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Sample records for 0-5 year age

  1. Psychomotor development in Argentinean children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Pascucci, María Cecilia; Krupitzky, Sara; Kelmansky, Diana; Bianco, Ana; Martínez, Elena; Tibaldi, Fabián; Cameron, Noel

    2002-01-01

    In Argentina, there is no information on ages of attainment of developmental milestones and very few data about environmental factors that influence them. A national survey on the psychomotor development of children under 6 years of age was carried out with the help of 129 paediatricians. Logistic regression was applied to a final sample of 3573 healthy, normal children in order to estimate selected centiles (25th, 50th, 75th and 90th), together with their respective confidence intervals, of the ages of attainment of 78 developmental items belonging to the following areas: personal-social (18 items), fine motor (19), language (18) and gross motor (23). The 50th centile obtained for each of the 43 comparable items was compared with those obtained in previously standardised tests: DDST, Denver II, Bayley and Chilean scales. Neither significant nor systematic differences were found between our results and those described in the tests used for comparison. Multiple logistic regressions showed that social class, maternal education and sex (female) were associated with earlier attainment of some selected developmental items, achieved at ages later than 1 year. Selected items achieved before the first year of life were not affected by any of the independent environmental variables studied. The information is useful in helping paediatricians in their daily practice for surveillance of development, as baseline information for epidemiological studies on development in our country and for cross-cultural analysis. PMID:11856454

  2. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  3. A 2-Year, Phase IV, Multicentre, Observational Study of Ranibizumab 0.5 mg in Patients with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Routine Clinical Practice: The EPICOHORT Study

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Stephen; Perez-Salvador Garcia, Eduardo; Reynders, Stefaan; Si Bouazza, Abdelkader; Pilz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the safety profile of ranibizumab 0.5 mg in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in routine clinical practice. Methods. This 2-year, multicentre, observational study was conducted to capture real-world early practice and outcomes across Europe, shortly after European licensing of ranibizumab for nAMD. Being observational in nature, the study did not impose diagnostic/therapeutic interventions/visit schedule. Patients were to be treated as per the EU summary of product characteristics (SmPC) in effect during the study. Key outcome measures were incidence of selected adverse events (AEs), treatment exposure, bilateral treatment, compliance to the EU SmPC, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) over 2 years. Results. 755 of 770 patients received treatment. Ranibizumab was generally well tolerated with low incidence of selected AEs (0%–1.9%). Patients received 6.2 (mean) injections and 133 patients received bilateral treatment over 2 years. Protocol deviation to treatment compliance was reported in majority of patients. The observed decline in mean BCVA (Month 12, +1.5; Month 24, –1.3 letters) may be associated with undertreatment as suggested by BCVA subgroup analysis. Conclusion. The EPICOHORT study conducted in routine clinical practice reinforces the well-established safety profile of ranibizumab in nAMD. In early European practice it appeared that the nAMD patients were undertreated. PMID:24868458

  4. Effect of Natural Aging and Cold Working on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Al-4.6Cu-0.5Mg-0.5Ag alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Te; Lee, Sheng-Long; Bor, Hui-Yun; Lin, Jing-Chie

    2013-06-01

    This research investigates the effects of natural aging and cold working prior to artificial aging on microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-4.6Cu-0.5Mg-0.5Ag alloy. Mechanical properties relative to microstructure variations were elucidated by the observations of the optical microscope (OM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), electrical conductivity meter (pct IACS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that natural aging treatment has little noticeable benefit on the quantity of precipitation strengthening phases and mechanical properties, but it increases the precipitation strengthening rate at the initial stage of artificial aging. Cold working brings more lattice defects which suppress Al-Cu (GP zone) and Mg-Ag clustering, and therefore the precipitation of Ω phase decreases. Furthermore, more dislocations are formed, leading to precipitate the more heterogeneous nucleation of θ' phase. The above-mentioned precipitation phenomena and strain hardening effect are more obvious with higher degrees of cold working.

  5. Aging, rejuvenation, and memory effects in short-range Ising spin glass: Cu_0.5Co_0.5Cl_2-FeCl3 GBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M.; Suzuki, I. S.

    2004-03-01

    Cu_0.5Co_0.5Cl_2-FeCl3 GBIC undergoes a spin glass (SG) transition at Tg (= 3.92 ± 0.11 K). The system shows a dynamic behavior that has some similarities and some significant differences compared to a 3D Ising SG.^1 Here we report on non-equilibrium aging dynamics which has been studied using zero-field cooled (ZFC) magnetization and low frequency AC magnetic susceptibility.^2 The time dependence of the relaxation rate S(t) = (1/H)dM_ZFC/dln t for the ZFC magnetization after the ZFC aging protocol, shows a peak at a characteristic time t_cr near a wait time t_w, corresponding to a crossover from quasi equilibrium dynamics to non-equilibrium. The time t_cr strongly depends on t_w, temperature, magnetic field, and the temperature shift. The rejuvenation effect is observed in both i^' and i^'' under the T-shift and H-shift procedures. The memory of the specific spin configurations imprinted during the ZFC aging protocol can be recalled when the system is re-heated at a constant heating rate. The aging, rejuvenation, and memory effects are discussed in terms of the scaling concepts derived from numerical studies on 3D Edwards-Anderson spin glass model. 1. I.S. Suzuki and M. Suzuki, Phys. Rev. B 68, 094424 (2003) 2. M. Suzuki and I.S. Suzuki, cond-mat/0308285

  6. Spectroscopically identified intermediate age stars at 0.5-3 pc distance from Sagittarius A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Shogo; Schödel, Rainer; Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito; Nagata, Tetsuya; Minowa, Yosuke; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-04-01

    Context. Nuclear star clusters (NSCs) at the dynamical center of galaxies appear to have a complex star formation history. This suggests repeated star formation, even in the influence of the strong tidal field from supermassive black holes. Although the central region of our Galaxy is an ideal target for studies of the star formation history in the NSCs, most studies in the past have concentrated on a projected distance of RSgr A ∗ ~ 0.5 pc from the supermassive black hole Sgr A*. Aims: In our previous study, we detected 31 so far unknown early-type star candidates throughout the Galactic NSC (at RSgr A ∗ = 0.5-3 pc). They were found via near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations with narrow-band filters which are sensitive to CO absorption lines at ~2.3 μm, a prominent feature for old, late-type stars. The aim of this study is to confirm the spectral type for the early-type star candidates. Methods: We have carried out NIR spectroscopic observations of the early-type star candidates using Subaru/IRCS/AO188 and the laser guide star system. K-band spectra for 20 out of the 31 candidates and reference late-type stars were obtained. By determining an equivalent width, EW(CO), of the 12CO absorption feature at ≈2.294 μm, we have derived an effective temperature and a bolometric magnitude for each candidate and late-type star, and then constructed an HR diagram. Results: No young (~Myr) massive stars are included in the 20 candidates we observed; however, 13 candidates are most likely intermediate-age giants (50-500 Myr). Two other sources have ages of ~1 Gyr and the remaining five sources are old (>1 Gyr), late-type giants. Conclusions: Although none of the early-type star candidates from our previous narrow-band imaging observations can be confirmed as a young star, we find that the photometric technique can distinguish old, late-type giants from young and intermediate-age populations. From the 20 spectroscopically observed candidates, 65% of them are confirmed

  7. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Early Years (0-5 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters (ECM) areas…

  8. Early Book Stages, 0-5 Years [and] Creciendo con Libros (Growing [up] with Books). [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holguin, Roxanna

    Using a lighthearted and simple approach, this 23-minute videotape in English and Spanish versions presents interactions between parents and children while reading books. The children in the videotape range in age from 0 to 5 years. The video is introduced by scenes of children enjoying books while narration discussing the impact of reading to…

  9. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Skin Brightening/Anti-Aging Cosmeceutical Containing Retinol 0.5%, Niacinamide, Hexylresorcinol, and Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Farris, Patricia; Zeichner, Joshua; Berson, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly interested in over-the-counter skin care products that can improve the appearance of photodamaged and aging skin. This 10-week, open-label, single- center study enrolled 25 subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and other clinical stigmata of cutaneous aging including fine lines, sallowness, lack of clarity, and wrinkling. Their mean age was 53.4±7.7 years. The test product contained retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide 4.4%, resveratrol 1%, and hexylresorcinol 1.1% in a moisturizing base. Subjects were provided a skin care regimen including a cleanser, hydrating serum, moisturizer, and an SPF 30 sunscreen for daily use. The test product was applied only at night.

    The use of this skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical was found to provide statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints by study end. Fine lines, radiance, and smoothness were significantly improved as early as week 2 (P<.001). By week 4, hyperpigmentation, overall skin clarity, evenness of skin tone, and wrinkles showed statistically significant improvement compared to baseline. Mild retinoid dermatitis including flaking and redness occurred early in the study as reflected by tolerability scores. By week 10, subjects reported no stinging, itching, dryness, or tingling.

    The results of this open-label clinical study suggest that a topical cream containing retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide, resveratrol, and hexylresorcinol is efficacious and tolerable for skin brightening/anti-aging when used with a complementary skin care regimen including SPF 30 sun protection.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):863-868. PMID:27391637

  10. Sugerencias para la Evolucion del Desarrollo: 0-5 Anos (Stages for the Development of Discovery [Learning in] 0-5 Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

    Some points that may serve as a foundation of experience and reference in the stimulation of mentally retarded children during the years of one through five are presented. Points of development are given for the following breakdowns of time: three months, six months, nine months, 12 months, 18 months, two years, three years, four years, and five…

  11. Mechanical Behavior of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu/Cu Solder Joints After Isothermal Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Luong; Chung, Chin-Sung; Kim, Ho-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The tensile impact behavior of lead-free Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu/Cu solder joints aged at 413 K and 453 K for times ranging from 24 h to 1000 h has been investigated in this study. The activation energy for growth of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was estimated and compared with literature values. Additionally, the tensile strength of solder joints with IMC thickness of 17.6 μm was found to be more sensitive to the strain rate as compared with solder joints with thinner IMC layers. Equations representing the relationships among the effective stress, strain rate, aging time, and aging temperature as well as IMC thickness were established using matrix laboratory (MATLAB) software. These equations show that the tensile strength decreases with increase in the IMC thickness to about 8 μm, after which it becomes nearly constant when the IMC thickness is between approximately 8 μm and 14 μm, before decreasing significantly when the IMC thickness exceeds 14 μm. The main reason for these characteristics was excessive increase in the IMC thickness of solder joints, causing a change in the stress concentration of the tensile load from the protruding region to the inside of the IMC layer at the same tested strain rate.

  12. Effect of 3 years of treatment with a dorzolamide/timolol (1%/0.5%) combination on intraocular pressure

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Sakurako; Mimura, Tatsuya; Matsubara, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the effect on the intraocular pressure (IOP) of a dorzolamide/timolol (1%/0.5%) fixed combination (DTFC) ophthalmic agent for 3 years. Participants A total of 19 consecutive patients who had previously been treated with mono-therapy or any combination of a beta-blocker, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, or prostaglandin analog, for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) (n=5) or normal tension glaucoma (N=14) were enrolled. Methods Patients were switched to DTFC from their prior glaucoma therapy. The IOP was measured at intervals of 4–6 weeks for 3 years. Treatment failure was defined as an increase of IOP by ≥10% from baseline after switching to DTFC. Results The average IOP decreased significantly from 14.1±2.9 mmHg at baseline to 12.2±2.2, 11.8±2.4, 12.1±2.5, 11.6±1.8, and 12.1±2.7 mmHg at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively, after switching therapy (all P<0.05). The mean percent decrease of IOP was 12.0%±13.0%, 14.5%±14.2%, 12.2%±18.7%, 16.0%±12.8%, and 12.8%±15.2% at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively, after switching. Univariate or multivariate analysis revealed the percent decrease of IOP was associated with the type of glaucoma (POAG) at 3 and 12 months, and with the baseline IOP at 3, 12, 24, and 36 months. Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that the percentage of patients who remained on treatment with DTFC was 94.7%, 94.7%, 84.2%, 78.9%, and 78.9% at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that the type of glaucoma (POAG) was associated with an increased risk of failure to control the IOP. Conclusion The IOP-lowering effect of DTFC was demonstrated for 3 years in this study. The baseline IOP had an important influence on the reduction of IOP achieved by DTFC. PMID:25228795

  13. Interfacial Reactions of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder with Cu-Mn UBM During Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chien-Fu; Wang, Kai-Jheng; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2010-12-01

    Cu under bump metallurgy (UBM) has been widely used in flip-chip technology. The major disadvantages of Cu UBM are fast consumption of copper, rapid growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs), and easy formation of Kirkendall voids. In this study we added two different contents of Mn (2 at.% and 10 at.%) to Cu UBM by sputtering to modify the conventional Cu metallization. For the higher Mn concentration in the Cu-Mn UBM, a new Sn-rich phase formed between Cu6Sn5 and the Cu-Mn UBM, and cracks formed after aging. For the lower Mn concentration, growth of Cu3Sn and Kirkendall voids was significantly suppressed after thermal aging. Kinetic analysis and x-ray elemental mapping provided evidence that Mn diffusion into Cu3Sn slowed diffusion of Cu in the Cu3Sn layer. The Mn-enriched Cu3Sn layer may serve as a diffusion barrier to reduce the interfacial reaction rate and Kirkendall void formation. These results suggest that Cu-Mn UBM with low Mn concentration is beneficial in terms of retarding Cu pad consumption in solder joints.

  14. Effect of Thermal Aging on the Mechanical Properties of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/Cu Solder Joints Under High Strain Rate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Luong; Kim, Ho-Kyung

    2015-07-01

    Shear tests with velocities between 0.5 m/s and 2.5 m/s were conducted to investigate the deformation characteristics of 0.76 mm lead-free Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder ball joints after thermal aging at 373 K up to 1000 h. A scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy was then used to examine the fracture surfaces and microstructures of the solder joints. The results showed that the main failure mode of the solder joints was the brittle interfacial fracture mode with cleavage failure in the intermetallic compound (IMC). The maximum shear strength and the fracture toughness ( K C) of the solder joint decreased substantially after aging for the initial aging time, after which they decreased gradually with further aging or an increase in the strain rate. The evolution of the IMC layer when it was thicker and had coarser nodules due to thermal aging was the primary cause of the reduction in the shear strength and fracture toughness in this study.

  15. Microstructure Evolution in a Cu-0.5Cr-0.2Zr Alloy Subjected to Equal Channel Angular Pressing, Rolling or Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Igor V.; Sitdikov, Vil D.; Abramova, Marina M.; Sarkeeva, Elena A.; Wei, Kun Xia; Wei, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of microstructure in the Cu-0.5%Cr-0.2%Zr alloy subjected to thermomechanical treatment has been studied by means of the x-ray analysis. The workpieces have been subjected to 1, 2, 4 and 8 passes of equal channel angular pressing, plain cold rolling and aging treatment. The results of the XRD investigations reflect the evolution of the lattice parameter, the size of coherently scattering domains, the elastic microdistortions and the dislocation density in Cu matrix. The observed changes in the microstructure are explained by the competition between the developing defects and precipitation of the Cr phase particles from the Cu matrix.

  16. Phase Transformation and Aging Behavior of Al0.5CoCrFeNiSi0.2 High-Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Wu, G. F.; Dai, P. Q.

    2015-05-01

    An Al0.5CoCrFeNiSi0.2 high-entropy alloy was prepared by vacuum arc melting. The alloy was aged from 700 to 1100 °C. The effects of aging on the phase transformation and mechanical performances were explored. The as-cast alloy showed a dendritic (DR) microstructure. The DR region was an Fe,Cr-rich FCC phase, while the interdendritic (ID) region was a spinodal structure composed of Fe,Cr-rich BCC (A2) and Ni,Al-rich BCC (B2) phases. At aging temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, the Fe,Cr-rich BCC (A2) phase in the ID region transformed into σ and Fe,Cr-rich FCC phases. Meanwhile, some Ni,Al-rich FCC phase particles precipitated from the DR region. During aging at 1100 °C, the DR microstructure disappeared, and a microstructure composed of Fe,Cr-rich FCC and Ni,Al-rich BCC (B2) phases both possessing a lamellar shape was developed. The alloy exhibited evident hardening and lower tensile strain when the aging temperature was lower than 1000 °C, which was mainly attributed to the generation of the σ phase in the ID region. However, a contrasting behavior was observed when the aging temperature was higher than 1000 °C, which was attributed to the redissolution of the σ phase and the microstructure coarsening.

  17. Shear and Pull Testing of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder with Ti/Ni(V)/Cu Underbump Metallization During Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai-Jheng; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2009-12-01

    Ti/Ni(V)/Cu underbump metallization (UBM) is widely used in flip-chip technology today. The advantages of Ti/Ni(V)/Cu UBM are a low reaction rate with solder and the lack of a magnetic effect during sputtering. Sn atoms diffuse into the Ni(V) layer to form a Sn-rich phase, the so-called Sn-patch, during reflow and aging. In this study, the relationship between interfacial reaction and mechanical properties of the solder joints with Ti/Ni(V)/Cu UBM was evaluated. Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder was reflowed on sputtered Ti/Ni(V)/Cu UBM, and then the reflowed samples were aged at 125°C and 200°C, respectively. (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 was formed and grew gradually at the interface of the solder joints during aging at 125°C. The Sn-patch replaced the Ni(V) layer, and (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 was thus formed between (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and the Sn-patch at 200°C. The Sn-patch, composed of Ni and V2Sn3 after reflow, was transformed to V2Sn3 and amorphous Sn during aging. Shear and pull tests were applied to evaluate the solder joints under various heat treatments. The shear force of the solder joints remained at 421 mN, yet the pull force decreased after aging at 125°C. Both the shear and pull forces of the solder joints decreased during aging at 200°C. The effects of aging temperature on the mechanical properties of solder joint were investigated and discussed.

  18. Ages of Massive Galaxies at 0.5 > z > 2.0 from 3D-HST Rest-frame Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Franx, Marijn; van Dokkum, Pieter; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Brammer, Gabriel; Nelson, Erica; Maseda, Michael; Momcheva, Ivelina; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Lundgren, Britt; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2016-05-01

    We present low-resolution near-infrared stacked spectra from the 3D–HST survey up to z = 2.0 and fit them with commonly used stellar population synthesis models: BC03, FSPS10 (Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis), and FSPS-C3K. The accuracy of the grism redshifts allows the unambiguous detection of many emission and absorption features and thus a first systematic exploration of the rest-frame optical spectra of galaxies up to z = 2. We select massive galaxies ({log}({M}*/{M}ȯ )\\gt 10.8), we divide them into quiescent and star-forming via a rest-frame color–color technique, and we median-stack the samples in three redshift bins between z = 0.5 and z = 2.0. We find that stellar population models fit the observations well at wavelengths below the 6500 Å rest frame, but show systematic residuals at redder wavelengths. The FSPS-C3K model generally provides the best fits (evaluated with χ 2 red statistics) for quiescent galaxies, while BC03 performs the best for star-forming galaxies. The stellar ages of quiescent galaxies implied by the models, assuming solar metallicity, vary from 4 Gyr at z ∼ 0.75 to 1.5 Gyr at z ∼ 1.75, with an uncertainty of a factor of two caused by the unknown metallicity. On average, the stellar ages are half the age of the universe at these redshifts. We show that the inferred evolution of ages of quiescent galaxies is in agreement with fundamental plane measurements, assuming an 8 Gyr age for local galaxies. For star-forming galaxies, the inferred ages depend strongly on the stellar population model and the shape of the assumed star-formation history.

  19. Responses of the Ocular Anterior Segment and Refraction to 0.5% Tropicamide in Chinese School-Aged Children of Myopia, Emmetropia, and Hyperopia

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Zhengwei; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; Du, Ergang; Jiang, Kelimu; Zheng, Wenjing; Ke, Bilian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the changes of anterior segment after cycloplegia and estimate the association of such changes with the changes of refraction in Chinese school-aged children of myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia. Methods. 309 children were recruited and eligible subjects were assigned to three groups: hyperopia, emmetropia, or myopia. Cycloplegia was achieved with five cycles of 0.5% tropicamide. The Pentacam system was used to measure the parameters of interest before and after cycloplegia. Results. In the myopic group, the lenses were thinner and the lens position was significantly more posterior than that of the emmetropic and hyperopic groups in the cycloplegic status. The correlations between refraction and lens thickness (age adjusted; r = 0.26, P < 0.01), and lens position (age adjusted; r = −0.31, P < 0.01) were found. After cycloplegia, ACD and ACV significantly increased, while ACA significantly decreased. Changes in refraction, ACD, ACV, and ACA were significantly different among the three groups (P < 0.05, all). Changes of refraction were correlated with changes of ACD (r = 0.41, P < 0.01). Conclusions. Myopia presented thinner lenses and smaller changes of anterior segment and refraction after cycloplegia when compared to emmetropia and hyperopia. Changes of anterior chamber depth were correlated with refraction changes. This may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between anterior segment and myopia. PMID:26457196

  20. Responses of the Ocular Anterior Segment and Refraction to 0.5% Tropicamide in Chinese School-Aged Children of Myopia, Emmetropia, and Hyperopia.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Zhengwei; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; Du, Ergang; Jiang, Kelimu; Zheng, Wenjing; Ke, Bilian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the changes of anterior segment after cycloplegia and estimate the association of such changes with the changes of refraction in Chinese school-aged children of myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia. Methods. 309 children were recruited and eligible subjects were assigned to three groups: hyperopia, emmetropia, or myopia. Cycloplegia was achieved with five cycles of 0.5% tropicamide. The Pentacam system was used to measure the parameters of interest before and after cycloplegia. Results. In the myopic group, the lenses were thinner and the lens position was significantly more posterior than that of the emmetropic and hyperopic groups in the cycloplegic status. The correlations between refraction and lens thickness (age adjusted; r = 0.26, P < 0.01), and lens position (age adjusted; r = -0.31, P < 0.01) were found. After cycloplegia, ACD and ACV significantly increased, while ACA significantly decreased. Changes in refraction, ACD, ACV, and ACA were significantly different among the three groups (P < 0.05, all). Changes of refraction were correlated with changes of ACD (r = 0.41, P < 0.01). Conclusions. Myopia presented thinner lenses and smaller changes of anterior segment and refraction after cycloplegia when compared to emmetropia and hyperopia. Changes of anterior chamber depth were correlated with refraction changes. This may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between anterior segment and myopia. PMID:26457196

  1. LIME 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-14

    LIME 0.5 is an initial version of a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes. LIME by itself is not a code for doing multiphysics simulations. Instead, LIME provides the key high-level software, a flexible but defined approach, and interface requirements for a collection of (potentially disparate) physics codes to be combined with strong coupling (when needed) though non-linear solution methods (e.g. JFNK, fixed point), thus creating a new multi-physics simulation capability customized for a particular need. ! ! The approach taken is designed to! •! preserve and leverage any important specialized algorithms and/or functionality an existing application may provide,! •! minimize the requirements barrier for an application to participate,! •! work within advanced solver frameworks (e.g. as extensions to the Trilinos/NOX nonlinear solver libraries, PETSc, . . .),! Of note is that components/physics codes that can be coupled within LIME are NOT limited to:! •! components written in one particular language,! •! a particular numerical discretization approach ( e.g. Finite Element), or! •! physical models expressed as PDEʼs.!

  2. LIME 0.5

    2011-01-14

    LIME 0.5 is an initial version of a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes. LIME by itself is not a code for doing multiphysics simulations. Instead, LIME provides the key high-level software, a flexible but defined approach, and interface requirements for a collection of (potentially disparate) physics codes to be combined with strong coupling (when needed) though non-linear solution methods (e.g. JFNK, fixed point), thus creating a new multi-physics simulation capability customized for amore » particular need. ! ! The approach taken is designed to! •! preserve and leverage any important specialized algorithms and/or functionality an existing application may provide,! •! minimize the requirements barrier for an application to participate,! •! work within advanced solver frameworks (e.g. as extensions to the Trilinos/NOX nonlinear solver libraries, PETSc, . . .),! Of note is that components/physics codes that can be coupled within LIME are NOT limited to:! •! components written in one particular language,! •! a particular numerical discretization approach ( e.g. Finite Element), or! •! physical models expressed as PDEʼs.!« less

  3. Lifestyle counseling for type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care: results of the APHRODITE study after 0.5 and 1.5 years.

    PubMed

    Vermunt, Paulina W A; Milder, Ivon E J; Wielaard, Frits; de Vries, Jeanne H M; van Oers, Hans A M; Westert, Gert P

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the overall effect of the Active Prevention in High-Risk Individuals of Diabetes Type 2 in and Around Eindhoven (APHRODITE) lifestyle intervention on type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care after 0.5 and 1.5 years and to evaluate the variability between general practices. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score ≥13) were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n = 479) or a usual-care group (n = 446). Comparisons were made between study groups and between general practices regarding changes in clinical and lifestyle measures over 1.5 years. Participant, general practitioner, and nurse practitioner characteristics were compared between individuals who lost weight or maintained a stable weight and individuals who gained weight. RESULTS Both groups showed modest changes in glucose values, weight measures, physical activity, energy intake, and fiber intake. Differences between groups were significant only for total physical activity, saturated fat intake, and fiber intake. Differences between general practices were significant for BMI and 2-h glucose but not for energy intake and physical activity. In the intervention group, the nurse practitioners' mean years of work experience was significantly longer in individuals who were successful at losing weight or maintaining a stable weight compared with unsuccessful individuals. Furthermore, successful individuals more often had a partner. CONCLUSIONS Risk factors for type 2 diabetes could be significantly reduced by lifestyle counseling in Dutch primary care. The small differences in changes over time between the two study groups suggest that additional intervention effects are modest. In particular, the level of experience of the nurse practitioner and the availability of partner support seem to facilitate intervention success. PMID:21775759

  4. Teenagers (15-17 years of age)

    MedlinePlus

    ... until 18-21 years of age. Choose My Plate- Preschoolers The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information ... up mentally healthy and drug-free. Choose My Plate- Preschoolers The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information ...

  5. 43 CFR 2920.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 2920.0-5 Section 2920.0-5... Easements: General Provisions § 2920.0-5 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: (a) Authorized officer... Land Management to use and manage the lands in a manner consistent with the terms of the easement....

  6. 43 CFR 2091.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 2091.0-5 Section 2091.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.0-5 Definitions. As used in...

  7. 43 CFR 2091.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 2091.0-5 Section 2091.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.0-5 Definitions. As used in...

  8. 43 CFR 2300.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 2300.0-5 Section 2300.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LAND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals, General § 2300.0-5 Definitions. As used in this part, the term:...

  9. 28 CFR 0.5 - Attorney General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Attorney General. 0.5 Section 0.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.5 Attorney General. The Attorney General shall: (a) Supervise and direct...

  10. 43 CFR 2610.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 2610.0-5 Section 2610.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) CAREY ACT GRANTS Carey Act Grants, General § 2610.0-5 Definitions. As used in the...

  11. 43 CFR 2300.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 2300.0-5 Section 2300.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LAND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals, General § 2300.0-5 Definitions. As used in this part, the term:...

  12. 43 CFR 2911.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 2911.0-5 Section 2911.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Airport § 2911.0-5 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the term: (a) Act means the...

  13. 43 CFR 8223.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 8223.0-5 Section 8223.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.0-5 Definitions....

  14. 43 CFR 1784.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 1784.0-5 Section 1784.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.0-5 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the...

  15. 43 CFR 8223.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 8223.0-5 Section 8223.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.0-5 Definitions....

  16. Giant dielectric permittivity and weak ferromagnetic behavior in Bi0.5La0.5Fe0.5Cr0.5O3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupathi, Patri; Raju, K.; Peetla, Naresh; Pantangi, Ramakrishna; Pastor, Mukul

    2016-05-01

    A pervoskite (Bi0.5La0.5)(Fe0.5Cr0.5)O3 (BLFC) nanoparticles were synthesized by high energy ball milling. Rietveld refined X-ray diffraction studies revealed that this compound shows orthorhombic structure with Pbnm space group. The dielectric studies were investigated in wide frequency (102-106) range indicating giant dielectric permittivity behavior similar to LaFeO3 ceramic. The noted dielectric loss relaxation frequency dependent is as following the Arrhenius law can be ascribed as polaronic conduction. Further, magnetic transition at around 337 K and coexistence of weak ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic behavior is observed below magnetic transition.

  17. Site symmetry of Er3+ in In0.5Ga0.5P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, B. S.; Hong, Y. K.; An, J. Y.; Choi, J. C.; Chung, C. H.; Park, H. L.

    1995-01-01

    The site and site symmetry of Er3+ in LPE grown In0.5Ga0.5P have been investigated for the first time through Raman and polarized luminescence spectroscopic techniques. The Er3+ site was found to be ErIn in In0.5Ga0.5P. The site symmetry of Er3+ in In0.5Ga0.5P was positively confirmed asC2v.

  18. 43 CFR 2920.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 2920.0-5 Section 2920.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS Leases, Permits and Easements: General Provisions §...

  19. 43 CFR 3142.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 3142.0-5 Section 3142.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Paying...

  20. 43 CFR 3142.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 3142.0-5 Section 3142.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Paying...

  1. 43 CFR 3142.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 3142.0-5 Section 3142.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Paying...

  2. 43 CFR 3142.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 3142.0-5 Section 3142.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Paying...

  3. 43 CFR 9212.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 9212.0-5 Section 9212.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention §...

  4. 43 CFR 9212.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 9212.0-5 Section 9212.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention §...

  5. 43 CFR 9212.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 9212.0-5 Section 9212.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention §...

  6. 43 CFR 9212.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 9212.0-5 Section 9212.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention §...

  7. 43 CFR 4700.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 4700.0-5 Section 4700.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS General §...

  8. 43 CFR 2300.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 2300.0-5 Section 2300.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... employee of the Bureau of Land Management to whom has been delegated the authority to perform the...

  9. 43 CFR 2911.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 2911.0-5 Section 2911.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...). (b) Authorized officer means any employee of the Bureau of Land Management who has been delegated...

  10. 43 CFR 8340.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 8340.0-5 Section 8340.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Bureau of Land Management. (c) Bureau means the Bureau of Land Management. (d) Official use means use...

  11. 43 CFR 8340.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 8340.0-5 Section 8340.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Bureau of Land Management. (c) Bureau means the Bureau of Land Management. (d) Official use means use...

  12. 43 CFR 4100.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 4100.0-5 Section 4100.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Administration-Exclusive of Alaska; General §...

  13. [Articular chondrocalcinosis after 80 years of age].

    PubMed

    Memin, Y; Monville, C; Ryckewaert, A

    1978-02-01

    In 108 women over 80 (mean age 88,4 years, extremes 80 and 99 years) hospitalized in a geriatric service for various reasons, radiograms were made of both knees in the frontal aspect on standard film to detect calcinosis of the meniscus and chondrocalcinosis of the joint. In 25 women (23.1%) the radiographs revealed calcinosis of the meniscus with or without chondrocalcinosis. In these 25 cases a lateral X-ray was also made of the two knees, frontal X-rays were made of the pelvis, thumbs and shoulders. In 22 cases (88%) these revealed calcification of the fibrocartilages or articular cartilages in joints other than the knee. Seven of the 25 women had at least one attack of articular inflammation (especially of the knee) resembling a pseudo-gout crisis. The frequency of chronic arthropathies resembling arthroses was high in the 25 patients with chondrocalcinosis: 8 (32%) had an internal or external femoro-tibial arthrosis, as against 11 of the 83 patients (13%) of the same age without chondrocalcinosis, a significant difference. Eleven of the 25 women had signs of femororotular arthrosis on the lateral X-rays of the knees, 5 had coxarthrosis (with in 3 cases a radiological image of fibrocartilaginous or coxofemoral cartilaginous calcification). One women had chronic radiocarpal arthropathy evocative or chondrocalcinosis. Ten had a scaphotrapezoidal arthrosis, 5 arthrosis of the shoulder, 3 with radiological aspect of glenohumeral chondrocalcinosis. PMID:644241

  14. 43 CFR 1815.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....0-5 Definitions. Major disaster means any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, winddriven..., which, in the determination of the President, is or threatens to be of sufficient severity and...

  15. 43 CFR 1815.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....0-5 Definitions. Major disaster means any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, winddriven..., which, in the determination of the President, is or threatens to be of sufficient severity and...

  16. 43 CFR 1815.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....0-5 Definitions. Major disaster means any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, winddriven..., which, in the determination of the President, is or threatens to be of sufficient severity and...

  17. 43 CFR 1815.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....0-5 Definitions. Major disaster means any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, winddriven..., which, in the determination of the President, is or threatens to be of sufficient severity and...

  18. 43 CFR 2520.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-5 Definitions. (a) As used in the desert-land laws and the regulations of this subpart:...

  19. 43 CFR 2520.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-5 Definitions. (a) As used in the desert-land laws and the regulations of this subpart:...

  20. 43 CFR 2520.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-5 Definitions. (a) As used in the desert-land laws and the regulations of this subpart:...

  1. 43 CFR 2520.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-5 Definitions. (a) As used in the desert-land laws and the regulations of this subpart:...

  2. Using Dental Age to Estimate Chronological Age in Czech Children Aged 3-18 Years.

    PubMed

    Ginzelová, Kristina; Dostálová, Taťjana; Eliášová, Hana; Vinšů, Alex; Buček, Antonín; Bučková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The Demirjian methods to determine dental age are based on analysis of orthopantograms. The dental age estimation is based on establishing the tooth development stages. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of estimation of dental age by Demirjian in the use of all of his four methods. 505 Czech healthy boys and girls aged 3 to 18 years were examined radiographically at the Department of Stomatology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. It was mentioned the factors of underlying diseases influence the accuracy of the dental age estimation. For statistical evaluation, descriptive statistics was used to compare deviations of the mean values of chronological and dental age in each age group. The resulting difference between dental age and chronological age is not significant in both genders only when using both Demirjian 7-teeth methods of 1973 and 1976. Therefore these may be most appropriately used for forensic age estimation. There are shown standard deviation differences in different countries. Demirjian's original 7-teeth method from 1973 and Demirjian's revised 4-teeth method from 1976 appear to be the best methods for calculating the dental age of healthy Czech children of both genders. PMID:26093668

  3. Special Education: Grant Programs Designed To Serve Children Ages 0-5. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Restructuring and the District of Columbia, U.S. Senate Committee on Government Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    This report of the General Accounting Office to a Congressional Committee examines possible overlapping functions of three federal special education grant programs mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The programs are: (1) Special Education Grants to States (School-age Grants); (2) Special Education Preschool Grants…

  4. 43 CFR 3150.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... placing explosive charges, where permissible, for seismic exploration. (b) Casual use means activities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Onshore Oil and Gas Geophysical Exploration; General § 3150.0-5 Definitions. As used in this part, the term:...

  5. 43 CFR 3141.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-5 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the term: (a) Combined hydrocarbon lease means a lease issued in a Special Tar Sand Area for the removal of any gas and...

  6. 43 CFR 3141.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-5 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the term: (a) Combined hydrocarbon lease means a lease issued in a Special Tar Sand Area for the removal of any gas and...

  7. 43 CFR 3141.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-5 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the term: (a) Combined hydrocarbon lease means a lease issued in a Special Tar Sand Area for the removal of any gas and...

  8. 43 CFR 3141.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-5 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the term: (a) Combined hydrocarbon lease means a lease issued in a Special Tar Sand Area for the removal of any gas and...

  9. 43 CFR 8224.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-5..., bitumen, lignite, asphaltum and tar sands, even though they are of biologic origin: (c) Fossil Forest or Fossil Forest Research Natural Area means those public lands as described in section 103(a) of the...

  10. 43 CFR 2300.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LAND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals, General § 2300.0-5... employee of the Bureau of Land Management to whom has been delegated the authority to perform the...

  11. 43 CFR 3180.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: General § 3180.0-5 Definitions. The following terms, as used in this... or plan. Unitized substances. Deposits of oil and gas contained in the unitized land which...

  12. 43 CFR 3130.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING: NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE, ALASKA Oil and Gas Leasing, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska: General § 3130.0-5 Definitions. As used in... exploring, testing, surveying or otherwise investigating the potential of a lease for oil and gas or...

  13. 43 CFR 3130.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING: NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE, ALASKA Oil and Gas Leasing, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska: General § 3130.0-5 Definitions. As used in... exploring, testing, surveying or otherwise investigating the potential of a lease for oil and gas or...

  14. 43 CFR 3180.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: General § 3180.0-5 Definitions. The following terms, as used in this... or plan. Unitized substances. Deposits of oil and gas contained in the unitized land which...

  15. 43 CFR 3180.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: General § 3180.0-5 Definitions. The following terms, as used in this... or plan. Unitized substances. Deposits of oil and gas contained in the unitized land which...

  16. 43 CFR 3180.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: General § 3180.0-5 Definitions. The following terms, as used in this... or plan. Unitized substances. Deposits of oil and gas contained in the unitized land which...

  17. 43 CFR 3130.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING: NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE, ALASKA Oil and Gas Leasing, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska: General § 3130.0-5 Definitions. As used in... exploring, testing, surveying or otherwise investigating the potential of a lease for oil and gas or...

  18. 43 CFR 3130.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING: NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE, ALASKA Oil and Gas Leasing, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska: General § 3130.0-5 Definitions. As used in... exploring, testing, surveying or otherwise investigating the potential of a lease for oil and gas or...

  19. 43 CFR 8224.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-5... Land Management designated to perform the duties described in this subpart: (b) Fossil means the..., bitumen, lignite, asphaltum and tar sands, even though they are of biologic origin: (c) Fossil Forest...

  20. 43 CFR 8224.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-5... Land Management designated to perform the duties described in this subpart: (b) Fossil means the..., bitumen, lignite, asphaltum and tar sands, even though they are of biologic origin: (c) Fossil Forest...

  1. 43 CFR 8224.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-5... Land Management designated to perform the duties described in this subpart: (b) Fossil means the..., bitumen, lignite, asphaltum and tar sands, even though they are of biologic origin: (c) Fossil Forest...

  2. 43 CFR 3400.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-5 Definitions. As used in this group: (a) Alluvial valley floor has the meaning set forth in 30 CFR... consistent with 40 CFR 1508.9. (k) Exploration has the meaning set forth in § 3480.0-5(a)(17) of this title... approved mining or exploration plan. This is the same as the Federal lease bond referred to in 30 CFR...

  3. 43 CFR 3400.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-5 Definitions. As used in this group: (a) Alluvial valley floor has the meaning set forth in 30 CFR... consistent with 40 CFR 1508.9. (k) Exploration has the meaning set forth in § 3480.0-5(a)(17) of this title... approved mining or exploration plan. This is the same as the Federal lease bond referred to in 30 CFR...

  4. 43 CFR 3400.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-5 Definitions. As used in this group: (a) Alluvial valley floor has the meaning set forth in 30 CFR... consistent with 40 CFR 1508.9. (k) Exploration has the meaning set forth in § 3480.0-5(a)(17) of this title... approved mining or exploration plan. This is the same as the Federal lease bond referred to in 30 CFR...

  5. 43 CFR 3400.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-5 Definitions. As used in this group: (a) Alluvial valley floor has the meaning set forth in 30 CFR... consistent with 40 CFR 1508.9. (k) Exploration has the meaning set forth in § 3480.0-5(a)(17) of this title... approved mining or exploration plan. This is the same as the Federal lease bond referred to in 30 CFR...

  6. 43 CFR 4700.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS General § 4700.0-5 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: (a) Act means the Act... Horse and Burro Act. (b) Authorized officer means any employee of the Bureau of Land Management to whom... means using a wild horse or burro because of its characteristics of wildness for direct or...

  7. Dielectric and electrical characteristics of La0.5Na0.5Ga0.5V0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Truptimayee; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2016-07-01

    La0.5Na0.5Ga0.5V0.5O3 (LNGVO) ceramic was prepared using a high-temperature solid-state reaction method. The structural phase, microstructure, dielectric, ferroelectric and optical properties of the material were systematically investigated. The preliminary structural analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD) data shows the formation of the material in an orthorhombic crystal structure at room temperature. Detailed studies of dielectric and electrical properties have been carried out over a wide range of frequency (1 kHz-1 MHz) and temperature (25-450 °C) in order to elucidate the basic mechanism of the conduction and relaxation process. The dielectric characteristics show that the ceramic is a relaxor with strong diffuse phase transition and frequency dispersion. The nature of the variation of ac conductivity as a function of frequency obeys the universal power law, and confirms the existence of a hopping conduction mechanism in the material. The material also exhibits ferroelectricity at room temperature with a very low value of remnant polarization. The ionic conductivity and transport number of the ferroelectric ionic conductor were obtained with the standard experiment and calculation respectively. The material shows NTCR behavior similar to that of a semi-conductor. Similar behavior has also been observed in the study of I-V characteristics of the material.

  8. Ultrathin Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 Ferroelectric Films on Si.

    PubMed

    Chernikova, Anna; Kozodaev, Maksim; Markeev, Andrei; Negrov, Dmitrii; Spiridonov, Maksim; Zarubin, Sergei; Bak, Ohheum; Buragohain, Pratyush; Lu, Haidong; Suvorova, Elena; Gruverman, Alexei; Zenkevich, Andrei

    2016-03-23

    Because of their immense scalability and manufacturability potential, the HfO2-based ferroelectric films attract significant attention as strong candidates for application in ferroelectric memories and related electronic devices. Here, we report the ferroelectric behavior of ultrathin Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films, with the thickness of just 2.5 nm, which makes them suitable for use in ferroelectric tunnel junctions, thereby further expanding the area of their practical application. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis of the films grown on highly doped Si substrates confirms formation of the fully crystalline non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic phase responsible for ferroelectricity in Hf0.5Zr0.5O2. Piezoresponse force microscopy and pulsed switching testing performed on the deposited top TiN electrodes provide further evidence of the ferroelectric behavior of the Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films. The electronic band lineup at the top TiN/Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 interface and band bending at the adjacent n(+)-Si bottom layer attributed to the polarization charges in Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 have been determined using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The obtained results represent a significant step toward the experimental implementation of Si-based ferroelectric tunnel junctions. PMID:26931409

  9. Alcohol Intoxication in Pediatric Age: Ten-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bitunjac, Kristina; Saraga, Marijan

    2009-01-01

    Aim To examine the changes in the number of children younger than 18 who were hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Split, from November 1, 1997 to October 31, 2007. Methods Data on children hospitalized due to intoxication were retrieved from hospital medical records. Children were classified into 4 age groups: 0-5, 6-9, 10-13, and 14-18 years, and their sex and type of intoxication were recorded. For children with alcohol intoxication, data on time of intoxication, reason for drinking, presence of injuries or suspected suicide attempts, and possible presence of other drugs in the organism were collected. Results Out of 29 506 hospitalized children, 594 were hospitalized due to intoxications. Out of these, 239 (40.2%) were hospitalized due to intoxication by alcohol. More boys than girls were hospitalized (71.1%). The proportion of alcohol intoxication cases among all types of intoxication cases increased from 16.7% in 1997/98 to 66.3% in 2006/07. The proportion of patients hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication increased from 0.3% of all hospitalized children in the first year to 1.7% in the last year of the study (P = 0.015, z test for comparison of two proportions). Eighty two per cent of cases of alcohol intoxication were in the 14-18 age-group. The number of alcohol intoxication cases increased among girls from 1 case (6.3% of all intoxication cases among girls) in 1997/98 to 15 cases (45.5%) in 2006/07, while among boys it increased from 6 cases (23.1% of all intoxicated boys) in 1997/98 to 44 cases (78.6%) in 2006/07. Children usually drank outside their homes (79.4%) and mostly on weekends and holidays (73.2%). Conclusion The alarming increase in the number of hospitalizations due to alcohol intoxication in children, especially among girls and in the adolescent age group, represents a serious problem, which requires further attention and research. PMID:19399948

  10. Preserved brain metabolic activity at the age of 96 years.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Lange, Catharina; Spies, Lothar; Ritter, Kerstin; Mäurer, Anja; Seybold, Joachim; Fiebach, Jochen B; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Buchert, Ralph

    2016-09-01

    Loss of brain tissue becomes notable to cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at age 30 years, and progresses more rapidly from mid 60s. The incidence of dementia increases exponentially with age, and is all too frequent in the oldest old (≥ 90 years of age), the fastest growing age group in many countries. However, brain pathology and cognitive decline are not inevitable, even at extremely old age (den Dunnen et al., 2008). PMID:27160670

  11. Pathways Linking Perceived Athletic Competence and Parental Support at Age 9 Years to Girls' Physical Activity at Age 11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Downs, Danielle Symons; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Girls' perceived athletic competence and parental support of physical activity across the ages of 9 to 11 years were examined as predictors of girls' physical activity at age 11 years. Participants were 174 girls and their mothers and fathers who completed questionnaires when the girls were ages 9 and 11 years. Two alternative temporal pathways…

  12. Coming from behind to win - A Qualitative research about psychological conditions of adolescents who have undergone open-heart surgery for single ventricle between the ages 0-5

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Early recognition of congenital cardiac pathologies and their treatment by means of palliative or corrective surgery at birth or infancy has vital importance. Successful repair of congenital cardiac defects by surgical methods has gained importance especially during the last twenty years. As the scope of the surveillance increased so did the interest in the outcomes of these treatments when the patients had reached puberty and adulthood. The purpose of our research was to study the psychological framework of the adolescents who had experienced these surgeries by listening both the children and the parents talk about their feelings and experiences. Our data was accumulated through interviews with 17 adolescents and their families, using qualitative methods. The main theme at the end of the analysis was "to be strong and resistive". We reached the conclusion that this condition was not a pathological build up but an attitude of coping, as it did not cause loss of functionality. The defensive psychological mechanisms used by these adolescents consisted of repression, compensation and reaction formation. We believe that this information is important to understand the real meaning of the manners displayed when these adolescents and their families pursue their daily lives, communicate and make relationships with their environment and especially professionals in the health services. PMID:22112589

  13. Coming from behind to win--a qualitative research about psychological conditions of adolescents who have undergone open-heart surgery for single ventricle between the ages 0-5.

