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Sample records for 0-5 year age

  1. Psychomotor development in Argentinean children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Pascucci, María Cecilia; Krupitzky, Sara; Kelmansky, Diana; Bianco, Ana; Martínez, Elena; Tibaldi, Fabián; Cameron, Noel

    2002-01-01

    In Argentina, there is no information on ages of attainment of developmental milestones and very few data about environmental factors that influence them. A national survey on the psychomotor development of children under 6 years of age was carried out with the help of 129 paediatricians. Logistic regression was applied to a final sample of 3573 healthy, normal children in order to estimate selected centiles (25th, 50th, 75th and 90th), together with their respective confidence intervals, of the ages of attainment of 78 developmental items belonging to the following areas: personal-social (18 items), fine motor (19), language (18) and gross motor (23). The 50th centile obtained for each of the 43 comparable items was compared with those obtained in previously standardised tests: DDST, Denver II, Bayley and Chilean scales. Neither significant nor systematic differences were found between our results and those described in the tests used for comparison. Multiple logistic regressions showed that social class, maternal education and sex (female) were associated with earlier attainment of some selected developmental items, achieved at ages later than 1 year. Selected items achieved before the first year of life were not affected by any of the independent environmental variables studied. The information is useful in helping paediatricians in their daily practice for surveillance of development, as baseline information for epidemiological studies on development in our country and for cross-cultural analysis.

  2. Molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in children aged 0- 5 years with diarrhea in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Anejo-Okopi, Joseph Aje; Okojokwu, Julius Ocheme; Ebonyi, Augustine Odo; Ejeliogu, Emeka Uba; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Audu, Onyemocho; Akpakpan, Edoama Edet; Nwachukwu, Esther Ebere; Ifokwe, Christabel Kelechi; Ali, Murna; Lar, Patricia; Oguche, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in children and immune-compromised individuals. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have led to the discovery of subtype families that are thought to be more commonly associated with diarrhea. We aimed to isolate and characterize Cryptosporidium spp among children with diarrhea in Jos, Nigeria. Methods Stool samples were collected from165 children aged 0-5 years with diarrhea. Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined by wet mount preparation, using formalin ether and a modified acid fast staining method. DNA was extracted from positive samples using QIAamp DNA stool mini kit and PCR-RFLP assay was carried out after quantification. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis were done to determine the subtype families and their relatedness. Results From the 165 children studied, 8 (4.8%) were infected with Cryptosporidium. PCR-RFLP assay and genotype characterization found the following Cryptosporidium species: C. hominis 6 (75%) and C. parvum 2 (25.0%), with family subtypes Id-5, Ie-1 and IIa-1, IId-1 respectively.The most common species was C. hominis and the frequent subtype was C. hominis-Id 5 (62.5%). Conclusion Cryptosporidium is not an uncommon cause of diarrhea in children, with C. hominis being the dominant species. Also C. hominis Id is the commonest sub-family subtype. Put together, zoonotic species may be an important cause of diarrhea in children aged 0-5 years in Jos, Nigeria. PMID:28293369

  3. Femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiayou; Tang, Jin; Zhou, Libo; Zeng, Rong; Mou, Jinsong; Zhang, Lingli

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children. Between January and December, 2007, we randomly sampled 1,450 healthy Chinese children (0-5 years old) from Hunan Provincial Children's Hospital in Changsha, Hunan, China. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis was measured by pelvic X-ray photography and processed by medical image processing software. The growth of femoral head epiphysis in girls was 2-3 months earlier than that in boys. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis increased with advancing age in both girls and boys, but the diameter of femoral head epiphysis in 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10-month-old girls was significantly larger than that in boys. Cubic regression equations between the diameter of femoral head epiphysis and age were created for boys and girls that could be used to predict the diameter of femoral head epiphysis. In conclusion, there was gender difference in femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children, and our prediction models will provide the guidance for early diagnosis of diseases related to the growth and development of the femoral head epiphysis.

  4. Effect of Giardia infection on growth and psychomotor development of children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Z; Zeyrek, F Yildiz; Kurcer, M A

    2004-04-01

    Giardiasis, an intestinal protozoan infection caused by Giardia intestinalis, is common in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey, to investigate the role of giardiasis on growth and psychomotor development, we studied 160 children aged 0-5 years. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of fecal samples. The results showed that 50 per cent of the subjects were infected with at least one pathogen of intestinal parasitic infections. Giardia intestinalis was the most frequent pathogenic parasite. Giardia-infected children had a risk for stunted (OR = 7.67, 95 per cent CI = 2.25-26.16; p = 0.001) and poor psychomotor development (OR = 2.68, 95 per cent CI = 1.09-6.58; p = 0.030). The data indicate that Giardia intestinalis infection has an adverse impact on child linear growth and psychomotor development. In the primary healthcare centers, during the programme of the monitoring growth and developmental status of children, following children in terms of Giardia, diagnosis and treatment will have a positive effect on child health.

  5. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and the Platelet Count in Iron-deficient Children Aged 0.5-3 Years.

    PubMed

    Akkermans, M D; Uijterschout, L; Vloemans, J; Teunisse, P P; Hudig, F; Bubbers, S; Verbruggen, S; Veldhorst, M; de Leeuw, T G; van Goudoever, J B; Brus, F

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in young children is important to prevent impaired neurodevelopment. Unfortunately, many biomarkers of ID are influenced by infection, thus limiting their usefulness. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and the platelet count for detecting ID(A) among otherwise healthy children. A multicenter prospective observational study was conducted in the Netherlands to investigate the prevalence of ID(A) in 400 healthy children aged 0.5-3 years. ID was defined as serum ferritin (SF) <12 μg/L in the absence of infection (C-reactive protein [CRP] <5 mg/L) and IDA as hemoglobin <110 g/L combined with ID. RDW (%) and the platelet count were determined in the complete blood cell count. RDW was inversely correlated with SF and not associated with CRP. Calculated cutoff values for RDW to detect ID and IDA gave a relatively low sensitivity (53.1% and 57.1%, respectively) and specificity (64.7% and 69.9%, respectively). Anemic children with a RDW >14.3% had a 2.7 higher odds (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-6.3) to be iron deficient, compared with anemic children with a RDW <14.3%. The platelet count showed a large range in both ID and non-ID children. In conclusion, RDW can be helpful for identifying ID as the cause of anemia in 0.5- to 3-year-old children, but not as primary biomarker of ID(A). RDW values are not influenced by the presence of infection. There appears to be no role for the platelet count in diagnosing ID(A) in this group of children.

  6. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  7. A 2-Year, Phase IV, Multicentre, Observational Study of Ranibizumab 0.5 mg in Patients with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Routine Clinical Practice: The EPICOHORT Study.

    PubMed

    Pagliarini, Sergio; Beatty, Stephen; Lipkova, Blandina; Perez-Salvador Garcia, Eduardo; Reynders, Stefaan; Gekkieva, Margarita; Si Bouazza, Abdelkader; Pilz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the safety profile of ranibizumab 0.5 mg in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in routine clinical practice. Methods. This 2-year, multicentre, observational study was conducted to capture real-world early practice and outcomes across Europe, shortly after European licensing of ranibizumab for nAMD. Being observational in nature, the study did not impose diagnostic/therapeutic interventions/visit schedule. Patients were to be treated as per the EU summary of product characteristics (SmPC) in effect during the study. Key outcome measures were incidence of selected adverse events (AEs), treatment exposure, bilateral treatment, compliance to the EU SmPC, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) over 2 years. Results. 755 of 770 patients received treatment. Ranibizumab was generally well tolerated with low incidence of selected AEs (0%-1.9%). Patients received 6.2 (mean) injections and 133 patients received bilateral treatment over 2 years. Protocol deviation to treatment compliance was reported in majority of patients. The observed decline in mean BCVA (Month 12, +1.5; Month 24, -1.3 letters) may be associated with undertreatment as suggested by BCVA subgroup analysis. Conclusion. The EPICOHORT study conducted in routine clinical practice reinforces the well-established safety profile of ranibizumab in nAMD. In early European practice it appeared that the nAMD patients were undertreated.

  8. Effect of Natural Aging and Cold Working on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Al-4.6Cu-0.5Mg-0.5Ag alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Te; Lee, Sheng-Long; Bor, Hui-Yun; Lin, Jing-Chie

    2013-06-01

    This research investigates the effects of natural aging and cold working prior to artificial aging on microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-4.6Cu-0.5Mg-0.5Ag alloy. Mechanical properties relative to microstructure variations were elucidated by the observations of the optical microscope (OM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), electrical conductivity meter (pct IACS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that natural aging treatment has little noticeable benefit on the quantity of precipitation strengthening phases and mechanical properties, but it increases the precipitation strengthening rate at the initial stage of artificial aging. Cold working brings more lattice defects which suppress Al-Cu (GP zone) and Mg-Ag clustering, and therefore the precipitation of Ω phase decreases. Furthermore, more dislocations are formed, leading to precipitate the more heterogeneous nucleation of θ' phase. The above-mentioned precipitation phenomena and strain hardening effect are more obvious with higher degrees of cold working.

  9. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Early Years (0-5 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters…

  10. Spectroscopically identified intermediate age stars at 0.5-3 pc distance from Sagittarius A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Shogo; Schödel, Rainer; Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito; Nagata, Tetsuya; Minowa, Yosuke; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-04-01

    Context. Nuclear star clusters (NSCs) at the dynamical center of galaxies appear to have a complex star formation history. This suggests repeated star formation, even in the influence of the strong tidal field from supermassive black holes. Although the central region of our Galaxy is an ideal target for studies of the star formation history in the NSCs, most studies in the past have concentrated on a projected distance of RSgr A ∗ ~ 0.5 pc from the supermassive black hole Sgr A*. Aims: In our previous study, we detected 31 so far unknown early-type star candidates throughout the Galactic NSC (at RSgr A ∗ = 0.5-3 pc). They were found via near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations with narrow-band filters which are sensitive to CO absorption lines at ~2.3 μm, a prominent feature for old, late-type stars. The aim of this study is to confirm the spectral type for the early-type star candidates. Methods: We have carried out NIR spectroscopic observations of the early-type star candidates using Subaru/IRCS/AO188 and the laser guide star system. K-band spectra for 20 out of the 31 candidates and reference late-type stars were obtained. By determining an equivalent width, EW(CO), of the 12CO absorption feature at ≈2.294 μm, we have derived an effective temperature and a bolometric magnitude for each candidate and late-type star, and then constructed an HR diagram. Results: No young (~Myr) massive stars are included in the 20 candidates we observed; however, 13 candidates are most likely intermediate-age giants (50-500 Myr). Two other sources have ages of ~1 Gyr and the remaining five sources are old (>1 Gyr), late-type giants. Conclusions: Although none of the early-type star candidates from our previous narrow-band imaging observations can be confirmed as a young star, we find that the photometric technique can distinguish old, late-type giants from young and intermediate-age populations. From the 20 spectroscopically observed candidates, 65% of them are confirmed

  11. Early Book Stages, 0-5 Years [and] Creciendo con Libros (Growing [up] with Books). [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holguin, Roxanna

    Using a lighthearted and simple approach, this 23-minute videotape in English and Spanish versions presents interactions between parents and children while reading books. The children in the videotape range in age from 0 to 5 years. The video is introduced by scenes of children enjoying books while narration discussing the impact of reading to…

  12. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Skin Brightening/Anti-Aging Cosmeceutical Containing Retinol 0.5%, Niacinamide, Hexylresorcinol, and Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Farris, Patricia; Zeichner, Joshua; Berson, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly interested in over-the-counter skin care products that can improve the appearance of photodamaged and aging skin. This 10-week, open-label, single- center study enrolled 25 subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and other clinical stigmata of cutaneous aging including fine lines, sallowness, lack of clarity, and wrinkling. Their mean age was 53.4±7.7 years. The test product contained retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide 4.4%, resveratrol 1%, and hexylresorcinol 1.1% in a moisturizing base. Subjects were provided a skin care regimen including a cleanser, hydrating serum, moisturizer, and an SPF 30 sunscreen for daily use. The test product was applied only at night.

    The use of this skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical was found to provide statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints by study end. Fine lines, radiance, and smoothness were significantly improved as early as week 2 (P<.001). By week 4, hyperpigmentation, overall skin clarity, evenness of skin tone, and wrinkles showed statistically significant improvement compared to baseline. Mild retinoid dermatitis including flaking and redness occurred early in the study as reflected by tolerability scores. By week 10, subjects reported no stinging, itching, dryness, or tingling.

    The results of this open-label clinical study suggest that a topical cream containing retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide, resveratrol, and hexylresorcinol is efficacious and tolerable for skin brightening/anti-aging when used with a complementary skin care regimen including SPF 30 sun protection.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):863-868.

  13. Sugerencias para la Evolucion del Desarrollo: 0-5 Anos (Stages for the Development of Discovery [Learning in] 0-5 Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

    Some points that may serve as a foundation of experience and reference in the stimulation of mentally retarded children during the years of one through five are presented. Points of development are given for the following breakdowns of time: three months, six months, nine months, 12 months, 18 months, two years, three years, four years, and five…

  14. Magnetic properties evaluation of ageing behaviour in water-quenched 5Cr-0.5Mo steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, J. N.; Panda, A. K.; Mitra, A.

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic Barkhausen emissions and magnetic hysteresis measurements were carried out on water-quenched 5Cr-0.5Mo steel subjected to ageing at 600 °C up to 5000 h. During initial ageing, this steel exhibited magnetic softening, which was attributed to relaxation of quenching stress in the material as well as decrease in dislocation density and migration of interstitial carbon atoms towards the grain boundary. Further ageing resulted in magnetic hardening owing to the restricted movement of the domain wall by the precipitation of carbides such as M3C2, M2C, M7C3 where M stands for Fe, Cr or a combination of them. At longer ageing periods, magnetic behaviour was affected by a change in the composition and morphology of the carbides. Massive M23C6 types of carbides were formed during longer periods of ageing. The coarsening of carbides decreased the pinning density for the domain wall motion and affected the magnetic properties of the steel. The effect of demagnetizing field from voids and non-magnetic massive carbides also affected the magnetic behaviour. Magnetic behaviour and Vickers hardness measurements during ageing have been effectively supported by microstructural evaluations suggesting the capability of the magnetic techniques for assessment of damage during ageing in high temperature 5Cr-0.5Mo steel components.

  15. High Strength and Good Ductility in Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr Alloy by Cryo-Rolling and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, S. Chenna; Chawake, Niraj; Kottada, Ravi Sankar; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu; Venkitakrishnan, P. V.

    2017-01-01

    A combination of high strength and good ductility was achieved in a precipitation hardenable Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr alloy through cryo-rolling (80% reduction in thickness) and aging in the temperature range (200-500 °C). The high-strength sheets produced by cryo-rolling showed a threefold increase in yield strength compared to that of the solution-treated and aged (220 MPa) sample, while retaining good ductility. An optimum combination of high strength (614 MPa) and ductility (8%) was achieved by 80% cryo-rolling and aging at 320 °C for 1 h. The high strength and good ductility obtained was attributed to various microstructural factors such as deformation twins, ultra-fine grains, high dislocation density and fine nano-sized silver precipitates.

  16. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-11-17

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  17. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health. PMID:28058102

  18. [Investigation of norovirus infection incidence among 0-5 years old children with acute gastroenteritis admitted to two different hospitals in ankara, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Altay, Aylin; Bozdayı, Gülendam; Meral, Melda; Dallar Bilge, Yıldız; Dalgıç, Buket; Ozkan, Seçil; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2013-01-01

    Norovirus causes severe gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization especially in children less than five years of age both in developed and developing countries. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the incidence of norovirus (NoV) in 0-5 years old children with acute gastroenteritis in two large hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Stool samples were obtained from 1000 (413 female, 587 male) children between 0-5 years old with acute gastroenteritis who attended to the Department of Paediatrics, Ministry of Health Ankara Training and Education Hospital and affiliated hospital of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine between October 2004 and June 2011. Antigens of norovirus GI and GII genogroups in the stool specimens were detected by ELISA (RIDASCREEN® Norovirus (C1401) 3rd Generation, R-Biopharm, Germany). Norovirus GI and GII antigens were determined in a total of 141 (14.1%) samples, of them 62 (15%) were female and 79 (13.5%) were male, yielding no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05). The highest NoV positivity was detected in children between 12-23 months (17.1%), however there was no statistically significant difference between ELISA positivity and age (p> 0.05). NoV detection rate was highest in 2007 (18.4%) and in 2009 (18%), and the difference regarding ELISA positivity among the study years was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). The prevalences of norovirus infection in spring, summer, autumn and winter were 13.8%, 17.7%, 14.7% and 11.2%, respectively. Therefore no seasonal variation was found in the incidence of norovirus infection. However when the monthly prevalence was analyzed, a statistically significant difference was found (p< 0.05) between the rate of norovirus infection in july (24.2%) and december (4.1%). When evaluating the clinical symptoms, all of 141 patients (100%) had diarrhoea, while 72 (51.1%) had vomiting. Stool samples were also evaluated for the presence of parasitic and bacterial agents. Coinfection rate with parasites was

  19. [WHO child growth standards for children 0-5 years. Percentile charts of length/height, weight, body mass index and head circumference].

    PubMed

    Woynarowska, Barbara; Palczewska, Iwona; Oblacińska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the growth standards for children aged 0-5 years - which is a new tool for the assessment of health, growth and nutritional status recommended by WHO for use all over the world. These standards were elaborated in 2006 on the basis of the results of the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (a longitudinal and cross-sectional survey) carried out between 1997-2003 in Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and the USA. An innovative approach to developing growth reference was applied. Healthy children living under conditions allowing them to achieve their full genetic potential were the sample of children under study. The results showed that the growth pattern of children in their early childhood in different countries, ethnic groups and of different socioeconomic status was the same when their health and care needs were met. The new standards indicate how children should grow in all countries, rather than merely describing how they grew at a particular place and time. The WHO Child Growth Standards for Children 0-5 years were adapted and used in over 100 countries. Activities designed to adapt WHO standards in Poland were undertaken in 2009. The comparison between the growth reference for Warsaw children and WHO standards showed no differences, or very small ones. Following discussion with the participation of many experts, in 2011 recommendations concerning the implementation of these standards were signed by the Committee of Human Development and the Committee of Anthropology of the Polish Academy of Science, the Main Board of the Polish Anthropological Society, the Institute of Mother and Child, and the Institute of Food and Nutrition. The percentile charts were adapted to the set of percentiles hitherto used in Poland.

  20. Emotional, physical, and social needs among 0-5-year-old children displaced by the 2010 Chilean earthquake: associated characteristics and exposures.

    PubMed

    Arbour, MaryCatherine; Murray, Kara A; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Arriet, Felipe; Moraga, Cecilia; Vega, Miguel Angel Cordero

    2017-04-01

    An 8.8-magnitude earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010, displacing nearly 2,000 children aged less than five years to emergency housing camps. Nine months later, this study assessed the needs of 140 displaced 0-5-year-old children in six domains: caregiver stability and protection; health; housing; nutrition; psychosocial situation; and stimulation. Multivariate regression was applied to examine the degree to which emotional, physical, and social needs were associated with baseline characteristics and exposure to the earthquake, to stressful events, and to ongoing risks in the proximal post-earthquake context. In each domain, 20 per cent or fewer children had unmet needs. Of all children in the sample, 20 per cent had unmet needs in multiple domains. Children's emotional, physical, and social needs were associated with ongoing exposures amenable to intervention, more than with baseline characteristics or epicentre proximity. Relief efforts should address multiple interrelated domains of child well-being and ongoing risks in post-disaster settings.

  1. Responses of the Ocular Anterior Segment and Refraction to 0.5% Tropicamide in Chinese School-Aged Children of Myopia, Emmetropia, and Hyperopia.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Zhengwei; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; Du, Ergang; Jiang, Kelimu; Zheng, Wenjing; Ke, Bilian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the changes of anterior segment after cycloplegia and estimate the association of such changes with the changes of refraction in Chinese school-aged children of myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia. Methods. 309 children were recruited and eligible subjects were assigned to three groups: hyperopia, emmetropia, or myopia. Cycloplegia was achieved with five cycles of 0.5% tropicamide. The Pentacam system was used to measure the parameters of interest before and after cycloplegia. Results. In the myopic group, the lenses were thinner and the lens position was significantly more posterior than that of the emmetropic and hyperopic groups in the cycloplegic status. The correlations between refraction and lens thickness (age adjusted; r = 0.26, P < 0.01), and lens position (age adjusted; r = -0.31, P < 0.01) were found. After cycloplegia, ACD and ACV significantly increased, while ACA significantly decreased. Changes in refraction, ACD, ACV, and ACA were significantly different among the three groups (P < 0.05, all). Changes of refraction were correlated with changes of ACD (r = 0.41, P < 0.01). Conclusions. Myopia presented thinner lenses and smaller changes of anterior segment and refraction after cycloplegia when compared to emmetropia and hyperopia. Changes of anterior chamber depth were correlated with refraction changes. This may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between anterior segment and myopia.

  2. Creep and Fracture Behavior of Peak-Aged Mg-11Y-5Gd-2Zn-0.5Zr (wt pct)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, D. D.; Wang, Q. D.; Boehlert, C. J.; Janik, V.

    2012-09-01

    The tensile-creep and creep-fracture behavior of peak-aged Mg-11Y-5Gd-2Zn-0.5Zr (wt pct) (WGZ1152) was investigated at temperatures between 523 K (250 °C) to 598 K (325 °C) (0.58 to 0.66 T m) and stresses between 30 MPa to 140 MPa. The minimum creep rate of the alloy was almost two orders of magnitude lower than that for WE54-T6 and was similar to that for HZ32-T5. The creep behavior exhibited an extended tertiary creep stage, which was believed to be associated with precipitate coarsening. The creep stress exponent value was 4.5, suggesting that dislocation creep was the rate-controlling mechanism during secondary creep. At T = 573 K (300 °C), basal slip was the dominant deformation mode. The activation energy for creep ( Q avg = 221 ± 20 kJ/mol) was higher than that for self-diffusion in magnesium and was believed to be associated with the presence of second-phase particles as well as the activation of nonbasal slip and cross slip. This finding was consistent with the slip-trace analysis and surface deformation observations, which revealed that the nonbasal slip was active. The minimum creep rate and time-to-fracture followed the original and modified Monkman-Grant relationships. The microcracks and cavities nucleated preferentially at grain boundaries and at the interface between the matrix phase and the second phase. In-situ creep experiments highlighted the intergranular cracking evolution.

  3. Conscious Sedation Efficacy of 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg Oral Midazolam for Three to Six Year-Old Uncooperative Children Undergoing Dental Treatment: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghajari, Masoud Fallahinejad; Ansari, Ghassem; Hasanbeygi, Leila; Shayeghi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Midazolam with variable dosages has been used to induce sedation in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two dosages of oral midazolam for conscious sedation of children undergoing dental treatment. Materials and Methods: In this randomized crossover double blind clinical trial, 20 healthy children (ASA I) aged three to six years with definitely negative Frankl behavioral rating scale were evaluated. Half of the children received 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam plus 1mg/kg hydroxyzine (A) orally in the first session and 0.3mg/kg oral midazolam plus 1mg/kg hydroxyzine (B) in the next session. The other half received the drugs on a reverse order. Sedation degree by Houpt sedation rating scale, heart rate and level of SpO2 were assessed at the beginning and after 15 and 30 minutes. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19 and Wilcoxon Signed Rank and McNemar's tests. Results: The results showed that although administration of 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam was slightly superior to 0.3mg/kg oral midazolam in terms of sedation efficacy, the differences were not significant (P>0.05). The difference in treatment success was not significant either (P>0.05). Heart rate, oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate were within the normal range and did not show a significant change (P>0.05). Conclusions: The overall success rate of the two drug combinations namely 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam plus hydroxyzine and 0.3mg/kg oral midazolam plus hydroxyzine was not significantly different for management of pediatric patients. PMID:27928238

  4. Long-term safety and efficacy of once-daily topical brimonidine tartrate gel 0.5% for the treatment of moderate to severe facial erythema of rosacea: results of a 1-year open-label study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Angela; Kempers, Steven; Murakawa, George; Weiss, Jonathan; Tauscher, Amanda; Swinyer, Leonard; Liu, Hong; Leoni, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Once-daily topical brimonidine tartrate (BT) gel 0.5% was shown to be efficacious and safe for the treatment of erythema of rosacea in previous studies including a 4-week treatment phase. In the present 1-year study, we aimed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of the treatment. Subjects with moderate to severe erythema of rosacea were instructed to apply topical BT gel 0.5% once daily for 12 months. Severity of erythema and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. Approximately 345 subject years of exposure to BT gel 0.5% was achieved in the study. The incidence of AEs and AEs judged to be related to the study drug was higher at the beginning and decreased over the course of the study. Similar safety profiles were observed between the subjects who had received or not received concomitant therapies for the inflammatory lesions of rosacea. Effect of topical BT gel 0.5% on erythema severity was observed after the first application and the durability of the effect was maintained until the end of the study at month 12, with no tachyphylaxis observed. In conclusion, once-daily topical BT gel 0.5% is safe and consistently effective for the long-term treatment of moderate to severe erythema of rosacea, even in the presence of concomitant therapies for the inflammatory lesions of rosacea.

  5. Electrochemical characterization and post-mortem analysis of aged LiMn2O4-Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2/graphite lithium ion batteries. Part I: Cycle aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiaszny, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg C.; Krauß, Elke E.; Schmidt, Jan P.; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    A detailed capacity fade analysis was carried out for a commercial lithium ion battery with a mixed LiMn2O4/NMC cathode, cycled at room temperature with a continuous discharge rate of 1C. Complementary electrochemical and physical-analytical investigations revealed that the most significant aging processes was loss of cycleable lithium due to SEI-layer formation on the anode. The layer formation is accelerated by transition metals coming from the cathode. Impedance spectroscopy proved a significant increase of the cathode charge transfer resistance and of the serial resistance due to electrolyte decomposition and the formation of a surface layer on the anode. The changing of the impedance spectra of the lithium ion battery with aging could be interpreted with the help of impedance spectra of symmetric cells. From DRT analysis equivalent circuits for anode and cathode were derived, which were used for fitting of the impedance spectra.

