial conducted in 354 subjects aged ≥50 years. The primary objectives were to demonstrate that IM administration is both non-inferior to SC administration in terms of 4-week post-vaccination geometric mean titres (GMTs), and elicits an acceptable geometric mean fold-rise (GMFR) of antibody titres measured by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pre-specified non-inferiority was set as the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the GMT ratio (IM/SC) being >0.67. An acceptable GMFR for the IM route was pre-specified as the lower bound of its 95% CI being >1.4. Description of the VZV immune response using the interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-γ ELISPOT) assay and of the safety were secondary objectives. Participants were randomised to IM or SC administration (1:1). The baseline demographics were comparable between groups; mean age: 62.6 years (range: 50.0-90.5). The primary immunogenicity objectives were met (per protocol analysis): GMT ratio (IM/SC): 1.05 (95% CI: 0.93-1.18); GMFR: 2.7 (2.4-3.0). VZV immune response using IFN-γ ELISPOT were comparable between groups. Frequencies of systemic adverse events were comparable between groups. Injection-site reactions were less frequent with IM than SC route: erythema (15.9% versus 52.5%), pain (25.6% versus 39.5%) and swelling (13.6% versus 37.3%), respectively. In adults aged ≥50 years, IM administration of Zostavax elicited similar immune responses to SC administration and was well tolerated, with fewer injection-site reactions than with SC

  2. Magneto-trions in a GaMnAs/Ga0.6Al0.4As Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalitha, D.; Peter, A. John; Lee, Chang Woo

    2014-09-01

    Magneto bound exciton and the charged exciton in a GaMn0.02As/Ga0.6Al0.4As quantum dot are reported with the spatial confinement effect. The numerical calculations are carried out with the inclusion of exchange interaction between the carrier and the magnetic impurities. The binding energies of exciton and the trions and the optical transition energy are obtained as a function of dot radius. Numerical computations are followed using exact diagonalization method. The spin polaronic energy of the exciton and the charged excitons are obtained using a mean field theory in the presence of magnetic field strength. The magnetization of Mn ion impurities as a function of dot radius is investigated. The effective g-factor of conduction (valence) band electron (hole) is obtained in the GaMnAs quantum dot. The magnetic field induced size dependence of effective Landé g-factor is computed. The result shows that (i) the geometrical dependence on sp-d exchange interaction in the GaMn0.02As/Ga0.6Al0.4As quantum dot has great influence with the geometrical confinement, (ii) the monotonic behavior of effective g-factor with the reduction of dot radius is observed, (iii) the Landé factor is more sensitive if the geometrical confinement effect is included and (iv) the value of effective g-factor increases when the spatial confinement is enhanced for all the dot radii. Our results show that the effective Landé g-factor can be manipulated negative to positive values in the GaMn0.02As/Ga0.4Al0.6As quantum dot.

  3. Degree of corneal anesthesia after topical application of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in normal equids.

    PubMed

    Little, Erika; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathy; Little, William; Sithole, Fortune; St Jean, Guy

    2016-10-01

    Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution has been widely used off-label in horses and donkeys, despite lack of data demonstrating efficacy and safety in these species. The objective of this study was to assess anesthetic efficacy of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in horses (n = 5) and donkeys (n = 24) and compare the effects with 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. The baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Donkeys (n = 12) and horses (n = 5) in group A received sterile ophthalmic solutions 0.4% oxybuprocaine with fluorescein (also termed benoxinate with fluorescein, abbreviated as ben + flu) instilled in one eye and 0.9% sterile sodium chloride solution (NaCl) with fluorescein (Na + flu) in the contralateral eye. Donkeys (n = 12) and horses (n = 5) in group B received sterile ophthalmic solutions (ben + flu) in one eye and 0.5% proparacaine with fluorescein (prop + flu) in the contralateral eye. The CTT was measured at 1 and 5 min post-application and at 5-minute intervals until 75 min after treatment. The CTT changes over time differed significantly between oxybuprocaine-treated and control eyes (P < 0.001). The CTT continued to decrease throughout the duration of the study when compared with baseline values. No statistically significant difference in onset, depth, or duration of corneal anesthesia was found between oxybuprocaine and proparacaine treated eyes during the time of the study. Interestingly, horses were shown to have a significantly more sensitive cornea than donkeys (P = 0.002). Oxybuprocaine and proparacaine reduced corneal sensitivity in donkeys and horses. No local irritation was observed with 0.4% oxybuprocaine.

  4. "You're Awfully Old to Have This Disease": Experiences of Stigma and Ageism in Adults 50 Years and Older Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emlet, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults living with HIV infection may be doubly stigmatized, as they are branded by both age as well as HIV status. Through semistructured interviews, this study sought to examine whether older adults with HIV/AIDS experience both ageism and HIV stigma and how those experiences manifest in their lives. Design and Methods: This was a…

  5. From Expectations to Experiences: Using a Structural Typology to Understand First-Year Student Outcomes in Academically Based Living-Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawrzynski, Matthew R.; Jessup-Anger, Jody E.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated to what extent noncognitive variables (e.g., expectations for college) and the college environment (i.e., academically based living-learning communities) influence students' college experience. This research goes beyond grouping all living-learning students into one category, which has dominated much of the…

  6. "You're Awfully Old to Have This Disease": Experiences of Stigma and Ageism in Adults 50 Years and Older Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emlet, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults living with HIV infection may be doubly stigmatized, as they are branded by both age as well as HIV status. Through semistructured interviews, this study sought to examine whether older adults with HIV/AIDS experience both ageism and HIV stigma and how those experiences manifest in their lives. Design and Methods: This was a…

  7. Interpreting observations of edge-on gravitationally unstable accretion flows. The case of G10.6-0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab

    2017-01-01

    Context. Gravitational collapse of molecular cloud or cloud core/clump may lead to the formation of geometrically flattened, rotating accretion flow surrounding the new born star or star cluster. Gravitational instability may occur in such accretion flow when the gas to stellar mass ratio is high (e.g., over 10%). Aims: This paper takes the OB cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4 as an example. We introduce the enclosed gas mass around its central ultra compact (UC) Hii region, address the gravitational stability of the accreting gas, and outline the observed potential signatures of gravitational instability. Methods: The dense gas accretion flow around the central UC Hii region in G10.6-0.4 is geometrically flattened, and is in an approximately edge-on projection. The position-velocity (PV) diagrams of various molecular gas tracers on G10.6-0.4 consistently show asymmetry in the spatial- and the velocity domain. We deduce the morphology of the dense gas accretion flow by modeling velocity distribution of the azimuthally asymmetric gas structures, and by directly de-projecting the PV diagrams. Results: We find that within the 0.3 pc radius, an infall velocity of 1-2 km s-1 may be required to explain the observed PV diagrams. In addition, the velocity distribution traced in the PV diagrams can be interpreted by spiral arm-like structures, which may be connected with exterior infalling gas filaments. We propose that the morphology of dense gas structures appears very similar to the spatially resolved gas structures around the OB cluster-forming region G33.92+0.11 with similar gas mass and size, which is likely, however, to be in an approximately face-on projection. Conclusions: The dense gas accretion flow around G10.6-0.4 appears to be Toomre-unstable, which is consistent with the existence of large-scale spiral arm-like structures, and the formation of localized gas condensations. The proposed approaches for data analyses may be applied to the observations of Class 0/I

  8. An observation of nanotwin lamellae in Cd 0.6Mn 0.4Te crystal by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, M. A.; Azoulay, M.; Collins, W. E.; Burger, A.; Silberman, E.

    1993-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to examine the structure of freshly cleaved Cd 0.6Mn 0.4Te surfaces. The present report complements previous results obtained with X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy which showed the existence of microtwins. The AFM analysis was performed under ambient conditions and yielded nanometer scale resolution images of single twin lamellae that ranged between 20 and 100 nm in width. This is a first observation using AFM of such a substructure, which we interpret as evidence for the presence of nonotwins.

  9. Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2

    DOE PAGES

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2014-10-13

    We report on the magnetic, magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties of Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. The title compound exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H ≥ 40 kOe and a small but non negligible negative MR for H ≤ 30 kOe. The maximum positive MR reaches 13% at H = 80 kOe. The magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes as functions of temperature each show two anomalies: a broad dome-like maximum below 20 K and a relatively sharp peak at higher temperature. As a result, observed behaviors are unique among other binary and mixed lanthanide compounds.

  10. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, 1-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces for July 1976 through June 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Meteorological rocketsonde and satellite radiance data are employed for analyses of a continuing series of high-altitude constant-pressure charts. The automated methods of data processing and the objective analysis procedures are described. Broad-scale analyses of temperature and geopotential height for the Northern Hemisphere 5-, 2-, 1-, and 0.4-mb surfaces are presented for each week of the period July 1976 through June 1977. Brief discussions of the variations of the temperature and height fields throughout the period are also given.

  11. Thermal equation of state of magnesiowüstite (Mg 0.6Fe 0.4)O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kostak, Paul

    2002-02-01

    Volume measurements for magnesiowüstite (Mg 0.6Fe 0.4)O, were carried out up to pressures of 10.1 GPa in the temperature range 300-1273 K, using energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. These data allow reliable determination of the temperature dependence of the bulk modulus and good constraint on the thermal expansitivity at ambient pressure which was previously not known for magnesiowüstite. From these data, thermal and elastic parameters were derived from various approaches based on the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS) and on the relevant thermodynamic relations. The results from three different equations of state are remarkably consistent. With (∂ K T/∂ P) T fixed at 4, we obtained K0=158(2) GPa, ( ∂KT/ ∂T) P=-0.029(3) GPa K -1, ( ∂KT/ ∂T) V=-3.9(±2.3)×10 -3 GPa K -1, and αT=3.45(18)×10 -5+1.14(28)×10 -8T. The K0, (∂ K T/∂ T) P, and (∂ K T/∂ T) V values are in agreement with those of Fei et al. (1992) and are similar to previously determined values for MgO. The zero pressure thermal expansitivity of (Mg 0.6Fe 0.4)O is found to be similar to that for MgO ( Suzuki, 1975). These results indicate that, for the compositional range x=0-0.4 in (Mg 1- xFe x)O, the thermal and elastic properties of magnesiowüstite exhibit a dependence on the iron content that is negligibly small, within uncertainties of the experiments. They are consequently insensitive to the Fe-Mg partitioning between (Mg, Fe)SiO 3 perovskite and magnesiowüstite when applied to compositional models of the lower mantle. With the assumption that (Mg 0.6Fe 0.4)O is a Debye-like solid, a modified equation of heat capacity at constant pressure is proposed and thermodynamic properties of geophysically importance are calculated and tabulated at high temperatures.

  12. [Analysis of protective effect of using chickenpox live attenuated vaccine among 4-17 years old children in Minhang district, Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Yu, Feng; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xi; Jin, Baofang; Wang, Ye; Mei, Kewen; Lu, Jia; Jiang, Lufang

    2014-12-01

    To survey on the vaccination of varicella live attenuated vaccine among 4-17 children in Minhang District, and analyze the protective effect against varicella. We collected outbreak chickenpox cases reported from infectious disease report system and surveillance units in Minhang district from 1st May in 2012 to 30th Apr in 2013. The 1: 3 matched case-control study was conducted to questionnaire the legal guardian of the cases and control group, and calculate the protective effect and effective term of protection. The survey included vaccination, chickenpox exposure history, previous history of varicella illness, suffering from the symptoms of chickenpox, the vaccinations brand, etc. The criteria of accepted case were those healthy students who were in the same class with those chickenpox cases. The accepted matched controlling data were those children who were from the same class with outbreak chickenpox cases without varicelliform eruption, similar live condition, the closest house, the same gender, the closest age. This study investigated 390 cases of patients and the control group included 1 170 cases. Chi-square test was used to compare the vaccination of cases and controls, as well as the incidence of chickenpox vaccination different brands VarV, Mantel-Haenzel chi-square test was applied to compare the protective effect of the two groups. VarV overall vaccination rate was 68.3% (1 065/1 560), among them, the case group coverage was 45.1% (176/390), significantly lower than the control group (76.0% (889/1 170)) (χ² = 128.55, P < 0.01). The coverage in children of 4-10 years old group was 88.4% (375/424), significantly higher than the 11-17 years old group (60.7% (690/1 136)) (χ² = 109.40, P < 0.01). The overall protective effect of VarV was 78.10% (71.82%-82.98%).Vaccinated group incidence ratio was 16.5% (176/1 065), significantly lower than the unvaccinated group (43.2% (214/495)) (χ² = 128.55, P < 0.01). The chickenpox risk of the children who were

  13. [Antibody persistence following on different vaccination strategies of domestic measles, mumps and rubella combined attenuated live vaccine: a 3-year follow-up study].

    PubMed

    He, H Q; Li, Q; Yan, R; Zhou, Y; Tang, X W; Deng, X; Xie, S Y; Chen, Z P

    2017-04-06

    Objective: To assess the 3-year antibody persistence after vaccination of domestic measles, mumps and rubella combined attenuated live vaccine (MMR) with different program. Methods: Children from three different vaccination strategies (Group 8 m MR: 8 months and 18 months vaccinated with measles-rubella combined attenuated live vaccine and domestic MMR,respectively; Group 8 m MMR: 8 months and 18 months both vaccinated with domestic MMR; Group 12 m MMR: 12 months and 22 months both vaccinated with domestic MMR ) were followed up in Zhejiang province in July 2015. There were 170 participants in Group 8 m MR, 171 participants in Group 8 m MMR and 173 participants in Group 12 m MMR selected by simple random sampling method .Blood samples (venous blood 2-3 ml) were collected 1 month after the first dose vaccination of MMR (only in Group 8 m MMR and Group 12 m MMR) and 3 years (36-38 months) after the last dose vaccination of MMR and tested for antibody IgG against Measles, Mumps and Rubella using ELISA. Seropostive rate and Geometric mean concentration (GMC) were calculated and compared among different groups by Chi-square test or Fisher exact test and Kruskal-Wallis H test. Results: A total of 514 participants (8 m MR: 170; 8 m MMR:171; 12 m MMR:173) were enrolled. The overall seropositivity rate of measles, mumps and rubella was 98.1% (504), 93.4% (480) and 88.1% (453), respectively, with corresponding GMC was 1 012.33 mU/ml, 502.87 U/ml and 50.53 U/ml respectively. There was no significant difference of seropositivity rate for measles among three groups (all groups were>97%). The highest seropositivity rate for mumps was found in the Group 12 m MMR with the rate of 98.8% (171/173), followed by Group 8 m MMR and Group 8 m MR with 93.0% (159/171) and 88.2%(150/170) respectively (Fisher exact test, P<0.001). The highest seropositivity rate for rubella was also found in the Group 12 m MMR with the rate of 94.8% (164/173), followed by Group 8 m MMR and Group 8 m MR with

  14. No differences in metabolic outcomes between nadir GH 0.4 and 1.0 ng/mL during OGTT in surgically cured acromegalic patients (observational study)

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Cheol Ryong; Choe, Eun Yeong; Hong, Jae Won; Kim, Eui Hyun; Park, Se Hee; Kim, Sun Ho; Lee, Eun Jig

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Metabolic impairment is the common cause for mortality in acromegalic patients. In this study, long-term improvements of metabolic parameters were evaluated according to 2 different remission criteria. This was an observational cohort study before and up to 1 year after transsphenoidal adenomectomy (TSA). Participants were 187 patients with acromegaly. At 6 months after TSA, remitted patients with age- and sex-matched normalized IGF-1 were divided into 2 groups: remission 1 (R1), nadir growth hormone (GH) below 0.4 ng/mL; and remission 2 (R2), nadir GH between 0.4 and 1.0 ng/mL in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Metabolic parameters during serial OGTTs were evaluated for 12 months. Remission was achieved in 157 (R1–136; R2–21) patients. Immediate postoperative metabolic parameters including body weight, body mass index, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid in OGTT were all significantly improved in R1 and R2. HOMA-%β and HOMA-IR scores also improved in both R1 and R2. These improvements persisted for duration (12 months) of this study. However, no difference was present in metabolic parameters between R1 and R2. Although the patients with preoperative adrenal insufficiency presented significantly increased HOMA scores before TSA, there was no difference between classifications of deficient pituitary axes and changes of metabolic parameters after TSA. Remitted patients exhibited rapid restoration of metabolic parameters immediate postoperative period. Long-term improvements in metabolic parameters were not different between the 2 different nadir GH cut-offs, 0.4 and 1.0 ng/mL. PMID:27310957

  15. The quest for effective pain control during suture adjustment after strabismus surgery: a study evaluating supplementation of 2% lidocaine with 0.4% ropivacaine