    PubMed

    Zahmacioglu, Oguzhan; Yildiz, Cenk Eray; Koca, Bulent; Ugurlucan, Murat; Gokalp, Selman; Cetin, Gurkan; Eroglu, Ayse Guler; Oztunc, Funda

    2011-01-01

    Early recognition of congenital cardiac pathologies and their treatment by means of palliative or corrective surgery at birth or infancy has vital importance. Successful repair of congenital cardiac defects by surgical methods has gained importance especially during the last twenty years. As the scope of the surveillance increased so did the interest in the outcomes of these treatments when the patients had reached puberty and adulthood. The purpose of our research was to study the psychological framework of the adolescents who had experienced these surgeries by listening both the children and the parents talk about their feelings and experiences. Our data was accumulated through interviews with 17 adolescents and their families, using qualitative methods. The main theme at the end of the analysis was "to be strong and resistive". We reached the conclusion that this condition was not a pathological build up but an attitude of coping, as it did not cause loss of functionality. The defensive psychological mechanisms used by these adolescents consisted of repression, compensation and reaction formation. We believe that this information is important to understand the real meaning of the manners displayed when these adolescents and their families pursue their daily lives, communicate and make relationships with their environment and especially professionals in the health services. PMID:22112589

  14. Ordering and disordering of doped Ga[sub 0. 5]In[sub 0. 5]P

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.R.; Olson, J.M.; Friedman, D.J.; Kibbler, A.E.; Asher, S. )

    1994-05-01

    The band gap of Ga[sub 0.5]In[sub 0.5]P is reported as a function of doping level and growth rate. The lowest band gaps are obtained for hole concentrations of about 2 x 10[sup 17] cm[sup [minus]3]. For samples doped p-type above 1 x 10[sup 18] cm[sup [minus]3], the band gap increases dramatically, regardless of growth rate. This effect is shown to be the result of disordering during growth rather than a change in the equilibrium surface structure with doping. The doping level dependence of the band gap of Ga[sub 0.5]In[sub 0.5]P samples grown at higher and lower growth rates differs for selenium and zinc doping even though the effects of high doping are the same for both dopants. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  15. 43 CFR 2400.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... multi-family dwellings or combinations thereof, and related community facilities, both seasonal and year... activities incidental thereto. (d) Agricultural refers to the growing of cultivated crops. (e)...

  16. 43 CFR 2400.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... multi-family dwellings or combinations thereof, and related community facilities, both seasonal and year... activities incidental thereto. (d) Agricultural refers to the growing of cultivated crops. (e)...

  17. 43 CFR 2400.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... multi-family dwellings or combinations thereof, and related community facilities, both seasonal and year... activities incidental thereto. (d) Agricultural refers to the growing of cultivated crops. (e)...

  18. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe0.5Ni0.5 permalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, D.; Majumdar, S.; Giri, S.

    2012-06-01

    We investigate magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe0.5Ni0.5 alloy embedded in the amorphous SiO2 host with volume fractions φ ≈ 10%. The static and dynamic aspects of the magnetic properties are investigated by investigating thermal and time dependence of low-field dc magnetization. Signature of strong interparticle interaction is noted in the magnetization results. The relaxation process at low temperature is fitted with stretched exponential function, displaying coexistence of ferromagnetic and glassy magnetic components.

  19. Radiocarbon ages and age models for the past 30,000 years in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Kaufman, D.S.; Dean, W.E.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses of pollen, ostracodes, and total organic carbon (TOC) provide a reliable chronology for the sediments deposited in Bear Lake over the past 30,000 years. The differences in apparent age between TOC, pollen, and carbonate fractions are consistent and in accord with the origins of these fractions. Comparisons among different fractions indicate that pollen sample ages are the most reliable, at least for the past 15,000 years. The post-glacial radiocarbon data also agree with ages independently estimated from aspartic acid racemization in ostracodes. Ages in the red, siliclastic unit, inferred to be of last glacial age, appear to be several thousand years too old, probably because of a high proportion of reworked, refractory organic carbon in the pollen samples. Age-depth models for five piston cores and the Bear Lake drill core (BL00-1) were constructed by using two methods: quadratic equations and smooth cubic-splinefits. The two types of age models differ only in detail for individual cores, and each approach has its own advantages. Specific lithological horizons were dated in several cores and correlated among them, producing robust average ages for these horizons. The age of the correlated horizons in the red, siliclastic unit can be estimated from the age model for BL00-1, which is controlled by ages above and below the red, siliclastic unit. These ages were then transferred to the correlative horizons in the shorter piston cores, providing control for the sections of the age models in those cores in the red, siliclastic unit. These age models are the backbone for reconstructions of past environmental conditions in Bear Lake. In general, sedimentation rates in Bear Lake have been quite uniform, mostly between 0.3 and 0.8 mm yr-1 in the Holocene, and close to 0.5 mm yr-1 for the longer sedimentary record in the drill core from the deepest part of the lake. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  20. Magnetization reversal in the orthochromite Y0 . 5 Gd0.5 CrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Alejandro; Escudero, Roberto; Escamilla, Raul; Morales, Fransisco; Verdin, Eduardo

    Complex oxide of transition metal with perovskite structure represent fascinating playground for basic solid state research: new electronics and exotic ground states emerge via the competing interplay like spin, orbital, charge as well as lattice degree of freedom. Accordingly, orthochromites are not exception to the rule. In these compounds have been found ferroelectric polarization, spin reorientation transition along with the characteristic behavior known as; magnetization reversal (MR) consisting that a characteristic temperature, T*, the system becomes diamagnetic. In this work, the magnetic behavior of the equimolar Y0.5Gd0.5CrO3 composition was studied. Negative magnetization was observed at T*~70 K in FC mode, and applied field of 100 Oe. The characteristic hysteresis loop in the M-H graph of the pristine sample disappears for a wide range of temperature below of TN, and the characteristic spin reorientation is shifted from 14 K in GdCrO3 to 5 K for Y0.5Gd0.5CrO3. The negative magnetization is explained according the model that take into account the anisotropic and antisymmetric exchange interaction between Gd +3 - Cr +3 sublattice. A.D. and R.E. thanks to grants by DGAPA-PAPIIT, IN103213 and IN 106014 respectively.

  1. Magnetoresistance of La0.5Sr0.5MnO3 nanoparticle compact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Hong; Ji, Tian-Hao; Wang, Yi-Qian; Chen, Xin; Li, Run-Wei; Cai, Jian-Wang; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2000-05-01

    Magnetization, resistance, and current-voltage (I-V) measurements have been performed in La0.5Sr0.5MnO3 compact prepared by pressing sol-gel nanoparticles (46 nm) at 723 K with a high pressure (4 GPa). The pressed compound orders ferromagnetically at 340 K (TC) and has a substantial drop in the thermomagnetic curve below 158 K (TDP). After undergoing a metal-to-semiconductor transition at 140 K (TMS), the compound reenters into a strong semiconducting state below 60 K, demonstrating a charge localized behavior induced by the small grain rather than the magnetic disorder which is related with the frozen spin clusters below TDP. Instead of showing a feature near TMS, the magnetoresistance (MR) ratio increases almost linearly with decreasing temperature. The large low field MR corresponding to the sharp rise of magnetization is obtained at 5 K and, evidenced as the spin polarized intergrain tunneling (SPIT) effect by the nolinear I-V curve. Although La0.5Sr0.5MnO3 has a relatively high TC, the SPIT MR decays rapidly from 17.6% (5 K, 0.3 T) to 7.6% (150 K, 0.3 T), indicating that if trying to put the low field sensitivity of SPIT MR into application at room temperature, the selected compound having a higher TC seems to be a prerequisite.

  2. 43 CFR 3000.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... combustible or noncombustible, which is produced in a natural state from the earth and which maintains a...) Anniversary date means the same day and month in succeeding years as that on which the lease became effective... of Land Management authorized to perform the duties described in Group 3000 and 3100. (f) Proper...

  3. Ellipsometric study of Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieg, R. M.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Croke, E. T.; Harrell, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    An ellipsometric study of two Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer super lattices grown by MBE at low temperature (500 C) is presented, and results are compared with x ray diffraction (XRD) estimates. Excellent agreement is obtained between target values, XRD, and ellipsometry when one of two available Si(x)Ge(1-x) databases is used. It is shown that ellipsometry can be used to nondestructively determine the number of superlattice periods, layer thicknesses, Si(x)Ge(1-x) composition, and oxide thickness without resorting to additional sources of information. It was also noted that we do not observe any strain effect on the E(sub 1) critical point.

  4. Ellipsometric study of Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieg, R. M.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Croke, E. T.; Harrell, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    We present an ellipsometric study of two Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer superlattices grown by MBE at low temperature (500 C), and compare our results with X-ray diffraction (XRD) estimates. Excellent agreement is obtained between target values, XRD, and ellipsometry when one of two available Si(x)Ge(1-x) databases is used. We show that ellipsometry can be used to nondestructively determine the number of superlattice periods, layer thicknesses, Si(x)Ge(1-x) composition, and oxide thickness without resorting to additional sources of information. We also note that we do not observe any strain effect on the E1 critical point.

  5. For Aging Blacks, 'Golden Years' Often Marred by Disability

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160359.html For Aging Blacks, 'Golden Years' Often Marred by Disability And ... Health News on: African American Health Health Disparities Seniors' Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics African ...

  6. Young Teens (12-14 years of age)

    MedlinePlus

    ... until 18-21 years of age. Choose My Plate- Preschoolers The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information ... up mentally healthy and drug-free. Choose My Plate- Preschoolers The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information ...

  7. Ultrasonic transducers based on undoped lead-free (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bah, Micka; Giovannelli, Fabien; Schoenstein, Frederic; Brosseau, Christophe; Deschamps, Jean-Robert; Dorvaux, Frédéric; Haumesser, Lionel; Le Clezio, Emmanuel; Monot-Laffez, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics are the dominant piezoelectric elements for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and ultrasonic transducers devices. However, the presence of lead content may impose the scientific community to develop lead-free ceramics, concerning human health and environmental safety. During the past ten years, many contributions have highlighted the potential properties of complex compositions like LiNbO3, LiTaO3 and LiSbO3 in the lead-free (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 KNN system. In this context, for the first time, the practical applications and the effectiveness of simply undoped (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) ceramics are investigated. KNN powder is prepared by conventional solid state mixed oxide route. Ceramics of this material are prepared using conventional sintering (CS) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). Thickness coupling factor kt of 44-46%, planar coupling factor kp of 29-45%, relative permittivity at constant strain ε33,r(S) of 125-243 and acoustic impedance Z of 23-30 MRay are obtained for these two kinds of undoped KNN ceramics. Both ceramics are used to build single-element ultrasonic transducers. Relative bandwidth of 49-78% and insertion loss of -27 and -51dB are obtained for SPS and CS transducers, respectively. These results are suitable for use in non-destructive evaluation. The effectiveness of undoped KNN is evaluated using the KLM model, and compared to standard PZT based probe. Finally, chemical aging test of undoped KNN has demonstrated its stability in water. PMID:26117145

  8. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qingling; Li, Feng; Wang, Junli; Shen, Lixiao; Sheng, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years. Methods Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1) was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ), and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ) respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA. Results In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR) 14.69–419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g). All of the children were divided into three groups, 1–2 years (12–24 months), 2–3 years (24–36 months), 3–4 years (36–48 months), with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g), 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g), 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g), respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1–2 years, 2–3 years and 3–4 years (P = 0.016). In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1–2 years and children aged 3–4 years (P = 0.007). A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005) in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed. Conclusion Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years), and higher FC

  9. Isosbestic Point and Magnetoresistance Components in Ho_{0.5} Lu_{0.5} B_{12}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshilov, A. L.; Azarevich, A. N.; Bogach, A. V.; Glushkov, V. V.; Demishev, S. V.; Krasnorussky, V. N.; Voronov, V. V.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu; Filippov, V. B.; Gabani, S.; Flachbart, K.; Sluchanko, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of precise magnetoresistance (MR) measurements of an antiferromagnetic cage-glass solid solution Ho_{0.5} Lu_{0.5} B_{12} in magnetic fields up to 80 kOe and at temperatures between 1.9 and 100 K. The analysis of results allows to separate the positive and negative contributions to MR. The dominant MR-term was found to be the high field positive contribution Δ ρ /ρ _{(m+)} =μ _D^2 H^2 which is caused by the drift mobility μ _D of charge carriers. It was also shown that the negative MR observed at temperatures T ≤ 10 K may be described by the well-known relation between MR and local magnetization Δ ρ /ρ _{(-)} =M_{loc}^2 obtained by Yosida in the framework of s-d exchange model. We discuss as well the scattering of charge carriers on antiferromagnetic nanosize domains of Ho^{3+} ions with effective magnetic moments 3.5-5.5 μ _B as the mechanism responsible for the appearance of the negative MR component.

  10. Magnetisation configuration at the interface of Fe_0.5Mn_0.5/Co(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujfalussy, Balazs; Schultess, T. C.; Stocks, G. M.; Canning, A.

    2002-03-01

    The microscopic understanding of the interface of a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is of fundamental importance in the problem of exchange bias. Of particular interest is the interface between Fe_0.5Mn_0.5/Co(111) however, it is rather difficult to study it experimentally. We performed an ab-initio spin-dynamics calculation to determine the magnetization configuration of this interface. We find that the magnetization changes from a 3Q-like state to a 1Q-like state which is perpendicular to the magnetization of the Co at the interface. We comment on the range of the interaction and possible mechanism of exchange bias. This work was supported by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, and by the Director, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Division of Mathematical Information and Computational Sciences Division, of the U.S. Department of Energy, under contract number DE-AC03-76SF00098 and subcontract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle LLC.

  11. Influence of electron beam irradiation on the structural, electrical and thermal properties of Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 and Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, B. S.; Rao, Ashok; Babu, P. D.; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Okram, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present systematic studies on the effect of electron beam irradiation on structural, electrical and thermal properties of Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 and Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 manganites. The XRD patterns and Rietveld analysis show that the samples remain single phased even after they undergo electron beam irradiation. Both the series of the samples Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 and Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 show insulating trends in their temperature dependent electrical resistivity, ρ(T) behavior. The resistivity data for both the series of samples (pristine as well as irradiated) indicate that the small polaron hopping model is valid in high temperature region; on contrary, variable range hopping model governs the low temperature regime. Magnetic studies demonstrate that the Neel temperatures of pristine and irradiated samples of Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 and Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 do not change appreciably when they are subjected to irradiation. Thermo-electrical power is observed to increase with irradiation in Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 samples, whereas for Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 samples a decrease in thermo-electric power is seen when the samples are irradiated.

  12. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  13. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  14. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  15. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  16. Perinatal air pollution exposure and development of asthma from birth to age 10 years.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Within-city variation in air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma development, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined whether perinatal air pollution exposure affected asthma onset during "pre-school and "school age" periods in a population-based birth cohort.65 254 children born between 1999 and 2002 in the greater Vancouver metropolitan region were followed until age 10 years using linked administrative health databases. Asthma cases were sex- and age-matched to five randomly chosen controls. Associations between exposure to air pollutants estimated with different methods (interpolation (inverse-distance weighted (IDW)), land use regression, proximity) and incident asthma during the pre-school (0-5years) and school age (6-10 years) periods were estimated with conditional logistic regression.6948 and 1711 cases were identified during the pre-school and school age periods, respectively. Following adjustment for birthweight, gestational period, household income, parity, breastfeeding at discharge, maternal age and education, asthma risk during the pre-school years was increased by traffic pollution (adjusted odds ratio using IDW method per interquartile increase (95% CI): nitric oxide 1.06 (1.01-1.11), nitrogen dioxide 1.09 (1.04-1.13) and carbon monoxide 1.05 (1.01-1.1)). Enhanced impacts were observed amongst low-term-birthweight cases. Associations were independent of surrounding residential greenness.Within-city air pollution variation was associated with new asthma onset during the pre-school years. PMID:26862123

  17. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better. PMID:22448609

  18. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur; Bresee, Joseph; Ramirez, Katharine-Sturm; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals. Results We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh. PMID:26840782

  19. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... 34 Father’s Stature Weight Stature 56789 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BMI* AGE (YEARS) cm 95 190 90 185 75 180 ... 30 30 25 20 15 10 lb kg AGE (YEARS) 30 70 60 25 50 20 40 15 30 10 kg lb 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Published May ...

  20. Luminous Red Galaxies at Z=0.4-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sally; Lindler, Don

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of approx.20,000 luminous red galaxies (LRG's) at z=0.4-0.5 observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In order to differentiate among them, we measured restframe magnitudes, u (3000-3500 A), b (4200-4800 A), and y (5700-6300 A) from the spectra themselves. The galaxies show a significant range in restframe colors and absolute magnitudes. We binned the spectra according to the restframe u-b color and y-band absolute magnitude in order to increase the S/N. We used 3 approaches to estimate the ages and metal content of these binned spectra: via their spectral energy distributions, from spectral-line indices, and by full spectral fitting. The three methods usually produce discordant results

  1. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  2. Breast Cancer Subtypes in Patients Aged 70 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    Königsberg, Robert; Pfeiler, Georg; Hammerschmid, Nicole; Holub, Oliver; Glössmann, Kerstin; Larcher-Senn, Julian; Dittrich, Christian

    2016-05-27

    Recurrence and survival pattern in breast cancer (bc) patients (pts) ≥ 70 years subcategorized according to subtype and age are still an area of uncertainty. Tumor characteristics, patient demographics, therapies applied, and recurrence pattern were compared between luminal A (LA), luminal B (LB), Her2/neu overexpressing (Her+) and triple-negative (TN) bc subtypes and the age subcategories 70-74, 75-79, ≥80 years. Based on univariate Cox-regression-analyses distant-disease-free-survival (DDFS) differed significantly for bc subtypes (p = 0.0002), notably for Her+ vs. LA (p = 0.0014), TN vs. LA (p < 0.001), and TN vs. LB (p = 0.0086). Not age, but Her+ and TN represented prognostic factors for DDFS. PMID:27215407

  3. Rejuvenating immunity: "anti-aging drug today" eight years later.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2015-08-14

    The 2014 year ended with celebration: Everolimus, a rapamycin analog, was shown to improve immunity in old humans, heralding "a turning point" in research and new era in human quest for immortality. Yet, this turning point was predicted a decade ago. But what will cause human death, when aging will be abolished? PMID:25844603

  4. Injuries in Female Dancers Aged 8 to 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Context Most studies of injured dancers have been carried out on professional adult dancers; data on young, nonprofessional injured dancers are sparse. Objective To identify the types of injuries sustained by recreational dancers and to examine their association with age, joint range of motion, body structure, age at menarche, presence of anatomic anomalies, and physical burden (ie, practice hours en pointe). Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting The Israel Performing Arts Medicine Center, Tel Aviv. Patients or Other Participants A total of 569 injured female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Dependent variables were 61 types of current injuries that were later classified into 4 major categories: knee injuries, foot and ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and other injuries. Independent variables were age, joint range of motion, body size and shape, age at menarche, anatomic anomalies, and dance discipline (eg, hours of practice per week en pointe). Results At least 1 previous injury had been sustained by 42.4% of the dancers. The most common injuries involved the knee (40.4%), followed by other injuries (23.4%). The relative frequency of back injuries and tendinopathy decreased with age, whereas knee injuries increased. Types of injuries were significantly associated with ankle plantar flexion, hip external rotation, hip abduction, and knee flexion. Multinomial regression analysis revealed only 3 predictive variables (with other as baseline), all for back injury: scoliosis, age, and hip external rotation. Conclusions Joint range of motion and scoliosis may signal the potential for future injury. Young dancers (less than 10 years of age) should not be exposed to overload (especially of the back) or extensive stretching exercises. PMID:23672333

  5. Aging in Prader-Willi syndrome: twelve persons over the age of 50 years.

    PubMed

    Sinnema, Margje; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T R M; Maaskant, Marian A; Boer, Harm; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2012-06-01

    The life expectancy of persons with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) has increased in recent years. Because of the paucity of reports on older persons with PWS, the natural history, the onset, and type of age-related problems are poorly understood. Twelve persons with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of PWS aged over 50 years are described (4 deletion; 8 mUPD). Data on physical, behavioral, psychiatric, and aging characteristics were collected through semi-structured interviews with the individuals with PWS and their main carers. Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, dermatological, and orthopedic problems were common physical complaints in older people with PWS. Functioning in activities of daily living, psychological functioning, physical functions, and care dependence were substantially worse in the older age group (50+) compared to the control group (18-49 years). Seven out of eight persons with mUPD had a history of psychiatric illness. Behavioral problems were observed in the older age group. Given the combination of age-related physical morbidity, physical appearance, behavioral and psychiatric problems, and functional decline in our cohort, we hypothesize that premature aging occurs in PWS. The care for older people with PWS requires a lifespan approach that recognizes the presence, progression, and consequences of specific morbidity. Special medical surveillance of people with PWS from 40 years onwards would ensure that intervention and support is offered with respect to specific areas of decline at the earliest possible time. PMID:22585395

  6. 16 CFR 0.5 - Laws authorizing monetary claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laws authorizing monetary claims. 0.5 Section 0.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.5 Laws authorizing monetary claims. The Commission is authorized to entertain monetary...

  7. Lung cancer in patients under the age of 40 years

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarczyk, Grzegorz; Porębska, Irena; Szmygin-Milanowska, Katarzyna; Gołecki, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study In the paper clinical cases of individuals diagnosed with lung cancer below the age of 40 years have been analyzed. Material and methods The analysis included: sex, age, clinical symptoms found before and at the moment of diagnosis, character of changes visible in radiological imaging, time that passed from the first symptoms to reporting to a doctor and to establishing a diagnosis, type of diagnostic method used in establishing the final diagnosis, histopathologic type of cancer, degree of cancer progression. Results The results have been compared with a peer group who had been diagnosed 20 years earlier. Currently 7% of patients were diagnosed at the age of 25 or younger, whereas in the previous cohort patients in this age constituted 2%. The predominant pathological type was adenocarcinoma (currently 33%, previously 4%) in contrast to the earlier group in which 57% of patients had small cell lung cancer (57%). The incidence is equally distributed between both sexes, although there is an evident increase in female lung cancer cases. In the majority of patients the clinical presentation is a peripheral mass on chest X-ray. 20% of patients present pleural effusion on diagnosis. Patients reported the following complaints: breathlessness, chest pain, weight loss and fatigue. The majority of cases were diagnosed in advanced stages on the basis of a bronchoscopy acquired specimen. Time course from symptoms to diagnosis tends to be shorter than 20 years ago. PMID:23788919

  8. Self-assembled In0.5Ga0.5As quantum dots on GaP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuncheng; Simmonds, Paul J.; Lee, Minjoo Larry

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate the growth and luminescence of coherently strained In0.5Ga0.5As self-assembled quantum dots on GaP. Cross-sectional and planar-view transmission electron microscopy confirmed the dislocation-free nature of the In0.5Ga0.5As quantum dots and GaP cap layers. Intense photoluminescence from the quantum dots was measured at 80 K and was visible to the unaided eye in ambient lighting. The photoluminescence results show that emission energy can be controlled by varying the In0.5Ga0.5As deposition thickness. In combination with recent advances in the growth of GaP on Si, the In0.5Ga0.5As quantum dots demonstrated here could enable monolithic optoelectronic integration on Si.

  9. Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients Over 65 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Coric, Aida; Resic, Halima; Celik, Damir; Masnic, Fahrudin; Ajanovic, Selma; Prohic, Nejra; Beciragic, Amela; Grosa, Emir; Smajlovic, Ajdin; Mujakovic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Based on the statistics the population in Bosnia and Herzegovina is getting older. In 2013 the average life span for women was 73.6 years and 68.1 for men. The chronic hemodialysis program is mainly reserved for elderly patients with high mortality risk. The most common cause of hemodialysis mortality relates to cardiovascular diseases (60.2%), regardless of frequent innovations and improvement of hemodialysis procedures. The aim of the study: was to determine the mortality rate by age groups with comments on the presence of non-traditional predictors (anemia, hypoalbuminemia, CRP, vascular access and PTH) in dialysis patients in the follow-up period of 36 months. Methods: The study included all patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis treatment at the Clinic of Hemodialysis of the Clinical Center University of Sarajevo (CCUS). Results: Out of a total number of hemodialysis patients (n=232), the specific mortality rate in patients under 65 years of age was 16.8%, and 50.5% in patients over 65 years of age. According to the age groups the mortality rate in elderly patients is as follows: from 65 to 74 years (45.1%), from 75 to 84 years (55.0%), over ≥85 years (75.0%). The most frequent vascular access in patients under and above 65 is arteriovenous fistula (79.6% and 62.1 %), temporary hemodialysis catheter (11.7% and 43.8 %) and long-term hemodialysis catheter (8.8% and 4.2 %). In the age group under 65 years of age the temporary hemodialysis catheter is significantly and more frequently used in diseased patients in respect to survivors (34.8% vs. 7.0%) [χ2(2)=15.769, p=0.001]. Diseased patients from the age group over 65 had a significantly lower mean value of haemoglobin in blood (M=100.9±17.5 g/L) in respect to survivors (M=109.2±17.1)[t(93)=2.339; p=0.021], lower mean value of albumin in blood (Me=32.0; IQR=29.0 do 35.0) in respect to survivors (Me=34.0; IQR=32.0 to 38.0) [U=762.5; p=0.006], and higher mean value of CRP in blood (Me=19.3 mg

  10. Ni-doped La0.5Sr0.5TiO3 nanofibers: Fabrication and intrinsic ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponhan, Wichaid; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Maensiri, Santi

    2016-06-01

    We report room-temperature ferromagnetism in ∼104–133 nm nanofibers of La0.5Sr0.5Ti1‑ x Ni x O3 (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.05). As-spun nanofibers of La0.5Sr0.5Ti1‑ x Ni x O3 are fabricated by an electrospinning technique. Nanofibers of the as spun and calcined La0.5Sr0.5Ti1‑ x Ni x O3 samples are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) determination, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results of XRD analysis and TEM together with selected electron diffraction (SEAD) analysis indicate that La0.5Sr0.5Ti1‑ x Ni x O3 nanofibers have a cubic perovskite structure with no secondary phase. The as-spun samples are paramagnetic, whereas the La0.5Sr0.5Ti1‑ x Ni x O3 samples are ferromagnetic having specific magnetizations of 0.098–0.484 emu/g at 10 kOe. The XPS spectra show that there are some oxygen vacancies in the nanofibers, which its may play an important role in inducing room-temperature ferromagnetism in La0.5Sr0.5Ti1‑ x Ni x O3 nanofibers. XANES spectra show that most of the Ni ions in La0.5Sr0.5Ti1‑ x Ni x O3 nanofibers are in the Ni2+ state mixed with some Ni metal. The finding of room temperature ferromagnetism in this nanofibrous structure of the La0.5Sr0.5Ti1‑ x Ni x O3 system is of interest in research on diluted magnetic oxides.

  11. Near-infrared emitting CdTe0.5Se0.5/Cd0.5Zn0.5S quantum dots: synthesis and bright luminescence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We present how CdTe0.5Se0.5 cores can be coated with Cd0.5Zn0.5S shells at relatively low temperature (around 200°C) via facile synthesis using organic ammine ligands. The cores were firstly fabricated via a less toxic procedure using CdO, trioctylphosphine (TOP), Se, Te, and trioctylamine. The cores with small sizes (3.2-3.5 nm) revealed green and yellow photoluminescence (PL) and spherical morphologies. Hydrophobic core/shell CdTe0.5Se0.5/Cd0.5Zn0.5S quantum dots (QDs) with tunable PL between green and near-infrared (a maximum PL peak wavelength of 735 nm) were then created through a facile shell coating procedure using trioctylphosphine selenium with cadmium and zinc acetate. The QDs exhibited high PL efficiencies up to 50% because of the formation of a protective Cd0.5Zn0.5S shell on the CdTe0.5Se0.5 core, even though the PL efficiency of the cores is low (≤1%). Namely, the slow growth process of the shell plays an important role for getting high PL efficiencies. The properties of the QDs are largely determined by the properties of CdTe0.5Se0.5 cores and shells preparation conditions such as reaction temperature and time. The core/shell QDs exhibited a small size diameter. For example, the average diameter of the QDs with a PL peak wavelength of 735 nm is 6.1 nm. Small size and tunable bright PL makes the QDs utilizable as bioprobes because the size of QD-based bioprobes is considered as the major limitation for their broad applications in biological imaging. PMID:23130948

  12. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  13. Infants under 1 year of age have a significant risk of burn injury.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dai Q A; Tobin, Sean; Dickson, William A; Potokar, Tom S

    2008-09-01

    A wealth of data exists concerning paediatric burn epidemiology in general, but very little exists specifically in infants under 1 year of age, a special group in which mobility begins to develop. A retrospective study of all burn admissions of infants under 1 year old to The Welsh Centre for Burns from January 2003 to January 2006 was performed. During the 3-year period there were 104 new burns cases identified which represents 11.8% of all paediatric admissions. 63.5% (66) were treated as inpatients and 36.5% (38) treated as out-patients. Burns increased in frequency with increasing age and occurred mainly in the home. Scalds were the commonest type of burn in 65% (68) whilst the second most common was contact burns which accounted for 30% (31). The most common source of scald was from cups containing hot drinks (39%) and the most common source of contact burn was radiators/hot water pipes (30%). The mean TBSA was 2.3%, (range 0.5-38%). The frequency of burns in the under 1 year old population highlights a need for emphasis of burn prevention directed to this group. Special attention is needed to look at the specific aetiology of these burns. Starting points for prevention should address the number of burns surrounding hot drinks and bottle warming practices in the case of scalds and the dangers of household radiators and hot water pipes in the case of contact burns. PMID:18378092

  14. Association of maternal prenatal depressive symptoms with child cognition at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Tse, Alison C; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2010-05-01

    We examined the association of prenatal depressive symptoms at mid-pregnancy with child cognition at age 3 years in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study of 1030 mother-child pairs in eastern Massachusetts. We measured maternal depressive symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), a self-report measure validated for use during pregnancy. Measures of child cognition included the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and the Wide Range Achievement of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA). At mid-pregnancy, 81 mothers (7.9%) scored 13 or above on the EPDS, indicating probable depression. In the unadjusted model, children born to mothers with prenatal depressive symptoms had PPVT scores that were 3.8 points lower [95% confidence interval (CI) -7.1, -0.5]. With adjustment for sociodemographic variables, the association substantially attenuated [adjusted regression coefficient b for PPVT score = -0.7 (95% CI -3.6, 2.3)]. In both unadjusted and multivariable models, prenatal depressive symptoms were not associated with WRAVMA scores [adjusted b for total WRAVMA score = -0.5 (95% CI -3.0, 2.1)]. We found no evidence to suggest that maternal prenatal depression is independently associated with early child cognition. PMID:20415752

  15. Non-random cation distribution in hexagonal Al 0.5Ga 0.5PO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulshreshtha, S. K.; Jayakumar, O. D.; Sudarsan, V.

    2010-05-01

    Based on powder X-ray diffraction and 31P Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) investigations of mixed phosphate Al 0.5Ga 0.5PO 4, prepared by co-precipitation method followed by annealing at 900 °C for 24 h, it is shown that Al 0.5Ga 0.5PO 4 phase crystallizes in hexagonal form with lattice parameter a=0.491(2) and c=1.106(4) nm. This hexagonal phase of Al 0.5Ga 0.5PO 4 is similar to that of pure GaPO 4. The 31P MAS NMR spectrum of the mixed phosphate sample consists of five peaks with systematic variation of their chemical shift values and is arising due to existence of P structural units having varying number of the Al 3+/Ga 3+ cations as the next nearest neighbors in the solid solution. Based on the intensity analysis of the component NMR spectra of Al 0.5Ga 0.5PO 4, it is inferred that the distribution of Al 3+ and Ga 3+ cations is non-random for the hexagonal Al 0.5Ga 0.5PO 4 sample although XRD patterns showed a well-defined solid solution formation.

  16. Impact of mechanical stress on ferroelectricity in (Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Takahisa; Katayama, Kiliha; Yokouchi, Tatsuhiko; Shimizu, Takao; Oikawa, Takahiro; Sakata, Osami; Uchida, Hiroshi; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kiguchi, Takanori; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the impact of mechanical stress on their ferroelectric properties, polycrystalline (Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2 thin films were deposited on (111)Pt-coated SiO2, Si, and CaF2 substrates with thermal expansion coefficients of 0.47, 4.5, and 22 × 10-6/ °C, respectively. In-plane X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the (Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2 thin films deposited on SiO2 and Si substrates were under in-plane tensile strain and that their volume fraction of monoclinic phase decreased as this strain increased. In contrast, films deposited on CaF2 substrates were under in-plane compressive strain, and their volume fraction of monoclinic phase was the largest among the three kinds of substrates. The maximum remanent polarization of 9.3 μC/cm2 was observed for Pt/(Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2/Pt/TiO2/SiO2, while ferroelectricity was barely observable for Pt/(Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2/Pt/TiO2/SiO2/CaF2. This result suggests that the in-plane tensile strain effectively enhanced the ferroelectricity of the (Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2 thin films.

  17. Synthesis and luminescence characterization of Sr(0.5)Ca(0.5)TiO3:Sm(3+) phosphor.

    PubMed

    Vidyadharan, Viji; Remya, Mohan P; Gopi, Subhash; Thomas, Sunil; Joseph, Cyriac; Unnikrishnan, N V; Biju, P R

    2015-11-01

    The spectroscopic properties of trivalent samarium doped Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 perovskite phosphor material (Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3:xSm(3+), x=0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5) synthesized by the solid state method have been studied. The X-Ray Diffraction profile confirms the orthorhombic perovskite Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 structure of the prepared samples. The SEM study reveals the surface morphology. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were calculated for 0.5 wt% Sm(3+) doped Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3. Transition probabilities, branching ratios and radiative lifetime were evaluated by using Judd-Ofelt analysis. The emission spectra under 405 nm excitation shows five emission peaks at 564 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm, 707 nm and 776 nm corresponding to the transitions (4)G5/2→(6)Hj (j=5/2, 7/2, 9/2, 11/2 and 13/2) respectively. The higher values of branching ratio and stimulated emission cross-section for (4)G5/2→(6)H7/2 transition of Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3:0.5 wt% Sm(3+) shows its suitability in the field of visible lasers and optical fiber amplifiers. The experimental lifetimes of Sm(3+) doped samples were estimated using the decay curves corresponding to (4)G5/2→(6)H7/2 transition upon 405 nm excitation. Concentration dependence on emission intensity and experimental lifetime were also studied. From the CIE diagram we can see that as the concentration of Sm(3+) ions increases from 0.05 wt% to 1.5 wt% the CIE color co-ordinates changes from greenish yellow to yellowish orange. PMID:26057096

  18. Back pain in Polish adolescents aged 13 to 19 years.

    PubMed

    Lukaszewska, Kornelia; Lewandowski, Jacek

    2013-10-31

    BACKGROUND. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and patterns of spinal pain (SP) among Polish adolescents as well as the impact of the pain on their daily life activities. Moreover, it analysed the potential effect of extracurricular physical activity on back pain prevalence, frequency and consequent functional limitations among adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study involved 2,676 students aged 13 to 19 years enrolled from three randomly selected administrative regions of Poland. The participants completed a survey designed by the authors during their classes. RESULTS. Sixty-five per cent of respondents reported having had back pain and 48% described the episodes as recurring. The pain was most frequently located in the lumbosacral spine and most commonly occurred for the first time in adolescents between 13 and 15 years of age. The most significant pain-related functional limitation was noted for physical activity, sitting, learning and concentration and lifting objects. CONCLUSIONS. 1. The prevalence of back pain in Polish adolescents is similar to relevant figures given for adults and their peers in Western Europe. 2. Spinal pain may significantly affect performance of daily activities by adolescents. Further studies should investigate strategies of pain management in this age group in more detail. 3. Regular exercise does not prevent back pain but it may reduce the functional limitations and stimulate recovery of complete capacity. PMID:24431258

  19. Play Opportunities for School-Age Children, 6 to 14 Years of Age. Advisory Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Suggestions for the planning and design of playgrounds to meet the needs of children between 6 to 14 years of age living in medium- and high-density residential areas are offered in this document. The first and second chapters briefly focus on the child's right to play and present an overview of the developmental characteristics of children at…

  20. Age of Achievement of Gross Motor Milestones in Infancy and Adiposity at Age 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Sara E. Benjamin; Oken, Emily; Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Early life physical activity may help prevent obesity but is difficult to measure. The purpose of this study was to examine associations of age of achievement of gross motor milestones in infancy with adiposity at age 3 years. Seven forty one mother/infant dyads participated in a longitudinal study in Massachusetts. Exposures were age of attainment of 4 gross motor milestones—rolling over, sitting up, crawling, and walking. Outcomes were 3-year sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness (SS + TR) for overall adiposity, their ratio (SS:TR) for central adiposity, and body mass index (BMI) z-score. We used linear regression models adjusted for confounders to examine motor milestone achievement and later adiposity. Rolling over (0.04, 95% CI: 0.008, 0.07) and sitting up (0.02, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.05) at ≥6 months were associated with increased SS:TR compared with attainment before 6 months. Walking at ≥15 months was associated with 0.98 mm higher SS + TR (95% CI: 0.05, 1.91) compared with walking before 12 months. Age at crawling was not associated with the outcomes. None of the milestones were associated with BMI z-score. Age of motor milestone achievement was only a modest predictor of adiposity. Later rolling over and sitting up were associated with greater central adiposity, and later age at walking was associated with greater overall adiposity at age 3 years. Although we controlled for birth weight and 6-month weight-for-length in our models, more detailed assessment of early adiposity prior to achievement of motor milestones is needed to help determine causality. PMID:21643834

  1. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along (hindsight bias). Here we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the lifespan. 194 participants aged 3 to 95 years completed three tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age groups demonstrated hindsight bias on all three tasks; however, preschoolers and the elderly exhibited more bias than older children and younger adults. Multinomial processing tree analyses of these data revealed that preschoolers’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them substituting the correct answer for their original answer in their recall (a qualitative error). Conversely, older adults’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them forgetting their original answer and recalling an answer closer to, but not equal to, the correct answer (a quantitative error). We discuss these findings in relation to mechanisms of memory, perspective-taking, theory of mind, and executive function. PMID:21299327

  2. Ga0.5In0.5P Barrier Layer for Wet Oxidation of AlAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Wei-I

    2000-05-01

    We study the stability of Ga0.5In0.5P and Al0.4Ga0.6As barrier layers for wet thermal oxidation of AlAs on GaAs. Samples with a Ga0.5In0.5P or Al0.4Ga0.6As barrier layer are oxidized in a water vapor environment under various oxidation conditions. The results of photoluminescence and secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile measurements indicate that the Ga0.5In0.5P barrier layer is more stable than the Al0.4Ga0.6As layer at higher oxidation temperatures and longer periods of oxidation time.

  3. Aging in Place in a Retirement Community: 90+ Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia

    2014-01-01

    Aging in place, an image of growing old in one’s home and maintaining one’s daily routine, is desired by most older adults. To identify variables promoting such independent living in the oldest-old, we examined the association between living situation of a population-based cohort of 90+ year olds with health and lifestyle variables. Of 1485 participants, 53% still lived in their home at a retirement community designed to foster wellness. Those living at home tended to be healthier, with smaller proportions having chronic diseases or hospitalizations in the preceding year and a greater proportion having normal functional ability. Dementia was the chronic disease most significantly related to living situation. In addition to not having dementia, not using a wheelchair or bath aid, receiving meals on wheels, and being married were jointly related to living at home. With the help of family and friends and with a medical and social support system, many 90+ year olds can age in place. This is often because they have a caregiving spouse or paid caregiver. PMID:25288828

  4. [Suicide attempts in children under 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Stordeur, C; Acquaviva, E; Galdon, L; Mercier, J-C; Titomanlio, L; Delorme, R

    2015-03-01

    Suicide attempts (SA) in children are often considered rare and poorly studied. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics of SA in children under 12 years of age. A retrospective assessment was conducted in 30 consecutive SAs reported in children under 12 years of age admitted to the emergency department at the Robert-Debré University Hospital (Paris, France) from 2007 to 2010 and the Regional University Hospital (Besançon, France) from 2000 to 2008. All suicide attempters were directly assessed at the somatic and psychiatric level. Patients were 8-11 years old (mean, 10.2±0.8). The sex ratio was 0.9 boys for 1 girl. The leading SA methods were poisoning by medication (53.3%), hanging or strangulation (23.3%), jumping from a height (16.7%), poisoning by chemicals (3.3%), and lesions inflicted by sharp objects (3.3%). In addition, SAs were characterized by high lethality (43.7%) contrasting with their low to moderate suicidal intentionality (43.8% and 56.2%, respectively). In conclusion, we reported that SA in children differs from those of adolescents by their greater lethality related to the methods used, but contrasting with the low intentionality mentioned by these patients. PMID:25656458

  5. Prostate Brachytherapy in Men {>=}75 Years of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S. Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Adamovich, Edward

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged {>=}75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged {>=}75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients.

  6. Structure, phase evolution, and microwave dielectric properties of (Ag0.5Bi0.5)(Mo0.5W0.5)O4 ceramic with ultralow sintering temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Di; Li, Wen-Bo; Guo, Jing; Pang, Li-Xia; Qi, Ze-Ming; Shao, Tao; Xie, Hui-Dong; Yue, Zhen-Xing; Yao, Xi

    2014-06-01

    In the present work, the microwave dielectric ceramic (Ag0.5Bi0.5)(Mo0.5W0.5)O4 was prepared by using the solid-state reaction method. (Ag0.5Bi0.5)(Mo0.5W0.5)O4 was found to crystallize in the scheelite structure, in which Ag(+) and Bi(3+) occupy the A site randomly with 8-coordination while Mo(6+) and W(6+) occupy the B site with 4-coordination, at a sintering temperature above 500 °C, with lattice parameters a = b = 5.29469(2) Å and c = 11.62114(0) Å, space group I4(1)/a (No. 88), and acceptable Rp = 9.38, Rwp = 11.2, and Rexp = 5.86. High-performance microwave dielectric properties, with permittivity ∼26.3, Qf value ∼10,000 GHz, and temperature coefficient ∼+20 ppm/°C, were obtained in the sample sintered at 580 °C. Its chemical compatibility with aluminum at its sintering temperature was revealed and confirmed by both X-ray and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis. This ceramic could be a good candidate for ultralow-temperature cofired ceramics. PMID:24848200

  7. 16 CFR 0.5 - Laws authorizing monetary claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws authorizing monetary claims. 0.5... ORGANIZATION § 0.5 Laws authorizing monetary claims. The Commission is authorized to entertain monetary claims..., unless the adjudicative officer finds that the party has committed a willful violation of law...

  8. Thermochromic effect at room temperature of Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boileau, A.; Capon, F.; Barrat, S.; Laffez, P.; Pierson, J. F.

    2012-06-01

    Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3 thermochromic thin films were synthesized using dc reactive magnetron co-sputtering and subsequent annealing in air. The film structure was studied by x-ray diffraction analysis. To validate the thermochromic potentiality of Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3, electrical resistivity and infrared transmittance spectra were recorded for temperatures ranging from 77 K to 420 K. The temperature dependence of the optical band gap was estimated in the near infrared range. Upon heating, the optical transmission decreases in the infrared domain showing a thermochromic effect over a wide wavelength range at room temperature.

  9. Treating feverish illness in children aged under five years.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Penny

    2014-12-01

    Fever is the most likely reason for a child to be taken to the doctor and, occasionally, the signs may indicate the start of serious illness. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has issued a quality standard for the care of feverish illness in children aged under five years, designed to ensure that no such cases are missed. Carers, usually parents, should be offered written and verbal advice if it is judged that they can safely take the child home and are happy to do so. The traffic light system is designed to assist assessment of the child on presentation and throughout the illness journey. PMID:25487400

  10. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Structural evaluations were conducted on several parachute systems to determine the effects of aging on parachute materials. Most of the parachutes were 25 years old. Five 64 ft parachutes were evaluated along with one 4 ft guide surface parachute and three 16.5 ft ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Results were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. The results indicate that over a period of about 25 years, parachute nylon materials do not degrade to unacceptable levels. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. [Myocardial infarction in patients aged 70 years and over].

    PubMed

    Dutoit, A; Mahieu, G; Petit, A; Cabaret, P; Jacquemart, T; Rihani, R; Graux, P; Cornaert, P; Croccel, L

    1990-09-01

    109 subjects aged 70 years (58 women, 51 men; average age 77 years) were hospitalized in the CICU (Cardiology Intensive Care Unit) over the period stretching from 1984 to 1986. The average length of stay in the CICU was 1 week, completed by an average stay of 5 days in the cardiology department. 100 per cent of the patients were followed up. Of the clinical parameters made evident by this study, the authors note that hypertension was the predominant risk factor (52.2 per cent); a history of coronary disease was noted in 60.5 per cent; 26.6 per cent of the patients were hospitalized before the 6th hour, chest pain being typical in 78 per cent versus painless in 11 per cent of patients; topographically, the infarction was anterior in 55 per cent, posterior in 40.4 per cent, and around the circumference in 4.6 per cent of cases; 80.8 per cent of the infarctions were transmural versus 19.2 per cent of infarctions without the Q wave--the latter accounted for a higher hospital mortality rate (38 per cent versus 27.3 per cent). The main complications were disturbances in rhythm (60.6 per cent) and LVI (56.9 per cent). Complications on the form of infections were noted in 15.6 per cent. Apart from the usual indicators of severity (cardiogenic shock, VF, LVI), infarction of the RV and AF had a serious effect on the prognosis. latrogenic disease accounted for 18.9 per cent. From the point of view of prognosis, hospital mortality was 30 per cent; mortality after one year was 44 per cent and 47.7 per cent after 2 years (in a group of 76 subjects).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2264704

  12. Fully gapped superconductivity in In-doped topological crystalline insulator Pb0.5Sn0.5Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guan; Du, Zengyi; Fang, Delong; Yang, Huan; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J.; Gu, G. D.; Wen, Hai-Hu

    2015-07-01

    Superconductors derived from topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators by chemical doping have long been considered to be candidates as topological superconductors. Pb0.5Sn0.5Te is a topological crystalline insulator with mirror symmetry protected surface states on (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented surfaces. The superconductor (Pb0.5Sn0.5 )0.7In0.3Te is produced by In doping in Pb0.5Sn0.5Te , and is thought to be a topological superconductor. Here we report scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the superconducting state as well as the superconducting energy gap in (Pb0.5Sn0.5 )0.7In0.3Te on a (001)-oriented surface. The spectrum can be well fitted by an anisotropic s -wave gap function of Δ (θ )=0.72 +0.18 cos4 θ meV using Dynes model. The results show that the superconductor seems to be a fully gapped one without any in-gap states, in contradiction with the expectation of a topological superconductor.