  6. On the occurrence of dynamic strain aging in near-alpha alloy Ti-5.8Al-4Sn-3.5Zr-0.7Nb-0.5Mo-0.35Si

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N.; Prasad, N.; Singh, V.

    1999-09-01

    Alloy Ti-5.8Al-4Sn-3.5Zr-0.7Nb-0.5Mo-0.35Si (IMI 834) is the most recently developed near-alpha type titanium alloy for high-temperature application up to 873 K, as discs and blades in the high pressure part of compressors, in advanced jet engines. It possesses a good combination of creep and fatigue resistance at elevated temperature, in properly heat-treated condition, and has a fine bimodal microstructure, consisting of a small volume fraction of equiaxed alpha in a fine-grained matrix of transformed beta. Some investigations have already been done on the tensile behavior of this alloy, in different heat-treated conditions, over a wide range of temperature from 293 to 923 K. However, no report has been made on the occurrence of dynamic strain aging (DSA) in this alloy. The purpose of this article is to present the observation on the occurrence of DSA in the titanium alloy IMI 834, in the as-received (hot-rolled and mill-annealed) condition, over the temperature range 623 to 823 K.

  7. In-Situ Study of the Tensile Deformation and Fracture Modes in Peak-Aged Cast Mg-11Y-5Gd-2Zn-0.5Zr (Weight Percent)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, D. D.; Wang, Q. D.; Boehlert, C. J.; Chen, Z.; Li, H. M.; Mishra, R. K.; Chakkedath, A.

    2016-12-01

    Tensile deformation and fracture modes in peak-aged cast Mg-11Y-5Gd-2Zn-0.5Zr (wt pct) (WGZ1152) samples at temperatures between 298 K [25 °C, room temperature (RT)] and 623 K (350 °C) (0.33 to 0.69 T m) were studied in situ inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and slip trace analysis. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) (265 MPa) and yield strength (YS) (193 MPa) at 523 K (250 °C) were 91 and 80 pct of those at RT, respectively. The observed dominant slip mode transitioned from basal slip (100 pct) to basal slip (81 pct) combined with prismatic slip (12 pct) from RT to 473 K (200 °C). As the temperature increased to 623 K (350 °C), basal slip (67 pct) and pyramidal slip (25 pct) became the dominant slip modes. The estimated critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) ratio of pyramidal slip/basal slip (7.3) was lower than that of prismatic slip/basal slip (12.7) at temperatures above 573 K (300 °C). Prismatic slip and pyramidal slip were more active at higher strains for moderate temperatures [473 K to 523 K (200 °C to 250 °C)] and at high temperatures [573 K to 623 K (300 °C to 350 °C)], respectively. A transition in the dominant fracture mode occurred from transgranular cracking (40 pct) combined with intergranular cracking (60 pct) to intergranular cracking as temperatures increased from RT to 623 K (350 °C). The intergranular crack nucleation sites tended to be located at grain boundaries and the interface between the Mg matrix and the large intermetallic grain boundary X phase. Slip bands were associated with transgranular crack nucleation.

  8. 43 CFR 2720.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 2720.0-5 Section 2720.0-5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) CONVEYANCE OF FEDERALLY-OWNED MINERAL INTERESTS Conveyance of Federally-Owned Mineral Interests § 2720.0-5 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the term:...

  9. 28 CFR 0.5 - Attorney General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attorney General. 0.5 Section 0.5... Attorney General § 0.5 Attorney General. The Attorney General shall: (a) Supervise and direct the administration and operation of the Department of Justice, including the offices of U.S. Attorneys and...

  10. In vitro performance of self-adhesive resin cements for post-and-core build-ups: influence of chewing simulation or 1-year storage in 0.5% chloramine solution.

    PubMed

    Naumann, M; Sterzenbach, G; Rosentritt, M; Beuer, F; Frankenberger, R

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to test the in vitro performance of a self-adhesive resin composite core build-up in comparison with two typical conventional etch-and-rinse composite core build-up materials, before and after 1year of storage in 0.5% chloramine solution (LTS). Sixty human maxillary central incisors were divided into three groups. Teeth were root filled and decoronated. Specimens were restored using glass fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive resin cement. Core build-ups were made with a self-adhesive (U) and two core build-up materials (C and L) applied with their corresponding bonding systems. All specimens received adhesively luted lithium disilicate crowns. Ten specimens of each group were exposed to LTS and examined monthly for cracks or other alterations. All specimens were thermocycled, mechanically loaded (TCML) and finally loaded until failure occurred. There was no statistical significant difference in regard to the number of failures during TCML without and with LTS (log rank: p = 0.225 and 0.609, respectively). The median fracture load values after static loading without LTS and with LTS did not differ significantly (Kruskal-Wallis test: p = 0.057 and 0.106, respectively), though the fracture patterns between the groups without (p = 0.024) and with LTS (p = 0.027) did. Self-adhesive cements used for core build-up have no significantly higher risk of failure compared to conventional core build-up materials in both LTS and TCML test scenarios.

  11. Personality Stability From Age 14 to Age 77 Years

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for differential stability in personality trait differences, even over decades. The authors used data from a sample of the Scottish Mental Survey, 1947 to study personality stability from childhood to older age. The 6-Day Sample (N = 1,208) were rated on six personality characteristics by their teachers at around age 14. In 2012, the authors traced as many of these participants as possible and invited them to take part in a follow-up study. Those who agreed (N = 174) completed a questionnaire booklet at age 77 years, which included rating themselves and asking someone who knew them well to rate them on the same 6 characteristics on which they were rated in adolescence. Each set of 6 ratings was reduced to the same single underlying factor, denoted dependability, a trait comparable to conscientiousness. Participants’ and others’ older-age personality characteristic ratings were moderately correlated with each other, and with other measures of personality and wellbeing, but correlations suggested no significant stability of any of the 6 characteristics or their underlying factor, dependability, over the 63-year interval. However, a more complex model, controlling rater effects, indicated significant 63-year stability of 1 personality characteristic, Stability of Moods, and near-significant stability of another, Conscientiousness. Results suggest that lifelong differential stability of personality is generally quite low, but that some aspects of personality in older age may relate to personality in childhood. PMID:27929341

  12. 43 CFR 3180.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Act of August 7, 1947 (30 U.S.C. 351, et seq.); or the Act of November 16, 1981 (Pub. L. 97-98, 95... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 3180.0-5 Section 3180.0-5... Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: General § 3180.0-5 Definitions. The following terms, as used in...

  13. Stimulation Activities: Age Birth to Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Dave

    This handbook provides a collection of stimulation activities that encourage a child's physical and mental growth from birth to five years of age. Emphasis is placed on making stimulation aids that are inexpensive or can be made from scrap materials. Advice is given about ways to carry out designated activities. All activities have been tried and…

  14. 43 CFR 2361.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... resources which include crude oil, gases of all kinds (natural gas, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 2361.0-5 Section 2361.0-5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE IN ALASKA...

  15. 43 CFR 9212.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 9212.0-5 Section 9212.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention §...

  16. 43 CFR 9212.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 9212.0-5 Section 9212.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention §...

  17. 43 CFR 9212.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 9212.0-5 Section 9212.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention §...

  18. 43 CFR 9212.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 9212.0-5 Section 9212.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention §...

  19. 43 CFR 3142.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 3142.0-5 Section 3142.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Paying...

  20. 43 CFR 3142.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 3142.0-5 Section 3142.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Paying...

  1. 43 CFR 3142.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 3142.0-5 Section 3142.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Paying...

  2. 43 CFR 3142.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 3142.0-5 Section 3142.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Paying...

  3. 43 CFR 1601.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 1601.0-5 Section 1601.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  4. 43 CFR 1601.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 1601.0-5 Section 1601.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  5. 43 CFR 1601.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 1601.0-5 Section 1601.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  6. 43 CFR 1601.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 1601.0-5 Section 1601.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  7. 43 CFR 2094.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Special Resource Values; Shore Space § 2094.0-5 Definitions. The term navigable waters is defined in section 2 of the Act of...

  8. 43 CFR 2094.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Special Resource Values; Shore Space § 2094.0-5 Definitions. The term navigable waters is defined in section 2 of the Act of...

  9. 43 CFR 2094.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Special Resource Values; Shore Space § 2094.0-5 Definitions. The term navigable waters is defined in section 2 of the Act of...

  10. 43 CFR 2094.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Special Resource Values; Shore Space § 2094.0-5 Definitions. The term navigable waters is defined in section 2 of the Act of...

  11. 43 CFR 2520.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-5 Definitions. (a) As used in the desert-land laws and the regulations of this subpart:...

  12. 43 CFR 2520.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-5 Definitions. (a) As used in the desert-land laws and the regulations of this subpart:...

  13. 43 CFR 2520.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-5 Definitions. (a) As used in the desert-land laws and the regulations of this subpart:...

  14. 43 CFR 2520.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-5 Definitions. (a) As used in the desert-land laws and the regulations of this subpart:...

  15. 43 CFR 1815.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....0-5 Definitions. Major disaster means any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, winddriven... catastrophe occurs or threatens to occur certifies the need for Federal disaster assistance and...

  16. 43 CFR 1815.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....0-5 Definitions. Major disaster means any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, winddriven... catastrophe occurs or threatens to occur certifies the need for Federal disaster assistance and...

  17. 43 CFR 1815.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....0-5 Definitions. Major disaster means any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, winddriven... catastrophe occurs or threatens to occur certifies the need for Federal disaster assistance and...

  18. Breast Cancer Before Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Carey K.; Johnson, Rebecca; Litton, Jennifer; Phillips, Marianne; Bleyer, Archie

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 7% of women with breast cancer are diagnosed before the age of 40 years, and this disease accounts for more than 40% of all cancer in women in this age group. Survival rates are worse when compared to those in older women, and multivariate analysis has shown younger age to be an independent predictor of adverse outcome. Inherited syndromes, specifically BRCA1 and BRCA2, must be considered when developing treatment algorithms for younger women. Chemotherapy, endocrine, and local therapies have the potential to significantly impact both the physiologic health—including future fertility, premature menopause, and bone health—and the psychological health of young women as they face a diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:19460581

  19. Intrinsic Surface Stability in LiMn2-xNixO4-d (x=0.45, 0.5) High Volt-age Spinel Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Kyler J; Yang, Ming-Che; Veith, Gabriel M; Dudney, Nancy J; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2012-01-01

    This work reports the surface stability of the high voltage Li ion cathode LiMn2-xNixO4- (x= 0.5, 0.45) by comparing thin film and powder composite electrodes after cycling using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The thin film electrodes offer the ability to probe the surface of the material without the need of a conductive agent and polymer binder typically used in composite electrodes. The results suggest that neither oxidation of PF6 to POF5 nor the decomposition of ethylene carbonate or dimethylene carbonate occurs on the surface of the spinel material. These results confirm the enhanced cycling stability and rate capability associated with the high voltage spinel material and suggests that the SEI layer forms due to the reaction of electrochemically inactive components in composite electrodes with the electrolyte.

  20. 43 CFR 3802.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.0-5 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the term:...

  1. 43 CFR 3141.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-5 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the term: (a) Combined hydrocarbon lease means a lease issued in a Special Tar Sand Area for the removal of any gas and...

  2. 43 CFR 3141.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-5 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the term: (a) Combined hydrocarbon lease means a lease issued in a Special Tar Sand Area for the removal of any gas and...

  3. 43 CFR 3141.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-5 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the term: (a) Combined hydrocarbon lease means a lease issued in a Special Tar Sand Area for the removal of any gas and...

  4. 43 CFR 3141.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-5 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the term: (a) Combined hydrocarbon lease means a lease issued in a Special Tar Sand Area for the removal of any gas and...

  5. 43 CFR 8224.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-5... Land Management designated to perform the duties described in this subpart: (b) Fossil means the..., bitumen, lignite, asphaltum and tar sands, even though they are of biologic origin: (c) Fossil Forest...

  6. 43 CFR 8224.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-5... Land Management designated to perform the duties described in this subpart: (b) Fossil means the..., bitumen, lignite, asphaltum and tar sands, even though they are of biologic origin: (c) Fossil Forest...

  7. 43 CFR 8224.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-5... Land Management designated to perform the duties described in this subpart: (b) Fossil means the..., bitumen, lignite, asphaltum and tar sands, even though they are of biologic origin: (c) Fossil Forest...

  8. 43 CFR 8224.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-5... Land Management designated to perform the duties described in this subpart: (b) Fossil means the..., bitumen, lignite, asphaltum and tar sands, even though they are of biologic origin: (c) Fossil Forest...

  9. 43 CFR 1815.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....0-5 Definitions. Major disaster means any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, winddriven water, tidal wave, earthquake, drought, fire, or other catastrophe in any part of the United States... assurance of the expenditure of a reasonable amount of the funds of such State, its local governments,...

  10. 43 CFR 3150.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... placing explosive charges, where permissible, for seismic exploration. (b) Casual use means activities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Onshore Oil and Gas Geophysical Exploration; General § 3150.0-5 Definitions. As used in this part, the term:...

  11. 43 CFR 3400.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in excess of the rentals and royalties that accrues to the United States because of coal resource... lands, resources or improvements, for example, activities which do not involve use of heavy equipment or...) Maximum economic recovery has the meaning set forth in § 3480.0-5(a)(24) of this title. (y)...

  12. Ultrathin Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 Ferroelectric Films on Si.

    PubMed

    Chernikova, Anna; Kozodaev, Maksim; Markeev, Andrei; Negrov, Dmitrii; Spiridonov, Maksim; Zarubin, Sergei; Bak, Ohheum; Buragohain, Pratyush; Lu, Haidong; Suvorova, Elena; Gruverman, Alexei; Zenkevich, Andrei

    2016-03-23

    Because of their immense scalability and manufacturability potential, the HfO2-based ferroelectric films attract significant attention as strong candidates for application in ferroelectric memories and related electronic devices. Here, we report the ferroelectric behavior of ultrathin Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films, with the thickness of just 2.5 nm, which makes them suitable for use in ferroelectric tunnel junctions, thereby further expanding the area of their practical application. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis of the films grown on highly doped Si substrates confirms formation of the fully crystalline non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic phase responsible for ferroelectricity in Hf0.5Zr0.5O2. Piezoresponse force microscopy and pulsed switching testing performed on the deposited top TiN electrodes provide further evidence of the ferroelectric behavior of the Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films. The electronic band lineup at the top TiN/Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 interface and band bending at the adjacent n(+)-Si bottom layer attributed to the polarization charges in Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 have been determined using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The obtained results represent a significant step toward the experimental implementation of Si-based ferroelectric tunnel junctions.

  13. Coming from behind to win - A Qualitative research about psychological conditions of adolescents who have undergone open-heart surgery for single ventricle between the ages 0-5

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Early recognition of congenital cardiac pathologies and their treatment by means of palliative or corrective surgery at birth or infancy has vital importance. Successful repair of congenital cardiac defects by surgical methods has gained importance especially during the last twenty years. As the scope of the surveillance increased so did the interest in the outcomes of these treatments when the patients had reached puberty and adulthood. The purpose of our research was to study the psychological framework of the adolescents who had experienced these surgeries by listening both the children and the parents talk about their feelings and experiences. Our data was accumulated through interviews with 17 adolescents and their families, using qualitative methods. The main theme at the end of the analysis was "to be strong and resistive". We reached the conclusion that this condition was not a pathological build up but an attitude of coping, as it did not cause loss of functionality. The defensive psychological mechanisms used by these adolescents consisted of repression, compensation and reaction formation. We believe that this information is important to understand the real meaning of the manners displayed when these adolescents and their families pursue their daily lives, communicate and make relationships with their environment and especially professionals in the health services. PMID:22112589

  14. Dental age assessment in 7-14-year-old Chinese children: comparison of Demirjian and Willems methods.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiuxia; Jiang, Fan; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Huang, Hong; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-11-01

    Several approaches have proven be valuable in estimating dental age in children. The Demirjian method, based on crown and root calcification, is the most frequently used tool. The Willems method is a modification of the Demirjian method. There are few studies regarding to compare the application of the two methods in China. This study aims to apply the two methods in a Han population as well as identify if there are some differences between two methods in estimating dental age versus chronological age. Nine hundred forty-one orthopantomograms of 410 boys and 531 girls between seven and 14 years of age were selected from our patient records database with defined standard, and the Demirjian and Willems methods of dental age estimation were applied. The seven left mandibular teeth were scored and calculated in order to obtain the Demirjian and Willems estimated dental ages. It is suggested that the Demirjian method overestimated chronological age by 1.68 years for boys and 1.28 years for girls. The discrepancy between the Demirjian estimate and the chronological age was most frequently observed between 1 and 3.5 years for boys and between 1 and 2 years for girls. While it is indicted that the Willems method overestimated chronological age by 0.35 years for boys and underestimated the age by 0.02 years for girls. The discrepancy between chronological age and Willems estimated age was most frequently observed between -0.5 and 0.5 years for boys and between -1 and 0.5 years for girls. It is demonstrated that the Willems method was more accurate in estimating dental age than the Demirjian method, with a mean absolute error of 0.98 years for boys and 0.93 years for girls. As a result, it is highly recommended that the Willems method should be applied when estimating dental age in Chinese Han population, further modifications to the method are suggested.

  15. Thickness dependence of superconductivity in FeSe0.5Te0.5 nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Chunlei; Hu, Jin; Liu, Xue; Mao, Zhiqiang; Wei, Jiang

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the thickness dependence of superconductivity on thin film single-crystal FeSe0.5Te0.5 nanodevices. We designed two independent approaches of exfoliation and ion milling to reduce the crystal thickness. On both methods, we discovered that once the thickness of crystal is reduced below 20nm, the superconductivity disappears. When the thickness is approaching to the critical thickness of 20nm, the normal state becomes more insulating, and transition temperature (14K) shifts toward lower temperature. In addition, ion milling method reveals that there is always about 6nm of non- stoichiometric FeSexTe1-x developed on the surface of FeSe0.5Te0.5 single crystal in ambient environment.

  16. 43 CFR 3000.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... combustible or noncombustible, which is produced in a natural state from the earth and which maintains a...) Anniversary date means the same day and month in succeeding years as that on which the lease became...

  17. Metamagnetic Transitions in La_{0.5}Pr_{0.5}Mn_2Si_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duman, Eyüp; Acet, Mehmet; Krenke, Thorsten; Ouladdiaf, Bachir; Suard, Emmanual

    2017-03-01

    La_{0.5}Pr_{0.5}Mn_2Si_2 undergoes an antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic transition at about 250 K (-23°C). This transition can also be induced by an external magnetic field leading to a metamagnetic transition. This can lead to a large change in the magnetic entropy, which is useful for magnetic cooling and studying the magnetocaloric effect. We investigated the details of the spin configuration as the magnetic ordering progresses from AF to FM by neutron diffraction techniques under magnetic fields up to 5 T and using spectral refining methods.

  18. Superhard W0.5Ta0.5B nanowires prepared at ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Michael T.; Akopov, Georgiy; Lin, Cheng-Wei; King, Daniel J.; Li, Rebecca L.; Sobell, Zachary C.; Mohammadi, Reza; Kaner, Richard B.

    2016-11-01

    The primary focus of superhard materials development has relied on chemical tuning of the crystal structure. While these intrinsic effects are invaluable, there is a strong possibility that hardness can be dramatically enhanced using extrinsic effects. Here, we demonstrate that the superhard metal W0.5Ta0.5B can be prepared as nanowires through flux growth. The aspect ratios of the nanowires are controlled by the concentration of boride in molten aluminum, and the nanowires grow along the boron-boron chains, confirmed via electron diffraction. This morphology inherently results from the crystal habit of borides and can inspire the development of other nanostructured materials.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Study of 0.5% Bupivacaine, 0.5% Ropivacaine and 0.75% Ropivacaine for Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prabhat; Trissur, Ramachandran R.; George, Sagiev Koshy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For any surgery in the upper extremity that does not involve the shoulder, a supraclavicular block is preferred, as it is a safe procedure associated with rapid onset and reliable anaesthesia. Although ropivacaine has been extensively studied for epidural anaesthesia, very few reports exist on its use in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Aim This study was conducted to investigate and compare the effectiveness of supraclavicular brachial plexus anaesthesia with two different concentrations of ropivacaine (0.5% and 0.75%) and to compare them with the standard 0.5% bupivacaine. Materials and Methods Ninety patients of age 18 to 60 years belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) status 1 or 2, admitted to Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences were chosen for the study and were divided into three groups. Group A received 30 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine, group B received 30 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine and group C received 30 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine into the supraclavicular region, by a nerve-stimulator technique. Onset time of each of the drug was recorded both for the sensory and motor block. Duration of sensory and motor block was recorded along with peri-operative haemodynamic monitoring. Results The onset of complete sensory and motor block observed with both ropivacaine groups and bupivacaine was similar (16.85±6.67 min in group A, 17.79±5.03 min in group B and 18.48±6.14 in group C, p>0.05); onset of motor block (21.45±4.45 min in group A, 22.23±4.05 min in group B and 22.33±5.17 in group C, p < 0.05). The duration of sensory block with 0.5% bupivacaine was 11.58 hours, with 0.5% ropivacaine was 9.02 hours with 0.75% ropivacaine was 8.87 hours (p<0.001). The duration of motor block with 0.5% bupivacaine was 12.94 hours, with 0.5% ropivacaine was 8.29 hours with 0.75% ropivacaine was 7.89 hours (p<0.001). Multiple comparison test with Bonferroni correction showed there was statistically significant difference in mean duration of

  20. Pupillometry study of brimonidine tartrate 0.2% and apraclonidine 0.5%.

    PubMed

    Besada, Eulogio; Reed, Kimberly; Najman, Perla; Shechtman, Diana; Hardigan, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated possible effects of brimonidine tartrate 0.2% and apraclonidine 0.5% on pupil diameter. Ten subjects between 20 and 40 years of age participated. A Colvard pupillometer (Oasis Medical) was used to measure pupil diameter. Baseline and serial measurements were obtained at 3 luminance levels (>6.4, <0.82-0.4, and <0.2-0.02 cd/m(2)) during a 4-hour interval following instillation of 1 drop of brimonidine tartrate 0.2% or apraclonidine 0.5% in one eye versus a placebo in the contralateral eye. The measurements for each drug were obtained on different days. A nested random effects model controlling for subject's age, race, and sex was used for statistical analysis. A maximum reduction in pupil diameter was observed at 90 minutes from instillation (1.40 mm at >6.4 cd/m(2), 1.69 mm at <0.82-0.4 cd/m(2), and 1.55 mm at <0.2-0.02 cd/m(2)) for brimonidine tartrate 0.2%. At all time intervals and illumination levels, miosis (P < .01) occurred. Apraclonidine 0.5% did not produce a significant effect on pupil diameter. Brimonidine tartrate 0.2% produced a moderate miotic effect. No effect was observed for apraclonidine 0.5%. A predominant agonistic effect on α-2 receptors of the iris dilator may explain this behavior.

  1. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePlus

    2 to 20 years: Boys NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # Mother’s Stature Date Age in cm 160 62 S 155 60 T 150 ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BMI* AGE (YEARS) cm 95 190 90 185 75 180 ...

  2. Ellipsometric study of Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieg, R. M.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Croke, E. T.; Harrell, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    An ellipsometric study of two Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer super lattices grown by MBE at low temperature (500 C) is presented, and results are compared with x ray diffraction (XRD) estimates. Excellent agreement is obtained between target values, XRD, and ellipsometry when one of two available Si(x)Ge(1-x) databases is used. It is shown that ellipsometry can be used to nondestructively determine the number of superlattice periods, layer thicknesses, Si(x)Ge(1-x) composition, and oxide thickness without resorting to additional sources of information. It was also noted that we do not observe any strain effect on the E(sub 1) critical point.

  3. Ellipsometric study of Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieg, R. M.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Croke, E. T.; Harrell, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    We present an ellipsometric study of two Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer superlattices grown by MBE at low temperature (500 C), and compare our results with X-ray diffraction (XRD) estimates. Excellent agreement is obtained between target values, XRD, and ellipsometry when one of two available Si(x)Ge(1-x) databases is used. We show that ellipsometry can be used to nondestructively determine the number of superlattice periods, layer thicknesses, Si(x)Ge(1-x) composition, and oxide thickness without resorting to additional sources of information. We also note that we do not observe any strain effect on the E1 critical point.

  4. Phase transitions in Fe0.5Co0.5 (110) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Dámaso, G.; Castillo-Alvarado, F. L.; Rojas-Hernández, E.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present calculations for two second-order phase transitions in (110) Fe0.5Co0.5 thin films with 11, 15, and 19 monoatomic layers. The lattice and magnetic transitions are based on thermodynamic equilibrium considerations of the magnetic alloy. The procedure proposed by Valenta and Sukiennicki was applied to calculate the composition x(i), the lattice order parameter t(i), and the magnetic order parameter σ(i) as a function of temperature T. We confirmed that both phase transitions, lattice and magnetic, are of the second order, in accordance with experimental results in the literature. The obtained behavior of these parameters indicates their inhomogeneity due to the boundary conditions on the surfaces of the thin film.