    PubMed Central

    Palte, Howard D; Cavuoto, Kara M; Sundararaman, Lalitha; Gayer, Steven; Schiffman, Joyce; Capo, Hilda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the addition of 0.4% ropivacaine to the standard 2% lidocaine peribulbar anesthetic block improves pain scores during suture adjustment in patients undergoing strabismus surgery with adjustable sutures. Methods Prospective, double-blind study of 30 adult patients aged 21–84 years scheduled for elective strabismus surgery with adjustable sutures. Patients were divided into two groups of 15 patients each based on the local anesthetic. Group A received 2% lidocaine and Group B received 2% lidocaine/0.4% ropivacaine. Pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) preoperatively and at 2, 4, and 6 hours postoperatively. The Lancaster red-green test was used to measure ocular motility at the same time points. Results The pain scores in the two groups were low and similar at all measurement intervals. The VAS for Group A versus Group B at 2 hours (1.7 versus 2.4, P=0.5) and 4 hours (3.5 versus 3.7, P=0.8) showed no benefit from the addition of ropivacaine. At 6 hours, the VAS (3.7 versus 2.7) was not statistically significant, but the 95% confidence interval indicated that ropivacaine may provide some benefit. A repeated measures ANOVA did not find a statistically significant difference in VAS scores over time (P=0.9). In addition, the duration of akinesia was comparable in both groups (P=0.7). Conclusion We conclude that the 50:50 mixture of 2% lidocaine with 0.4% ropivacaine as compared to 2% lidocaine in peribulbar anesthetic blocks in adjustable-suture strabismus surgery does not produce significant improvements in pain control during the postoperative and adjustment phases. In addition, ropivacaine did not impair return of full ocular motility at 6 hours, which is advantageous in adjustable-suture strabismus surgery. PMID:25609996

  16. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  17. Substantial decline of polychlorinated biphenyls serum levels 10years after public health interventions in a population living near a contaminated site in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Magoni, Michele; Donato, Francesco; Speziani, Fabrizio; Leonardi, Lucia; Orizio, Grazia; Scarcella, Carmelo; Gaia, Alice; Apostoli, Pietro

    2016-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants classified among endocrine disruptors and human carcinogens. In an urban area in Northern Italy (Brescia), a chemical factory producing PCBs from 1938 to 1984 caused soil and food pollution. Since the discovering of the environmental pollution in the area in 2001, various public health interventions have been implemented to avoid human contamination. Two independent surveys were carried out in 2003 and 2013 using the same study design and methods. A random sample of the adult general population living in four areas of the town with different soil contamination level was enrolled in both surveys. Investigation included serum levels of 24 PCB congeners and of other common clinical-chemical parameters and questions about residential and occupational history as well as current and past diet and consumption of locally produced food. 537 subjects were tested in the 2003 and 488 in the 2013 survey. Total PCB serum levels showed a strong correlation with age (Spearman r=0.71 in 2003 and r=0.80 in 2013), but not with gender. Consumers of food produced in the most polluted area had higher total PCB serum levels (median 15.6 and 4.7ng/ml in 2003 and 2013, respectively) than non-consumers (4.1 and 2.3ng/ml) and consumers of food produced in non-polluted areas (6.5 and 1.9ng/ml), with increasing trend of PCB serum levels with cumulative local food intake. PCB serum levels from 2003 to 2013 survey declined by around half in all age groups, especially among the youngest people. The total PCB reduction was found to be due to a combination of a birth cohort effect (-41% every 10years) and survey period effect (-18% in 2013 versus 2003), with medium chlorinated CB congeners showing the most relevant reduction (-30%) between the two surveys. High chlorinated CBs were more strongly associated with birth cohort (-46% every 10years): in the 2013 survey they represented 58% of total PCBs in 60-79years old while they were 37

  18. Phonon Raman study in La 1.475Nd 0.4Sr 0.125CuO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimori, S.; Hata, H.; Ogita, N.; Nakamura, F.; Sakita, S.; Kikugawa, N.; Fujita, T.; Udagawa, M.

    1999-03-01

    The totally symmetric phonons in La 1.475Nd 0.4Sr 0.125CuO 4 single crystal have been investigated by Raman scattering in the temperature range between 6 and 445 K. Five phonon modes were observed in the OMT phase. Among them, the energies of three modes at 226 cm -1, 273 cm -1 and 430 cm -1 at 106 K, increase slightly by about 2 cm -1 in the OLT and TLT phases. However, two modes at 120 and 155 cm -1 at 111 K show the remarkable changes in TLT phase. The energy of the former decreases by about 10 cm -1 and the latter splits into two peaks. From the normal mode analysis, this anomaly is understood by the existence of two different interactions of La-Cu and Nd-Cu for the TLT phase. The asymmetric line shape of the apical oxygen vibration has been observed and its line shape is well explained by the interference effect between the sharp phonon peak and broad electron response. Our result concludes the existence of the electron-phonon interaction in La 1.475Nd 0.4Sr 0.125CuO 4.

  19. Localized recombining plasma in G166.0+4.3: A supernova remnant with an unusual morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Hideaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Nobukawa, Kumiko Kawabata; Itou, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    We observed the Galactic mixed-morphology supernova remnant G166.0+4.3 with Suzaku. The X-ray spectrum in the western part of the remnant is well represented by a one-component ionizing plasma model. The spectrum in the northeastern region can be explained by two components. One is an Fe-rich component with electron temperature kT_e = 0.87_{-0.03}^{+0.02}keV. The other is a recombining plasma (RP) component of lighter elements with kTe = 0.46 ± 0.03 keV, initial temperature kTinit = 3 keV (fixed), and ionization parameter n_et = (6.1_{-0.4}^{+0.5}) × 10^{11}cm-3 s. As the formation process of the recombining plasma, both rarefaction and thermal conduction scenarios are considered. The former would not be favored since we found the recombining plasma only in the northeastern region, whereas the latter would explain the origin of the RP. In the latter scenario, an RP is anticipated where blast waves in part of the remnant are in contact with cool dense gas. The emission measure suggests higher ambient gas density in the northeastern region. The morphology of the radio shell and a GeV gamma ray emission also suggest a molecular cloud in the region.

  20. Localized recombining plasma in G166.0+4.3: A supernova remnant with an unusual morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Hideaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Nobukawa, Kumiko Kawabata; Itou, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    We observed the Galactic mixed-morphology supernova remnant G166.0+4.3 with Suzaku. The X-ray spectrum in the western part of the remnant is well represented by a one-component ionizing plasma model. The spectrum in the northeastern region can be explained by two components. One is an Fe-rich component with electron temperature kT_e = 0.87_{-0.03}^{+0.02}keV. The other is a recombining plasma (RP) component of lighter elements with kTe = 0.46 ± 0.03 keV, initial temperature kTinit = 3 keV (fixed), and ionization parameter n_et = (6.1_{-0.4}^{+0.5}) × 10^{11}cm-3 s. As the formation process of the recombining plasma, both rarefaction and thermal conduction scenarios are considered. The former would not be favored since we found the recombining plasma only in the northeastern region, whereas the latter would explain the origin of the RP. In the latter scenario, an RP is anticipated where blast waves in part of the remnant are in contact with cool dense gas. The emission measure suggests higher ambient gas density in the northeastern region. The morphology of the radio shell and a GeV gamma ray emission also suggest a molecular cloud in the region.

  1. Electron spin resonance studies of Bi0.6Ca(0.4-x)SrxMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, Joji; Singh, R.

    2010-05-01

    The temperature dependent electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out on Bi0.6Ca(0.4-x)SrxMnO3 (0≤x≤0.4). The variation of charge ordering temperature, TCO, and Néel temperature, TN, are obtained from plots of double integrated (DI) intensity and linewidth (ΔH) of the ESR signal as a function of temperature. In the temperature range T>TCO, the sample is in the paramagnetic phase and the magnetic interactions are dominated by ferromagnetic (FM) spin correlations. In the range TN

  2. Unexpected superconductivity at nanoscale junctions made on the topological crystalline insulator Pb0.6Sn0.4Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shekhar; Aggarwal, Leena; Roychowdhury, Subhajit; Aslam, Mohammad; Gayen, Sirshendu; Biswas, Kanishka; Sheet, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    Discovery of exotic phases of matter from the topologically non-trivial systems not only makes the research on topological materials more interesting but also enriches our understanding of the fascinating physics of such materials. Pb0.6Sn0.4Te was recently shown to be a topological crystalline insulator. Here, we show that by forming a mesoscopic point-contact using a normal non-superconducting elemental metal on the surface of Pb0.6Sn0.4Te, a superconducting phase is created locally in a confined region under the point-contact. This happens when the bulk of the sample remains to be non-superconducting, and the superconducting phase emerges as a nano-droplet under the point-contact. The superconducting phase shows a high transition temperature Tc that varies for different point-contacts and falls in a range between 3.7 K and 6.5 K. Therefore, this Letter presents the discovery of a superconducting phase on the surface of a topological crystalline insulator, and the discovery is expected to shed light on the mechanism of induced superconductivity in topologically non-trivial systems in general.

  3. Martian atmosphere modeling between 0.4 and 3.5 microns - Comparison of theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Fischbein, W. L.; Hilgeman, T.; Smith, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    A model of the lower atmosphere of Mars has been constructed that combines aerosol absorption and scattering with a line-by-line analysis of CO2 and H2O in a multilayer radiative transfer program. Aerosol composition previously inferred from the NASA Lear Jet Observatory data was used to measure the optical complex indices of refraction of appropriate Martian analogs from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. The aerosol vertical particle density scale was deduced using the Viking camera observations of the soil and sky intensities between 0.4 and 1.0 microns in comparison with those modeled using a multilayer Mie scattering program. A comparison of observed Mars atmospheric absorptions was made with those obtained using Lorentz, Voigt, and Doppler line profiles in a multilayer model of the CO2 and H2O. The Voigt line profile of CO2 absorption at approximately 4976 kaysers was then combined in a multilayer aerosol model of the Martian atmosphere. An evaluation of the effect on the line shape was made using several aerosol loadings.

  4. Magnetic and structural transitions in La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2 single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Jiaqiang; Nandi, S.; Saparov, Bayrammurad I.; ...

    2015-01-05

    La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2 single crystals have been grown out of an NaAs flux in an alumina crucible and characterized by measuring magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, specific heat, as well as single-crystal x-ray and neutron diffraction. La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2 single crystals show a structural phase transition from a high-temperature tetragonal phase to a low-temperature orthorhombic phase at Ts=125 K. This structural transition is accompanied by an anomaly in the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity, anisotropic magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat. Concomitant with the structural phase transition, the Fe moments order along the a direction with an ordered moment of 0.7(1) μB at T=5 K. Finally,more » the low-temperature stripe antiferromagnetic structure is the same as that in other AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds. La0.5₋xNa0.5+xFe2As2 provides a material platform for the study of iron-based superconductors where the electron-hole asymmetry could be studied by simply varying the La/Na ratio.« less

  5. Critical behavior in the La0.6Ca0.4-xSrxMnO3 nano-particle compounds for x = 0, 0.05 and 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharsallah, H.; Bejar, M.; Dhahri, E.; Hlil, E. K.

    2017-10-01

    The critical behavior associated with the magnetic phase transition has been investigated by magnetization isotherms in La0.6Ca0.4-xSrxMnO3 nano-particle compounds for x = 0 (S0C1), 0.05 (SC. 4-4) and 0.4 (S1C0). The critical exponents are estimated by various techniques, such as the Modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher plot and critical isotherm techniques. Thus, the average values of the critical exponent and the critical temperature obtained by the different methods are (βmoy = 0.47 ;γmoy = 1.02 ; δmoy = 3.00 ;TC = 230.6 K) for S0C1, (βmoy = 0.47 ;γmoy = 1.00 ;δmoy = 3.21 ;TC = 361.9 K) for S1C0, and (βmoy = 0.26 ;γmoy = 1.02 ;δmoy = 4.92 ;TC = 286.4 K) for SC. 4-4. These values are in good agreement with those given by the theoretical models: Mean-Field model (β = 0.5, γ = 1 and δ = 3) for S0C1 and S1C0 compounds; and Tricritical mean-Field model (β = 0.25, γ = 1 and δ = 5) for SC. 4-4 one. The reliability of the critical exponent values was confirmed by the Widom scaling relation and the universal scaling hypothesis.

  6. A cluster randomized controlled trial of a client-centred, activities of daily living intervention for people with stroke: one year follow-up of caregivers.

    PubMed

    Bertilsson, Ann-Sofie; Eriksson, Gunilla; Ekstam, Lisa; Tham, Kerstin; Andersson, Magnus; von Koch, Lena; Johansson, Ulla

    2016-08-01

    Compare caregiver burden, provision of informal care, participation in everyday occupations and life satisfaction of caregivers to people with stroke, who either had received a client-centred, activities of daily living intervention or usual activities of daily living interventions. A multicentre cluster randomized controlled trial in which 16 rehabilitation units were randomly assigned to deliver a client-centred, activities of daily living intervention or usual activities of daily living interventions. Caregiver outcomes were compared cross-sectionally at 12 months and changes in outcomes between three and 12 months after people with stroke were included in the study. Inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation. Caregivers of people with stroke enrolled in the trial. A client-centred, activities of daily living intervention aiming to increase agency in daily activities and participation in everyday life for people after stroke. Caregiver Burden Scale, Occupational Gaps Questionnaire, LiSat-11. There were no differences in outcomes between caregivers in the client-centred, activities of daily living (n = 88) and the usual activities of daily living (n = 95) group at 12 months. The caregiver burden score was 42.7 vs. 41.8, p = 0.75, mean occupational gaps were 3.5 vs. 4.0, p = 0.52 and satisfaction with life was 53% vs. 50%, p = 0.87. There were no differences in changes between three and 12 months. However, within groups there were significant differences in caregiver burden, factor general strain, for caregivers in the client-centred, activities of daily living group, and in provision of informal care for the usual activities of daily living group. The client-centred intervention did not bring about any difference between caregiver-groups, but within groups some difference was found for caregiver burden and informal care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Two-Step Tuberculin Skin Testing in School-Going Adolescents with Initial 0-4 Millimeter Responses in a High Tuberculosis Prevalence Setting in South India

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Maitreyi; Selvam, Sumithra; Jesuraj, Nelson; Bennett, Sean; Doherty, Mark; Grewal, Harleen M. S.; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background The utility of two-step tuberculin skin testing among adolescents in high tuberculosis prevalence settings is not well established. Objectives To determine the proportion and determinants of a 0-4 mm response to an initial standard tuberculin skin test (TST) and evaluating 'boosting' with repeat testing. Methods Adolescents between 11 and 18 years attending schools/colleges underwent a TST; those with a response of between 0–4 mm had a repeat TST 1-4 weeks later. Results Initial TST was done for 6608/6643 participants; 1257 (19%) developed a 0-4 mm response to the initial TST. Younger age and under-nutrition were more likely to be associated with a 0-4 mm response, while the presence of BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) scar and higher socio-economic class were less likely to be associated with a 0-4 mm response. On repeat testing boosting was seen in 13.2% (145/1098; ≥ 6 mm over the initial test) while 4.3% showed boosting using a more conservative cutoff of a repeat TST ≥ 10 mm with an increment of at least 6 mm (47/1098). History of exposure to a tuberculosis (TB) case was associated with enhanced response. Conclusion The proportion of adolescents who demonstrated boosting on two-step TST testing in our study was relatively low. As a result repeat testing did not greatly alter the prevalence of TST positivity. However, the two-step TST helps identify individuals who can potentially boost their immune response to a second test, and thus, prevents them from being misclassified as those with newly acquired infection, or tuberculin converters. While two-step tuberculin skin testing may have a limited role in population- level TST surveys, it may be useful where serial tuberculin testing needs to be performed to distinguish those who show an enhanced response or boosters from those who indeed have a new infection, or converters. PMID:24039716

  8. Thyroid status and 6-year mortality in elderly people living in a mildly iodine-deficient area: the aging in the Chianti Area Study.