  13. Fabrication and properties of Mn 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiailing; Wang, Wenting

    2010-08-01

    Zn-doped α-FeOOH nanofiber was synthesized by coprecipitation method. Then the α-FeOOH was enwraped by the complex of the Mn 2+ and citric acid. The morphology of α-FeOOH did not transform after the calcination process and Mn 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanofiber was successfully prepared. The phase, morphology, particle diameter and the magnetic properties of samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results indicated that Mn 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanofibers with an aspect ratio over 40 and a diameter of 20 nm were prepared. Compared with the amorphous Mn 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4, the anisotropy of the Mn 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanofiber increased, resulting in the higher coercivity and magnetization of the obtained sample. With an increase in the calcination temperature, the diameter and the saturation magnetization of the sample increased, while the aspect ratio and coercivity decreased. The coercivity of the sample obtained at 700 °C was maximal (up to 185.4 Oe). The saturation magnetization of the sample obtained at 900 °C was maximal (up to 65.3 emu/g). The use of citric acid method prevented the presence of Mn(OH) 2, resulting in the decrease of the calcination temperature.

  14. Preparation and Thermoelectric Properties of the Skutterudite-Related Phase Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, T.; Kulleck, J.; Borshchevsky, A.; Fleurial, J.-P.

    1996-01-01

    A new skutterudite phase Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3 was prepared. This new phase adds to a large number of already known materials with the skutterudite structure which have shown good potential for thermoelectric applications. Single phase, polycrystalline samples were prepared and characterized by x-ray analysis, electron probe microanalysis, density, sound velocity, thermal-expansion coefficient, and differential thermal analysis measurements. Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3 has a cubic lattice, space group Im3 (T(sup 5, sub h)), with a = 9.298 A and decomposes at about 920 K. The Seebeck coefficient, the electrical resistivity, the Hall effect, and the thermal conductivity were measured on hot-pressed samples over a wide range of temperatures. Preliminary results show that Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3 behaves as a heavily doped semiconductor with an estimated band gap of about 0.6 eV. The lattice thermal conductivity of Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3 is substantially lower than that of the binary isostructural compounds CoSb3 and IrSb3. The unusually low thermal conductivity might be explained by additional hole and charge transfer phonon scattering in this material. The potential of this material for thermoelectric applications is discussed.

  15. Fully gapped superconductivity in In-doped topological crystalline insulator Pb0.5Sn0.5Te

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Du, Guan; Gu, G. D.; Du, Zengyi; Fang, Delong; Yang, Huan; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J.; Wen, Hai -Hu

    2015-07-27

    In this study, superconductors derived from topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators by chemical doping have long been considered to be candidates as topological superconductors. Pb0.5Sn0.5Te is a topological crystalline insulator with mirror symmetry protected surface states on (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented surfaces. The superconductor (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te is produced by In doping in Pb0.5Sn0.5Te, and is thought to be a topological superconductor. Here we report scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the superconducting state as well as the superconducting energy gap in (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te on a (001)-oriented surface. The spectrum can be well fitted by an anisotropic s-wave gap function of Δ =more » 0.72 + 0.18cos4θ meV using Dynes model. The results show that the superconductor seems to be a fully gapped one without any in-gap states, in contradiction with the expectation of a topological superconductor.« less

  16. Choline intake during pregnancy and child cognition at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Boeke, Caroline E; Gillman, Matthew W; Hughes, Michael D; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-06-15

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999-2002 to 2008-2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  17. Choline Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Hughes, Michael D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999–2002 to 2008–2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  18. Structure and dielectric dispersion in cubic-like 0.5K0.5Na0.5NbO3-0.5Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Laijun; Knapp, Michael; Schmitt, Ljubomira Ana; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Fang, Liang; Fuess, Hartmut; Hoelzel, Markus; Hinterstein, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    The nature of the cubic-like state in the lead-free piezoelectric ceramics 0.5K0.5Na0.5NbO3-0.5Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (KNN-50BNT) has been examined in detail by synchrotron x-ray diffraction (SD), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), neutron diffraction (ND), and temperature-dependent dielectric characterization. The SD pattern of KNN-50BNT presents a pure perovskite structure with pseudocubic symmetry. However, superlattice reflections were observed by SAED and completely indexed by tetragonal symmetry with P4bm space group in ND pattern. The relaxor behavior of KNN-50BNT is compared with Pb-based and Ba-based relaxors and discussed in the framework of the Vogel-Fulcher law and the new glass model. The KNN-50BNT ceramic exhibits the strongest dielectric dispersion among them.

  19. Phase formation, structure and dielectric properties of ceramics (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleva, G. M.; Mosunov, A. V.; Sadovskaya, N. V.; Politova, E. D.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.

    2016-04-01

    Influence of BiFeO3 (BF) on phase formation, unit cell parameters, microstructure, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of solid solutions close to the morphotropic phase boundary in the (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 system additionally modified by the low-melting KCl additives has been studied. The formation of pure perovskite structure samples decrease in the unit cell parameters and increase in the TC value stimulated by the BF addition have been revealed. It was proved that modification of compositions by small amounts of the BF and KCl additives leads to improvement of dielectric parameters.

  20. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control. PMID:27294182

  1. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The results of structural evaluations on several parachute systems were examined to determine if any trends could be found that would indicate significant aging in the materials. All of the parachutes were more than 20 years old. Five 64 ft diameter parachutes were evaluated along with three 16.5 ft diameter ribbon parachutes and one 4 ft diameter guide surface parachute. Another group included six 48 ft diameter ribbon parachutes, two 4 ft diameter guide surface parachutes, and two 16.5 ft diameter extraction ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Data were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. Generally speaking, after 25 years the material properties of the 64 ft parachutes were within specifications. The same generalization cannot be made for the 48 ft parachutes which were about 23 years old. The explanation for their differences may lie in their respective histories. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Proton conduction and chemical stability of (La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5})(Mg{sub 0.5+y}Nb{sub 0.5-y})O{sub 3-{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Yuya; Okada, Sachio; Ito, Naoki; Matsumoto, Hiroshige Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2009-02-04

    Electrical conduction properties of complex perovskite-type oxides in the (La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5})(Mg{sub 0.5+y}Nb{sub 0.5-y})O{sub 3-{delta}} (y = 0.02-0.06) series at intermediate-high temperatures were investigated; introduction of protons by hydration of oxide-ion vacancies was expected by increasing the Mg/Nb ratio from unity. The conductivity depended on y and a maximum conductivity was obtained at y = 0.04: {sigma} = 4.9 x 10{sup -6} S cm{sup -1} at 400 deg. C in wet H{sub 2} atmospheres. From electromotive force measurements of hydrogen and water vapor concentration cells, electrical conduction in wet H{sub 2} atmospheres can be attributed to ionic conduction, and proton conduction is dominant below 700 deg. C. Unlike other perovskite-type proton conductors, (La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5})(Mg{sub 0.54}Nb{sub 0.46})O{sub 3-{delta}} was stable in CO{sub 2} atmospheres even in the low-intermediate temperature region due to dilution of reactive strontium by lanthanum.

  3. Enhanced electrostricitive properties and thermal endurance of textured (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3-(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jigong; Ye, Chenggen; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei

    2013-08-01

    Textured 0.92(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3-0.02(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (BNT-BT-KNN) ceramics have been produced by tape casting with pure-phase (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 templates. Through the approach of texture construction, enhanced electrostrictive response was obtained with an electrostrictive coefficient Q33 (˜0.024 m4/C2 at 60 kV/cm) and good thermostability comparable with that of traditional Pb-based electrostrictors. Even at an electric-field as low as 35 kV/cm or at a temperature as high as 180 °C, samples still possess a large electrostrictive response with Q33 > 0.022 m4/C2, suggesting it is very promising for practical applications as a lead-free electrostrictive material owning to its wide usage range. Moreover, reducing the applied electric-filed or increasing temperature can both induce the predominant to pure electrostriction transition due to the little contributions of electrostriction strain from ferroelectric domain switching. Our work may provide a new recipe for designing high-performance BNT-based lead-free electrostrictive materials by means of texture construction.

  4. First-principles studies on Ti 3Si 0.5Ge 0.5C 2 under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wenxia; Hu, Haiquan; Cui, Shouxin; Zhang, Guiqing; Lv, Zengtao; Wu, Cheng

    2011-11-01

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of Ti 3Si 0.5Ge 0.5C 2 have been investigated by using the pseudopotential plane-wave method within the density-functional theory. Our calculated equation of state (EOS) is consistent with the experimental results. The density of states (DOS) indicates that Ti 3Si xGe 1- xC 2 ( x=0, 0.5, 1.0) are metallic, and these compounds have nearly the same electrical conductivity. The elastic constants for Ti 3Si 0.5Ge 0.5C 2 are obtained at zero pressure, which is compared to Ti 3SiC 2 and Ti 3GeC 2. We can conclude that Ti 3Si 0.5Ge 0.5C 2 is brittle in nature by analyzing the ratio between bulk and shear moduli. There appears to be little effect on the electronic and elastic properties with the Ge substitution to Si atoms in Ti 3SiC 2.

  5. Lead Exposure, B Vitamins, and Plasma Homocysteine in Men 55 Years of Age and Older: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Linda Huiling; Hu, Howard; Weuve, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead (Pb) exposure may influence the plasma concentration of homocysteine, a one-carbon metabolite associated with cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the associations between Pb and homocysteine over time, or the potential influence of dietary factors. Objectives: We examined the longitudinal association of recent and cumulative Pb exposure with homocysteine concentrations and the potential modifying effect of dietary nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism. Methods: In a subcohort of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Normative Aging Study (1,056 men with 2,301 total observations between 1993 and 2011), we used mixed-effects models to estimate differences in repeated measures of total plasma homocysteine across concentrations of Pb in blood and tibia bone, assessing recent and cumulative Pb exposure, respectively. We also assessed effect modification by dietary intake and plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Results: An interquartile range (IQR) increment in blood Pb (3 μg/dL) was associated with a 6.3% higher homocysteine concentration (95% CI: 4.8, 7.8%). An IQR increment in tibia bone Pb (14 μg/g) was associated with a 3.7% higher homocysteine (95% CI: 1.6, 5.6%), which was attenuated to 1.5% (95% CI: –0.5, 3.6%) after adjusting for blood Pb. For comparison, a 5-year increase in time from baseline was associated with a 5.7% increase in homocysteine (95% CI: 4.3, 7.1%). The association between blood Pb and homocysteine was significantly stronger among participants with estimated dietary intakes of vitamin B6 and folate below (vs. above) the study population medians, which were similar to the U.S. recommended dietary allowance intakes. Conclusions: Pb exposure was positively associated with plasma homocysteine concentration. This association was stronger among men with below-median dietary intakes of vitamins B6 and folate. These findings suggest that increasing intake of folate and B6 might

  6. Reversible contraception for the woman over 35 years of age.

    PubMed

    Archer, D F

    1992-12-01

    Methods of reversible contraception, oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, and Norplant (systemic progestin-only contraceptive; Wyeth-Ayerst, Radnor, PA), can be used for women over 35 years of age. Oral contraceptive formulations are safe and effective for healthy women up to the age of menopause. Oral contraceptives in women who do not smoke cigarettes do not result in a significant increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The incidence of breast cancer is not increased in women who have used oral contraceptives. A slight increase was found in younger women who had been on oral contraceptives based on a reanalysis of the contraceptive and steroid hormone study of the Centers for Disease Control. A reduction in the incidence of ovarian epithelial neoplasia by 40% was found in three European case-control studies. Two intrauterine devices are currently available on the US market: Paragard (GynoPharma, Somerville, NJ) and Progestasert (Alza Corp., Palo Alto, CA). Both of these provide highly effective contraception. A World Health Organization prospective randomized study found that there was an increase in pelvic inflammatory disease rates in the first 20 days after intrauterine device insertion. The intrauterine device itself did not increase the pelvic inflammatory disease incidence rates. The Norplant system exerts its contraceptive action through ovulation inhibition and alteration of cervical mucus. The major consumer complaint is irregular or prolonged uterine bleeding, which can be controlled by oral estrogen. PMID:1450355

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Elderly Patients Aged over 80 Years.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Laurent; Cazaubon, Yoann; Debeurme, Guillaume; Loue, Constance; Ducher, Michel; Goutelle, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Since the 1950s, vancomycin has remained a reference treatment for severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Vancomycin is a nephrotoxic and ototoxic drug mainly eliminated through the kidneys. It has a large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which justifies monitoring its plasma concentrations in patients. This is especially important in patients aged over 80 years, who frequently have renal impairment. However, the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in this population is very poorly described in the literature. The objective of this work was to propose a model able to predict the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in very elderly people. First, a population pharmacokinetic model was carried out using the algorithm NPAG (nonparametric adaptive grid) on a database of 70 hospitalized patients aged over 80 years and treated with vancomycin. An external validation then was performed on 41 patients, and the predictive capabilities of the model were assessed. The model had two compartments and six parameters. Body weight and creatinine clearance significantly influenced vancomycin volume of distribution and body clearance, respectively. The means (± standard deviations) of vancomycin volume of distribution and clearance were 36.3 ± 15.2 liter and 2.0 ± 0.9 liter/h, respectively. In the validation group, the bias and precision were -0.75 mg/liter and 8.76 mg/liter for population predictions and -0.39 mg/liter and 2.68 mg/liter for individual predictions. In conclusion, a pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin in a very elderly population has been created and validated for predicting plasma concentrations of vancomycin. PMID:27185796

  8. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  9. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  10. Enhanced susceptibility in LNiO3 perovskites ( L = La,Pr,Nd,Nd0.5Sm0. 5)

    PubMed

    Zhou; Goodenough; Dabrowski; Klamut; Bukowski

    2000-01-17

    The temperature dependence of the resistivity rho(T) and of the dc magnetic susceptibility chi(T) were measured on high-quality LNiO3 (L = La,Pr,Nd,Nd0.5Sm0.5) samples synthesized under high oxygen pressure. Subtraction of the rare-earth contribution to chi(T) allows the presentation of the evolution of the susceptibility of the NiO3 array from Pauli to Curie-Weiss paramagnetism with decreasing bandwidth. A metal-insulator transition occurring at a temperature T(t) = T(N) is first order for L = Pr and Nd; it becomes second order and produces no anomaly in chi(-1)(T) at a T(t)>T(N) for L = Nd0.5Sm0.5. In the antiferromagnetic domain T

  11. Highly Textured Superconducting FeSe0.5Te0.5 Thin Films on Glass Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Tsai, Chen-Fong; Lee, Joon Hwan; Zhang, Xinghang; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-02-01

    Superconducting FeSe0.5Te0.5 thin films are deposited on amorphous substrates, i.e., glass substrates by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Microstructural characterizations show that the films are highly textured along (00l) with good crystallinity. The superconducting critical transition temperature (Tc) ranges from ˜8 to ˜10 K. The self-field critical current density (Jcsf) at 4 K is ˜1.2×104 A/cm2. The in-field critical current density (Jcinfield) decreases slowly under high magnetic field confirmed by both transport and magnetization measurements. The growth of high quality superconducting FeSe0.5Te0.5 thin films on amorphous substrates demonstrates a low cost architecture for future Fe-based superconductor coated conductors.

  12. Superconductivity induced by In substitution into the topological crystalline insulator Pb0.5Sn0.5Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J. A.; Liu, T. S.; Camino, F. E.; Tranquada, J. M.; Gu, G. D.

    2014-07-01

    Indium substitution turns the topological crystalline insulator (TCI) Pb0.5Sn0.5Te into a possible topological superconductor. To investigate the effect of the indium concentration on the crystal structure and superconducting properties of (Pb0.5Sn0.5)1-xInxTe, we have grown high-quality single crystals using a modified floating-zone method and have performed systematic studies for indium content in the range 0≤x≤0.35. We find that the single crystals retain the rocksalt structure up to the solubility limit of indium (x ˜0.30). Experimental dependencies of the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) and the upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) on the indium content x have been measured. The maximum Tc is determined to be 4.7 K at x =0.30, with μ0Hc2(T =0)≈5 T.

  13. Strong red emission in Pr doped (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Haiqin; Peng, Dengfeng; Wang, Xusheng; Tang, Mianmian; Zhang, Qiwei; Yao, Xi

    2011-07-01

    The photoluminescence of Pr doped (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ferroelectric ceramics prepared by conventional solid-state reaction were investigated. A bright red emission is observed at room temperature, which ascribed to 1D2→3H4 transition. The excitation bands are mainly located at 440 ˜ 505 nm, which is adaptable to the emission band of commercial blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) chips. The optimal emission intensity was also obtained when Pr doping level was 0.003 mol. Meanwhile, the enhanced ferroelectric properties were obtained by Pr doping. The results show that Pr doped (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ceramics as a multifunctional material may be useful for white LEDs, sensor, and optical-electro integration.

  14. Photocarrier dynamics in transition metal dichalcogenide alloy Mo0.5W0.5S2.

    PubMed

    He, Jiaqi; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Hui

    2015-12-28

    We report a transient absorption study of photocarrier dynamics in transition metal dichalcogenide alloy, Mo0.5W0.5S2. Photocarriers were injected by a 400-nm pump pulse and detected by a 660-nm probe pulse. We observed a fast energy relaxation process of about 0.7 ps. The photocarrier lifetime is in the range of 50 - 100 ps, which weakly depends on the injected photocarrier density and is a few times shorter than MoS2 and WS2, reflecting the relatively lower crystalline quality of the alloy. Saturable absorption was also observed in Mo0.5W0.5S2, with a saturation energy fluence of 32 μJ cm(-2). These results provide important parameters on photocarrier properties of transition metal dichalcogenide alloys. PMID:26832001

  15. Juvenile mycosis fungoides diagnosed before 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ben-Amitai, Dan; Michael, David; Feinmesser, Meora; Hodak, Emmilia

    2003-01-01

    The literature regarding mycosis fungoides in children is sparse. To shed further light on the characteristics of mycosis fungoides in the paediatric population we analysed the clinicopathological features of 10 patients in whom this malignancy was diagnosed before the age of 18 years. All were Jews and Arabs with histologically proven patch/early plaque stage disease: 4 in stage IA, 4 in IB and 2 with unilesional disease. Seven patients had hypopigmented lesions either constituting the sole manifestation (2 patients) or in combination with classic lesions (5 patients); of these, 3 had light skin and 4 pigmented skin. Most patients had immunohistochemical features characteristic of mycosis fungoides, with a predominance of CD4+ T cells. Some had deletion of CD7+ cells. In 3 patients, however, the epidermotropic cells were exclusively or predominantly CD8+ cells. All patients responded to conventional therapy and during an average follow-up of 3.4 years only one patient showed stage progression, but without extracutaneous involvement. It is concluded that juvenile mycosis fungoides is characterized by early stage disease, occasionally with unilesional disease, usually with hypopigmented lesions irrespective of skin colour, and a good response to therapy. On the basis of our experience and review of the literature, it appears that the CD8+ phenotype is over-represented in juvenile disease. PMID:14690342

  16. Structural and Dielectric Studies on Pb(Mg0.5Mo0.5)O3 Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbur, I.; Ardelean, I.; Borodi, G.; Ciomos, D.

    Structural and dielectric measurements were performed on Pb(Mg0.5Mo0.5)O3 (PMM). Polycrystalline samples of PMM were synthesized by solid-state reaction technique at normal pressure. The X-ray measurements indicate formation of single-phase perovskite structure with absence of Mg and Mo ions ordering. The temperature dependence of the relative dielectric constant suggests that PMM undergoes a phase transition (FE or AFE) at 63°C.

  17. Interrelation between Structure Magnetic Properties in La0.5Sr0.5CoO3

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, Michael D; Takamura, Y; Mehta, A; Gai, Zheng; Kalinin, Sergei; Ambaye, Hailemariam; Lauter, Valeria; He, Jun; Kim, Young Min; Borisevich, Albina Y; Siemons, Wolter; Christen, Hans M

    2014-01-01

    Differing anisotropic strain induced from the underlying substrates not only control the long-range structural symmetries in La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 but also impact the magnetic properties of these epitaxial thin films. The two dominant structural distortions: oxygen octahedral tilts and epitaxial strain, however, have complex and non-intuitive effects on the splitting of the t2g states and consequently on magnetization.

  18. Solid state synthesis and characterization of bulk FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onar, K.; Yakinci, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    FeTe0.5Se0.5 polycrystalline superconductor samples were synthesized by solid- state reaction method at different heating temperatures. The morphological and structural characterization of FeTe0 5Se0.5 samples were carried out by X-rays Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The electrical, magnetic and thermal transport properties were investigated up to 8 T by using physical property measurement system. The results reveal that the sensitivity of electrical and magnetic properties strongly depends on the heat treatment cycles. The upper critical field, Hc2(0), was determined with the magnetic field parallel to the sample surface. It gives a maximum value of 36.3 T. The lower critical field, Hc1(T), was obtained as 210, 140 and 70 Oe at 5, 8 and 12 K, respectively. The coherence length, ξ, at the zero field, was calculated to be 1.94 nm and suggested a transparent intergrain boundaries peculiarity. The μ0Hc2(0)/kBTc rate shows higher value (3.36 T/K) than the Pauli limit (1.84 T/K) which suggests unconventional nature of superconductivity for the polycrystalline FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconducting samples.

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Magnetic Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jun; Shen, Xiang-Qian; Song, Fu-Zhan; Meng, Xian-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Magnetic nanofibers were fabricated by calcining electrospun polymer/inorganic composite nanofibers and characterized by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a vibrating sample magnetometer. The experimental results show that the pure spinel structure is basically formed when the composite nanofibers are calcined at 450°C for 2h. With the increasing calcination temperature, both the saturation magnetization and coercivity of nanofiber samples increase initially along with the growth of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanocrystals contained in the nanofibers. However, when the calcination temperature reaches 550°C, the saturation magnetization of nanofibers starts to dramatically decrease owing to the formation of the α-Fe2O3 phase at this temperature. The prepared Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibers calcined at 500°C for 2h have diameters ranging from 100 to 200nm. Their saturation magnetization and coercivity are 12.37 emu/g and 4.81 kA/m at room temperature, respectively.

  20. In0.5Ga0.5As self-assembled quantum dots on GaP/Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuncheng

    This thesis focuses on demonstrating monolithic integration of III-V optoelectronic devices with Si by means of GaP on Si templates. Though high-quality epitaxial GaP on Si has been developed, GaP itself is not useful for most photonic applications due to its indirect bandgap. Historically, deep level impurities have allowed the realization of GaP light emitting diodes (LEDs), but these devices had low efficiency and the gain was insufficient for laser action. The lattice matched dilute nitride material Ga(NAsP) is an option for direct bandgap material on GaP, but N-related point defects make the material challenging to grow. InxGa1--xAs self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs) grown on GaP offer another path to integration of direct-bandgap III-V material onto Si. The use of InxGa 1--xAs allows access to a wide range of bulk bandgaps (1.42-0.36 eV for x=0-1) and the potential for great flexibility in emission wavelength from visible to near-infrared. While chip-to-chip optical communication remains a goal, a range of sensing applications could also benefit from the direction integration of Si electronics with light sources. Sample growth was carried out by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using conditions similar to those used for the well-known case of InAs/GaAs SAQDs. SAQD formation was through Stranski--Krastanov (S-K) growth mode, as evidenced by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cross-sectional transmission microscopy (XTEM) with several two-beam conditions confirmed that both the SAQDs and the GaP cap layer were free of dislocations. Intense photoluminescence was visible from the quantum dots at both 80 K and room temperature to the unaided eye in ambient lighting. The photoluminescence results also showed that emission energy can be controlled by varying the In0.5Ga0.5As deposition thickness. The commercial availability of high-quality GaP/Si templates enabled research on In0.5Ga0.5As

  1. Acute promyelocytic leukemia in patients aged >70 years: the cure beyond the age.

    PubMed

    Finsinger, Paola; Breccia, Massimo; Minotti, Clara; Carmosino, Ida; Girmenia, Corrado; Chisini, Marta; Volpicelli, Paola; Vozella, Federico; Romano, Angela; Montagna, Chiara; Colafigli, Gioia; Cimino, Giuseppe; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Petti, Maria Concetta; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Foà, Roberto; Latagliata, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has made acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) a very curable disease also in patients aged >60 years; however, there are only few case reports in very elderly APL patients. To address this issue, we reviewed treatment results in 13 patients aged >70 years with newly diagnosed APL followed at our institution from January 1991 to December 2008. According to Sanz score, seven patients were at low risk, five at intermediate risk, and one at high risk. Induction therapy consisted of ATRA + idarubicin in nine patients (3/9 with reduced idarubicin dosage) and ATRA alone in four patients; in this latter group, however, 2/4 needed to add chemotherapy (CHT) due to hyperleukocytosis during ATRA treatment. All patients achieved both morphological and molecular complete remission (CR) after a median time of 51 [interquartile range (IR) 43-55] and 114 (IR 74-155) days, respectively. Infective complications were observed in 10/13 patients, APL differentiation syndrome in 3/13 patients. Twelve patients received consolidation therapy, followed by maintenance treatment in nine patients. Five patients relapsed after 7, 8, 11, 35, and 56 months. At present, seven patients are still alive, five died due to disease progression (four) or senectus while in CR (one), and one was lost to follow-up while in CR. The 5-year event-free survival was 56.1 % (95 % CI, 26.0-86.2); the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 64.5 % (95 % CI, 35.6-93.4). ATRA-based treatment of APL is safe and effective also in very elderly patients, with long-lasting disease-free OS. PMID:25186786

  2. Dielectric relaxation and magnetodielectric response in DyMn0.5Cr0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, B.; Yang, J.; Zuo, X. Z.; Kan, X. C.; Zu, L.; Zhu, X. B.; Dai, J. M.; Song, W. H.; Sun, Y. P.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the structural, magnetic, and magnetodielectric properties of DyMn0.5Cr0.5O3. The sample can be indexed with an orthorhombic phase with B site disordered space group Pbnm. The valence state of both Mn and Cr ions are suggested to be +3 based on the results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Two thermally excited dielectric relaxation at temperatures TN2 < T< 300 K and large magnetodielectric effect (MDC = 20%-30%) due to the disordered arrangement of Mn3+/Cr3+ ions associated with electron hopping between them are observed. The absence of any noticeable magnetoresistance effect (MR < 0.5%) demonstrates that the observed magnetodielectric effect is an intrinsic behavior. These results suggest that DyMn0.5Cr0.5O3 is a magnetodielectric compound, whose dielectric properties are dependence of the applied magnetic field, which exhibits such effects near room temperature and holds great promise for future device applications.

  3. Charge-ordered ferromagnetic phase in La(0.5)Ca(0.5)MnO3.

    PubMed

    Loudon, James C; Mathur, Neil D; Midgley, Paul A

    Mixed-valent manganites are noted for their unusual magnetic, electronic and structural phase transitions. For example, the La(1-x)Ca(x)MnO(3) phase diagram shows that below transition temperatures in the range 100-260 K, compounds with 0.2 < x < 0.5 are ferromagnetic and metallic, whereas those with 0.5 < x < 0.9 are antiferromagnetic and charge ordered. In a narrow region around x = 0.5, these totally dissimilar ground states are thought to coexist. It has been shown that charge order and charge disorder can coexist in the related compound, La(0.25)Pr(0.375)Ca(0.375)MnO(3). Here we present electron microscopy data for La(0.5)Ca(0.5)MnO(3) that shed light on the distribution of these coexisting phases, and uncover an additional, unexpected phase. Using electron holography and Fresnel imaging, we find micrometre-sized ferromagnetic regions spanning several grains coexisting with similar-sized regions with no local magnetization. Holography shows that the ferromagnetic regions have a local magnetization of 3.4 +/- 0.2 Bohr magnetons per Mn atom (the spin-aligned value is 3.5 micro (B) per Mn). We use electron diffraction and dark-field imaging to show that charge order exists in regions with no net magnetization and, surprisingly, can also occur in ferromagnetic regions. PMID:12490944

  4. Charge-ordered ferromagnetic phase in La0.5Ca0.5MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudon, James C.; Mathur, Neil D.; Midgley, Paul A.

    2002-12-01

    Mixed-valent manganites are noted for their unusual magnetic, electronic and structural phase transitions. For example, the La1-xCaxMnO3 phase diagram shows that below transition temperatures in the range 100-260K, compounds with 0.2 < x < 0.5 are ferromagnetic and metallic, whereas those with 0.5 < x < 0.9 are antiferromagnetic and charge ordered. In a narrow region around x = 0.5, these totally dissimilar ground states are thought to coexist. It has been shown that charge order and charge disorder can coexist in the related compound, La0.25Pr0.375Ca0.375MnO3. Here we present electron microscopy data for La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 that shed light on the distribution of these coexisting phases, and uncover an additional, unexpected phase. Using electron holography and Fresnel imaging, we find micrometre-sized ferromagnetic regions spanning several grains coexisting with similar-sized regions with no local magnetization. Holography shows that the ferromagnetic regions have a local magnetization of 3.4 +/- 0.2Bohr magnetons per Mn atom (the spin-aligned value is 3.5µB per Mn). We use electron diffraction and dark-field imaging to show that charge order exists in regions with no net magnetization and, surprisingly, can also occur in ferromagnetic regions.

  5. Magnetocaloric and phase coexistence in La0.5Ca0.5-xSrxMnO3 manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khondabi, M.; Ahmadvand, H.; Kameli, P.; Amirzadeh, P.; Salamati, H.; Dasgupta, P.; Poddar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of the phase separated La0.5Ca0.5-xSrxMnO3 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5) manganites have been studied. The results show that the phase coexistence state can be investigated by magnetocaloric studies (especially the field dependence of magnetic entropy change at constant temperature). Magnetic entropy change (△SM) shows positive (negative) peak at the vicinity of TN (TC). However, in the intermediate temperatures between TN and TC, both the sign and magnitude of △SM are strongly dependent on temperature and magnetic field, manifesting the competition of ferromagnetic (FM) (negative △SM) and non-FM (positive △SM) phases. This behavior is more pronounced in the parent compound, La0.5Ca0.5MnO3, in which the intermediate phase separation ranges between 160 and 225 K. The substitution of Ca by Sr enhances the ferromagnetic state, weakens the phase separation, and thus narrows the temperature range in which the field related effects (such as the sign change of △SM) are observed.

  6. [Empathy in children aged 10 to 12 years].

    PubMed

    Garaigordobil, Maite; García de Galdeano, Patricia

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to determine whether there were differences in empathy according to gender; 2) to analyze the relationships between empathy and social behaviour, self-concept, emotional stability, social interaction strategies, capacity to analyze emotions, intelligence, and creativity; and 3) to identify predicting variables of empathy. The sample consisted of 139 participants aged 10 to 12 years. ANOVA results showed gender differences in empathy, with significantly higher scores in females. Pearson coefficients suggest that participants with high empathy showed many positive social behaviours (prosocial, assertive, consideration, self-control, leadership), few negative social behaviors (passive, aggressive, antisocial, withdrawal) and many assertive strategies of social interaction; that they were named as prosocial classmates; and that they had high self-concept, high capacity to analyze negative emotions, high emotional stability and many behaviors and traits of creative personality. Multiple regression analyses permitted identification of the following predicting variables of empathy: high level of prosocial behaviour, low level of aggressive behaviour and high self-concept. PMID:17296029

  7. Structural And Electrical Properties oF (La0.5-xPrxBa0.5)(Mn0.5Ti0.5)O3 Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, Nor Hayati; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohd Daud; Mahmood, Che Seman

    2010-01-01

    A single phase monoclinic new perovskite based titano-manganite (La0.5-xPrxBa0.5)(Mn0.5Ti0.5)O3 has been successfully prepared by ceramic solid-state technique at sintering temperature of 1300° C. The concentration of Pr (Praseodymium), x, in molar proportion in A site has been varied as x = 0, 0.02 and 0.2. Analysis has been carried out to determine the electrical properties of the synthesized material at frequency ranging from 5 Hz to 1 MHz; and at temperature range between 25° C to 200° C. It is found that Pr addition promoted liquid phase sintering diffusion, porosity and agglomeration formation at 1300° C. Dual relaxation is observed in unsubstituted Pr sample x = 0 and high Pr substituted sample x = 0.2. This phenomenon was a combinational contribution from a quasi dc (QDC) or low frequency dispersion (LFD), two cole-cole relaxational responses and a resistor. While low concentrated Pr substituted sampled x = 0.02 shows a combinational contribution from a quasi dc (QDC) or low frequency dispersion (LFD), single cole-cole relaxational response and a resistor at room temperature. Pr substitution at x = 0 (max 12000) and x = 0.2 (max 16000) showed high dielectric values compared to low substituted sample x = 0.02. Variation of dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) are observed for all samples at temperature ranged studied.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of (Bi{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}) (Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}) O{sub 3} ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Parida, B.N.; Das, Piyush R.; Padhee, R.; Suara, D.; Mishra, A.; Rout, J.; Choudhary, R.N.P.

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Temperature variation of (a) dielectric constant (b) dielectric loss of the sample. - Highlights: • The high values of dielectric permittivity and low value of tangent loss. • It used for microwave applications. • The impedance and dielectric relaxation in the material is non exponential and non Debye-type. • Its ac conductivity obeys Jonscher universal power law. - Abstract: The polycrystalline sample of (Bi{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}) (Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}) O{sub 3} (BF–BT) was prepared by a standard mixed oxide method. Analysis of room temperature XRD pattern and Raman/FTIR spectra of the compound does not exhibit any change in its crystal structure of BaTiO{sub 3} on addition of BiFeO{sub 3} in equal ratio. The surface morphology of the gold-plated sintered pellet sample recorded by SEM (scanning electron microscope) exhibits a uniform distribution of grains with less porosity. Detailed studies of nature and quantity of variation of dielectric constant, tangent loss, and polarization with temperature and frequency indicate the existence of ferroelectric phase transition at high-temperature. There is a low-temperature anti-ferromagnetic phase transition below 375 °C in the material. Detailed studies of electrical properties (impedance, modulus, etc.) of the material confirmed a strong correlation between micro-structure and properties.

  9. Phase diagram and electrostrictive properties of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-BaTiO3-K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Tao; Yan, Feng; Yang, Bin; Cao, Wenwu

    2010-09-01

    Phase diagram of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-BaTiO3-K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ternary system has been analyzed and (0.94-x)BNT-0.06BT-xKNN (0.15≤x≤0.30) ceramics have been prepared and investigated. Pseudocubic structures were confirmed by x-ray diffractions and its preliminary Rietveld refinements. P-E, S-E, and S-P2 profiles (where P, E, and S denote polarization, electric field, and strain, respectively) indicate electrostrictive behavior of all ceramics. The compositions with x =0.20 and 0.25 show pure electrostrictive characteristics. The dissipation energy, electrostrictive strain, and electrostrictive coefficient have been determined and compared with other lead-free and lead-containing electrostrictors. The electrostrictive coefficient can reach as high as 0.026 m4/C2, about 1.5 times of the value of traditional Pb-based electrostrictors.

  10. High-field electromechanical response of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 across its morphotropic phase boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi, A.; Bahrevar, M. A.; Aghaei, A. R.; Ramos, P.; Algueró, M.; Amorín, H.

    2014-02-01

    Lead-free (1 - x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-xBi0.5K0.5TiO3 [(BNKTx); x = 0.18, 0.20, 0.22, 0.24] piezoelectric ceramics were prepared via conventional solid-state reactions. Phase characterization using x-ray diffraction showed coexistence of perovskite rhombohedral and tetragonal polymorphs as anticipated for compositions across the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Electrical and electromechanical properties were studied as a function of x. Permittivity and polarization figures were comparable to the best values previously reported. Largest piezoelectric and high field electromechanical responses were obtained for BNKT0.20 samples, considered to have optimum MPB phases. This material exhibited giant field-induced strains of 0.13% and 0.38% under electric fields of 1 and 2.4 kV mm-1 at room temperature by a phase-change mechanism. Figures are comparable to those reported for other BNT-based systems, but under significantly lower driving fields, which is a clear advantage for actuation.

  11. Structure, electrical properties and temperature characteristics of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-Bi0.5Li0.5TiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dunmin; Zheng, Qiaoji; Xu, Chenggang; Kwok, K. W.

    2008-11-01

    (1- x- y)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3- xBi0.5K0.5TiO3- yBi0.5Li0.5TiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been prepared by an ordinary sintering technique, and their structure, electrical properties, and temperature characteristics have been studied systematically. The ceramics can be well-sintered at 1050-1150 °C. The increase in K+ concentration decreases the grain-growth rate and promotes the formation of grains with a cubic shape, while the addition of Li+ decreases greatly the sintering temperature and assists in the densification of BNT-based ceramics. The results of XRD diffraction show that K+ and Li+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. As x increases from 0.05 to 0.50, the ceramics transform gradually from rhombohedral phase to tetragonal phase and consequently a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) is formed at 0.15≤ x≤0.25. The concentration y of Li+ has no obvious influence on the crystal structure of the ceramics. Compared with pure Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, the partial substitution of K+ and Li+ for Na+ lowers greatly the coercive field E c and increases the remanent polarization P r of the ceramics. Because of the MPB, lower E c and large P r, the piezoelectricity of the ceramics is improved significantly. For the ceramics with the compositions near the MPB ( x=0.15-0.25 and y=0.05-0.10), the piezoelectric properties become optimum: piezoelectric coefficient d 33=147-231 pC/N and planar electromechanical coupling factor k P=20.2-41.0%. In addition, the ceramics exhibit relaxor characteristic, which probably results from the cation disordering in the 12-fold coordination sites. The depolarization temperature T d shows a strong dependence on the concentration x of K+ and reaches the lowest values at the MPB. The temperature dependences of the ferroelectric and dielectric properties at high temperatures may imply that the ceramics may contain both the polar and non-polar regions at temperatures above T d.

  12. 129I AMS at 0.5 MV tandem accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfimov, Vasily; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2010-04-01

    The 129I measurement program has been established at the 0.5 MV 'Tandy' accelerator of the PSI/ETH Zürich AMS facility. This development was made possible by using a SiN window instead of Mylar one in a gas ionization detector. The setting up of the 129I measurement at Tandy is simple, the acquired performance is stable and reliable, and the quality of results is equal to or better than at our larger EN-tandem. With this setup, high sample throughput, which is required in many 129I studies, can be easily achieved. The measurements are performed in the +3 charge state. At this charge state the major difficulty in the 129I +3 identification is caused by a highly abundant 43 +1 ( m = 43, q = +1) molecule interference. This is a positive molecular ion, because its intensity reduces exponentially with an increase in gas stripper pressure. We conclude that this molecule is 27Al 16O + ( m/ q = 43/1 = 129/3) and comes from the break-up of (Al 2O 3 + Al) - ( m = 129) precursor at the terminal: (Al 2O 3 + Al) - → 27Al 16O +. The expected isobaric interferences 43Ca +1 and 86Sr +2, which also originate from the break-up of molecules in the stripper, were found to be low and do not disturb the 129I +3 measurements. The best repeatable performance with our standard sample material was achieved at 0.14 μg/cm 2 Ar gas stripper pressure with machine blanks showing ˜6 × 10 -14 normalized 129I/I ratio and 9% transmission through the accelerator. However, high 27Al 16O + molecular rates were observed from the user samples, and in order to destroy these molecules we had to increase the stripper pressure to ˜0.22 μg/cm 2. This increase in the stripper pressure degraded the machine blank values to ˜9 × 10 -14 and reduced transmission to 8%. Nevertheless, the achieved measurement conditions are sufficient for measurement of nearly all 129I samples that have been submitted to PSI/ETH over the last few years.

  13. Comparison of facial trauma in late middle age (55-64 years) and old age (older than 65 years).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Hwang, Pil Joong

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we attempted to compare facial trauma of late-middle-age patients (55-64 years, LM group) and old-age patients (>65 years old, OL group). The goal of this study was to evaluate the natural history of facial trauma in geriatric patients.The medical record of patients older than 55 years seeking treatment for facial trauma between March 2006 and February 2009 were reviewed, and parameters were collected. Seven hundred seventy-two patients (553 male, 219 female) were analyzed. There were 438 patients of the LM group (55-64 years old) and 334 patients of the OL group (>65 years old).In men (n = 553), the number of patients within the LM group (n = 336, 60.8%) was greater than the number in the OL group (n = 217, 39.2%). Of the 219 women, the number within the OL group (n = 117, 53.4%) was greater than that within the LM group (n = 102, 46.6%) (P = 0.000, χ). Facial lacerations comprised a significantly higher proportion in the OL group (79.3%) than that in the ML group (70.1%), whereas facial bone fractures were more frequent in the ML group (29.9%) than in the OL group (20.7%), which was significant (P = 0.004, χ). Assault and automobile accidents were significantly more frequent in the ML group (n = 65 [15.1%] and n = 31 [7.2%], respectively) than the OL group (n = 20 [6.0%] and n = 11 [3.3%]), whereas falls and pedestrian accidents were more significantly frequent in the OL group (n = 30 [9.0%] and n = 23 [6.9%], respectively) than in the LM group (n = 30 [7.0%] and n = 19 [4.4%]) (P = 0.000, χ). During the hours of the day, between 4 to 6 PM and 6 to 8 PM, injuries occurred more frequently in the OL group (14.5% and 12.4%, respectively) than in the LM group (10.5% and 11.0%, respectively). At the times of 8 to 10 PM and 10 PM to midnight, however, injuries occurred more frequently in the LM group (17.1%, 12.1%, respectively) than in the OL group (12.1% and 8.2%, respectively) (P = 0.03, χ). Frequency of injuries at home within the OL group (n

  14. Microwave properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin film coplanar phase shifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suherman, P. M.; Jackson, T. J.; Tse, Y. Y.; Jones, I. P.; Chakalova, R. I.; Lancaster, M. J.; Porch, A.

    2006-05-01

    Coplanar waveguide transmission lines have been used to show that the temperature dependent properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films used for microwave phase shifters in the frequency range 45 MHz-50 GHz are correlated strongly with the microstructure of the films. The highest tunability and figure of merit of the phase shifters were obtained for films with the narrowest ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition range, lowest mosaic spread, and widest columnar microstructure. The study also showed that the operating temperature plays an important role in achieving the optimum phase shift for microwave applications.

  15. Strain enhanced charge order melting in Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisnab, Dipak Kumar; Kumary, T. Geetha; Satya, A. T.; Mani, Awadhesh; Janaki, J.; Nithya, R.; Vaidhyanathan, L. S.; Janawadkar, M. P.; Bharathi, A.

    2011-06-01

    The effect of strain on charge order melting in half doped manganite Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 thin films of different thicknesses has been investigated. The films were deposited on (100) oriented MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique and were characterized by x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements. A field induced charge order melting is observed for films with very small thickness. The charge order transition temperature and the magnetic field induced charge order melting appears to be governed by the nature of strain that is experienced by the film.

  16. Radiation hardness of Ga0.5In0.5 P/GaAs tandem solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Sarah R.; Olson, J. M.; Bertness, K. A.; Friedman, D. J.; Kibbler, A.; Cavicchi, B. T.; Krut, D. D.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation hardness of a two-junction monolithic Ga sub 0.5 In sub 0.5 P/GaAs cell with tunnel junction interconnect was investigated. Related single junction cells were also studied to identify the origins of the radiation losses. The optimal design of the cell is discussed. The air mass efficiency of an optimized tandem cell after irradiation with 10(exp 15) cm (-2) 1 MeV electrons is estimated to be 20 percent using currently available technology.

  17. Exact size control of KTa0.5Nb0.5O3 nanoparticles using flexible hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiaqi; Chen, Gaoru; Yang, Wenlong; Jiang, Zhichao; Li, Haidong; Wang, Li; Yan, Zhehua; Wang, Xuan; Lei, Qingquan

    2016-04-01

    KTa0.5Nb0.5O3 (KTN) nanoparticles with a perovskite structure were synthesized in orthogonal experiments under different hydrothermal conditions. Controlled sizes were generated by analyzing four variables using an orthogonal array experimental design (OA16 matrix): reaction temperature, KOH concentration, reaction time and solution volume. The effects of the four factors on the KTN nanoparticle size were systematically examined using range analysis and analysis of variance. The KOH concentration had the largest effect on the average size of the KTN nanoparticles. The KTN particles with a designed grain size can be obtained by controlling the four effect factors.

  18. Impedance and modulus spectroscopy analysis of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aireddy, H.; Bidayat, U.; Das, A. K.

    2013-02-01

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 was prepared by sol-gel method. Structural analysis using high resolution X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and high resolution transmission electron microscope, reveals the formation of single phase compound in cubic symmetry of spinel structure. The variation of impedance spectra with temperature indicates retention of typical negative temperature coefficient of resistivity, and the presence of temperature dependent electrical relaxation phenomena. Complex modulus spectra confirmed the presence of non-Debye type single relaxation process. The relaxation observed at low temperatures and low frequencies corresponds to grain boundary polarization.

  19. Infrared absorption spectra of a Nd0.5Ho0.5Fe3(BO3)4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova, Yu. V.; Sofronova, S. N.; Gudim, I. A.; Oreshonkov, A. S.; Vtyurin, A. N.; Ivanenko, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of a Nd0.5Ho0.5Fe3(BO3)4 crystal in the spectral range of 30-1700 cm-1 have been measured at temperatures from 6 to 300 K. The experimental spectra have been analyzed based on the semiempirical calculation of the lattice dynamics and the analysis of correlation diagrams of borate complexes. No changes associated with structural phase transitions have been detected in the temperature range of measurements; the effect of magnetic ordering on the infrared absorption spectra has not been observed.

  20. The Evolution of Red Galaxies in Clusters T z=0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, J. B.; Gunn, James E.; Hoessel, John G.

    1996-01-01

    A program was carried out at Palomar Observatory to study seven clusters of galaxies all at redshifts near 0.5. Observations consisted of g, r, i, and z broadband Gunn photometry using 4-shooter, and ultraviolet u and violet v photometry using a CCD photometer at the prime focus of the Hale 5 m telescope. The u and v filters reach rest wavelengths of about 2300 A at z = 0.5. Spectra were also obtained of a selection of objects in each cluster. An absolute energy distribution for the nearby giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4889 in the Coma cluster was obtained which, when combined with IUE observations of ellipticals, provided a good reference for present-day giant ellipticals. Observations were compared with models of Bruzual and Charlot. From measured fluxes above the H and K break at 4000A it is found that there is a change in the rest g- r and r-i colors of 0.11 and 0.07, respectively, between redshift z=0 and z=0.5. At z=0 the age of the elliptical galaxy NGC 4889 is 14+/-2 Gyr while at z = 0.5 the age is 10 Gyr with a possible range from 8 to 13 Gyr. Ages here are measured from the time when star formation begins in the galaxy. The ratio of these ages is just compatible with standard cosmological models with {LAMBDA} = 0.0. The derived ages are consistent with ages determined for globular clusters; this is not surprising since the galaxy and globular cluster evolutionary ages are both based on stellar evolution calculations. The luminosities of brightest cluster members at z = 0.5 are brighter than at present by about 0.3 mag; the fitted models predict a brightening by 0.25-0.71 mag. It is found that for the majority of red galaxies at z = 0.5 there is substantial color evolution between rest wavelengths of 2300 and 3000 A compared with the present epoch. This amounts to an increase in brightness of up to 2 mag at u and 1 mag at v and implies that there was still substantial star formation at z = 0.5 compared with the present. As found in other studies, the red

  1. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

  2. Li(V0.5Ti0.5)S2 as a 1 V lithium intercalation electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Steve J.; Wang, Da; Armstrong, A. Robert; Bruce, Peter G.