  5. Efficacy and safety of 0.5% levobupivacaine versus 0.5% bupivacaine for peribulbar anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Elena; Pacella, Fernanda; Troisi, Fabiana; Dell’Edera, Domenico; Tuchetti, Paolo; Lenzi, Tommaso; Collini, Saul

    2013-01-01

    Background This randomized double-blind study examined the use of a new anesthetic agent, levobupivacaine 0.5%, which is the S(−)-enantiomer of a racemic mixture of bupivacaine, for peribulbar anesthesia and compared it with racemic bupivacaine 0.5% alone or in combination with hyaluronidase 10 IU/mL. Methods A total of 160 patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery were randomized into four groups (n = 40 each) to receive inferotemporal peribulbar injection of levobupivacaine 0.5% (group L), racemic bupivacaine 0.5% (group B), levobupivacaine + hyaluronidase 10 IU/mL (group LH), or racemic bupivacaine + hyaluronidase 10 IU/mL (group BH) by two anesthetists and two ophthalmologists in a ratio of 25% each. Ocular akinesia and orbicularis oculi function were evaluated using a three-point scale; a value < 5 points was considered as requiring surgery, and movements were re-evaluated the day following surgery to confirm regression of the block. Results The time to onset (12 ± 2.6 minutes versus 13 ± 2.8 minutes) and duration of anesthesia (185 ± 33.2 minutes versus 188 ± 35.7 minutes) were similar between groups L and B. Complete akinesia (score 0) was obtained more frequently when hyaluronidase was used in addition to the anesthetic, with occurrences of 72.5% versus 57.5% in group LH versus L, respectively, and 67.5% versus 45% in group BH versus B. Moderate hypotension (<30% of baseline) was observed in four patients (10%) in group L, two (5.0%) in group B, one (2.5%) in group LH, and three (7.5%) in group BH. The time to onset was significantly different between groups L and BH, B and BH, and LH and BH, and the duration of anesthesia differed significantly between groups B and LH, B and BH, and L and LH. The akinesia score differed significantly between groups L and LH and between groups B and LH (P = 0.043 and P = 0.018, respectively), and the number of patients with a score of 0 differed significantly between groups B and LH and between groups B and BH (P = 0

  6. Structural, electronic and optical properties of the Zn0.5V0.5S in three phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhu-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2016-10-01

    The structural, electronic and optical properties of the Zn0.5V0.5SZB, Zn0.5V0.5SW and Zn0.5V0.5SRS are studied by the spin-polarized first-principles calculation. The Zn0.5V0.5SZB and Zn0.5V0.5SRS are metals in tetragonal structures, while the Zn0.5V0.5SW in trigonal structure is half-metal with 100% spin polarization. The Zn0.5V0.5SRS has the biggest static dielectric constant 𝜀1(0) and static refractive index n(0), which may be ascribed to the highest crystal symmetry. The maximum absorption peaks of the Zn0.5V0.5SZB, Zn0.5V0.5SW and Zn0.5V0.5SRS are located about 44 eV in the ultraviolet region, indicating these materials have good prospect for optoelectronic materials in the ultraviolet range.

  7. Language Performance and Reading Ability at 8 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Rodney; Slaghuis, Walter

    1985-01-01

    Reports results from a detailed syntactic analysis of spoken language samples collected from poor and good readers at eight years of age. Results showed an undeniably strong association between reduced language comprehension and reading impairment at age eight, an association that appeared to strengthen by age nine. (SED)

  8. Isosbestic Point and Magnetoresistance Components in Ho_{0.5} Lu_{0.5} B_{12}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshilov, A. L.; Azarevich, A. N.; Bogach, A. V.; Glushkov, V. V.; Demishev, S. V.; Krasnorussky, V. N.; Voronov, V. V.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu; Filippov, V. B.; Gabani, S.; Flachbart, K.; Sluchanko, N. E.

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of precise magnetoresistance (MR) measurements of an antiferromagnetic cage-glass solid solution Ho_{0.5}Lu_{0.5}B_{12} in magnetic fields up to 80 kOe and at temperatures between 1.9 and 100 K. The analysis of results allows to separate the positive and negative contributions to MR. The dominant MR-term was found to be the high field positive contribution Δ ρ /ρ _{(m+)} =μ _D^2 H^2 which is caused by the drift mobility μ _D of charge carriers. It was also shown that the negative MR observed at temperatures T ≤ 10 K may be described by the well-known relation between MR and local magnetization Δ ρ /ρ _{(-)} =M_{loc}^2 obtained by Yosida in the framework of s-d exchange model. We discuss as well the scattering of charge carriers on antiferromagnetic nanosize domains of Ho^{3+} ions with effective magnetic moments 3.5-5.5 μ _B as the mechanism responsible for the appearance of the negative MR component.

  9. Radiocarbon ages and age models for the past 30,000 years in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Kaufman, D.S.; Dean, W.E.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses of pollen, ostracodes, and total organic carbon (TOC) provide a reliable chronology for the sediments deposited in Bear Lake over the past 30,000 years. The differences in apparent age between TOC, pollen, and carbonate fractions are consistent and in accord with the origins of these fractions. Comparisons among different fractions indicate that pollen sample ages are the most reliable, at least for the past 15,000 years. The post-glacial radiocarbon data also agree with ages independently estimated from aspartic acid racemization in ostracodes. Ages in the red, siliclastic unit, inferred to be of last glacial age, appear to be several thousand years too old, probably because of a high proportion of reworked, refractory organic carbon in the pollen samples. Age-depth models for five piston cores and the Bear Lake drill core (BL00-1) were constructed by using two methods: quadratic equations and smooth cubic-splinefits. The two types of age models differ only in detail for individual cores, and each approach has its own advantages. Specific lithological horizons were dated in several cores and correlated among them, producing robust average ages for these horizons. The age of the correlated horizons in the red, siliclastic unit can be estimated from the age model for BL00-1, which is controlled by ages above and below the red, siliclastic unit. These ages were then transferred to the correlative horizons in the shorter piston cores, providing control for the sections of the age models in those cores in the red, siliclastic unit. These age models are the backbone for reconstructions of past environmental conditions in Bear Lake. In general, sedimentation rates in Bear Lake have been quite uniform, mostly between 0.3 and 0.8 mm yr-1 in the Holocene, and close to 0.5 mm yr-1 for the longer sedimentary record in the drill core from the deepest part of the lake. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Lattice Dynamics of (Mg0.5Fe0.5)O at High-Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomatova, N. V.; Jackson, J. M.; Sturhahn, W.; Wicks, J. K.; Steinhardt, W. M.; Chen, B.

    2012-12-01

    Earth's lower mantle, composed primarily of silicate perovskites and (Mg,Fe)O "ferropericlase", occupies ~60% of Earth's volume. Knowledge of the sound velocities and density of lower mantle minerals are essential for interpreting seismic complexity in the deep Earth. Although it is suggested that (Mg,Fe)O represents a major volume fraction of Earth's interior, the iron concentration of (Mg,Fe)O is not very well constrained at all depths of the lower mantle. Near the base of the lower mantle, an enhanced iron content may be found due to melting events in Earth's history and/or reactions with the iron-dominant liquid outer core. However, few measurements sensitive to the vibrational thermodynamics of ferropericlase exist at pressures above 100 GPa. We have determined the elastic, vibrational, and magnetic properties of (Mg0.5Fe0.5)O ("Fp50") from nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS), synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy (SMS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in diamond-anvil cells up to ~120 GPa at 300 K. This intermediate composition will help assess how varying concentrations of iron affect the lattice dynamics and magnetic states of (Mg,Fe)O as a function of pressure. All experiments were performed using a panoramic diamond-anvil cell at beamline 3ID-B of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The synthetic powdered 57Fe-enriched Fp50 sample was loaded into a beryllium gasket with a boron epoxy insert to maintain sample thickness at high-pressures and reduce axial gradients. The pressures were determined from in-situ volume measurements at 3ID-B combined with an equation of state for (Mg,Fe)O with a similar composition. Several geophysical-relevant parameters of Fp50 at high-pressure will be discussed. In this contribution, we will present derived partial phonon density of states, Debye sound velocities, and compressional and shear sound velocities for Fp50. Our results on Fp50, including the spin state of Fe, will be

  11. In retrospect: Forty years of linking orbits to ice ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslin, Mark

    2016-12-01

    In 1976, it was demonstrated that tiny wobbles in Earth's orbit led to the great ice-age cycles of the past few million years. This finding had wide implications for climate science and the details remain hotly debated today.

  12. Peptide regulation of aging: 35-year research experience.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Anisimov, V N

    2009-07-01

    The authors sum up the results of many-year studies of mechanisms of aging and efficiency of peptide bioregulators in the prevention of age-specific diseases. Data on the effects of peptides, evaluated by the up-to-date methods, are presented. A molecular model of complementary interactions between short peptides and gene promotor sites, underlying the initiation of protein synthesis, is proposed. Prospects of peptide bioregulators in prevention of early aging are discussed.

  13. Luminous Red Galaxies at Z=0.4-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sally; Lindler, Don

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of approx.20,000 luminous red galaxies (LRG's) at z=0.4-0.5 observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In order to differentiate among them, we measured restframe magnitudes, u (3000-3500 A), b (4200-4800 A), and y (5700-6300 A) from the spectra themselves. The galaxies show a significant range in restframe colors and absolute magnitudes. We binned the spectra according to the restframe u-b color and y-band absolute magnitude in order to increase the S/N. We used 3 approaches to estimate the ages and metal content of these binned spectra: via their spectral energy distributions, from spectral-line indices, and by full spectral fitting. The three methods usually produce discordant results

  14. Longitudinal changes in body composition associated with healthy ageing: men, aged 20-96 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Andrew S; Janssen, Ian; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2012-04-01

    Obesity and sarcopenia are health problems associated with ageing. The present study modelled the longitudinal changes in body composition of healthy men, aged from 20 to 96 years, and evaluated the fidelity of BMI to identify age-dependent changes in fat mass and fat-free mass. The data from 7265 men with multiple body composition determinations (total observations 38,328) were used to model the age-related changes in body mass, fat mass, fat-free mass, BMI and percentage of body fat. Changes in fat mass and fat-free mass were used to evaluate the fidelity of BMI and to detect body composition changes with ageing. Linear mixed regression models showed that all trajectories of body composition with healthy ageing were quadratic. Fat mass, BMI and percentage of body fat increased from age 20 years and levelled off at approximately 80 years. Fat-free mass increased slightly from age 20 to 47 years and then declined at a non-linear rate with ageing. Levels of aerobic exercise had a positive influence on fat mass and a slight negative effect on fat-free mass. BMI and percentage of body fat were sensitive in detecting the increase in fat mass that occurred with healthy ageing, but failed to identify the loss of fat-free mass that started at age 47 years.

  15. Enhanced second-harmonic generation in Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3/La0.5Sr0.5MnO3 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Nakamura, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated second harmonic generation for manganite superlattices composed of Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 and La0.5Sr0.5MnO3. While the second harmonic intensity shows a strong variation as a function of the constituent layer thickness, it is dramatically enhanced when each layer has a same thickness of about 1.4 nm and endows its own ground state nature, i.e., a charge-orbital ordered antiferromagnetic insulator for Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 and a ferromagnetic metal for La0.5Sr0.5MnO3. From the detailed symmetry analysis, we discuss a possible role of the coexisting phases and their boundaries in the enhancement of the polar character in this manganese oxide superlattice.

  16. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  17. Investigation of phase formation of (Zn, Mg)0.5Co0.5Fe2O4 nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msomi, J. Z.; Dlamini, W. B.; Moyo, T.; Ezekiel, P.

    2015-01-01

    Zn0.5Co0.5Fe2O4 and Mg0.5Co0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles have been prepared through high energy ball milling of single phase mixtures of ZnFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 or MgFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanosized oxides. The Mössbauer spectra of the milled products ZnFe2O4/CoFe2O4 and MgFe2O4/CoFe2O4 reveal the presence of Zn0.5Co0.5Fe2O4 and Mg0.5Co0.5Fe2O4, respectively. In an alternative route, Zn0.5Co0.5Fe2O4 and Mg0.5Co0.5Fe2O4 compounds were prepared directly from metal chloride solutions through glycol-thermal reaction. The coercive fields of the Zn0.5Co0.5Fe2O4 and Mg0.5Co0.5Fe2O4 oxides produced by glycol-thermal reaction were found to be about 100 Oe and 161 Oe, respectively. Larger coercive fields of about 184 Oe and 255 Oe have been observed for the milled ZnFe2O4/CoFe2O4 and MgFe2O4/CoFe2O4 oxides.

  18. Ni-doped La0.5Sr0.5TiO3 nanofibers: Fabrication and intrinsic ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponhan, Wichaid; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Maensiri, Santi

    2016-06-01

    We report room-temperature ferromagnetism in ˜104-133 nm nanofibers of La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.05). As-spun nanofibers of La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 are fabricated by an electrospinning technique. Nanofibers of the as spun and calcined La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 samples are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) determination, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results of XRD analysis and TEM together with selected electron diffraction (SEAD) analysis indicate that La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 nanofibers have a cubic perovskite structure with no secondary phase. The as-spun samples are paramagnetic, whereas the La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 samples are ferromagnetic having specific magnetizations of 0.098-0.484 emu/g at 10 kOe. The XPS spectra show that there are some oxygen vacancies in the nanofibers, which its may play an important role in inducing room-temperature ferromagnetism in La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 nanofibers. XANES spectra show that most of the Ni ions in La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 nanofibers are in the Ni2+ state mixed with some Ni metal. The finding of room temperature ferromagnetism in this nanofibrous structure of the La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 system is of interest in research on diluted magnetic oxides.

  19. Near-infrared emitting CdTe0.5Se0.5/Cd0.5Zn0.5S quantum dots: synthesis and bright luminescence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We present how CdTe0.5Se0.5 cores can be coated with Cd0.5Zn0.5S shells at relatively low temperature (around 200°C) via facile synthesis using organic ammine ligands. The cores were firstly fabricated via a less toxic procedure using CdO, trioctylphosphine (TOP), Se, Te, and trioctylamine. The cores with small sizes (3.2-3.5 nm) revealed green and yellow photoluminescence (PL) and spherical morphologies. Hydrophobic core/shell CdTe0.5Se0.5/Cd0.5Zn0.5S quantum dots (QDs) with tunable PL between green and near-infrared (a maximum PL peak wavelength of 735 nm) were then created through a facile shell coating procedure using trioctylphosphine selenium with cadmium and zinc acetate. The QDs exhibited high PL efficiencies up to 50% because of the formation of a protective Cd0.5Zn0.5S shell on the CdTe0.5Se0.5 core, even though the PL efficiency of the cores is low (≤1%). Namely, the slow growth process of the shell plays an important role for getting high PL efficiencies. The properties of the QDs are largely determined by the properties of CdTe0.5Se0.5 cores and shells preparation conditions such as reaction temperature and time. The core/shell QDs exhibited a small size diameter. For example, the average diameter of the QDs with a PL peak wavelength of 735 nm is 6.1 nm. Small size and tunable bright PL makes the QDs utilizable as bioprobes because the size of QD-based bioprobes is considered as the major limitation for their broad applications in biological imaging. PMID:23130948

  20. High current superconductivity in FeSe0.5Te0.5-coated conductors at 30 tesla.

    PubMed

    Si, Weidong; Han, Su Jung; Shi, Xiaoya; Ehrlich, Steven N; Jaroszynski, J; Goyal, Amit; Li, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Although high-temperature superconductor cuprates have been discovered for more than 25 years, superconductors for high-field application are still based on low-temperature superconductors, such as Nb(3)Sn. The high anisotropies, brittle textures and high manufacturing costs limit the applicability of the cuprates. Here we demonstrate that the iron superconductors, without most of the drawbacks of the cuprates, have a superior high-field performance over low-temperature superconductors at 4.2 K. With a CeO(2) buffer, critical current densities >10(6)  A cm(-2) were observed in iron-chalcogenide FeSe(0.5)Te(0.5) films grown on single-crystalline and coated conductor substrates. These films are capable of carrying critical current densities exceeding 10(5) A cm(-2) under 30 tesla magnetic fields, which are much higher than those of low-temperature superconductors. High critical current densities, low magnetic field anisotropies and relatively strong grain coupling make iron-chalcogenide-coated conductors particularly attractive for high-field applications at liquid helium temperatures.

  1. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  2. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged <1 year) should be physically active several times daily - particularly through interactive floor-based play. Toddlers (aged 1-2 years) and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity spread throughout the day, including a variety of activities in different environments, activities that develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits.

  3. Nine-year aging behavior of the ceramic flatpack resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Beetley, D.E.

    1990-03-06

    GE has developed a multichannel, high precision aging{asterisk} measurement facility capable of high volume testing of resonators. Features of the facility considered unique for production aging systems test include: (1) Loran-C/disciplined time-frequency (DTF) oscillator frequency standard, (2) direct current power bus design, (3) measurement and switching techniques, and (4) high volume automatic precision resonator aging. Computer-controlled data acquisition is used for unattended operation. Facility requirements included frequency measurement with sufficient precision to allow 20- year extrapolation of resonator frequency shift using 30 data points. The frequency reference is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Long-term extrapolation required selection of a model which would most accurately reflect the major processes involved in aging. In order to verify the accuracy of model extrapolation, a group of resonators has been maintained in test for more than nine years. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  4. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  5. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  6. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children under 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Luna, R; Alter-Molchadsky, N; Cardenas-Cardos, R; Martínez-Guerra, G

    1996-05-01

    This is a retrospective study of 55 children under the age of 2 years diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). They were classified according to age and organ function and dysfunction following Lahey's criteria. The studied population was divided into four groups by age of diagnosis (0-6, 7-12, 13-18, and 19-24 months). Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in outcome between age groups, although the population under 6 months had a 81.3% fatality rate. The presence of organ dysfunction was a major cause of death in all age groups, being statistically significant in outcome (P > 0.005) compared with patients without organ dysfunction. The presence of thrombocytopenia and/or respiratory dysfunction was also highly associated with a fatal outcome. In the surviving population, no second malignancies have been reported. The late secondary effects of therapy include endocrine, orofacial, and osseous pathologies.

  7. [35-year experience in research of peptide regulation of aging].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Anisimov, V N

    2009-01-01

    The results of 35-year-long studies on mechanisms of aging and on efficacy of peptide bioregulators in prevention of age-related pathology are presented in this review paper. The data have been obtained with most advanced methods in collaboration with research laboratories of Russia, USA, UK, Germany, Italy, Spain, France. The molecular model of complementary interrelation of short peptides with promoter site of genes which is a background of protein biosynthesis initiation has been suggested. The prospects of clinical use of peptide bioregulators for prevention of premature aging of the active population in Russia are discussed.

  8. Perinatal air pollution exposure and development of asthma from birth to age 10 years.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Within-city variation in air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma development, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined whether perinatal air pollution exposure affected asthma onset during "pre-school and "school age" periods in a population-based birth cohort.65,254 children born between 1999 and 2002 in the greater Vancouver metropolitan region were followed until age 10 years using linked administrative health databases. Asthma cases were sex- and age-matched to five randomly chosen controls. Associations between exposure to air pollutants estimated with different methods (interpolation (inverse-distance weighted (IDW)), land use regression, proximity) and incident asthma during the pre-school (0-5years) and school age (6-10 years) periods were estimated with conditional logistic regression.6948 and 1711 cases were identified during the pre-school and school age periods, respectively. Following adjustment for birthweight, gestational period, household income, parity, breastfeeding at discharge, maternal age and education, asthma risk during the pre-school years was increased by traffic pollution (adjusted odds ratio using IDW method per interquartile increase (95% CI): nitric oxide 1.06 (1.01-1.11), nitrogen dioxide 1.09 (1.04-1.13) and carbon monoxide 1.05 (1.01-1.1)). Enhanced impacts were observed amongst low-term-birthweight cases. Associations were independent of surrounding residential greenness.Within-city air pollution variation was associated with new asthma onset during the pre-school years.

  9. EATING AND FEEDING DISORDERS IN THE FIRST FIVE YEARS OF LIFE: REVISING THE DC:0-3R DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD AND RATIONALE FOR THE NEW DC:0-5 PROPOSED CRITERIA.

    PubMed

    Keren, Miri

    2016-09-01

    Problems of eating and feeding are one of the most common reasons of referral to pediatric and infant mental health clinics. This article is drawn from work done by the ZERO TO THREE Task Force developing the DC:0-5 Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, specifically dealing with eating disorders in the first 5 years of life. The proposed changes come from both reviewing major studies and reviews published in the last 10 years and reports from clinicians collected through surveys commissioned by the Task Force. The main changes that are proposed include changes in terminology, such as Eating Disorders instead of Feeding Behavior Disorders, as well as focusing on the child's observed eating symptoms rather than on classifying the eating problems by inferred etiologies. Another major change relates to the differentiation between eating disorders that are observed beyond any specific caregiver-child relationship context and those that are confined to one specific relationship. A new category, Overeating Disorder, has been added, as it has been increasingly recognized as a significant and not rare clinical condition. Two illustrative cases are described. The proposed changes in the classification of eating disorders in the first 5 years of life are intended to encourage both clinicians and researchers to study these important disorders in young children.

  10. Ebstein's anomaly in adult patients over 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Shigeaki; Yoshitake, Kiyonobu; Matsuo, Atsutoshi; Tayama, Kei-Ichiro; Hida, Satoru; Mito, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Ebstein's anomaly (EA) is a rare congenital heart disease of the tricuspid valve, and less than 5% of patients with EA survive beyond the age of 50. We report two unoperated cases of EA in adult patients aged over 50 years. Two patients, a 70-year-old Japanese woman and a 59-year-old Chinese woman, were referred to us for tachyarrhythmias. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated apical displacement (>8 mm/m(2) body surface area) of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve from the atrioventricular ring with tricuspid regurgitation in both patients. The former suddenly expired 20 months later after suffering from repetitive supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and/or heart failure, and the latter is alive with minimal signs of heart failure 12 months after the diagnosis of EA. Although the natural history of EA is extremely variable, these two patients are exceptional in that they tolerated EA well for over 50 years without any surgical intervention.

  11. Impact of mechanical stress on ferroelectricity in (Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Takahisa; Katayama, Kiliha; Yokouchi, Tatsuhiko; Shimizu, Takao; Oikawa, Takahiro; Sakata, Osami; Uchida, Hiroshi; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kiguchi, Takanori; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the impact of mechanical stress on their ferroelectric properties, polycrystalline (Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2 thin films were deposited on (111)Pt-coated SiO2, Si, and CaF2 substrates with thermal expansion coefficients of 0.47, 4.5, and 22 × 10-6/ °C, respectively. In-plane X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the (Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2 thin films deposited on SiO2 and Si substrates were under in-plane tensile strain and that their volume fraction of monoclinic phase decreased as this strain increased. In contrast, films deposited on CaF2 substrates were under in-plane compressive strain, and their volume fraction of monoclinic phase was the largest among the three kinds of substrates. The maximum remanent polarization of 9.3 μC/cm2 was observed for Pt/(Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2/Pt/TiO2/SiO2, while ferroelectricity was barely observable for Pt/(Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2/Pt/TiO2/SiO2/CaF2. This result suggests that the in-plane tensile strain effectively enhanced the ferroelectricity of the (Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2 thin films.

  12. Marine radiocarbon reservoir age simulations for the past 50000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butzin, Martin; Köhler, Peter; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    We present simulations of marine radiocarbon reservoir ages using the ocean general circulation model LSG-HAMOCC2s, and evaluate the results with Marine13 raw data records. Our model considers various climatic background states. Radiocarbon cycle boundary conditions are atmospheric Δ14C values according to IntCal13, a recent atmospheric CO2 reconstruction, and spatially variable concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from marine carbon cycle simulations. Our model reasonably agrees with glacial marine Δ14C records but indicates reservoir ages varying with time, different to the invariant reservoir age corrections applied to the observations and to Marine13. Modelled global-mean reservoir ages are in the range 400-800 years compared to the invariant Marine13 value of 405 years. Self-consistent simulations involving the Cariaco Basin record (which is the most continuous marine record contributing to IntCal13 for periods prior to about 30 kyears) amplify the temporal reservoir age variability with global-mean values of about 350-850 years, and improve the agreement with Δ14C observations in some areas.

  13. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  14. [Constrictive pericarditis in children under 2 years of age].

    PubMed

    Silva, Lia; Anjos, Rui; Martins, Fernando Maymone; Telo, Margarida

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of constrictive pericarditis, in children under 2 years of age, of non-tuberculosis aetiology, diagnosed from June 97 to May 98 are reported. This entity is rare in paediatrics and it may progress to severe condition. Surgical treatment has a low risk and is generally associated with good prognosis. Aetiology, clinic presentation, differential diagnosis with restrictive cardiomyopathy and treatment are discussed.

  15. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along ("hindsight bias"). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age…

  16. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Herpes Zoster Vaccine in Persons Aged 50–59 Years

    PubMed Central

    Schmader, Kenneth E.; Levin, Myron J.; Gnann, John W.; McNeil, Shelly A.; Vesikari, Timo; Betts, Robert F.; Keay, Susan; Stek, Jon E.; Bundick, Nickoya D.; Su, Shu-Chih; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Xiaoming; Chan, Ivan S. F.; Annunziato, Paula W.

    2012-01-01

    (See the Editorial Commentary by Li et al, on pages 929–30.) Background. Herpes zoster (HZ) adversely affects individuals aged 50–59, but vaccine efficacy has not been assessed in this population. This study was designed to determine the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of zoster vaccine for preventing HZ in persons aged 50–59 years. Methods. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 22 439 subjects aged 50–59 years conducted in North America and Europe. Subjects were given 1 dose of licensed zoster vaccine (ZV) (Zostavax; Merck) and followed for occurrence of HZ for ≥1 year (mean, 1.3 years) postvaccination until accrual of ≥96 confirmed HZ cases (as determined by testing lesions swabs for varicella zoster virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction). Subjects were followed for all adverse events (AEs) from day 1 to day 42 postvaccination and for serious AEs (SAEs) through day 182 postvaccination. Results. The ZV reduced the incidence of HZ (30 cases in vaccine group, 1.99/1000 person-years vs 99 cases in placebo group, 6.57/1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy for preventing HZ was 69.8% (95% confidence interval, 54.1–80.6). AEs were reported by 72.8% of subjects in the ZV group and 41.5% in the placebo group, with the difference primarily due to higher rates of injection-site AEs and headache. The proportion of subjects reporting SAEs occurring within 42 days postvaccination (ZV, 0.6%; placebo, 0.5%) and 182 days postvaccination (ZV, 2.1%; placebo, 1.9%) was similar between groups. Conclusions. In subjects aged 50–59 years, the ZV significantly reduced the incidence of HZ and was well tolerated. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00534248. PMID:22291101

  17. Magnetic ordering in the rutile molecular magnets MII[N(CN)2]2 (M=Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni0.5Co0.5, and Ni0.5Fe0.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappas, Alexandros; Wills, Andrew S.; Green, Mark A.; Prassides, Kosmas; Kurmoo, Mohamedally

    2003-04-01

    Rietveld refinement of powder neutron diffraction data, combined with group theory considerations, is used to determine the magnetic structures of the binary metal dicyanamide, MII[N(CN)2]2 where M=Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni0.5Co0.5, and Ni0.5Fe0.5. Compounds with M=Mn or Fe show a canted antiferromagnetic arrangement of spin oriented in the ab crystallographic plane, with antiparallel components of the two sublattices along the a axis and parallel along the b axis. Symmetry considerations forbid an additional moment, whether compensated or not, to be present along the c axis. The compounds with fewer unpaired electrons (Co and Ni) are ferromagnets, with all moments oriented along the c axis. The mixed composition of Ni0.5Co0.5 displays the same collinear ferromagnetic structure as its parent compounds. However, the composition with M=Ni0.5Fe0.5, whose parent compounds show different magnetic behavior, does not exhibit long-range magnetic ordering down to 1.7 K. Magnetostriction was observed for the ferromagnets for which we investigated the variable temperature powder neutron diffraction. The cobalt-rich compounds show more pronounced effects, consistent with their increasing magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  18. 16 CFR 0.5 - Laws authorizing monetary claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laws authorizing monetary claims. 0.5... ORGANIZATION § 0.5 Laws authorizing monetary claims. The Commission is authorized to entertain monetary claims..., unless the adjudicative officer finds that the party has committed a willful violation of law...