    PubMed

    Ceresini, Graziano; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Usberti, Elisa; Marina, Michela; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack M; Valenti, Giorgio; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that, in older adults, living in a mildly iodine-deficient area, thyroid dysfunction may be associated with mortality independent of potential confounders. Longitudinal. Community-based. Nine hundred fifty-one individuals aged 65 and older. Plasma thyrotropin, free thyroxine, and free triiodothyronine concentrations and demographic features were evaluated in participants of the Invecchiare in Chianti Study aged 65 and older. Participants were classified according to thyroid function test. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders were used in the analysis. Eight hundred nineteen participants were euthyroid, 83 had subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper), and 29 had subclinical hypothyroidism (SHypo). Overt hypo- and hyperthyroidism were found in five and 15 subjects, respectively. During a median of 6 years of follow-up, 210 deaths occurred (22.1%), 98 (46.6%) of which were from cardiovascular causes. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed higher overall mortality for SHyper (P = .04) than euthyroid subjects. After adjusting for multiple confounders, participants with SHyper (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.69) had significantly higher all-cause mortality than those with normal thyroid function. No significant association was found between SHyper and cardiovascular mortality. In euthyroid subjects, thyrotropin was found to be predictive of lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.57-0.99). SHyper is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in older adults. Low to normal circulating thyrotropin should be carefully monitored in elderly euthyroid individuals. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. A Comparison of Live Classroom Instruction and Internet-Based Lessons for a Preparatory Training Course Delivered to 4th Year Pharmacy Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi

    2013-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students prepared by receiving only live classroom instruction. All students in the four cohorts were given a survey to evaluate the training sessions, and results were analyzed using the analysis of variance statistical test (ANOVA). Preceptors at the sites who interacted with students in all four cohorts were surveyed to evaluate which students appeared more prepared; these data were compared using paired t tests. Final assessment data for students in all four cohorts were analyzed using ANOVA. There were statistical differences between the two live training groups, with the second group finding the training to be more beneficial for preparing them, feeling the training length was appropriate and preferring the live modality for delivery. The two internet training cohorts were similar except for perceptions regarding the length of the online training. Comparing responses from those students who received live training with those receiving internet instruction demonstrated a statistical difference with the live groups rating the trainings as more helpful in preparing them for the clinics, rating the training as necessary, and rating their confidence higher in seeing patients. Preceptors rated the live training statistically higher than online training in preparing students. There was no difference between groups on their final site assessments. Live classroom training appears to be superior to the recorded internet training in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings.

  10. Liquid hot NAGMA cooled to 0.4 K: benchmark thermochemistry of a gas-phase peptide.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Christopher M; Moore, Kevin B; Raston, Paul L; Agarwal, Jay; Moody, Grant H; Shirley, Caitlyne C; Schaefer, Henry F; Douberly, Gary E

    2014-10-16

    Vibrational spectroscopy and helium nanodroplet isolation are used to determine the gas-phase thermochemistry for isomerization between conformations of the model dipeptide, N-acetylglycine methylamide (NAGMA). A two-stage oven source is implemented to produce a gas-phase equilibrium distribution of NAGMA conformers, which is preserved when individual molecules are captured and cooled to 0.4 K by He nanodroplets. With polarization spectroscopy, the IR spectrum in the NH stretch region is assigned to a mixture of two conformers having intramolecular hydrogen bonds composed of either five- or seven-membered rings, C5 and C7, respectively. The C5 to C7 interconversion enthalpy and entropy, obtained from a van't Hoff analysis, are -4.52 ± 0.12 kJ/mol and -12.4 ± 0.2 J/(mol · K), respectively. The experimental thermochemistry is compared to high-level electronic structure theory computations.

  11. Fabrication and transport properties of Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 multifilamentary superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chao; Ma, Yanwei; Zhang, Xianping; Wang, Dongliang; Wang, Chunlei; Lin, He; Zhang, Qianjun

    2013-02-01

    Seven-core Ag/Fe sheathed Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Sr-122) superconducting wires were produced by the ex situ powder-in-tube method. The relationship between the cold-work deformation process and the superconducting properties of the wires was systematically studied. It was found that flat rolling can efficiently increase the mass density of the superconducting core, thus, significantly improving the transport critical current density (Jc) of the as-drawn wires. The transport Jc of the best sample achieved 21.1 kA/cm2 at 4.2 K in self field, and showed very weak magnetic field dependence at high fields. Our result suggested a promising future of multifilamentary iron-based superconductors in practical applications.

  12. Persistence and dissipation kinetics of chlorantraniliprole 0.4G in the soil of tropical sugarcane ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ramasubramanian, T; Paramasivam, M; Jayanthi, R; Nirmala, R

    2016-01-01

    Chlorantraniliprole 0.4 % GR has been in use for managing early shoot borer and top borer of sugarcane. Persistence and dissipation kinetics of granular formulation of chlorantraniliprole were studied in the soil of tropical sugarcane ecosystem by employing simple and sensitive analytical method. Limit of quantification of the method was 0.01 mg/kg and the recovery of chlorantraniliprole was in the range of 92.3-99.7 % with RSD of 1.14-3.0 %. The initial deposit of chlorantraniliprole in the soil was 0.513 and 1.031 mg/kg for the recommended (75 g a.i./ha) and double the recommended (150 g a.i./ha) doses, respectively. The residues were quantified up to 30 days after treatment irrespective of the doses applied. Half-life (t 1/2) was 6.60 and 6.73 days, respectively, for recommended and double the recommended doses of chlorantraniliprole.

  13. Evidence for orbital order and its relation to superconductivity in FeSe0.4Te0.6.

    PubMed

    Singh, Udai R; White, Seth C; Schmaus, Stefan; Tsurkan, Vladimir; Loidl, Alois; Deisenhofer, Joachim; Wahl, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of nematic electronic states accompanied by a structural phase transition is a recurring theme in many correlated electron materials, including the high-temperature copper oxide- and iron-based superconductors. We provide evidence for nematic electronic states in the iron-chalcogenide superconductor FeSe0.4Te0.6 from quasi-particle scattering detected in spectroscopic maps. The symmetry-breaking states persist above T c into the normal state. We interpret the scattering patterns by comparison with quasi-particle interference patterns obtained from a tight-binding model, accounting for orbital ordering. The relation to superconductivity and the influence on the coherence length are discussed.

  14. Effects of air exposure and vacuum storage on Li0.4WO3 studied by photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, A.; Lefeld, N.; Rahman, M. S.; Gesing, Th. M.; Murshed, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    A powder sample of Li0.4WO3 was studied after exposure to air in steps up to a total exposure time of 71 days. Over this period, XPS spectra of the W 4f, O 1s and C 1s level were recorded. The spectra reveal the formation of a OH/CO3 layer rendering the powder insulating. Careful evaluation of the W 4f spectra suggests a single initial state picture in which the electron donated by Li is shared between W ions. We demonstrate how the loss of charge carriers by aging in air can be followed by the fitting parameters. Additionally, the effects of vacuum storage, inducing oxygen vacancies, and subsequent treatment with molecular oxygen are considered.

  15. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La0.6Ca0.4-xCexMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, T. A.; Lim, S. H.; Kim, C. M.; Jung, M. H.; Ho, T. O.; Tho, P. T.; Phan, T. L.; Yu, S. C.

    2017-09-01

    La0.6Ca0.4-xCexMnO3 (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) compounds are fabricated by a solid-state reaction, and their structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties are investigated. The Curie temperature at which a ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition occurs decreases from 260 to 221 K as x increases from 0 to 0.09. The saturation magnetization also decreases with the increase of x. The experimental results for the magnetization with respect to the temperature and magnetic field are analyzed using the Banerjee criterion, revealing that all the samples undergo the second-order magnetic phase transition. The maximum magnetic entropy change measured at a magnetic-field span of 50 kOe, which occurs near the Curie temperature, slightly increases from 6.31 to 7.62 J/kg K as x increases from 0 to 0.09.

  16. Dielectric and magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline Cu0.4Co0.6Fe2O4 ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadoun, Priya; Sharma, Jyoti; Prashant, B. L.; Dolia, S. N.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Saxena, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    The mixed copper cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (Cu0.4Co0.6Fe2O4) have been synthesized by sol-gel auto combustion route with aqueous metal nitrates and citric acid as the precursor. The crystal structure has been analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) method. XRD reveals the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used for morphological studies. The dielectric measurements at room temperature show the decrease in dielectric constant with increasing frequency which is attributed to Maxwell Wagner model and conduction mechanism in ferrites.The magnetic measurements show ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature and large coercivity is observed on cooling down the temperature to 20K.

  17. Performance tests of an AGIPD 0.4 assembly at the beamline P10 of PETRA III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Marras, A.; Klyuev, A.; Westermeier, F.; Trunk, U.; Graafsma, H.

    2013-06-01

    The Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) is a novel detector system, currently under development by a collaboration of DESY, the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, the University of Hamburg and the University of Bonn, and is primarily designed for use at the European XFEL. To verify key features of this detector, an AGIPD 0.4 test chip assembly was tested at the P10 beamline of the PETRA III synchrotron at DESY. The test chip successfully imaged both the direct synchrotron beam and single 7.05 keV photons at the same time, demonstrating the large dynamic range required for XFEL experiments. X-ray scattering measurements from a test sample agree with standard measurements and show the chip's capability of observing dynamics at the microsecond time scale.

  18. Intrinsic superconducting transport properties of ultra-thin Fe1+ y Te0.6Se0.4 microbridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, HanCong; Lv, YangYang; Lu, DaChuan; Yang, ZhiBao; Zhou, XianJing; Hao, LuYao; Xing, XiangZhuo; Zou, Wei; Li, Jun; Shi, ZhiXiang; Xu, WeiWei; Wang, HuaBing; Wu, PeiHeng

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the superconducting properties of Fe1+ y Te0.6Se0.4 single-crystalline microbridges with a width of 4 μm and thicknesses ranging from 20.8 to 136.2 nm. The temperature-dependent in-plane resistance of the bridges exhibited a type of metal-insulator transition in the normal state. The critical current density ( J c) of the microbridge with a thickness of 136.2 nm was 82.3 kA/cm2 at 3K and reached 105 kA/cm2 after extrapolation to T = 0 K. The current versus voltage characteristics of the microbridges showed a Josephson-like behavior with an obvious hysteresis. These results demonstrate the potential application of ultra-thin Fe-based microbridges in superconducting electronic devices such as bolometric detectors.

  19. Parallel imaging of head with a dedicated multi-coil on a 0.4T open MRI.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Masahiro; Shimoda, Takahide; Nonaka, Masayuki; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Shinji; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Miki; Takahashi, Tetsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Parallel imaging is widely used for cylindrical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); however, few studies apply parallel imaging to open MRI. We previously developed a parallel method called "RAPID" (rapid acquisition through a parallel imaging design) for imaging the heart on a 0.7T open MRI apparatus, and we have now developed a RAPID head coil and shading correction algorithm for imaging the brain with a 0.4T open MRI apparatus. Images acquired with RAPID were compared with those acquired using a conventional quadrature-detection (QD) head coil. The images were acquired using a dedicated 4-channel RF receiving coil consisting of a solenoid coil and surface coils. For MRI of the brain, we developed 2 methods to acquire the necessary calibration data: a pre-scan method that acquires the calibration data before the main scans and a self-calibration method that acquires the calibration data and imaging data simultaneously. We also modified the algorithm for calculating the shading distribution so that it only uses acquired image data and then corrects the shading. RAPID was applied for T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR), time-of-flight (TOF), and diffusion-weighted echo-planar (DW-EPI) imaging. The RAPID images had no visible unfolded artifacts or motion artifacts. Images with the same contrast as that with a conventional QD coil were acquired using the RAPID coil and shading correction. These preliminary results show that RAPID can be applied to imaging of the head using a 0.4T open MRI apparatus.

  20. THE INTERSTELLAR BUBBLES OF G38.9-0.4 AND THE IMPACT OF STELLAR FEEDBACK ON STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kerton, Charles R.; Arvidsson, Kim E-mail: chipk@uwyo.edu E-mail: karvidsson@adlerplanetarium.org

    2013-06-10

    We present a study of the star formation (SF) region G38.9-0.4 using publicly available multiwavelength Galactic plane surveys from ground- and space-based observatories. This region is composed of four bright mid-IR bubbles and numerous infrared dark clouds. Two bubbles, N 74 and N 75, each host a star cluster anchored by a single O9.5V star. We identified 162 young stellar objects (YSOs) and classify 54 as stage I, 7 as stage II, 6 as stage III, and 32 as ambiguous. We do not detect the classical signposts of triggered SF, i.e., star-forming pillars or YSOs embedded within bubble rims. We conclude that feedback-triggered SF has not occurred in G38.9-0.4. The YSOs are preferentially coincident with infrared dark clouds. This leads to a strong correlation between areal YSO mass surface density and gas mass surface density with a power law slope near 1.3, which closely matches the Schmidt-Kennicutt Law. The correlation is similar inside and outside the bubbles and may mean that the SF efficiency is neither enhanced nor suppressed in regions potentially influenced by stellar feedback. This suggests that gas density, regardless of how it is collected, is a more important driver of SF than stellar feedback. Larger studies should be able to quantify the fraction of all SF that is feedback-triggered by determining the fraction SF, feedback-compressed gas surrounding H II regions relative to that already present in molecular clouds.

  1. Objective vs. Subjective Evaluation of Cognitive Performance During 0.4-MPa Dives Breathing Air or Nitrox.

    PubMed

    Germonpré, Peter; Balestra, Costantino; Hemelryck, Walter; Buzzacott, Peter; Lafère, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    Divers try to limit risks associated with their sport, for instance by breathing enriched air nitrox (EANx) instead of air. This double blinded, randomized trial was designed to see if the use of EANx could effectively improve cognitive performance while diving. Eight volunteers performed two no-decompression dry dives breathing air or EANx for 20 min at 0.4 MPa. Cognitive functions were assessed with a computerized test battery, including MathProc and Ptrail. Measurements were taken before the dive, upon arrival and after 15 min at depth, upon surfacing, and at 30 min postdive. After each dive subjects were asked to identify the gas they had just breathed. Identification of the breathing gas was not possible on subjective assessment alone, while cognitive assessments showed significantly better performance while breathing EANx. Before the dives, breathing air, mean time to complete the task was 1795 ms for MathProc and 1905 ms for Ptrail. When arriving at depth MathProc took 1616 ms on air and 1523 ms on EANx, and Ptrail took 1318 ms on air and and 1356 ms on EANx, followed 15 min later by significant performance inhibition while breathing air during the ascent and the postdive phase, supporting the concept of late dive/postdive impairment. The results suggest that EANx could protect against decreased neuro-cognitive performance induced by inert gas narcosis. It was not possible for blinded divers to identify which gas they were breathing and differences in postdive fatigue between air and EANx diving deserve further investigation.Germonpré P, Balestra C, Hemelryck W, Buzzacott P, Lafère P. Objective vs. subjective evaluation of cognitive performance during 0.4-MPa dives breathing air or nitrox. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):469-475.

  2. Long-lived isotopes production in Pb-Bi target irradiated by high energy protons

    SciTech Connect

    Korovin, Y.A.; Konobeyev, A.Y.; Pereslavtsev, P.E.

    1995-10-01

    Concentration of long-lived isotopes has been calculated for lead and lead-bismuth targets irradiated by protons with energy 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 GeV. The time of irradiation is equal from 1 month up to 2 years. The data libraries BROND, ADL and MENDL have been used to obtain the rate of nuclide transmutation. All calculations have been performed using the SNT code.

  3. Long-lived isotopes production in Pb-Bi target irradiated by high energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovin, Yu. A.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.; Pereslavtsev, P. E.

    1995-09-01

    Concentration of long-lived isotopes has been calculated for lead and lead-bismuth targets irradiated by protons with energy 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 GeV. The time of irradiation is equal from 1 month up to 2 years. The data libraries BROND, ADL and MENDL have been used to obtain the rate of nuclider transmutation. All calculations have been performed using the SNT code [1].

  4. Long-lived isotopes production in Pb-Bi target irradiated by high energy protons

    SciTech Connect

    Korovin, Yu. A.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.; Pereslavtsev, P. E.

    1995-09-15

    Concentration of long-lived isotopes has been calculated for lead and lead-bismuth targets irradiated by protons with energy 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 GeV. The time of irradiation is equal from 1 month up to 2 years. The data libraries BROND, ADL and MENDL have been used to obtain the rate of nuclider transmutation. All calculations have been performed using the SNT code.

  5. Comparison of US population and live birth rates with poison exposures reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS): children ages 0-5 years from 2000 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Spiller, H A; Spyker, D A; Casavant, M J

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring of poison control center data has provided an important public health surveillance tool. Previous work has identified the population with the greatest risk of poisoning as children of < 6 years. It follows that the size of the population at highest risk should be an important driver/factor of poison center volume. Therefore, one would expect population changes to be reflected in corresponding National Poison Data system (NPDS) call volume changes. We examined this relationship. This was a retrospective comparison of young children's poison exposures reported to NPDS with changes in US population as reported by the US Census Bureau and by live birth counts in the United States. We examined the relation of population and live birth counts to NPDS exposures in children of 0-5 years and for the total (children of 0-5 years). There was a statistically significant relation between exposures and population for the three of the seven age groups (1-3 years old) and between exposures and live birth counts for the five of the seven age groups (1-4 years old and total (0-5)). The highest correlation was seen with the age groups of 2-year olds (r = 0.815; slope, 4.7373; 95% CI, 2.36-7.11) and 1-year olds (r = 0.785; slope, 4.878; 95% CI, 2.163-7.592). Live birth count was more closely related than population for all but the 1-year-old age groups. Our study reports a number of interesting findings including 1) live birth counts and population are closely associated with each other, 2) poison exposures in NPDS were more strongly associated with live birth counts than with population, 3) the population at greatest risk is the 1- and 2-year-old age groups and the strongest associations between exposures and population and exposures and live birth counts occurred in these two age groups, and 4) changes occurring in the live birth counts, both positive and negative, were reflected in annual changes reported in NPDS human exposures in children < 6 years. These results mean

  6. Room temperature charge-ordered phase in Gd0.6Ca0.4MnO3 and Sm0.6Ca0.4MnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paturi, P.; Tikkanen, J.; Huhtinen, H.