    2016-03-01

    Graphite, the dominant anode in rechargeable lithium batteries, operates at ~0.1 V versus Li+/Li and can result in lithium plating on the graphite surface, raising safety concerns. Titanates, for example, Li4Ti5O12, intercalate lithium at~1.6 V versus Li+/Li, avoiding problematic lithium plating at the expense of reduced cell voltage. There is interest in 1 V anodes, as this voltage is sufficiently high to avoid lithium plating while not significantly reducing cell potential. The sulfides, LiVS2 and LiTiS2, have been investigated as possible 1 V intercalation electrodes but suffer from capacity fading, large 1st cycle irreversible capacity or polarization. Here we report that the 50/50 solid solution, Li1+x(V0.5Ti0.5)S2, delivers a reversible capacity to store charge of 220 mAhg-1 (at 0.9 V), 99% of theoretical, at a rate of C/2, retaining 205 mAhg-1 at C-rate (92% of theoretical). Rate capability is excellent with 200 mAhg-1 at 3C. C-rate is discharge in 1 h. Polarization is low, 100 mV at C/2. To the best of our knowledge, the properties/performances of Li(V0.5Ti0.5)S2 exceed all previous 1 V electrodes.

  3. Superconductivity and abnormal pressure effect in Sr{}_{0.5}La{}_{0.5}FBiSe2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Xiang, Yongliang; Chen, Yihong; Jiao, Wenhe; Zhang, Chuhang; Zhang, Li; Dai, Jianhui; Li, Yuke

    2016-04-01

    Through the solid state reaction method, we synthesized a new BiSe2-based superconductor Sr{}0.5La{}0.5FBiSe2 with superconducting transition temperature T {}c ≈ \\quad 3.8 K. A strong diamagnetic signal below T c in susceptibility χ (T) is observed indicating the bulk nature of superconductivity. Different to most BiS2-based compounds where superconductivity develops from a semiconducting-like normal state, the present compound exhibits a metallic behavior down to T c . Under weak magnetic field or pressure, however, a remarkable crossover from metallic to insulating behaviors takes place around T min where the resistivity picks up a local minimum. With increasing pressure, T {}c decreases monotonously and T min shifts to high temperatures, while the absolute value of the normal state resistivity at low temperatures first decreases and then increases with pressure up to 2.5 GPa. These results imply that the electronic structure of Sr{}0.5La{}0.5FBiSe2 may be different to those in the other BiS2-based systems.

  4. Charge ordered ferromagnetic phase in La_0.5Ca_0.5MnO_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Neil

    2003-03-01

    Charge order and ferromagnetism should be mutually exclusive in the manganites, because ferromagnetism in these materials is normally promoted by delocalised electrons. Surprisingly, a phase that is both strongly charge ordered and fully ferromagnetic is observed [1] at 90 K in La_0.5Ca_0.5MnO_3, using Fresnel imaging, dark-field TEM and electron holography. This new phase coexists with the two low temperature phases that were already known to coexist in La_0.5Ca_0.5MnO_3. (One of these expected phases is ferromagnetic but not charge-ordered, the other is charge-ordered but not ferromagnetic.) Strain fields could be responsible for the novel microscopic texture presented here - perhaps creating conditions in which nearest neighbour hopping is sufficient to promote ferromagnetism. Similarly, strain fields are believed to cause sub-micron phase separation in the manganites. It therefore seems that the manganites can adapt to their environments over a wide range of length scales [2]. [1] http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/0209436 [2] Neil Mathur and Peter Littlewood, Physics Today, early 2003.

  5. Octahedral distortion induced magnetic anomalies in LaMn0.5Co0.5O3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Kaustuv; Bhadram, Venkata Srinu; Elizabeth, Suja; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2014-07-01

    Single crystals of LaMn0.5Co0.5O3 belonging to the ferromagnetic-insulator and distorted perovskite class were grown using a four-mirror optical float zone furnace. The as-grown crystal crystallizes into an orthorhombic Pbnm structure. The spatially resolved 2D Raman scan reveals a strain-induced distribution of transition metal (TM)-oxygen (O) octahedral deformation in the as-grown crystal. A rigorous annealing process releases the strain, thereby generating homogeneous octahedral distortion. The octahedra tilt by reducing the bond angle TM-O-TM, resulting in a decline of the exchange energy in the annealed crystal. The critical behavior is investigated from the bulk magnetization. It is found that the ground state magnetic behavior assigned to the strain-free LaMn0.5Co0.5O3 crystal is of the 3D Heisenberg kind. Strain induces mean field-like interaction in some sites, and consequently, the critical exponents deviate from the 3D Heisenberg class in the as-grown crystal. The temperature-dependent Raman scattering study reveals strong spin-phonon coupling and the existence of two magnetic ground states in the same crystal.

  6. 0.5 gigapixel microscopy using a flatbed scanner.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoan; Ou, Xiaoze; Yang, Changhuei

    2013-12-01

    The capability to perform high-resolution, wide field-of-view (FOV) microscopy imaging is highly sought after in biomedical applications. In this paper, we report a wide FOV microscopy system that uses a closed-circuit-television (CCTV) lens for image relay and a flatbed scanner for data acquisition. We show that such an imaging system is capable of capturing a 10 mm × 7.5 mm FOV image with 0.78 µm resolution, resulting in more than 0.5 billion pixels across the entire image. The resolution and field curve of the proposed system were characterized by imaging a USAF resolution target and a hole-array target. To demonstrate its application, 0.5 gigapixel images of histology slides were acquired using this system. PMID:24466471

  7. 0.5% levobupivacaine versus 0.5% ropivacaine: Are they different in ultrasound-guided sciatic block?

    PubMed Central

    Pham Dang, Charles; Langlois, Cécile; Lambert, Chantal; Nguyen, Jean-Michel; Asehnoune, Karim; Lejus, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Context and Aims: Little is known about onset and duration of sciatic block after 0.5% levobupivacaine (Levo) versus 0.5% ropivacaine (Ropi) for ultrasound-guided technique. We assessed these parameters in the ultrasound-guided block, to know for the practice. Setting and Design: A comparative randomized double-blind study was conducted in the University Hospital. Materials and Methods: Were included 35 adults of ASA I-II, scheduled for foot surgery, presenting clear imaging of their sciatic nerve at mid-thigh. A volume of 20 mL of either 0.5% Levo or 0.5% Ropi were injected around the sciatic nerve at mid-thigh using ultrasound guidance (out of the plane) followed by placement of a catheter to use, if necessary, for perioperative analgesia. A femoral single shot block was systematically performed to block the saphenous nerve. The onset times until complete foot block (primary outcome) and the sensory and motor block duration (secondary outcome) were assessed using Wilcoxon test. Values were expressed as medians (1st-3rd quartile). Results: Except for two delayed sciatic blocks in each group, the onset time otherwise was 35 min (20-60) in Ropi versus 40 min (30-60) in Levo, P = 0.5. Sensory block lasted longer in Levo, 17 h (14-27) compared with 15 h (10-17) in Ropi, P = 0.04. No significant between-group difference was found with motor block durations, 15 h (12-18) in Levo and 15 h (12-16) in Ropi, P = 0.3. Conclusion: No difference of onset times was found in ultrasound-guided sciatic block whether using Levo or Ropi. Levo induced a longer-lasting sensory block. PMID:25558190

  8. Comparative Dielectric and Ferroelectric Characteristics of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, CaCu3Ti4O12, and 0.5Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.5CaCu3Ti4O12 Electroceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Laxman; Yadava, Shiva Sundar; Sin, Byung Cheol; Rai, Uma Shanker; Mandal, K. D.; Lee, Youngil

    2016-06-01

    The dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT), CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO), and 0.5Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.5CaCu3Ti4O12 (BNT/CCTO) ceramics are compared. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of single phase of all the ceramics after sintering at 950°C for 15 h. Scanning electron microscopy images of the sintered ceramics reveal average grain sizes in the range from 200 nm to 2.5 μm. Energy-dispersive x-ray mapping and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show the presence of the elements Bi, Na, Ca, Cu, Ti, and O with uniform distribution in the ceramics. BNT/CCTO exhibits high dielectric constant ( ɛ r ˜ 6.9 × 104) compared with BNT ( ɛ r ˜ 0.13 × 104) and CCTO ( ɛ r ˜ 1.68 × 104) ceramics at 1 kHz and 503 K. The high dielectric constant of BNT/CCTO compared with BNT and CCTO is associated with a major contribution from grain boundaries, as confirmed by impedance and modulus analyses. The P- E hysteresis loop of all the ceramics measured at room temperature and 50°C exhibited typical ferroelectric nature. The remanent polarization ( P r) of BNT (1.58 μC/cm2) and CCTO (0.654 μC/cm2) ceramics are higher than that of BNT/CCTO (0.267 μC/cm2) ceramic.

  9. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... balance shall be paid to the parent having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other...

  10. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... balance shall be paid to the parent having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other...

  11. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... balance shall be paid to the parent having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other...

  12. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  13. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  14. A 2-year longitudinal nutritional survey of 405 Northumberland children initially aged 11.5 years.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A F; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Appleton, D R; Eastoe, J E; Jenkins, G N

    1984-01-01

    Children (405), initially of average age 11.5 years, recorded all food and drinks consumed for three consecutive days (with an interview on the fourth day) on five separate occasions over a 2-year period. Food tables (Paul & Southgate, 1978) enabled nutrient intakes to be calculated. The data collected were found to be of high reliability (Hackett et al. 1983). The mean energy intakes showed broad agreement with other recent British dietary surveys but were well below those recorded in the prewar study by Widdowson (1947) and the FAO/WHO (1973) recommended levels. They were slightly below the current Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS; 1979) recommended intakes. Over the 2-year period, the energy intake of the boys increased by 13% compared with an increase of only 7% in the girls. The iron and vitamin A intakes of all groups of children were low compared with current recommendations (DHSS, 1979). This seems to be a result of falling energy intake. Mean calcium intakes were also only marginally in excess of the recommended intake, and those of most of the girls would fall below the recommendation if the proposal to end the fortification of flour (DHSS, 1981) is implemented. PMID:6317011

  15. Routine Eye Examinations for Persons 20-64 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    suggest that prevalent glaucoma is statistically significantly greater in a black population 50 years of age and older compared with a white population of similar age. There is an overall 4-fold increase in prevalent POAG in a black population compared with a white population. This increase may be due to a confounding variable not accounted for in the analysis. The quality of the evidence is low. Refractive Error Four cross-sectional studies assessed the association of myopia and POAG. These data suggest an association between myopia defined as a spherical equivalent of -1.00D or worse and prevalent POAG. However, there is inconsistency in results regarding the statistical significance of the association between myopia when defined as a spherical equivalent of -0.5D. The quality of the evidence is very low. Family History of POAG Three cross-sectional studies investigated the association between family history of glaucoma and prevalent POAG. These data suggest a 2.5 to 3.0 fold increase in the odds having POAG in persons with a family history (any first-degree relative) of POAG. The quality of the evidence is moderate. Age-Related Maculopathy Age Four cohort studies evaluated the association between age and early ARM and AMD. After 55 years of age, the incidence of both early ARM and AMD increases with increasing age. Progression to AMD occurs in up to 12% of persons with early ARM. The quality of the evidence is low Gender Four cohort studies evaluated the association between gender and early ARM and AMD. Gender differences in incident early ARM and incident AMD are not supported from these data. The quality of the evidence is lows. Ethnicity One meta-analysis and 2 cross-sectional studies reported the ethnic-specific prevalence rates of ARM. The data suggests that the prevalence of early ARM is higher in a white population compared with a black population. The data suggest that the ethnic-specific differences in the prevalence of AMD remain inconclusive. Refractive

  16. SIRT6 Minor Allele Genotype Is Associated with >5-Year Decrease in Lifespan in an Aged Cohort

    PubMed Central

    TenNapel, Mindi J.; Lynch, Charles F.; Burns, Trudy L.; Wallace, Robert; Smith, Brian J.; Button, Anna; Domann, Frederick E.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a natural process involving complex interplay between environment, metabolism, and genes. Sirtuin genes and their downstream targets have been associated with lifespan in numerous organisms from nematodes to humans. Several target proteins of the sirtuin genes are key sensors and/or effectors of oxidative stress pathways including FOXO3, SOD3, and AKT1. To examine the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at candidate genes in these pathways and human lifespan, we performed a molecular epidemiologic study of an elderly cohort (≥65 years old.). Using age at death as a continuous outcome variable and assuming a co-dominant genetic model within the framework of multi-variable linear regression analysis, the genotype-specific adjusted mean age at death was estimated for individual SNP genotypes while controlling for age-related risk factors including smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption and co-morbidity. Significant associations were detected between human lifespan and SNPs in genes SIRT3, SIRT5, SIRT6, FOXO3 and SOD3. Individuals with either the CC or CT genotype at rs107251 within SIRT6 displayed >5-year mean survival advantages compared to the TT genotype (5.5 and 5.9 years, respectively; q-value  = 0.012). Other SNPs revealed genotype-specific mean survival advantages ranging from 0.5 to 1.6 years. Gender also modified the effect of SNPs in SIRT3, SIRT5 and AKT1 on lifespan. Our novel findings highlight the impact of sirtuins and sirtuin-related genotypes on lifespan, the importance of evaluating gender and the advantage of using age as a continuous variable in analyses to report mean age at death. PMID:25541994

  17. Monoclinic crystal structure of polycrystalline Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksel, Elena; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Jones, Jacob L.; Thomas, Pam A.; Page, Katharine; Suchomel, Matthew R.

    2011-04-01

    Bismuth-based ferroelectric ceramics are currently under intense investigation for their potential as Pb-free alternatives to lead zirconate titanate-based piezoelectrics. Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT), one of the widely studied compositions, has been assumed thus far to exhibit the rhombohedral space group R3c at room temperature. High-resolution powder x-ray diffraction patterns, however, reveal peak splitting in the room temperature phase that evidence the true structure as monoclinic with space group Cc. This peak splitting and Cc space group is only revealed in sintered powders; calcined powders are equally fit to an R3c model because microstructural contributions to peak broadening obscure the peak splitting.

  18. Ferroelectricity and ferroelectric resistive switching in sputtered Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhen; Xiao, Juanxiu; Wang, Jingxian; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Jinyu; Liu, Ziyan; Dong, Zhili; Wang, John; Chen, Jingsheng

    2016-06-01

    Ferroelectric properties and ferroelectric resistive switching (FE-RS) of sputtered Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 (HZO) thin films were investigated. The HZO films with the orthorhombic phase were obtained without capping or post-deposition annealing. Ferroelectricity was demonstrated by polarization-voltage (P-V) hysteresis loops measured in a positive-up negative-down manner and piezoresponse force microscopy. However, defects such as oxygen vacancies caused the films to become leaky. The observed ferroelectricity and semiconducting characteristics led to the FE-RS effect. The FE-RS effect may be explained by a polarization modulated trap-assisted tunneling model. Our study not only provides a facile route to develop ferroelectric HfO2-based thin films but also explores their potential applications in FE-RS memories.

  19. Phase separation and direct magnetocaloric effect in La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 manganite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirzadeh, P.; Ahmadvand, H.; Kameli, P.; Aslibeiki, B.; Salamati, H.; Gamzatov, A. G.; Aliev, A. M.; Kamilov, I. K.

    2013-03-01

    A series of phase separated La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 manganite samples with different grain sizes were studied by ac susceptibility, direct magnetocaloric effect (ΔT), and heat capacity measurements. The ac susceptibility shows that fractions of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases and consequently the phase separated state can be controlled by means of sintering temperature. Lower sintering temperature leads to a ferromagnetic state, while higher sintering temperature increases antiferromagnetic phase fraction, resulting in a phase separated state. In the phase separated samples, ΔT shows a conventional positive peak near TC and an anomalous positive peak at lower temperature near TN. The anomalous positive peak appears at higher magnetic field and is accompanied with thermal hysteresis. It is suggested that the anomalous magnetocaloric behaviors result from phase separation and first order magnetostructural phase transition. This study shows that direct magnetocaloric effect is a useful technique for the study of manganites.

  20. Diode pumped Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4-LBO red laser at 671 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. L.; Liu, J. Y.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2012-03-01

    We report a efficient compact red laser at 671 nm generation by intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave laser operation of a diode pumped Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4 laser on the 4 F 3/2-4 I 13/2 transition at 1342 nm. An LBO crystal, cut for critical type I phase matching at room temperature is used for second harmonic generation of the laser. At an absorbed pump power of 17.8 W, as high as 2.25 W of continuous wave output power at 671 nm is achieved with 10-mm-long LBO. The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is up to 12.6%, and the fluctuation of the red output power was better than 3.6% in the given 30 min.

  1. Complex domain structure in polycrystalline Pb(Sc0.5Nb0.5)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursic, Hana; Drnovsek, Silvo; Malic, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    This letter provides evidence of ferroelectric domains existing in polycrystalline B-site cation disordered Pb(Sc0.5Nb0.5)O3. A complex domain structure with variations in characteristic length and morphology is observed below the relaxor-ferroelectric phase transition at ~98 °C. At room temperature the micrometer-sized wedge-like, lamellar-like and irregularly shaped domains are found. By approaching the relaxor-ferroelectric phase transition temperature, the domain structure changes; the fraction of micrometer-sized domains is progressively decreasing. Approximately 100 nm large domains, which form mottled patterns, are observed, and associated with polar nano domains as described in other relaxor materials.

  2. Unraveling the magnetic properties of BiFe0.5Cr0.5O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinai, G.; Khare, A.; Rana, D. S.; Di Gennaro, E.; Gobaut, B.; Moroni, R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Scotti di Uccio, U.; Rossi, G.; Miletto Granozio, F.; Panaccione, G.; Torelli, P.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the structural, chemical, and magnetic properties on BiFe0.5Cr0.5O3 (BFCO) thin films grown on (001) (110) and (111) oriented SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and x-ray diffraction. We show how highly pure BFCO films, differently from the theoretically expected ferrimagnetic behavior, present a very weak dichroic signal at Cr and Fe edges, with both moments aligned with the external field. Chemically sensitive hysteresis loops show no hysteretic behavior and no saturation up to 6.8 T. The linear responses are induced by the tilting of the Cr and Fe moments along the applied magnetic field.

  3. Synthesis of functionalized Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohara, R. A.; Yadav, H. M.; Thorat, N. D.; Mali, S. S.; Hong, C. K.; Nanaware, S. G.; Pawar, S. H.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we report a simple one step method for the synthesis of uniform, water dispersible amine functionalized Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (AF-CZF) of size about 6 nm. The synthesis process was accomplished by refluxing Fe(acac)3, Co(acac)2 and Zn(acac)2 in diethylene glycol and ethanolamine. The magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TGDTA, FTIR, SEM and TEM techniques. Their magnetic properties were also studied by using SQUID. The synthesized particles show superparamagnetism at room temperature. AF-CZF nanoparticles exhibit good cell viability, which is above 95% at a concentration of 80 μg mL-1 on MCF7 cell line. The AF-CZF can be a new versatile platform for many interesting biomedical applications.

  4. Zr and Sn substituted (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 -based solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchuk, V. M.; Gusakova, L. G.; Kisel, N. G.; Kuzenko, D. V.; Spiridonov, N. A.; Sobolev, V. L.

    2016-02-01

    The paper attempts to investigate the phase formation of a Zr- and Sn-substituted [(Na0.5Bi0.5)0.80Ba0.20](Ti1-yBy)O3 system during its solid state synthesis. The synthesis was found to be a multi-step process associated with the formation of a number of intermediate phases which however depended on the compositions and sintering temperatures. Single phase solid solutions were obtained when the sintering temperature was increased to 1000 °C-1100 °C. Increase in the concentration of substituting ions, on the one hand, tends to linearly increase the crystal cell size whereas the tolerance factor, on the other hand, gets reduced bolstering the stability of anti-ferroelectric phase as compared to that of ferroelectric phase’.

  5. An In0.5Ga0.5N nanowire photoanode for harvesting deep visible light photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, S.; Woo, S. Y.; Vanka, S.; Botton, G. A.; Mi, Z.

    2016-07-01

    III-nitride semiconductors hold tremendous promise for realizing high efficiency photoelectrodes. However, previously reported InGaN photoelectrodes generally exhibit very low photocurrent densities, due to the presence of extensive defects, dislocations, and indium phase separation. Here, we show that In0.5Ga0.5N nanowires with nearly homogeneous indium distribution can be achieved by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Under AM1.5G one sun illumination, the InGaN nanowire photoanode exhibits a photocurrent density of 7.3 mA/cm2 at 1.2 V (vs. NHE) in 1M HBr. The incident-photon-to-current efficiency is above 10% at 650 nm, which is significantly higher than previously reported values of metal oxide photoelectrodes.

  6. Exchange bias in a mixed metal oxide based magnetocaloric compound YFe0.5Cr0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mohit K.; Singh, Karan; Mukherjee, K.

    2016-09-01

    We report a detailed investigation of magnetization, magnetocaloric effect and exchange bias studies on a mixed metal oxide YFe0.5Cr0.5O3 belonging to perovskite family. Our results reveal that the compound is in canted magnetic state (CMS) where ferromagnetic correlations are present in an antiferromagnetic state. Magnetic entropy change of this compound follows a power law (∆SM∼Hm) dependence of magnetic field. In this compound, inverse magnetocaloric effect (IMCE) is observed below 260 K while conventional magnetocaloric effect (CMCE) above it. The exponent 'm' is found to be independent of temperature and field only in the IMCE region. Investigation of temperature and magnetic field dependence studies of exchange bias, reveal a competition between effective Zeeman energy of the ferromagnetic regions and anisotropic exchange energy at the interface between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic regions. Variation of exchange bias due to temperature and field cycling is also investigated.

  7. Magnetocaloric and magnetic properties of SmFe0.5Mn0.5O3 complex perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Santana, M. C.; daSilva, C. A.; Barrozo, P.; Plaza, E. J. R.; de los Santos Valladares, L.; Moreno, N. O.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the physical properties of SmFe0.5Mn0.5O3 complex perovskite samples, synthesized by means of combustion reaction method. X-ray powder diffraction indicates the formation of single phase perovskite with orthorhombic structure. Low magnetic field measurements show remarkable transition at 234 K related to spin reorientation. The magnetocaloric effect shows two peaks related to magnetic behavior changes, at 18 K and at 234 K. The transition about 234 K presents inverse magnetocaloric effect. The entropy variation from magnetocaloric effect shows power law as function of applied magnetic field with maximum entropy change 5.6 J/kg K with field variation of 70 kOe. Critical exponents extracted from ΔS vs. H presents a remarkable sharp peak near antiferromagnetic to weak ferromagnetic transition temperature.

  8. Synthesis and crystal structure of Bi6(Bi0.5Cu0.5)V2O15+y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Uma, S.

    2015-10-01

    The structure of the oxide with composition Bi6(Bi0.5Cu0.5)V2O15+y has been solved based on single crystal X-ray diffraction and is found to be monoclinic (S. G. I2), a=11.276(1) Å, b=5.4513(2) Å, c=11.055(3) Å, β=96.70°(1). The crystal was twinned by 180° rotoinversion about [ 1 bar 0 1] in the direct lattice as found in the the phosphates, Bi6TiP2O16 and Bi6+xM1-xP2O15+y (M=Mn, Fe and Ni), wherein chains of edge sharing (OBi4) tetrahedral units are connected by layers of VO4 tetrahedra and (Bi/Cu)O6-x (x=oxygen vacancies) octahedra.

  9. Ternary monodispersed Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles: preparation and magnetic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Kinnari; Upadhyay, Ramesh V.; Belova, Lyubov; Rao, K. V.

    2006-12-01

    A ternary system of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 has been synthesized for the first time using thermal decomposition of metal acetylacetonate in the presence of a high temperature boiling point solvent and fatty acids. Unlike the results of synthesis of this material by other techniques, we obtain nearly monodispersed nanoparticles, rendering them ideal for applications like in hyperthermia. The crystal structure and morphology of the particles obtained using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are those of a single phase spinel structure with no other impurity phases. The particles are of 7 nm average diameter, with a very narrow (<10%) size distribution. The oleic acid surfactant on the particles shows a 28% weight loss in thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGAs), which corresponds to a monolayer thickness of the coating. Magnetic measurements show the particles to be superparamagnetic with a characteristic blocking temperature of around 50 K.

  10. High pressure Raman study of layered Mo0.5W0.5S2 ternary compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joon-Seok; Moran, Samuel T.; Nayak, Avinash P.; Pedahzur, Shahar; Ruiz, Itzel; Ponce, Gabriela; Rodriguez, Daniela; Henny, Joanna; Liu, Jin; Lin, Jung-Fu; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-06-01

    Ternary two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide compounds exhibit a tunable electronic structure allowing for control of the interlayer and the intralayer atomic displacement to efficiently tune their physical and electronic properties. Using a diamond anvil cell, hydrostatic pressure was applied to Mo0.5W0.5S2 up to 40 GPa in order to study the optical phonon vibrational modes. Analysis of the high-pressure Raman spectra shows that the two in-plane E2g modes resembling that of pristine MoS2 and WS2, as well as disorder-activated longitudinal acoustic phonon mode, are hardened and suppressed as pressure increases. The two A1g modes of the ternary compound that resemble the A1g modes of pristine MoS2 and WS2, displayed similar Raman shifts to the pristine compounds as pressure increases. A Raman peak at 470 cm-1 that is close to A1g peaks emerges at ˜8 GPa, which represents a disorder-activated pressure-induced out-of-plane Raman mode observed only in the ternary compound under high pressure. At pressures above ˜30 GPa, a Raman peak at approximately 340 cm-1 is observed, signifying additional disorder-activated vibration mode. Our results reveal the enhanced interactions in the structural and vibrational behavior of the MoS2 and WS2 domains in the Mo0.5W0.5S2 compound under hydrostatic pressure. These results could have implications in understanding the electronic, optical, and structural properties of the new 2D ternary compound materials under extreme mechanical conditions.

  11. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy Subjects Aged 3 to 93 Years.

    PubMed

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Kinematics is recommended for the quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in healthy subjects. Three hundred and seventy healthy subjects, aged 3-93 years, participated in the study. They performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-six kinematic indices were computed for the four tasks. For the four tasks, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect. Seventeen indices (the accuracy, speed and smoothness indices and the reproducibility of the accuracy, speed and smoothness) improved in young subjects aged 3-30 years, showed stabilization in adults aged 30-60 years and declined in elderly subjects aged 60-93 years. Additionally, for both geometrical tasks, the speed index exhibited a decrease throughout life. Finally, a principal component analysis provided the relations between the kinematic indices, tasks and subjects' age. This study is the first to assess age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in subjects aged 3-93 years. PMID:26208617

  12. Vitamin B12 levels of subjects aged 0-24 year(s) in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akin, Fatih; Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-12-01

    Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  13. Vitamin B12 Levels of Subjects Aged 0-24 Year(s) in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  14. Improvement of cycling performance in Ti substituted 0.5Li2MnO3-0.5LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 through suppressing metal dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shinji; Noguchi, Hideyuki; Zhao, Wenwen

    2015-03-01

    Ti substituted 0.5Li2MnO3-0.5LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 cathode material with the composition of Li1.5Ni0.25Mn0.75-xTixO2.5 has been synthesized by spray pyrolysis method. A great variety of characterization methods have been applied to study the influence of Ti substitution for Mn on the structural, morphological and electrochemical performances of Li1.5Ni0.25Mn0.75-xTixO2.5. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results of Li1.5Ni0.25Mn0.75-xTixO2.5 show that they exhibit similar XRD patterns as those of lithium-excess manganese metal oxide based cathode materials. It is confirmed from energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) data that Ti was homogenously substituted for Mn and well distributed in the host structure. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra analysis reveals that oxidation state of Mn in Li1.5Ni0.25Mn0.75-xTixO2.5 remains +4 while that of Ni changes from +2 to +4 during the initial activation process. Further investigation of the local structure of transition metal (TM) ions indicates that Ti has same coordination environment as that of Mn. Drastic capacity fade occurred in full cells with Li1.5Ni0.25Mn0.75O2.5 cathode and graphite anode, while full cell with Ti substituted cathode shows high capacity retention after 100 cycles. Further examination of the amount of dissolved transition metal (TM) ions after long cycling test enable us to demonstrate that substitution of Mn with Ti in Li1.5Ni0.25Mn0.75O2.5 has a significant impact on suppressing the TM ions dissolution and its deposition on both separator and anode thus leads to improved cycleability.

  15. Switching of morphotropic phase boundary and large strain response in lead-free ternary (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jigong; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei; Liu, Chunze; Li, Xiaolong; Gao, Xingyu

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we report the phase diagram of lead-free ternary (1 - y)[(1 - x)(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-x(Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3]-y(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (BNT-BKT-KNN) system and study the switching characteristics of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The addition of KNN intrinsically changes the structural nature of the system with the shift of MPB from MPB(I) between ferroelectric rhombohedral and ferroelectric tetragonal phases to MPB(II) between ferroelectric rhombohedral and relaxor pseudocubic phases. As the MPB(I) switches to MPB(II), large piezoelectric response with d33 ˜ 150pC/N that obtained for BNT-0.20BKT near MPB(I) almost disappears. Instead, a significant jump of electric-filed-induced strain S up to 0.32%-0.46% (Smax/Emax = 400-575 pm/V) is achieved near MPB(II) due to the shift of the ferroelectric-relaxor transition temperature TF-R down to room temperature. In this study, giant strain ˜0.46% occurs in a very narrow region in the BNT-BKT-KNN system with x = 0.20, y = 0.01, which lies on an underlying tricritical triple point of a rhombohedral (R), tetragonal (T), and pseudocubic (Pc) phases. In-situ high-energy X-ray scattering experiments with external electric field reveal an initial electric-field-induced distortion from the Pc structure for the MPB(II) compositions, while those with single R phase shows no such distortion, which suggests that the large strain achieved near the MPB(II) is likely to be induced by the electric-field-induced structure distortion due to its relative instability structure. We believe that the discovery of a compositional line in the pseudo-ternary system, where the strain response is consistently derivable, should be useful for designing high-performance piezoelectric materials in other BNT-based systems by searching MPBs.

  16. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Paul T.; Phillips-Meek, Michelle C.; Richards, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in five-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research.1 PMID:25904864

  17. Impact of age on transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes: a comparison of patients aged ≤ 80 years versus patients > 80 years

    PubMed Central

    van der Kley, Frank; van Rosendael, Philippe J; Katsanos, Spyridon; Kamperidis, Vasileios; Marsan, Nina A; Karalis, Ioannis; de Weger, Arend; Palmen, Meindert; Bax, Jeroen J; Schalij, Martin J; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the procedural outcomes and the long-term survival of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and compare study results of patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old. Methods A total of 240 patients treated with TAVI were divided into two groups according to age ≤ 80 years (n = 105; 43.8%) and > 80 years (n = 135; 56.2%). The baseline characteristics and the procedural outcomes were compared between these two groups of patients. Results With the exception of peripheral artery disease and hypercholesterolemia, which were more frequently observed in the older age group, baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. Complication rates did not differ significantly between patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years. There were no differences in 30-day mortality rates between patients aged ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old (9.5% vs. 7.4%, respectively; P = 0.557). After a median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range: 16–42 months), 50 (47.6%) patients aged ≤ 80 years died compared to 57 (42%) deaths in the group of patients > 80 years old (P = 0.404). Conclusion The results of the present single center study showed that age did not significantly impact the outcomes of TAVI. PMID:26918010

  18. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  19. Dating, Sex, and Substance Use Predict Increases in Adolescents' Subjective Age across Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Albrecht, Arne K.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationship between adolescents' subjective age (how old they feel) and chronological age, and explored whether dating, sex, and substance use predicted increases in adolescents' subjective age across a two-year period. The participants were 570 adolescents who were interviewed when they were first ages 12-19…

  20. Ten years of Nature Physics: Numerical models come of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, E.; Millis, A. J.

    2015-10-01

    When Nature Physics celebrated 20 years of high-temperature superconductors, numerical approaches were on the periphery. Since then, new ideas implemented in new algorithms are leading to new insights.

  1. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  2. Possible radio emission from Uranus at 0.5 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    Radio emission from the direction of Uranus was detected in data from the radio astronomy experiment on the IMP-6 spacecraft. Previously, emission from the direction of Jupiter and Saturn was observed by the IMP-6 at a number of frequencies near 1 MHz during the period April 1971 to October 1972. These radio bursts were identified in the IMP-6 data through an analysis of the phase of the observed modulated signal detected from the spinning dipole antenna. This technique was applied to the direction of the planet Uranus with possible positive results. Over the approximately 500 days of data, three to six bursts with unique spectral characteristics were found. Identification with Uranus is confused by the likely presence of low level terrestrial and solar emission. The observed events persisted less than three minutes and are strongest in intensity near 0.5 MHz.

  3. Effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and iron deficiency anemia on child growth and body composition through age 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jiang, Hongyu; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Duggan, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol exposure has been associated with pre- and postnatal growth restriction, but little is known about the natural history of this restriction throughout childhood or the effects of prenatal alcohol on body composition. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure on longitudinal growth and body composition. DESIGN 85 heavy drinking pregnant women (≥ 2 drinks/day or ≥ 4 drinks/occasion) and 63 abstaining and light-drinking controls (< 1 drink/day, no binging) were recruited at initiation of prenatal care in an urban obstetrical clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, and prospectively interviewed during pregnancy about alcohol, smoking, drug use, and demographics. Among their children, length/height, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6.5 and 12 months and at 5 and 9 years. Percent body fat was estimated at age 9 years using bioelectric impedance analysis. RESULTS In multiple regression models with repeated measures (adjusted for confounders), heavy alcohol exposure was associated with reductions in weight (0.6 SD), length/height (0.5 SD), and head circumference (0.9 cm) from 6.5 months to 9 years that were largely determined at birth. These effects were exacerbated by iron deficiency in infancy but were not modified by iron deficiency or measures of food security at 5 years. An alcohol-related postnatal delay in weight gain was seen at 12 months. Effects on head circumference were greater at age 9 than at other age points. Although heavy alcohol exposure was not associated with changes in body composition, children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) had lower % body fat than heavy exposed nonsyndromal and control children. CONCLUSIONS Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is related to prenatal growth restriction that persists through age 9 years and an additional delay in weight gain during infancy. FAS and PFAS diagnoses are associated with leaner body composition in later childhood. PMID

  4. BaZr0.5Ti0.5O3 : Lead-free relaxor ferroelectric or dipolar glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipič, C.; Kutnjak, Z.; Pirc, R.; Canu, G.; Petzelt, J.

    2016-06-01

    Glassy freezing dynamics was investigated in BaZr0.5Ti0.5O3 (BZT50) ceramic samples by means of dielectric spectroscopy in the frequency range 0.001 Hz-1 MHz at temperatures 10

  5. Colossal elastoresistance, electroresistance and magnetoresistance in Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liping; Guo, Xuexiang; Gao, J.

    2016-05-01

    Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 thin films on substrates of (001)-oriented LaAlO3 were epitaxially grown by pulsed laser deposition. It was found that a substrate-induced strain of ~1.3% brings a great resistivity change of ~98% at 25 K. We studied the dependence of resistivity on the applied electric current and magnetic field. In the greatly strained films of 60 nm thickness the electroresistance ER=[ρ(I1 μA)-ρ(I1000 μA)]/ρ(I1 μA) reaches ~70% at T=25 K, much higher than ER~7% in the strain-relaxed films of 400 nm thickness, implying the strain effect on ER. Also the magnetoresistance of the film falls with strain-relaxation. Therefore the electric properties of the film could be efficiently modified by strain, electric current and magnetic field. All of them may be explained by the effect on the percolative phase separation and competition in the half-doped manganite material. The manganite films located at phase boundary are expected to be an ideal compound for providing practical colossal effects of elastoresistance, electroresistance and magnetoresistance due to the multiphase coexistence.

  6. Dielectric dynamics of the polycrystalline Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pečnik, Tanja; Eršte, Andreja; Matavž, Aleksander; Bobnar, Vid; Ivanov, Maksim; Banys, Juras; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong; Malič, Barbara; Glinšek, Sebastjan

    2016-05-01

    Polycrystalline Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films, with thicknesses between 90 and 600 nm, were prepared on alumina substrates at 900 °C by chemical solution deposition (CSD) and a dielectric spectroscopy investigation of the in-plane properties was performed. The 5-kHz permittivity ε‧ shows a non-monotonic thickness dependence, reaching 1230 at room temperature for the 310-nm-thick film, whose grain size is ∼75 nm. Its 15-GHz-value and losses are 1105 and 0.05, respectively. The temperature of the permittivity maximum T max at 5 kHz decreases with increasing thickness from 277 to 250 K for the 170- and 600-nm-thick films, respectively, which has been linked to the residual biaxial stress. A hysteresis is observed in the permittivity ε‧-electric field E DC characteristics in all the films up to ∼50 K above T max . Frequency dispersion in which permittivity decreases with increasing frequency is present below T max in films thicker than 90 nm. The high permittivity values of the thinnest films, which are among the highest reported in the (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films with grain sizes below 75 nm, are a direct proof of the optimized CSD processing conditions.

  7. Structural characteristics of thermally evaporated Cu0.5Ag0.5InSe2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullu, H. H.; Parlak, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, Cu0.5Ag0.5InSe2 (CAIS) thin film samples were prepared by thermal evaporation of Cu, Ag, InSe and Se evaporants sequentially on glass substrates. Following the deposition, annealing processes were applied at different temperatures. The as-grown and annealed CAIS samples were nearly stoichiometric in the detection limit of the compositional measurement. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that they were in polycrystalline structure with a preferred orientation along the (112) direction. Moreoever, the crystallinity of the films improved with increasing annealing temperature. According to the results of Raman measurements, the highest Raman intensity was found in the A1 mode which is directly proportional to the crystallinity of the samples. The surface properties of the thin films were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These results showed that there was a Se agglomeration on the deposited film surfaces and with annealing processes segregation effects were observed on the surface of the annealed samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were carried out to get information about surface and near-surface properties of the films. The results from the surface and depth surface analyses of the films were found to be in agreement with the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis.

  8. Structural and dielectric properties of lead free Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattipaka, Srinivas; Mahesh, P.; Pamu, D.

    2016-05-01

    The lead free Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT) ceramics were synthesized by using a solid state reaction method. The effect of sintering temperature on structure and dielectric properties of BNT ceramics studied systematically. It was observed that the samples calcined at 800 °C and sintered at 1100 °C shown the maximum density (5.67 g/cm3), with larger crystallite size (52 nm), high dielectric constant (ɛr = 694 at 1 kHz), and low dielectric loss (tanδ = 0.103). The XRD pattern reveals that rhombohedral phase with R3c space group at room temperature. The temperature dependent ɛr and tanδ displayed the two phase transitions including ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric low phase transition (198 °C) and anti-ferroelectric to para electric phase transition (330 °C). The high frequency dielectric analysis revealed that weak relaxor behaviour presented in the system.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis, evolution, and electrochemical performance of LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wei; Zhong, Yan-Jun; Ji, Jun-Yi; Tang, Yan; Shen, HuiHui; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Zhong, Ben-He; Dou, Shi Xue; Zhang, Zhi-Ye

    2015-07-28

    LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 (LMFP) materials are synthesized by the hydrothermal approach in an organic-free and surfactant-free aqueous solution. The phase and morphological evolution of the material intermediates at different reaction temperatures and times are characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM, respectively. The results show that during temperature increase, the solubility product (Ksp) of the precursors (Li3PO4, Fe3(PO4)2 and (Mn,Fe)3(PO4)2) is the decisive parameter for the precipitation processes. Once the temperature locates at the range of 100-110 °C, the unstable precursors dissolve quickly and then LMFP nuclei are formed, followed by a dissolution-reprecipitation process. As the reaction progresses, the primary particles self-aggregate to form rod or plate particles to reduce the overall surface energy through oriented attachment (OA) and the Ostwald ripening (OR) mechanism. Moreover, the resultant concentration of the precursor significantly affects the crystal size of LMFP by altering the supersaturation degree of solution at the nucleation stage. The carbon coated LMFP nanostructure synthesized at 0.6 mol L(-1) (resultant concentration of PO4(3-)) delivers discharge capacities of 155, 100 and 81 mA h g(-1) at 0.1, 5 and 20 C rate, respectively. The understanding of nanostructural evolution and its influence on the electrochemical performance will pave a way for a high-performance LMFP cathode. PMID:26119980

  10. Compositional inhomogeneityand segregation in (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Kepi; Tang, Jing; Chen, Yan

    2016-03-11

    The effects of the calcination temperature of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) powder on the sintering and piezoelectric properties of KNN ceramics have been investigated in this report. KNN powders are synthesized via the solid-state approach. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction characterizations indicate that the incomplete reaction at 700 °C and 750 °C calcination results in the compositional inhomogeneity of the K-rich and Na-rich phases while the orthorhombic single phase is obtained after calcination at 900 °C. During the sintering, the presence of the liquid K-rich phase due to the lower melting point has a significant impact on the densification, the abnormalmore » grain growth and the deteriorated piezoelectric properties. From the standpoint of piezoelectric properties, the optimal calcination temperature obtained for KNN ceramics calcined at this temperature is determined to be 800 °C, with piezoelectric constant d33=128.3 pC/N, planar electromechanical coupling coefficient kp=32.2%, mechanical quality factor Qm=88, and dielectric loss tan δ=2.1%.« less

  11. Improved magnetic properties of microwave processed Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suneetha, T.; Kashyap, Subhash C.; Gupta, Hem C.

    2013-02-01

    Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles, first prepared by citrate precursor route, have been processed by two different methods to obtain polycrystalline samples. In one case the pressed pellets are processed in microwave H-field at 500 °C for different duration: 1, 3 and 5 min, and in another case the pellets are conventionally sintered at 500 °C for 180 min. The powder x-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the single cubic phase in the all samples. The scanning electron micrographs revealed the grain growth during microwave processing, with the particle size increasing to 1μm for the sample heated at 500 °C for 5 min, whereas the sintered samples had a particle size of ˜20 nm. A maximum saturation magnetization of 56 emu/g at room temperature was estimated by vibration sample magnetometer for this sample; where as conventional sintered sample has 24 emu/g. With microwave processing we can obtain microcrystalline samples with improved magnetization in a short span of 5 min.

  12. Patients Aged 80 Years or Older are Encountered More Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Li; Ding, Ding; Pu, Shi-Yun; Liu, Qin-Hui; Li, Hong; Dong, Bi-Rong; Yang, Xiao-Yan; He, Jin-Han

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are prominent prescribing issues in elderly patients. This study was to investigate the different prevalence of PIM use in elderly inpatients between 65–79 years of age and 80 years or older, who were discharged from Geriatric Department in West China Hospital. Methods: A large-scale cohort of 1796 inpatients aged 65 years or over was recruited. Respectively, 618 patients were 65–79 years and 1178 patients were 80 years or older. Updated 2012 Beers Criteria by the American Geriatric Society was applied to assess the use of PIM among the investigated samples. Results: A review of the prescribed medications identified 686 patients aged 80 years or older consumed at least one PIM giving a rate of 58.2%. Conversely, 268 (43.4%) patients aged 65–79 years consumed at least one PIM (χ2 = 40.18, P < 0.001). Patients aged 80 years or older had higher hospitalization expenses, length of stay, co-morbidities, medical prescription, and mortality than patients aged 65–79 years (all with P < 0.001). Patients aged 80 years or older were prescribed with more benzodiazepines, drugs with strong anticholinergic properties, megestrol, antipsychotics, theophylline, and aspirin. In multiple regression analysis, PIM use was significantly associated with female gender, age, number of diagnostic disease, and number of prescribed medication. Conclusions: The finding from this study revealed that inpatients aged 80 years or older encountered more PIM use than those aged 65–79 years. Anticholinergic properties, megestrol, antipsychotics, theophylline, and aspirin are medications that often prescribed to inpatients aged 80 years or older. Doctors should carefully choose drugs for the elderly, especially the elderly aged 80 years or older. PMID:26712428

  13. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  14. Reference data for ultrasonic bone measurement: variation with age in 2087 Caucasian women aged 16-93 years.

    PubMed

    Truscott, J G

    1997-10-01

    Data from the measurement of broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS), using the Lunar Achilles ultrasonic densitometer, were collected for Caucasian women from five centres in the United Kingdom (Leeds, London, Nottingham, Lincoln and Sheffield). After correcting for machine variability at each site, the data were combined into a central reference database comprising 2087 women aged 16-93 years. The data are presented in 5-year bands and show a mean fall of 0.36% per year for BUA and 0.08% per year for SOS in the 60 years following the attainment of peak bone mass. This fall in BUA compares with that observed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry studies of the lumbar spine and femoral neck of 0.32% per year and 0.44% per year, respectively, for the age range 25-65 years. PMID:9404204

  15. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  16. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  17. Photoletter to the editor: Topical 0.5% brimonidine gel to camouflage redness of immature scars.

    PubMed

    Reinholz, Markus; Heppt, Markus; Tietze, Julia K; Ruzicka, Thomas; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Schauber, Jürgen

    2015-09-30

    Cutaneous scars develop as a result of a defective wound healing process. Scars are commonly visible as erythematous, sometimes disfiguring lesions which might be stigmatizing for the affected patient. Only a few therapies to improve the appearance of scars are available. Recently, brimonidine - a selective α2-receptor-agonist which causes vasoconstriction of small cutaneous vessels - was approved for the treatment of erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea. Topical brimonidine might also be helpful to improve redness of immature scars. Here we report on the effect of brimonidine 0.5% gel on a flat, erythematous scar in a 25-year-old female patient. Whitening of the scar could be observed immediately after application of brimonidine 0.5% gel and a good clinical result was observed within one hour. This effect lasted for up to three hours. We conclude that brimonidine 0.5% gel is a suitable topical therapy to reduce erythema in visible cutaneous scars. PMID:26512307

  18. Assessment for Children Ages 3 to 8 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guddemi, Marcy Priess

    For several decades there has been a loud outcry from the early childhood education community that assessment, especially standardized assessment, is inappropriate during the early years. As we move through the first decade of the twenty-first century, there is a new public outcry for standards and accountability--even for preschool programs.…

  19. Compositional variations in In0.5Ga0.5N nanorods grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherns, D.; Webster, R. F.; Novikov, S. V.; Foxon, C. T.; Fischer, A. M.; Ponce, F. A.; Haigh, S. J.