  19. 16 CFR 0.5 - Laws authorizing monetary claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws authorizing monetary claims. 0.5... ORGANIZATION § 0.5 Laws authorizing monetary claims. The Commission is authorized to entertain monetary claims..., unless the adjudicative officer finds that the party has committed a willful violation of law...

  20. Thermochromic effect at room temperature of Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boileau, A.; Capon, F.; Barrat, S.; Laffez, P.; Pierson, J. F.

    2012-06-01

    Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3 thermochromic thin films were synthesized using dc reactive magnetron co-sputtering and subsequent annealing in air. The film structure was studied by x-ray diffraction analysis. To validate the thermochromic potentiality of Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3, electrical resistivity and infrared transmittance spectra were recorded for temperatures ranging from 77 K to 420 K. The temperature dependence of the optical band gap was estimated in the near infrared range. Upon heating, the optical transmission decreases in the infrared domain showing a thermochromic effect over a wide wavelength range at room temperature.

  1. Superconductivity in a new layered bismuth oxyselenide: LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe₂.

    PubMed

    Krzton-Maziopa, A; Guguchia, Z; Pomjakushina, E; Pomjakushin, V; Khasanov, R; Luetkens, H; Biswas, P K; Amato, A; Keller, H; Conder, K

    2014-05-28

    We report superconductivity at T(c) ≈ 2.6 K in a new layered bismuth oxyselenide LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe2 with the ZrCuSiAs-type structure composed of alternating superconducting BiSe2 and blocking LaO layers. The superconducting properties of LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe2 were investigated by means of dc magnetization, resistivity and muon-spin rotation experiments, revealing the appearance of bulk superconductivity with a rather large superconducting volume fraction of ≈ 70% at 1.8 K.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for malnutrition among children aged 5 years and less in the Lefaragatlha village of Bophuthatswana.

    PubMed

    Setswe, G

    1994-08-01

    A cross-sectioned study was conducted at the Lefaragatha village of Bophuthatswana to document the prevalence and risk factors for malnutrition in children aged 0-5 years in June 1991. Fifty four households, in which there were children in the right age groups, were interviewed over three weeks. Of these children 14 (25.9%) were below the 3rd percentile of weight for age of the 1976 National Centre for Health Statistics standards; in the age group of 2 years and less, this figure was 28.6%, while in children older than 2 years the corresponding figure was 71.4%. Malnutrition was associated with a mother's consumption of alcohol and lack of resources such as water and an inappropriate staple diet. Education and income were not significant variables.

  3. Body build classification for ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18 years) and volleyball girls (aged 13-16 years).

    PubMed

    Kaarma, Helje; Stamm, Raini; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Slide

    2005-03-01

    The article describes two Estonian anthropometric cross-sectional studies of 1549 ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18) and 46 girls, who regularly practised volleyball (aged 13-16). Data are presented on 22 basic anthropometric measurements and 6 body composition characteristics (body mass index, mean skinfold, body density, relative mass of fat by Siri, absolute mass and relative mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue). All anthropometric variables were classified into five height-weight SD classes. Schoolgirls were divided into six age groups (7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18). Volleyballers were observed as one group as their age in SD classes did not differ significantly. The classification consisted of five categories: three height-weight concordant categories: I--small (small height, small weight), II--medium (medium height, medium weight), III large--(big height, big weight) and two height/weight discordant categories: IV--so-called pyknomorphs, V--so-called leptomorphs. To assess the differences between classes the Scheffé-test was used (alpha = 0.05). It proved likewise possible to comparatively systematize length, breadth and depth measurements, circumferences and body composition characteristics in all six age groups (7-18 years) of ordinary schoolgirls and in 13-16-year-old volleyballers as in their case the average age did not differ significantly between the classes.

  4. Growth of children with Down's syndrome: birth to age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Cronk, C E

    1978-04-01

    A sample of 90 children with Down's syndrome were measured for recumbent length and weight from birth to age 36 months at the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Boston. At birth, means for both length and weight were reduced by about 0.5 SDs from the control group means. By 36 months, mean recumbent length was greater than 2 SDs below that for the control group, while the mean for weight was reduced by about 1.5 SDs from the control group mean. Growth velocity for both length and weight was most deficient within the first two years of life. About 30% of the sample demonstrated excess weight for length relations by 36 months. Children with moderate or severe heart disease were significantly smaller than those without or with mild cardiac problems at all times after birth. Measurements of a subsample of children at 4, 5, and 6 years of age suggested that growth velocity after 3 years of age may be within the range of normal. Assessment of growth of the child with Down's syndrome may be carried out with reference to charts plotting tenth to 90th percentiles based on these data.

  5. Preparation and Thermoelectric Properties of the Skutterudite-Related Phase Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, T.; Kulleck, J.; Borshchevsky, A.; Fleurial, J.-P.

    1996-01-01

    A new skutterudite phase Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3 was prepared. This new phase adds to a large number of already known materials with the skutterudite structure which have shown good potential for thermoelectric applications. Single phase, polycrystalline samples were prepared and characterized by x-ray analysis, electron probe microanalysis, density, sound velocity, thermal-expansion coefficient, and differential thermal analysis measurements. Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3 has a cubic lattice, space group Im3 (T(sup 5, sub h)), with a = 9.298 A and decomposes at about 920 K. The Seebeck coefficient, the electrical resistivity, the Hall effect, and the thermal conductivity were measured on hot-pressed samples over a wide range of temperatures. Preliminary results show that Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3 behaves as a heavily doped semiconductor with an estimated band gap of about 0.6 eV. The lattice thermal conductivity of Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3 is substantially lower than that of the binary isostructural compounds CoSb3 and IrSb3. The unusually low thermal conductivity might be explained by additional hole and charge transfer phonon scattering in this material. The potential of this material for thermoelectric applications is discussed.

  6. Fully gapped superconductivity in In-doped topological crystalline insulator Pb0.5Sn0.5Te

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Guan; Gu, G. D.; Du, Zengyi; ...

    2015-07-27

    In this study, superconductors derived from topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators by chemical doping have long been considered to be candidates as topological superconductors. Pb0.5Sn0.5Te is a topological crystalline insulator with mirror symmetry protected surface states on (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented surfaces. The superconductor (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te is produced by In doping in Pb0.5Sn0.5Te, and is thought to be a topological superconductor. Here we report scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the superconducting state as well as the superconducting energy gap in (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te on a (001)-oriented surface. The spectrum can be well fitted by an anisotropic s-wave gap function of Δ =more » 0.72 + 0.18cos4θ meV using Dynes model. The results show that the superconductor seems to be a fully gapped one without any in-gap states, in contradiction with the expectation of a topological superconductor.« less

  7. Cu-induced localization in the Fe-based superconductor FeTe0.5Se0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jinsheng; Xu, Zhijun; Zhang, Cheng; Matsuda, Masa; Sobolev, Oleg; Park, Jitae; Bourret, Edith; Lee, Dunghai; Li, Qiang; Gu, Genda; Xu, Guangyong; Tranquada, John; Birgeneau, Robert

    2013-03-01

    We report neutron scattering and resistivity results on the Cu-substitution effects in FeTe0.5Se0.5 with a Tc of ~15 K. With a 2 % Cu substitution, the Tc is reduced to 8 K, and for Fe0.9Cu0.1Te0.5Se0.5, it is not superconducting. In Fe0.9Cu0.1Te0.5Se0.5, the low-energy magnetic excitations around the in-plane wave vector (0.5, 0.5) is greatly enhanced. Upon heating, the magnetic scattering is weakened, which is different from the temperature dependences of the Cu-free and 2 % Cu-doped sample. The spectral weight reduction upon warming decreases with increasing energy in the 10 % Cu-doped sample. We take these as evidences that Cu drives the system towards localization, which is confirmed by our resistivity data. These observations probably explain why superconductivity is absent in the Cu-doped BaFe2As2 system and demonstrate the inadequacy of the rigid-band shift model on the substitution effects of the 3 d transition metals. The work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Fully gapped superconductivity in In-doped topological crystalline insulator Pb0.5Sn0.5Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guan; Du, Zengyi; Fang, Delong; Yang, Huan; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J.; Gu, G. D.; Wen, Hai-Hu

    2015-07-01

    Superconductors derived from topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators by chemical doping have long been considered to be candidates as topological superconductors. Pb0.5Sn0.5Te is a topological crystalline insulator with mirror symmetry protected surface states on (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented surfaces. The superconductor (Pb0.5Sn0.5 )0.7In0.3Te is produced by In doping in Pb0.5Sn0.5Te , and is thought to be a topological superconductor. Here we report scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the superconducting state as well as the superconducting energy gap in (Pb0.5Sn0.5 )0.7In0.3Te on a (001)-oriented surface. The spectrum can be well fitted by an anisotropic s -wave gap function of Δ (θ )=0.72 +0.18 cos4 θ meV using Dynes model. The results show that the superconductor seems to be a fully gapped one without any in-gap states, in contradiction with the expectation of a topological superconductor.

  9. Surface magnetic disorder in nanostructured Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedkov, I.; Vandenberghe, R. E.; Zaleski, A.

    2010-09-01

    Nanostructured ferroxide particles with initial formula Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 are investigated. The aim was to explore the monodomain and the superparamagnetic states of the ferrospinel and the impact of the surface magnetic disorder on the magnetization processes. Mössbauer spectroscopy (MöS) demonstrated that the ion distribution follows the general formula (Zn 0.5Fe 0.5) A[Ni 0.5Fe 1.5] BO 4, where A is the tetrahedral and B, the octahedral sublattice. MöS in an external magnetic field (5 T) at 4.2 K shows non-collinearity of the sublattices' magnetic moments and deviations in the hyperfine magnetic field that could be related to a canting effect. Magnetic measurements were applied to characterize the temperature behavior of the magnetic properties and the a.c. complex magnetic susceptibility.

  10. Acceptor diffusion and segregation in (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillot, P. N.; Stockman, S. A.; Huang, J. W.; Bracht, H.; Chang, Y. L.

    2002-04-01

    Acceptor segregation is investigated as a function of compositional difference, Δx, between adjacent layers in (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P heterostructures. Magnesium, Zn, Be, and Mn acceptor species are all shown to segregate out of the high band gap Al-rich (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P layers and into the low band gap Al-poor (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P layers during high temperature epitaxial growth of such heterostructures. The observed acceptor segregation appears to be independent of growth method or dopant incorporation method (metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, gas source molecular-beam epitaxy, or ion implantation), and increases with increasing compositional difference between adjacent (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P layers. A theoretical model is developed to describe acceptor segregation based on charge separation and the resulting electric field across the heterointerface, and the resulting acceptor segregation is shown to vary as (mh AL*/mh CL*)3/2 exp(ΔEV/kT) where mh AL* and mh CL* are the hole effective masses in the active layer and confining layer, and ΔEV is the valence band offset. Comparison between experimentally measured and theoretically predicted acceptor segregation ratios gives excellent agreement for (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P heterostructures over the range of compositional differences from Δx=0.12 to Δx=0.93.

  11. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  12. Structure and dielectric dispersion in cubic-like 0.5K0.5Na0.5NbO3-0.5Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Laijun; Knapp, Michael; Schmitt, Ljubomira Ana; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Fang, Liang; Fuess, Hartmut; Hoelzel, Markus; Hinterstein, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    The nature of the cubic-like state in the lead-free piezoelectric ceramics 0.5K0.5Na0.5NbO3-0.5Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (KNN-50BNT) has been examined in detail by synchrotron x-ray diffraction (SD), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), neutron diffraction (ND), and temperature-dependent dielectric characterization. The SD pattern of KNN-50BNT presents a pure perovskite structure with pseudocubic symmetry. However, superlattice reflections were observed by SAED and completely indexed by tetragonal symmetry with P4bm space group in ND pattern. The relaxor behavior of KNN-50BNT is compared with Pb-based and Ba-based relaxors and discussed in the framework of the Vogel-Fulcher law and the new glass model. The KNN-50BNT ceramic exhibits the strongest dielectric dispersion among them.

  13. Giant strain in lead-free piezoceramics Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-BaTiO3-K0.5Na0.5NbO3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Tao; Kounga, Alain Brice; Aulbach, Emil; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Rödel, Jürgen

    2007-09-01

    Piezoelectric actuators convert electrical into mechanical energy and are implemented for many large-scale applications such as piezoinjectors and ink jet printers. The performance of these devices is governed by the electric-field-induced strain. Here, the authors describe the development of a class of lead-free (0.94-x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3-xK0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramics. These can deliver a giant strain (0.45%) under both unipolar and bipolar field loadings, which is even higher than the strain obtained with established ferroelectric Pb(Zr ,Ti)O3 ceramics and is comparable to strains obtained in Pb-based antiferroelectrics.

  14. Enhanced electrostricitive properties and thermal endurance of textured (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3-(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jigong; Ye, Chenggen; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei

    2013-08-01

    Textured 0.92(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3-0.02(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (BNT-BT-KNN) ceramics have been produced by tape casting with pure-phase (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 templates. Through the approach of texture construction, enhanced electrostrictive response was obtained with an electrostrictive coefficient Q33 (˜0.024 m4/C2 at 60 kV/cm) and good thermostability comparable with that of traditional Pb-based electrostrictors. Even at an electric-field as low as 35 kV/cm or at a temperature as high as 180 °C, samples still possess a large electrostrictive response with Q33 > 0.022 m4/C2, suggesting it is very promising for practical applications as a lead-free electrostrictive material owning to its wide usage range. Moreover, reducing the applied electric-filed or increasing temperature can both induce the predominant to pure electrostriction transition due to the little contributions of electrostriction strain from ferroelectric domain switching. Our work may provide a new recipe for designing high-performance BNT-based lead-free electrostrictive materials by means of texture construction.

  15. Proton conduction and chemical stability of (La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5})(Mg{sub 0.5+y}Nb{sub 0.5-y})O{sub 3-{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Yuya; Okada, Sachio; Ito, Naoki; Matsumoto, Hiroshige Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2009-02-04

    Electrical conduction properties of complex perovskite-type oxides in the (La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5})(Mg{sub 0.5+y}Nb{sub 0.5-y})O{sub 3-{delta}} (y = 0.02-0.06) series at intermediate-high temperatures were investigated; introduction of protons by hydration of oxide-ion vacancies was expected by increasing the Mg/Nb ratio from unity. The conductivity depended on y and a maximum conductivity was obtained at y = 0.04: {sigma} = 4.9 x 10{sup -6} S cm{sup -1} at 400 deg. C in wet H{sub 2} atmospheres. From electromotive force measurements of hydrogen and water vapor concentration cells, electrical conduction in wet H{sub 2} atmospheres can be attributed to ionic conduction, and proton conduction is dominant below 700 deg. C. Unlike other perovskite-type proton conductors, (La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5})(Mg{sub 0.54}Nb{sub 0.46})O{sub 3-{delta}} was stable in CO{sub 2} atmospheres even in the low-intermediate temperature region due to dilution of reactive strontium by lanthanum.

  16. Associations between education and brain structure at age 73 years, adjusted for age 11 IQ

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A.; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Evans, Alan C.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. Methods: We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. Results: The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. Conclusions: The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. PMID:27664981

  17. Between 21 and 34 years of age, aging alters the catecholamine responses to supramaximal exercise in endurance trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Zouhal, H; Gratas-Delamarche, A; Rannou, F; Granier, P; Bentue-Ferrer, D; Delamarche, P

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aging and training on the adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA) responses during the Wingate-test in three age groups of subjects: 21 year old untrained subjects (21U), 21 year old endurance trained (21T) (national elite runners), 34 year old endurance trained (34T) (national elite runners). Performances during the test were judged using the usual parameters of peak power (Wmax) and mean power (W) expressed in absolute or relative values. A and NA responses were measured at rest (A0 and NA0) immediately at the end of the exercise (Amax and NAmax) and after 5 minutes recovery (A5 and NA5). Plasma maximal lactate (La(max)) was determined 3 minutes after the end of the exercise. Wmax, W and La(max) were always significantly lower in 34T compared to 21T and 21U. The catecholamine responses were similar in 21T and 21U. Inversely, a significantly lower value of Amax was observed in 34T (2.01 +/- 0.5 nmol x l(-1)) compared to 21U (3.62 +/- 0.3 nmol x l(-1)) associated with a significantly higher value of NA(max) in 34T versus 21T and 21U. Thus, the Amax/NA(max) ratio was found to be significantly lower in the older subjects versus both 21T and 21U. All these findings indicated that endurance training did not affect the sympathoadrenergic responses to a supramaximal exercise and suggested that only one decade may reduce the capacity of the medulla to secrete adrenaline and therefore the adrenal medulla responsiveness to the sympathetic nervous activity.

  18. Superconductivity induced by In substitution into the topological crystalline insulator Pb0.5Sn0.5Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J. A.; Liu, T. S.; Camino, F. E.; Tranquada, J. M.; Gu, G. D.

    2014-07-01

    Indium substitution turns the topological crystalline insulator (TCI) Pb0.5Sn0.5Te into a possible topological superconductor. To investigate the effect of the indium concentration on the crystal structure and superconducting properties of (Pb0.5Sn0.5)1-xInxTe, we have grown high-quality single crystals using a modified floating-zone method and have performed systematic studies for indium content in the range 0≤x≤0.35. We find that the single crystals retain the rocksalt structure up to the solubility limit of indium (x ˜0.30). Experimental dependencies of the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) and the upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) on the indium content x have been measured. The maximum Tc is determined to be 4.7 K at x =0.30, with μ0Hc2(T =0)≈5 T.

  19. Superconductivity in (NH3) yN axFeS e0.5T e0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lu; Sakai, Yusuke; Miao, Xiao; Nishiyama, Saki; Terao, Takahiro; Eguchi, Ritsuko; Goto, Hidenori; Kubozono, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Na-intercalated FeS e0.5T e0.5 was prepared using the liquid N H3 technique, and a superconducting phase exhibiting a superconducting transition temperature (Tc) as high as 27 K was discovered. This can be called the high-Tc phase since a 21 K superconducting phase was previously obtained in (NH3) yN axFeS e0.5T e0.5 . The chemical composition of the high-Tc phase was determined to be (NH3)0.61 (4 )N a0.63 (5 )F e0.85S e0.55 (3 )T e0.44 (2 ) . The x-ray diffraction patterns of both phases show that a larger lattice constant c (i.e., FeS e0.5T e0.5 plane spacing) produces a higher Tc. This behavior is the same as that of metal-doped FeSe, suggesting that improved Fermi-surface nesting produces the higher Tc. The high-Tc phase converted to the low-Tc phase within several days, indicating that it is a metastable phase. The temperature dependence of resistance for both phases was recorded at different magnetic fields, and the critical fields were determined for both phases. Finally, the Tc versus c phase diagram was prepared for the metal-doped FeS e0.5T e0.5 , which is similar to that of metal-doped FeSe, although the Tc is lower.

  20. Special Quasirandom Structures to Study the (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 Random Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-31

    After drying for 20 h, the powders were calcined at 950 ◦C for 5 h. The composition and phase purity of the specimen were verified using a Siemens Model...taken for the calcined (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 powder. The pattern indicates a single perovskite phase and is indexed based on the primitive cubic cell. 024105

  1. Solid state synthesis and characterization of bulk FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onar, K.; Yakinci, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    FeTe0.5Se0.5 polycrystalline superconductor samples were synthesized by solid- state reaction method at different heating temperatures. The morphological and structural characterization of FeTe0 5Se0.5 samples were carried out by X-rays Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The electrical, magnetic and thermal transport properties were investigated up to 8 T by using physical property measurement system. The results reveal that the sensitivity of electrical and magnetic properties strongly depends on the heat treatment cycles. The upper critical field, Hc2(0), was determined with the magnetic field parallel to the sample surface. It gives a maximum value of 36.3 T. The lower critical field, Hc1(T), was obtained as 210, 140 and 70 Oe at 5, 8 and 12 K, respectively. The coherence length, ξ, at the zero field, was calculated to be 1.94 nm and suggested a transparent intergrain boundaries peculiarity. The μ0Hc2(0)/kBTc rate shows higher value (3.36 T/K) than the Pauli limit (1.84 T/K) which suggests unconventional nature of superconductivity for the polycrystalline FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconducting samples.

  2. Solid-State Synthesis and Thermoelectric Properties of Mg2Si0.5Ge0.5Sb m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Sin-Wook; Shin, Dong-Kil; Ur, Soon-Chul; Kim, Il-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Mg2Si0.5Ge0.5Sb m ( m = 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.03) solid solutions were synthesized by a solid-state reaction and consolidated by hot pressing. All specimens showed n-type conduction, and carrier concentrations were increased from 4.0 × 1017 cm-3 to 3.2 × 1021 cm-3 by Sb doping. The electrical conductivity remarkably increased with increasing Sb doping content, but the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient was reduced as the Sb doping content increased, which was attributed to the increased carrier concentration. The lowest thermal conductivity was 2.3 W/mK for Mg2Si0.5Ge0.5Sb0.02 at 723 K, and the maximum ZT value of 0.56 was obtained for Mg2Si0.5Ge0.5Sb0.02 at 823 K.

  3. Developing movement efficiency between 7 and 9 years of age.

    PubMed

    Bosga-Stork, Ida Maria; Bosga, Jurjen; Meulenbroek R, G J

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the movement efficiency of typically developing children between 7 and 9 years of age by scrutinizing their movement amplitudes and frequencies as they settled into a loop-writing task in which both parameters were prescribed. It was hypothesized that during the first three grades at primary school children would show increasing efficiency in exploiting the inverse relationship between movement amplitude and frequency when adjusting their movement errors. Whereas a clear developmental trend showed increasing efficiency with respect to the way in which the primary school children met the amplitude constraints, a more variable pattern was found for the age-dependent adjustments to the frequency requirements. At the level of parameter-error corrections from one cycle to the next, a marginal developmental trend was observed. Results are discussed in terms of contrasting effects between educational targets and movement-efficiency principles.

  4. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along (hindsight bias). Here we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the lifespan. 194 participants aged 3 to 95 years completed three tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age groups demonstrated hindsight bias on all three tasks; however, preschoolers and the elderly exhibited more bias than older children and younger adults. Multinomial processing tree analyses of these data revealed that preschoolers’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them substituting the correct answer for their original answer in their recall (a qualitative error). Conversely, older adults’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them forgetting their original answer and recalling an answer closer to, but not equal to, the correct answer (a quantitative error). We discuss these findings in relation to mechanisms of memory, perspective-taking, theory of mind, and executive function. PMID:21299327

  5. Immunoglobulin patterns in humans over 95 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Radl, J; Sepers, J M; Skvaril, F; Morell, A; Hijmans, W

    1975-01-01

    Immunoglobulin patterns were investigated in seventy-three volunteers older than 95 years. An idiopathic paraproteinaemia was found in 19% of the cases. A restriction of heterogeneity and an imbalance in the kappa/lambda ratio of the immunoglobulins was seen in a number of other sera. Determinations of immunoglobulin levels in sera of individuals without paraproteinaemia showed an increase in IgA and IgG. The quantitations of the IgG subclasses demonstrated that an increase in the IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses is responsible for the elevated level of the IgG. The variation in the immunoglobulin levels increased significantly with age of IgM and for the three major IgG subclasses. No abnormalities were found in the urine or in the mixed saliva. These results indicate that selective changes in the extent of the antibody-immunoglobulin repertoire characterize the immunoglobulin pattern of ageing man. PMID:1212818

  6. Structural transformations in high-capacity Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2 cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Ruther, Rose E.; Pandian, Amaresh Samuthira; Yan, Pengfei; ...

    2017-03-09

    Cathode materials that can cycle >1 Li+ per transition metal are of substantial interest for increasing the overall energy density of lithium-ion batteries. Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2 has a very high theoretical capacity of ~500 mAh/g assuming both Li+ ions are cycled reversibly. The Cu2+/3+ and Ni2+/3+/4+ redox couples are also at high voltage, which could further boost the energy density of this system. Despite such promise, Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2 undergoes irreversible phase changes during charge (delithiation) that result in large first-cycle irreversible loss and poor long-term cycling stability. Oxygen evolves before the Cu2+/3+ or Ni3+/4+ transitions are accessed. In this contribution, X-ray diffraction, transmissionmore » electron microscopy (TEM), and transmission X-ray microscopy combined with X-ray absorption near edge structure (TXM–XANES) are used to follow the chemical and structural changes that occur in Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2 during electrochemical cycling. Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2 is a solid solution of orthorhombic Li2CuO2 and Li2NiO2, but the structural changes more closely mimic the changes that the Li2NiO2 endmember undergoes. Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2 loses long-range order during charge, but TEM analysis provides clear evidence of particle exfoliation and the transformation from orthorhombic to a partially layered structure. Linear combination fitting and principal component analysis of TXM–XANES are used to map the different phases that emerge during cycling ex situ and in situ. Lastly, significant changes in the XANES at the Cu and Ni K-edges correlate with the onset of oxygen evolution.« less

  7. Prostate Brachytherapy in Men {>=}75 Years of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S. Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Adamovich, Edward

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged {>=}75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged {>=}75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients.