    2017-06-01

    We have grown rarely studied Gd1-x Cax MnO3 (GCMO) and Sm1-xCax MnO3 (SCMO) thin films on SrTiO3 (1 0 0) single crystal substrates with pulsed laser deposition in order to optimize the magnetic and structural properties for e.g. memristor-like applications. To enable the Mott insulator to metal transition with practicable external stimulus, the previously unstudied x = 0.4 doping was chosen. The deposition temperature was 500 °C or 700 °C and the oxygen post-annealing was done in situ at 500 °C or 700 °C. All the films were fully textured and (0 b 0) oriented, but the ones made at 700 °C had better crystalline quality. For the same pulse amounts, GCMO films were clearly thinner than the SCMO films. Magnetically, all the films showed a charge/orbital order phase transition around 360 K and a ferrimagnetic transition around 70 K. The saturation magnetization at 10 K was highest in the films deposited and oxygen annealed at 700 °C. The samples deposited and annealed at 500 °C contained an unknown ferromagnetic impurity, which was invisible in structural characterization and not observed in the other samples. The samples made at 700 °C had a hysteretic I (V) -curves typical for materials used in memristors.

  7. Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    PubMed

    Vos, Theo; Flaxman, Abraham D; Naghavi, Mohsen; Lozano, Rafael; Michaud, Catherine; Ezzati, Majid; Shibuya, Kenji; Salomon, Joshua A; Abdalla, Safa; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Jerry; Ackerman, Ilana; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Ahn, Stephanie Y; Ali, Mohammed K; Alvarado, Miriam; Anderson, H Ross; Anderson, Laurie M; Andrews, Kathryn G; Atkinson, Charles; Baddour, Larry M; Bahalim, Adil N; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Barrero, Lope H; Bartels, David H; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Baxter, Amanda; Bell, Michelle L; Benjamin, Emelia J; Bennett, Derrick; Bernabé, Eduardo; Bhalla, Kavi; Bhandari, Bishal; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref; Birbeck, Gretchen; Black, James A; Blencowe, Hannah; Blore, Jed D; Blyth, Fiona; Bolliger, Ian; Bonaventure, Audrey; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert; Boussinesq, Michel; Braithwaite, Tasanee; Brayne, Carol; Bridgett, Lisa; Brooker, Simon; Brooks, Peter; Brugha, Traolach S; Bryan-Hancock, Claire; Bucello, Chiara; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey; Budke, Christine M; Burch, Michael; Burney, Peter; Burstein, Roy; Calabria, Bianca; Campbell, Benjamin; Canter, Charles E; Carabin, Hélène; Carapetis, Jonathan; Carmona, Loreto; Cella, Claudia; Charlson, Fiona; Chen, Honglei; Cheng, Andrew Tai-Ann; Chou, David; Chugh, Sumeet S; Coffeng, Luc E; Colan, Steven D; Colquhoun, Samantha; Colson, K Ellicott; Condon, John; Connor, Myles D; Cooper, Leslie T; Corriere, Matthew; Cortinovis, Monica; de Vaccaro, Karen Courville; Couser, William; Cowie, Benjamin C; Criqui, Michael H; Cross, Marita; Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C; Dahiya, Manu; Dahodwala, Nabila; Damsere-Derry, James; Danaei, Goodarz; Davis, Adrian; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dellavalle, Robert; Delossantos, Allyne; Denenberg, Julie; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dherani, Mukesh; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Dolk, Helen; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim; Duber, Herbert; Ebel, Beth; Edmond, Karen; Elbaz, Alexis; Ali, Suad Eltahir; Erskine, Holly; Erwin, Patricia J; Espindola, Patricia; Ewoigbokhan, Stalin E; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery; Felson, David T; Ferrari, Alize; Ferri, Cleusa P; Fèvre, Eric M; Finucane, Mariel M; Flaxman, Seth; Flood, Louise; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Fowkes, Francis Gerry R; Franklin, Richard; Fransen, Marlene; Freeman, Michael K; Gabbe, Belinda J; Gabriel, Sherine E; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Ganatra, Hammad A; Garcia, Bianca; Gaspari, Flavio; Gillum, Richard F; Gmel, Gerhard; Gosselin, Richard; Grainger, Rebecca; Groeger, Justina; Guillemin, Francis; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Ramyani; Haagsma, Juanita; Hagan, Holly; Halasa, Yara A; Hall, Wayne; Haring, Diana; Haro, Josep Maria; Harrison, James E; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J; Higashi, Hideki; Hill, Catherine; Hoen, Bruno; Hoffman, Howard; Hotez, Peter J; Hoy, Damian; Huang, John J; Ibeanusi, Sydney E; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; James, Spencer L; Jarvis, Deborah; Jasrasaria, Rashmi; Jayaraman, Sudha; Johns, Nicole; Jonas, Jost B; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kawakami, Norito; Keren, Andre; Khoo, Jon-Paul; King, Charles H; Knowlton, Lisa Marie; Kobusingye, Olive; Koranteng, Adofo; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Lalloo, Ratilal; Laslett, Laura L; Lathlean, Tim; Leasher, Janet L; Lee, Yong Yi; Leigh, James; Lim, Stephen S; Limb, Elizabeth; Lin, John Kent; Lipnick, Michael; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Wei; Loane, Maria; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Lyons, Ronan; Ma, Jixiang; Mabweijano, Jacqueline; MacIntyre, Michael F; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mallinger, Leslie; Manivannan, Sivabalan; Marcenes, Wagner; March, Lyn; Margolis, David J; Marks, Guy B; Marks, Robin; Matsumori, Akira; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M; McAnulty, John H; McDermott, Mary M; McGill, Neil; McGrath, John; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Meltzer, Michele; Mensah, George A; Merriman, Tony R; Meyer, Ana-Claire; Miglioli, Valeria; Miller, Matthew; Miller, Ted R; Mitchell, Philip B; Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Moffitt, Terrie E; Mokdad, Ali A; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moran, Andrew; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Murdoch, Michele E; Mwaniki, Michael K; Naidoo, Kovin; Nair, M Nathan; Naldi, Luigi; Narayan, K M Venkat; Nelson, Paul K; Nelson, Robert G; Nevitt, Michael C; Newton, Charles R; Nolte, Sandra; Norman, Paul; Norman, Rosana; O'Donnell, Martin; O'Hanlon, Simon; Olives, Casey; Omer, Saad B; Ortblad, Katrina; Osborne, Richard; Ozgediz, Doruk; Page, Andrew; Pahari, Bishnu; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Rivero, Andrea Panozo; Patten, Scott B; Pearce, Neil; Padilla, Rogelio Perez; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Phillips, David; Phillips, Michael R; Pierce, Kelsey; Pion, Sébastien; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Polinder, Suzanne; Pope, C Arden; Popova, Svetlana; Porrini, Esteban; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prince, Martin; Pullan, Rachel L; Ramaiah, Kapa D; Ranganathan, Dharani; Razavi, Homie; Regan, Mathilda; Rehm, Jürgen T; Rein, David B; Remuzzi, Guiseppe; Richardson, Kathryn; Rivara, Frederick P; Roberts, Thomas; Robinson, Carolyn; De Leòn, Felipe Rodriguez; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Rosenfeld, Lisa C; Rushton, Lesley; Sacco, Ralph L; Saha, Sukanta; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sanman, Ella; Schwebel, David C; Scott, James Graham; Segui-Gomez, Maria; Shahraz, Saeid; Shepard, Donald S; Shin, Hwashin; Shivakoti, Rupak; Singh, David; Singh, Gitanjali M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Singleton, Jessica; Sleet, David A; Sliwa, Karen; Smith, Emma; Smith, Jennifer L; Stapelberg, Nicolas J C; Steer, Andrew; Steiner, Timothy; Stolk, Wilma A; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Sudfeld, Christopher; Syed, Sana; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taylor, Hugh R; Taylor, Jennifer A; Taylor, William J; Thomas, Bernadette; Thomson, W Murray; Thurston, George D; Tleyjeh, Imad M; Tonelli, Marcello; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Truelsen, Thomas; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K; Ubeda, Clotilde; Undurraga, Eduardo A; van der Werf, Marieke J; van Os, Jim; Vavilala, Monica S; Venketasubramanian, N; Wang, Mengru; Wang, Wenzhi; Watt, Kerrianne; Weatherall, David J; Weinstock, Martin A; Weintraub, Robert; Weisskopf, Marc G; Weissman, Myrna M; White, Richard A; Whiteford, Harvey; Wiersma, Steven T; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Hywel C; Williams, Sean R M; Witt, Emma; Wolfe, Frederick; Woolf, Anthony D; Wulf, Sarah; Yeh, Pon-Hsiu; Zaidi, Anita K M; Zheng, Zhi-Jie; Zonies, David; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Memish, Ziad A

    2012-12-15

    Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional level. Neither effort quantified uncertainty in prevalence or years lived with disability (YLDs). Of the 291 diseases and injuries in the GBD cause list, 289 cause disability. For 1160 sequelae of the 289 diseases and injuries, we undertook a systematic analysis of prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, and excess mortality. Sources included published studies, case notification, population-based cancer registries, other disease registries, antenatal clinic serosurveillance, hospital discharge data, ambulatory care data, household surveys, other surveys, and cohort studies. For most sequelae, we used a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR, designed to address key limitations in descriptive epidemiological data, including missing data, inconsistency, and large methodological variation between data sources. For some disorders, we used natural history models, geospatial models, back-calculation models (models calculating incidence from population mortality rates and case fatality), or registration completeness models (models adjusting for incomplete registration with health-system access and other covariates). Disability weights for 220 unique health states were used to capture the severity of health loss. YLDs by cause at age, sex, country, and year levels were adjusted for comorbidity with simulation methods. We included uncertainty estimates at all stages of the analysis. Global prevalence for all ages combined in 2010 across the 1160 sequelae ranged from fewer than one case per 1 million people to 350,000 cases per 1 million people. Prevalence and severity of health loss were weakly correlated (correlation

  8. Layered-to-Rock-Salt Transformation in Desodiated NaxCrO2 (x 0.4)

    DOE PAGES

    Bo, Shou-Hang; Li, Xin; Toumar, Alexandra J.; ...

    2016-02-01

    O3 layered sodium transition metal oxides (i.e., NaMO2, M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) are a promising class of cathode materials for Na-ion battery applications. These materials, however, all suffer from severe capacity decay when the extraction of Na exceeds certain capacity limits. Understanding the causes of this capacity decay is critical to unlocking the potential of these materials for battery applications. In this work, we investigate the structural origins of capacity decay for one of the compounds in this class, NaCrO2. The (de)sodiation processes of NaCrO2 were studied both in situ and ex situ through X-raymore » and electron diffraction measurements. We demonstrate that NaxCrO2 (0 < x < 1) remains in the layered structural framework without Cr migration up to a composition of Na0.4CrO2. Further removal of Na beyond this composition triggers a layered-to-rock-salt transformation, which converts P'3-Na0.4CrO2 into the rock-salt CrO2 phase. This structural transformation proceeds via the formation of an intermediate O3 NaδCrO2 phase that contains Cr in both Na and Cr slabs and shares very similar lattice dimensions with those of rock-salt CrO2. It is intriguing to note that intercalation of alkaline ions (i.e., Na+ and Li+ ) into the rock-salt CrO2 and O3 NaδCrO 2 structures is actually possible, albeit in a limited amount (~0.2 per formula unit). When these results were analyzed under the context of electrochemistry data, it was apparent that preventing the layered-to-rock-salt transformation is crucial to improve the cyclability of NaCrO2. Possible strategies for mitigating this detrimental phase transition are proposed.« less

  9. SPECTROSCOPIC SIGNATURE OF ALFVEN WAVES DAMPING IN A POLAR CORONAL HOLE UP TO 0.4 SOLAR RADII

    SciTech Connect

    Bemporad, A.; Abbo, L.

    2012-06-01

    Between 2009 February 24 and 25, the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) spectrometer on board the Hinode spacecraft performed special 'sit and stare' observations above the south polar coronal hole continuously over more than 22 hr. Spectra were acquired with the 1'' slit placed off-limb covering altitudes up to 0.48 R{sub Sun} (3.34 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} Mm) above the Sun surface, in order to study with EIS the non-thermal spectral line broadenings. Spectral lines such as Fe XII {lambda}186.88, Fe XII {lambda}193.51, Fe XII {lambda}195.12, and Fe XIII {lambda}202.04 are observed with good statistics up to high altitudes and they have been analyzed in this study. Results show that the FWHM of the Fe XII {lambda}195.12 line increases up to {approx_equal} 0.14 R{sub Sun }, then decreases higher up. EIS stray light has been estimated and removed. Derived electron density and non-thermal velocity profiles have been used to estimate the total energy flux transported by Alfven waves off-limb in the polar coronal hole up to {approx_equal} 0.4 R{sub Sun }. The computed Alfven wave energy flux density f{sub w} progressively decays with altitude from f{sub w} {approx_equal} 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at 0.03 R{sub Sun} down to f{sub w} {approx_equal} 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at 0.4 R{sub Sun }, with an average energy decay rate of {Delta}f{sub w} /{Delta}h {approx_equal} -4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} erg cm{sup -1}. Hence, this result suggests energy deposition by Alfven waves in a polar coronal hole, thus providing a significant source for coronal heating.

  10. Living an everyday life with head and neck cancer 2-2.5 years post-diagnosis - A qualitative prospective study of 56 patients.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Joakim; Salander, Pär; Lilliehorn, Sara; Laurell, Göran

    2016-04-01

    There are many studies available describing how patients are affected by head and neck cancer (HNC) and its treatment. Usually these studies are quantitative and focus on assessing patients' quality of life or distress post-treatment. These studies are important, but they are of limited value if we are interested in understanding more about HNC in an everyday life context. The purpose was to determine how life was lived and valued during and after treatment for HNC and to detect different transitions in returning to everyday life. During 2009-2012, 56 patients with HNC were consecutively included, and interviewed at 6, 12, and 24 months post-treatment about how they lived their lives. All patients received primary treatment at a tertiary referral university hospital in Sweden. Four different trajectories and transitions emerged. The first group (n = 15) evaluated their illness experience as a past parenthesis in their life suggesting that they had psychologically left the illness behind. In the second group (n = 9), the impact of the disease seemed to be diluted by other strains in their life, and although these patients to some extent were still hampered by side effects, they regarded them as 'no big deal'. The cancer really made a difference in the third group (n = 12) in both positive and negative ways and seemed to reflect a balance between such effects. In the fourth group (n = 20), the physical and/or psychological problems predominated and the patients' lives had changed for the worse. The narratives showed that being afflicted by HNC has different impacts depending on how the patients live their lives - it is a matter of individual transition in an everyday life context. This idiosyncrasy challenges the meaningfulness of screening efforts to identify vulnerable groups for psychosocial intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Visible and near-infrared (0.4-2.5 μm) reflectance spectra of playa evaporite minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, James K.

    1991-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR; 0.4–2.4 μm) reflectance spectra were recorded for 35 saline minerals that represent the wide range of mineral and brine chemical compositions found in playa evaporite settings. The spectra show that many of the saline minerals exhibit diagnostic near-infrared absorption bands, chiefly attributable to vibrations of hydrogen-bonded structural water molecules. VNIR reflectance spectra can be used to detect minor hydrate phases present in mixtures dominated by anhydrous halite or thenardite, and therefore will be useful in combination with X ray diffraction data for characterizing natural saline mineral assemblages. In addition, VNIR reflectance spectra are sensitive to differences in sample hydration state and should facilitate in situ studies of minerals that occur as fragile, transitory dehydration products in natural salt crusts. The use of spectral reflectance measurements in playa studies should aid in mapping evaporite mineral distributions and may provide insight into the geochemical and hydrological controls on playa mineral and brine development.

  12. Unconventional superconductivity in Ba(0.6)K(0.4)Fe2As2 from inelastic neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Christianson, A D; Goremychkin, E A; Osborn, R; Rosenkranz, S; Lumsden, M D; Malliakas, C D; Todorov, I S; Claus, H; Chung, D Y; Kanatzidis, M G; Bewley, R I; Guidi, T

    2008-12-18

    A new family of superconductors containing layers of iron arsenide has attracted considerable interest because of their high transition temperatures (T(c)), some of which are >50 K, and because of similarities with the high-T(c) copper oxide superconductors. In both the iron arsenides and the copper oxides, superconductivity arises when an antiferromagnetically ordered phase has been suppressed by chemical doping. A universal feature of the copper oxide superconductors is the existence of a resonant magnetic excitation, localized in both energy and wavevector, within the superconducting phase. This resonance, which has also been observed in several heavy-fermion superconductors, is predicted to occur when the sign of the superconducting energy gap takes opposite values on different parts of the Fermi surface, an unusual gap symmetry which implies that the electron pairing interaction is repulsive at short range. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy shows no evidence of gap anisotropy in the iron arsenides, but such measurements are insensitive to the phase of the gap on separate parts of the Fermi surface. Here we report inelastic neutron scattering observations of a magnetic resonance below T(c) in Ba(0.6)K(0.4)Fe(2)As(2), a phase-sensitive measurement demonstrating that the superconducting energy gap has unconventional symmetry in the iron arsenide superconductors.