    2014-05-01

    The composition of InxGa1 - xN nanorods grown by molecular beam epitaxy with nominal x = 0.5 has been mapped by electron microscopy using Z-contrast imaging and x-ray microanalysis. This shows a coherent and highly strained core-shell structure with a near-atomically sharp boundary between a Ga-rich shell (x ˜ 0.3) and an In-rich core (x ˜ 0.7), which itself has In- and Ga-rich platelets alternating along the growth axis. It is proposed that the shell and core regions are lateral and vertical growth sectors, with the core structure determined by spinodal decomposition.

  20. Design of Si0.5Ge0.5 based tunnel field effect transistor and its performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Amin, S. Intekhab; Anand, Sunny; Sarin, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the performance comparison of two heterojunction PIN TFETs having Si channel and Si0.5Ge0.5 source with high-k (SiGe DGTFET HK) and hetero-gate dielectric (SiGe DGTFET HG) respectively with those of two homojunction Si based PIN (DGTFET HK and DGTFET HG) TFETs is performed. Similarly, by employing the technique of pocketing at source junction in above four PIN TFETs, the performances of resultant four PNPN TFETs (SiGe PNPN DGTFET HK, SiGe PNPN DGTFET HG, PNPN DGTFET HK and PNPN DGTFET HG) are also compared with each other. Due to lower tunnel resistance of SiGe based heterojunction PIN and PNPN TFETs, the DC parameters such as ON current, ON-OFF current ratio, average subthreshold slope are improved significantly as compared to Si based PIN and PNPN TFETs respectively. The output characteristics of HG architectures in Si based homojunction PIN and PNPN TFETs is observed to be identical to with respective Si based HK PIN and PNPN TFET architectures. However, the output characteristics of HG architectures in SiGe based heterojunction PIN and PNPN TFETs degrade as compared to their respective SiGe based HK PIN and PNPN TFET architectures. In ON state, SiGe based HK and HG PIN and PNPN TFETs have lower gate capacitance (Cgg) as compared to their respective Si based HK and HG PIN and PNPN TFETs. Moreover, HG architecture suppresses gate to drain capacitance (Cgd) and ambipolar conduction. Transconductance (gm) and cut off frequency (fT) is also observed to be higher for SiGe based PIN and PNPN TFETs.

  1. Possible radio emission from Uranus at 0.5 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Radio emission from the direction of Uranus has been detected in data from the Goddard radio astronomy experiment on the IMP-6 spacecraft. Previously, emission from the direction of Jupiter and Saturn had been observed by IMP-6 at a number of frequencies near 1 MHz and were identified through an analysis of the phase of the observed modulated signal detected from the spinning dipole antenna. This technique was applied to the direction of Uranus with possible positive results. Over the approximately 500 days of data, three to six bursts with unique spectral characteristics have been found. The events persisted less than 3 minutes and are strongest in intensity near 0.5 MHz. Identification with Uranus is confused by the likely presence of low-level terrestrial and solar emission. Because of the unfavorable angular separation of earth and Uranus, there is a possibility that the bursts are atypical terrestrial magnetospheric phenomena, although the uniqueness of the set of events indicates the probable detection of radiation from Uranus.

  2. [Pancreatic cystic fibrosis in Mexicans over 15 years of age].

    PubMed

    Quezada, R; Hernandez, N; Sada, E

    1990-01-01

    A better knowledge of cystic fibrosis of the pancreas has contributed to raise the detection of cystic fibrosis in adults. We describe nine Mexican patients older than 15 years with cystic fibrosis. Respiratory symptoms were predominant and they were secondary to bronchiectasis. All patients were infected by mucoid Pseudomona aeruginosa and in some cases, the finding of this microorganism in sputum suggested the diagnosis. In Mexican population the cystyc fibrosis of the pancreas can be found in adult patients, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic respiratory diseases in adults. PMID:2125356

  3. Validity of demirjian and nolla methods for dental age estimation for Northeastern Turkish children aged 5–16 years old

    PubMed Central

    Nur, Bilge; Kusgoz, Adem; Bayram, Mehmet; Nur, Metin; Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Yildirim, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the applicability of Demirjian and Nolla methods for northeastern Turkish population. Material and Method: A retrospective study was performed on panoramic radiographs of 673 subjects aged 5–15.9 years. The mean dental age (DA) according to the Demirjian and Nolla methods were compared to the mean chronological age (CA). Results: The mean CA of the study sample was 10.37±2.90 and 10.03±2.81 years for females and males, respectively. Using the Demirjian method, the mean estimated DA was 11.26±3.02 years for females and 10.87±2.96 years for males. For Nolla method, the mean estimated DA was 9.80±3.41 and 9.53±3.14 years for females and males, respectively. The mean differences between the CA and DA according to the Demirjian and Nolla methods were 0.86 and -0.54 years for total study sample. Conclusion: Nolla method was found to be a more accurate method for estimating DA in northeastern Turkish population. Key words:Dental age, demirjian method, nolla method, chronological age. PMID:22549686

  4. Initial oxidation kinetics and energetics of Cu 0.5Au 0.5 (0 0 1) film investigated by in situ ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Zhou, Guang-Wen; Eastman, Jeffrey A.; Yang, Judith C.

    2006-06-01

    The initial oxidation behavior of Cu 0.5Au 0.5 (0 0 1) thin film was investigated by in situ ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscopy to model nano-oxidation of alloys with one active component and one noble component. The formation of irregular-shaped octahedron Cu 2O islands with cube-on-cube crystallographic orientation to the substrate film was observed at all temperature studied. The energetics of Cu 2O nucleation for Cu and Cu 0.5Au 0.5 oxidation was compared. Cu 0.5Au 0.5 oxidation has lower nucleation activation energy due to the reduced mismatch strain between Cu 2O and Cu 0.5Au 0.5 films. On the other hand, the reaction kinetics for Cu 0.5Au 0.5 alloy oxidation is slower due to the higher diffusion activation energy of Cu.

  5. The formative years: medical ethics comes of age.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alastair V

    2015-01-01

    When the Journal of Medical Ethics first appeared in April 1975, the prospects of success seemed uncertain. There were no scholars specialising in the field, the readership could not be guaranteed, and the medical profession itself seemed, at the very least, ambivalent about a subject thought by many to be the province of doctors alone, to be acquired through an apprenticeship model, and certainly not taught or examined in any formal sense. However, change was afoot, fresh scandals created an awareness that outside help was needed to think through the new challenges facing the profession, and the success of the medical groups revealed a clear way forward through multidisciplinary and critically reflective discussion of the host of emerging ethical and legal issues. In this article the formative years of the journal are recaptured, with a claim that the core principles on which it was founded must endure if it is to continue to 'do good medical ethics' over the next 40 years. PMID:25516923

  6. Comparative clinicopathological and outcome analysis of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged below 60 years and above 60 years

    PubMed Central

    AL-Qahtani, Khalid Hussain; Tunio, Mutahir A; Asiri, Mushabbab Al; Bayoumi, Yasser; Balbaid, Ali; Aljohani, Naji J; Fatani, Hanadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged above 60 years. Materials and methods Comparative analysis was performed in 252 patients aged 46–60 years (Group A) and 118 patients aged above 60 years (Group B), who had thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine-131, and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy between July 2000 and December 2012. Different clinicopathological features, treatment, complications, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were compared. Results Mean age of patients in Group A was 51.9 years (range: 46–60), and mean age of those in Group B was 68.6 years (range: 62–97). Group B patients had higher positive lymph nodes (43.2%), P=0.011. The frequency of extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, and lymphovascular space invasion was seen more in Group B than in Group A. Postsurgical complications (permanent hypoparathyroidism, bleeding, and wound infections) were also seen more in Group B (P=0.043, P=0.011, and P=0.021, respectively). Group B patients experienced more locoregional recurrences (11.0%, P=0.025); similarly, more distant metastases were observed in Group B (15.3%, P=0.003). The 10-year disease-free survival rates were 87.6% in Group A and 70.8% in Group B (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients aged above 60 years are more aggressive biologically and associated with a worse prognosis, and the morbidity is significantly high as compared to patients aged below 60 years. PMID:27621604

  7. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations

    PubMed Central

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. Methods The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. Results During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). Conclusion It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group. PMID:25993070

  8. Bilateral transfer in mentally retarded children of ages 7 to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Byrd, R; Gibson, M

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of age on bilateral transfer of mildly mentally retarded girls (IQs of 70 to 90) after practice on a 45-rpm rotary pursuit task. Subjects were 96 girls from 7 to 17 yr. old. Each performed 14 trials on a rotary pursuit task (30-sec. trials, 10 sec. between trials), half performing the first seven trials with the nonpreferred hand, using the preferred hand on the next seven trials. The order was reversed for the remaining subjects. Nonsignificant differences between Trial 1 scores of the two groups indicated that the task was novel. Trial 1 scores of both groups were positively associated with age (r = 0.5). There was no transfer to preferred hand, with negative transfer occurring to the nonpreferred hand. It was concluded that, for the task used in this study, mentally retarded girls do not experience positive bilateral transfer as do normal, age-matched girls. PMID:3362629

  9. Epitaxial La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 thin films: Structure, magnetism, and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torija, M. A.; Sharma, M.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Varela, M.; Leighton, C.

    2008-07-01

    La1-xSrxCoO3 has received considerable attention in bulk form. This is due to interest in the fundamental magnetic properties (spin-state transitions and magnetic phase separation) as well as potential applications in ferroelectric memory and solid-oxide fuel cells. The structure and properties in thin film form are not well understood, and the influence of dimensional confinement on effects such as magnetic phase separation is unknown. Here, we report a comprehensive investigation of structure, magnetism, and transport in strained epitaxial La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (001) films deposited on SrTiO3 (001) substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. The crystalline quality, phase purity, strain state, oxygen stoichiometry, morphology, and magnetic and electronic properties of the epilayers are all probed and are found to be particularly sensitive to the total sputtering gas pressure and the ratio of reactive to inert gas (PO2/PAr). The various structure-property relationships are discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the degree of oxygenation and oxygen-induced resputtering. The films are strained and tetragonally distorted due to the 1.9% lattice mismatch with SrTiO3. Significant strain relaxation occurs at thicknesses around 200 Å, resulting in a crossover from two-dimensional-like to three-dimensional growth. Polarized neutron reflectometry was combined with x-ray reflectometry to obtain chemical and magnetic depth profiles, which are compared with cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate a thin (˜10 Å) layer at the film/substrate interface with significantly different structural properties to the bulk of the film, as well as a strongly graded magnetic and chemical profile at the film surface due to the significant roughness. The Curie temperature was found to decrease very slowly as the thickness is reduced down to ˜50 Å, at which point a rapid decrease occurs, almost coincident with a sharp decrease in saturation

  10. Electric polarization of Sr0.5Ba0.5MnO3: a multiferroic Mott insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourafkan, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroics, materials which display simultaneous magnetic and ferroelectric orders, are interesting both for their rich physics and for their promising practical applications. The search for multiferroic materials with strong-magnetoelectric coupling is challenging and requires an understanding of how the magnetic order, or more specifically the correlations, influence the electric polarization and vice versa. A calculations of the electric polarization in the paramagnetic (PM) insulating phase of multiferroics is essential to address this mutual influence. Ab inito calculations of the electric polarization are based on the modern theory of polarization, which is a single-electron theory. Thus, a correlation driven insulating state is beyond the scope of this approach. Here we show that combining correlated band structure calculations (DFT+DMFT) with a formula for the electric polarization of interacting insulators, expressed in terms of the full Green and vertex functions, allows for the first time to reliably calculate the polarization in the PM phase. We focus on the Mott insulator Sr0.5Ba0.5MnO3, in which both magnetic and ferroelectric instabilities are related to the Mn ions. We predict a ferroelectric polarization of ~= 16 . 5 μC / cm2 in the high temperature paramagnetic phase and recover the measured value of ~= 13 . 3 μC / cm2 in the low temperature antiferromagnetic phase. Our calculations reveal that the the driving force behind the ferroelectric distortion comes from the tendency of Mn eg states to establish a stronger covalency with the surrounding oxygens. This covalency is reduced by correlations, in particular by Hund coupling. On the other hand, the half-filled Mn t2 g orbitals give rise to the magnetic ordering which decreases the ionic displacement, hence its contribution to the polarization. For fixed ionic displacement, the magnetic order also slightly decreases the electronic contribution to the electric polarization by partially

  11. Upper critical fields in a FeSe0.5Te0.5 superconducting single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco-Soto, D.; Rivera-Gómez, F. J.; Santillán-Rodríguez, C. R.; Sáenz-Hernández, R. J.; Botello-Zubiate, M. E.; Matutes Aquino, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    A single crystal with a nominal composition FeSe0.5Te0.5 was obtained by the Bridgman method. A quartz ampulla with the sample inside was vacuum-sealed and maintained at 1050 °C for 37 h to homogenize the sample. Subsequently, the quartz ampulla with the sample was moved with a speed of 2.2 mm/h to a furnace which was at 450 °C. X-ray diffraction confirmed the tetragonal structure of the grown single crystal with the cleavage plane corresponding to the ab plane. Resistance measurements were carried out with magnetic fields from 0 to 9 T, applied parallel to the c axis and ab plane, respectively. A zero-field critical temperature Tc = 14 K was determined. The upper critical field vs. temperature phase diagram was built for temperatures where the resistance drops to 90%, 50%, and 10% of the normal state resistance. The linear extrapolation to T = 0 K gave upper critical fields of 57.2, 51.8, and 46.0 T for Hǁc axis and 109.6, 95.5, and 80.9 T for Hǁab. Applying the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg (WHH) theory, upper critical fields of 39.6, 35.9, and 31.8 T and coherence lengths of 28.8, 30.3, and 32.1 Å were obtained for Hǁc; while for Hǁab, upper critical fields of 51.3, 40.7, and 37.5 T and coherence lengths of 22.3, 26.7, and 31.5 Å were obtained. The value of μ0Hc2/kBTc calculated by the WHH theory exceeds the Pauli limit (1.84 T/K) indicating the unconventional nature of superconductivity. The activation energy U0 has two different rates of change with the applied magnetic field probably due to two different thermal activation mechanisms; the origin of which requires further investigation. A similar behavior is observed in the irreversibility lines.

  12. Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

    1996-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

  13. Crystal structure, oxidation state and magnetism of SrxLa2-xCu0.5Ru0.5O4 (x=1, 1.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Minfeng; Deng, Xiaolong; Waerenborgh, João C.; Wu, Xiaojie; Meng, Jian

    2014-03-01

    SrxLa2-xCu0.5Ru0.5O4 (x=1, 1.5) oxides with K2NiF4-type structure were prepared by solid state reaction and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, magnetic and electrical resistivity measurements. The SrLaCu0.5Ru0.5O4 phase was obtained for the first time with a negligible amount of impurities. The octahedral Cu/RuO6 units are more elongated in SrLaCu0.5Ru0.5O4 than in Sr1.5La0.5Cu0.5Ru0.5O4 indicating a greater extent of static Jahn-Teller distortion. XPS suggests that mixed ion pairs Ru5+/Ru4+↔Cu+/Cu2+ are present in SrLaCu0.5Ru0.5O4, while Ru remains as Ru5+ and Cu as Cu2+ in Sr1.5La0.5Cu0.5Ru0.5O4. Both samples show spin-glass behavior, which can be explained by competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions. The negative Weiss temperature estimated for SrLaCu0.5Ru0.5O4, -318 K, is significantly lower than -11.5 K deduced for Sr1.5La0.5Cu0.5Ru0.5O4 which may be related to the higher static Jahn-Teller distortion in the former oxide.

  14. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  15. Giant Dielectric Behavior of BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3 Perovskite Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intatha, Uraiwan; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Tunkasiri, Tawee

    2009-12-01

    Single-phase cubic Ba(Fe,Nb)0.5O3 (BFN) powder was synthesized by solid-state reaction at 1443 K for 4 hour in air. X-ray diffraction indicated that the BFN oxide mixture calcined at 1200°C crystallizes to the pure cubic perovskite phase. BFN ceramics were produced from this powder by sintering at 1623-1673 K for 4 hrs in air. Samples prepared under these conditions achieved up to 94.7% of the theoretical density. The temperature dependence of their dielectric constant and loss tangent, measured at difference frequencies, shows an increase in the dielectric constant with temperature which is probably due to disorder on the B site ion of the perovskite. Non-Debye type of relaxation phenomena has been observed in the BFN ceramics as confirmed by Cole-Cole plots. The higher value of ɛ' at the lower frequency is explained on the basis of the Maxwell-Wagner (MW) polarization model.

  16. Giant Dielectric Behavior of BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3 Perovskite Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intatha, Uraiwan; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Tunkasiri, Tawee

    Single-phase cubic Ba(Fe,Nb)0.5O3 (BFN) powder was synthesized by solid-state reaction at 1443 K for 4 hour in air. X-ray diffraction indicated that the BFN oxide mixture calcined at 1200°C crystallizes to the pure cubic perovskite phase. BFN ceramics were produced from this powder by sintering at 1623-1673 K for 4 hrs in air. Samples prepared under these conditions achieved up to 94.7% of the theoretical density. The temperature dependence of their dielectric constant and loss tangent, measured at difference frequencies, shows an increase in the dielectric constant with temperature which is probably due to disorder on the B site ion of the perovskite. Non-Debye type of relaxation phenomena has been observed in the BFN ceramics as confirmed by Cole-Cole plots. The higher value of ɛ‧ at the lower frequency is explained on the basis of the Maxwell-Wagner (MW) polarization model.

  17. Defect distribution and compositional inhomogeneities in Al0.5Ga0.5N layers grown on stepped surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogilatenko, A.; Knauer, A.; Zeimer, U.; Weyers, M.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports on defect distribution and compositional homogeneity of Al x Ga1-x N layers with a nominal composition x of 0.5 grown on AlN by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. The AlN layers with a low threading dislocation density (TDD) of a few 108 cm-2 were obtained by ELO and showed periodic surface macrosteps. Al x Ga1-x N growth on these AlN surfaces results in inhomogeneous Ga distribution due to enhanced Ga incorporation on the macrostep sidewalls. Variation of AlGaN deposition rate strongly influences the Ga distribution as well as the defect structure in the layers. Low growth rates (0.2 μm h-1) result in an inhomogeneous TD distribution with formation of alternating stripes with lower and higher defect densities. Additionally, self-organized formation of additional Ga-rich areas at the top edge of the steps is observed. In contrast, at a higher growth rate of 1 μm h-1 the formation of additional Ga-rich areas can be completely suppressed, but the defect density increases. This leads to an optimum growth rate to minimize the TDD.

  18. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  19. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  20. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  1. 29 CFR 570.33 - Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.33 Section 570.33 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age...

  2. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  3. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  4. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  5. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  6. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  7. A Brief Screening Battery for Predicting School Achievement at Ages Seven and Nine Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Robert; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The Beery-Butkenica Developmental Test and the Caldwell Test were the best predictors. Combining the academic performance with visual-motor integration results at age seven years yielded 89 percent accuracy of prediction at age nine years. The false-positive rate represents the problem of mislabeling children as school failures. (Author)

  8. Ten-Year Echo/Doppler Determination of the Benefits of Aerobic Exercise after the Age of 65 Years

    PubMed Central

    Muster, Alexander J.; Kim, Hyunggun; Kane, Bonnie; McPherson, David D.

    2011-01-01

    As the human lifespan becomes progressively extended, potential health-related effects of intense aerobic exercise after age 65 need evaluation. This study evaluates the cardiovascular (CV), pulmonary, and metabolic effects of competitive distance running on age-related deterioration in men between 69 (±3) and 77 (±2) years (mean ±SD). Twelve elderly competitive distance runners (ER) underwent oxygen consumption and echo/Doppler treadmill stress testing (Balke protocol) for up to 10 years. Twelve age-matched sedentary controls (SC) with no history of CV disease were similarly tested and the results compared for the initial three series of the study. CV data clearly separated the ER from SC. At entry, resting and maximal heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, peak oxygen consumption (VO2max), and E/A ratio of mitral inflow were better in the ER (P < 0.05 vs. SC). With aging, ER had a less deterioration of multiple health parameters. Exceptions were VO2max and left ventricular diastolic function (E/A, AFF, IVRT) that decreased (P < 0.05, Year 10 vs. Year 1). Health advantages of high-level aerobic exercise were demonstrated in the ER when compared to SC. Importantly, data collected in ER over 10 years confirm the benefit of intensive exercise for slowing several negative effects of aging. However, the normative drop of exercise capacity in the seventh and eighth decades reduces the potential athleticism plays in prevention of CV events. PMID:19765066

  9. Ten-year echo/doppler determination of the benefits of aerobic exercise after the age of 65 years.

    PubMed

    Muster, Alexander J; Kim, Hyunggun; Kane, Bonnie; McPherson, David D

    2010-01-01

    As the human lifespan becomes progressively extended, potential health-related effects of intense aerobic exercise after age 65 need evaluation. This study evaluates the cardiovascular (CV), pulmonary, and metabolic effects of competitive distance running on age-related deterioration in men between 69 (+/-3) and 77 (+/-2) years (mean +/- SD). Twelve elderly competitive distance runners (ER) underwent oxygen consumption and echo/Doppler treadmill stress testing (Balke protocol) for up to 10 years. Twelve age-matched sedentary controls (SC) with no history of CV disease were similarly tested and the results compared for the initial three series of the study. CV data clearly separated the ER from SC. At entry, resting and maximal heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, peak oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), and E/A ratio of mitral inflow were better in the ER (P < 0.05 vs. SC). With aging, ER had a less deterioration of multiple health parameters. Exceptions were VO(2max) and left ventricular diastolic function (E/A, AFF, IVRT) that decreased (P < 0.05, Year 10 vs. Year 1). Health advantages of high-level aerobic exercise were demonstrated in the ER when compared to SC. Importantly, data collected in ER over 10 years confirm the benefit of intensive exercise for slowing several negative effects of aging. However, the normative drop of exercise capacity in the seventh and eighth decades reduces the potential athleticism plays in prevention of CV events. PMID:19765066

  10. First-principles investigations on thermodynamic properties of the ordered and disordered Si0.5Ge0.5 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Suhong; Sun, Xiaowei; Wang, Limin; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

    2014-05-01

    The structure, formation energy, and thermodynamic properties of Si0.5Ge0.5 alloys are investigated through first-principles method. The ordered and disordered structures of Si0.5Ge0.5 compounds are considered. Our results show that thermodynamic instabilities of Si0.5Ge0.5 alloys at 0 K can be judged from the calculated formation energy. However, the alloy might be prepared at specified environment owing to the entropy effects considered. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the heat capacity, Debye temperature and thermal expansion coefficient of ordered and disordered structures are discussed.

  11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of direct reforming catalysts Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d (Ln = La, Nd, and Sm) for high temperature-operating solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keunsoo; Jeong, Jihoon; Azad, Abul K.; Jin, Sang Beom; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Chemical states of lanthanide doped perovskite for direct reforming anode catalysts, Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d (Ln = La, Nd, and Sm) have been studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) in order to determine the effects of various lanthanide substitution in complex perovskites for high temperature-operating solid oxide fuel cells (HT-SOFC). The charge state of lanthanide ions remained at 3+ and the binding energies of the lanthanide ions in Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d were located in a relatively lower range compared to those of conventional lanthanide oxides. Mn and Ti were regarded as charge compensation components in Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d; Mn was more influential than Ti. In the cases of substituting Nd and Sm into Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d, some portion of Ti showed metallic behavior; the specific Mn satellite peak indicating an electro-catalytic effect had occurred. Three types of oxygen species comprised of lattice oxygen, carbonate species, and adsorbed oxygen species were observed in Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d from the O 1s spectra; a high portion of lattice oxygen was observed in both Nd0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d (NSTM) and Sm0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d (SSTM). In various respects, NSTM and SSTM will be desirable reforming catalysts and anode candidates for high temperature solid oxide fuel cell.

  12. Does early establishment of favorable oral health behavior influence caries experience at age 5 years?

    PubMed Central

    Wigen, Tove I.; Wang, Nina J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to study associations between tooth brushing frequency, use of fluoride lozenges and consumption of sugary drinks at 1.5 year of age and having caries experience at 5 years of age. Methods This study was based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and by the Public Dental Services. A total of 1095 children were followed from pregnancy to the age of 5 years. Questionnaires regarding oral health behavior were completed by the parents at 1.5 and 5 years of age. Clinical and radiographic examination of the children was performed at the age of 5 years. Results In multiple logistic regression, having caries experience at 5 years of age was associated with; at 1.5 year of age having the teeth brushed less than twice daily (OR 2.1, CI 1.3–3.6) and being offered sugary drinks at least once a week (OR 1.8, CI 1.1–2.9) when controlled for family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. Conclusions Tooth brushing frequency and consumption of sugary drinks in early childhood were related to caries development during preschool age independent of family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. The results indicate that early established habits regarding tooth brushing and consumption of sugary drinks have long term effects on caries development. Parents encountering difficulties in establishing favorable oral health behavior in children’s first years of life should receive special attention from health personnel. PMID:25385683

  13. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  14. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age. PMID:23551758

  15. Predictors and characteristics of successful aging among men: a 48-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Jerry F

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult predictors of favorable overall outcome included good peer social adjustment, an absence of troubled parental discipline, and an absence of immature defensive behaviors when angry. However, young adult factors were more predictive of outcomes in middle age than in early old age, as predictor effect sizes decreased between the first follow-up and the second follow-up 16 years later. Findings support the possibility of both favorable and unfavorable changes in the second half of life that may diminish the impact of some young adult characteristics and family environments on adjustment in early old age. PMID:23855185

  16. Radical Prostatectomy in Korean Men Aged 75-Years or Older: Safety and Efficacy in Comparison with Patients Aged 65–69 Years

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of male cancer worldwide. Although radical prostatectomy (RP) is advised for prostate cancer in patients with a life expectancy of more than 10 years by various guidelines, most elderly men still do not undergo the procedure regardless of increasing life expectancy. This study aimed to determine whether RP is suitable for patients with prostate cancer aged 75 years or older. A retrospective study of patients who underwent RP at 6 institutions between 2005 and 2012 was conducted. Patients were divided into 2 groups at the time of surgery: 65–69 years (younger group) and 75 years or older (older group). We compared clinical characteristics, pathological results, complication rates, and recurrence-free survival between the two groups. Compared with the younger group, the older group had significantly higher preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen level, pre- and postoperative Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status grade, hypertension prevalence, and Gleason score at biopsy and RP. However, except urinary incontinence, there were no statistically significant differences in the peri- and post-operative complications. After median follow-up periods of 36 months (younger group) and 40 months (older group), the biochemical recurrence-free survival rates were not significantly different (P = 0.581). Although the urinary incontinence rate was higher in the older group, RP was a suitable option for selected Korean men aged 75 years or older with limited complication rates and excellent outcomes similar to those for patients aged 65–69 years. PMID:27247506

  17. Radical Prostatectomy in Korean Men Aged 75-Years or Older: Safety and Efficacy in Comparison with Patients Aged 65-69 Years.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Beom; Jung, Tae Young; Kim, Sun Il; Byun, Seok-Soo; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Kim, Duk Yoon; Oh, Tae Hee; Yoo, Tag Keun; Ko, Woo Jin

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of male cancer worldwide. Although radical prostatectomy (RP) is advised for prostate cancer in patients with a life expectancy of more than 10 years by various guidelines, most elderly men still do not undergo the procedure regardless of increasing life expectancy. This study aimed to determine whether RP is suitable for patients with prostate cancer aged 75 years or older. A retrospective study of patients who underwent RP at 6 institutions between 2005 and 2012 was conducted. Patients were divided into 2 groups at the time of surgery: 65-69 years (younger group) and 75 years or older (older group). We compared clinical characteristics, pathological results, complication rates, and recurrence-free survival between the two groups. Compared with the younger group, the older group had significantly higher preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen level, pre- and postoperative Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status grade, hypertension prevalence, and Gleason score at biopsy and RP. However, except urinary incontinence, there were no statistically significant differences in the peri- and post-operative complications. After median follow-up periods of 36 months (younger group) and 40 months (older group), the biochemical recurrence-free survival rates were not significantly different (P = 0.581). Although the urinary incontinence rate was higher in the older group, RP was a suitable option for selected Korean men aged 75 years or older with limited complication rates and excellent outcomes similar to those for patients aged 65-69 years. PMID:27247506

  18. Structure and dielectric properties of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-CaTiO3 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birks, E.; Dunce, M.; Ignatans, R.; Kuzmin, A.; Plaude, A.; Antonova, M.; Kundzins, K.; Sternberg, A.

    2016-02-01

    Despite wide studies of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3, structure of this material and its connection with the observed physical properties still raise numerous questions due to mutually contradicting results obtained. Here, structure and dielectric properties of poled and unpoled Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-CaTiO3 solid solutions are studied, projecting the obtained concentration dependence of structure and dielectric properties on pure Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 as the end member of this material group. X-ray diffraction patterns for Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-CaTiO3 solid solutions reveal dominating of an orthorhombic Pnma phase, even for the compositions approaching the end composition (Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3), whereas structure of pure Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 can be considered, assuming coexistence of rhombohedral and orthorhombic phases. This allows one to avoid appearance of a large difference of rhombohedral distortions between the unpoled and poled Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3, if the rhombohedral distortion is calculated as for single R3c phase. Features of dielectric permittivity, corresponding to the observed structural phase transition, are identified. It is discussed that the rhombohedral R3c phase is responsible for appearance of the frequency-dependent shoulder of dielectric permittivity temperature dependence, characteristic for unpoled Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3.

  19. Early Childhood: Where Learning Begins. Geography. With Activities for Children Ages 2 to 5 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromboluti, Carol Sue; Seefeldt, Carol

    This resource book is intended to aid parents of children aged 2 to 5 years in teaching geography. The book offers ideas about how to encourage and give direction to enable young children to develop the vocabulary, awareness, and curiosity necessary to lay the foundation for the study of geography. Suggested activities are included and are…

  20. Continuity and Change in General Cognitive Ability from 1 to 7 years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Lon R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Yearly cognitive tests were administered to adoptive and nonadoptive siblings between one and seven years of age and identical and nonidentical twins between one and three years. Results indicated that genetic influences are a source of continuity and change in mental development, whereas shared and nonshared environmental effects contribute to…

  1. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

  2. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  3. One-dimensional SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers and enhancement magnetic property.

    PubMed

    Song, Fuzhan; Shen, Xiangqian; Liu, Mingquan; Xiang, Jun

    2011-08-01

    SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers of diameters about 100 nm with mass ratio 1:1 have been prepared by the electrospinning and calcination process. The SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrites are formed after calcined at 700 degrees C for 2 hours. The composite ferrite nanofibers are fabricated from nanosized Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 and SrFe12O19 ferrite grains with a uniform phase distribution. The ferrite grain size increases from about 11 to 36 nm for Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe12O4 and 24 to 56 nm for SrFe12O19 with the calcination temperature increasing from 700 to 1100 degrees C. With the ferrite grain size increasing, the coercivity (Hc) and remanence (Mr) for the SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers initially increase, reaching a maximum value of 118.4 kA/m and 31.5 Am2/kg at the grain size about 40 nm (SrFe12O19) and 24 nm (Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4) respectively, and then show a reduction tendency with a further increase of the ferrite grain size. The specific saturation magnetization (Msh) of 63.2 Am2/kg for the SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers obtained at 900 degrees C for 2 hours locates between that for the single SrFe12O19 ferrite (48.5 Am2/kg) and the single Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 ferrite (69.3 Am2/kg). In particular, the Mr value 31.5 Am2/kg for the SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers is much higher than that for the individual SrFe12O19 (25.9 Am2/kg) and Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 ferrite (11.2 Am2/kg). These enhanced magnetic properties for the composite ferrite nanofibers can be attributed to the exchange-coupling interaction in the composite. PMID:22103109

  4. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years after Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik Olsson, M.; Lundström, S.; Westerlund, J.; Giacobini, M. B.; Gillberg, C.; Fernell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated--34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with…

  5. Hydrogen attack of carbon-0. 5 molybdenum piping in ammonia synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, K.L.; Krishna, G.V.; Bucci, D.P.

    1986-07-01

    During a 1984 ammonia plant turnaround, the converter exit piping was tested for hydrogen damage using the ultrasonic attenuation method. The results indicated that a 15-ft (4.6-m) length of C-0.5 Mo piping had suffered significant hydrogen damage and had numerous blisters on the inside diameter of the pipe. A metallurgical examination showed extensive fissuring and decarburization to about 40% of the pipe wall. Analysis revealed that the carbide structure in the C-0.5 Mo material was essentially all Fe/sub 3/C, though the chemistry of the pipe had 0.58 wt% Mo. Accordingly, the resistance to hydrogen attack of the pipe was similar to that of carbon steel and probably occurred over the entire 11 years of service, enhanced during the last 14 to 24 months by the converter exit temperature increase.

  6. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion in Patients Aged <75 to ≥ 75 Years.

    PubMed

    Freixa, Xavier; Gafoor, Sameer; Regueiro, Ander; Cruz-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Shakir, Samera; Omran, Heyder; Berti, Sergio; Santoro, Gennaro; Kefer, Joelle; Landmesser, Ulf; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik; Sievert, Horst; Kanagaratnam, Prapa; Nietlispach, Fabian; Gloekler, Steffen; Aminian, Adel; Danna, Paolo; Rezzaghi, Marco; Stock, Friederike; Stolcova, Miroslava; Costa, Marco; Ibrahim, Reda; Schillinger, Wolfgang; Park, Jai-Wun; Meier, Bernhard; Tzikas, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is emerging as a promising alternative to oral anticoagulation. Because aged patients present a greater risk of not only cardioembolic events but also major bleeding, LAAO might represent a valid alternative as this would allow oral anticoagulation cessation while keeping cardioembolic protection. The objective of the study was to explore the safety and efficacy of LAAO in elderly patients. Data from the AMPLATZER Cardiac Plug multicenter registry were analyzed. The cohort was categorized in 2 groups (<75 vs ≥ 75 years). A total of 1,053 subjects were included in the registry. Of them, 219 were excluded because of combined procedures. As a result, 828 subjects were included (54.6% ≥ 75 years). Procedural success was high and similar in both groups (97.3%). Acute procedural major adverse events were not statistically different among groups (3.2% in <75 years vs 5.1%; p = 0.17) although stratified analysis showed a higher incidence of cardiac tamponade in elderly patients (0.5% vs 2.2%; p = 0.04). With a median follow-up of 16.8 months, no significant differences in stroke/TIA (1.9% vs 2.3%; p = 0.89) and major bleeding (1.7% vs 2.6%; p = 0.54) were observed. In conclusion, LAAO was associated with similar procedural success in patients aged <75 and ≥ 75 years although older patients had a higher incidence of cardiac tamponade. At follow-up, stroke and major bleeding rates were similar among groups. PMID:26552507

  7. Does age at first treatment episode make a difference in outcomes over 11 years?

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Weisner, Constance; Grella, Christine E; Hser, Yih-Ing; Moore, Charles; Mertens, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the associations between age at first substance use treatment entry and trajectory of outcomes over 11 years. We found significant differences in individual and treatment characteristics between adult intakes first treated during young adulthood (25 years or younger) and those first treated at an older age. Compared to their first treated older age counterparts matched on demographics and dependence type, those who entered first treatment during young adulthood had on average an earlier onset for substance use but a shorter duration between first substance use and first treatment entry; they also had worse alcohol and other drug outcomes 11 years post treatment entry. While subsequent substance use treatment and 12-step meeting attendance are important for both age groups in maintaining positive outcomes, relationships varied by age group. Findings underline the importance of different continuing care management strategies for those entering first treatment at different developmental stages. PMID:24462221

  8. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and β-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health. PMID:26286042

  9. Superconductivity phase diagram of Se-substituted CeO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu; Hiroi, Takafumi; Miura, Osuke

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of Se substitution on the lattice constants and superconducting properties of CeO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2. With increasing Se concentration, the a lattice constant increased, while the c lattice constant did not show any significant increase between x = 0.1 and x = 0.5. Bulk superconductivity was observed in samples with x = 0.2-0.4, and the superconducting transition temperature was the highest at x = 0.3. The obtained superconductivity phase diagram was compared to those of LaO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2 and NdO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2.

  10. The efficacy of adding dexamethasone, midazolam, or epinephrine to 0.5% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    El-Baradey, Ghada F.; Elshmaa, Nagat S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to assess the effectiveness of adding either dexamethasone or midazolam in comparison with epinephrine addition to 0.5% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Settings and Design: This is a prospective randomized controlled observer-blinded study. Subjects and Methods: This study was carried out in Tanta University Hospital on 60 patients of both sexes; American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I and II, age range from 18 to 45 years undergo elective surgery to upper limb. All patients were anesthetized with ultrasound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block and randomly divided into three groups (each group 20 patients) Group E (epinephrine): 30 mL bupivacaine 0.5%with 1:200,000 epinephrine (5 μg/mL). Group D (dexamethasone): 30 mL bupivacaine 0.5% and dexamethasone 8 mg. Group M (midazolam): 30 ml bupivacaine 0.5% and midazolam 50 μg/kg. The primary outcome measures were onset and duration of sensory and motor block and time to first analgesic request. Statistical Analysis Used: The windows version of SPSS 11.0.1 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis. Data were presented in form of mean ± standard deviation multiple analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the three groups and Scheffe test was used after ANOVA. Power of significance P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Onset of sensory and motor block was significantly rapid (P < 0.05) in Groups D and M in comparison with Group E. Time of administration of rescue analgesic, duration of sensory and motor block showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in Group D in comparison with Group M which showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in comparison with Group E. Conclusions: In comparison with epinephrine and midazolam addition of dexamethasone to bupivacaine had rapid onset of block and longer time to first analgesic request with fewer side-effects. PMID:25538528

  11. Practice and drop-out effects during a 17-year longitudinal study of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Rabbitt, Patrick; Diggle, Peter; Holland, Fiona; McInnes, Lynn

    2004-03-01

    Interpretations of longitudinal studies of cognitive aging are misleading unless effects of practice and selective drop-out are considered. A random effects model taking practice and drop-out into account analyzed data from four successive presentations of each of two intelligence tests, two vocabulary tests, and two verbal memory tests during a 17-year longitudinal study of 5,899 community residents whose ages ranged from 49 to 92 years. On intelligence tests, substantial practice effects counteracted true declines observed over 3 to 5 years of aging and remained significant even with intervals of 7 years between successive assessments. Adjustment for practice and drop-out revealed accelerating declines in fluid intelligence and cumulative learning, linear declines in verbal free recall, and no substantial change in vocabulary. Socioeconomic status and basal levels of general fluid ability did not affect rates of decline. After further adjustment for demographics, variability between individuals was seen to increase as the sample aged. PMID:15014091

  12. Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter STD on Facebook Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State ... gender, data show that sexually active adolescents and young adults are at increased risk for STDs when ...

  13. INHALED HYPERTONIC SALINE IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN LESS THAN SIX YEARS OF AGE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS: THE ISIS RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ratjen, Felix; Brumback, Lyndia; Daniel, Stephen; Rowbotham, Ron; McNamara, Sharon; Johnson, Robin; Kronmal, Richard; Davis, Stephanie D

    2013-01-01

    expiratory volume in 0.5 seconds which was 38 ml greater (95% CI 1, 76) in the hypertonic saline group. Adherence by returned study drug ampoules was at least 75% in each group. Adverse event profiles were also similar, with the most common adverse event of moderate or severe severity in each group being cough (39% of hypertonic saline group, 38% of isotonic saline group). Conclusions Among infants and children with cystic fibrosis less than 6 years old, the use of inhaled hypertonic saline compared with isotonic saline did not reduce the rate of pulmonary exacerbations over 48 weeks of treatment. Trial Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00709280 PMID:22610452

  14. The Use of Psychological State Words by Late Talkers at Ages 3, 4, and 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eliza Carlson; Rescorla, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The use of four types of psychological state words (physiological, emotional, desire, and cognitive) during mother-child play sessions at ages 3, 4, and 5 years was examined in 30 children diagnosed with delayed expressive language at 24-31 months and 15 age-matched comparison children with typical development. The children's mean length of…

  15. Color Vision Deficiencies in Youths 12-17 Years of Age United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean

    The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…

  16. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  17. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  18. Health-Risk Behaviors among Persons Aged 12-21 Years: United States, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    Noting that health-risk behaviors among youth may result in immediate health problems or extend into adulthood and increase risk for chronic diseases, this report examines the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among a nationally representative sample of persons aged 12 to 21 years and presents age group comparisons of the most important…

  19. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

  20. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  1. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  2. Artificial layered perovskite oxides A(B{sub 0.5}B′{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} as potential solar energy conversion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hungru; Umezawa, Naoto

    2015-02-07

    Perovskite oxides with a d{sup 0} electronic configuration are promising photocatalysts and exhibit high electron mobilities. However, their band gaps are too large for efficient solar energy conversion. On the other hand, transition metal cations with partially filled d{sup n} electronic configurations give rise to visible light absorption. In this study, by using hybrid density functional theory calculations, it is demonstrated that the virtues of the two categories of materials can be combined in perovskite oxide A(B{sub 0.5}B′{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} with a layered B-site ordering along the [001] direction. The electronic structures of the four selected perovskite oxide compounds, La(Ti{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, La(Ti{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, Sr(Nb{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, and Sr(Nb{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} are calculated and discussed.

  3. Atomic disorder of Li0.5Ni0.5O thin films caused by Li doping: estimation from X-ray Debye–Waller factors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Anli; Sakata, Osami; Yamauchi, Ryosuke; Kumara, L. S. R.; Song, Chulho; Katsuya, Yoshio; Matsuda, Akifumi; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    Cubic type room-temperature (RT) epitaxial Li0.5Ni0.5O and NiO thin films with [111] orientation grown on ultra-smooth sapphire (0001) substrates were examined using synchrotron-based thin-film X-ray diffraction. The 11 and 22 rocking curves including six respective equivalent reflections of the Li0.5Ni0.5O and NiO thin films were recorded. The RT B 1 factor, which appears in the Debye–Waller factor, of a cubic Li0.5Ni0.5O thin film was estimated to be 1.8 (4) Å2 from its 11 and 22 reflections, even though the Debye model was originally derived on the basis of one cubic element. The corresponding Debye temperature is 281 (39) K. Furthermore, the B 2 factor in the pseudo-Debye–Waller factor is proposed. This parameter, which is evaluated using one reflection, was also determined for the Li0.5Ni0.5O thin film by treating Li0.5Ni0.5O and NiO as ideal NaCl crystal structures. A structural parameter for the atomic disorder is introduced and evaluated. This parameter includes the combined effects of thermal vibration, interstitial atoms and defects caused by Li doping using the two Debye–Waller factors. PMID:26664345

  4. Is prosthodontic treatment age-dependent in patients 60 years and older in Public Dental Services?

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, K; Vehkalahti, M M; Mäntylä, P

    2015-06-01

    Prosthodontic treatment is a common procedure for the elderly as tooth loss is a reality in old age. Dentists take care of increasingly older patients with physiological age manifesting as cognitive impairment, frailty or multiple chronic diseases or who have side effects of medicines. We evaluated how patients' age affects prosthodontic treatment choice and whether we could identify the age when a change in practice occurs. In addition, we determined how common the treatment method of fixed prostheses is among patients aged 60 years or over in Public Dental Services (PDS) and how common rehabilitation of dentition with new dentures is compared with repair of existing dentures. Our data cover all patients aged 60 years and older (n = 130,060) treated in Helsinki PDS in 2007-2012. Data were aggregated into seven groups: 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, 85-89, and 90 years and over. During the 6-year period, the mean annual number of the population was about 114,000 and the mean annual number of patients treated with prosthodontics 1700. Prosthodontic treatment choices (repair, removable prosthodontics, fixed prostheses, fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses) vary by age; the older the patient, the rarer fixed or fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses and removable prostheses and the more frequent repairs (P < 0.001). Denture repair was virtually the only treatment that patients over 90 years received. Based on our results, the age at which prosthodontic treatment practices in PDS change is around 70 years. Beyond this age, fixed prosthodontic treatment modalities are very rare and repairs are more common. PMID:25545698

  5. Bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. Last year, we presented carpal bone segmentation algorithm. This year, research works on procedures after carpal bone segmentation including carpal bone identification, feature analysis and fuzzy system for bone age assessment is presented. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  6. Assessment of Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Children Aged 1 to 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Filho, Roberto Pecoits

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI) on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2) were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%); males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%); males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%); males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243). CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004). Conclusions CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years. PMID:26959401

  7. Longitudinal changes in resting-state fMRI from age 5 to age 6years covary with language development.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Friederici, Angela D; Margulies, Daniel S; Brauer, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful technique to study the whole-brain neural connectivity that underlies cognitive systems. The present study aimed to define the changes in neural connectivity in their relation to language development. Longitudinal resting-state functional data were acquired from a cohort of preschool children at age 5 and one year later, and changes in functional connectivity were correlated with language performance in sentence comprehension. For this, degree centrality, a voxel-based network measure, was used to assess age-related differences in connectivity at the whole-brain level. Increases in connectivity with age were found selectively in a cluster within the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus (STG/STS). In order to further specify the connection changes, a secondary seed-based functional connectivity analysis on this very cluster was performed. The correlations between resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and language performance revealed developmental effects with age and, importantly, also dependent on the advancement in sentence comprehension ability over time. In children with greater advancement in language abilities, the behavioral improvement was positively correlated with RSFC increase between left posterior STG/STS and other regions of the language network, i.e., left and right inferior frontal cortex. The age-related changes observed in this study provide evidence for alterations in the language network as language develops and demonstrates the viability of this approach for the investigation of normal and aberrant language development. PMID:26690809

  8. Electron-phonon superconductivity in LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiSe{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Yanqing; Du, Yongping; Wan, Xiangang Wang, Bogen; Ding, Hang-Chen; Savrasov, Sergey Y.; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2014-06-21

    We report density functional calculations of the electronic structure, Fermi surface, phonon spectrum and electron–phonon coupling for the newly discovered superconductor LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiSe{sub 2}. It is confirmed that there is a strong Fermi surface nesting at (π,π,0), which results in unstable phonon branches. Combining the frozen phonon total energy calculations and an anharmonic oscillator model, we find that the quantum fluctuation prevents the appearance of static long–range order. The calculation shows that LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiSe{sub 2} is highly anisotropic, and same as its cousin LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiS{sub 2}, this compound is also a conventional electron-phonon coupling induced superconductor.