  8. In0.5Ga0.5As self-assembled quantum dots on GaP/Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuncheng

    This thesis focuses on demonstrating monolithic integration of III-V optoelectronic devices with Si by means of GaP on Si templates. Though high-quality epitaxial GaP on Si has been developed, GaP itself is not useful for most photonic applications due to its indirect bandgap. Historically, deep level impurities have allowed the realization of GaP light emitting diodes (LEDs), but these devices had low efficiency and the gain was insufficient for laser action. The lattice matched dilute nitride material Ga(NAsP) is an option for direct bandgap material on GaP, but N-related point defects make the material challenging to grow. InxGa1--xAs self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs) grown on GaP offer another path to integration of direct-bandgap III-V material onto Si. The use of InxGa 1--xAs allows access to a wide range of bulk bandgaps (1.42-0.36 eV for x=0-1) and the potential for great flexibility in emission wavelength from visible to near-infrared. While chip-to-chip optical communication remains a goal, a range of sensing applications could also benefit from the direction integration of Si electronics with light sources. Sample growth was carried out by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using conditions similar to those used for the well-known case of InAs/GaAs SAQDs. SAQD formation was through Stranski--Krastanov (S-K) growth mode, as evidenced by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cross-sectional transmission microscopy (XTEM) with several two-beam conditions confirmed that both the SAQDs and the GaP cap layer were free of dislocations. Intense photoluminescence was visible from the quantum dots at both 80 K and room temperature to the unaided eye in ambient lighting. The photoluminescence results also showed that emission energy can be controlled by varying the In0.5Ga0.5As deposition thickness. The commercial availability of high-quality GaP/Si templates enabled research on In0.5Ga0.5As

  9. Incidence and Burden of Pertussis Among Infants Less Than 1 Year of Age

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Carolyn K.; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Becker, Laura K.; Buikema, Ami; Tan, Tina Q.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Infant-specific pertussis data, especially among neonates, are limited and variable. This study (NCT01890850) provides overall and age-specific pertussis incidence and associated health care utilization and costs among commercially insured infants in the US. Methods: Nearly 1.2 million infants born from 2005 to 2010 with commercial health plan coverage were followed during their first 12 months of life. Pertussis cases were identified from medical claims (International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification code: 033.0, 033.9, 484.3), and incidence rates were calculated. Each pertussis case was then matched to 10 comparators, so pertussis-related health care utilization and costs before and after the index date could be assessed. Results: The overall pertussis incidence rate among infants <12 months of age was 117.7/100,000 person-years; infants 3 months of age had the highest incidence rate (247.7/100,000 person-years). Infants diagnosed with pertussis were significantly more likely to have prior diagnoses of upper respiratory infection, cough and wheezing-related illnesses than comparators (P < 0.001). Pertussis cases were more likely to be hospitalized within 14 days after the index date (31.8% vs. 0.5%; P < 0.001) and their adjusted health care costs during follow-up were 2.82 times higher than comparators (P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval: 2.08–3.81). The incremental cost of pertussis during the 12-month follow-up period averaged $8271 (P < 0.001). The average incremental cost varied substantially by age, ranging from $18,781 (P < 0.001) to $3772 (P = 0.02) among infants 1 month and 7–12 months of age, respectively. Conclusions: The health burden of pertussis, particularly in the youngest infants, remains substantial, highlighting the need to intensify efforts to protect this most vulnerable population. PMID:27902648

  10. Prader-Willi Syndrome after age 15 years.

    PubMed Central

    Laurance, B M; Brito, A; Wilkinson, J

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-four patients, all of them over 15 years, with the Prader-Willi syndrome are described. Obesity, often extreme, associated with an insatiable appetite, was their principal handicap and this was made worse by educational subnormality and hypogonadism. Three of the them developed diabetes. Each attended a special school or an adult training centre. Although most of them were of short stature and had scoliosis, 2 were tall but they even more severely mentally retarded than is usually the case. Nine other patients died aged between 3 and 23 years. The most common cause of death was cor pulmonale. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7212756

  11. [Lumbar discal hernia after 65 years of age].

    PubMed

    Brunon, J; Duthel, R; Ollier, J; Riffat, G

    1984-01-01

    The authors make a retrospective study of a series of 200 patients who had been surgically treated, within a period of 26 months, for a lumbar discal pathology. Twenty of these (20%) were over 65 years old. A similar study was carried out in a rheumatological unit over a period of three years, and has included 266 patients, 21 of whom (7,8%) were older than 65. The comparison of both these series permits us to make some considerations concerning the frequency of this pathology after the age of 65, its clinical presentation and its treatment, which, as for the younger adult, must be surgical when the correct treatment fails and when a complication appears.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of (Bi{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}) (Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}) O{sub 3} ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Parida, B.N.; Das, Piyush R.; Padhee, R.; Suara, D.; Mishra, A.; Rout, J.; Choudhary, R.N.P.

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Temperature variation of (a) dielectric constant (b) dielectric loss of the sample. - Highlights: • The high values of dielectric permittivity and low value of tangent loss. • It used for microwave applications. • The impedance and dielectric relaxation in the material is non exponential and non Debye-type. • Its ac conductivity obeys Jonscher universal power law. - Abstract: The polycrystalline sample of (Bi{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}) (Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}) O{sub 3} (BF–BT) was prepared by a standard mixed oxide method. Analysis of room temperature XRD pattern and Raman/FTIR spectra of the compound does not exhibit any change in its crystal structure of BaTiO{sub 3} on addition of BiFeO{sub 3} in equal ratio. The surface morphology of the gold-plated sintered pellet sample recorded by SEM (scanning electron microscope) exhibits a uniform distribution of grains with less porosity. Detailed studies of nature and quantity of variation of dielectric constant, tangent loss, and polarization with temperature and frequency indicate the existence of ferroelectric phase transition at high-temperature. There is a low-temperature anti-ferromagnetic phase transition below 375 °C in the material. Detailed studies of electrical properties (impedance, modulus, etc.) of the material confirmed a strong correlation between micro-structure and properties.

  13. Tacrolimus ointment: utilization patterns in children under age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Housman, Tamara Salam; Norton, Amy B; Feldman, Steven R; Fleischer, Alan B; Simpson, Eric L; Hanifin, Jon M; Antaya, Richard J

    2004-07-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common eczematous skin condition; as many as 10-17 percent of all children are affected, and 35-60 percent of affected patients manifest symptoms manifest during the first year of life. Treatment principles for AD in young children involve conservative measures such as avoidance of hot water and environmental irritants, combined with liberal use of emollients after bathing. Low potency topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the current standard of therapy for AD in young children, reserving mid- and high-potency TCS for severe disease. However, complications of long-term use of TCS include skin atrophy, stria formation, telangiectasia, hypopigmentation, secondary infections, steroid acne, allergic contact dermatitis, and miliaria. The pediatric population is also at increased risk for systemic absorption because of their high ratio of skin surface to body mass. Systemic absorption may result in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression and ultimately growth retardation. Although most topical and systemic corticosteroids are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in children less than 2 years of age, conservative treatment often fails in this age group and frequently patients are treated with TCS, antibiotics, and antihistamines.

  14. Excess Conductivity Analysis of (Cu0.5Tl0.5)-1223 Substituted by Pr and La

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Aly, A. I.; Awad, R.; Kamal, M.; Anas, M.

    2011-05-01

    Series of superconducting samples of type Cu0.5Tl0,5 Ba2Ca2- y R y Cu3O10- δ , where R=Pr and La with 0≤ y≤0.20, were prepared in a sealed quartz tube via a single-step solid-state reaction technique. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and electron dispersive X-ray (EDX). XRD studies indicated that the tetragonal structure of (Cu0.5Tl0.5)-1223 phase does not change by Pr or La-substitutions whereas the lattice parameters a and c do. The elemental compositions analysis, determined from EDX, indicated that both Pr and La were successfully introduced into the microstructure of (Cu0.5Tl0.5)-1223 phase. The electrical resistivity ρ( T) was measured as a function of temperature using conventional dc four-probe technique. The fluctuation conductivity Δ σ, above the superconducting transition temperature T c, was analyzed as a function of temperature using Aslamazov and Larkin model. It exhibits four different fluctuation regions namely critical (cr), three-dimensional (3D), two-dimensional (2D), and short-wave (sw). The zero-temperature coherence length, effective layer thickness of the two-dimensional system and inter-layer coupling strength were estimated as a function of the substitution-content y. Furthermore, the thermodynamics critical field, lower critical magnetic field, upper critical magnetic field, critical current density and Fermi energy were calculated from the Ginzburg number. The data indicated that both Pr and La-substitutions have quite similar behaviors.

  15. Radiation hardness of Ga0.5In0.5 P/GaAs tandem solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Sarah R.; Olson, J. M.; Bertness, K. A.; Friedman, D. J.; Kibbler, A.; Cavicchi, B. T.; Krut, D. D.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation hardness of a two-junction monolithic Ga sub 0.5 In sub 0.5 P/GaAs cell with tunnel junction interconnect was investigated. Related single junction cells were also studied to identify the origins of the radiation losses. The optimal design of the cell is discussed. The air mass efficiency of an optimized tandem cell after irradiation with 10(exp 15) cm (-2) 1 MeV electrons is estimated to be 20 percent using currently available technology.

  16. Temperature- and magnetic-field-induced magnetization reversal in perovskite YFe0.5Cr0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jinhua; Sui, Yu; Zhang, Xingquan; Su, Yantao; Wang, Xianjie; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Ruibin; Wang, Yang; Liu, Wanfa; Tang, Jinke

    2011-05-01

    Perovskite YFe0.5Cr0.5O3 exhibits magnetization reversal at low applied fields due to the competition between the single ion magnetic anisotropy and the antisymmetric Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. Below a compensation temperature (Tcomp), a tunable bipolar switching of magnetization is demonstrated by changing the magnitude of the field while keeping it in the same direction. The present compound also displays both normal and inverse magnetocaloric effects above and below 260 K, respectively. These phenomena coexisting in a single magnetic system can be tuned in a predictable manner and have potential applications in electromagnetic devices.

  17. Photogalvanic effects for interband transition in p-Si0.5Ge0.5/Si multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C. M.; Cho, K. S.; Chen, Y. F.; Peng, Y. H.; Chiu, C. W.; Kuan, C. H.

    2007-12-01

    Circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) and linear photogalvanic effect for interband transition have been observed simultaneously in Si0.5Ge0.5/Si multiple quantum wells. The signature of the CPGE is evidenced by the change of its sign upon reversing the radiation helicity. It is found that the observed CPGE photocurrent is an order of magnitude greater than that obtained for intersubband transition. The dependences of the CPGE on the angle of incidence and the excitation intensities can be well interpreted based on its characteristics. The large signal of spin generation observed here at room temperature should be very useful for the realization of practical application of spintronics.

  18. Choline Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Hughes, Michael D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999–2002 to 2008–2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  19. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control.

  20. Carotid artery surgery in patients over 70 years of age.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, A C; Kieffer, E; Tricot, J F; Maraval, M; Lethoai, H; Benhamou, M; Boespflug, O; Natali, J

    1981-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1979, 934 patients underwent 1,057 operations for extracranial carotid stenosis at this institute, and over a recent 30-month period 463 patients underwent 511 operations of this type. This number is equal to the total of operations performed during the years 1965-1976. The increase in the frequency of carotid artery surgery has been more marked in patients of over 70 years. The percentage of elderly patients has increased from 17.5% to 27% in the recent period. In the latter group of 511 operations, results were good in 93.17% of cases, while there was a mortality rate of 1.95% (1% of which were directly related to the surgery), in 1.95% the neurologic condition deteriorated and in 3.13% there was no change. In the first period the mortality rate for patients over 70 years of age was 7.69%. In the second it was 3.27% (1.63% of which were due to non-neurologic causes), 4.09% deteriorated, in 2.18% there was no change and good results were obtained in 90.46%.

  1. Li(V0.5Ti0.5)S2 as a 1 V lithium intercalation electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Steve J.; Wang, Da; Armstrong, A. Robert; Bruce, Peter G.

    2016-03-01

    Graphite, the dominant anode in rechargeable lithium batteries, operates at ~0.1 V versus Li+/Li and can result in lithium plating on the graphite surface, raising safety concerns. Titanates, for example, Li4Ti5O12, intercalate lithium at~1.6 V versus Li+/Li, avoiding problematic lithium plating at the expense of reduced cell voltage. There is interest in 1 V anodes, as this voltage is sufficiently high to avoid lithium plating while not significantly reducing cell potential. The sulfides, LiVS2 and LiTiS2, have been investigated as possible 1 V intercalation electrodes but suffer from capacity fading, large 1st cycle irreversible capacity or polarization. Here we report that the 50/50 solid solution, Li1+x(V0.5Ti0.5)S2, delivers a reversible capacity to store charge of 220 mAhg-1 (at 0.9 V), 99% of theoretical, at a rate of C/2, retaining 205 mAhg-1 at C-rate (92% of theoretical). Rate capability is excellent with 200 mAhg-1 at 3C. C-rate is discharge in 1 h. Polarization is low, 100 mV at C/2. To the best of our knowledge, the properties/performances of Li(V0.5Ti0.5)S2 exceed all previous 1 V electrodes.

  2. Investigation of the origin of glassiness in La0.5Sr0.5CoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Kaustuv; Elizabeth, Suja; Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2013-05-01

    A comprehensive magnetic study has been carried out on the two sets of La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 samples with a view to understand the origin of low temperature glassiness in the ferromagnetic state. The samples prepared by the conventional solid-state synthesis method show a low temperature shoulder in both dc magnetization as well as in the ac susceptibility measurements, which exhibit characteristics of glassiness such as the frequency dependence and memory effect. These observations suggest the existence of a distinct low temperature cluster-glass like phase within dominant ferromagnetic phase. But, once the same sample is properly homogenized by repeated grinding and annealing process, the low temperature glassy phase disappears, and it shows a pure ferromagnetic behavior. Our comparative study clearly reveals that the reentrant spin-glass like nature is not intrinsic to La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 system, in fact this is an outcome of the compositional inhomogeneity.

  3. Nanostructural and electrical properties of LA0.5SR0.5CoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahari, A.; Ramzannezhad, A.; Shajari, D.; Najafi, H.

    2017-02-01

    A group of ABO3 perovskite-type oxides is currently under intensive studies for their potential as chemical sensing, ferroelectric memories, gas separation and computer devices. This group includes LaxSr1‑xCoO3 (LSCO). In the present work, we have synthesized LSCO samples by using the sol-gel method and studied their nano structural and electrical properties with using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Current density-voltage (J-V) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. We synthesized nanoparticles with diameters between 50 and 100 nm by calcination of the pulverized gel powders, and then studied its structure. The band gap characteristics of the La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 structure were also analyzed. The obtained results show that La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 with favorable carrier mobility ( ˜ 1.7 × 10‑2 cm2v‑2s‑1) and dielectric constant (16) exhibits a variety of interesting physical properties which include ferroelectric, dielectric, pyroelectric and piezoelectric behavior.

  4. Spin-reorientation and weak ferromagnetism in antiferromagnetic TbMn0.5Fe0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhalil, Hariharan; Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Sanathkumar, R.; Strydom, André M.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2015-05-01

    Orthorhombic single crystals of TbMn0.5Fe0.5O3 are found to exhibit spin-reorientation, magnetization reversal, and weak ferromagnetism. Strong anisotropy effects are evident in the temperature dependent magnetization measurements along the three crystallographic axes a, b, and c. A broad magnetic transition is visible at TN Fe / Mn = 286 K due to paramagnetic to AxGyCz ordering. A sharp transition is observed at TS R Fe / Mn = 28 K , which is pronounced along c axis in the form of a sharp jump in magnetization where the spins reorient to GxAyFz configuration. The negative magnetization observed below TS R Fe / Mn along c axis is explained in terms of domain wall pinning. A component of weak ferromagnetism is observed in field-scans along c-axis but below 28 K. Field-induced steps-like transitions are observed in hysteresis measurement along b axis below 28 K. It is noted that no sign of Tb-order is discernible down to 2 K. TbMn0.5Fe0.5O3 could be highlighted as a potential candidate to evaluate its magneto-dielectric effects across the magnetic transitions.

  5. Dielectric Properties in the Microwave Range of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lu; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    Dielectric properties of a potassium sodium niobate (KNN) system in the microwave range up to GHz have rarely been studied. Since K0.5Na0.5NbO3 is the most common and typical type of KNN materials, non-doped K0.5Na0.5 NbO3 ceramics were synthesized at different temperatures (1080°C, 1090°C, 1100°C, and 1110°C) by a traditional solid reaction method for further characterization and analysis. The ceramics were in perovskite phase with orthorhombic symmetry. A small quantity of second phase was found in the 1110°C sintered specimen, which resulted from the volatilization of alkali oxides as the temperature increased. The complex permittivity was measured for the first time in the microwave range (8.2-12.4 GHz) and in the temperature range from 100°C to 220°C, and the effects of annealing on the dielectric properties were studied. The results indicate that the complex permittivity of KNN ceramics over the microwave range increases mainly due to high bulk density and the additional dielectric contributions of oxygen vacancies at high temperature.

  6. Critical behavior and spontaneous magnetization estimation in La0.5Sr0.5MnO3 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazzez, M.; Ihzaz, N.; Boudard, M.; Oumezzine, M.

    2015-07-01

    We report the critical behavior in La0.5Sr0.5MnO3 perovskite oxide manganite using methods including modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher plot, and critical isotherm analysis. By means of the above techniques around the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic (FM-PM) transition, the magnetic data analyzed shows the sample attending the second-order magnetic phase transition with the critical parameters β = 0.553±0.020 with TC=352.02±0.63 K (from the spontaneous magnetization MS(T) below TC) and γ =1.169±0.058 with TC=352.49±0.85 K (from the inverse initial susceptibility χ 0 - 1 (T) above TC). The exponent δ =3,216 independently obtained from the critical magnetization isotherm satisfies the Widom scaling relation δ = 1 + β / γ . Moreover, the critical exponents are in the theoretically expected values for mean-field interaction model rather than the other universal theory and also follow the single scaling equation of M (H , ε)ε-β =f± (H /ε β + γ) . Furthermore, to estimate the spontaneous magnetization of La0.5Sr0.5MnO3 perovskite, we used the magnetic entropy change (-ΔSM), obtained from isothermal magnetization. The results of this approach are compared to results obtained from classical analysis using Arrott curves.

  7. Milk Consumption after Age 9 Years Does Not Predict Age at Menarche123

    PubMed Central

    Carwile, Jenny L; Willett, Walter C; Wang, Molin; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Frazier, A Lindsay; Michels, Karin B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular milk consumption during childhood and adolescence is recommended for bone health. However, milk consumption increases circulating insulin-like growth factor I concentrations, and may also accelerate puberty. Objective: We prospectively investigated the association between milk consumption and age at menarche in the Growing Up Today Study. Methods: Study participants were 5583 US girls who were premenarcheal and ages 9–14 y in 1996. Girls were followed through 2001, at which time 97% of noncensored participants had reported menarche. Frequency of milk and meat consumption was calculated with the use of annual youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaires from 1996–1998. Intake of related nutrients was also measured. Age at menarche was self-reported annually through 2001. Results: During follow-up, 5227 girls attained menarche over 10,555 accrued person-years. In models adjusted for dietary and sociodemographic predictors of menarche, frequency of milk consumption did not predict age at onset of menarche (for >3 glasses of milk/d vs. 1.1–4 glasses/wk, HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.04). After additional adjustment for body size, premenarcheal girls consuming >3 glasses of milk daily were 13% less likely (95% CI: −3%, −23%; P-trend: <0.01) to attain menarche in the next month relative to those consuming 1.1–4 glasses/wk. Neither total meat nor red meat consumption was associated with age at menarche. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that regular consumption of milk in girls aged ≥9 y is unlikely to substantially affect age at onset of menarche. Studies assessing associations between diet in early childhood and pubertal timing may be more illuminating. PMID:26136590

  8. Growth charts for Down's syndrome from birth to 18 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Myrelid, A; Gustafsson, J; Ollars, B; Anneren, G

    2002-01-01

    Background: Growth in children with Down's syndrome (DS) differs markedly from that of normal children. The use of DS specific growth charts is important for diagnosis of associated diseases, such as coeliac disease and hypothyroidism, which may further impair growth. Aims: To present Swedish DS specific growth charts. Methods: The growth charts are based on a combination of longitudinal and cross sectional data from 4832 examinations of 354 individuals with DS (203 males, 151 females), born in 1970–97. Results: Mean birth length was 48 cm in both sexes. Final height, 161.5 cm for males and 147.5 cm for females, was reached at relatively young ages, 16 and 15 years, respectively. Mean birth weight was 3.0 kg for boys and 2.9 kg for girls. A body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2 at 18 years of age was observed in 31% of the males and 36% of the females. Head growth was impaired, resulting in a SDS for head circumference of -0.5 (Swedish standard) at birth decreasing to -2.0 at 4 years of age. Conclusion: Despite growth retardation the difference in height between the sexes is the same as that found in healthy individuals. Even though puberty appears somewhat early, the charts show that DS individuals have a decreased pubertal growth rate. Our growth charts show that European boys with DS are taller than corresponding American boys, whereas European girls with DS, although being lighter, have similar height to corresponding American girls. PMID:12138052

  9. Structural state of relaxor ferroelectrics PbSc0.5Ta0.5O3 and PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 at high pressures up to 30 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, B. J.; Waeselmann, N.; Mihailova, B.; Angel, R. J.; Ederer, C.; Paulmann, C.; Gospodinov, M.; Friedrich, A.; Bismayer, U.

    2011-11-01

    The pressure-induced structural changes in perovskite-type (ABO3) Pb-based relaxor ferroelectrics are studied on the basis of in situ single-crystal synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering experiments on PbSc0.5Ta0.5O3 and PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 conducted under hydrostatic conditions up to 30 GPa. Complementary density functional theory calculations have been performed to compare the stability of various atomic configurations for both compounds at high pressures. By combining the experimental and theoretical results, the following sequence of structural transformations is proposed. At a characteristic pressure p1 the mesoscopic polar order is violated and a local antipolar order of Pb atoms as well as quasidynamical long-range order of antiphase octahedral tilts is developed. These structural changes facilitate the occurrence of a continuous phase transition at pc1>p1 from cubic to a nonpolar rhombohedral structure comprising antiphase octahedral tilts of equal magnitude (a-a-a-). At a characteristic pressure p2>pc1 the octahedral tilts around the cubic [100], [010], and [001] directions become different from each other on the mesoscopic scale. The latter precedes a second phase transition at pc2, which involves long-range order of Pb antipolar displacements along cubic [uv0] directions and a compatible mixed tilt system (a+b-b-) or long-range ordered antiphase tilts with unequal magnitudes (a0b-b-) without Pb displacement ordering. The phase-transition pattern at pc2 depends on the fine-scale degree of chemical B-site order in the structure.

  10. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in Ni0.5Mn0.5-xSb x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, N. H.; Thanh, T. D.; Yen, N. H.; Thanh, P. T.; Dan, N. H.; Phan, T. L.

    2012-02-01

    Ni0.5Mn0.5- x Sb x ( x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) ingots fabricated by arc-melting high-pure metals have been studied to determine their structure and magnetic properties and to identify the magnetocaloric effect. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that the sample with x = 0.2 is close to a single phase in a cubic structure while the others have the secondary phases. This influences strongly the magnetic properties of Ni0.5Mn0.5- x Sb x . With increasing Sb content, the Curie temperature ( T C ) increases from ˜210 (for x = 0.1) to 435 K (for x = 0.4). Among the studied alloys, two samples, x = 0.2 and 0.3, have the greatest saturation magnetization values, which were recorded at 300 K. Under an applied field of 12.0 kOe, the maximum magnetic entropy changes are about 1.0 and 0.5 J.kg-1·K-1 for x = 0.2 and 0.3, respectively. Detailed analyses related to isothermal M-H curves in the vicinity of T C by using the modified Arrott method reveal that these samples undergo a second-order phase transition with critical exponents of β = 0.40 ± 0.01 and γ = 1.27 ± 0.08 for x = 0.2 and of β = 0.69 ± 0.09 and γ = 0.85 ± 0.10 for x = 0.3. The differences in the critical parameters are likely related to the presence of Ni-related secondary phases.

  11. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  12. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  13. Naturalistic rapid deceleration data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Rogers, Kris; Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research manuscript "Predictors of older drivers' involvement in rapid deceleration events", which investigates potential predictors of older drivers' involvement in rapid deceleration events including measures of vision, cognitive function and driving confidence (A. Chevalier et al., 2016) [1]. In naturalistic driving studies such as this, when sample size is not large enough to allow crashes to be used to investigate driver safety, rapid deceleration events may be used as a surrogate safety measure. Naturalistic driving data were collected for up to 52 weeks from 182 volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Accelerometer data were recorded 32 times per second and Global Positioning System (GPS) data each second. To measure rapid deceleration behavior, rapid deceleration events (RDEs) were defined as having at least one data point at or above the deceleration threshold of 750 milli-g (7.35 m/s(2)). All events were constrained to a maximum 5 s duration. The dataset provided with this article contains 473 events, with a row per RDE. This article also contains information about data processing, treatment and quality control. The methods and data presented here may assist with planning and analysis of future studies into rapid deceleration behaviour using in-vehicle monitoring.

  14. Zr and Sn substituted (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 -based solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchuk, V. M.; Gusakova, L. G.; Kisel, N. G.; Kuzenko, D. V.; Spiridonov, N. A.; Sobolev, V. L.

    2016-02-01

    The paper attempts to investigate the phase formation of a Zr- and Sn-substituted [(Na0.5Bi0.5)0.80Ba0.20](Ti1-yBy)O3 system during its solid state synthesis. The synthesis was found to be a multi-step process associated with the formation of a number of intermediate phases which however depended on the compositions and sintering temperatures. Single phase solid solutions were obtained when the sintering temperature was increased to 1000 °C-1100 °C. Increase in the concentration of substituting ions, on the one hand, tends to linearly increase the crystal cell size whereas the tolerance factor, on the other hand, gets reduced bolstering the stability of anti-ferroelectric phase as compared to that of ferroelectric phase’.

  15. An In0.5Ga0.5N nanowire photoanode for harvesting deep visible light photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, S.; Woo, S. Y.; Vanka, S.; Botton, G. A.; Mi, Z.