  13. Discovery of an obscured globular cluster associated with GX 354+0 /=4U/MXB 1728-34/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Hertz, P.

    1981-07-01

    A diffuse infrared source identified as the most heavily obscured globular cluster yet found, was observed using the NASA 3m infrared telescope facility and Einstein positions for the X-ray source GX 354+0 (=4U/MXB 1728-34). Color excesses were measured to 1.4 + or - 0.3 for E(J-H) and 0.63 + or - 0.07 for E(H-K), and the visual extinction was determined at 10.6 + or - 1.3. The magnitude of several giant branch stars imply the cluster to be at a distance of 10.0 + or - 3.9 kpc, if metal rich, or 5.2 + or - 1.4 kpc, if metal poor. A single burst from MXB 1728-34 was observed with a blackbody temperature and cluster distance that indicated the luminosity to be not less than 10 times the Eddington limit for a neutron star model. This identification brings to 11 the number of compact X-ray sources in globular clusters, and reinforces the connection between GX sources, bursters, and globular clusters.

  14. Strongly enhanced current densities in Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 + Sn superconducting tapes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, He; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Xianping; Zhang, Haitao; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Qianjun; Ma, Yanwei; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Improving transport current has been the primary topic for practical application of superconducting wires and tapes. However, the porous nature of powder-in-tube (PIT) processed iron-based tapes is one of the important reasons for low critical current density (Jc) values. In this work, the superconducting core density of ex-situ Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 + Sn tapes, prepared from optimized precursors, was significantly improved by employing a simple hot pressing as an alternative route for final sintering. The resulting samples exhibited optimal critical temperature (Tc), sharp resistive transition, small resistivity and high Vickers hardness (Hv) value. Consequently, the transport Jc reached excellent values of 5.1 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T and 4.3 × 104 A/cm2 in 14 T at 4.2 K, respectively. Our tapes also exhibited high upper critical field Hc2 and almost field-independent Jc. These results clearly demonstrate that PIT pnictide wire conductors are very promising for high-field magnet applications. PMID:24663054

  15. Refractory amorphous metallic (W/0.6/ Re/0.4/)76B24 coatings on steel substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Lamb, J. L.; Khanna, S. K.; Mehra, M.; Johnson, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Refractory metallic coatings of (W/0.6/ Re/0.4/)76B24 (WReB) have been deposited onto glass, quartz, and heat-treated AISI 52100 bearing steel substrates by dc magnetron sputtering. As-deposited WReB films are amorphous, as shown by their diffuse X-ray diffraction patterns; chemically homogeneous, according to secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis; and they exhibit a very high (approximately 1000 C) crystallization temperature. Adhesion strength of these coatings on heat-treated AISI 52100 steel is in excess of approximately 20,000 psi and they possess high microhardness (approximately 2400 HV50). Unlubricated wear resistance of such hard and adherent amorphous metallic coatings on AISI 52100 steel is studied using the pin-on-disc method under various loading conditions. Amorphous metallic WReB coatings, about 4 microns thick, exhibit an improvement of more than two and a half orders of magnitude in the unlubricated wear resistance over that of the uncoated AISI 52100 steel.

  16. Structure cristalline de type alluaudite K0.4Na3.6Co(MoO4)3

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Rawia; Fakhar Bourguiba, Noura; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    A new triple molybdate, potassium sodium cobalt tris­(molybdate), K0.4Na3.6Co(MoO4)3, was synthesized using solid-state reactions. The Co2+ and one Na+ cation are located at the same general site, each with occupancy 0.5. Another site (site symmetry 2) is occupied by Na+ and K+ cations, with occupancies of 0.597 (7) and 0.402 (6), respectively. The other two Na+ cations and one of the two Mo atoms lie on special positions (site symmetries -1, 2 and 2, respectively). The structure is characterized by M 2O10 (M = Co/Na) dimers, which are linked by MoO4 tetra­hedra, forming infinite layers. The latter are connected firstly by insertion of one type of MoO4 tetra­hedra and secondly by sharing corners with the other type of MoO4 tetra­hedra. This results in an open three-dimensional framework with the cavities occupied by the Na+ and K+ cations. The structure is isotypic with Na3In2As3O12 and Na3In2P3O12. A comparison is made with structures such as K2Co2(MoO4)3 and β-NaFe2(MoO4)3 and their differences are discussed. PMID:25705436

  17. Resonant Spin Excitation in the High Temperature Superconductor Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, Andrew D; Goremychkin, E. A.; Osborn, R.; Rosenkranz, Stephen; Lumsden, Mark D; Malliakas, C.; Todorov, L.; Claus, H.; Chung, D.Y.; Kanatzidis, M.; Bewley, Robert I.; Guidi, T.

    2008-12-18

    A new family of superconductors containing layers of iron arsenide has attracted considerable interest because of their high transition temperatures (T{sub c}), some of which are >50 K, and because of similarities with the high-{sub c} copper oxide superconductors. In both the iron arsenides and the copper oxides, superconductivity arises when an antiferromagnetically ordered phase has been suppressed by chemical doping. A universal feature of the copper oxide superconductors is the existence of a resonant magnetic excitation, localized in both energy and wavevector, within the superconducting phase. This resonance, which has also been observed in several heavy-fermion superconductors is predicted to occur when the sign of the superconducting energy gap takes opposite values on different parts of the Fermi surface, an unusual gap symmetry which implies that the electron pairing interaction is repulsive at short range. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy shows no evidence of gap anisotropy in the iron arsenides, but such measurements are insensitive to the phase of the gap on separate parts of the Fermi surface. Here we report inelastic neutron scattering observations of a magnetic resonance below T{sub c} in Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, a phase-sensitive measurement demonstrating that the superconducting energy gap has unconventional symmetry in the iron arsenide superconductors.

  18. Multi-spectral fiber spectroscopy in 0,4-16μm range for biomedical applications(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyushenko, Viacheslav

    2017-02-01

    Various biomedical applications of fiber optics in a broad spectral range 0,4-16μm span from endoscopic imaging and Photo Dynamic Diagnostics (PDD) to laser power delivery for minimal invasive laser surgery, tissue coagulation and welding, Photo Dynamic Therapy (PDT), etc. Present review will highlight the latest results in advanced fiber solutions for a precise tissue diagnostics and control of some therapy methods - for so called "theranostic". Spectral fiber sensing for label free analysis of tissue composition helps to differentiate malignant and normal tissue to secure minimal invasive, but complete tumor removal or treatment. All key methods of Raman, fluorescence, diffuse reflection & MIR-absorption spectroscopy will be compared when used for the same spot of tissue - to select the most specific, sensitive and accurate method or to combine them for the synergy enhanced effect. The most informative spectral features for distinct organs/ tumor can be used to design special fiber sensors to be developed for portable and low cost applications with modern IT-features. Examples of multi-spectral tissue diagnostics promising for the future clinical applications will be presented to enable reduced mortality from cancer in the future. Translation of described methods into clinical practice will be discussed in comparison with the other method of optical diagnostics which should enhance modern medicine by less invasive, more precise and more effective methods of therapy to be fused with in-vivo diagnostics sensors & systems.

  19. Critical phenomena in Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 perovskite manganese oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hcini, Sobhi; Zemni, Sadok; Baazaoui, M.ed; Dhahri, Jamila; Vincent, Henri; Oumezzine, M.ed

    2012-05-01

    We studied the critical phenomena of perovskite-manganite compound Pr0.6Sr0.4MnO3 around its Curie temperature. Experimental results based on magnetic measurements using Banerjee criterion revealed that the sample exhibits the second-order paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition. It is found that the critical behaviour analysis and Kouvel-Fisher method show that the 3D- Heisenberg model is the best one to describe the critical phenomena around the critical point. Critical exponents β = 0.3785(6) and γ = 1.304(12) at TC = 320 K are obtained. The critical exponent δ = 4.7183(2) is determined separately from the isothermal magnetization at TC. These critical exponents fulfil the Widom scaling relation δ = 1 + γ/β. Based on the critical exponents, the magnetization-field-temperature (M-H-T) data around TC collapses into two curves obeying the single scaling equation M(H,ɛ)=|f(H/|) with ɛ = (T - TC)/TC is the reduced temperature.

  20. Healthy Active Living: A Residence Community-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity and Healthy Eating during the Transition to First-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Denver M. Y.; Bray, Steve R.; Beatty, Kevin R.; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a Healthy Active Living (HAL) community intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and psychosocial mediators of physical activity among students transitioning into university. Methods: Sixty undergraduate students were assigned to reside in either the…

  1. A Comparison of Live Classroom Instruction and Internet-Based Lessons for a Preparatory Training Course Delivered to 4th Year Pharmacy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students…

  2. Healthy Active Living: A Residence Community-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity and Healthy Eating during the Transition to First-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Denver M. Y.; Bray, Steve R.; Beatty, Kevin R.; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a Healthy Active Living (HAL) community intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and psychosocial mediators of physical activity among students transitioning into university. Methods: Sixty undergraduate students were assigned to reside in either the…

  3. A Comparison of Live Classroom Instruction and Internet-Based Lessons for a Preparatory Training Course Delivered to 4th Year Pharmacy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students…

  4. Rates of zinc and trace metal release from dissolving sphalerite at pH 2.0-4.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, M.R.; Gemery-Hill, P. A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Taylor, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    High-Fe and low-Fe sphalerite samples were reacted under controlled pH conditions to determine nonoxidative rates of release of Zn and trace metals from the solid-phase. The release (solubilization) of trace metals from dissolving sphalerite to the aqueous phase can be characterized by a kinetic distribution coefficient, (Dtr), which is defined as [(Rtr/X(tr)Sph)/(RZn/X(Zn) Sph)], where R is the trace metal or Zn release rate, and X is the mole fraction of the trace metal or Zn in sphalerite. This coefficient describes the relationship of the sphalerite dissolution rate to the trace metal mole fraction in the solid and its aqueous concentration. The distribution was used to determine some controls on metal release during the dissolution of sphalerite. Departures from the ideal Dtr of 1.0 suggest that some trace metals may be released via different pathways or that other processes (e.g., adsorption, solubility of trace minerals such as galena) affect the observed concentration of metals. Nonoxidative sphalerite dissolution (mediated by H+) is characterized by a "fast" stage in the first 24-30 h, followed by a "slow" stage for the remainder of the reaction. Over the pH range 2.0-4.0, and for similar extent of reaction (reaction time), sphalerite composition, and surface area, the rates of release of Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb from sphalerite generally increase with lower pH. Zinc and Fe exhibit the fastest rates of release, Mn and Pb have intermediate rates of release, and Cd and Cu show the slowest rates of release. The largest variations in metal release rates occur at pH 2.0. At pH 3.0 and 4.0, release rates show less variation and appear less dependent on the metal abundance in the solid. For the same extent of reaction (100 h), rates of Zn release range from 1.53 ?? 10-11 to 5.72 ?? 10-10 mol/m2/s; for Fe, the range is from 4.59 ?? 10-13 to 1.99 ?? 10-10 mol/m2/s. Trace metal release rates are generally 1-5 orders of magnitude slower than the Zn or Fe rates

  5. Ba0.4Rb0.6Mn2As2: A prototype half-metallic ferromagnet

    DOE PAGES

    Pandey, Abhishek; Johnston, D. C.

    2015-11-02

    Half-metallic ferromagnetism (FM) in single-crystal Ba0.39(1)Rb0.61(1)Mn2As2 below its Curie temperature TC = 103(2) K is reported. The magnetization M versus applied magnetic field H isotherm data at 1.8 K show complete polarization of the itinerant doped-hole magnetic moments that are introduced by substituting Rb for Ba. Here, the material exhibits extremely soft FM, with unobservably small remanent magnetization and coercive field. Surprisingly, and contrary to typical itinerant FMs, the M(H) data follow the Arrott-plot paradigm that is based on a mean-field theory of local-moment FMs. The in-plane electrical resistivity data are fitted well by an activated-T2 expression for T ≤more » TC, whereas the data sharply deviate from this model for T > TC. Hence the activated-T2 resistivity model is an excellent diagnostic for determining the onset of half-metallic FM in this compound, which in turn demonstrates the presence of a strong correlation between the electronic transport and magnetic properties of the material. Together with previous data on 40% hole-doped Ba0.6K0.4Mn2As2, these measurements establish 61%-doped Ba0.39Rb0.61Mn2As2 as a prototype for a class of half-metallic ferromagnets in which all the itinerant carriers in the material are ferromagnetic.« less

  6. HST Detection of Extended Neutral Hydrogen in a Massive Elliptical at z = 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedy, Fakhri S.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Rauch, Michael; Zabludoff, Ann

    2017-09-01

    We report the first detection of extended neutral hydrogen (H i) gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) of a massive elliptical galaxy beyond z∼ 0. The observations utilize the doubly lensed images of QSO HE 0047‑1756 at {z}{QSO}=1.676 as absorption-line probes of the ISM in the massive ({M}{star}≈ {10}11 {M}ȯ ) elliptical lens at z = 0.408, detecting gas at projected distances of d = 3.3 and 4.6 kpc on opposite sides of the lens. Using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, we obtain UV absorption spectra of the lensed QSO and identify a prominent flux discontinuity and associated absorption features matching the Lyman series transitions at z = 0.408 in both sightlines. The H i column density is log N({{H}} {{I}})=19.6{--}19.7 at both locations across the lens, comparable to what is seen in 21 cm images of nearby ellipticals. The H i gas kinematics are well-matched with the kinematics of the Fe ii absorption complex revealed in ground-based echelle data, displaying a large velocity shear of ≈360 {\\text{km s}}-1 across the galaxy. We estimate an ISM Fe abundance of 0.3–0.4 solar at both locations. Including likely dust depletions increases the estimated Fe abundances to solar or supersolar, similar to those of the hot ISM and stars of nearby ellipticals. Assuming 100% covering fraction of this Fe-enriched gas, we infer a total Fe mass of {M}{cool}({Fe})∼ (5{--}8)× {10}4 {M}ȯ in the cool ISM of the massive elliptical lens, which is no more than 5% of the total Fe mass observed in the hot ISM.

  7. Nature of the absorbing gas associated with a galaxy group at z˜0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péroux, Céline; Rahmani, Hadi; Quiret, Samuel; Pettini, Max; Kulkarni, Varsha; York, Donald G.; Straka, Lorrie; Husemann, Bernd; Milliard, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    We present new Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of quasar field Q2131-1207 with a log N(H I} = 19.50 ± 0.15 sub-damped Lyman α at zabs = 0.42980. We detect four galaxies at a redshift consistent with that of the absorber where only one was known before this study. Two of these are star-forming galaxies, while the ones further away from the quasar (>140 kpc) are passive galaxies. We report the metallicities of the H II regions of the closest objects (12 + log(O/H) = 8.98 ± 0.02 and 8.32 ± 0.16) to be higher or equivalent within the errors to the metallicity measured in absorption in the neutral phase of the gas (8.15 ± 0.20). For the closest object, a detailed morphokinematic analysis indicates that it is an inclined large rotating disc with Vmax = 200 ± 3 km s-1. We measure the masses to be Mdyn = 7.4 ± 0.4 × 1010 M⊙ and Mhalo = 2.9 ± 0.2 × 1012 M⊙. Some of the gas seen in absorption is likely to be corotating with the halo of that object, possibly due to a warped disc. The azimuthal angle between the quasar line-of-sight and the projected major axis of the galaxy on the sky is 12° ± 1° which indicates that some other fraction of the absorbing gas might be associated with accreting gas. This is further supported by the galaxy to gas metallicity difference. Based on the same arguments, we exclude outflows as a possibility to explain the gas in absorption. The four galaxies form a large structure (at least 200 kpc wide) consistent with a filament or a galaxy group so that a fraction of the absorption could be related to intragroup gas.