  9. Effect of annealing temperature on photoelectrochemical properties of nanocrystalline MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salunkhe, Manauti; Pawar, Nita; Patil, P. S.; Bhosale, P. N.

    2014-10-01

    Nanocrystalline MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thermoelectric thin films have been deposited on ultrasonically cleaned glass and FTO-coated glass substrates by Arrested Precipitation Technique. The change in properties of MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thin films were examined after annealing at the temperature 473 K for 3 h. The structural, morphological, compositional and electrical properties of thin films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, etc. Thermoelectric properties of the thin films have been evaluated by measurements of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in the temperature range 300-500 K. Our aim is to investigate the effect of annealing on behaviour of MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thin films along with photoelectrochemical properties.

  10. Influence of Co doping on structural and electrical properties of La0.5Ce0.5Mn1-xCoxO3 manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuri, Irfan; Shaikh, M. W.; Kuo, Y. K.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2013-02-01

    The effect of Co doping on structural, electrical and magnetic properties of half doped La0.5Ce0.5Mn1-xCoxO3 (x = 0, 0.05) is investigated. The structure of the compounds crystallizes in to orthorhombically distorted perovskite structure. The electrical resistivity of La0.5Ce0.5MnO3 exhibits metal-semiconductor transition (TMS ˜ 225 K). However, La0.5Ce0.5Mn1-xCo0.05O3 manganites show semiconducting behavior throughout temperature range. The magnetic susceptibility measurement confirms that both the samples undergo a transition from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase. The metallic resistivity (T < TMS) is analyzed by considering the electron-electron, electron-phonon and spin fluctuation mechanism while semiconducting resistivity is fitted with small polaron conduction model.

  11. Degenerate rhombohedral and orthorhombic states in Ca-substituted Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Kothai, V.; Garg, Rohini; Agrawal, Anupriya; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Boysen, Hans

    2009-07-01

    Neutron powder diffraction and temperature dependent dielectric studies were carried out on Ca-substituted Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3, i.e., (Na0.5Bi0.5)1-xCaxTiO3. Stabilization of an orthorhombic phase even at a low Ca concentration (0.050.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) is susceptible to orthorhombic distortion. The orthorhombic and rhombohedral phases coexist for x =0.10, suggesting these phases to be nearly degenerate. The orthorhombic distortion favoring tendency of Ca assists in promoting the inherent instability with regard to this structure in pure NBT, which was reported recently.

  12. Transport and photoresponse properties in Pr0.5Ca0.5CoO3/Nb-SrTiO3 heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S. G.; Gu, A.; Yan, X. L.; Hao, L. M.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, T.; Jin, K. X.

    2015-01-01

    Transport and photoresponse properties of the heterostructure consisting of a Pr0.5Ca0.5CoO3 film and a Nb-SrTiO3 substrate were investigated. The Pr0.5Ca0.5CoO3 film exhibits semiconducting behavior and the resistances are decreased when irradiated by a 532 nm laser. The rectifying behaviors are observed in the heterostructure. The ideality factors and the diffusion voltages monotonically decrease with increasing the temperature. The photovoltatges of the heterostructure under the irradiation approach the saturation at about 8.5 \\text{mW/mm}2 . The minority carrier lifetime of τp=0.281 \\text{s} is estimated from the time response properties in the falling process of photovoltages. These results reveal that the Pr0.5Ca0.5CoO3 heterostructures have great potentials in photoresponse and photoelectric conversion applications.

  13. (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co,Zn)4O7 cathodes with superior high-temperature phase stability for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Young Nam, Kim; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manthiram, Arumugam; Huq, Ashfia

    2012-01-01

    (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 (1.0 x 2.0) oxides crystallizing in a trigonal P31c structure have been synthesized and explored as cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). At a given Zn content, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 sample with 50 % Y and 50 % In exhibits much improved phase stability at intermediate temperatures (600 - 800 oC) compared to the samples with 100 % Y or In. However, the substitution of Zn for Co in (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 (1.0 x 2.0) decreases the amount of oxygen loss on heating, total electrical conductivity, and cathode performance in SOFC while providing good long-term phase stability at high temperatures. Among the various chemical compositions investigated in the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 system, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo3ZnO7 sample offers a combination of good electrochemical performance and low thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) while maintaining superior phase stability at 600 800 oC for 100 h. Fuel cell performances of the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co3Zn)O7 + Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) (50 : 50 wt. %) composite cathodes collected with anode-supported single cell reveal a maximum power density value of 521 mW cm-2 at 700 oC.

  14. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Olsen, Jørn; Zhao, Naiqing; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality in children under five years has been widely studied, whereas mortality at 5–9 years has received little attention. Using unique data from national registers in three Nordic countries, we aimed to characterize mortality directionality in children aged 0 to 9 years. Methods and Findings The cohort study included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2008 (n = 2,433,758), Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,400,212), and a random sample of 89.3% of children born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,272,083). Children were followed from 0 to 9 years, and cumulative mortality and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport

  15. Increasing Negativity of Age Stereotypes across 200 Years: Evidence from a Database of 400 Million Words

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level. PMID:25675438

  16. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  17. Student Engagement at Two-Year Institutions: Age and Generational Status Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Angela M.; Slate, John R.

    2010-01-01

    For students to be successful in either two-year or four-year colleges, they need to be engaged in their college experiences. In this investigation, we analyzed data, over 40,000 cases obtained from the Community College Survey of Student Engagement, concerning student engagement as it was related with student age and with student generational…

  18. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  19. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

  20. Distortional phase transitions accompanying spin reorientation in the intermetallide Tb/sub 0. 5/Nd/sub 0. 5/Fe/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyushin, A.S.; Kakhadze, S.O.; Makhmud, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal expansion and spin reorientation in the intermetallide Tb/sub 0.5/Nd/sub 0.5/Fe/sub 2/ at temperatures ranging from 4.2 to 300/sup 0/K were studied by the method of low-temperature x-ray diffractometry. It was established that with spin reorientation in Tb/sub 0.5/Nd/sub 0.5/Fe/sub 2/ the orientation of the magnetic moment vector changes from <111> to <110> with the formation of corner magnetic phases.

  1. Mechanism of Reaction Between Nd and Ga in Sn-Zn-0.5Ga- xNd Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Peng; Xue, Song-bai; Shen, Yi-Fu; Long, Fei; Zhu, Hong

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism of reaction between Nd and Ga in Sn-Zn-0.5Ga- xNd solder was investigated in order to enhance the reliability of soldered joints. It was found that, after aging treatment at ambient temperature and 125°C for over 3000 h, no Sn whisker growth was observed in Sn-9Zn-0.5Ga-0.08Nd soldered joints. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and thermodynamic calculations indicated that Ga reacted with Nd instead of Sn-Nd intermetallic compound (IMC), eliminating Sn whisker growth. Shear force testing was carried out, and the results indicated that Sn-9Zn-0.5Ga-0.08Nd solder still had excellent mechanical properties after aging treatment. This new discovery can provide a novel approach to develop high-reliability solder without risk of Sn whiskers.

  2. The Pre-Retirement Years: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnes, Herbert S.; And Others

    This volume examines a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle-aged men. It is based on a unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews among the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971. The data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period,…

  3. Pial synangiosis in patients with moyamoya younger than 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Eric M; Lin, Ning; Manjila, Sunil; Scott, R Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2014-04-01

    Object Patients with moyamoya who are younger than 2 years of age represent a therapeutic challenge because of their frequent neurological instability and concomitant anesthetic risks. The authors report their experience with pial synangiosis revascularization in this population. Methods The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of all patients with moyamoya in a consecutive series of patients under 2 years of age, who underwent cerebral revascularization surgery using pial synangiosis at a single institution. Results During a 12-year period (1994-2005), 34 procedures (bilateral in 15 patients, unilateral in 4) were performed in 19 patients younger than 2 years (out of a total of 456 procedures in 240 patients). Eighteen of these patients presented with either stroke or transient ischemic attack. The average age of the 19 patients at first surgery was 1.4 years (range 6 months-1.9 years). Unanticipated staged operations occurred in 3 patients, due to persistent electroencephalographic changes during the initial surgery in 2 cases and due to brain swelling during the procedure requiring ventriculostomy in the other. There were 2 perioperative strokes; both patients had postoperative seizures but made clinical recoveries. The average follow-up was 7 years (range 1-14 years). Long term, at follow-up, 13 patients (68%) were clinically independent for their age, with 8 (42%) having no significant deficit. Late complications included subdural hygroma evacuation (1), additional revascularization procedures performed years later for frontal lobe ischemia (2), late infarction (1), and asymptomatic ischemic change on routine follow-up MRI studies (1). All patients who had both pre- and postoperative angiography demonstrated progression of disease. Conclusions Despite the challenges inherent to this population, the majority of children with moyamoya under the age of 2 years have a good long-term prognosis. The data from this study support the use of pial

  4. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single-Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Gary A; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H; Reitberg, Donald P; Guenin, Eric

    2016-07-01

    This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age-based doses of 100-400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo ) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz /F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz /F than CLo , an increase in terminal exponential half-life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation-related changes in CLo and Vz /F. PMID:26632082

  5. Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-07-12

    Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide. PMID:23842443

  6. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  7. Structural and electrical properties of 1 − x(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}–x(Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sung-Gap Yeo, Jin-Ho; Jung, Hye-Rin

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We fabricated lead-free (Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} ceramics. • We studied the structural and electrical properties of 1 − x(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}–x(Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} ceramics. • The structural and electrical properties improved with increasing amount of (Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}. - Abstract: In this study, 1 − x(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}–x(Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} ceramics were fabricated using the conventional mixed oxide method. The effects of the addition of (Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} on the structural and electrical properties of the specimens were investigated for their application in piezoelectric devices. As the results of X-ray diffraction analysis show, all specimens display the typical polycrystalline perovskite structure without the presence of the second phase. Sintered densities increased with an increase in the amount of (Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} added and the specimen with 0.08 mol% of (Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} added showed the maximum value of 4.54 g/cm{sup 3}. Both average grain size and densification increased with an increase in the amount of (Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}. The electromechanical coupling factor, dielectric constant ϵ{sub r}, dielectric loss tan δ, d{sub 33} and Curie temperature of the 0.92(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}–0.08(Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} specimens doped with 0.08 mol% of (Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} were 0.31, 1338, 0.021, 138 and 445 °C, respectively.

  8. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  9. Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

    2012-08-01

    We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new data collected in 2009 and 2010. The age record is analyzed to explore the potential value of groundwater age monitoring for (1) providing additional constraints on the age distribution in mixed-age samples, and (2) identifying temporal changes in groundwater recharge. Motivation for this study is provided by a lack of knowledge of how groundwater recharge and discharge (stream baseflow) in mountain watersheds might respond to climate change, and a resulting need to better understand mountain aquifer residence times, storage, and recharge. Piston-flow ages for the springs generally range from 10 to 50 yr. The plausibility of different age mixing models is tested by comparing observed temporal variations in age with those simulated using simple numerical models, and by examining plots comparing the concentrations of different age tracers. We find that most spring waters are best characterized by a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (recharged after 1950). Identification of this mixing model would not have been possible without data from multiple age tracers and data from multiple years. Computed mean ages vary substantially (often by 3-7 yr) between sampling events for most springs, including those with ages of 20-50 yr. Mean age variations are likely controlled by variations in the magnitude of the new fraction, which is positively correlated with annual snowpack water content. Most springs show overall upward trends in mean age for the sampling period, consistent with decreasing recharge rates in response to diminishing snowpack. Groundwater age monitoring appears to be a potentially

  10. Fully gapped superconductivity in In-doped topological crystalline insulator Pb0.5Sn0.5Te

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Guan; Gu, G. D.; Du, Zengyi; Fang, Delong; Yang, Huan; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J.; Wen, Hai -Hu

    2015-07-27

    In this study, superconductors derived from topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators by chemical doping have long been considered to be candidates as topological superconductors. Pb0.5Sn0.5Te is a topological crystalline insulator with mirror symmetry protected surface states on (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented surfaces. The superconductor (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te is produced by In doping in Pb0.5Sn0.5Te, and is thought to be a topological superconductor. Here we report scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the superconducting state as well as the superconducting energy gap in (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te on a (001)-oriented surface. The spectrum can be well fitted by an anisotropic s-wave gap function of Δ = 0.72 + 0.18cos4θ meV using Dynes model. The results show that the superconductor seems to be a fully gapped one without any in-gap states, in contradiction with the expectation of a topological superconductor.

  11. Transition metal redox and Mn disproportional reaction in LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes cycled with aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Zengqing; Hu, Jiangtao; Duan, Yandong; Yang, Wanli; Pan, Feng

    2016-07-01

    We performed soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS) and a quantitative analysis of the transition metal redox in the LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes upon electrochemical cycling. In order to circumvent the complication of the surface reactions with organic electrolyte at high potential, the LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes are cycled with aqueous electrolyte. The analysis of the transitional metal L-edge spectra allows a quantitative determination of the redox evolution of Mn and Fe during the electrochemical cycling. The sXAS analysis reveals the evolving Mn oxidation states in LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4. We found that electrochemically inactive Mn2+ is formed on the electrode surface during cycling. Additionally, the signal indicates about 20% concentration of Mn4+ at the charged state, providing a strong experimental evidence of the disproportional reaction of Mn3+ to Mn2+ and Mn4+ on the surface of the charged LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes.

  12. Effect of rare-earth (Er and Gd) substitution on the magnetic and multiferroic properties of DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mohit K; Basu, Tathamay; Mukherjee, K; Sampathkumaran, E V

    2016-10-26

    We report the results of our investigations on the influence of partial substitution of Er and Gd for Dy on the magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3, which is known to be a multiferroic system. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data, apart from confirming the occurrence of magnetic transitions at ~121 and 13 K in DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3, bring out that the lower transition temperature only is suppressed by rare-earth substitution. Multiferroic behavior is found to persist in Dy0.4Ln0.6Fe0.5Cr0.5O3 (Ln  =  Er and Gd). There is an evidence for magnetoelectric coupling in all these materials with qualitative differences in its behavior as the temperature is changed across these two transitions. Remnant electric polarization is observed for all the compounds. The most notable observation is that electric polarization is seen to get enhanced as a result of rare-earth substitution with respect to that in DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3. Interestingly, a similar trend is seen in the magnetocaloric effect, consistent with the existence of magnetoelectric coupling. The results thus provide evidence for the tuning of magnetoelectric coupling by rare-earth substitution in this family of oxides. PMID:27588356

  13. Research on Cs activation mechanism for Ga0.5Al0.5As(0 0 1) and GaN(0 0 0 1) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Chen, Liang; Qian, Yunsheng; Dong, Yanyan; Zhang, Shuqin; Wang, Meishan

    2015-01-01

    Based on first-principle density functional theory (DFT), plane wave with ultrasoft pseudopotential method was used to calculate and compare the Cs activation mechanism for Ga0.5Al0.5As(0 0 1) surface and GaN(0 0 0 1) surface. In this work, eight possible Cs adsorption sites are chosen for the Ga0.5Al0.5As(0 0 1) surface while five high-symmetry sites are considered in the calculation model of GaN(0 0 0 1) surface. Results show that Cs adsorption lowers the surface work function and benefits to get the most stable adsorption sites. Then dipole moment with different Cs coverage on two surfaces is investigated. The dipole moment decreases with the increase of Cs coverage and GaN(0 0 0 1) surface changes more obviously than Ga0.5Al0.5As(0 0 1) surface. The repulsion between Cs atomic dipole-dipole is enhanced and it causes depolarization and work function rising again. Finally, an activation experiment is performed to verify the result of our calculations, GaN photocathodes gets the minimum work function earlier than Ga0.5Al0.5As photocathodes.

  14. Thermal Conductivities and Thermal Expansion Coefficients of (Sm0.5Gd0.5)2(Ce1- x Zr x )2O7 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongsong, Zhang; Lei, Shi; Yongde, Zhao; Gang, Li; Zhenjun, Li

    2015-09-01

    The (Sm0.5Gd0.5)2(Ce1- x Zr x )2O7 oxides were prepared by solid-state reaction, and their phase compositions, microstructures, and thermophysical properties were investigated. Results of x-ray diffraction reveal that pure (Sm0.5Gd0.5)2(Ce1- x Zr x )2O7 oxides with fluorite structure are successfully synthesized in the current study. The thermal expansion coefficient decreases with increasing content of ZrO2, which is higher than that of 7 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The substitution of Zr4+ for Ce4+ reduces the thermal conductivity of Sm2Ce2O7 oxide. The thermal conductivity decreases from 1.69 W/m K ( x = 0) to 1.22 W/m K ( x = 0.3) at 1000 °C. The composition with x = 0.3 exhibits the lowest thermal conductivity at all temperatures, and the thermal conductivity of (Sm0.5Gd0.5)2 (Ce1- x Zr x )2O7 ceramics was obviously lower than those of fully dense 7 wt.% YSZ. These results suggested promising potential applications of the (Sm0.5Gd0.5)2 (Ce1- x Zr x )2O7 ceramics for high-temperature thermal barrier coatings.

  15. Spectroscopic and photoluminescence characterization of Dy(3+) in Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 phosphor.

    PubMed

    Vidyadharan, Viji; Sreeja, E; Jose, Saritha K; Joseph, Cyriac; Unnikrishnan, N V; Biju, P R

    2016-02-01

    The spectroscopic and photoluminescence characteristics of trivalent dysprosium (Dy(3+))-doped Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 phosphor materials synthesized via solid-state reaction method were studied. The X-ray diffraction profile confirmed the orthorhombic perovskite structure of the prepared samples. Judd-Ofelt analysis was carried out to obtain the intensity parameters and predicted radiative properties of Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3:2wt%Dy(3+). The photoluminescence spectrum of Dy(3+)-doped Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 showed three emission peaks at 481, 574 and 638 nm corresponding to (4)F9/2 →(6)H15/2, (4)F9/2 →(6)H13/2 and (4)F9/2 →(6)H11/2 transitions respectively. The variation of luminescence intensity with different excitation wavelengths and Dy(3+) concentrations is discussed. The decay profiles of (4)F9/2 excited levels of Dy(3+) ions show bi-exponential behaviour and also a decrease in average lifetime with increase in Dy(3+) concentration. Yellow to blue luminescence intensity ratio, CIE chromaticity co-ordinates and correlated color temperature were also calculated for different concentrations of Dy(3+)-doped Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 phosphor at different λex. PMID:26032295

  16. Structural, thermal and electrical conductivity characteristics of Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (Ln: La, Nd and Sm) complex perovskites as anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Jihoon; Azad, Abul K.; Schlegl, Harald; Kim, Byungjun; Baek, Seung-Wook; Kim, Keunsoo; Kang, Hyunil; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2015-03-15

    The Ti and Mn replaced complex perovskites, Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (Ln: La, Nd and Sm), were reported as potential anode materials for high temperature-operating solid oxide fuel cells (HT-SOFCs). For the present research study, synthesis, crystallographic, thermal and electrical conductivity properties of Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} complex perovskites were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld method, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and electrical conductivity to apply these oxide materials for the HT-SOFC anode materials. XRD results showed that Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} oxide systems synthesized as single phases did not react with 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) and 10 mol% Gd-doped cerium oxide (CGO91) up to 1500 °C and did not decompose under dry 3.9% hydrogen at 850 °C. The crystal structures of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (LSTM), Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (NSTM) and Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (SSTM) showed orthorhombic symmetry with the space group Pbnm and SSTM showed a more distorted structure. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) proved weight gains in these three sample occurred under oxidizing conditions and weight loss under reducing conditions. Electrical conductivity values of NSTM were higher than those of LSTM and SSTM under oxidizing and reducing conditions. - Graphical abstract: The B-site cations (Ti/Mn) are surrounded by regular octahedra of oxygen in Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d}(NSTM). These octahedra are linked together in a corner sharing three dimensional framework, while Nd/Sr ion occupies 12-coordinated A-site between these octahedra. The Ti/Mn–O{sub 6} octahedra are elongated along the c-axis. The crystal structure distortion was due to the smaller ionic radius of the A-site cations, which force the (Ti

  17. Sexual and reproductive health of persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Lorrie; MacKay, Andrea P; Brown, Kathryn; Harrier, Sara; Ventura, Stephanie J; Kann, Laura; Rangel, Maria; Berman, Stuart; Dittus, Patricia; Liddon, Nicole; Markowitz, Lauri; Sternberg, Maya; Weinstock, Hillard; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Ryan, George

    2009-07-17

    This report presents data for 2002-2007 concerning the sexual and reproductive health of persons aged 10-24 years in the United States. Data were compiled from the National Vital Statistics System and multiple surveys and surveillance systems that monitor sexual and reproductive health outcomes into a single reference report that makes this information more easily accessible to policy makers, researchers, and program providers who are working to improve the reproductive health of young persons in the United States. The report addresses three primary topics: 1) current levels of risk behavior and health outcomes; 2) disparities by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and geographic residence; and 3) trends over time. The data presented in this report indicate that many young persons in the United States engage in sexual risk behavior and experience negative reproductive health outcomes. In 2004, approximately 745,000 pregnancies occurred among U.S. females aged <20 years. In 2006, approximately 22,000 adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 years in 33 states were living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and approximately 1 million adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 years were reported to have chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis. One-quarter of females aged 15-19 years and 45% of those aged 20-24 years had evidence of infection with human papillomavirus during 2003-2004, and approximately 105,000 females aged 10--24 years visited a hospital emergency department (ED) for a nonfatal sexual assault injury during 2004-2006. Although risks tend to increase with age, persons in the youngest age group (youths aged 10--14 years) also are affected. For example, among persons aged 10-14 years, 16,000 females became pregnant in 2004, nearly 18,000 males and females were reported to have sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 2006, and 27,500 females visited a hospital ED because of a nonfatal sexual assault injury during 2004

  18. Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block With or Without Dexamethasone as an Adjuvant to 0.5% Levobupivacaine: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhupal, Jatinder Paul Singh; Kumar, Parmod; Gandhi, Gurjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Brachial plexus block is an excellent method for attaining optimal operating conditions by producing complete muscular relaxation, maintaining stable intraoperative haemodynamics and the associated sympathetic block. In addition, they provide extended postoperative analgesia with minimal side effects. Different adjuvants have been described in literature to hasten the onset and prolong the duration of block. The present study was conducted to study the effect of adding dexamethasone to levobupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Aim To observe the effect of dexamethasone on onset and duration of anaesthesia, when used as an adjuvant to levobupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Materials and Methods A total of 60 patients in the age group of 18-65 years belonging to ASA physical status I or II were included in the study. They are randomly allocated in two groups and each group included 30 patients. In group 1, patients received 30ml of 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine with 2ml of isotonic sodium chloride. In group 2 patients received 8mg (2ml) dexamethasone in addition to 30ml of 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine. Results The results showed that the onset of sensory and motor block were faster in group 2(p<0.05). The duration of sensory and motor block were significantly longer in group 2 (p<0.05). VAS score at 12 hours were significantly lower in group 2 (p<0.05). None of the patients had bradycardia, hypotension or any other side effects. Conclusion Dexamethasone added to levobupivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block reduces the time to onset of sensory and motor blockage and prolongs the duration of analgesia. PMID:27504384

  19. Effect of impurity substitution on band structure and mass renormalization of the correlated FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirupathaiah, S.; Fink, J.; Maheshwari, P. K.; Kishore, V. V. Ravi; Liu, Z.-H.; Rienks, E. D. L.; Büchner, B.; Awana, V. P. S.; Sarma, D. D.

    2016-05-01

    Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we studied the effect of the impurity potential on the electronic structure of FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductor by substituting 10% of Ni for Fe, which leads to an electron doping of the system. We could resolve three hole pockets near the zone center and an electron pocket near the zone corner in the case of FeTe0.5Se0.5 , whereas only two hole pockets near the zone center and an electron pocket near the zone corner are resolved in the case of Fe0.9Ni0.1Te0.5Se0.5 , suggesting that the hole pocket having predominantly the x y orbital character is very sensitive to the impurity scattering. Upon electron doping, the size of the hole pockets decreases and the size of the electron pockets increases as compared to the host compound. However, the observed changes in the size of the electron and hole pockets are not consistent with the rigid-band model. Moreover, the effective mass of the hole pockets is reduced near the zone center and of the electron pockets is increased near the zone corner in the doped Fe0.9Ni0.1Te0.5Se0.5 as compared to FeTe0.5Se0.5 . We refer these observations to the changes of the spectral function due to the effect of the impurity potential of the dopants.

  20. Structural and Mössbauer spectroscopy characterization of bulk and nanostructured TiFe0.5 Ni0.5/graphite compounds and their hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, M. A. R.; André-Filho, J.; Félix, L. L.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Garg, V. K.; Oliveira, A. C.; Mestnik-Filho, J.

    2015-06-01

    The structural and hyperfine properties of bulk TiFe0.5Ni0.5 intermetallic and ball-milled TiFe0.5Ni0.5/graphite compounds and their hydrides have been studied. The bulk and nanostructured TiFe0.5Ni0.5 compounds crystallize in the cubic crystal structure of CsCl (B2). After hydrogenation, the formation of hydrogen-poor phase (∝-phase) and hydride phase ( β-phase) have been determined for the bulk compound. However, the formation of the ∝-phase and the hydrogen-richest phase ( γ-phase) and other secondary phases have been determined for the ball-milled TiFe0.5Ni0.5/graphite sample. It has been determined that the ball-milled TiFe0.5Ni0.5/graphite sample presents a large amount of the γ-phase which indicates that the presence of graphite nearby nanostructured intermetallic grains enhances the absorption of hydrogen. Mossbauer results are consistent with the structural results. Meanwhile, no significant changes in the isomer shift (IS) value has been determined for the α-phase with respect to the intermetallic compound, a strong increase in the IS value has been determined for the β- and γ-phases with respect to the ∝-phase. That increase indicates a decrease of the s-electron density at the Fe nuclei due to the charge transfer from the metal to the nearby hydrogen atoms.

  1. Screening for developmental delay among children aged 1-4 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rachel; Kenny, Meghan; Bennett, Teresa; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Sherifali, Diana; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Existing guidelines on screening children less than 5 years of age for developmental delay vary. In this systematic review, we synthesized the literature on the effectiveness and harms of screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO for relevant articles published to June 16, 2015. We identified studies that included children aged 1-4 years who were not at high risk of developmental delay, screened in a primary care setting. Randomized trials and controlled cohort studies were considered for benefits (cognitive, academic and functional outcomes); no restrictions on study design were imposed for the review of harms. Results: Two studies were included. One used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II for screening and reported significantly more referrals to early intervention in the intervention groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.54, in the intervention group with office support and RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25, in the intervention group without office support). The time to referral was 70% shorter in the intervention group with office support (rate ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48) and 64% shorter in the intervention group without office support (rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.59), compared with the control group. The other study used the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument to screen children aged 15 months at enrolment for language delay. It reported no differences between groups in academic performance outcomes at age 8 years. Interpretation: The evidence on screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years is inconclusive. Further research with longer-term outcomes is needed to inform decisions about screening and screening intervals. PMID:27226967

  2. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  3. The First Year Inventory: A longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-olds to 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Brown, L. M.; Baranek, G. T.; Reznick, J. S.; Watson, L. R.; Crais, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    The First Year Inventory (FYI) is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The FYI taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the FYI when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale – Preschool version (SRS-P) and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire (DCQ) to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at-risk for ASD based on liberal cut points on the FYI, SRS-P, and/or DCQ were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of ASD from the sample of 699. ROC analyses determined that a two-domain cutoff score yielded optimal classification of children: 31% of those meeting algorithm cut-offs had ASD and 85% had a developmental disability or concern by age three. These results suggest that the FYI is a promising tool for identifying 12-month old infants who are at risk for an eventual diagnosis of ASD. PMID:22781058

  4. One-year age changes in MRI brain volumes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Resnick, S M; Goldszal, A F; Davatzikos, C; Golski, S; Kraut, M A; Metter, E J; Bryan, R N; Zonderman, A B

    2000-05-01

    Longitudinal studies indicate that declines in cognition and memory accelerate after age 70 years. The neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic underpinnings of cognitive change are unclear, as there is little information on longitudinal brain changes. We are conducting a longitudinal neuroimaging study of nondemented older participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. This report focuses on age and sex differences in brain structure measured by magnetic resonance imaging during the first two annual evaluations. Cross-sectional results from 116 participants aged 59-85 years reveal significantly larger ventricular volumes and smaller gray and white matter volumes in older compared with younger participants and in men compared with women. Regional brain volumes show that the effects of age and sex are not uniform across brain regions. Age differences are greatest for the parietal region. Sex differences tend to be larger for frontal and temporal than parietal and occipital regions. Longitudinal analysis demonstrates an increase of 1526 mm(3) in ventricular volume over 1 year, but no detectable change in total or regional brain volumes. Definition of the pattern and rate of longitudinal brain changes will facilitate the detection of pathological brain changes, which may be predictors of dementia. PMID:10847596

  5. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3M<0.08) was 18 years of age or older was 95.6%. PMID:24365729

  6. Longitudinal study exploring factors associated with neck/shoulder pain at 52 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Hesselman Borg, Johanna; Westerståhl, Maria; Lundell, Sara; Madison, Guy; Aasa, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the ability of work-related measurements, body composition, physical activity, and fitness levels to predict neck/shoulder pain (upper body pain, UBP) at the age of 52 years. Another aim was to investigate the cross-sectional relationships between UBP, work-related factors, and individual factors at the age of 52 years. Methods We followed a randomly selected cohort of 429 adolescents that was recruited in 1974 (baseline), when they were 16 years old. The participants completed physical fitness tests, questions about sociodemographic and lifestyle factors at 16, 34, and 52 years of age, and questions about work-related factors and pain in the follow-ups. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between UBP and the other variables. Results Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that high body mass index and the work-related factors, low control, and low social support at the age of 34 years were related to UBP at the age of 52 years. For social support, there was an interaction between men and women where the relationship between low social support and the experience of pain was more evident for women. Among women, body mass index and social support remained significantly related in the multivariate analyses. For men, social support remained significantly related. Cross-sectional relationships at the age of 52 differed from the longitudinal in the sense that measures of joint flexibility and work posture were also significantly associated with UBP. Conclusion The fact that the cross-sectional differed from the longitudinal relationships strengthens the importance of performing longitudinal studies when studying factors that might influence the initiation of pain. UBP preventative measures might need to include both lifestyle (such as dietary habits and physical activity to ensure that the individuals are not becoming overweight) and work-related factors such as social support. PMID:27307762

  7. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs), in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004) or 2005 (cohort 2005) in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004) to 51% (cohort 2005) in the studied regions (p < 0.001). More than half of the vaccinated children of cohort 2004 and two third of cohort 2005 were immunised at the recommended age 11 to 14 months. The level of vaccination coverage of cohort 2004 was significantly associated with the delay in introduction of cost coverage since the recommendation of varicella vaccination (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from

  8. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  9. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FR 28448, May 20, 2010. The employment of minors between 14 and 16 years of age in the occupations... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued)...

  10. 6-weekly bevacizumab versus 4-weekly ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a 2-year outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chiam, Patrick J; Ho, Vivian W; Hickley, Nicholas M; Kotamarthi, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare visual acuity and central macular thickness (CMT) changes in neovascular age related macular degeneration patients treated with either 6 weekly bevacizumab regimen or 4 weekly ranibizumab on an as required basis. METHODS Patients made an informed choice between bevacizumab 1.25 mg or ranibizumab 0.5 mg. The selected treatment was administered in the first 3 visits. Bevacizumab patients were followed-up 6 weekly and ranibizumab 4 weekly. Retreatment criteria was based on the reduction of >5 letters in the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), the presence of retinal fluid on optical coherence tomography (OCT) or new retinal haemorrhage. RESULTS Visual acuity at 2y bevacizumab patients gained 7.0 letters and ranibizumab 9.2 (P=0.31, 95% CI -6.4 to 2.0). At 2y 86% of bevacizumab and 94% ranibizumab patients had not lost 15 letters or more (P=0.13). Mean CMT decreased at 2y bevacizumab by 146 µm, ranibizumab 160 µm (P=0.72). Mean number of injections was at 2y bevacizumzb 11.9, ranibizumab 10.3 (P=0.023). CONCLUSION Bevacizumab 6 weekly on an as required basis was not demonstrably non-inferior to ranibizumab 4 weekly pro re nata (prn) in terms of BCVA and change in CMT. In the bevacizumab group, one more injection was required in the second year compared to the ranibizumab group. PMID:27162727

  11. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  12. A Gel-Polymer Sn-C/LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 Battery Using a Fluorine-Free Salt.

    PubMed

    Di Lecce, Daniele; Fasciani, Chiara; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-09-30

    Safety and environmental issues, because of the contemporary use of common liquid electrolytes, fluorinated salts, and LiCoO2-based cathodes in commercial Li-ion batteries, might be efficiently mitigated by employing alternative gel-polymer battery configurations and new electrode materials. Herein we study a lithium-ion polymer cell formed by combining a LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 olivine cathode, prepared by simple solvothermal pathway, a nanostructured Sn-C anode, and a LiBOB-containing PVdF-based gel electrolyte. The polymer electrolyte, here analyzed in terms of electrochemical stability by impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and voltammetry, reveals full compatibility for cell application. The LiBOB electrolyte salt and the electrochemically delithiaded Mn0.5Fe0.5PO4 have a higher thermal stability compared to conventional LiPF6 and Li0.5CoO2, as confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and by galvanostatic cycling at high temperature. LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 and Sn-C, showing in lithium half-cell a capacity of about 120 and 350 mAh g(-1), respectively, within the gelled electrolyte configuration are combined in a full Li-ion polymer battery delivering a stable capacity of about 110 mAh g(-1), with working voltage ranging from 2.8 to 3.6 V. PMID:26348604

  13. Characterization of Cu3P phase in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu0.5P/Cu solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-xun; Zhao, Xing-ke; Zou, Xu-chen; Huang, Ji-hua; Hu, Hai-chun; Luo, Hai-lian

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the effects of phosphorus addition on the melting behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder. The melting behavior of the solder alloys was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The interfacial microstructure and phase composition of solder/Cu joints were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. Thermodynamics of Cu-P phase formation at the interface between Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu0.5P solder and the Cu substrate was characterized. The results indicate that P addition into Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder can change the microstructure and cause the appearance of rod-like Cu3P phase which is distributed randomly in the solder bulk. The Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu0.5P joint shows a mixture of ductile and brittle fracture after shear testing. Meanwhile, the solidus temperature of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder is slightly enhanced with P addition.

  14. Effect of Zn2+ Substitution on the Structure and Magnetic Properties of Co0.5Cu0.5Fe2O4 Synthesized by Solvothermal Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xusheng; Zhou, Yuan; Wu, Wenwei; Xu, Jiawei; Liu, Shangqian; Liu, Dongsheng; Wu, Juan

    2016-06-01

    A series of Zn2+ doped Co-Cu ferrites with the formula Co0.5Cu0.5- x Zn x Fe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) have been successfully synthesized using the solvothermal method. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results indicate that a high-crystallized cubic Co0.5Cu0.5- x Zn x Fe2O4 with rod-like structure is obtained when the precursor is calcined at 800°C in air for 3 h. The lattice parameters increase with the increase of Zn2+ additional amount, attributed to the larger ionic radius of the substituted ion Zn2+ than Cu2+ ionic radius. Zn2+ substitution can improve the magnetic properties of Co0.5Cu0.5- x Zn x Fe2O4. Co0.5Cu0.4Zn0.1Fe2O4 obtained at 800°C has the highest specific saturation magnetization (73.7 ± 0.9 emu/g) and magnetic moment (3.13 ± 0.04 B.M.).

  15. Temperature dependent structures and properties of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based lead free piezoelectric composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Sun, Lei; Geng, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Yuan, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Shan-Tao

    2016-07-01

    The thermal depolarization around 100 °C of the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based piezoelectric solid solutions leads to the disappearance of macroscopic ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties and remains a long-standing obstacle for their actual applications. In this communication, we report lead-free piezoelectric composites of 0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3:0.5ZnO (BNT-6BT:0.5ZnO, where 0.5 is the mole ratio of ZnO to BNT-6BT) with deferred thermal depolarization, which is experimentally confirmed by systematic temperature dependent dielectric, ferroelectric, piezoelectric measurements. Especially, based on temperature dependent X-ray diffraction measurements on unpoled and poled samples, thermal depolarization is confirmed to have no relationship with the structural phase transition, the possible mechanism for the deferred thermal depolarization is correlated with the ZnO-induced local electric field which can suppress the depolarization field. We believe our results may be helpful for understanding the origin of thermal depolarization in BNT-based piezoelectric materials, and thus provide an effective way to overcoming this obstacle. PMID:27334673

  16. Growth and development of female dancers aged 8-16 years.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2008-01-01

    Little data are available on the growth and development of young female dancers. The objective of this study was to determine whether the body structure and adipose tissue distribution of dancers aged 8-16 years differ from that of non-dancer girls. Our cross-sectional study included a group of 1,482 female dancers, aged 8-16 years, and a control group of 226 female non-dancers of similar age cohorts. Fourteen anthropometric measurements were recorded and 15 indices calculated. In none of the linear anthropometric measures, were significant differences found between the two groups. The only significant difference relates to the extent and distribution of adipose tissue: At age 8, both groups show similar weight while at age 13 non-dancers are significantly heavier than dancers (48.4 +/- 9.8 kg for non-dancers and 40.6 +/- 8.7 kg for dancers). At age 15, weight differences between the two groups decrease to only 2 kg. The differences in weight are also expressed in skinfold thickness and chest circumference. Patterns of adipose tissue distribution differ between the two groups. Mean age at menarche was 13.1 years among dancers and 12.3 years in non-dancers. In conclusion, musculoskeletal development was found to be very similar in dancers and non-dancers. The specific body type reported for professional dancers is more likely acquired via "teacher's selection" and not training programs. Parents should not dread the possibility that dance training will delay the growth or reduce the height of their daughters. PMID:18203124

  17. Changes of olfactory abilities in relation to age: odor identification in more than 1400 people aged 4 to 80 years.

    PubMed

    Sorokowska, A; Schriever, V A; Gudziol, V; Hummel, C; Hähner, A; Iannilli, E; Sinding, C; Aziz, M; Seo, H S; Negoias, S; Hummel, T

    2015-08-01

    The currently presented large dataset (n = 1,422) consists of results that have been assembled over the last 8 years at science fairs using the 16-item odor identification part of the "Sniffin' Sticks". In this context, the focus was on olfactory function in children; in addition before testing, we asked participants to rate their olfactory abilities and the patency of the nasal airways. We reinvestigated some simple questions, e.g., differences in olfactory odor identification abilities in relation to age, sex, self-ratings of olfactory function and nasal patency. Three major results evolved: first, consistent with previously published reports, we found that identification scores of the youngest and the oldest participants were lower than the scores obtained by people aged 20-60. Second, we observed an age-related increase in the olfactory abilities of children. Moreover, the self-assessed olfactory abilities were related to actual performance in the smell test, but only in adults, and self-assessed nasal patency was not related to the "Sniffin' Sticks" identification score. PMID:25238811

  18. La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowders prepared by the hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Putjuso, Thanin; Maensiri, Santi; Hunpratub, Sitchai; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: LRTEM image of the single-phase La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} particles. It is seen from the figure that the product has a plate-like morphology with average particles sizes in the range of 100–300 nm. In addition, the SAED data taken from an individual particle (lower inset) shows the presence of sharp diffraction rings, which are indicative of polycrystalline La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} formation. The high-resolution TEM image (upper inset) shows for further confirmation of a crystalline structure of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} powder. This image shows a clearly resolved crystalline domain with uniform interplanar spacing of 0.276 nm. Highlights: ► La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowder is prepared in 2 M KOH solution by hydrothermal method. ► The solution is heat treated at 220 °C for 24 h in air. ► LRTEM reveals a plate-like morphology of particle with average size of 100–300 nm. ► HRTEM image shows a crystalline domain with interplanar spacing of 0.276 nm. -- Abstract: La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowders were prepared by the hydrothermal method. The influence of processing parameters, including KOH concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time on the obtained products were studied. The structure and morphology of the obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD results show that pure phase La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowders can be successfully synthesized with 2 M KOH concentration at a low temperature of 220 °C for 24 h. In addition, the product has a plate-like shape with particle sizes in the range of 25–100 nm as estimated by TEM.

  19. Enhanced nanoscale resistive switching memory characteristics and switching mechanism using high-Ge-content Ge0.5Se0.5 solid electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate enhanced repeatable nanoscale bipolar resistive switching memory characteristics in Al/Cu/Ge0.5Se0.5/W, as compared with Al/Cu/Ge0.2Se0.8/W structures, including stable AC endurance (>105 cycles), larger average SET voltage (approximately 0.6 V), excellent data retention (>105 s) at 85°C, and a high resistance ratio (>104) with a current compliance of 8 μA and a small operation voltage of ±1.5 V. A small device size of 150 × 150 nm2 and a Cu nanofilament with a small diameter of 30 nm are both observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope in the SET state. The GexSe1 − x solid electrolyte compositions are confirmed by both energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The switching mechanism relies on the smaller barrier heights for holes rather than for electrons; the positively charged Cuz+ ions (i.e., holes) migrate through the defects in the GexSe1 − x solid electrolytes during SET/RESET operations. Hence, the Cu nanofilament starts to grow at the Ge0.5Se0.5/W interface, and starts to dissolve at the Cu/Ge0.5Se0.5 interface, as illustrated in the energy band diagrams. Owing to both the higher barrier for hole injection at the Cu/Ge0.5Se0.5 interface than at the Cu/Ge0.2Se0.8 interface and greater thermal stability, the resistive switching memory characteristics of the Al/Cu/Ge0.5Se0.5/W are improved relative to the Al/Cu/Ge0.2Se0.8/W devices. The Al/Cu/Ge0.5Se0.5/W memory device can also be operated with a low current compliance of 1 nA, and hence, a low SET/RESET power of 0.61 nW/6.4 pW is achieved. In addition, a large memory size of 1,300 Pbit/in2 is achieved with a small nanofilament diameter of 0.25 Å for a small current compliance of 1 nA. PMID:23130908

  20. Synthesis and electrochemical assessment of Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} ceramics and derived composite electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, Natércia C.T.; Rajesh, Surendran; Marques, Fernando M.B.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} prepared for the first time through solid state reaction. • High energy milling needed to assist the ceramic route. • Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} is oxide-ion conductor in air and n-type conductor at low pO{sub 2}. • Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} decomposes slightly when exposed to alkaline carbonates. • Composites based on Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} show standard electrical performance. - Abstract: Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} was prepared for the first time through high temperature (1600 °C for 5 h) solid state reaction, after high energy milling to enhance the mechano-chemical interaction of precursor oxides (CeO{sub 2} and Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Single phase formation was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. Impedance spectroscopy data obtained under wide temperature (300–800 °C) and oxygen partial pressure (0.21 to about 10{sup −25} atm) ranges indicates that this material exhibits predominant oxide-ion conductivity under oxidizing conditions while n-type electronic conductivity prevails at low oxygen partial pressure. The mixed oxide shows modest ionic conductivity (1.1 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 800 °C) with activation energy of 1.3 eV in the 600–800 °C temperature range. When combined with molten carbonates (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, 1:1 molar ratio) to produce composite electrolytes, Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} slightly decomposed. However, the composite electrical performance is still acceptable and closely matches the conductivity of similar materials (>0.1 S cm{sup −1} immediately above 500 °C)

  1. Microwave characterization of Pb1-xCaxFe0.5Nb0.5O3 multiferroics at X-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhiman, Tanvi; Singh, Charanjeet; Puri, Maalti; Kaur, Harpreet; Kaur, Randeep; Bindra Narang, S.

    2015-10-01

    The microwave characteristics of Pb1- x Ca x Fe0.5Nb0.5O3 multiferroics ( x = 0.0, 0.4, 0.45, 0.5, 0.55, 0.6), have been investigated as a function of frequency and substitution. The results depict -13.99 dB reflection loss at 11.65 GHz in composition x = 0.6. Microwave absorption is enhanced with substitution of Ca2+ ions and undoped composition 0.0 behaves as electromagnetic shield. The model governing microwave absorption is discussed and different compositions for electromagnetic applications have been suggested.