    2016-07-01

    III-nitride semiconductors hold tremendous promise for realizing high efficiency photoelectrodes. However, previously reported InGaN photoelectrodes generally exhibit very low photocurrent densities, due to the presence of extensive defects, dislocations, and indium phase separation. Here, we show that In0.5Ga0.5N nanowires with nearly homogeneous indium distribution can be achieved by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Under AM1.5G one sun illumination, the InGaN nanowire photoanode exhibits a photocurrent density of 7.3 mA/cm2 at 1.2 V (vs. NHE) in 1M HBr. The incident-photon-to-current efficiency is above 10% at 650 nm, which is significantly higher than previously reported values of metal oxide photoelectrodes.

  16. Pressure-induced superconductivity in Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe2As2.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Georgiy M; Malone, Walter; Uhoya, Walter; Mitchell, Jonathan E; Vohra, Yogesh K; Wenger, Lowell E; Sefat, Athena S; Weir, S T

    2012-12-12

    High-pressure electrical resistance measurements have been performed on single crystal Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Fe(2)As(2) platelets to pressures of 16 GPa and temperatures down to 10 K using designer diamond anvils under quasi-hydrostatic conditions with an insulating steatite pressure medium. The resistance measurements show evidence of pressure-induced superconductivity with an onset transition temperature at ∼31 K and zero resistance at ∼22 K for a pressure of 3.3 GPa. The transition temperature decreases gradually with increasing pressure before completely disappearing for pressures above 12 GPa. The present results provide experimental evidence that a solid solution of two 122-type materials, i.e., Ba(1-x)Sr(x)Fe(2)As(2) (0 < x < 1), can also exhibit superconductivity under high pressure.

  17. Ferroelectricity and ferroelectric resistive switching in sputtered Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhen; Xiao, Juanxiu; Wang, Jingxian; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Jinyu; Liu, Ziyan; Dong, Zhili; Wang, John; Chen, Jingsheng

    2016-06-01

    Ferroelectric properties and ferroelectric resistive switching (FE-RS) of sputtered Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 (HZO) thin films were investigated. The HZO films with the orthorhombic phase were obtained without capping or post-deposition annealing. Ferroelectricity was demonstrated by polarization-voltage (P-V) hysteresis loops measured in a positive-up negative-down manner and piezoresponse force microscopy. However, defects such as oxygen vacancies caused the films to become leaky. The observed ferroelectricity and semiconducting characteristics led to the FE-RS effect. The FE-RS effect may be explained by a polarization modulated trap-assisted tunneling model. Our study not only provides a facile route to develop ferroelectric HfO2-based thin films but also explores their potential applications in FE-RS memories.

  18. Exchange bias in a mixed metal oxide based magnetocaloric compound YFe0.5Cr0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mohit K.; Singh, Karan; Mukherjee, K.

    2016-09-01

    We report a detailed investigation of magnetization, magnetocaloric effect and exchange bias studies on a mixed metal oxide YFe0.5Cr0.5O3 belonging to perovskite family. Our results reveal that the compound is in canted magnetic state (CMS) where ferromagnetic correlations are present in an antiferromagnetic state. Magnetic entropy change of this compound follows a power law (∆SM∼Hm) dependence of magnetic field. In this compound, inverse magnetocaloric effect (IMCE) is observed below 260 K while conventional magnetocaloric effect (CMCE) above it. The exponent 'm' is found to be independent of temperature and field only in the IMCE region. Investigation of temperature and magnetic field dependence studies of exchange bias, reveal a competition between effective Zeeman energy of the ferromagnetic regions and anisotropic exchange energy at the interface between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic regions. Variation of exchange bias due to temperature and field cycling is also investigated.

  19. Sinterability studies on K 0.5Na 0.5NbO 3 using laser as energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaoyong; Dittmar, Anne; Melcher, Jörg; Heinrich, Jürgen G.

    2010-08-01

    The sinterability of K 0.5Na 0.5NbO 3 (KNN) ceramics by a laser beam has been investigated in the present research. A 100 W CO 2 laser with a beam diameter of 0.6 mm has been used to sinter the KNN specimens prepared on a uniaxial pressing machine. The relations between laser power and thickness of densified layer, crystallographic structures and phase compositions have been studied. A comparison has been made between laser and furnace sintered KNN samples according to the SEM, XRD and XRF results. The possibility of KNN used for the layer-wise laser direct sintering 3D components has been confirmed in this paper.

  20. Synthesis and crystal structure of Bi6(Bi0.5Cu0.5)V2O15+y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Uma, S.

    2015-10-01

    The structure of the oxide with composition Bi6(Bi0.5Cu0.5)V2O15+y has been solved based on single crystal X-ray diffraction and is found to be monoclinic (S. G. I2), a=11.276(1) Å, b=5.4513(2) Å, c=11.055(3) Å, β=96.70°(1). The crystal was twinned by 180° rotoinversion about [ 1 bar 0 1] in the direct lattice as found in the the phosphates, Bi6TiP2O16 and Bi6+xM1-xP2O15+y (M=Mn, Fe and Ni), wherein chains of edge sharing (OBi4) tetrahedral units are connected by layers of VO4 tetrahedra and (Bi/Cu)O6-x (x=oxygen vacancies) octahedra.

  1. A magnetic atomic laminate from thin film synthesis: (Mo0.5Mn0.5)2GaC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkian, R.; Ingason, A. S.; Arnalds, U. B.; Magnus, F.; Lu, J.; Rosen, J.

    2015-07-01

    We present synthesis and characterization of a new magnetic atomic laminate: (Mo0.5Mn0.5)2GaC. High quality crystalline films were synthesized on MgO(111) substrates at a temperature of ˜530 °C. The films display a magnetic response, evaluated by vibrating sample magnetometry, in a temperature range 3-300 K and in a field up to 5 T. The response ranges from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic with change in temperature, with an acquired 5T-moment and remanent moment at 3 K of 0.66 and 0.35 μB per metal atom (Mo and Mn), respectively. The remanent moment and the coercive field (0.06 T) exceed all values reported to date for the family of magnetic laminates based on so called MAX phases.

  2. Tin pest in Sn-0.5 wt.% Cu lead-free solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariya, Yoshiharu; Williams, Naomi; Gagg, Colin; Plumbridge, William

    2001-06-01

    Tin pest (the product of the allotropic transformation of β-tin into α-tin at temperatures below 286 K) has been observed in a Sn-0.5 wt.% Cu solder alloy. Some 40 percent of the specimen surface was transformed into gray tin after aging at 255K for 1.5 years, and after 1.8 years, the proportion increased to about 70 percent. The degree of transformation in work-hardened areas is much higher than in other areas, suggesting residual stress might provide an additional driving force for the transformation into α-tin. The allotropic change results in a 26 percent increase in volume, and cracks are initiated to accommodate the changes in volume. Results indicate that tin pest could lead to total disintegration of micro-electronic solder joints. The tin-copper eutectic system may become a prominent lead-free solder, and tin pest could have major ramifications on service lifetime of electronic assemblies.

  3. ED cuts LWBS from 5% to 0.5%.

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    The leaders at King's Daughters Medical Center in Ashland, KY, firmly believe that solving ED throughput problems must be the responsibility of the entire hospital. They must be on the right track. A recent initiative has slashed the rate of patients who left without being seen from 5% to 0.5%. When beds are available in the ED, presenting patients are moved there immediately and then triaged by the bed nurse. Throughput assessments are conducted hourly so that problems can be addressed immediately. When the ED is in danger of becoming overwhelmed, all department leaders are paged and direct their units to take appropriate action.

  4. [Pneumococcal meningitis in children under 15 years of age in Misiones (Argentina). Sixteen year's epidemiological surveillance].

    PubMed

    Grenón, Sandra L; Salvi Grabulosa, Marcelo C; Regueira, Mabel M; Fossati, María S; von Specht, Martha H

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of pneumococcal meningitis surveillance conducted at the Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Posadas, Misiones (Argentina), before the conjugate vaccine was introduced into the national vaccination schedule. Between January 1994 and December 2009, 167 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis were diagnosed in children aged 1 month to 15 years. The attack rate/100,000 children ranged from 19.2 (1997) to 4.3 (2009), with a mean of 10.6 and a tendency to decrease (y=-0.689x+16.52). The number of cases per 100,000 children decreased from 146.6 to 34.8 and particularly involved the group of children aged 1 to 11 months (94/167, 56%). Thirty point seven percent (30.7%) (46/150) of the isolates were resistant to penicillin whereas 16.7% (25/150) were non-susceptible to cefotaxime. β-lactam resistance increased as from 1997 and began to decline in 2005. Nineteen serotypes were detected; type 14 was predominant and accounted for 32% (40/125). Eighty four point eight percent (84.8%) of the isolates were circumscribed to nine serotypes: 14, 5, 1, 7F, 18C, 6B, 9N, 9V and 4. Theoretical coverage for patients aged <2 years and >2 years was 84.1% (74/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 10-valent vaccine and 89.8 % (79/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 13-valent vaccine respectively. Penicillin resistance was restricted to 8 serotypes (14, 6B, 6A, 9V, 4, 23B, 19A1) and nonsusceptibility to cefotaxime was circumscribed to 3 serotypes (14, 9V and 1). This study will allow to evaluate the impact of the implementation of conjugate vaccines on our area.

  5. [Empathy in children aged 10 to 12 years].

    PubMed

    Garaigordobil, Maite; García de Galdeano, Patricia

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to determine whether there were differences in empathy according to gender; 2) to analyze the relationships between empathy and social behaviour, self-concept, emotional stability, social interaction strategies, capacity to analyze emotions, intelligence, and creativity; and 3) to identify predicting variables of empathy. The sample consisted of 139 participants aged 10 to 12 years. ANOVA results showed gender differences in empathy, with significantly higher scores in females. Pearson coefficients suggest that participants with high empathy showed many positive social behaviours (prosocial, assertive, consideration, self-control, leadership), few negative social behaviors (passive, aggressive, antisocial, withdrawal) and many assertive strategies of social interaction; that they were named as prosocial classmates; and that they had high self-concept, high capacity to analyze negative emotions, high emotional stability and many behaviors and traits of creative personality. Multiple regression analyses permitted identification of the following predicting variables of empathy: high level of prosocial behaviour, low level of aggressive behaviour and high self-concept.

  6. Alcohol use in women 65 years of age and older.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, C A; Doheny, M O; Estok, P J; Zeller, R A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depression, codependency, self-coherence, and alcohol use and health outcomes in women 65 years of age and older. The framework is Erikson's ego-development theory. A convenience sample of 238 women was obtained from women attending flu shot clinics. This cross-sectional field study used survey methodology. Measures included the Beck Depression Inventory, Codependency Assessment Tool, Self-Coherence Survey Form C, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Use Questionnaire, Self-Rated Health Tool, Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, Functional Ability Scale, Illness Prevention Screening Behaviors Checklist, and Sociodemographic Data. Results indicate a low consumption and little variation in use of alcohol. There were no significant associations between alcohol consumption and the dependent variables. Depression was significantly related to all the health outcomes; codependency was significantly related to all health outcomes except perceived quality of life; and self-coherence was significantly related to all health outcomes except illness prevention behavior. These findings have important implications for those providing care for older women.

  7. Mössbauer study of Cu0.5Fe0.5Cr2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ok, Hang Nam; Baek, Kyung Seon; Lee, Heung Soo; Kim, Chul Sung

    1990-01-01

    Cu0.5Fe0.05Cr2S4 has been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The crystal structure is found to be a cubic spinel with the lattice parameter a0=9.922 Å. The temperature dependence of both the magnetic hyperfine field and magnetization is explained by the Néel theory of ferrimagnetism using three exchange integrals: JFe-Cr/kB=-13.7 K, JFe-Fe/kB=-8.3 K, and JCr-Cr/kB=8.7 K.

  8. Upper critical field and AC-Susceptibility studies on FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zargar, Rayees A.; Pal, Anand; Hafiz, A. K.; Awana, V. P. S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study we present synthesis and characterization of FeTe0.5Se0.5 sample that has been prepared by solid state reaction route by encapsulation of stoichiometric high purity (5N) ingredients in an evacuated quartz tube at 750 °C. The resultant compound is crystallized in single phase tetragonal structure with space group P4/nmm, having lattice parameters a = 3.792(1) Å and c = 6.0081(3) Å. The studied compound is superconducting at below 13K in both magnetic and transport measurements. Further superconductivity is barely affected by external applied magnetic field, giving rise to upper critical field of above 180 Tesla at 0 K. The sample is studied extensively for AC susceptibility measurements in superconducting state. The AC drive field and frequency are varied from 1-13 Oe and 33-9999 Hz respectively. It is concluded that though the grain boundaries of this superconductor are mainly metallic the minor (undetectable in XRD) foreign phases and the role of porosity cannot be ruled out completely. This is because both frequency and amplitude affects slightly the superconductivity coupling temperature of the grains.

  9. Improved magnetic properties of microwave processed Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suneetha, T.; Kashyap, Subhash C.; Gupta, Hem C.

    2013-02-01

    Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles, first prepared by citrate precursor route, have been processed by two different methods to obtain polycrystalline samples. In one case the pressed pellets are processed in microwave H-field at 500 °C for different duration: 1, 3 and 5 min, and in another case the pellets are conventionally sintered at 500 °C for 180 min. The powder x-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the single cubic phase in the all samples. The scanning electron micrographs revealed the grain growth during microwave processing, with the particle size increasing to 1μm for the sample heated at 500 °C for 5 min, whereas the sintered samples had a particle size of ˜20 nm. A maximum saturation magnetization of 56 emu/g at room temperature was estimated by vibration sample magnetometer for this sample; where as conventional sintered sample has 24 emu/g. With microwave processing we can obtain microcrystalline samples with improved magnetization in a short span of 5 min.

  10. Study of Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamzin, A. S.; Nikam, D. S.; Pawar, S. H.

    2017-01-01

    The structural characteristics, magnetic properties, and processes of magnetic heating in an alternating magnetic field of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (cobalt-zinc ferrite, CZF) are studied to explore the possibilities of their application in medicine, namely, for magnetic hyperthermia treatment (the heating of particles with external alternating magnetic field). CZF magnetic nanoparticles were obtained by coprecipitation using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as a precipitating agent. Based on the data obtained by transmission electron microscopy in the transmission geometry, it is found that CZF magnetic nanoparticles have an almost spherical shape with an average particle size of 13 nm. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer studies showed that CZF magnetic nanoparticles are single-phase, and their structure corresponds to a cubic spinel structure. The saturation magnetization M s of CZF nanoparticles is measured at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The possibility of heating CZF magnetic nanoparticles with an external alternating magnetic field was studied using an induction heating system. The specific absorption rate is determined by applying an external alternating magnetic field in the range of 167.5 to 335.2 Oe at a fixed frequency of 265 kHz. It is found that the maximum amount of heat (114.98 W/g) is produced at a concentration of 5 mg/L under a field of 335.2 Oe.

  11. Exchange bias induced at a Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/Cr interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C. N. T.; Vick, A. J.; Inami, N.; Ono, K.; Frost, W.; Hirohata, A.

    2017-03-01

    In order to engineer the strength of an exchange bias in a cubic Heusler alloy layer, crystalline strain has been induced at a ferromagnet/antiferromagnet interface by their lattice mismatch in addition to the conventional interfacial exchange coupling between them. Such interfaces have been formed in (Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5(CFAS)/Cr)3 structures grown by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The magnetic and structural properties have been characterised to investigate the exchange interactions at the CFAS/Cr interfaces. Due to the interfacial lattice mismatch of 1.4%, the maximum offset of 18 Oe in a magnetisation curve has been measured for the case of a CFAS (2 nm)/Cr (0.9 nm) interface at 193 K. The half-metallic property of CFAS has been observed to remain unchanged, which agrees with the theoretical prediction by Culbert et al (2008 J. Appl. Phys. 103 07D707). Such a strain-induced exchange bias may provide insight of the interfacial interactions and may offer a wide flexibility in spintronic device design.

  12. Structural characteristics of thermally evaporated Cu0.5Ag0.5InSe2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullu, H. H.; Parlak, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, Cu0.5Ag0.5InSe2 (CAIS) thin film samples were prepared by thermal evaporation of Cu, Ag, InSe and Se evaporants sequentially on glass substrates. Following the deposition, annealing processes were applied at different temperatures. The as-grown and annealed CAIS samples were nearly stoichiometric in the detection limit of the compositional measurement. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that they were in polycrystalline structure with a preferred orientation along the (112) direction. Moreoever, the crystallinity of the films improved with increasing annealing temperature. According to the results of Raman measurements, the highest Raman intensity was found in the A1 mode which is directly proportional to the crystallinity of the samples. The surface properties of the thin films were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These results showed that there was a Se agglomeration on the deposited film surfaces and with annealing processes segregation effects were observed on the surface of the annealed samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were carried out to get information about surface and near-surface properties of the films. The results from the surface and depth surface analyses of the films were found to be in agreement with the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis.

  13. BaZr0.5Ti0.5O3 : Lead-free relaxor ferroelectric or dipolar glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipič, C.; Kutnjak, Z.; Pirc, R.; Canu, G.; Petzelt, J.

    2016-06-01

    Glassy freezing dynamics was investigated in BaZr0.5Ti0.5O3 (BZT50) ceramic samples by means of dielectric spectroscopy in the frequency range 0.001 Hz-1 MHz at temperatures 10

  14. Magnetic structure of the kagome mixed compound (Co0.5Ni0.5)3V2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, N.; Fuess, H.; Ehrenberg, H.; Ouladdiaf, B.; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J.; Hansen, T. C.; Wolf, Th; Meingast, C.; Zhang, Q.; Knafo, W.; Löhneysen, H. v.

    2008-06-01

    We report the magnetic structure of (Co0.5Ni0.5)3V2O8 (CNVO) deduced by single crystal neutron diffraction. This compound exhibits features which differ from that of its parent compounds, which are absolutely collinear along the a axis for Co3V2O8 (CVO) or exhibit magnetic moments predominantly in the a-b plane with small components along c in the case of Ni3V2O8 (NVO). The averaged magnetic moments of the statistically distributed Ni2+ and Co2+ ions in CNVO are oriented in the a-c plane and form loops of quasiferromagnetically coupled spins. These loops are connected along the a axis and separated along the c axis by cross-tie spins forming a quasiferromagnetic wave with the upper part of the respective neighbouring loops. The magnetic moments are sinusoidally modulated by the propagation vector k = (0.49,0,0) with an average amplitude of 1.59(1) μB for a magnetic ion on a cross-tie site and 1.60(1) μB for the spine site. In addition to neutron diffraction, specific heat and magnetization data, which confirm that the only magnetic phase transition above 1.8 K is the onset of antiferromagnetic order at TN = 7.4(1) K, are presented.

  15. Compositional inhomogeneityand segregation in (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Kepi; Tang, Jing; Chen, Yan

    2016-03-11

    The effects of the calcination temperature of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) powder on the sintering and piezoelectric properties of KNN ceramics have been investigated in this report. KNN powders are synthesized via the solid-state approach. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction characterizations indicate that the incomplete reaction at 700 °C and 750 °C calcination results in the compositional inhomogeneity of the K-rich and Na-rich phases while the orthorhombic single phase is obtained after calcination at 900 °C. During the sintering, the presence of the liquid K-rich phase due to the lower melting point has a significant impact on the densification, the abnormalmore » grain growth and the deteriorated piezoelectric properties. From the standpoint of piezoelectric properties, the optimal calcination temperature obtained for KNN ceramics calcined at this temperature is determined to be 800 °C, with piezoelectric constant d33=128.3 pC/N, planar electromechanical coupling coefficient kp=32.2%, mechanical quality factor Qm=88, and dielectric loss tan δ=2.1%.« less

  16. OTC Cough and Cold Products: Not for Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cold Products: Not For Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... and cold products for infants and children under 2 years of age? A. FDA strongly recommends that ...

  17. Primiparity at very advanced maternal age (≥ 45 years).

    PubMed

    Glasser, Saralee; Segev-Zahav, Aliza; Fortinsky, Paige; Gedal-Beer, Debby; Schiff, Eyal; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2011-06-30

    This study describes maternal and birth outcomes of primiparae aged ≥ 45. High rates of pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes were found, stressing that the personal risks and ramifications to the health system should be taken into account in establishing obstetric health policy regarding primiparity at advanced maternal age.

  18. The World Assembly on Aging--Three Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusberg, Charlotte

    1985-01-01

    Examines the world response to population aging. Discusses national, regional, and international activities, such as conferences, campaigns to promote an active aging, employment projects, and community alternatives to institutional care. Policy responses are considered, involving employment, income, health, housing, family, consumerism,…

  19. Compositional variations in In(0.5)Ga(0.5)N nanorods grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Cherns, D; Webster, R F; Novikov, S V; Foxon, C T; Fischer, A M; Ponce, F A; Haigh, S J

    2014-05-30

    The composition of InxGa1 - xN nanorods grown by molecular beam epitaxy with nominal x = 0.5 has been mapped by electron microscopy using Z-contrast imaging and x-ray microanalysis. This shows a coherent and highly strained core-shell structure with a near-atomically sharp boundary between a Ga-rich shell (x ∼ 0.3) and an In-rich core (x ∼ 0.7), which itself has In- and Ga-rich platelets alternating along the growth axis. It is proposed that the shell and core regions are lateral and vertical growth sectors, with the core structure determined by spinodal decomposition.

  20. Magnetic properties and specific heat of new spin glass Mn0.5Fe0.5PS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yoshiki; Arai, Atsuko; Takahashi, Yumiko; Takase, Kouichi; Sekizawa, Kazuko

    2003-05-01

    We have found spin glass phenomena in a layered Mn0.5Fe0.5PS3 compound and investigated its magnetic properties and specific heat. The temperature dependence of the zero field cooled (ZFC) magnetization along the easy axis, M∥ under dc applied field Ha below 1 kOe shows a cusp at Tg=32.6 K. The FC and ZFC curves measured at Ha below 1 kOe separate at almost the same temperature as Tg. For Ha larger than 1 kOe, the temperature at which FC and ZFC curves separate deviates from Tg and shifts toward lower temperature and the peak becomes broader. Magnetic hysteresis is still observed above 70 kOe at 2 K. The remarkable feature of this spin glass phase is that the spin freezing is not suppressed up to a rather high magnetic field compared with similar spin glass (Mn,Fe)TiO3. The cusp temperature of χ'(ω) does not show magnetic field amplitude dependence from 1 to 10 Oe and increases with an increase in frequency, obeying the Vogel-Fulcher rule. The temperature dependence of χ″(ω) shows two extra peaks at Tm1 and Tm2 below Tg. The time dependence of thermoremanent magnetization MTRM below Tg shows power law dependence. The value of the molar specific heat is about an order of magnitude larger than that of MnPS3 and FePS3 at 2 K. The T-linear term characteristic of spin glass is observed below about 10 K. The temperature dependence of the magnetic specific heat shows no anomaly at Tg, Tm1=9 and Tm2=16 K, and shows two peaks at Tc1=13 and Tc2=67 K.

  1. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

  2. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  3. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

  4. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  5. Impact of age on transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes: a comparison of patients aged ≤ 80 years versus patients > 80 years

    PubMed Central

    van der Kley, Frank; van Rosendael, Philippe J; Katsanos, Spyridon; Kamperidis, Vasileios; Marsan, Nina A; Karalis, Ioannis; de Weger, Arend; Palmen, Meindert; Bax, Jeroen J; Schalij, Martin J; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the procedural outcomes and the long-term survival of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and compare study results of patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old. Methods A total of 240 patients treated with TAVI were divided into two groups according to age ≤ 80 years (n = 105; 43.8%) and > 80 years (n = 135; 56.2%). The baseline characteristics and the procedural outcomes were compared between these two groups of patients. Results With the exception of peripheral artery disease and hypercholesterolemia, which were more frequently observed in the older age group, baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. Complication rates did not differ significantly between patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years. There were no differences in 30-day mortality rates between patients aged ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old (9.5% vs. 7.4%, respectively; P = 0.557). After a median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range: 16–42 months), 50 (47.6%) patients aged ≤ 80 years died compared to 57 (42%) deaths in the group of patients > 80 years old (P = 0.404). Conclusion The results of the present single center study showed that age did not significantly impact the outcomes of TAVI. PMID:26918010

  6. Acne and its management beyond the age of 35 years.

    PubMed

    Marks, Ronnie

    2004-01-01

    Although acne is not usually considered to be a disorder that affects the elderly, the disorder occurs sufficiently often in mature individuals to be noteworthy. The variety known as 'persisting acne' is, as its name suggests, ordinary acne that continues into adult life. 'Chin acne' is a curious type that occurs premenstrually in mature women, while 'sporadic acne' describes the sudden development of significant acne in later life for no apparent reason. When acne develops in an individual outside the usual susceptible age group precipitating causes such as exposure to comedogenic substances or drugs must be excluded. Similarly, endocrine causes such as androgen-secreting tumors and the administration of anabolic steroids need to be considered. All inflammatory processes are decreased in the elderly and this may be one reason for the persistence and intransigence of acne lesions in older age groups. The principles of treatment of acne in the elderly do not differ from those in other age groups, although the emphasis during counseling needs to focus on explanation and reassurance rather than prognosis. Topical retinoids and benzoyl peroxide easily irritate elderly skin, so azelaic acid and even sulfur preparations are preferable. Low-dose systemic isotretinoin is reported to be helpful to patients in this age group and is certainly worth a trial.

  7. The fate of cognition in very old age: six-year longitudinal findings in the Berlin Aging Study (BASE).

    PubMed

    Singer, Tania; Verhaeghen, Paul; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lindenberger, Ulman; Baltes, Paul B

    2003-06-01

    The authors report full-information longitudinal age gradients in 4 intellectual abilities on the basis of 6-year longitudinal changes in 132 individuals (mean age at T1 = 78.27, age range = 70-100) from the Berlin Aging Study. Relative to the cross-sectional parent sample (N = 516, mean age at T1 = 84.92 years), this sample was positively selected because of differential mortality and experimental attrition. Perceptual speed, memory, and fluency declined with age. In contrast, knowledge remained stable up to age 90, with evidence for decline thereafter. Age gradients were more negative in old old (n = 66, mean age at T1 = 83.04) than in old (n = 66, mean age at T1 = 73.77) participants. Rates of decline did not differ reliably between men and women or between participants with high versus low life-history status. They conclude that intellectual development after age 70 varies by distance to death, age, and intellectual ability domain.