  8. The '0.4 eV' shape resonance of electron scattering from mercury in a Franck Hertz tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoletopoulos, Peter

    2004-05-01

    The alternative version of the Franck-Hertz experiment with mercury, in which a two-grid tube is used as a combination of electron gun, equipotential collision space and detection cell, was analysed recently in considerable detail. In particular, it was inferred that, at optimal pressure, the formation of peaks in the anode current at inelastic thresholds is mediated inside the detection cell by the large variation, a maximum at 0.4 eV, in the cross section for elastic scattering. This variation is due to a shape resonance in the electron-mercury system and is observable persuasively at the onset of anode current as a sharp peak followed by a clear minimum. In this paper, the passage of electrons through the second grid to the anode region is analysed in terms of kinetic theory. The discussion is based on a simplified expression for the electron current derivable from an approximate form of the Boltzmann transport equation that maintains the spatial density gradient but omits elastic energy losses. The estimated range of pressure underlying this kind of idealization is in good agreement with experiment. An explicit solution is obtained by constructing an analytic expression for the momentum transfer cross section of mercury using a recent theory of generalized Fano profiles for overlapping resonances. This solution is used in order to model successfully the formation of peaks at the threshold of anode current and at excitation potentials, and to explain the dependence of the observed profiles on the pressure and on the sign and magnitude of the potential across the detection cell.

  9. Simulation study of electric-guided delivery of 0.4µm monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols to the ostiomeatal complex.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Yuan, Jiayao Eddie; Si, Xiuhua April

    2016-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of rhinosinusitis, current inhalation therapy shows limited efficacy due to extremely low drug delivery efficiency to the paranasal sinuses. Novel intranasal delivery systems are needed to enhance targeted delivery to the sinus with therapeutic dosages. An optimization framework for intranasal drug delivery was developed to target polydisperse charged aerosols to the ostiomeatal complex (OMC) with electric guidance. The delivery efficiency of a group of charged aerosols recently reported in the literature was numerically assessed and optimized in an anatomically accurate nose-sinus model. Key design variables included particle charge number, particle size and distribution, electrode strength, and inhalation velocity. Both monodisperse and polydisperse aerosol profiles were considered. Results showed that the OMC delivery efficiency was highly sensitive to the applied electric field and electrostatic charges carried by the particles. Through the synthesis of electric-guidance and point drug release, focused deposition with significantly enhanced dosage in the OMC can be achieved. For 0.4 µm charged aerosols, an OMC delivery efficiency of 51.6% was predicted for monodisperse aerosols and 34.4% for polydisperse aerosols. This difference suggested that the aerosol profile exerted a notable effect on intranasal deliveries. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the OMC deposition fraction was highly sensitive to the charge and size of particles and was less sensitive to the inhalation velocity considered in this study. Experimental studies are needed to validate the numerically optimized designs. Further studies are warranted to investigate the targeted OMC delivery with both electric and acoustics controls, the latter of which has the potential to further deliver the drug particles into the sinus cavity.

  10. Two-Body Photodisintegration of ^3He between 0.4 and 1.5 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, Yordanka

    2006-04-01

    The γ^3He->pd reaction was measured with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab for photon energies between 0.4 and 1.5 GeV and proton CM angles p̂CM between 40^o and 140^o. It is complementary to the three-body breakup of ^3He with respect to studying three-body mechanisms. At all photon energies for our experiment, the differential cross sections exhibit a very strong forward-to-backward asymmetry --- approximately one order of magnitude. An interesting feature of the differential cross sections is that their slope does not depend on the photon energy and there is a change of slope at p̂CM=120^o seen at all photon energies. The invariant cross sections fall off with s (where s is the total CM energy) much faster than expected by the quark counting rules [1]. The latter predict that in the asymptotic regime t->∞ the invariant cross sections should scale as s-17, whereas our data scale as s-22. A comparison of our preliminary results with the cross sections predicted by Jean-Marc Laget's model [2] shows that the differential cross sections for angles greater than 60^o are sensitive to contributions from three-body mechanisms. The relative importance of the latter, with respect to one- and two-body mechanisms, is larger at 0.6 - 0.8 GeV than at higher energies. This has already been observed in our data for γ^3He->ppn [3] and seems to be a characteristic of the three-body mechanisms at medium energies. 6mm 1. S.J. Brodsky and G.R. Farrar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 1153 (1973) 2. J-M. Laget, Phys. Rev. C 38, 2993 (1988)3. S. Niccolai et al., Phys. Rev. C 70, 064003 (2004)

  11. Comparison of Immunogenicity Between Inactivated and Live Attenuated Hepatitis A Vaccines Among Young Adults: A 3-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-en; Chen, Hai-ying; Liao, Zheng; Zhou, Yisheng; Wen, Hairong; Peng, Shihui; Liu, Yan; Li, Rui; Li, Jie; Zhuang, Hui

    2015-10-15

    A randomized clinical trial of hepatitis A vaccines (1 or 2 doses of inactivated vaccine [Healive] or 1 dose of live attenuated vaccine [Biovac]) was conducted among adults to evaluate seroprotection rates and geometric mean concentrations of antibody against hepatitis A virus for 36 months. High rates of seroprotection persisted for at least 36 months among adults who received 1 or 2 doses of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine but not among adults who received 1 dose of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine. The long-term serial monitoring of immunogenicity induced by 1 dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine is needed to determine an effective alternative to a 2-dose schedule. NCT01865968. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Geriatric ICF Core Set reflecting health-related problems in community-living older adults aged 75 years and older without dementia: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Spoorenberg, Sophie L W; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Middel, Berrie; Uittenbroek, Ronald J; Kremer, Hubertus P H; Wynia, Klaske

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a valid Geriatric ICF Core Set reflecting relevant health-related problems of community-living older adults without dementia. A Delphi study was performed in order to reach consensus (≥70% agreement) on second-level categories from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The Delphi panel comprised 41 older adults, medical and non-medical experts. Content validity of the set was tested in a cross-sectional study including 267 older adults identified as frail or having complex care needs. Consensus was reached for 30 ICF categories in the Delphi study (fourteen Body functions, ten Activities and Participation and six Environmental Factors categories). Content validity of the set was high: the prevalence of all the problems was >10%, except for d530 Toileting. The most frequently reported problems were b710 Mobility of joint functions (70%), b152 Emotional functions (65%) and b455 Exercise tolerance functions (62%). No categories had missing values. The final Geriatric ICF Core Set is a comprehensive and valid set of 29 ICF categories, reflecting the most relevant health-related problems among community-living older adults without dementia. This Core Set may contribute to optimal care provision and support of the older population. Implications for Rehabilitation The Geriatric ICF Core Set may provide a practical tool for gaining an understanding of the relevant health-related problems of community-living older adults without dementia. The Geriatric ICF Core Set may be used in primary care practice as an assessment tool in order to tailor care and support to the needs of older adults. The Geriatric ICF Core Set may be suitable for use in multidisciplinary teams in integrated care settings, since it is based on a broad range of problems in functioning. Professionals should pay special attention to health problems related to mobility and emotional functioning since these are the most

  13. Design for Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

  14. Design for Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

  15. Living Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mules, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

  16. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  17. Greener Living

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how to live a more environmentally friendly life by reducing your environmental footprint, enhancing sustainability, using clean energy, water efficiency, composting, selecting a fuel efficient vehicle, and reducing waste.

  18. Living Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mules, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

  19. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of ... Get the screening tests you need Maintain a healthy weight Eat a variety of healthy foods, and ...

  20. Bachelor Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germer, Sondra

    1974-01-01

    Male high school students in a Bachelor Living Class observed methods of child care including bottle feeding, spoon feeding, changing diapers, and method of holding. The purpose was for the students to grasp a better understanding of child development. (EK)

  1. Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36: Spectroscopy from 0.4 to 2.4 Micrometer and Meteorite Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Beth Ellen; Binzel, Richard P.; Howell, Ellen S.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Ockert-Bell, Maureen; Christensen, Phil; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; DeMeo, Francesca; Lauretta, Dante S.; Connolly, Harold, Jr.; Soderberg, Alicia; Hergenrother, Carl; Lim, Lucy; Emery, Josh; Mueller, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We present reflectance spectra from 0.4 to 2.4 ?m of Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36, the target of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft mission. The visible spectral data were obtained at the McDonald Observatory 2.1-m telescope with the ES2 spectrograph. The infrared spectral data were obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility using the SpeX instrument. The average visible spectrum is combined with the average near-infrared wavelength spectrum to form a composite spectrum. We use three methods to constrain the compositional information in the composite spectrum of Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 (hereafter RQ36). First, we perform a least-squares search for meteorite spectral analogs using 15,000 spectra from the RELAB database. Three most likely meteorite analogs are proposed based on the least-squares search. Next, six spectral parameters are measured for RQ36 and their values are compared with the ranges in parameter values of the carbonaceous chondrite meteorite classes. A most likely meteorite analog group is proposed based on the depth of overlap in parameter values. The results of the least-squares search and the parametric comparisons point to CIs and/or CMs as the most likely meteorite analogs for RQ36, and COs and CHs as the least likely. RQ36 has a spectrally blue continuum slope that is also observed in carbonaceous chondrites containing magnetite. We speculate that RQ36 is composed of a CM1 -like material. Finally, we compare RQ36 to other B-type asteroids measured by Clark et al. (Clark, B.E. et al. [2010]. J. Geophys. Res. 115, E06005). The results of this comparison are inconclusive. RQ36 is comparable to Themis spectral properties in terms of its albedo, visible spectrum, and near-infrared spectrum from 1.1 to 1.45 micrometers. However, RQ36 is more similar to Pallas in terms of its near-infrared spectrum from 1.6 to 2.3 micrometers. Thus it is possible that B-type asteroids form a spectral continuum and that RQ36 is a transitional object, spectrally

  2. Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36: Spectroscopy from 0.4 to 2.4 Micrometer and Meteorite Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Beth Ellen; Binzel, Richard P.; Howell, Ellen S.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Ockert-Bell, Maureen; Christensen, Phil; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; DeMeo, Francesca; Lauretta, Dante S.; Connolly, Harold, Jr.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present reflectance spectra from 0.4 to 2.4 ?m of Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36, the target of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft mission. The visible spectral data were obtained at the McDonald Observatory 2.1-m telescope with the ES2 spectrograph. The infrared spectral data were obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility using the SpeX instrument. The average visible spectrum is combined with the average near-infrared wavelength spectrum to form a composite spectrum. We use three methods to constrain the compositional information in the composite spectrum of Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 (hereafter RQ36). First, we perform a least-squares search for meteorite spectral analogs using 15,000 spectra from the RELAB database. Three most likely meteorite analogs are proposed based on the least-squares search. Next, six spectral parameters are measured for RQ36 and their values are compared with the ranges in parameter values of the carbonaceous chondrite meteorite classes. A most likely meteorite analog group is proposed based on the depth of overlap in parameter values. The results of the least-squares search and the parametric comparisons point to CIs and/or CMs as the most likely meteorite analogs for RQ36, and COs and CHs as the least likely. RQ36 has a spectrally blue continuum slope that is also observed in carbonaceous chondrites containing magnetite. We speculate that RQ36 is composed of a CM1 -like material. Finally, we compare RQ36 to other B-type asteroids measured by Clark et al. (Clark, B.E. et al. [2010]. J. Geophys. Res. 115, E06005). The results of this comparison are inconclusive. RQ36 is comparable to Themis spectral properties in terms of its albedo, visible spectrum, and near-infrared spectrum from 1.1 to 1.45 micrometers. However, RQ36 is more similar to Pallas in terms of its near-infrared spectrum from 1.6 to 2.3 micrometers. Thus it is possible that B-type asteroids form a spectral continuum and that RQ36 is a transitional object, spectrally

  3. Probing the cool interstellar and circumgalactic gas of three massive lensing galaxies at z = 0.4-0.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedy, Fakhri S.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Rauch, Michael; Wilson, Michelle L.; Zabludoff, Ann

    2016-05-01

    We present multisightline absorption spectroscopy of cool gas around three lensing galaxies at z = 0.4-0.7. These lenses have half-light radii re = 2.6-8 kpc and stellar masses of log M*/M⊙ = 10.9-11.4, and therefore resemble nearby passive elliptical galaxies. The lensed QSO sightlines presented here occur at projected distances of d = 3-15 kpc (or d ≈ 1-2 re) from the lensing galaxies, providing for the first time an opportunity to probe both interstellar gas at r ˜ re and circumgalactic gas at larger radii r ≫ re of these distant quiescent galaxies. We observe distinct gas absorption properties among different lenses and among sightlines of individual lenses. Specifically, while the quadruple lens for HE 0435-1223 shows no absorption features to very sensitive limits along all four sightlines, strong Mg II, Fe II, Mg I, and Ca II absorption transitions are detected along both sightlines near the double lens for HE 0047-1756, and in one of the two sightlines near the double lens for HE 1104-1805. The absorbers are resolved into 8-15 individual components with a line-of-sight velocity spread of Δ v ≈ 300-600 km s-1. The large ionic column densities, log N ≳ 14, observed in two components suggest that these may be Lyman limit or damped Ly α absorbers with a significant neutral hydrogen fraction. The majority of the absorbing components exhibit a uniform supersolar Fe/Mg ratio with a scatter of <0.1 dex across the full Δ v range. Given a predominantly old stellar population in these lensing galaxies, we argue that the observed large velocity width and Fe-rich abundance pattern can be explained by SNe Ia enriched gas at radius r ˜ re. We show that additional spatial constraints in line-of-sight velocity and relative abundance ratios afforded by a multisightline approach provide a powerful tool to resolve the origin of chemically enriched cool gas in massive haloes.

  4. Global, regional, and national deaths, prevalence, disability-adjusted life years, and years lived with disability for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    PubMed

    2017-09-01

    41·9% (37·7 to 45·1) but this was counteracted by population growth and ageing of the global population. From 1990 to 2015, the prevalence of COPD increased by 44·2% (41·7 to 46·6), whereas age-standardised prevalence decreased by 14·7% (13·5 to 15·9). In 2015, 0·40 million people (0·36 million to 0·44 million) died from asthma, a decrease of 26·7% (-7·2 to 43·7) from 1990, and the age-standardised death rate decreased by 58·8% (39·0 to 69·0). The prevalence of asthma increased by 12·6% (9·0 to 16·4), whereas the age-standardised prevalence decreased by 17·7% (15·1 to 19·9). Age-standardised DALY rates due to COPD increased until the middle range of the SDI before reducing sharply. Age-standardised DALY rates due to asthma in both sexes decreased monotonically with rising SDI. The relation between with SDI and DALY rates due to asthma was attributed to variation in years of life lost (YLLs), whereas DALY rates due to COPD varied similarly for YLLs and years lived with disability across the SDI continuum. Smoking and ambient particulate matter were the main risk factors for COPD followed by household air pollution, occupational particulates, ozone, and secondhand smoke. Together, these risks explained 73·3% (95% UI 65·8 to 80·1) of DALYs due to COPD. Smoking and occupational asthmagens were the only risks quantified for asthma in GBD, accounting for 16·5% (14·6 to 18·7) of DALYs due to asthma. Asthma was the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease worldwide in 2015, with twice the number of cases of COPD. Deaths from COPD were eight times more common than deaths from asthma. In 2015, COPD caused 2·6% of global DALYs and asthma 1·1% of global DALYs. Although there are laudable international collaborative efforts to make surveys of asthma and COPD more comparable, no consensus exists on case definitions and how to measure disease severity for population health measurements like GBD. Comparisons between countries and over time are

  5. [Living better or living longer].