  2. A mixed iron-manganese based pyrophosphate cathode, Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7, for rechargeable sodium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Rana A; Park, Chan Sun; Raja, Arsalan A; Shin, Jaeho; Kahraman, Ramazan

    2016-02-01

    The development of secondary batteries based on abundant and cheap elements is vital. Among various alternatives to conventional lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are promising due to the abundant resources and low cost of sodium. While there are many challenges associated with the SIB system, cathode is an important factor in determining the electrochemical performance of this battery system. Accordingly, ongoing research in the field of SIBs is inclined towards the development of safe, cost effective cathode materials having improved performance. In particular, pyrophosphate cathodes have recently demonstrated decent electrochemical performance and thermal stability. Herein, we report the synthesis, electrochemical properties, and thermal behavior of a novel Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 cathode for SIBs. The material was synthesized through a solid state process. The structural analysis reveals that the mixed substitution of manganese and iron has resulted in a triclinic crystal structure (P1[combining macron] space group). Galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements indicate that Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 is electrochemically active with a reversible capacity of ∼80 mA h g(-1) at a C/20 rate with an average redox potential of 3.2 V. (vs. Na/Na(+)). It is noticed that 84% of initial capacity is preserved over 90 cycles showing promising cyclability. It is also noticed that the rate capability of Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 is better than Na2MnP2O7. Ex situ and CV analyses indicate that Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 undergoes a single phase reaction rather than a biphasic reaction due to different Na coordination environment and different Na site occupancy when compared to other pyrophosphate materials (Na2FeP2O7 and Na2MnP2O7). Thermogravimetric analysis (25-550 °C) confirms good thermal stability of Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 with only 2% weight loss. Owing to promising electrochemical properties and decent thermal stability, Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7, can be an attractive cathode for SIBs. PMID

  3. Colorectal Cancer Screening in US Seniors Ages 76-84 Years.

    PubMed

    Klabunde, Carrie N; Shapiro, Jean A; Kobrin, Sarah; Nadel, Marion R; Zapka, Jane M

    2015-08-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends patient-physician discussions about the appropriateness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among adults ages 76-84 years who have never been screened. In this study, we used data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey to examine patterns of CRC screening and provider recommendation among seniors ages 76-84 years, and made some comparisons to younger adults. Nationally-representative samples of 1379 adults ages 76-84 years and 8797 adults ages 50-75 years responded to questions about CRC screening status, receipt of provider recommendation, and discussion of test options; 22.7% (95% CI 20.1-25.3) of seniors ages 76-84 had never been tested for CRC and therefore were not up-to-date with guidelines; 3.9% (95% CI 2.0-7.6) of these individuals reported a recent provider recommendation for screening. In multivariate analyses, the likelihood of never having been tested was significantly greater for seniors of other/multiple race or Hispanic ethnicity; with high school or less education; without private health insurance coverage; who had ≤ 1 doctor visit in the past year; without recent screening for breast, cervical, or prostate cancer; with no or unknown CRC family history; or with ≤ 1 chronic disease. Among the minority of respondents ages 50-75 and 76-84 reporting a provider recommendation, 73.2% indicated that the provider recommended particular tests, which was overwhelmingly colonoscopy (≥ 89 %). Nearly one-quarter of adults 76-84 have never been screened for CRC, and rates of provider recommendation in this group are very low. Greater attention to informed CRC screening discussions with screening-eligible seniors is needed. PMID:25716518

  4. Combined effect of folate and adiposity on homocysteine in children at three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Bo Hyun; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Ju; Park, Eun Ae; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cardiovascular diseases is a major cause of death and is responsible for 23.8% of deaths in Korea. Clinical symptoms manifest in adulthood, but susceptibility begins in utero. Elevated homocysteine levels and adiposity might be linked to a greater risk in children as well as adults. We hypothesized that those who have simultaneous risk for folate and adiposity would be affected with elevated homocysteine levels at 3 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS From the ongoing birth cohort at Ewha Womans University Mok-Dong Hospital, we compared adiposity parameters, serum homocysteine, and folate levels in 238 children (118 boys and 120 girls) at three years of age. The relationship between birth outcome, current weight and body mass index (BMI), postnatal growth, and homocysteine level were assessed using correlation and general linear model. Additionally, we assessed the combined effect between blood folate status and adiposity on current homocysteine levels. RESULTS Birth characteristics were not correlated with homocysteine. Current weight, BMI, upper-arm circumference, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and hip circumference were positively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.05). Folate level was negatively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.0001). A relative high anthropometric measure which is compatible with adiposity and low folate level was associated with high homocysteine levels. CONCLUSION We found a combined effect of adiposity and folate levels with homocysteine levels at three years of age. This implicates the beneficial role of folate supplementation in the high-risk population at an early age. PMID:26865919

  5. Silicosis-related years of potential life lost before age 65 years--United States, 1968-2005.

    PubMed

    2008-07-18

    Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica occurs in construction, mining, manufacturing, and other industries and can result in silicosis and other lung diseases. Classic (chronic) silicosis results from exposure to relatively low concentrations of respirable crystalline silica for >/=years. Exposure to higher concentrations of silica for 5-10 years can cause accelerated silicosis, and symptoms of acute silicosis can sometimes develop within weeks of initial exposure to extreme concentrations of silica. Deaths in young adults from acute or accelerated silicosis generally reflect more recent and intense exposures. Silicosis is incurable, but preventable through effective control and elimination of exposure to respirable crystalline silica. To characterize recent trends in premature mortality attributed to silicosis in the United States, CDC analyzed annual mortality data from 1968-2005, the most recent years for which complete data were available. Years of potential life lost before age 65 years (YPLL) and mean YPLL were calculated using standard methodology. During 1968-2005, total annual YPLL attributed to silicosis (17,130) declined 90.2%, from 1,441 (mean per decedent: 7.7 YPLL) to 141 (mean per decedent: 11.8), with an annual average of 8.6 YPLL per decedent for the period. However, the proportion of YPLL attributable to young silicosis decedents increased; an estimated 3,600-7,300 new silicosis cases occur annually. Hazard surveillance, workplace-specific interventions, and further silicosis prevention and elimination efforts, especially among young adults, are needed. PMID:18636065

  6. Age inclusive services or separate old age and working age services? A historical analysis from the formative years of old age psychiatry c.1940–1989

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The Equality Act 2010 made it unlawful to discriminate in the provision of services on the grounds of age. This legislation is open to interpretation, but it is affecting the way older people’s services are defined and provided. Historical evidence indicates that, since the 1940s, apart from psychiatrists working in dedicated old age services, most were unenthusiastic about working with mentally unwell older people and unsupportive of those who chose to do so. A historical analysis might shed light on current dilemmas about ‘all age’ or ‘old age’ services and inform decision-making on future mental health services. PMID:26191440

  7. Meningitis in infancy in England and Wales: follow up at age 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Helen; de Louvois, John; Halket, Susan; Peckham, Catherine; Hurley, Rosalinde; Harvey, David

    2001-01-01

    Objective To describe important sequelae occurring among a cohort of children aged 5 years who had had meningitis during the first year of life and who had been identified by a prospective national study of meningitis in infancy in England and Wales between 1985 and 1987. Design Follow up questionnaires asking about the children's health and development were sent to general practitioners and parents of the children and to parents of matched controls. The organism that caused the infection and age at infection were also recorded. Setting England and Wales. Participants General practitioners and parents of children who had had meningitis before the age of 1 year and of matched controls. Main outcome measures The prevalence of health and developmental problems and overall disability among children who had had meningitis compared with controls. Results Altogether, 1584 of 1717 (92.2%) children who had had meningitis and 1391 of 1485 (93.6%) controls were successfully followed up. Among children who survived to age 5 years 247 of 1584 (15.6%) had a disability; there was a 10-fold increase in the risk of severe or moderate disability at 5 years of age among children who had had meningitis (relative risk 10.3, 95% confidence interval 6.7 to 16.0, P<0.001). There was considerable variation in the rates of severe or moderate disability in children infected with different organisms. Conclusion The long term consequences of having meningitis during the first year of life are significant: 32 of 1717 (1.8%) children died within five years. Not only did almost a fifth of children with meningitis have a permanent, severe or moderately severe disability, but subtle deficits were also more prevalent. What is already known on this topicMeningitis in infancy is associated with important long term consequencesThere is considerable variation in outcome depending on which organism caused the infectionWhat this study addsThis follow up study of 1717 children who had meningitis in infancy

  8. Formant frequencies of Malay vowels produced by Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years.

    PubMed

    Ting, Hua-Nong; Zourmand, Alireza; Chia, See-Yan; Yong, Boon-Fei; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman

    2012-09-01

    The formant frequencies of Malaysian Malay children have not been well studied. This article investigates the first four formant frequencies of sustained vowels in 360 Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis. Generally, Malay female children had higher formant frequencies than those of their male counterparts. However, no significant differences in all four formant frequencies were observed between the Malay male and female children in most of the vowels and age groups. Significant differences in all formant frequencies were found across the Malay vowels in both Malay male and female children for all age groups except for F4 in female children aged 12 years. Generally, the Malaysian Malay children showed a nonsystematic decrement in formant frequencies with age. Low levels of significant differences in formant frequencies were observed across the age groups in most of the vowels for F1, F3, and F4 in Malay male children and F1 and F4 in Malay female children. PMID:22285457

  9. Whole Genome Sequences of a Male and Female Supercentenarian, Ages Greater than 114 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sebastiani, Paola; Riva, Alberto; Montano, Monty; Pham, Phillip; Torkamani, Ali; Scherba, Eugene; Benson, Gary; Milton, Jacqueline N.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Andersen, Stacy; Schork, Nicholas J.; Steinberg, Martin H.; Perls, Thomas T.

    2012-01-01

    Supercentenarians (age 110+ years old) generally delay or escape age-related diseases and disability well beyond the age of 100 and this exceptional survival is likely to be influenced by a genetic predisposition that includes both common and rare genetic variants. In this report, we describe the complete genomic sequences of male and female supercentenarians, both age >114 years old. We show that: (1) the sequence variant spectrum of these two individuals’ DNA sequences is largely comparable to existing non-supercentenarian genomes; (2) the two individuals do not appear to carry most of the well-established human longevity enabling variants already reported in the literature; (3) they have a comparable number of known disease-associated variants relative to most human genomes sequenced to-date; (4) approximately 1% of the variants these individuals possess are novel and may point to new genes involved in exceptional longevity; and (5) both individuals are enriched for coding variants near longevity-associated variants that we discovered through a large genome-wide association study. These analyses suggest that there are both common and rare longevity-associated variants that may counter the effects of disease-predisposing variants and extend lifespan. The continued analysis of the genomes of these and other rare individuals who have survived to extremely old ages should provide insight into the processes that contribute to the maintenance of health during extreme aging. PMID:22303384

  10. What is schizophrenia? 25 years of research into schizophrenia - the Age Beginning Course Study

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    We studied a population-based sample of 232 first-onset cases of schizophrenia aged 12 to 59 years at first admission retrospectively back to illness onset and prospectively up to 11.2 years later. We compared them with psychiatrically healthy age- and sex-matched population controls and equally matched first-admission patients diagnosed with major depression. At schizophrenia onset women are several years older than men. The social factors tested did not explain the finding. Women’s higher level of social development at onset is associated with a better medium-term functional and social outcome. Prodromal schizophrenia and depression are equal in length and diagnostically distinguishable only after the onset of positive symptoms. The sex difference in age at onset, invariable across cultures and ethnicities, is explained by a protective effect of oestrogen, which down-regulates D2 receptors. A higher genetic load antagonizes this effect. Long-term symptom-related illness course exhibits a plateau after three years, the positive symptom dimension after two years, the depressive and the negative dimensions do so after three to five years. The most prevalent symptom is depressive mood. Male first episodes are more frequent and more severe in the first half of life, female ones in the second half. Aetiological conclusions will be drawn. PMID:26110118

  11. Assessment of working memory components at 6years of age as predictors of reading achievements a year later.

    PubMed

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-05-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97 children. Among all working memory components, phonological complex memory contributed most to predicting all three reading abilities. A capacity measure of phonological complex memory, based on passing a minimum threshold in those tasks, contributed to the explained variance of decoding and reading comprehension. Findings suggest that a minimal ability of phonological complex memory is necessary for children to attain a normal reading level. Adding assessment of phonological complex memory, before formal teaching of reading begins, to more common measures might better estimate children's likelihood of future academic success. PMID:21115182

  12. Determinants of fat-soluble vitamin status in patients aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, F; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Millán, I; Donoso-Navarro, E; Silvestre-Mardomingo, R A

    2013-12-01

    In the elderly, malnutrition is highly prevalent and a major contributor to increased morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the fat-soluble vitamin status and potential determinants in patients >65 years of age. Serum vitamins A, D and E were determined by liquid chromatography in 166 patients. Gender, age, season, hospitalization, nutritional markers (albumin and cholesterol), acute-phase reactants (ferritin and C-reactive protein) and renal function (creatinine and glomerular filtrate) were assessed as potential determinants. Prevalence of vitamin deficiency was highly variable, ranging from 0 (vitamin E/cholesterol ratio) to 94% (for vitamin D in hospitalized patients). Vitamin status did not differ according to gender, but age, season, hospitalization, a poor nutritional status and impaired renal function, and the presence of acute-phase response significantly affected serum levels of vitamin A, E and D. In conclusion, in subjects >65 years both demographic and clinical factors determined the fat-soluble vitamin status. PMID:24129364

  13. 47 CFR 0.5 - General description of Commission organization and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General description of Commission organization and operations. 0.5 Section 0.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.5 General description of Commission organization and operations. (a) Principal staff units. The Commission...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22233 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation...

  15. 17 CFR 270.0-5 - Procedure with respect to applications and other matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure with respect to applications and other matters. 270.0-5 Section 270.0-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.0-5...

  16. Effects of capping on GaN quantum dots deposited on Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Korytov, M.; Benaissa, M.; Huault, T.; Neisius, T.

    2009-04-06

    The impact of the capping process on the structural and morphological properties of GaN quantum dots (QDs) grown on fully relaxed Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N templates was studied by transmission electron microscopy. A morphological transition between the surface QDs, which have a pyramidal shape, and the buried ones, which have a truncated pyramid shape, is evidenced. This shape evolution is accompanied by a volume change: buried QDs are bigger than surface ones. Furthermore a phase separation into Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N barriers was observed in the close vicinity of buried QDs. As a result, the buried QDs were found to be connected with the nearest neighbors by thin Ga-rich zones, whereas Al-rich zones are situated above the QDs.

  17. Thermoelectric properties of PbSe0.5Te0.5: x (PbI2) with endotaxial nanostructures: a promising n-type thermoelectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, P. K.; Paul, B.; Banerji, P.

    2013-05-01

    In the present investigation, we report on the thermoelectric properties of PbSe0.5Te0.5: x (PbI2) from room temperature to 625 K. High-resolution transmission electron micrographs of the samples reveal endotaxial nanostructures embedded in a PbSe0.5Te0.5 matrix. The combined effect of mass fluctuation and nanostructures reduces the thermal conductivity to a great extent compared to PbTe and PbSe, without affecting the carrier mobility. As a result, a thermoelectric figure of merit with a value of 1.5 is achieved at 625 K. This value is significantly higher than that of the available state-of-the-art n-type materials.

  18. Static and dynamic magnetic characteristics of BaCo 0.5Mn 0.5Ti 1.0Fe 10O 19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choopani, Saeed; Keyhan, Neda; Ghasemi, Ali; Sharbathi, Ali; Maghsoudi, Iman; Eghbali, Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    The effect of Mn 2+Co 2+Ti 4+ substitution on microwave absorption has been studied for BaCo 0.5Mn 0.5Ti 1.0Fe 10O 19 ferrite-acrylic resin composites in frequency range from 12 to 20 GHz. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer, AC susceptometer and vector network analyzer were used to analyze the structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties. The results showed that the magnetoplumbite structures for all samples have been formed. Based on microwave measurement on reflectivity, BaCo 0.5Mn 0.5Ti 1.0Fe 10O 19 may be a good candidate for electromagnetic compatibility and other practical applications at high frequency.

  19. Electric field-induced tuning of magnetism in PbFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Rayaprol, S. E-mail: brangadi@gmail.com; Mukherjee, S.; Kaushik, S. D.; Matteppanavar, S.; Angadi, B. E-mail: brangadi@gmail.com

    2015-08-07

    We study the influence of electrical poling, carried out at room temperature, on the structure and magnetism of Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} by analyzing the differences observed in structural and magnetic properties before and after the electrical poling. The changes observed in magnetization of Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} before and after electrical poling exhibit considerably strong converse magnetoelectric effect at room temperature. In addition, the strengthening of Fe/Nb-O bond due to electrical poling is discussed on the basis of Raman spectral studies and analysis of neutron diffraction patterns. The potential tunability of magnetization with electrical poling can be an ideal tool for realization of application potential of this multiferroic material.

  20. Ultrahigh strain response with fatigue-free behavior in (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jigong; Xu, Zhijun; Chu, Ruiqing; Li, Wei; Du, Juan; Li, Guorong

    2015-12-01

    In this letter, we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic system (Bi0.5Na0.5)1-x Ba x Ti0.98 (Fe0.5Sb0.5)0.02O3 which shows a surprisingly high field-induced nonlinear strain of 0.57% comparable to those obtained in Pb-based antiferroelectrics. The ultrahigh strain response of the composition stems from the composition proximity to the ferroelectric-nonpolar phase boundary, which leads to reversible transformation between a nonpolar phase and a polar ferroelectric phase under cyclic fields. In particular, this material is very attractive for its exceptionally good fatigue resistance (up to 106 cycles) and high temperature stability (25-100 °C) due to its stable nonpolar phase and lower defect density. These findings render the current material a great opportunity for novel applications in ultra-large stroke and nonlinear actuators demanding improved cycling and thermal reliabilities.

  1. Epitaxial growth of AlN and Al0.5Ga0.5N layers on aluminum nitride substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowalter, L. J.; Shusterman, Y.; Wang, R.; Bhat, I.; Arunmozhi, G.; Slack, G. A.

    2000-02-01

    High quality epitaxial AlN and AlxGa1-xN layers have been grown by organo-metallic vapor-phase epitaxy on single crystal a-face AlN substrates. Here we report the characterization of these layers using Rutherford backscattering/ion channeling spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, double crystal x-ray diffraction, and preliminary electrical results. Ion channeling along the [112¯0] axis gave a minimum yield of 1.5% for an AlN layer and 2.2% for an Al0.5Ga0.5N, indicating excellent crystal quality. A resistivity of 20 Ω cm and a mobility of 20 cm2/V s was measured in a Si-doped, 1-μm-thick Al0.5Ga0.5N grown epitaxially on the AlN substrates.

  2. Epitaxial growth of AlN and Al 0.5Ga 0.5N layers on aluminum nitride substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowalter, L. J.; Rojo, J. C.; Slack, G. A.; Shusterman, Y.; Wang, R.; Bhat, I.; Arunmozhi, G.

    2000-04-01

    High-quality epitaxial AlN and Al xGa 1- xN layers have been grown by organo-metallic vapor-phase epitaxy (OMVPE) on single-crystal AlN substrates. Here we report the characterization of these layers on a-face substrates using Rutherford backscattering/ion channeling spectroscopy (RBS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), double-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), and preliminary electrical results. Ion channeling along the [ 1 1 2¯ 0 ] axis gave a minimum yield of 1.5% for an AlN layer and 2.2% for an Al 0.5Ga 0.5N, indicating excellent crystal quality. A resistivity of 20 Ω cm and a mobility of 20 cm 2/V s was measured in a Si-doped, 1 μm-thick, epitaxial Al 0.5Ga 0.5N grown epitaxially on the AlN substrates.

  3. Growth of layered LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 thin films by pulsed laser deposition for application in microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hui; Lu, Li; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2008-01-01

    LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on stainless steel (SS) and Au substrates. The substrate was found to play an important role in determining the growth of films. Although similar x-ray diffraction spectra were observed for both types of substrates, Raman spectra exhibited different features. The charge-discharge behavior of the film on the SS substrate indicates a spinel structure while the charge-discharge behavior of the film on the Au substrate indicates a layered structure. The secondary ion mass spectrometry depth-profiling results indicate interdiffusion between the film and the substrate, which inhibits the formation of pure layered LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 phase.

  4. High electrostrictive strain induced by defect dipoles in acceptor-doped (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ye-Jing; Zhao, Yong-Jie; Zhao, Zhe; Zhao, Zhi-Hao; Zhou, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Wen

    2016-07-01

    Acceptor doping is an efficient method to improve ferroelectric material performance through the formation of defect dipoles. Here, a high electrostrictive strain of 0.16–0.19%, and large d33\\ast of  >300 pm V‑1 are obtained in CuO-doped (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics. We analyzed the orientation relationship and the interaction between defect dipole polarization (P d) along <0 0 1> orientation and spontaneous polarization (P s) parallel to <1 1 0> in orthorhombic (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3. Thus, a ‘coupling effect’ mechanism was suggested to explain how the P d and P s can work together to contribute to the electrostrictive strains in this lead-free piezoelectric ceramic.

  5. Global and local structural variations near the antiferroelectric regime in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Thangavelu, Karthik; Rayaprol, S.; Siruguri, V.; Sastry, P. U.; Asthana, Saket

    2015-06-24

    Rietveld refinement of neutron and x-ray diffraction data of Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} shows R3c phase stabilization at room temperature. The intermediate antiferroelectric region between 180°C to 280°C exhibits phase coexistence i.e R3c + Pnma, along with decrease in octahedral tilt angle and increase in unit cell volume. The local structural changes observed from Raman scattering in the A-O, Ti-O and TiO{sub 6} phonon modes favor the global structural variation. A possible antiparallel cation displacement due to Pnma phase formation leads to the origin of antiferroelectric ordering in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}.

  6. Optimization of exchange bias in Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} Heusler alloy layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hirohata, Atsufumi; Izumida, Keisuke; Ishizawa, Satoshi; Nakayama, Tadachika; Sagar, James

    2014-05-07

    We have fabricated and investigated IrMn{sub 3}/Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} stacks to meet the criteria for future spintronic device applications which requires low-temperature crystallisation (<250 °C) and a large exchange bias H{sub ex} (>500 Oe). Such a system would form the pinned layer in spin-valve or tunnel junction applications. We have demonstrated that annealing at 300 °C which can achieve crystalline ordering in the Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} layer giving ∼80% of the predicted saturation magnetisation. We have also induced an exchange bias of ∼240 Oe at the interface. These values are close to the above criteria and confirm the potential of using antiferromagnet/Heusler-alloy stacks in current Si-based processes.

  7. Crystal structure of the ordered perovskite: BaBi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, W.T.; Graaff, R.A.G. de; Gelder, R. de

    1997-06-01

    The structure of BaBi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} is determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It is an ordered perovskite, having rhombohedral symmetry, space group R {bar 3}m (No. 166), with lattice parameters a = 6.043(1) {angstrom} and {alpha} = 60.05(2)(degree). The final agreement factor R based on F{sup 2} for 6420 reflections was 0.052. An important structural feature of BaBi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} is the displacements of oxygen atoms from their ideal positions within the pseudo-cubic [110]{sub p} planes, creating an alternative arrangement of (larger) BiO{sub 6} and (smaller) SbO{sub 6} octahedra. Therefore, the valence states of bismuth and antimony can be readily assigned as Bi(III) and Sb(V).

  8. The Conception of Risk in Minority Young Adolescents Aged 12-14 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…

  9. Correlates of Depressive Disorders in the Quebec General Population 6 to 14 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Lise; Valla, Jean-Pierre; Smolla, Nicole; Piche, Genevieve; Berthiaume, Claude; St.-Georges, Marie

    2007-01-01

    There are relatively few community-based epidemiological studies in which correlates of depressive disorders were identified through multivariate analyses in children and adolescents aged 6-14 years. Moreover, several family characteristics (e.g., parent-child relationship) have never been explored in this regard. The purpose of this study was…

  10. Students' Perspective (Age Wise, Gender Wise and Year Wise) of Parameters Affecting the Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…

  11. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  12. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  13. The Effects of Age, Years of Experience, and Type of Experience in the Teacher Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, David Scott

    2010-01-01

    Paper screening in the pre-selection process of hiring teachers has been the focus in an ongoing series of similar studies starting with Allison in 1981. There have been many independent variables, including, but not limited to, age, gender, ethnic background, years of experience, type of experience, and grade point average, introduced into the…

  14. Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

  15. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  16. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  17. Modeling the Development Process of Dialogical Critical Thinking in Pupils Aged 10 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Marie-France; Lafortune, Louise; Pallascio, Richard; Splitter, Laurance; Slade, Christina; de la Garza, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    This research project investigated manifestations of critical thinking in pupils 10 to 12 years of age during their group discussions held in the context of Philosophy for Children Adapted to Mathematics. The objective of the research project was to examine, through the pupils' discussions, the development of dialogical critical thinking…

  18. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  19. The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the…

  20. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  1. Trajectories of Resilience during Dyadic Task Performance among Children Six to Seven Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykkänen, Arttu; Kronqvist, Eeva-Liisa; Järvelä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse resilience displayed by young children in dyadic task performance situations. Data were collected by videotaping children (aged six to seven years; N?=?40) during a geometrical task performance. Results describe ways in which children confronted the challenges during task performance, and the order in which the…

  2. The Five to Seven Year Shift: The Age of Reason and Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J., Ed.; Haith, Marshall M.

    This book reviews the contemporary state of knowledge on developmental transitions between 5 and 7 years. Contributions are: (1) "Interpreting Developmental Transitions" (Arnold Sameroff; Marshall Haith); (2) "The Child's Entry into the 'Age of Reason'" (Sheldon White); (3) "Is There a Neural Basis for Cognitive Transitions in School-Age…

  3. Psychiatric Disorders in Extremely Preterm Children: Longitudinal Finding at Age 11 Years in the EPICure Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Hollis, Chris; Kochhar, Puja; Hennessy, Enid; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children. Method: All babies born less than 26 weeks gestation in the United Kingdom and Ireland from March through December 1995 were recruited to the EPICure Study. Of 307 survivors at 11 years of age, 219 (71%) were assessed alongside 153…

  4. Self-Concept of Gifted Children Aged 9 to 13 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Jiannong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xingli

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-four gifted children and 200 nongifted children (aged 9 to 13 years old) were involved in the present study. Their self-concept was assessed by the Revised Song-Hattie Self-Concept Inventory (Zhou & He, 1996). Academic self-concepts pertaining to abilities, school achievements, and grade concepts and nonacademic self-concepts pertaining to…

  5. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  6. Fatal head injuries in children under the age of 5 years in Pretoria.

    PubMed

    du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Saayman, Gert

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of fatal injuries in children has been reported to be highest among children aged 1 to 4 years. Major causes of head injury include road traffic accidents, falls, and intentional or inflicted injury (such as nonaccidental injury syndrome). This study reviewed the profile of children (under 5 years of age) who had been admitted to a large urban medicolegal mortuary (in Pretoria, the capital city of South Africa), after having suffered fatal head injuries. This study was conducted over a 5-year period (from January 2004 through December 2008), and a total of 107 cases were identified for inclusion. These cases constituted nearly a fifth of admissions in this age group. The male-to-female ratio was 56%:44%, and the peak age of injury was less than 1 year. Most head injuries were sustained in road traffic accidents (70%) followed by falls (10%) and other types of blunt force injuries (9%). Only 1 case of nonaccidental injury syndrome (child abuse) was found. The great majority of deaths were deemed to have been accidental in nature (91%) with 6 (6%) homicides. Urgent review pertaining to the use of child restraint devices and the safety of pedestrians is required, and the institution of childhood injury registers could aid in reducing childhood fatalities in South Africa. PMID:25072811

  7. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

  8. Rejuvenating immunity: “anti-aging drug today” eight years later

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 year ended with celebration: Everolimus, a rapamycin analog, was shown to improve immunity in old humans, heralding ‘a turning point’ in research and new era in human quest for immortality. Yet, this turning point was predicted a decade ago. But what will cause human death, when aging will be abolished? PMID:25844603

  9. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Guidance for Health Children Ages 2 to 11 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical acti...

  10. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  11. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  12. Standards for Day Care Centers for Infants and Children Under 3 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Pediatrics, Evanston, IL.

    The Committee on Infant and Preschool Child of the American Academy of Pediatrics has developed basic standards for quality day care for children under 3 years of age. The availability of day care provides a mother with the choice of group day care as one of the means of providing for her children. Options should include full-time or part-time day…

  13. Spinal dysraphism. A study of patients over the age of 10 years.

    PubMed

    Yamane, T; Shinoto, A; Kamegaya, M; Shinada, Y

    1991-11-01

    Thirty patients over the age of 10 years, exhibiting cutaneous manifestations on the back suspected to be due to spinal dysraphism, and neurologic deficits, were studied to analyze neurologic appearance. Neurologic deficits appeared by age 5 in 26 patients. No patient complained of low-back pain or sciatica. Paralytic deformities of the lower extremities were divided into four grades for evaluation: A = no deformity, with only urinary disturbance (four cases); B = toe-limited deformity (two cases); C = toe and foot-limited deformity (six cases); D = toe, foot, ankle, and lower limb deformity (18 cases). Patients with slight neurologic disturbance, either Grade A or without urinary disturbance, were seen among the patients who had undergone a release operation by age 2, although neurologic appearance in patients in severe grades was not related to the age at release operation. Also, the release operation was thought to be effective in preventing low-back pain or sciatica. PMID:1750003

  14. US health spending trends by age and gender: selected years 2002-10.

    PubMed

    Lassman, David; Hartman, Micah; Washington, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly; Catlin, Aaron

    2014-05-01

    This article presents estimates of personal health care spending by age and gender in selected years during the period 2002-10 and an analysis of the variation in spending among children, working-age adults, and the elderly. Our research found that in this period, aggregate spending on children's health care increased at the slowest rate. However, per capita spending for children grew more rapidly than that for working-age adults and the elderly. Per capita spending for the elderly remained about five times higher than spending for children. Overall, females spent more per capita than males, but the gap had decreased by 2010. The implementation of Medicare Part D, the effects of the recent recession, and the aging of the baby boomers affected the spending trends and distributions during the period of this study. PMID:24799579

  15. Ferrimagnetic and spin-glass transition in the Aurivillius compound SrBi5Ti4Cr0.5Co0.5O18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, B.; Yang, J.; Zuo, X. Z.; Song, D. P.; Tang, X. W.; Zhu, X. B.; Dai, J. M.; Song, W. H.; Sun, Y. P.

    2015-06-01

    Single-phase polycrystalline SrBi5Ti4CrO18 and SrBi5Ti4Cr0.5Co0.5O18 were synthesized by a modified Pechini method. Both samples have an orthorhombic structure with the space group B2cb. The valence state of Cr is suggested to be +3 and the Co ions exist in the form of Co2+ and Co3+ based on the results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sample SrBi5Ti4CrO18 exhibits the paramagnetic state, whereas SrBi5Ti4Cr0.5Co0.5O18 undergoes a ferrimagnetic transition at 89 K originating from the antiferromagnetic coupling of Cr-based and Co-based sublattices. In addition, SrBi5Ti4Cr0.5Co0.5O18 shows a typical spin-glass behavior below 89 K with zν = 6.02 and τ0 = (1.75 ± 0.33) × 10-14 s as evidenced by the results of the frequency dependence of ac susceptibility and magnetic relaxation measurements. In particular, both the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of SrBi5Ti4Cr0.5Co0.5O18 exhibit the characteristics of dielectric relaxation around 89 K with the activation energy of (0.14 ± 0.02) eV, which can be ascribed to the electron hopping of Co2+-VO-Co3+ through the bridging oxygen vacancies.

  16. Management of Patients Aged ≥85 Years With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Yudi, Matias B; Jones, Nicholas; Fernando, Dharsh; Clark, David J; Ramchand, Jay; Jones, Elizabeth; Dakis, Robynne; Johnson, Douglas; Chan, Robert; Islam, Amirul; Farouque, Omar; Horrigan, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Guidelines mandate urgent revascularization in patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) irrespective of age. Whether this strategy is optimal in patients aged ≥85 years remains uncertain. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients aged ≥85 years with STEMI stratified by their management strategy. We analyzed baseline clinical characteristics of 101 consecutive patients aged ≥85 years who presented with STEMI to a tertiary Australian hospital. Patients were stratified based on whether they underwent invasive management with urgent coronary angiography ± percutaneous coronary intervention or conservative management. Our primary outcome was long-term mortality. Independent predictors of conservative management and long-term mortality were assessed by multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard modeling respectively. Of the 101 patients included, 45 underwent invasive management. Independent predictors of having conservative management were older age, anterior STEMI, and cognitive impairment (all p <0.01). Patients managed invasively had lower in-hospital (13.3% vs 32.1%, p = 0.03), 30-day (13.3% vs 37.5%, p <0.01), 12-month (22.2% vs 57.1%, p <0.01), and long-term (40.0% vs 75.0%, p <0.01) mortality. Invasive management was an independent predictor of lower long-term mortality (hazard ratio 0.29, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.76, p <0.01). In conclusion, patients aged ≥85 years with STEMI who were older, had cognitive impairment or presented with anterior ST-elevation were more likely to be managed conservatively. Those who underwent invasive management had reasonable short- and long-term outcomes. PMID:27217208

  17. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice. PMID:22317517

  18. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort

  19. Normative values for mandibular mobility in Scandinavian individuals 4-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Stoustrup, P; Kristensen, K D; Küseler, A; Herlin, T; Pedersen, T K

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of mandibular mobility is an important part of the clinical oro-facial examination of paediatric and adolescent patients. The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to establish age-related normative values for mandibular mobility in a Scandinavian paediatric and adolescent cohort and to assess the validity of universal cut-off values for lower 'normal' mandibular ranges of motion. A total of 1114 Danish individuals between 4-17 years of age were included. Maximal mouth opening capacity and laterotrusion capacity were assessed, in each individual, according to a standardised measurement protocol. The mean maximal mouth opening capacity gradually increased from 38 mm (SD 6·1 mm) at age 4 to 54·5 mm (SD 6·8 mm) at age 17. No inter-gender difference in maximal mouth opening capacity was observed (P > 0·15). The mean maximal laterotrusion capacity gradually increased from 7·4 mm (SD. 1·1 mm) at age four to 10·1 mm (SD 1·9 mm) at age 17. A statistical significant inter-gender difference of 0·8 mm (SD 0·4 mm) was observed in relation to the total laterotrusion capacity; however, the clinical relevance of this significant difference is questionable. Normative values of mandibular function was established in individuals 4-17 years of age. Our findings oppose the use of a single universal cut-off value for 'normal' range of motion in paediatric and adolescent patients. Instead, we recommend to use the age-related normative values of mandibular range of motion as basis for the assessment of the development of oro-facial function. PMID:27145166

  20. Co-doping of (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3: secondary phase formation and lattice site preference of Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, V.; Staab, T. E. M.

    2012-11-01

    Bismuth sodium titanate (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 (BNT) is considered to be one of the most promising lead-free alternatives to piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). However, the effect of dopants on the material has so far received little attention from an atomic point of view. In this study we investigated the effects of cobalt-doping on the formation of additional phases and determined the preferred lattice site of cobalt in BNT. The latter was achieved by comparing the measured x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra to numerically calculated spectra of cobalt on various lattice sites in BNT. (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 + x mol% Co (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.6) was synthesized via solid state reaction. As revealed by SEM backscattering images, a secondary phase formed in all doped specimens. Using both XRD and SEM-EDX, it was identified as Co2TiO4 for dopant levels >0.5 mol%. In addition, a certain amount of cobalt was incorporated into BNT, as shown by electron probe microanalysis. This amount increased with increasing dopant levels, suggesting that an equilibrium forms together with the secondary phase. The XANES experiments revealed that cobalt occupies the octahedral B-site in the BNT perovskite lattice, substituting Ti and promoting the formation of oxygen vacancies in the material.

  1. Ordered structure and thermal expansion in tungsten bronze Pb₂K(0.5)Li(0.5)Nb₅O₁₅.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun; Rong, Yangchun; Wu, Hui; Huang, Qingzhen; You, Li; Ren, Yang; Fan, Longlong; Chen, Jun; Xing, Xianran

    2014-09-01

    The crystal structure and thermal expansion behaviors of a new tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) ferroelectric, Pb2K(0.5)Li(0.5)Nb5O15, were systematically investigated by selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), neutron powder diffraction, synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-temperature XRD. SAED and Rietveld refinement reveal that Pb2K(0.5)Li(0.5)Nb5O15 displays a commensurate superstructure of simple orthorhombic TTB structure at room temperature. The structure can be described with space group Bb2₁m. The transition to a paraelectric phase (P4/mbm) occurs at 500 °C. Compared with Pb2KNb5O15 (PKN), the substitution of 0.5K(+) with small 0.5Li(+) into PKN causes the tilting of NbO6 octahedra away from the c axis with Δθ ≈ 10° and raises the Curie temperature by 40 °C, and the negative thermal expansion coefficient along the polar b axis increases more than 50% in the temperature range 25-500 °C. We present that, by introduction of Li(+), the enhanced spontaneous polarization is responsible for the enhanced negative thermal expansion along the b axis, which may be caused by more Pb(2+) in the pentagonal caves. PMID:25116333

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of thin Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 Heusler films with varying thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonsov, A.; Peters, B.; Yang, F. Y.; Büchner, B.; Wurmehl, S.

    2015-02-01

    Type, degree, and evolution of structural order are important aspects for understanding and controlling the properties of highly spin-polarized Heusler compounds, in particular, with respect to the optimal film growth procedure. In this work, we compare the structural order and the local magnetic properties revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with the macroscopic properties of thin Co2FeAl 0.5Si 0.5 Heusler films with varying thickness. A detailed analysis of the measured NMR spectra presented in this paper enables us to find a very high degree of L 21 -type ordering up to 81% concomitantly with excess Fe of 8%-13% at the expense of Al and Si. We show that the formation of certain types of order depends not only on the thermodynamic phase diagrams as in bulk samples, but also that the kinetic control may contribute to the phase formation in thin films. It is an exciting finding that Co2FeAl 0.5Si 0.5 can form an almost ideal L 21 structure in films, though with a considerable amount of Fe-Al/Si off stoichiometry. Moreover, the very good quality of the films as demonstrated by our NMR study suggests that the technique of off-axis sputtering used to grow the films sets the stage for the optimized performance of Co2FeAl 0.5Si 0.5 in spintronic devices.

  3. Valence states and metamagnetic phase transition in partially B -site-disordered perovskite EuMn0.5Co0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, A. N.; Volkova, O. S.; Lobanovskii, L. S.; Troyanchuk, I. O.; Hu, Z.; Tjeng, L. H.; Khomskii, D. I.; Lin, H.-J.; Chen, C. T.; Tristan, N.; Kretzschmar, F.; Klingeler, R.; Büchner, B.

    2008-03-01

    The valence states of transition metals were studied by measuring the x-ray absorption spectra at both MnL2,3 and CoL2,3 edges of partially B -site-disordered perovskite EuMn0.5Co0.5O3 . By comparison with analogous spectra in various Co- and Mn-based compounds, the divalent state of the Co ions and the tetravalent state of the Mn ions were established analogous to Mn4+/Co2+ charge ordering found by Dass and Goodenough [Phys. Rev. B 67, 014401 (2003)] in LaMn0.5Co0.5O3 . The specific heat and magnetic susceptibility data indicate the formation of the magnetically ordered state at TC˜120K . The first-order metamagnetic transitions seen in EuMn0.5Co0.5O3 at T

  4. Effect of Pr Addition on Properties of Sn-0.5Ag-0.7Cu-0.5Ga Lead-Free Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xujing, Nan; Songbai, Xue; Peizhuo, Zhai; Dongxue, Luo

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of Pr addition on the microstructure and properties of Sn-0.5Ag-0.7Cu-0.5Ga lead-free solder was investigated. It was found that the properties of Sn-0.5Ag-0.7Cu-0.5Ga-xPr solder, such as wettability and mechanical properties, could be obviously improved, and the optimal content of Pr was about 0.06 wt.%. The microstructure of Sn-0.5Ag-0.7Cu-0.5Ga-0.06Pr solder showed that the β-Sn matrix and intermetallic compound (IMC) grains were significantly refined, and refinement and homogenization of the microstructure achieved maximum efficiency, which played the role of fine grain strengthening and second phase strengthening. However, as the content of Pr exceeded 0.06 wt.%, some uneven distributed black phases of PrSn3 were found in the β-Sn matrix, which seriously worsened the microstructure and properties of the solders. As a surface-active element, the segregation of Pr at the molten solder interface could give rise to decreasing the interface tension. Consequently, adding a suitable amount of Pr could play a positive role in improving the properties of the solders.

  5. Fabrication and evaluation of a single-element Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based ultrasonic transducer.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, M Mehdi; Jadidian, Bahram; Safari, Ahmad

    2012-08-01

    This paper discusses the fabrication and characterization of a single-element ultrasonic transducer with a lead-free piezoelectric active element. A piezoelectric ceramic with composition of 0.88Bi(0.5)Na(0.5)TiO(3)-0.08Bi(0.5)K(0.5)TiO(3)- 0.04Bi(0.5)Li(0.5)TiO(3) was chosen as the active element of the transducer. This composition exhibited a thickness coupling coefficient (kt) of 0.45, a dielectric constant of 440 (at 1 kHz), and a longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d(33)) of 84 pC·N(-1). To make the transducer, the ceramic was sandwiched between an epoxy-tungsten backing layer and a silver epoxy matching layer. An epoxy lens was also incorporated into the transducer's design to focus the ultrasound beam. The focused transducer with a center frequency of about 23 MHz demonstrated a -6-dB bandwidth of 55% and an insertion loss of -32 dB; the -20-dB pulsed length was measured to be 150 ns. A phantom made of copper wires (30 μm in diameter) was utilized to investigate the imaging capability of the transducer. The results indicated that the fabricated transducer, with a lateral resolution of 260 μm and a relatively high depolarization temperature, could be considered as a candidate for replacement of lead-based ultrasonic transducers. PMID:22899131

  6. Electronic structure of a new layered bismuth oxyselenide superconductor: LaO0.5F0.5BiSe2.

    PubMed

    Xia, M; Jiang, J; Niu, X H; Liu, J Z; Wen, C H P; Lu, H Y; Lou, X; Pu, Y J; Huang, Z C; Zhu, Xiyu; Wen, H H; Xie, B P; Shen, D W; Feng, D L

    2015-07-22

    LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) is a new layered superconductor discovered recently, which shows the superconducting transition temperature of 3.5 K. With angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we study the electronic structure of LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) comprehensively. Two electron-like bands are located around the X point of the Brillouin zone, and the outer pockets connect with each other and form large Fermi surface around Γ and M. These bands show negligible k(z) dispersion, indicating their two-dimensional nature. Based on the Luttinger theorem, the carrier concentration is about 0.53 e(-) per unit cell, close to its nominal value. Moreover, the photoemission data and the band structure calculations agree very well, and the renormalization factor is nearly 1.0, indicating the electron correlations in this material are rather weak. Our results suggest that LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) is a conventional BCS superconductor without strong electron correlations. PMID:26102451

  7. The hierarchical structure of cubic K0.5La0.5TiO3 layers and enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution after surface acidification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenli; Zhu, Guilian; Zhao, Wei; Lin, Tianquan; Xu, Fangfang; Huang, Fuqiang

    2015-11-14

    Transition-metal perovskite oxides possess rich functionalities in the fields of ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, superconductors, dielectrics, fuel cells and photocatalysis. Nano-facet control of the cubic ATiO3 (A: a divalent cation) phase, a typical perovskite oxide, may result in new properties or phenomena not observable in the bulk material. Herein, we first report a puzzle-like 3D hierarchical structure constructed with K0.5La0.5TiO3 nanosheets. Surprisingly, K0.5La0.5TiO3 has a cubic symmetry similar to a SrTiO3 perovskite. The unusual phase is synthesized by a simple one-pot hydrothermal strategy without using any structure-directing agent. After modest acidification, the assembled 3D hierarchical structure is etched into a core-shell nanostructure which consists of a crystalline K0.5La0.5TiO3 core and an amorphous TiO2 shell. The acid-treated sample exhibits remarkably enhanced photocatalytic H2 production, which is over 60 times higher than the pristine sample. PMID:26455735

  8. Physical Activity throughout Adolescence and Cognitive Performance at 18 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Hallal, Pedro C; Mielke, Grégore I; Menezes, Ana M B; Gonçalves, Helen; Wehrmeister, Fernando; Ekelund, Ulf; Rombaldi, Airton J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prospective associations of physical activity at 11, 15 and 18 years of age with cognitive performance in young adulthood in a large birth cohort study from Brazil. Methods Participants were part of a large birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (n = 3235 participants). Physical activity was self-reported at 11, 15 and 18 years and also was objectively measured at 18 years. Cognitive performance was assessed using an adapted Brazilian version of the short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) at 18 years. Results At 11 years, participants in the middle tertile of self-reported physical activity presented a significantly higher cognitive performance score as compared to the lowest tertile. Physical activity at 15 years of age was unrelated to cognitive performance at 18 years. Self-reported physical activity was cross-sectionally positively associated with cognitive performance at 18 years (p<0.001). Data from objectively measured physical activity at 18 years showed that those in the highest moderate to vigorous physical activity tertile presented lower cognitive performance scores at 18 years as compared to those in the lowest tertile (−2.59; 95%CI: −3.41; −1.48). Analyses on changes in tertiles of physical activity showed that maintaining an intermediate physical activity level from 11 to 18 years and from 15 to 18 years was associated with higher cognitive performance score of 2.31 (95%CI: 0.71; 3.91) and 1.84 score (95%CI: 0.25; 3.42), respectively. Conclusion Physical activity throughout adolescence is associated with cognitive performance before adulthood. Adolescents who are active at moderate levels, specifically those who maintain these levels of physical activity, tend to show higher cognitive performance. However, high levels of physical activity might impair cognitive performance. PMID:25973558

  9. Palliative chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer patients 80 years of age and older

    PubMed Central

    Lai, P.; Sud, S.; Zhang, T.; Asmis, T.; Wheatley-Price, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (crc) has a median diagnostic age of 68 years. Despite significant progress in chemotherapy (ctx) options, few data on outcomes or toxicity from ctx in patients 80 years of age and older are available. We investigated ctx in such patients with metastatic crc (mcrc), hypothesizing high rates of hospitalization and toxicity. Methods A retrospective chart review identified patients 80 years of age and older with mcrc who initiated ctx between 2005–2010 at our institution. Patient demographics and ctx data were collected. Endpoints included rates of hospitalization, ctx discontinuation because of toxicity, and overall survival. Results In 60 patients, ctx was initiated on 88 occasions. Median age in the cohort was 83 years; 52% were men; 72% lived with family; 53% had a modified Charlson comorbidity index of 2 or greater; and 31% were taking 6 or more prescription medications at baseline. At baseline, 33% of the patients were anemic (hemoglobin < 100 g/L), 36% had leukocytosis (white blood cells > 11×109/L), and 48% had renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). In 53%, ctx was given as first-line treatment. The initial ctx dose was adjusted in 67%, and capecitabine was the most common chemotherapeutic agent (45%). In 19 instances (22%), the patient was hospitalized during or within 30 days of ctx; in 26 instances (30%), the ctx was discontinued because of toxicity, and in 48 instances (55%), the patient required at least 1 dose reduction, omission, or delay. Median overall survival was 17.8 months (95% confidence interval: 14.3 to 20.8 months). Conclusions In the population 80 years of age and older, ctx for mcrc is feasible; however, most recipients will require dose adjustments, and a significant proportion will be hospitalized or stop ctx because of toxicity. Prospective research incorporating geriatric assessment tools is required to better select these older patients for ctx. PMID:27330342

  10. Daily living skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder from 2 to 21 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Hus Bal, Vanessa; Kim, So-Hyun; Cheong, Daniel; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Daily living skills (DLS), such as personal hygiene, meal preparation, and money management, are important to independent living. Research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder exhibit impairments in daily living skills relative to their cognitive skills. This study examined predictors of daily living skills attainment and trajectories of daily living skills in a longitudinal sample referred for possible autism spectrum disorder and followed from 2 to 21 years of age. Consistent with previous studies, participants with autism spectrum disorder and nonspectrum diagnoses showed continual development of daily living skills throughout childhood and adolescence. Early childhood nonverbal mental age was the strongest predictor of daily living skills attainment for both diagnostic groups. Group-based modeling suggested two distinct trajectories of daily living skills development for participants with autism spectrum disorder. Skill levels for both groups of young adults with autism spectrum disorder remained considerably below age level expectations. Whereas the “High-DLS” group gained approximately 12 years in daily living skills from T2 to T21, the “Low-DLS” group’s daily living skills improved 3–4 years over the 16- to 19-year study period. Nonverbal mental age, receptive language, and social-communication impairment at 2 years predicted High- versus Low-DLS group membership. Receiving greater than 20 h of parent-implemented intervention before age 3 was also associated with daily living skills trajectory. Results suggest that daily living skills should be a focus of treatment plans for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, particularly adolescents transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:25922445

  11. Safety, efficacy, and life satisfaction following epilepsy surgery in patients aged 60 years and older.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Sandra; Eliashiv, Dawn; Walshaw, Patricia D; Engel, Jerome; Fried, Itzhak; Moseley, Brian D

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Despite its potential to offer seizure freedom, resective epilepsy surgery (RES) is seldom performed in patients 60 years of age or older. Demonstrating successful outcomes including an improved quality of life may raise awareness about the advantages of referring this underrepresented population for specialized evaluation. Accordingly, the authors investigated outcomes and life fulfillment in patients with an age ≥ 60 years who had undergone RES. METHODS All patients who, at the age of 60 years or older, had undergone RES for medically refractory focal onset seizures at the authors' center were evaluated. A modified Liverpool Life Fulfillment (LLF) tool was administered postoperatively (maximum score 32). Seizure outcomes were classified according to the Engel classification system. RESULTS Twelve patients underwent RES. The majority of patients (9 [75%] of 12) had at least 1 medical comorbidity in addition to seizures. The mean follow-up was 3.1 ± 2.1 years. At the time of the final follow-up, 11 (91.7%) of 12 patients were documented as having a good postsurgical outcome (Engel Class I-II). Half (6 of 12 patients) were completely seizure free (Engel Class IA). Liverpool Life Fulfillment (LLF) data were available for 11 patients. Following surgery, the mean LLF score was 26.7 ± 6. Eight patients (72.7%) noted excellent satisfaction with their RES, with 5 (45.5%) noting postoperative improvements in overall health. CONCLUSIONS Resective epilepsy surgery is safe and effective in patients with an age ≥ 60 years. Over 90% had a good surgical outcome, with 50% becoming completely seizure free despite 1 or more medical comorbidities in the majority. The study data indicated that an advancing age should not negatively influence consideration for RES. PMID:26381254

  12. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  13. Physical Activity Level and Physical Functionality in Nonagenarians Compared to Individuals Aged 60–74 Years

    PubMed Central

    Frisard, Madlyn I.; Fabre, Jennifer M.; Russell, Ryan D.; King, Christina M.; DeLany, James P.; Wood, Robert H.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional dependence and the risks of disability increase with age. The loss of independence is thought to be partially due to a decrease in physical activity. However, in populations, accurate measurement of physical activity is challenging and may not provide information on functional impairment. Methods This study therefore assessed physical functionality and physical activity level in a group of nonagenarians (11 men/11 women; 93 ± 1 years, 66.6 ± 2.4 kg, body mass index [BMI] = 24 ± 1 kg/m2) and a group of participants aged 60–74 years (17 men/15 women; 70 ± 1 years, 83.3 ± 3.0 kg, BMI = 29 ± 1 kg/m2) from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Physical activity level was calculated from total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Physical functionality was assessed using the Reduced Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP10). Results Nonagenarians had lower absolute ( p < .001) and adjusted ( p < .007) TEE compared to participants aged 60–74 years which was attributed to a reduction in both RMR and physical activity level. Nonagenarians also had reduced functional performance ( p < .001) which was correlated with activity level (r = 0.68, p < .001). Conclusions When compared to individuals aged 60–74 years, 73% of the reduction in TEE in nonagenarians can be attributed to a reduction in physical activity level, the remaining being accounted for by a reduction in RMR. The reduced physical activity in nonagenarians is associated with less physical functionality. This study provides the first objective comparison of physical functionality and actual levels of physical activity in older individuals. PMID:17634327

  14. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years.