  8. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  9. PSYCHOLOGY OF BOYS AT RISK: INDICATORS FROM 0-5.

    PubMed

    Golding, Paul; Fitzgerald, Hiram E

    2017-01-01

    In utero and during the first 5 years of life, boys face unique risks as a result of neurobiological and environmental factors. This introductory article to the Special Issue describes the background of this gender-specific inquiry and outlines some of those risks, drawing attention to the areas that will be covered in depth in the following contributions. We also describe the basis of this inquiry as the link between early life and the subsequent difficulties that adolescent boys and many young men face, and pay particular attention to the circumstances of young men of color and to the growing knowledge about the contributions of fathers to boys' development.

  10. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  11. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  12. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  13. Otitis Media and Language Development at 1 Year of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ina F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen 1-year-olds without otitis media were compared to 12 babies who were otitis positive. No significant differences were detected on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD) Receptive scale. However, the otitis-positive group exhibited lower SICD Expressive scores than the…

  14. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of direct reforming catalysts Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d (Ln = La, Nd, and Sm) for high temperature-operating solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keunsoo; Jeong, Jihoon; Azad, Abul K.; Jin, Sang Beom; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Chemical states of lanthanide doped perovskite for direct reforming anode catalysts, Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d (Ln = La, Nd, and Sm) have been studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) in order to determine the effects of various lanthanide substitution in complex perovskites for high temperature-operating solid oxide fuel cells (HT-SOFC). The charge state of lanthanide ions remained at 3+ and the binding energies of the lanthanide ions in Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d were located in a relatively lower range compared to those of conventional lanthanide oxides. Mn and Ti were regarded as charge compensation components in Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d; Mn was more influential than Ti. In the cases of substituting Nd and Sm into Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d, some portion of Ti showed metallic behavior; the specific Mn satellite peak indicating an electro-catalytic effect had occurred. Three types of oxygen species comprised of lattice oxygen, carbonate species, and adsorbed oxygen species were observed in Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d from the O 1s spectra; a high portion of lattice oxygen was observed in both Nd0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d (NSTM) and Sm0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d (SSTM). In various respects, NSTM and SSTM will be desirable reforming catalysts and anode candidates for high temperature solid oxide fuel cell.

  15. Differential Aging of Cerebral White Matter in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Seven-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrew R.; Völkle, Manuel C.; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effects models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age = 65.4, SD = 9.0 years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging. PMID:26481675

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for adult paternity among adolescent females ages 14 through 16 years.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita

    2010-11-01

    To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.

  17. Renal transplantation in children less than 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoni, G; Malekzadeh, M H; Pennisi, A J; Ettenger, R B; Uittenbogaart, C H; Fine, R N

    1980-01-01

    19 young children (less than 5 years old) have received 31 renal transplants from 4 live relatives and 27 cadaver donors. The 2-year allograft survival rate for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from the 4 live donors was 75 +/- 22% while for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from 15 cadaver donors was 26 +/- 11%. 10 children are currently surviving with functioning allographs (7 cadavers and 3 live relatives); 4 have died and 5 are undergoing dialysis after the loss of at least one allograft. Despite the poor allograft survival rate the fact that 7 children are surviving with cadaver allografts indicates that the lack of a living related donor should not prevent transplants in young children. PMID:7002060

  18. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D) by its very terms is available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though all...

  19. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D) by its very terms is available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though all...

  20. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D) by its very terms is available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though all...

  1. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D) by its very terms is available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though all...

  2. Update on herpes zoster vaccine: licensure for persons aged 50 through 59 years.

    PubMed

    2011-11-11

    Herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax, Merck & Co., Inc.) was licensed and recommended in 2006 for prevention of herpes zoster among adults aged 60 years and older. In March 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Zostavax in adults aged 50 through 59 years. In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) declined to recommend the vaccine for adults aged 50 through 59 years and reaffirmed its current recommendation that herpes zoster vaccine be routinely recommended for adults aged 60 years and older.

  3. Structure and photoluminescence properties of Ce0.5Zr0.5O2:Eu3+ nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Masakuni; Yoshimura, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi

    2017-01-01

    Eu3+-doped Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 nanocrystals were prepared by a hydrothermal method. The structural and optical properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and photoluminescence spectra. No luminescence was observed for Ce0.5Zr0.5O2, while Ce0.5Zr0.5O2:Eu3+ nanoparticles as-prepared and calcined at 400 °C showed emission due to Eu3+. The emission spectrum of the Eu3+ site shows that the total intensity decreases with increasing concentration of Eu3+ from 1 to 10% in Ce0.5Zr0.5O2. The broad band in the excitation spectrum of calcined Ce0.5Zr0.5O2:Eu3+ originates from the charge transfer (CT) transition. The local distortion and the asymmetry factor around the Eu3+ centers were discussed with the Raman and photoluminescence spectra. The present study provides both knowledge expected to lead to novel nanocrystal phosphor materials and a useful measure for analyzing the catalytic properties of nanocrystalline Ce0.5Zr0.5O2.

  4. A developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years is associated with increased schizotypal personality at age 23 years.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Melissa; Raine, Adrian; Gao, Yu; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2011-11-01

    Although allostatic load has been investigated in mood and anxiety disorders, no prior study has investigated developmental change in allostatic load as a precursor to schizotypal personality. This study employed a multilevel developmental framework to examine whether the development of increased allostatic load, as indicated by impaired sympathetic nervous system habituation from ages 3 to 11 years, predisposes to schizotypal personality at age 23 years. Electrodermal activity to six aversive tones was recorded in 995 subjects at age 3 years and again at 11 years. Habituation slopes at both ages were used to create groups who showed a developmental increase in habituation (decreased allostatic load), and those who showed a developmental decrease in habituation (increased allostatic load). Children who showed a developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years had higher levels of schizotypal personality at 23 years. A breakdown of total schizotypy scores demonstrated specificity of findings to cognitive-perceptual features of schizotypy. Findings are the first to document a developmental abnormality in allostasis in relation to adult schizotypal personality. The relative failure to develop normal habituation to repeated stressors throughout childhood is hypothesized to result in an accumulation of allostatic load and consequently increased positive symptom schizotypy in adulthood.

  5. Hearing impairment: a population study of age at diagnosis, severity, and language outcomes at 7–8 years

    PubMed Central

    Wake, M; Poulakis, Z; Hughes, E; Carey-Sargeant, C; Rickards, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: Better language outcomes are reported for preschool children with hearing impairment (HI) diagnosed very early, irrespective of severity. However, population studies of older children are required to substantiate longer term benefits of early detection. Aims: To study impact of age of diagnosis and severity of HI in a population cohort of 7–8 year old children. Methods: Eighty eight 7–8 year old children born in Victoria, who were (a) fitted with hearing aids for congenital HI by 4.5 years and (b) did not have intellectual or major physical disability were studied. Main outcome measures were Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Predictors were pure tone average (0.5, 1, 2 kHz) in better ear at diagnosis and age at diagnosis. Marginal (adjusted) means were estimated with general linear models. Results: Response rate was 67% (n = 89; 53 boys). Mean age at diagnosis was 21.6 months (SD 14.4); 21% had mild, 34% moderate, 21% severe, and 24% profound HI; mean non-verbal IQ was 104.6 (SD 16.7). Mean total CELF score was 76.7 (SD 21.4) and mean PPVT score 78.1 (SD 18.1). Age of diagnosis, adjusted for severity and IQ, did not contribute to language scores. In contrast, adjusted mean CELF and PPVT language scores fell sequentially with increasing severity of HI. Conclusions: More severe HI, but not later diagnosis, was strongly related to poorer language outcomes at 7–8 years. Further systematic study is needed to understand why children with hearing impairment have good or poor outcomes. PMID:15723906

  6. The formative years: medical ethics comes of age.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alastair V

    2015-01-01

    When the Journal of Medical Ethics first appeared in April 1975, the prospects of success seemed uncertain. There were no scholars specialising in the field, the readership could not be guaranteed, and the medical profession itself seemed, at the very least, ambivalent about a subject thought by many to be the province of doctors alone, to be acquired through an apprenticeship model, and certainly not taught or examined in any formal sense. However, change was afoot, fresh scandals created an awareness that outside help was needed to think through the new challenges facing the profession, and the success of the medical groups revealed a clear way forward through multidisciplinary and critically reflective discussion of the host of emerging ethical and legal issues. In this article the formative years of the journal are recaptured, with a claim that the core principles on which it was founded must endure if it is to continue to 'do good medical ethics' over the next 40 years.

  7. Comparative clinicopathological and outcome analysis of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged below 60 years and above 60 years

    PubMed Central

    AL-Qahtani, Khalid Hussain; Tunio, Mutahir A; Asiri, Mushabbab Al; Bayoumi, Yasser; Balbaid, Ali; Aljohani, Naji J; Fatani, Hanadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged above 60 years. Materials and methods Comparative analysis was performed in 252 patients aged 46–60 years (Group A) and 118 patients aged above 60 years (Group B), who had thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine-131, and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy between July 2000 and December 2012. Different clinicopathological features, treatment, complications, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were compared. Results Mean age of patients in Group A was 51.9 years (range: 46–60), and mean age of those in Group B was 68.6 years (range: 62–97). Group B patients had higher positive lymph nodes (43.2%), P=0.011. The frequency of extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, and lymphovascular space invasion was seen more in Group B than in Group A. Postsurgical complications (permanent hypoparathyroidism, bleeding, and wound infections) were also seen more in Group B (P=0.043, P=0.011, and P=0.021, respectively). Group B patients experienced more locoregional recurrences (11.0%, P=0.025); similarly, more distant metastases were observed in Group B (15.3%, P=0.003). The 10-year disease-free survival rates were 87.6% in Group A and 70.8% in Group B (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients aged above 60 years are more aggressive biologically and associated with a worse prognosis, and the morbidity is significantly high as compared to patients aged below 60 years. PMID:27621604

  8. Mammography Prevalence within 2 Two Years (Age 40+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For mammography, a woman 40 years of age or older must have reported having at least one mammography in her life. Furthermore, she should have had the most recent one within the last two years by the time of interview.

  9. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations

    PubMed Central

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. Methods The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. Results During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). Conclusion It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group. PMID:25993070

  10. Vision screening in children: Is 7-9 years of age a threshold for visual impairment?

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Yusuf Haydar; Tekin, Murat; Uludag, Aysegul; Arikan, Sedat; Sahin, Erkan Melih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of decreased visual acuity, strabismus, and spectacle wear in children aged 5 to 13 years. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in primary education schools. A total of 1938 participants, including 940 females (48.5%) and 998 males (51.5%) with a mean age 8.96 ± 2.31 (5-13 years old), were screened. The comparisons were performed with gender, age, and age groups. The children attended to vision screening were assigned to three age groups as 5-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-13 years. Results: The prevalence of the parameters was detected as decreased visual acuity 12.4%, strabismus 2.2%, and spectacle wear 6.9%. The prevalence of decreased visual acuity was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.013, p < 0.001). The prevalence of spectacle wear was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.019, p < 0.001). There was a visual acuity decrease in 33 of 106 (31.1%) children despite wearing own spectacle. There was no significant difference among three age groups for strabismus. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of decreased visual acuity, as well as the higher frequency of spectacle wear in children at ages of 7-9 years old may point out a threshold for visual impairment. PMID:27882020

  11. 2000 years of parallel societies in Stone Age Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bollongino, Ruth; Nehlich, Olaf; Richards, Michael P; Orschiedt, Jörg; Thomas, Mark G; Sell, Christian; Fajkosová, Zuzana; Powell, Adam; Burger, Joachim

    2013-10-25

    Debate on the ancestry of Europeans centers on the interplay between Mesolithic foragers and Neolithic farmers. Foragers are generally believed to have disappeared shortly after the arrival of agriculture. To investigate the relation between foragers and farmers, we examined Mesolithic and Neolithic samples from the Blätterhöhle site. Mesolithic mitochondrial DNA sequences were typical of European foragers, whereas the Neolithic sample included additional lineages that are associated with early farmers. However, isotope analyses separate the Neolithic sample into two groups: one with an agriculturalist diet and one with a forager and freshwater fish diet, the latter carrying mitochondrial DNA sequences typical of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. This indicates that the descendants of Mesolithic people maintained a foraging lifestyle in Central Europe for more than 2000 years after the arrival of farming societies.

  12. One-dimensional SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers and enhancement magnetic property.

    PubMed

    Song, Fuzhan; Shen, Xiangqian; Liu, Mingquan; Xiang, Jun

    2011-08-01

    SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers of diameters about 100 nm with mass ratio 1:1 have been prepared by the electrospinning and calcination process. The SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrites are formed after calcined at 700 degrees C for 2 hours. The composite ferrite nanofibers are fabricated from nanosized Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 and SrFe12O19 ferrite grains with a uniform phase distribution. The ferrite grain size increases from about 11 to 36 nm for Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe12O4 and 24 to 56 nm for SrFe12O19 with the calcination temperature increasing from 700 to 1100 degrees C. With the ferrite grain size increasing, the coercivity (Hc) and remanence (Mr) for the SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers initially increase, reaching a maximum value of 118.4 kA/m and 31.5 Am2/kg at the grain size about 40 nm (SrFe12O19) and 24 nm (Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4) respectively, and then show a reduction tendency with a further increase of the ferrite grain size. The specific saturation magnetization (Msh) of 63.2 Am2/kg for the SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers obtained at 900 degrees C for 2 hours locates between that for the single SrFe12O19 ferrite (48.5 Am2/kg) and the single Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 ferrite (69.3 Am2/kg). In particular, the Mr value 31.5 Am2/kg for the SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers is much higher than that for the individual SrFe12O19 (25.9 Am2/kg) and Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 ferrite (11.2 Am2/kg). These enhanced magnetic properties for the composite ferrite nanofibers can be attributed to the exchange-coupling interaction in the composite.

  13. Assessment of Working Memory Components at 6 Years of Age as Predictors of Reading Achievements a Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6 years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97…

  14. Experimentally melting a Mg 80# Martian mantle at 0.5 to 0.5 GPa: Implications for basalt genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Christopher Lee

    The most widely used and accepted composition for the Martian mantle in experimental petrology is the Dreibus and Wanke (1985) proposed composition based on only eight SNC meteorites. This composition is enriched in iron with respect to the Earth, which follows what we see from samples of Mars. The magnesium number (Mg#=Mg/Mg+Fe) of the Dreibus and Wanke (1985) composition is Mg#75, which is iron rich compared to Earth's Mg# of around 90. However, when experimentally melted as a source for generating Martian basalts, the melt concentrates iron further, higher than the Mars basalt compositions, and requires melting a large percentage of the mantle to reach a composition that is comparable to known Martian basalts. Partial melting experiments of an Mg# 80 mantle composition produced shergottite-like melts with a lower percentage of partial melting than with the Mg#75 compositions. This would be more likely since the Martian mantle would have cooled considerably by the time it would have produced the shergottites, which was only approximately 180 million years ago. The reprised composition is Mg#80 and less iron rich than the DW composition, but more iron-rich than Earth.

  15. Prenatal and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure and attention and executive function at 9–12 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Sagiv, Sharon K.; Kogut, Katherine; Gaspar, Fraser; Gunier, Robert; Harley, Kim; Parra, Kimberly; Villaseñor, Diana; Bradman, Asa; Holland, Nina; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Objective California children’s exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) are among the highest measured worldwide. We previously reported associations for prenatal and childhood PBDE exposures with decrements in attention, processing speed, fine motor coordination, and cognition in children at ages 5 and 7 years. Here, we investigate associations of PBDEs with attention and executive function at ages 9 to 12 years in the expanded CHAMACOS cohort. Methods We measured PBDEs in prenatal and child age 9 year serum samples for families enrolled in the study since pregnancy (“CHAM1”, N=321). In a subsequent cohort for which families were enrolled at child age 9 (“CHAM2”, N=301), we measured PBDEs in maternal and child samples collected at child age 9, and used predictive modeling to estimate prenatal exposure levels. We examined associations of measured and estimated PBDE concentrations on children’s attention and executive functioning at ages 9, 10½, and 12 years. Results Geometric means for prenatal and childhood ΣPBDE levels (sum of PBDE−47,−99,−100,−153) for the expanded CHAMACOS cohort were 26.3 and 63.2 ng/g lipid, respectively, and did not differ significantly between CHAM1 and CHAM2 families. We found consistent associations of prenatal exposure to PBDEs with poorer attention and executive function, measured with parent report and direct neuropsychological testing of the child. For example, using GEE models of repeated outcome measures at age 9 and 12, a 10-fold increase in prenatal ΣPBDE was associated with poorer response consistency on the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test II (β=2.9; 95% CI: 0.9, 4.8) and poorer working memory on the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (β=2.5; 95% CI: 0.5, 4.4). Child age 9 ΣPBDE levels were associated with poorer parent-reported attention and executive function for girls but not boys. Conclusions Our results suggest that the prefrontal cortex may be a

  16. Superconductivity phase diagram of Se-substituted CeO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu; Hiroi, Takafumi; Miura, Osuke

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of Se substitution on the lattice constants and superconducting properties of CeO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2. With increasing Se concentration, the a lattice constant increased, while the c lattice constant did not show any significant increase between x = 0.1 and x = 0.5. Bulk superconductivity was observed in samples with x = 0.2-0.4, and the superconducting transition temperature was the highest at x = 0.3. The obtained superconductivity phase diagram was compared to those of LaO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2 and NdO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2.

  17. Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

    1996-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

  18. The Assessment of Metacognition in Children Aged 4-16 Years: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoine, Louise; Higgins, Steve; Wall, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of methods that have been used to measure or assess metacognition in children aged 4-16 years over a 20-year period (1992-2012). It includes an overview of the types of tool and methods used linked with the ages of the participants targeted and how metacognition and associated concepts are…

  19. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  20. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  1. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... direct to the collector from the rents and income derived from such lands, and the balance, if any,...

  2. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  3. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  4. Atomic disorder of Li0.5Ni0.5O thin films caused by Li doping: estimation from X-ray Debye–Waller factors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Anli; Sakata, Osami; Yamauchi, Ryosuke; Kumara, L. S. R.; Song, Chulho; Katsuya, Yoshio; Matsuda, Akifumi; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    Cubic type room-temperature (RT) epitaxial Li0.5Ni0.5O and NiO thin films with [111] orientation grown on ultra-smooth sapphire (0001) substrates were examined using synchrotron-based thin-film X-ray diffraction. The 11 and 22 rocking curves including six respective equivalent reflections of the Li0.5Ni0.5O and NiO thin films were recorded. The RT B 1 factor, which appears in the Debye–Waller factor, of a cubic Li0.5Ni0.5O thin film was estimated to be 1.8 (4) Å2 from its 11 and 22 reflections, even though the Debye model was originally derived on the basis of one cubic element. The corresponding Debye temperature is 281 (39) K. Furthermore, the B 2 factor in the pseudo-Debye–Waller factor is proposed. This parameter, which is evaluated using one reflection, was also determined for the Li0.5Ni0.5O thin film by treating Li0.5Ni0.5O and NiO as ideal NaCl crystal structures. A structural parameter for the atomic disorder is introduced and evaluated. This parameter includes the combined effects of thermal vibration, interstitial atoms and defects caused by Li doping using the two Debye–Waller factors. PMID:26664345

  5. Artificial layered perovskite oxides A(B{sub 0.5}B′{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} as potential solar energy conversion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hungru; Umezawa, Naoto

    2015-02-07

    Perovskite oxides with a d{sup 0} electronic configuration are promising photocatalysts and exhibit high electron mobilities. However, their band gaps are too large for efficient solar energy conversion. On the other hand, transition metal cations with partially filled d{sup n} electronic configurations give rise to visible light absorption. In this study, by using hybrid density functional theory calculations, it is demonstrated that the virtues of the two categories of materials can be combined in perovskite oxide A(B{sub 0.5}B′{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} with a layered B-site ordering along the [001] direction. The electronic structures of the four selected perovskite oxide compounds, La(Ti{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, La(Ti{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, Sr(Nb{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, and Sr(Nb{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} are calculated and discussed.

  6. Prevalence of Hearing Loss Among a Representative Sample of Canadian Children and Adolescents, 3 to 19 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, David; McNamee, James; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Ramage-Morin, Pamela; Beauregard, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: There are no nationally representative hearing loss (HL) prevalence data available for Canadian youth using direct measurements. The present study objectives were to estimate national prevalence of HL using audiometric pure-tone thresholds (0.5 to 8 kHz) and or distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) for children and adolescents, aged 3 to 19 years. Design: This cross-sectional population-based study presents findings from the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, entailing an in-person household interview and hearing measurements conducted in a mobile examination clinic. The initial study sample included 2591 participants, aged 3 to 19 years, representing 6.5 million Canadians (3.3 million males). After exclusions, subsamples consisted of 2434 participants, aged 3 to 19 years and 1879 participants, aged 6 to 19 years, with valid audiometric results. Eligible participants underwent otoscopic examination, tympanometry, DPOAE, and audiometry. HL was defined as a pure-tone average >20 dB for 6- to 18-year olds and ≥26 dB for 19-year olds, for one or more of the following: four-frequency (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) pure-tone average, high-frequency (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz) pure-tone average, and low-frequency (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz) pure-tone average. Mild HL was defined as >20 to 40 dB (6- to 18-year olds) and ≥26 to 40 dB (19-year olds). Moderate or worse HL was defined as >40 dB (6- to 19-year olds). HL in 3- to 5-year olds (n = 555) was defined as absent DPOAEs as audiometry was not conducted. Self-reported HL was evaluated using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 hearing questions. Results: The primary study outcome indicates that 7.7% of Canadian youth, aged 6 to 19, had any HL, for one or more pure-tone average. Four-frequency pure-tone average and high-frequency pure-tone average HL prevalence was 4.7 and 6.0%, respectively, whereas 5.8% had a low-frequency pure-tone average HL. Significantly more children/adolescents had unilateral HL

  7. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-08-12

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase).

  8. Performance of the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool Among Women Aged 75 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Li, Vicky W.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Davis, Roger B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT, “Gail model”) is commonly used for breast cancer prediction; however, it has not been validated for women age 75 years and older. Methods: We used Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) data beginning in 2004 and Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) data beginning in 2005 to compare BCRAT’s performance among women age 75 years and older with that in women age 55 to 74 years in predicting five-year breast cancer incidence. BCRAT risk factors include: age, race/ethnicity, age at menarche, age at first birth, family history, history of benign breast biopsy, and atypia. We examined BCRAT’s calibration by age by comparing expected/observed (E/O) ratios of breast cancer incidence. We examined discrimination by computing c-statistics for the model by age. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Seventy-three thousand seventy-two NHS and 97 081 WHI women participated. NHS participants were more likely to be non-Hispanic white (96.2% vs 84.7% in WHI, P < .001) and were less likely to develop breast cancer (1.8% vs 2.0%, P = .02). E/O ratios by age in NHS were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.23, age 57–74 years) and 1.31 (95% CI = 1.18 to 1.45, age ≥ 75 years, P = .02), and in WHI 1.03 (95% CI = 0.97 to 1.09, age 55–74 years) and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.00 to 1.21, age ≥ 75 years, P = .21). E/O ratio 95% confidence intervals crossed one among women age 75 years and older when samples were limited to women who underwent mammography and were without significant illness. C-statistics ranged between 0.56 and 0.58 in both cohorts regardless of age. Conclusions: BCRAT accurately predicted breast cancer for women age 75 years and older who underwent mammography and were without significant illness but had modest discrimination. Models that consider individual competing risks of non–breast cancer death may improve breast cancer risk prediction for older women. PMID:26625899

  9. Synthesis and superconductivity in spark plasma sintered pristine and graphene-doped FeSe0.5Te0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puneet, Pooja; Podila, Ramakrishna; He, Jian; Rao, Apparao; Howard, Austin; Cornell, Nicholas; Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Department of Physics; Astronomy, Clemson Nanomaterials Center, Clemson University Team; Nanotech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas Team

    2015-03-01

    Replace this text with your abstract body. Here, we present a new ball-milling and spark plasma sintering based technique for the facile synthesis FeSe0.5Te0.5 superconductors (SC) without the need for pre-alloying. This method is advantageous since it is quick and flexible for incorporating other dopants such as graphene for vortex pinning. We observed that FeSe0.5Te0.5 exhibits a coexistence of ferromagnetic (FM) and SC signature plausibly arising from a FM core-SC shell structure. More importantly, the Hc2 values observed from resistivity data are higher than 7 T indicating that SPS process synthesized FeSe0.5Te0.5 samples could lead to nextgeneration superconducting wires and cables.

  10. Origin of Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Cr-Doped Lead-Free Ferroelectric Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh, L. T. H.; Doan, N. B.; Dung, N. Q.; Cuong, L. V.; Bac, L. H.; Duc, N. A.; Bao, P. Q.; Dung, D. D.

    2017-01-01

    The development of multiferroic materials based on lead-free ferroelectric material provides an opportunity to fabricate next-generation electronic devices. In this work, Cr-doped lead-free ferroelectric Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 materials were synthesized by using the sol-gel method. The optical band gap was reduced from 3.12 eV to 2.12 eV for undoped and 9 mol.% Cr-doped Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 with the substitution of Cr at the Ti-site. Cr-doped Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 materials exhibited weak ferromagnetism at room temperature. Saturation magnetization was approximately 0.08 μ B/Cr at 5 K. Our work will facilitate the further understanding of the role of transition metal ferromagnetism in lead-free ferroelectric materials at room temperature.

  11. Maxwell-Wagner relaxation and magnetodielectric properties of Bi0.5La0.5MnO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turik, A. V.; Pavlenko, A. V.; Reznichenko, L. A.

    2016-08-01

    The complex permittivity ɛ = ɛ'- iɛ″ of manganite bismuth-lanthanum Bi0.5La0.5MnO3 ceramics has been measured at temperature T = 78 K in the frequency range f = 200-105 Hz and in the magnetic induction range B = 0-5 T. Dielectric relaxation and the pronounced magnetodielectric effect have been detected. The explanation based on the superposition of Maxwell-Wagner relaxation and the magnetoresistance effect has been proposed.