    PubMed

    Sauvy, A

    1987-01-01

    It has been just 2 centuries since France began to struggle seriously against mortality and excess fertility. Life expectancy, which for millenia had been under 30 years at birth, began to increase because of the discovery of effective treatments, improved production and standards of living, and access of large numbers of persons to health care. France, in the 2nd half of the 18th century, became the first country in which fertility regulation was achieved on a wide scale. The failure of England, a country of similar culture, to follow suit until a century later remains unexplained. After World War II, simple and fairly inexpensive means of mortality control, such as vaccines and water purifiers, became widely distributed throughout the developing world. These countries, which traditionally had mortality rates of 35 or 40/1000 and fertility of 40-45/1000, experienced rapid declines in mortality rates while their fertility remained constant or even increased. Because antinatal techniques diffused so much more slowly, the equilibrium of births and deaths was disturbed as rates of increase of 2 or 3% per year became common. Although the inhabitants of poor countries were not concerned, perhaps through ignorance of what was occurring, the rich countries were alarmed by the increase. Their principal objective became to spread contraception in the poor countries. The available methods at the time, however, were none too reliable. When oral contraceptive pills became available, fertility dropped to very low levels in Europe but such factors as cost and illiteracy discouraged use in many underdeveloped countries. Fertility declined in a few insular states such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore even before the appearance of pills. Life expectancies in developing countries except a few in Africa have increased since World War II and are now higher than in Europe at the turn of the century. "Health for all by the year 2000" is an astonishing slogan for a serious

  6. Structure and substructure analysis of DAFT/FADA galaxy clusters in the [0.4-0.9] redshift range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guennou, L.; Adami, C.; Durret, F.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Ulmer, M. P.; Clowe, D.; LeBrun, V.; Martinet, N.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Basa, S.; Benoist, C.; Biviano, A.; Cappi, A.; Cypriano, E. S.; Gavazzi, R.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Jullo, E.; Just, D.; Limousin, M.; Márquez, I.; Mazure, A.; Murphy, K. J.; Plana, H.; Rostagni, F.; Russeil, D.; Schirmer, M.; Slezak, E.; Tucker, D.; Zaritsky, D.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The DAFT/FADA survey is based on the study of ~90 rich (masses found in the literature >2 × 1014 M⊙) and moderately distant clusters (redshifts 0.4 < z < 0.9), all with HST imaging data available. This survey has two main objectives: to constrain dark energy (DE) using weak lensing tomography on galaxy clusters and to build a database (deep multi-band imaging allowing photometric redshift estimates, spectroscopic data, X-ray data) of rich distant clusters to study their properties. Aims: We analyse the structures of all the clusters in the DAFT/FADA survey for which XMM-Newton and/or a sufficient number of galaxy redshifts in the cluster range are available, with the aim of detecting substructures and evidence for merging events. These properties are discussed in the framework of standard cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. Methods: In X-rays, we analysed the XMM-Newton data available, fit a β-model, and subtracted it to identify residuals. We used Chandra data, when available, to identify point sources. In the optical, we applied a Serna & Gerbal (SG) analysis to clusters with at least 15 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts available in the cluster range. We discuss the substructure detection efficiencies of both methods. Results: XMM-Newton data were available for 32 clusters, for which we derive the X-ray luminosity and a global X-ray temperature for 25 of them. For 23 clusters we were able to fit the X-ray emissivity with a β-model and subtract it to detect substructures in the X-ray gas. A dynamical analysis based on the SG method was applied to the clusters having at least 15 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts in the cluster range: 18 X-ray clusters and 11 clusters with no X-ray data. The choice of a minimum number of 15 redshifts implies that only major substructures will be detected. Ten substructures were detected both in X-rays and by the SG method. Most of the substructures detected both in X-rays and with the SG method are probably at their first

  7. Living Related Liver Transplantation for Biliary Atresia in the Last 5 years: Experience from the First Liver Transplant Program in India.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Smita; Sibal, Anupam; Bhatia, Vidyut; Kapoor, Akshay; Gopalan, Sarath; Seth, Swati; Jerath, Nameet; Wadhawan, Manav; Gupta, Subash

    2015-10-01

    To study the clinical, biochemical profile and outcome of patients with biliary atresia (BA) who underwent living related liver transplantation (LRLT) at authors' institute in the last 5 y (2008-2013). Case records of the 20 patients diagnosed with biliary atresia who had undergone living related liver transplantation at authors' centre in the last 5 y were analysed. Eighteen patients with BA with a failed Kasai procedure and 2 without a prior Kasai's portoenterostomy received a liver transplant. At a median follow up of 2 y and 6 mo, both the patient and graft survival rates were 90 %. The median age of the recipients at the time of LRLT was 8 mo and 12 (60 %) of the transplanted children were less than or equal to 1 y of age. The male-female ratio was 1.8:1. The median weight was 7.3 kg (5.8-48 kg); two thirds were less than 10 kg. The median pre-transplant total serum bilirubin (TSB) and international normalized ratio (INR) were 12.98 (0.5-48.3) mg/dl and 1.3 (1.0-3.9) respectively. All patients received a living related graft and there was no donor mortality. The median duration of postoperative ventilation was 14 h. The post-operative complications were infection (30 %), vascular complications (20 %) and acute rejection (20 %). The median duration of postoperative hospital stay was 21 d (17-42). Two patients died of combined hepatic and portal vein thrombosis in the early postoperative period. Late rejection was encountered in 1 patient and another developed chronic kidney disease necessitating a renal transplant. There were no late vascular occlusions or development of post transplant lymphoproliferative disease. Thus, LRLT for BA with or without a prior portoenterostomy, is a feasible and successful treatment modality with good outcomes attained despite the challenges of age and size. This treatment modality is now well established in India.

  8. Probing the local structure of crystalline ZITO: In 2-2xSn xZn xO 3 ( x≤0.4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoel, Cathleen A.; Gaillard, Jean-François; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2010-04-01

    The local structure of In 2O 3 cosubstituted with Zn and Sn (In 2-2xSn xZn xO 3, x≤0.4 or ZITO) was determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) for x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4. The host bixbyite In 2O 3 structure is maintained up to the enhanced substitution limit ( x=0.4). The EXAFS spectra are consistent with random substitution of In by the smaller Zn and Sn cations, a result that is consistent with the "good-to-excellent" conductivities reported for ZITO.

  9. Kids save lives: a six-year longitudinal study of schoolchildren learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Who should do the teaching and will the effects last?

    PubMed

    Lukas, Roman-Patrik; Van Aken, Hugo; Mölhoff, Thomas; Weber, Thomas; Rammert, Monika; Wild, Elke; Bohn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    This prospective longitudinal study over 6 years compared schoolteachers and emergency physicians as resuscitation trainers for schoolchildren. It also investigated whether pupils who were trained annually for 3 years retain their resuscitation skills after the end of this study. A total of 261 pupils (fifth grade) at two German grammar schools received resuscitation training by trained teachers or by emergency physicians. The annual training events stopped after 3 years in one group and continued for 6 years in a second group. We measured knowledge about resuscitation (questionnaire), chest compression rate (min(-1)), chest compression depth (mm), ventilation rate (min(-1)), ventilation volume (mL), self-efficacy (questionnaire). Their performance was evaluated after 1, 3 and 6 years. The training events increased the pupils' knowledge and practical skills. When trained by teachers, the pupils achieved better results for knowledge (92.86% ± 8.38 vs. 90.10% ± 8.63, P=0.04) and ventilation rate (4.84/min ± 4.05 vs. 3.76/min ± 2.37, P=0.04) than when they were trained by emergency physicians. There were no differences with regard to chest compression rate, depth, ventilation volume, or self-efficacy at the end of the study. Knowledge and skills after 6 years were equivalent in the group with 6 years training compared with 3 years training. Trained teachers can provide adequate resuscitation training in schools. Health-care professionals are not mandatory for CPR training (easier for schools to implement resuscitation training). The final evaluation after 6 years showed that resuscitation skills are retained even when training is interrupted for 3 years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. LOSCAR: Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir Model v2.0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeebe, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    The LOSCAR model is designed to efficiently compute the partitioning of carbon between ocean, atmosphere, and sediments on time scales ranging from centuries to millions of years. While a variety of computationally inexpensive carbon cycle models are already available, many are missing a critical sediment component, which is indispensable for long-term integrations. One of LOSCAR's strengths is the coupling of ocean-atmosphere routines to a computationally efficient sediment module. This allows, for instance, adequate computation of CaCO3 dissolution, calcite compensation, and long-term carbon cycle fluxes, including weathering of carbonate and silicate rocks. The ocean component includes various biogeochemical tracers such as total carbon, alkalinity, phosphate, oxygen, and stable carbon isotopes. LOSCAR's configuration of ocean geometry is flexible and allows for easy switching between modern and paleo-versions. We have previously published applications of the model tackling future projections of ocean chemistry and weathering, pCO2 sensitivity to carbon cycle perturbations throughout the Cenozoic, and carbon/calcium cycling during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. The focus of the present contribution is the detailed description of the model including numerical architecture, processes and parameterizations, tuning, and examples of input and output. Typical CPU integration times of LOSCAR are of order seconds for several thousand model years on current standard desktop machines. The LOSCAR source code in C can be obtained from the author by sending a request to loscar.model@gmail.com.

  11. Association of salivary cortisol levels and later depressive state in elderly people living in a rural community: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Nabeta, Hiromi; Mizoguchi, Yoshito; Matsushima, Jun; Imamura, Yoshiomi; Watanabe, Itaru; Tateishi, Tetsuya; Kojima, Naoki; Kawashima, Toshiro; Yamada, Shigeto; Monji, Akira

    2014-04-01

    Late-life depressive disorder is becoming an important issue in health economics in the world, as it has been reported to be one of major risk factors for incidence of dementia. Identification of predictive markers associated with depression in later life is therefore of high priority in public health. The aim of the study was to examine the association of salivary cortisol levels with a later depressive state in elderly healthy people living in a rural Japan community. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 68 elderly healthy people (24 men; 44 women) followed by completion of the BDI, MMSE, and FAB from 2004 to 2006. The same cohort underwent BDI again from 2007 to 2009. In healthy elderly women subject, a significant positive correlation was found between salivary cortisol levels at baseline and BDI scores at follow-up, but not at baseline. Salivary cortisol levels at baseline were not correlated with the score of either MMSE or FAB. When the cut-off point of BDI scores were set at 20/21, logistic regression analyses revealed that salivary cortisol levels at baseline had a significant positive relationship with a later depressive state. Age and gender were also significantly related with a later depressive state. The present study involves small number of participants. Higher salivary cortisol levels were associated with a later depressive state in elderly healthy women living in rural community. Salivary cortisol might be a predictive marker for a later depressive state in elderly women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Handgrip strength, quadriceps muscle power, and optimal shortening velocity roles in maintaining functional abilities in older adults living in a long-term care home: a 1-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kozicka, Izabela; Kostka, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the relative role of handgrip strength (HGS), quadriceps muscle power (Pmax), and optimal shortening velocity (υopt) in maintaining functional abilities (FAs) in older adults living in a long-term care home over a 1-year follow-up. Subjects and methods Forty-one inactive older institutionalized adults aged 69.8±9.0 years participated in this study. HGS, Pmax, υopt, cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination, depressive symptoms using the Geriatric Depression Scale, nutritional status using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and physical activity (PA) using the Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. FAs were assessed with activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL, and Timed Up & Go test. Results Both at baseline and at follow-up, FAs were related to age, HGS, Pmax/kg, υopt, MNA, and PA. These associations were generally similar in both sexes. As revealed in multiple regression analysis, υopt was the strongest predictor of FA, followed by Pmax/kg, PA, and MNA. FA deteriorated after 1 year as measured by ADL and Timed Up & Go test. Pmax and υopt, but not HGS, also decreased significantly after 1 year. Nevertheless, 1-year changes in FAs were not related to changes in HGS, Pmax, υopt, or PA. Conclusion The 1-year period of physical inactivity among older institutionalized adults was found to have a negative effect on their FAs, Pmax, and υopt. The present study demonstrates that Pmax and, especially, υopt correlated with FAs of older adults more than HGS, both at baseline and at follow-up. Despite this, 1-year natural fluctuations of PA, Pmax, and υopt are not significant enough to influence FAs in inactive institutionalized older adults. PMID:27307720

  13. Countryside Live!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Andrew; Richardson, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The "Countryside Live!" events, organised by the Countryside Foundation for Education (CFE), provide a unique opportunity for urban children to explore a whole new area of possibilities and learning, through becoming aware at first-hand of what goes on in the countryside. The event at Staunton Country Park, Havant, Hampshire, which took…

  14. Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the…

  15. Outdoor Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Kathy

    Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

  16. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these…

  17. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these…

  18. Living History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2005-01-01

    John Tinker and Mary Beth Tinker are back in a classroom in their hometown, once again wearing black armbands and drawing attention to a war. Now in their 50s, the siblings are living symbols of constitutional rights for secondary school students. In 1965, they and a handful of others were suspended for wearing black armbands to their public…

  19. Trends in fruit, vegetable and salad intakes in 9-10-year-old schoolchildren living in Liverpool, 2000-2005.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B; Hackett, A F

    2007-03-01

    To report on the fruit, vegetable and salad intakes of Liverpool schoolchildren aged 9-10 years over a 5-year period (2000-2005). Cross-sectional observational study. Between 75 and 100 Liverpool primary schools took part in each survey year. Subjects consisted of five separate cohorts of 9-10-year-old children from all areas of the city. Number and proportion of boys and girls who reported eating fruit, vegetables and salad on the previous day. There was an upward trend in the reported intake of fruit between 2002 and 2005. Girls were more likely than boys to report eating fruit (P < 0.001). The trend in salad intake was positive. Between 2000 and 2005 there were significant increases in the number of boys (chi2 = 17.57, P = 0.001) and girls (chi2 = 80.56, P = 0.001) eating salad. Girls were significantly more likely to eat salad than boys in all years (chi2 = 58.75, P = 0.001). Trends in vegetable intake were similar to those for salad, with both sexes reporting yearly increases over the 5-year period. The increase in the number of boys who reported eating vegetables between 2000 and 2005 was 23.5% (chi2 = 32.9, P = 0.000). In girls there was a 44.8% increase over the same period (chi2 = 110.3, P < 0.000). The data reveal positive trends in the fruit, vegetable and salad intakes of Liverpool schoolchildren between 2000 and 2005. Further research is needed to elucidate the specific factors that have enabled the changes to take place.

  20. [The placement courses and the subjective quality of life of 6- to 11-year-old children living in child welfare institutions].

    PubMed

    Bacro, F; Rambaud, A; Humbert, C; Sellenet, C

    2015-10-01

    Besides diseases, the concept of quality of life is increasingly used to account for the consequences of other vulnerability situations that may be encountered by individuals, including young children. However, very few studies have examined children's perception of their quality of life in the context of child welfare and protection, and they yielded mixed results. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare the subjective quality of life of children placed in institution with that of children living in their families, by controlling for child sex, age, socioeconomic and familial status, and (2) to examine its relations with their placement course in the child welfare system. The sample of this study was composed of 56 children aged 6 to 11, 28 of which were placed in a child welfare institution. Information about the placement course of institutionalized children was given by their social workers and the quality of life of all participants was assessed with the AUQUEI questionnaire. This self-report, which is based on children's conception of their quality of life, allows assessment of four distinct dimensions in addition to the overall score: leisure, performances, relations and family life, and separation. According to the results, the quality of life of children placed in institutions did not differ from that of children living in their families. However, its perception was closely related to the placement course of institutionalized children in the child welfare system. Whereas maltreated children obtained lower overall and performance scores than their neglected peers, children placed in foster families before institution had a poorer perception of their quality of life in the domains of family life and separations. These results are interpreted in light of attachment research and theory. Indeed, the relations between children's quality of life and their placement course could be explained by their high level of attachment disorganization. Finally, the

  1. You Live, You Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2008-01-01

    The Learning Lives project, a four-year study into the learning biographies and trajectories of adults, was conducted by a team of researchers from the universities of Stirling, Exeter, Brighton and Leeds as part of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) of the Economic and Social Research Council, and has just been completed. Whereas…

  2. Living Jointness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of...COVERED 00-00-1993 to 00-00-1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Living Jointness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...and the peacetime activities of all services other than participation in joint exercises. It challenges the existing joint command structure because

  3. The Reading Lives of 8 to 11-Year-Olds 2005-2013: An Evidence Paper for the Read On. Get On. Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on children aged 8 to 11 and their enjoyment of reading, reading behaviour, and attitudes toward reading. It synthesises information from surveys that have been conducted since 2005, but most heavily exploits data from the fourth annual literacy survey conducted in November/December 2013 in which 10,946 8 to 11-year-olds…

  4. Baccalaureate and Beyond: A First Look at the Employment Experiences and Lives of College Graduates, 4 Years On (B&B:08/12). NCES 2014-141

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Siegel, Peter; Shepherd, Bryan; Cooney, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This report presents initial findings about the employment outcomes of bachelor's degree recipients approximately 4 years after they completed their 2007-08 degrees. These findings are based on data from the second follow-up of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12), a nationally representative longitudinal sample survey…

  5. Physical performance as long-term predictor of onset of activities of daily living (ADL) disability: a 9-year longitudinal study among community-dwelling older women.

    PubMed

    Idland, Gro; Pettersen, Renate; Avlund, Kirsten; Bergland, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Disability in ADL of aging women is an important public health concern. It is thus of interest to identify modifiable factors underlying onset of ADL disability. We assessed whether three physical performance-based measurements could predict ADL disability 9 years later. The participants were 113 non-disabled community-dwelling women with a mean age of 79.5 years at baseline. The baseline examinations of physical performance were: functional reach, climbing steps and comfortable walking speed. ADL disability was defined as need of personal assistance in at least one of five basic ADL items. The participants were followed for 9 years. Logistic regression models were fitted for each of the physical performance measurements together with the covariates in relation to ADL disability. At follow-up 25.7% were disabled in ADL. All three performance measurements were significantly associated with the onset of ADL disability at 9 years of follow-up, however, only walking speed remained significantly related to onset of ADL disability, when all three performance measurements were included in the same model. In conclusion all the three performance measurements were related to onset of ADL disability, with walking speed having the strongest predictive value. Systematic screening based on walking speed measurements of non-disabled older women might help health professionals to identify those at risk of ADL disability and introduce preventive measures in time.

  6. Hope Lives in the Heart: Refugee and Immigrant Children's Perceptions of Hope and Hope-Engendering Sources during Early Years of Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yohani, Sophie C.; Larsen, Denise J.