    PubMed

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hoefer, Imo E; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-04-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavorable risk factor burden. PMID:25624341

  15. Safety, efficacy, and life satisfaction following epilepsy surgery in patients aged 60 years and older

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Sandra; Eliashiv, Dawn; Walshaw, Patricia D.; Engel, Jerome; Fried, Itzhak; Moseley, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite its potential to offer seizure freedom, resective epilepsy surgery (RES) is seldom performed in patients 60 years of age or older. Demonstrating successful outcomes including an improved quality of life may raise awareness about the advantages of referring this underrepresented population for specialized evaluation. Accordingly, the authors investigated outcomes and life fulfillment in patients with an age ≥ 60 years who had undergone RES. METHODS All patients who, at the age of 60 years or older, had undergone RES for medically refractory focal onset seizures at the authors’ center were evaluated. A modified Liverpool Life Fulfillment (LLF) tool was administered postoperatively (maximum score 32). Seizure outcomes were classified according to the Engel classification system. RESULTS Twelve patients underwent RES. The majority of patients (9 [75%] of 12) had at least 1 medical comorbidity in addition to seizures. The mean follow-up was 3.1 ± 2.1 years. At the time of the final follow-up, 11 (91.7%) of 12 patients were documented as having a good postsurgical outcome (Engel Class I–II). Half (6 of 12 patients) were completely seizure free (Engel Class IA). Liverpool Life Fulfillment (LLF) data were available for 11 patients. Following surgery, the mean LLF score was 26.7 ± 6. Eight patients (72.7%) noted excellent satisfaction with their RES, with 5 (45.5%) noting postoperative improvements in overall health. CONCLUSIONS Resective epilepsy surgery is safe and effective in patients with an age ≥ 60 years. Over 90% had a good surgical outcome, with 50% becoming completely seizure free despite 1 or more medical comorbidities in the majority. The study data indicated that an advancing age should not negatively influence consideration for RES. PMID:26381254

  16. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    PubMed Central

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37–43 years of age (mean 40.3 years, SD 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had experienced moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in the first year of life (n=77) with healthy controls, who were former classmates of the index cases and were matched for age, sex and handedness in childhood (n=57). The previously malnourished participants had been rehabilitated, with good health and nutrition documented to 12 years of age, and study participants were followed longitudinally from childhood to 40 y. Group comparisons were adjusted for childhood and adolescent standard of living, with and without correcting for IQ. Results At the broad domain or factor level, previously malnourished participants had higher scores on Neuroticism and lower scores on Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness than did the healthy controls At the sub-domain or facet level, previously malnourished participants reported more anxiety, vulnerability, shyness and lowered sociability, less intellectual curiosity, greater suspiciousness of others, a more egocentric than altruistic orientation, and a lowered sense of efficacy or competence. Conclusions Malnutrition limited to the first year of life with good health and nutrition documented to 12 years of age, is associated with a significant overrepresentation of adult personality trait scores outside of the average range. This outcome has important implications for a variety of important life and mental health outcomes. PMID:23488644

  17. A Validated Normative Model for Human Uterine Volume from Birth to Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ginbey, Eleanor; Chowdhury, Moti M.; Bath, Louise E.; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2016-01-01

    Transabdominal pelvic ultrasound and/or pelvic Magnetic Resonance Imaging are safe, accurate and non-invasive means of determining the size and configuration of the internal female genitalia. The assessment of uterine size and volume is helpful in the assessment of many conditions including disorders of sex development, precocious or delayed puberty, infertility and menstrual disorders. Using our own data from the assessment of MRI scans in healthy young females and data extracted from four studies that assessed uterine volume using transabdominal ultrasound in healthy females we have derived and validated a normative model of uterine volume from birth to age 40 years. This shows that uterine volume increases across childhood, with a faster increase in adolescence reflecting the influence of puberty, followed by a slow but progressive rise during adult life. The model suggests that around 84% of the variation in uterine volumes in the healthy population up to age 40 is due to age alone. The derivation of a validated normative model for uterine volume from birth to age 40 years has important clinical applications by providing age-related reference values for uterine volume. PMID:27295032

  18. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327

  20. Synthesis crystal structure and ionic conductivity of Ca 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10 and Sr 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porob, Digamber G.; Guru Row, T. N.

    2004-12-01

    Two new compounds Ca 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10 and Sr 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10 have been synthesized in the ternary system: MO-Bi 2O 3-V 2O 5 system ( M=M 2+). The crystal structure of Sr 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10 has been determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data, space group P1¯ and Z=2, with cell parameters a=7.1453(3) Å, b=7.8921(3) Å, c=9.3297(3) Å, α=106.444(2)°, β=94.088(2)°, γ=112.445(2)°, V=456.72(4) Å 3. Ca 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10 is isostructural with Sr 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10, with, a=7.0810(2) Å, b=7.8447(2) Å, c=9.3607(2) Å, α=106.202(1)°, β=94.572(1)°, γ=112.659(1)°, V=450.38(2) Å 3 and its structure has been refined by Rietveld method using powder X-ray data. The crystal structure consists of infinite chains of (Bi 2O 2) along c-axis formed by linkage of BiO 8 and BiO 6 polyhedra interconnected by MO 8 polyhedra forming 2D layers in ac plane. The vanadate tetrahedra are sandwiched between these layers. Conductivity measurements give a maximum conductivity value of 4.54×10 -5 and 3.63×10 -5 S cm -1 for Ca 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10 and Sr 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10, respectively at 725 °C.

  1. Structure and Magnetic Order in the Series BixRE1-xFe0.5Mn0.5O3 (RE = La, Nd)

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, Craig A; Safa-Sefat, Athena; Payzant, E Andrew; Cranswick, Lachlan; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Bi3+ on the structure and magnetic properties of the rare-earth containing perovskites REFe0.5Mn0.5O3 (RE= La,Nd) was studied, and the limit of bismuth substitution was determined to be x 0.5 in BixRE1-xFe0.5Mn0.5O3+ (RE= La,Nd) at ambient pressure. Both X-ray and Neutron powder diffraction data were used to determine the crystal structures. Crystal structures in both La and Nd series were determined to be GdFeO3-type Pnma with the exception of the Bi0.3La0.7Fe0.5Mn0.5O3+ sample, which is monoclinic I2/a in the a-b-b- tilt scheme. Bond valence results suggest that the oxidation states are most consistent with Fe3+ and Mn3+, with some oxidation to form Mn4+ suggested by Rietveld refinement of oxygen excess and bismuth deficiency from neutron powder diffraction data. The samples undergo a transition to G-type antiferromagnetic order along with a weak ferromagnetic component, mixed with cluster-glass type behavior. Long range ordering temperatures TN in the range of 240-255K were also observed, with a significantly lower ordered magnetic moment in the case of lanthanum (M ~ 1.7-1.9 B) than in the case of neodymium (M ~ 2.1 B). The substitution of bismuth into the lattice results with a drop in T N relative to the lanthanide end-members, but exhibits no clear correlation with the magnitude of the ordered moment on the B-site.

  2. Cluster analysis of polyphenol intake in a French middle-aged population (aged 35-64 years).

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Touvier, Mathilde; Lassale, Camille; Fezeu, Léopold; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols have been suggested as protective factors for a range of chronic diseases. However, studying the impact of individual polyphenols on health is hindered by the intrinsic inter-correlations among polyphenols. Alternatively, studying foods rich in specific polyphenols fails to grasp the ubiquity of these components. Studying overall dietary patterns would allow for a more comprehensive description of polyphenol intakes in the population. Our objective was to identify clusters of dietary polyphenol intakes in a French middle-aged population (35-64 years old). Participants from the primary prevention trial SUpplementation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) study were included in the present cross-sectional study (n 6092; 57·8 % females; mean age 48·7 (sd 6·4) years). The fifty most consumed individual dietary polyphenols were divided into energy-adjusted tertiles and introduced in a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), leading to comprehensive factors of dietary polyphenol intakes. The identified factors discriminating polyphenol intakes were used in a hierarchical clustering procedure. Four clusters were identified, corresponding broadly to clustered preferences for their respective food sources. Cluster 1 was characterised by high intakes of tea polyphenols. Cluster 2 was characterised by high intakes of wine polyphenols. Cluster 3 was characterised by high intakes of flavanones and flavones, corresponding to high consumption of fruit and vegetables, and more broadly to a healthier diet. Cluster 4 was characterised by high intakes of hydroxycinnamic acids, but was also associated with alcohol consumption and smoking. Profiles of polyphenol intakes allowed for the identification of meaningful combinations of polyphenol intakes in the diet. PMID:27547391

  3. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  4. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  5. Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2012-07-01

    Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 years of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children's cognition at age 3 years was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioural and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/day increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 years was 1.6 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [-0.4 points per 2.6 µg/day; 95% CI -0.8, -0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 years. PMID:22686384

  6. Nutrition through the life span. Part 3: adults aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Alison

    The UK has an ageing population, but this is not being matched by a similar increase in healthy life expectancy. The greatest challenge in the 21st century will be to improve the quality of life as ageing occurs. Health is the most important prerequisite for people to enjoy life in their older years (Brundtland, 1988). Diet is one factor that is believed to play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases associated with ageing. The third and final part of this series addressing the concept of nutrition through the lifespan seeks to educate health-care professionals as to what constitutes a healthy diet for the elderly population, and gives practical guidance as to how to try and prevent the ever-growing problem of malnutrition within this age group. It is suggested that when the older adult is hospitalized their risk of malnutrition increases. Therefore, some guidance for the use of oral nutritional supplements in this population is given. Good nutrition and physical exercise are essential for healthy ageing from both a physical and psychological perspective (NICE, 2008). Therefore a multidisciplinary life course approach to ageing is vital to minimizing its complications for quality of life and subsequent public health (Denny, 2008). PMID:19273990

  7. New Observations of Soft X-ray (0.5-5 keV) Solar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, A.; Woods, T. N.; Mason, J. P.; Jones, A. R.; Warren, H. P.

    2013-12-01

    The solar corona is the brightest source of X-rays in the solar system, and the X-ray emission is highly variable on many time scales. However, the actual solar soft X-ray (SXR) (0.5-5 keV) spectrum is not well known, particularly during solar quiet periods, as, with few exceptions, this energy range has not been systematically studied in many years. Previous observations include high-resolution but very narrow-band spectra from crystal spectrometers (e.g., Yohkoh/BCS), or integrated broadband irradiances from photometers (e.g., GOES/XRS, TIMED/XPS, etc.) that lack detailed spectral information. In recent years, broadband measurements with moderate energy resolution (~0.5-0.7 keV FWHM) were made by SphinX on CORONAS-Photon and SAX on MESSENGER, although they did not extend to energies below ~1 keV. We present observations of solar SXR emission obtained using new instrumentation flown on recent SDO/EVE calibration rocket underflights. The photon-counting spectrometer, a commercial Amptek X123 with a silicon drift detector and an 8 μm Be window, measures the solar disk-integrated SXR emission from ~0.5 to >10 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution and 1 s cadence. A novel imager, a pinhole X-ray camera using a cooled frame-transfer CCD (15 μm pixel pitch), Ti/Al/C filter, and 5000 line/mm Au transmission grating, images the full Sun in multiple spectral orders from ~0.1 to ~5 nm with ~10 arcsec/pixel and ~0.01 nm/pixel spatial and spectral detector scales, respectively, and 10 s cadence. These instruments are prototypes for future CubeSat missions currently being developed. We present new results of solar observations on 04 October 2013 (NASA sounding rocket 36.290). We compare with previous results from 23 June 2012 (NASA sounding rocket 36.286), during which solar activity was low and no signal was observed above ~4 keV. We compare our spectral and imaging measurements with spectra and broadband irradiances from other instruments, including SDO/EVE, GOES/XRS, TIMED

  8. A CHC Theory-Based Analysis of Age Differences on Cognitive Abilities and Academic Skills at Ages 22 to 90 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; Johnson, Cheryl K.; Liu, Xin

    2008-01-01

    Age differences for nine age groups between 22 and 25 years and 81 and 90 years were evaluated, covarying educational attainment, on five Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) abilities: fluid reasoning (Gf), crystallized ability (Gc), quantitative knowledge (Gq), reading (Grw-Reading), and writing (Grw-Writing). Data were from the adult portions of the…

  9. Safety and efficacy of nurse-controlled analgesia in patients less than 1 year of age

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Hina; Tumin, Dmitry; Wrona, Sharon; Martin, David; Bhalla, Tarun; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    Background The management of acute pain presents unique challenges in the younger pediatric population. Although patient-controlled devices are frequently used in patients ≥6 years of age, alternative modes of analgesic delivery are needed in infants. Objective To examine the safety and efficacy of nurse-controlled analgesia (NCA) in neonates less than 1 year of age. Methods Data from patients <1 year of age receiving NCA as ordered by the Acute Pain Service at our institution were collected over a 5-year period and reviewed retrospectively. The primary outcomes were activation of the institution’s Rapid Response Team (RRT) or Code Blue, signifying severe adverse events. Pain score after NCA initiation was a secondary outcome. Results Among 338 girls and 431 boys, the most common opioid used for NCA was fentanyl, followed by morphine and hydromorphone. There were 39 (5%) cases involving RRT or Code Blue activation, of which only one (Code Blue) was activated due to a complication of NCA (apnea). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated morphine NCA to be associated with greater odds of RRT activation (OR=3.29, 95% CI=1.35, 8.03, P=0.009) compared to fentanyl NCA. There were no statistically significant differences in pain scores after NCA initiation across NCA agents. Conclusion NCA is safe in neonates and infants, with comparable efficacy demonstrated for the three agents used. The elevated incidence of RRT activation in patients receiving morphine suggests caution in its use and consideration of alternative agents in this population.

  10. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD. PMID:26415307

  11. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks' Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates.

    PubMed

    VanderVeen, Deborah K; Allred, Elizabeth N; Wallace, David K; Leviton, Alan

    2016-03-01

    Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks' gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks' gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥ 30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions. PMID:26350726

  12. Incidence of airflow limitation in subjects 65-100 years of age.

    PubMed

    Luoto, Johannes A; Elmståhl, Sölve; Wollmer, Per; Pihlsgård, Mats

    2016-02-01

    The true incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is largely unknown, because the few longitudinal studies performed have used diagnostic criteria no longer recommended by either the European Respiratory Society or the American Thoracic Society (ATS).We studied the incidence and significance of airflow limitation in a population-based geriatric sample using both an age-dependent predicted lower limit of normal (LLN) value and a fixed-ratio spirometric criterion.Out of 2025 subjects with acceptable spirometry at baseline, 984 subjects aged 65-100 years completed a 6-year follow-up visit. Smoking habits were registered at baseline. Exclusion criteria were non-acceptable spirometry performance according to ATS criteria and inability to communicate. Airflow limitation was defined both according to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 and years was 28.2 using a fixed ratio and 11.7 with LLN, corresponding to a 1.41-fold higher incidence rate using a fixed ratio. The incidence increased dramatically with age when using a fixed ratio, but less so when using LLN. In addition, a sex effect was observed with the LLN criterion. LLN airflow limitation was associated with increased 5-year mortality. Presence of fixed-ratio airflow limitation in individuals classified by LLN as non-obstructive was not associated with increased mortality. PMID:26677939

  13. Coronary artery bypass grafting in young patients under 36 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D J; Basamania, C; Graeber, G M; Deshong, J L; Burge, J R

    1986-06-01

    Results of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in patients under age 36 who were operated upon between 1970 and 1980 at two large medical centers were compared to matched control patients, age 45 to 59 years, and 60 years and over. Patient follow-up ranged from one to 13 years (average five years). Event-free survival was significantly worse in the young group (37 percent) vs the middle aged group (61 percent, p less than 0.01) and vs the elderly group (59 percent, p less than 0.02). Failure of the operation was due to failure to improve or worsening of Canadian Cardiovascular Society anginal class, need for reoperation, subsequent myocardial infarction, or death due to cardiac causes. Risk of failure of CABG surgery in young patients was increased with the presence of cardiac risk factors. Because of the high rate of long-term failure of CABG surgery in young patients, its use in this group needs to be reevaluated relative to current aggressive medical therapy for angina. PMID:3486752

  14. Falls Among Persons Aged ≥65 Years With and Without Severe Vision Impairment - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Crews, John E; Chou, Chiu-Fung; Stevens, Judy A; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, an estimated 2.8 million persons aged ≥65 years in the United States reported severe vision impairment* defined as being blind or having severe difficulty seeing, even with eyeglasses. Good vision is important for maintaining balance as well as for identifying low-contrast hazards, estimating distances, and discerning spatial relationships. Conversely, having poor vision increases the risk for falls (1,2). Falls among older adults are common and can cause serious injuries, disabilities, and premature death (1,3). To date, no state-level investigations have examined the annual prevalence of falls among persons with and without severe vision impairment. CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimate the state-specific annual prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years with and without self-reported severe vision impairment. Overall, 46.7% of persons with, and 27.7% of older adults without, self-reported severe vision impairment reported having fallen during the previous year. The state-specific annual prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years with severe vision impairment ranged from 30.8% (Hawaii) to 59.1% (California). In contrast, the prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years without severe vision impairment ranged from 20.4% (Hawaii) to 32.4% (Alaska). Developing fall-prevention interventions intended for persons with severe vision impairment will help states manage the impact of vision impairment and falls on health care resources, and can inform state-specific fall prevention initiatives. PMID:27148832

  15. Blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes aged 10 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Szmigielska-Kapłon, Anna; Jegier, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine arterial blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes. The study group comprised 711 young athletes (457 boys, 254 girls) aged 10 to 18 years (mean 13.41 ± 3.12 years) who had been training for an average of 7.62 ± 4.2 h per week for an average of 4.01 ± 2.5 years. Participants with elevated arterial blood pressure above the 90th percentile at rest were excluded from investigation. A symptom-limited, multistage exercise test to exhaustion was performed using a Monark cycle ergometer. Arterial blood pressure was measured with an aneroid manometer in the third minute of each stage of the test. Mean systolic arterial blood pressure during peak exercise was significantly higher in boys than in girls: 183.21 ± 27.97 mm Hg and 170.97 ± 21.4 mm Hg, respectively (p = 0.03). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that age and workload had significant effects on arterial blood pressure during the test. Systolic arterial blood pressure during the exercise can be described with the following equations: boys, SBPex (mm Hg) = -1.92 × age (years) + 0.55 × workload (W) + 120.84; girls, SBPex (mm Hg) = -0.88 × age (years) + 0.48 × workload (W) + 111.22. The study results describe reference values of arterial blood pressure during the exercise test. The presented equations and figures can help to assess whether the arterial blood pressure at each stage of the exercise test exceeds the normal range or not. PMID:26683975

  16. Dielectric relaxation and magnetodielectric response in DyMn{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, B.; Yang, J. Zuo, X. Z.; Zhu, X. B.; Dai, J. M.; Song, W. H.; Kan, X. C.; Zu, L.; Sun, Y. P.

    2015-09-28

    We investigate the structural, magnetic, and magnetodielectric properties of DyMn{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. The sample can be indexed with an orthorhombic phase with B site disordered space group Pbnm. The valence state of both Mn and Cr ions are suggested to be +3 based on the results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Two thermally excited dielectric relaxation at temperatures T{sub N2} < T< 300 K and large magnetodielectric effect (MDC = 20%–30%) due to the disordered arrangement of Mn{sup 3+}/Cr{sup 3+} ions associated with electron hopping between them are observed. The absence of any noticeable magnetoresistance effect (MR < 0.5%) demonstrates that the observed magnetodielectric effect is an intrinsic behavior. These results suggest that DyMn{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} is a magnetodielectric compound, whose dielectric properties are dependence of the applied magnetic field, which exhibits such effects near room temperature and holds great promise for future device applications.

  17. Effect of Yttrium on the Fracture Strength of the Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyelim; Kaplan, Wayne D.; Choe, Heeman

    2016-04-01

    This is a preliminary investigation on the mechanical properties of Pb-free Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joints containing 0.02 wt.% to 0.1 wt.% Y under a range of thermal aging and reflow conditions. Despite the significantly thicker intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder joint, the 0.1 wt.% Y-doped joint exhibited a higher fracture strength than its baseline Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu counterpart under most aging and reflow conditions. This may be associated with the formation of Y-Cu IMCs formed at the interface between the solder and the Cu substrate, because the Y-Cu IMCs have recently been referred to as relatively `ductile' IMCs.

  18. Effect of Yttrium on the Fracture Strength of the Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyelim; Kaplan, Wayne D.; Choe, Heeman

    2016-07-01

    This is a preliminary investigation on the mechanical properties of Pb-free Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joints containing 0.02 wt.% to 0.1 wt.% Y under a range of thermal aging and reflow conditions. Despite the significantly thicker intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder joint, the 0.1 wt.% Y-doped joint exhibited a higher fracture strength than its baseline Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu counterpart under most aging and reflow conditions. This may be associated with the formation of Y-Cu IMCs formed at the interface between the solder and the Cu substrate, because the Y-Cu IMCs have recently been referred to as relatively `ductile' IMCs.

  19. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years After Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Barnevik Olsson, M; Lundström, S; Westerlund, J; Giacobini, M B; Gillberg, C; Fernell, E

    2016-08-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated-34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with intellectual disability. They were interviewed using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities interview. Criteria for a clinical/subclinical proxy of ASD were met by 71, 89 and 95 %, respectively. Criteria for at least one of ASD, AD/HD, Learning disorder or Developmental Coordination Disorder were met by 82, 94 and 97 %. More than 90 % of children with a preschool diagnosis of ASD have remaining neuropsychiatric problems at 11, despite early intervention. PMID:27230761

  20. The association of obesity with hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years.

    PubMed

    Üçler, Rıfkı; Turan, Mahfuz; Garça, Fatih; Acar, İsmail; Atmaca, Murat; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    An elevation in hearing thresholds and decrease in hearing sensitivity in adults, particularly due to aging, are quite common. Recent studies have shown that, apart from aging, various other factors also play a role in auditory changes. Studies on the association of hearing loss (HL) with obesity are limited in advanced age cases and present contradictions. In this study, the association between obesity and hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years has been assessed. Forty women diagnosed with obesity (mean age, 31.8 years) and 40 healthy non-obese female controls (mean age, 30.5 years) were included in this prospective study. Each subject was tested with low (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high (4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz) frequency audiometry. In the case and control groups, the average hearing thresholds at low frequencies were 16.03 ± 4.72 and 16.15 ± 2.72 (p = 0.885) for the right ear, respectively, and 16.15 ± 5.92 and 14.71 ± 3.18 (p = 0.180) for the left ear, respectively. The average hearing threshold levels at high frequencies were 20.70 ± 10.23 and 15.33 ± 3.87 (p = 0.003), respectively, for the right ear, and 22.91 ± 15.54 and 15.87 ± 4.35 (p = 0.007), respectively, for the left ear with statistical significance. This is the first report on the association of obesity with hearing threshold in women aged 18-40 years. We have demonstrated that obesity may affect hearing function, particularly that related to high frequencies. Hearing loss can be prevented by avoidance or control of obesity and its risk factors. Moreover, an auditory screening of obese cases at an early stage may provide early diagnosis of HL and may also contribute to their awareness in the fight against obesity. PMID:26429780

  1. Optical Properties of Ferroelectric Epitaxial K0.5Na0.5NbO3 Films in Visible to Ultraviolet Range.

    PubMed

    Chernova, E; Pacherova, O; Kocourek, T; Jelinek, M; Dejneka, A; Tyunina, M

    2016-01-01

    The complex index of refraction in the spectral range of 0.74 to 4.5 eV is studied by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in ferroelectric K0.5Na0.5NbO3 films. The 20-nm-thick cube-on-cube-type epitaxial films are grown on SrTiO3(001) and DyScO3(011) single-crystal substrates. The films are transparent and exhibit a significant difference between refractive indices Δn = 0.5 at photon energies below 3 eV. The energies of optical transitions are in the range of 3.15-4.30 eV and differ by 0.2-0.3 eV in these films. The observed behavior is discussed in terms of lattice strain and strain-induced ferroelectric polarization in epitaxial perovskite oxide films. PMID:27074042

  2. Optical Properties of Ferroelectric Epitaxial K0.5Na0.5NbO3 Films in Visible to Ultraviolet Range

    PubMed Central

    Pacherova, O.; Kocourek, T.; Jelinek, M.; Dejneka, A.; Tyunina, M.

    2016-01-01

    The complex index of refraction in the spectral range of 0.74 to 4.5 eV is studied by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in ferroelectric K0.5Na0.5NbO3 films. The 20-nm-thick cube-on-cube-type epitaxial films are grown on SrTiO3(001) and DyScO3(011) single-crystal substrates. The films are transparent and exhibit a significant difference between refractive indices Δn = 0.5 at photon energies below 3 eV. The energies of optical transitions are in the range of 3.15–4.30 eV and differ by 0.2–0.3 eV in these films. The observed behavior is discussed in terms of lattice strain and strain-induced ferroelectric polarization in epitaxial perovskite oxide films. PMID:27074042

  3. Influences of phase transition and microstructure on dielectric properties of Bi0.5Na0.5Zr1-xTixO3 ceramics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Bismuth sodium zirconate titanate ceramics with the formula Bi0.5Na0.5Zr1-xTixO3 [BNZT], where x = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6, were prepared by a conventional solid-state sintering method. Phase identification was investigated using an X-ray diffraction technique. All compositions exhibited complete solubility of Ti4+ at the Zr4+ site. Both a decrease of unit cell size and phase transition from an orthorhombic Zr-rich composition to a rhombohedral crystal structure in a Ti-rich composition were observed as a result of Ti4+ substitution. These changes caused dielectric properties of BNZT ceramics to enhance. Microstructural observation carried out employing SEM showed that average grain size decreased when addition of Ti increased. Grain size difference of BNZT above 0.4 mole fraction of Ti4+ displayed a significant increase of dielectric constant at room temperature. PMID:22221960

  4. 4-Second Exercise Test: Reference Values for Ages 18–81 Years

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Castro, Claudia Lucia Barros; Franca, João Felipe; Ramos, Plínio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Physiological reflexes modulated primarily by the vagus nerve allow the heart to decelerate and accelerate rapidly after a deep inspiration followed by rapid movement of the limbs. This is the physiological and pharmacologically validated basis for the 4-s exercise test (4sET) used to assess the vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. Objective To present reference data for 4sET in healthy adults. Methods After applying strict clinical inclusion/exclusion criteria, 1,605 healthy adults (61% men) aged between 18 and 81 years subjected to 4sET were evaluated between 1994 and 2014. Using 4sET, the cardiac vagal index (CVI) was obtained by calculating the ratio between the duration of two RR intervals in the electrocardiogram: 1) after a 4-s rapid and deep breath and immediately before pedaling and 2) at the end of a rapid and resistance-free 4-s pedaling exercise. Results CVI varied inversely with age (r = -0.33, p < 0.01), and the intercepts and slopes of the linear regressions between CVI and age were similar for men and women (p > 0.05). Considering the heteroscedasticity and the asymmetry of the distribution of the CVI values according to age, we chose to express the reference values in percentiles for eight age groups (years): 18–30, 31–40, 41–45, 46–50, 51–55, 56–60, 61–65, and 66+, obtaining progressively lower median CVI values ranging from 1.63 to 1.24. Conclusion The availability of CVI percentiles for different age groups should promote the clinical use of 4sET, which is a simple and safe procedure for the evaluation of vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. PMID:25830712

  5. GWPs and GTPs for forest bioenergy and products with global coverage at 0.5° x 0.5° spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbrets, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; Bright, Ryan; Van Zelm, Rosalie; Van Der Velde, Marijn; Strømman, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The effects on climate of various greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be aggregated in common units through a variety of emission metrics. The Global Warming Potential (GWP), introduced by the IPCC in 1990, is based on the integrated radiative forcing of a pulse emission divided by an equivalent integration for the reference gas, usually CO2, at an arbitrary time horizon (TH). The Global Temperature change Potential (GTP) is the ratio between the temperature response to a GHG emission pulse at a certain point in time and the temperature response for a reference gas. Other metrics like the integrated GTP (iGTP), TEMP, and metrics embedding economic considerations or a dynamic, target-specific TH are used in the literature. Recent studies developed impulse response functions and emission metrics for CO2 emissions from biomass combustion or oxidation for applications in bioenergy and harvested wood products (HWP) analyses. As the resulting metrics depend on the resource turnover time and hence on site specific characteristics like the type of biomass species, local climate, site productivity and other factors, these metrics are today available only for a limited number of cases and selected locations. In this work, we provide spatially-explicit GWPs and GTPs for bioenergy and HWP sourced from renewable forests with a global coverage of forest areas at a resolution of 0.5 degrees x 0.5 degrees. The Global Forest Model (G4M) developed at IIASA is used to provide the mean annual increments (MAI), rotation periods and above ground carbon of the forests of the globe. G4M uses a dynamic Net Primary Production (NPP) model to simulate how growth rates are affected by changes in temperature, precipitation, radiation, and CO2 concentrations. NPP post harvest dynamics are then modeled using tree-specific functions combined with the grid-specific MAI. Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is exogenously modeled with the YASSO model. NPP and Rh are then combined in a Net Ecosystem

  6. Spin reorientation in multiferroic spinel Co0.5Fe0.5Cr2O4 with Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, Bo Ra; Kim, Chul Sung

    2015-05-01

    We studied the magnetic properties of multiferroic spinel Co0.5Fe0.5Cr2O4, especially focusing on the spin-ordering, spin-reorientation, and charge re-distribution effects. From the Rietveld refinement analysis, the crystal structure was identified to be a normal cubic spinel of Fd-3m. Based on the temperature-dependent measurements of the magnetization and magnetic hyperfine field (Hhf), Curie temperature (TC) of Co0.5Fe0.5Cr2O4 was determined to be around 86 K where Hhf ≅ 0. From the change of slope in the M-T curve, the conical-spiral magnetic ordering temperature was determined to be 20 K, which coincides with Hhf measurement. Also, we have observed the decrease in the slope of the electric quadrupole splitting (ΔEQ) curve above 20 K, suggesting that the change in ΔEQ around TS is originated from charge redistribution due to the spin-relocation associated with the distortion of each tetrahedral site around Fe2+ ion above TS. This indicates that Co0.5Fe0.5Cr2O4 has the noncollinear conical-spiral spin ordering with incommensurate spin structure below TS, while above TS, it has ferrimagnetic spin ordering with commensuration in the collinear state. In addition, the Jahn-teller distortion temperature is measured to be around 155 K, since both ΔEQ and Δ1 of 5T2g band decrease rapidly with increasing temperature and disappear around 155 K.

  7. Significantly enhanced ferroelectricity and magnetic properties in (Sr0.5Ca0.5)TiO3-modified BiFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juan; Liu, Xiao Qiang; Chen, Xiang Ming

    2015-05-01

    BiFeO3 multiferroic ceramics were modified by introducing (Sr0.5Ca0.5)TiO3 to form solid solutions. The single phase structure was easy to be obtained in Bi1-x(Sr0.5Ca0.5)xFe1-xTixO3 (x = 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, and 0.4) solid solutions. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data revealed a transition from rhombohedral R3c (x = 0.2, 0.25, and 0.3) to orthorhombic Pnma (x = 0.4). Current density-field (J-E) characteristics indicated that the leakage current density was reduced by three orders of magnitude in Bi1-x(Sr0.5Ca0.5)xFe1-xTixO3 ceramics. Both the ferroelectricity and magnetic properties were significantly enhanced in the present solid solutions. P-E hysteresis loop measurements with dynamic leakage current compensation methods showed the significantly enhanced ferroelectric properties for x = 0.25 and 0.3 and the paraelectric behavior for x = 0.4. The best ferromagnetic characteristics were achieved in the composition of x = 0.25, where the saturated M-H loop was determined with Mr = 34.8 emu/mol. The improvement of ferroelectricity was mainly due to the suppressed leakage current, and the enhanced magnetism originated from the partial substitution of Fe3+ by Ti4+, which destroyed its previous spiral structure to allow the appearance of a macroscopic magnetization.

  8. Consumption of dairy products and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Burlutsky, George; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Habitual consumption of dairy products has been shown to play an important role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. We aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between the change in dairy product consumption (both regular fat and low/reduced fat) and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 2037 participants aged 49 years or above at baseline were re-examined at follow-up in 1997-9, 2002-4 and/or 2007-9. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and servings of dairy product consumption calculated. Over the 15-year follow-up, there were 352, 268 and eighty-four incident cases of any, early and late AMD, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, white cell count and fish consumption, a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0·003) was observed with decreasing consumption of total dairy foods and the 15-year incidence of late AMD, comparing the lowest v. highest quintile of intake (OR 2·80, 95 % CI 1·21, 3·04). Over the 15 years, decreased consumption of reduced-fat dairy foods was associated with an increased risk of incident late AMD, comparing the lowest to highest quintile of intake (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 8·14, P for trend = 0·04). Decreasing total dietary Ca intake over the 15 years was also associated with an increased risk of developing incident late AMD (multivariable-adjusted P for trend = 0·03). A lower consumption of dairy products (regular and low fat) and Ca was independently associated with a higher risk of developing incident late AMD in the long term. Additional cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24502821

  9. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. PMID:27255804

  10. Feeding strategy of juvenile (age-0+ year) Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi in the Patagonian nursery ground.

    PubMed

    Temperoni, B; Viñas, M D; Buratti, C C

    2013-11-01

    Age-0+ year juvenile Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi (60-150 mm total length, L(T)) from San Jorge Gulf, north Patagonian shelf region of the Argentine Sea, had an almost exclusively pelagic diet dominated by the hyperiid amphipod Themisto gaudichaudii and the euphausiid Euphausia lucens. This suggested that final settlement and permanent demersal habitat utilization might not, as previously reported, occur at earlier sizes (c. 20 mm L(T)). Their feeding strategy involves specialization at a population level towards both the main pelagic prey, indicating a narrow trophic niche. Novel data are provided which contribute to the growing body of information in relation to the age-0+ year transitional stage in demersal fishes and particularly to M. hubbsi recruitment in the Argentine Sea. PMID:24580669

  11. [Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ocular trauma in children under 14 years of age].

    PubMed

    Quezada-Del Cid, Nancy C; Zimmermann-Paiz, Martin A; Ordoñez-Rivas, Ana M

    2015-10-01

    Pediatric ocular trauma is common and the leading cause of non congenital unilateral blindness. The information in developing countries is scarce. The objective of this case series is to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ocular trauma in children under 14 years of age who visited Hospital Dr. Rodolfo Robles Valverde in Guatemala City in 2010. In this study 119 patients were included. School-aged (7-9 years) male gender was the most affected. Closed globe injury was the commonest. The most frequent objects causing the lesions were: wooden objects, toys and chemicals. Trauma occurred most frequently at home. Twenty one of the patients were surgically intervened. Education and prevention programs for pediatric ocular trauma are necessary. PMID:26294157

  12. Ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination in women aged 40 years or more.

    PubMed

    Wiser, Amir; Shalom-Paz, Einat; Reinblatt, Shauna Leigh; Son, Weon-Young; Das, Mausumi; Tulandi, Togas; Holzer, Hananel

    2012-02-01

    Fertility decreases with advancing age. This study retrospectively reviewed the results of ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI) in women 40 years old with diminished ovarian reserve or unexplained infertility who underwent treatment with ovarian stimulation/IUI with clomiphene citrate or gonadotrophin and compared them with the results of IVF and in-vitro maturation (IVM) treatments. The main outcome measures were pregnancy and live-birth rates. The profiles of the patients in ovarian stimulation, IVM and IVF groups were comparable. There were no clinical pregnancies in the clomiphene citrate and IVM groups. The clinical-pregnancy rates in the gonadotrophin and IVF groups were 2.6% and 16.9% and the live-birth rates were 2.6% and 13.7%, respectively. Compared with ovarian stimulation, IVF is most effective for women aged 40 years or more. Attempting success with ovarian stimulation or IVM will delay conception unnecessarily. PMID:22197126

  13. Bone and heart abnormalities of subclinical hyperthyroidism in women below the age of 65 years.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate bone and cardiac abnormalities and symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) aged < 65 years. Forty-eight women with SCH were evaluated. The control group consisted of 48 euthyroid volunteers. The mean symptom rating scale score was significantly higher in patients. Cardiac involvement, both morphological and affecting systolic and diastolic functions, was also observed in patients. Women with SCH showed a significant increase in serum markers of bone formation and resorption. In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was lower in the femoral neck but not in the lumbar spine in patients before menopause, whereas a lower BMD was observed at both sites in postmenopausal patients. SCH is not completely asymptomatic in women aged < 65 years, and is associated with heart abnormalities and with increased bone turnover and reduced BMD even before menopause. PMID:19197452

  14. Reliability of squat and countermovement jump tests in children 6 to 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Acero, Rafael Martin; Fernández-del Olmo, Miguel; Sánchez, Jose Andres; Otero, Xose Luis; Aguado, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the squat jump test (SJ) and countermovement jump test (CMJ), in fifty-six children (30 girls and 26 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 8 years. Each subject performed two evaluation sessions (T1, T2) with seven days between tests. The results show that the CMJ test has a high intratrial reproducibility in T1 and T2 measured through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ≥ 0.95). The ICC for the SJ test had a high value (0.99) only in T1. The variability for both tests among children under 9 years of age is higher than those reported for adult subjects in other studies. The intersession reliability was questionable with a high methodical error (ME= 9.86-15.1%, for the SJ and CMJ, respectively) and a significant worsening of the results of CMJ in T2 (p < .05). PMID:21467598

  15. Summary Report of Cable Aging and Performance Data for Fiscal Year 2014.

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Redline, Erica Marie; Redline, Erica Marie; Bernstein, Robert; Bernstein, Robert; Quintana, Adam; Quintana, Adam; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Giron, Nicholas Henry; White II, Gregory Von; White II, Gregory Von

    2014-09-01

    As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, science - based engineering approaches were employed to address cable degradation behavior under a range of exposure environments. Experiments were conducted with the goal to provide best guidance for aged material states, remaining life and expected performance under specific conditions for a range of cable materials. Generic engineering tests , which focus on rapid accelerated aging and tensile elongation , were combined with complementar y methods from polymer degradation science. Sandia's approach, building on previous years' efforts, enabled the generation of some of the necessary data supporting the development of improved lifetime predictions models, which incorporate known material b ehaviors and feedback from field - returned 'aged' cable materials. Oxidation rate measurements have provided access to material behavior under low dose rate thermal conditions, where slow degradation is not apparent in mechanical property changes. Such da ta have shown aging kinetics consistent with established radiati on - thermal degradation models. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We gratefully acknowledge ongoing technical support at the LICA facility and extensive sample handling provided by Maryla Wasiolek and Don Hans on. Sam Durbin and Patrick Mattie are recognized for valuable guidance throughout the year and assistance in the preparation of the final report. Doug Brunson is appreciated for sample analysis, compilation and plotting of experimental data.

  16. The Effect of Preimplantation Genetic Screening on Implantation Rate in Women over 35 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Moayeri, Mina; Saeidi, Hojatolah; Modarresi, Mohammad Hossein; Hashemi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Advanced maternal age (AMA) is an important factor in decreasing success of assisted reproductive technology by having a negative effect on the success rate of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), particularly by increasing the rate of embryo aneuploidy. It has been suggested that the transfer of euploid embryos increases the implantation and pregnancy rates, and decreases the abortion rate. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is a method for selection of euploid embryos. Past studies, however, have reported different results on the success of pregnancy after PGS in AMA. Investigating the pregnancy rate of ICSI with and without PGS in female partners over 35 years of age referred to infertility centers in Tehran. Materials and Methods In this randomized controlled trial, 150 couples with the female partner over age of 35 were included. Fifty couples underwent PGS and the remaining were used as the control group. PGS was carried out using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y. Results of embryo transfer following PGS were evaluated and compared with those in the control group. Results Implantation rates obtained in the PGS and control groups were 30 and 32% respectively and not significantly different (P>0.05). Conclusion PGS for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y does not increase implantation rate in women over 35 years of age and therefore the regular use of PGS in AMA is not recommended. PMID:27054114

  17. Number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years.

    PubMed

    Dos, Santos Flávia Heloisa; Da Silva, Paulo Adilson; Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Dias, Ana Luiza Ribeiro Pereira; Frigério, Michele Cândida; Dellatolas, Georges; von Aster, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Numerical cognition is based on two components - number processing and calculation. Its development is influenced by biological, cognitive, educational, and cultural factors. The objectives of the present study were to: i) assess number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years from public schools using the Zareki-R (Battery of neuropsychological tests for number processing and calculation in children, Revised; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006) in order to obtain normative data for Portuguese speakers; ii) identify how environment, age, and gender influences the development of these mathematical skills; iii) investigate the construct validity of the Zareki-R by the contrast with the Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The sample included 172 children, both genders, divided in two groups: urban (N = 119) and rural (N = 53) assessed by the Zareki-R. Rural children presented lower scores in one aspect of number processing; children aged 7-8 years demonstrated an inferior global score than older; boys presented a superior performance in both number processing and calculation. Construct validity of Zareki-R was demonstrated by high to moderate correlations with Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The Zareki-R therefore is a suitable instrument to assess the development of mathematical skills, which is influenced by factors such as environment, age, and gender. PMID:22774425

  18. Synthesis of manganite perovskite Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticles in w/o-microemulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Trosell, Alejandra . E-mail: Lopez.Alejandra@chem.tu-berlin.de; Schomaecker, Reinhard . E-mail: schomaecker@tu-berlin.de

    2006-02-02

    In this paper, w/o-microemulsions were employed to produce nanoparticles of the perovskite Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3}, which have a size of approximately 20-50 nm. The procedure was carried out using sodium hydroxide or ammonia as co-precipitation agent. The precursor was transformed to perovskite by calcinations at 580 deg. C. Nanosized particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption (BET)

  19. Chemical potential fluctuations in topological insulator (Bi0.5Sb0.5)2Te3-films visualized by photocurrent spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastl, Christoph; Seifert, Paul; He, Xiaoyue; Wu, Kehui; Li, Yongqing; Holleitner, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the photocurrent properties of the topological insulator (Bi0.5Sb0.5)2Te3 on SrTiO3-substrates. We find reproducible, submicron photocurrent patterns generated by long-range chemical potential fluctuations, occurring predominantly at the topological insulator/substrate interface. We fabricate nano-plowed constrictions which comprise single potential fluctuations. Hereby, we can quantify the magnitude of the disorder potential to be in the meV range. The results further suggest a dominating photo-thermoelectric current generated in the surface states in such nanoscale constrictions.

  20. Direct band-gap measurement on epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} Heusler-alloy films

    SciTech Connect

    Alhuwaymel, Tariq F.; Carpenter, Robert; Yu, Chris Nga Tung; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Lazarov, Vlado K.; Abdullah, Ranjdar M.; El-Gomati, Mohamed; Hirohata, Atsufumi

    2015-05-07

    In this study, a newly developed band-gap measurement technique has been used to characterise epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} (CFAS) films. The CFAS films were deposited on MgO(001) substrate by ultra high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The band-gap for the as deposited films was found to be ∼110 meV when measured at room temperature. This simple technique provides a macroscopic analysis of the half-metallic properties of a thin film. This allows for simple optimisation of growth and annealing conditions.