    2009-01-01

    Children's adjustment to resettlement countries is vitally important to future outcomes, yet little attention is given to the role of hope in this process. This research focused on expressions of hope in 10 refugee and immigrant children during early years of resettlement. Using case study methods that employed arts-based data collection,…

  7. Trends in Average Living Children at the Time of Terminal Contraception: A Time Series Analysis Over 27 Years Using ARIMA (p, d, q) Nonseasonal Model.

    PubMed

    Mumbare, Sachin S; Gosavi, Shriram; Almale, Balaji; Patil, Aruna; Dhakane, Supriya; Kadu, Aniruddha

    2014-10-01

    India's National Family Welfare Programme is dominated by sterilization, particularly tubectomy. Sterilization, being a terminal method of contraception, decides the final number of children for that couple. Many studies have shown the declining trend in the average number of living children at the time of sterilization over a short period of time. So this study was planned to do time series analysis of the average children at the time of terminal contraception, to do forecasting till 2020 for the same and to compare the rates of change in various subgroups of the population. Data was preprocessed in MS Access 2007 by creating and running SQL queries. After testing stationarity of every series with augmented Dickey-Fuller test, time series analysis and forecasting was done using best-fit Box-Jenkins ARIMA (p, d, q) nonseasonal model. To compare the rates of change of average children in various subgroups, at sterilization, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied. Forecasting showed that the replacement level of 2.1 total fertility rate (TFR) will be achieved in 2018 for couples opting for sterilization. The same will be achieved in 2020, 2016, 2018, and 2019 for rural area, urban area, Hindu couples, and Buddhist couples, respectively. It will not be achieved till 2020 in Muslim couples. Every stratum of population showed the declining trend. The decline for male children and in rural area was significantly faster than the decline for female children and in urban area, respectively. The decline was not significantly different in Hindu, Muslim, and Buddhist couples.

  8. A Founder Mutation in LEPRE1 Carried by 1.5% of West Africans and 0.4% of African Americans Causes Lethal Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Wayne A.; Barnes, Aileen M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Cushing, Kelly; Chitayat, David; Porter, Forbes D.; Panny, Susan R.; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Gueye, Serigne M.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Brody, Lawrence C.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Marini, Joan C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Deficiency of prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1, encoded by LEPRE1, causes recessive osteogenesis imperfecta. We previously identified a LEPRE1 mutation, exclusively in African Americans and contemporary West Africans. We hypothesized that this allele originated in West Africa and was introduced to the Americas with the Atlantic slave trade. We aimed to determine the frequency of carriers for this mutation among African Americans and West Africans, and the mutation origin and age. Methods Genomic DNA was screened for the mutation using PCR and restriction digestion, and a custom TaqMan genomic SNP assay. The mutation age was estimated using microsatellites and short tandem repeats spanning 4.2 Mb surrounding LEPRE1 in probands and carriers. Results Approximately 0.4% of Mid-Atlantic African Americans carry this mutation, estimating recessive OI in 1/260,000 births in this population. In Nigeria and Ghana, 1.48% of unrelated individuals are heterozygous carriers, predicting 1/18,260 births will be affected with recessive OI, equal to the incidence of de novo dominant OI. The mutation was not detected in Africans from surrounding countries. All carriers shared a haplotype of 63-770 Kb, consistent with a single founder for this mutation. Using linkage disequilibrium analysis, the mutation was estimated to have originated between 650 and 900 years before present (1100-1350 C.E.). Conclusions We identified a West African founder mutation for recessive OI in LEPRE1. Nearly 1.5% of Ghanians and Nigerians are carriers. The age of this allele is consistent with introduction to North America via the Atlantic slave trade (1501 – 1867 C.E). PMID:22281939

  9. Smoking and Alzheimer's disease among Mongolian and Han Chinese aged 55 years and over living in the Inner Mongolia farming area of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyu; Da, Lin; Zhao, Shigang; Wang, Desheng; Niu, Guangming; Huriletemuer

    2012-07-15

    Residents aged 55 years or older from 27 communities and two settlements in Xilingol League of Inner Mongolia were selected for participation in an Alzheimer's disease epidemiological investigation from June 2008 to June 2009, including 3 259 Mongolians and 5 887 Han Chinese. The Mongolian subjects in the Alzheimer's disease group were at age of 55 years or older (on average), and more of them were male, illiterate and/or had a history of coronary artery disease and/or diabetes compared with the Mongolian subjects in the non-Alzheimer's disease group. The Han Chinese subjects in the Alzheimer's disease group were at age of 55 years or older (on average) and more of them were women, illiterate and/or had a history of coronary artery disease, and less of them had a history of alcohol consumption compared with the non-Alzheimer's disease group. Non-conditional multivariate stepwise logistic regression identified that male gender, increasing age and having a history of diabetes and/or coronary heart disease were associated with higher odds of Alzheimer's disease among Mongolians while having an educational background was associated with lower odds (OR = 0.259, 95%CI 0.174-0.386). Among the Han Chinese subjects, male gender, increasing age and having a history of coronary heart disease and/or hypertension was associated with higher odds of Alzheimer's disease, while having an educational background was associated lower odds (OR = 0.271, 95%CI 0.192-0.381). The results also indicated that extremely heavy smoking may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease in Mongolian males aged over 55 years. There was no significant difference in smoking habits between the Mongolian and Han Chinese subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Occupational Health and Safety Experiences among Self-Identified Immigrant Workers Living or Working in Somerville, MA by Ethnicity, Years in the US, and English Proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A.; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu. PMID:23222180

  11. Determinants of change in body weight and body fat distribution over 5.5 years in a sample of free-living black South African women

    PubMed Central

    Chantler, Sarah; Dickie, Kasha; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Goedecke, Julia H; Goedecke, Julia H; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective To identify socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of weight gain in a sample of premenopasual black South African (SA) women. Methods Changes in body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerised tomography), socio-economic status (SES) and behavioural/lifestyle factors were measured in 64 black SA women at baseline (27 ± 8 years) and after 5.5 years. Results A lower body mass index (BMI) and nulliparity, together with access to sanitation, were significant determinants of weight gain and change in body fat distribution over 5.5 years. In addition, younger women increased their body weight more than their older counterparts, but this association was not independent of other determinants. Conclusion Further research is required to examine the effect of changing SES, as well as the full impact of childbearing on weight gain over time in younger women with lower BMIs. This information will suggest areas for possible intervention to prevent long-term weight gain in these women. PMID:27224680

  12. Think Fast, Feel Fine, Live Long: A 29-Year Study of Cognition, Health, and Survival in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In a 29-year study of 6,203 individuals ranging in age from 41 to 96 years at initial assessment, we evaluated the relative and combined influence of 65 mortality risk factors, which included sociodemographic variables, lifestyle attributes, medical indices, and multiple cognitive abilities. Reductions in mortality risk were most associated with higher self-rated health, female gender, fewer years as a smoker, and smaller decrements in processing speed with age. Thus, two psychological variables-subjective health status and processing speed-were among the top predictors of survival. We suggest that these psychological attributes, unlike risk factors that are more narrowly defined, reflect (and are influenced by) a broad range of health-related behaviors and characteristics. Information about these attributes can be obtained with relatively little effort or cost and-given the tractability of these measures in different cultural contexts-may prove expedient for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions related to increased mortality risk in diverse human populations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. The impact of integrated team care taught using a live NHS contract on the educational experience of final year dental students.

    PubMed

    Radford, D R; Holmes, S; Woolford, M J; Dunne, S M

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the responses of the dental student body in the first three years of outreach education (2010-13) at the University of Portsmouth Dental Academy in the areas of integrated team work and use of a current NHS contact. Use of a questionnaire to allow both quantitative and qualitative data to be obtained, administered to the three cohorts of students at the end of their longitudinal attendance at the Academy in their final year of education at King's College London Dental Institute. Data were obtained from 227 students which represented a 95% return rate. Sixty-four percent of students strongly agreed with both statements: 'I am confident with working with a dental nurse' and 'I now understand properly the scope of practice of dental hygiene-therapists'. Sixty-seven percent strongly agreed with the statement 'I have had useful experience of working in NHS primary care during the final year'. Eighty percent either strongly agreed or agreed with the statement 'My experience of real Units of Dental Activity and Key Performance Indicators has encouraged me to positively consider NHS high street dentistry as a career option'. Within the limitations of this study the dental students reported having gained useful experience of working in integrated team care dentistry. They expressed strong support for the education that is being delivered in an outreach environment and, most importantly, the student body was looking forward to entering general dental practice in the UK.

  14. Psychosocial Outcomes 3 to 10 Years After Donation in the Adult to Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL)

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Mary Amanda; DiMartini, Andrea F.; Ladner, Daniela P.; Simpson, Mary Ann; Pomfret, Elizabeth A.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Merion, Robert M.; Zee, Jarcy; Smith, Abigail R.; Holtzman, Susan; Sherker, Averell H.; Weinrieb, Robert; Fisher, Robert A.; Emond, Jean C.; Freise, Chris E.; Burton, James R.; Butt, Zeeshan

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of liver donors’ psychosocial outcomes focus on the short-term and rely largely on quality-of-life measures not specific to donation. We sought to examine long-term donation effects on three psychosocial domains: perceived physical, emotional, and socioeconomic outcomes. Methods Individuals donating 3–10 years previously at nine centers were eligible for telephone surveys. Survey responses were examined descriptively. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct donor groups based on response profiles across psychosocial domains. Potential predictors of response profiles were evaluated with regression analysis. Results 517 donors (66%) participated (M=5.8 years postdonation, SD=1.9). 15%–48% of donors endorsed current donation-related physical health problems and concerns, and 7%–60% reported socioeconomic concerns (e.g., insurance difficulties, financial expenditures). However, on average, donors experienced high psychological growth, and 90% felt positively about donation. Cluster analysis revealed five donor groups. One group showed high psychological benefit, with little endorsement of physical or socioeconomic concerns (15% of donors). Four groups showed less favorable profiles, with varying combinations of difficulties. The largest such group showed high endorsement of physical concerns and financial expenditures, and only modest psychological benefit (31% of donors). Men and non-Hispanic whites were most likely to have unfavorable response profiles (p<.01). Compared with donors aged 19–30, older donors were less likely to have unfavorable profiles; these differences were significant for donors aged >40–50 (p’s<.008). Conclusions Even many years postdonation, donors report adverse physical and socioeconomic effects, but positive emotional effects as well. Identification of response profiles and predictors may improve targeting of postdonation surveillance and care. PMID:27152918

  15. The Prevalence of Infertility and Loneliness among Women Aged 18-49 Years Who Are Living in Semi-Rural Areas in Western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Unsal, Alaettin; Arslantas, Didem

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the correlates and the prevalence of infertility in a group of women. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 subjects aged 18-49 years in a town of western Turkey between July and August 2012. Women who have inability to become pregnant despite regular sexual intercourse during the last year were considered to be infertile. UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess the severity of loneliness. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results The mean age of the participants was 35.48 ± 8.39 years. The frequency of the infertility in our study was 12.8% (n=73). The prevalence of infertility was higher in those with a history of gynecological disease or gynecologic surgery and in those with menstrual irregularity (p<0.05; for each). The mean score on the UCLA Loneliness Scale was 32.16 ± 9.49 (from 20 to 70). In this study, no difference was found between the level of loneliness and who is responsible for infertility among infertile/fertile women (p≥0.05). Level of loneliness among the women with primary infertility was higher compared to the women with secondary infertility (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of infertility among the women was relatively high. It was concluded that prospective studies are needed in order to expose the relationship between the infertility and the level of loneliness in women. PMID:25083180

  16. Arnham lead study. I. Lead uptake by 1- to 3-year-old children living in the vicinity of a secondary lead smelter in Arnhem, The Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Brunekreef, B.; Veenstra, S.J.; Biersteker, K.; Boleij, J.S.M.

    1981-08-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out in the vicinity of a secondary lead smelter in Arnhem, The Netherlands. Blood lead levels of 1- to 3-year-old children were determined and proved to be slightly elevated. In addition, a number of environmental parameters were determined, including lead in air, dustfall, soil, streetdust, several types of housedust, and drinking water. Statistical analysis showed that lead in garden soil, lead in dustfall outdoors, and lead in dustfall indoors were the most important parameters for the explanation of variance of blood lead levels in the area under study.

  17. A neutron polarization analysis study of moment correlations in (Dy(0.4)Y(0.6))T(2) (T = Mn, Al).

    PubMed

    Stewart, J R; Hillier, J M; Manuel, P; Cywinski, R

    2011-04-27

    We present a study of the magnetic moment correlations of two pseudo-binary C15 Laves phase compounds, (Dy(0.4)Y(0.6))Mn(2) and (Dy(0.4)Y(0.6))Al(2), both of which have spin-glass-like magnetic ground states at low temperature. We use neutron powder diffraction with polarization analysis to isolate the diffuse scattering associated with the correlated spin-glass ground state, and compare and contrast the two systems. Despite there being differences of correlation length scale, we discover that the moment-moment correlations of these two disordered magnets are quite similar over a short range, and hence conjecture that the Mn ions in (Dy(0.4)Y(0.6))Mn(2) have little influence on the ground-state magnetic properties.

  18. Evaluation of Age and Gender Dependences of the Rate of Strontium elimination 25-45 Years after Intake: Analysis of Data from Residents Living along the Techa River

    SciTech Connect

    Shagina, N B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Zalyapin, V. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Kozheurov, V P.; Tokareva, E. E.; Anspaugh, L R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2003-02-14

    The Mayak Production Association released large amounts of Strontium 90 into the Techa River with peak amounts in 1950-1951. Residents near the Techa River ingested an average of {approx}3,000 kBq of Strontium 90. The affected people have been followed by Scientists at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine. The whole-body content of Strontium 90 of {approx}15,000 individuals has been measured over a period of 24 years (1974-1997) using a special whole-body counter. This report evaluates the gender and age dependences of individual rates of strontium elimination. Data on persons who had been measured 12 or more times were selected for study. There were 108 men and 81 women older than 30 years who met this criterion. Individual measurement results were fitted to an exponential function and grouped mean averages of the rate of strontium elimination as a function of age for each sex were derived. The results may be used to develop a gender- and age-dependent model of strontium metabolism.

  19. Agreement between paper and pen visual analogue scales and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system (PRO-Diary©), for continuous monitoring of free-living subjective appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, P L S; Dodd-Reynolds, C J; Stevenson, E

    2013-10-01

    Electronic capture of free-living subjective appetite data can provide a more reliable alternative to traditional pen and paper visual analogue scales (P&P VAS), whilst reducing researcher workload. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore the agreement between P&P VAS and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system known as the PRO-Diary© technique, for monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children. On one occasion, using a within-subject design, the 12 children (n=6 boys; n=6 girls) recorded their subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption, and fullness), at two time points before lunch (11:30 and 12:00) and every 60 min thereafter until 21:00. The agreement between the P&P VAS and PRO-Diary© technique was explored using 95% limits of agreement and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using the Bland and Altman (1986) technique. For hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness, the 95% limits of agreement were -1±25 mm (95% CI: lower limit -8mm; upper limit +6mm), 0±21 mm (95% CI: lower limit -6mm; upper limit +6mm) and -6±24 mm (95% CI: lower limit -14 mm; upper limit +1mm), respectively. Given the advantages associated with electronic data capture (inexpensive; integrated alarm; data easily downloaded), we conclude that the PRO-Diary© technique is an equivalent method to employ when continuously monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children, but should not be used interchangeably with P&P VAS.

  20. One year duration of immunity of the modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 and bovine herpesvirus-1 fractions of Vista® Once SQ vaccine.

    PubMed

    Purtle, Lisa; Mattick, Debra; Schneider, Corey; Smith, Linda; Xue, Wenzhi; Trigo, Emilio

    2016-03-18

    Three studies were performed to determine the duration of immunity of the bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) fractions of a commercially prepared modified-live vaccine. Vista® Once SQ (Vista®) vaccine contains five modified-live viruses, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus, and two modified-live bacteria, Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. For all three studies, calves were administered a single dose of vaccine or placebo vaccine subcutaneously, and were challenged with one of the three virulent viruses at least one year following vaccination. Calves were evaluated daily following challenge for clinical signs of disease associated with viral infection, nasal swab samples were evaluated for virus shedding, and serum was tested for neutralizing antibodies. Following the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 challenges, whole blood was evaluated for white blood cell counts, and for the BVDV-2 study, whole blood was also evaluated for platelet counts. Calves vaccinated with BVDV type 1a, were protected from challenge with BVDV type 1b, and had significant reductions in clinical disease, fever, leukopenia, and virus shedding compared to control calves. Vaccinated calves in the BVDV-2 study were protected from clinical disease, mortality, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and virus shedding compared to controls. Vaccinated calves in the BHV-1 study were protected from clinical disease and fever, and had significantly reduced duration of nasal virus shedding. These three studies demonstrated that a single administration of the Vista® vaccine to healthy calves induces protective immunity against BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BHV-1 that lasts at least one year following vaccination.