  12. (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co,Zn)4O7 cathodes with superior high-temperature phase stability for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Young Nam, Kim; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manthiram, Arumugam; Huq, Ashfia

    2012-01-01

    (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 (1.0 x 2.0) oxides crystallizing in a trigonal P31c structure have been synthesized and explored as cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). At a given Zn content, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 sample with 50 % Y and 50 % In exhibits much improved phase stability at intermediate temperatures (600 - 800 oC) compared to the samples with 100 % Y or In. However, the substitution of Zn for Co in (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 (1.0 x 2.0) decreases the amount of oxygen loss on heating, total electrical conductivity, and cathode performance in SOFC while providing good long-term phase stability at high temperatures. Among the various chemical compositions investigated in the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 system, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo3ZnO7 sample offers a combination of good electrochemical performance and low thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) while maintaining superior phase stability at 600 800 oC for 100 h. Fuel cell performances of the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co3Zn)O7 + Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) (50 : 50 wt. %) composite cathodes collected with anode-supported single cell reveal a maximum power density value of 521 mW cm-2 at 700 oC.

  13. Influence of Co-substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe12O19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezhil Vizhi, R.; Harikrishnan, V.; Saravanan, P.; Rajan Babu, D.

    2016-10-01

    One-step citrate gel combustion method followed by annealing (800 °C/2 h) was employed to synthesize cobalt substituted barium strontium hexaferrite with a chemical composition of Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe12-xCoxO19 (x=0, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9). A combination of thermo-gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry was employed to understand the thermo-chemical behavior of Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe12O19. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to evaluate the hexagonal phase evolution for the barium strontium ferrite nanopowders and a formation of secondary phase: α-Fe2O3 is evident for the Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe12O19. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of different sublattices of Fe3+ present in the hexaferrite structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the usual stretching vibrations of tetrahedral and octahedral M-O bands. The morphology and chemical composition of the samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy attached with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, respectively. Selected area electron diffraction studies showed the nanocrystalline nature of the samples. The magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization MS, coercivity, HC and remanent magnetization, MR were estimated from the hysteresis loops. Maximum value of MS (70.5 emu/g) was obtained for the Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe11.5Co0.5O19 nanoparticles. A possible growth mechanism on the crystallization of Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe12O19 hexagonal platelets during the citrate gel combustion synthesis is highlighted.

  14. Duration of sleep at 3 years of age is associated with fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age: the Southampton Women’s Survey

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Janis; Hill, Catherine; Harvey, Nicholas C.; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Sian; Godfrey, Keith; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Many studies have shown that shorter sleep duration in childhood is associated with higher body mass index and proposed that it is due to an effect of sleep on adiposity. There is little evidence about the association of sleep with fat-free mass. This study examined the association between child’s sleep duration at age 3 years and fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age in a prospective cohort study of 302boys and 285 girls. Study participants were taking part in the Southampton Women’s Survey, a longitudinal study of mothers and children from preconception onwards. Total sleep duration at age 3 years was derived from parental report of night sleep and nap duration. Body composition was assessed by DXA at 4 years. Mean total sleep duration was 11.5 hours. In linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially confounding factors (maternal educational attainment, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, child’s gestational age at birth, age at DXA, sex, age last breastfed, dietary quality at 3 years, TV watching and hours actively on the move and parental social class) shorter sleep in hours was associated with higher BMI (kg/m2) (β=-0.2340, 95% CI -0.373, -0.096), a greater fat mass index (kg) (β=-0.1182 (-0.218, -0.018)) and a greater fat-free mass index (kg) (β=-0.100 (-0.185, -0.015)). Previous research suggested that the association between shorter sleep and higher body mass index is due to an effect on adiposity. Our findings are novel suggesting that the relationship between sleep and BMI is also determined by an effect on muscle. PMID:26909889

  15. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  16. Effect of Tb and Al substitution within the rare earth and cobalt sublattices on magnetothermal properties of Dy0.5Ho0.5Co2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chzhan, V. B.; Tereshina, E. A.; Mikhailova, A. B.; Politova, G. A.; Tereshina, I. S.; Kozlov, V. I.; Ćwik, J.; Nenkov, K.; Alekseeva, O. A.; Filimonov, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    The effect of Tb and Al substitution within the rare earth and cobalt sublattices on structural and magnetothermal properties of Dy0.5Ho0.5Co2 has been studied. Multicomponent Laves phase alloys Tbx(Dy0.5Ho0.5)1-xCo2-yAly (x = 0, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5; y = 0, 0.25) synthesized using high-purity metals have been studied using X-ray diffraction analysis, heat capacity and magnetocaloric measurements. Dy0.5Ho0.5Co2 has a first order phase transition at the Curie temperature TC ≈ 110 K. Both Tb and Al substitution leads to increase of the TC. The increasing Tb content leads to the decreases slightly the MCE and all the transitions near the Curie temperature are of the first order. As for the Al-containing compounds, MCE measurements show that the phase transition type changes from the first to the second-order. The advantage of Tbx(Dy0.5Ho0.5)1-xCo1.75Al0.25 as compared with Al-free alloys is 'table-like' behavior of MCE.

  17. Soft ferromagnetism and semiconductor to metal transition in Li0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayasri, G.; Bhowmik, R. N.

    2013-02-01

    Polycrystalline Li0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite was synthesized by solid state route. The samples were characterized by XRD, EDX, dc magnetization and ac conductivity measurements. The samples are soft ferromagnet with spontaneous magnetization (MS) ˜ 61-64 emu/g and coercivity (HC) ˜ 22-30 Oe. Frequency activated ac conductivity measurement at different temperature suggested polaron hopping mechanism in the samples. Remarkably, there is a semiconductor to metallic transition in the temperature range 803 K-873 K depending on sintering temperature of Li0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite.

  18. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  19. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, AC

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals. PMID:27269243

  20. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12-21 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, J D; Rupf, R; Brown, T D; Marques, M C

    2011-10-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group).

  1. Bio-energetic profile in 144 boys aged from 6 to 15 years with special reference to sexual maturation.

    PubMed

    Falgairette, G; Bedu, M; Fellmann, N; Van-Praagh, E; Coudert, J

    1991-01-01

    The effects of growth and pubertal development on bio-energetic characteristics were studied in boys aged 6-15 years (n = 144; transverse study). Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, direct method), mechanical power at VO2max (PVO2max), maximal anaerobic power (Pmax; force-velocity test), mean power in 30-s sprint (P30s; Wingate test) were evaluated and the ratios between Pmax, P30s and PVO2max were calculated. Sexual maturation was determined using salivary testosterone as an objective indicator. Normalized for body mass VO2max remained constant from 6 to 15 years (49 ml.min-1.kg-1, SD 6), whilst Pmax and P30s increased from 6-8 to 14-15 years, from 6.2 W.kg-1, SD 1.1 to 10.8 W.kg-1, SD 1.4 and from 4.7 W.kg-1, SD 1.0 to 7.6 W.kg-1, SD 1.0, respectively, (P less than 0.001). The ratio Pmax:PVO2max was 1.7 SD 3.0 at 6-8 years and reached 2.8 SD 0.5 at 14-15 years and the ratio P30s:PVO2max changed similarly from 1.3 SD 0.3 to 1.9 SD 0.3. In contrast, the ratio Pmax:P30s remained unchanged (1.4 SD 0.2). Significant relationships (P less than 0.001) were observed between Pmax (W.kg-1), P30s (W.kg-1), blood lactate concentrations after the Wingate test, and age, height, mass and salivary testosterone concentration. This indicates that growth and maturation have together an important role in the development of anaerobic metabolism.

  2. Safety and efficacy of vismodegib in patients aged ≥65 years with advanced basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne Lynn S; Lewis, Karl D; Arron, Sarah T; Migden, Michael R; Solomon, James A; Yoo, Simon; Day, Bann-Mo; McKenna, Edward F; Sekulic, Aleksandar

    2016-11-15

    Because many patients with unresectable basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are aged ≥65 years, this study explores the efficacy and safety of vismodegib in these patients with locally advanced (la) or metastatic (m) basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the ERIVANCE BCC trial and the expanded access study (EAS).We compared patients aged ≥65 years to patients aged <65 years taking vismodegib 150 mg/day, using descriptive statistics for response and safety. Patients aged ≥65 years (laBCC/mBCC) were enrolled in ERIVANCE BCC (33/14) and EAS (27/26). Investigator-assessed best overall response rate in patients ≥65 and <65 years was 46.7%/35.7% and 72.7%/52.6% (laBCC/mBCC), respectively, in ERIVANCE BCC and 45.8%/33.3% and 46.9%/28.6%, respectively, in EAS. These differences were not clinically meaningful. Safety was similar in both groups, although those aged ≥65 years had a higher percentage of grade 3-5 adverse events than those aged <65 years. Vismodegib demonstrated similar clinical activity and adverse events regardless of age.

  3. Safety and efficacy of vismodegib in patients aged ≥65 years with advanced basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne Lynn S.; Lewis, Karl D.; Arron, Sarah T.; Migden, Michael R.; Solomon, James A.; Yoo, Simon; Day, Bann-Mo; McKenna, Edward F.; Sekulic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Because many patients with unresectable basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are aged ≥65 years, this study explores the efficacy and safety of vismodegib in these patients with locally advanced (la) or metastatic (m) basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the ERIVANCE BCC trial and the expanded access study (EAS).We compared patients aged ≥65 years to patients aged <65 years taking vismodegib 150 mg/day, using descriptive statistics for response and safety. Patients aged ≥65 years (laBCC/mBCC) were enrolled in ERIVANCE BCC (33/14) and EAS (27/26). Investigator-assessed best overall response rate in patients ≥65 and <65 years was 46.7%/35.7% and 72.7%/52.6% (laBCC/mBCC), respectively, in ERIVANCE BCC and 45.8%/33.3% and 46.9%/28.6%, respectively, in EAS. These differences were not clinically meaningful. Safety was similar in both groups, although those aged ≥65 years had a higher percentage of grade 3-5 adverse events than those aged <65 years. Vismodegib demonstrated similar clinical activity and adverse events regardless of age. PMID:27764798

  4. Crystal structure and carbon vacancy hardening of (W0.5Al0.5)C1-x prepared by a solid-state reaction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junmin; Ma, Xianfeng; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Huaguo; Zhu, Changjun; Cai, Shuguang

    2005-10-14

    Novel solid solutions of aluminum in tungsten carbide (WC) with or without carbon vacancies, which can be expressed by the chemical formula (W(0.5)Al(0.5))C(1-x) (x=0.0-0.5), have been synthesized by the solid-state reaction of W(0.5)Al(0.5) alloy and the proper amount of carbon at around 1673 K in vacuum. The reaction time decreases from 73 to 50 h on increasing the carbon vacancy concentration from 0 to 50 %. The formation of the intended products is certified, by X-ray diffraction, environmental scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, even though the carbon vacancy concentration reaches the astonishing value of 50 %. The as-prepared (W(0.5)Al(0.5))C(1-x) samples have been identified as the hexagonal WC-type structure belonging to the space group P6m2 (Z=1). Moreover, the crystallographic results reveal that the substituting aluminum atoms in the WC are located in the 1a site (the W atom position of the WC structure) and the cell parameters decrease slightly with increasing vacancy concentration. The hardness of the (W(0.5)Al(0.5))C(1-x) system increases up to a maximum 2659 kg mm(-2) at a carbon vacancy concentration of about 35 %, and the density of (W(0.5)Al(0.5))C(1-x) is far lower than that of WC.

  5. Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospatial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population-based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task-assessing, visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age.

  6. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

  7. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  8. Reduction properties of phases in the system La 0.5Sr 0.5MO 3 ( M=Fe, Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Frank J.; Marco, José F.; Ren, Xiaolin

    2005-04-01

    Phases formed by the reduction of compounds of the type La 0.5Sr 0.5MO 3 ( M=Fe, Co) have been characterized by means of temperature programmed reduction, X-ray powder diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fe K-, Co K-, Sr K-, and La L III-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that treatment of the material of composition La 0.5Sr 0.5FeO 3 (which contains 50% Fe 4+ and 50% Fe 3+) at 650 °C in a flowing 90% hydrogen/10% nitrogen atmosphere results in the formation of an oxygen-deficient perovskite-related phase containing only trivalent iron. Further heating in the gaseous reducing environment at 1150 °C results in the formation of the Fe 3+-containing phase SrLaFeO 4, which has a K 2NiF 4-type structure, and metallic iron. The material of composition La 0.5Sr 0.5CoO 3 is more susceptible to reduction than the compound La 0.5Sr 0.5FeO 3 since, after heating at 520 °C in the hydrogen/nitrogen mixture, all the Co 4+ and Co 3+ are reduced to metallic cobalt with the concomitant formation of strontium- and lanthanum-oxides.

  9. Topotactic reduction and reoxidation of hexagonal RCu{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (R = Y, Eu-Lu) Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Peng; Berthelot, Romain; Li, Jun; Sleight, A.W.; Subramanian, M.A.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Topotactic reduction of hexagonal RCu{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} phases is performed. ► TGA and magnetism indicate a formula of RCu{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 2.78} for the reduced phase. ► Topotactic reoxidation occurs on heating these phases to 400 °C in air. - Abstract: Hexagonal AMO{sub 2} and AMO{sub 3} phases have the same basic structure, and intermediate compositions for this structure have been prepared by topotactic oxidation of AMO{sub 2} phases such as RCuO{sub 2}, where R is a trivalent rare earth cation. We now find that such intermediate phases can also be prepared by topotactic reduction of hexagonal RCu{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (R = Y, Tb-Lu) phases. Our TGA and magnetic susceptibility studies indicate a formula of RCu{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 2.78} for these reduced phases. Topotactic reoxidation occurs on heating these phases to 400 °C in air.

  10. Effect of rare-earth (Er and Gd) substitution on the magnetic and multiferroic properties of DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mohit K.; Basu, Tathamay; Mukherjee, K.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    We report the results of our investigations on the influence of partial substitution of Er and Gd for Dy on the magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3, which is known to be a multiferroic system. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data, apart from confirming the occurrence of magnetic transitions at ~121 and 13 K in DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3, bring out that the lower transition temperature only is suppressed by rare-earth substitution. Multiferroic behavior is found to persist in Dy0.4Ln0.6Fe0.5Cr0.5O3 (Ln  =  Er and Gd). There is an evidence for magnetoelectric coupling in all these materials with qualitative differences in its behavior as the temperature is changed across these two transitions. Remnant electric polarization is observed for all the compounds. The most notable observation is that electric polarization is seen to get enhanced as a result of rare-earth substitution with respect to that in DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3. Interestingly, a similar trend is seen in the magnetocaloric effect, consistent with the existence of magnetoelectric coupling. The results thus provide evidence for the tuning of magnetoelectric coupling by rare-earth substitution in this family of oxides.

  11. First principles study of Ca in BaTiO3 and Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fongkaew, Ittipon; T-Thienprasert, Jiraroj; Limpijumnong, Sukit

    2015-11-01

    BaTiO3-Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 is one of the promising candidates as a high-temperature relaxor with a high Curie temperature and several preferred dielectric characteristics. It has been found experimentally for a long time that adding calcium to BaTiO3-Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 improves its temperature characteristic of the capacitance [J. Electron. Mater. 39, 2471]. In this study, Calcium (Ca) defects in perovskite BaTiO3 and Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 have been studied based on first-principles calculations. In both BaTiO3 and Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, our calculations showed that Ca atom energetically prefers to substitute for the cations, that is Ba, Bi, Na and Ti, depending on the growth conditions. In most cases, Ca predominantly substitutes on the A-site without providing additional electrical carriers (serve as either neutral defects or self-compensating defects). The growth conditions where Ca can be forced to substitute for B-site (with limited amount) and the conditions where Ca can be forced to serve as an acceptor are identified. Details of the local structures, formation energies and electronic properties of these Ca defects are reported.

  12. Fully gapped superconductivity in In-doped topological crystalline insulator Pb0.5Sn0.5Te

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Guan; Gu, G. D.; Du, Zengyi; Fang, Delong; Yang, Huan; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J.; Wen, Hai -Hu

    2015-07-27

    In this study, superconductors derived from topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators by chemical doping have long been considered to be candidates as topological superconductors. Pb0.5Sn0.5Te is a topological crystalline insulator with mirror symmetry protected surface states on (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented surfaces. The superconductor (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te is produced by In doping in Pb0.5Sn0.5Te, and is thought to be a topological superconductor. Here we report scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the superconducting state as well as the superconducting energy gap in (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te on a (001)-oriented surface. The spectrum can be well fitted by an anisotropic s-wave gap function of Δ = 0.72 + 0.18cos4θ meV using Dynes model. The results show that the superconductor seems to be a fully gapped one without any in-gap states, in contradiction with the expectation of a topological superconductor.

  13. Thirty years of the United Nations and global ageing: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Hal; Lucas, Nina; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-10-01

    Over the past three decades, the United Nations (UN) has slowly devoted increasing attention to global ageing. Concern for individually based welfare or health-care programs for older people in developed countries has progressed to also consider the contributions of older people and implications of ageing for socioeconomic advancement in developing countries, including those in Asia Oceania. These shifts are evident in the International Plans of Action on Ageing from Vienna in 1982 to Madrid in 2002; recent 10-year reviews of the Madrid Plan; and current advocacy for inclusion of ageing in the influential UN Millennium Plan post-2015. Australia has demonstrated progressive policies and contributed to ageing developments by the UN, International Federation on Ageing the World Health Organization and the International Association of Gerontology. Key ideas driving further action are the importance of valuing people at all ages, addressing inequalities over the life-course and implementing human rights approaches to ageing.

  14. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years after Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik Olsson, M.; Lundström, S.; Westerlund, J.; Giacobini, M. B.; Gillberg, C.; Fernell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated--34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with…

  15. Frequency dependent dielectric properties of Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2(Cu3-yMy)O10-δ superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumtaz, M.; Khan, Nawazish A.; Khan, Sajid

    2012-01-01

    The frequency dependent dielectric properties such as dielectric constants (ɛ/r, ɛ//r), absolute dielectric loss |tanδ|, and ac-conductivity (σac) of Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2(Cu3-yMy)O10-δ (M = Si, Ge, Sn, y = 0, 1) superconductor have been investigated by means of capacitance (C) and conductance (G) measurements with the test frequency (f) in the range of 10 KHz to 10 MHz at various temperatures from superconducting state to normal conducting state. The negative capacitance has been observed in all Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2(Cu3-yMy)O10-δ samples. The large values of negative dielectric constant (ɛ/r) at lower frequencies and temperatures are linked with reduced thermal vibrations of the atoms due to which polarizability has been enhanced. The decreased value of dielectric constant observed in the Ge-doped samples may possibly be linked with its greater electronegativity (EN) and less polarization. The electronegativity of Si and Sn has approximately the same values as that of Cu, so almost all the dielectric properties do not vary significantly in Si-doped Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2 Ca2(Cu2Si1)O10-δ and Sn-doped Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2(Cu2Sn1)O10-δ samples. These experimental investigations on dielectric properties of Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2(Cu3-yMy)O10-δ superconductor have shown lower dielectric loss and higher ac-conductivity at all frequencies and temperatures as compared to that of other high Tc superconductor families. The decreased dielectric loss in Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2(Cu3-yMy)O10-δ samples suggests that the polarization is most likely arising from the charge carriers between Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2O4-δ charge reservoir layer and conducting CuO2/MO2 planes; since the charge reservoir layer has localized charge carriers at Ba+2, Tl+3, and Cu+2 sites, whereas CuO2/MO2 planes contain mobile charge carriers, which are displaced from their equilibrium position by external applied ac-field.

  16. The most massive galaxies in clusters are already fully grown at z ∼ 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, L. J.; Houghton, R. C. W.; Davies, Roger L.

    2017-02-01

    By constructing scaling relations for galaxies in the massive cluster MACSJ0717.5 at z = 0.545 and comparing with those of Coma, we model the luminosity evolution of the stellar populations and the structural evolution of the galaxies. We calculate magnitudes, surface brightnesses and effective radii using Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/ACS images and velocity dispersions using Gemini/GMOS spectra, and present a catalogue of our measurements for 17 galaxies. We also generate photometric catalogues for ∼3000 galaxies from the HST imaging. With these, we construct the colour-magnitude relation, the Fundamental Plane, the mass-to-light versus mass relation, the mass-size relation and the mass-velocity dispersion relation for both clusters. We present a new, coherent way of modelling these scaling relations simultaneously using a simple physical model in order to infer the evolution in luminosity, size and velocity dispersion as a function of redshift, and show that the data can be fully accounted for with this model. We find that (a) the evolution in size and velocity dispersion undergone by these galaxies between z ∼ 0.5 and z ∼ 0 is mild, with Re(z) ∼ (1 + z)-0.40 ± 0.32 and σ(z) ∼ (1 + z)0.09 ± 0.27, and (b) the stellar populations are old, ∼10 Gyr, with a ∼3 Gyr dispersion in age, and are consistent with evolving purely passively since z ∼ 0.5 with Δ log M/L_B = -0.55_{-0.07}^{+0.15} z. The implication is that these galaxies formed their stars early and subsequently grew dissipationlessly so as to have their mass already in place by z ∼ 0.5, and suggests a dominant role for dry mergers, which may have accelerated the growth in these high-density cluster environments.

  17. Relative improvements in endurance performance with age: evidence from 25 years of Hawaii Ironman racing.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Rüst, Christoph A; Stapley, Paul J; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-06-01

    Despite of the growth of ultra-endurance sports events (of duration >6 h) over the previous few decades, the age-related declines in ultra-endurance performance have drawn little attention. The aim of the study was to analyse the changes in participation and performance trends of older (>40 years of age) triathletes between 1986 and 2010 at the Hawaii Ironman triathlon consisting of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42 km running. Swimming, cycling, running and total times of the best male and female triathletes between 18 and 69 years of age who competed in the Hawaii Ironman triathlon were analysed. The relative participation of master triathletes increased during the 1986-2010 period, while the participation of triathletes younger than 40 years of age decreased. Linear regression showed that males older than 44 years and females older than 40 years significantly improved their performances in the three disciplines and in the total time taken to complete the race. Gender differences in total time performance significantly decreased in the same time period for all age groups between the 40-44 and 55-59 years ones. The reasons for these relative improvements of Ironman athlete performances in older age groups remain, however, unknown. Further studies investigating training regimes, competition experience or sociodemographic factors are needed to gain better insights into the phenomenon of increasing participation and improvement of ultra-endurance performance with advancing age.

  18. Metamorphic Al0.5Ga0.5N:Si on AlN/sapphire for the growth of UVB LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enslin, Johannes; Mehnke, Frank; Mogilatenko, Anna; Bellmann, Konrad; Guttmann, Martin; Kuhn, Christian; Rass, Jens; Lobo-Ploch, Neysha; Wernicke, Tim; Weyers, Markus; Kneissl, Michael

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the growth of metamorphic Al0.5Ga0.5 N :Si on c-plane AlN/sapphire. The structural properties of the AlGaN:Si pseudo substrates and the electro-optical characteristics of subsequently grown UVB LEDs are being examined. We demonstrate, that superlattices allow the controlled strain relaxation of Al0.5Ga0.5 N by rearrangement of threading dislocations, thus preventing the formation of cracks. This study investigates AlN/GaN superlattices with a nominal GaN layer thickness between 1.0 nm and 2.5 nm at a fixed AlN layer thickness of 2.5 nm. The number of superlattice-periods was also varied between 20 and 120. It was found that beyond a GaN layer thickness of 1.5 nm three-dimensional structures are formed. Additionally, these three-dimensional structures reduce the local defect density of the subsequently grown Al0.5Ga0.5 N layer. Although the Al0.5Ga0.5 N layer appears to be almost fully relaxed, the relaxation state of this pseudo substrate, was found to be dependent on the GaN layer thickness in the superlattice. After optimizing the superlattice structure we were able to grow crack free 4 μm thick Si-doped Al0.5Ga0.5 N layers and on top UVB LEDs with a fully strained active region emitting at 310 nm with output powers of more than 18 mW at 500 mA.

  19. Li2Ni(0.5)Mn(0.5)SnO4/C: A Novel Hybrid Composite Electrode for High Rate Applications.

    PubMed

    Vellaisamy, Mani; Nallathamby, Kalaiselvi

    2015-09-08

    A novel Li2Ni(0.5)Mn(0.5)SnO4/C composite electrode, existing as a hybrid consisting of monoclinic Li2SnO3 and layered LiNi(0.5)Mn(0.5)O2, has been identified and validated for high capacity and high rate lithium battery applications. Of the components, LiNi(0.5)Mn(0.5)O2 upon discharge forms the corresponding dilithium oxide, viz., Li2Ni(0.5)Mn(0.5)O2, and facilitates the progressive electrochemical performance of the composite electrode. Similarly, Li2SnO3 upon discharge forms Li2O and SnO2, wherein the unacceptable volume expansion related issues of SnO2 are addressed by the buffering activity of Li2O phase. A combination of alloying/dealloying, conversion, and redox mechanism is responsible for the excellent electrochemical behavior of Li2Ni(0.5)Mn(0.5)SnO4/C electrode. With this newer formulation of dilithium stannate composite, a superior capacity of >3000 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) current density has been demonstrated. The study opens up a newer gateway for the entry of Li2SnO3·LiM1M2O2 hybrid formulations for exploitation up to 1 A g(-1) rate, thus ensuring the sustainable development of potential electrode materials for high rate applications.

  20. Temperature Evolution of Physical Properties of BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 Lead-Free Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkafi, Z.; Abdelmoula, N.; Khemakhem, H.

    2016-11-01

    BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 lead-free ceramic was prepared by a solid-state reaction method. The structure of BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 has been characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, showing the coexistence of cubic (31.1%) and tetragonal (68.9%) phases at room temperature. Dielectric spectroscopy shows that BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 composition sintered at 1380°C exhibits a relaxor behavior with a weak diffuse phase transition obeying a Lorentz-type quadratic relationship. The ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition T C decreased from 420 K for BaTiO3 to 284 K for BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3. The dielectric loss of this ceramic was <0.09 over a wide temperature range (<400 K). The temperature behavior of the main piezoelectric parameters, such as the piezoelectric coefficient d 31 and the electromechanical coupling factor k p, was investigated. d 31 sets a maximum about 32.5 pC/N at temperature of 220 K. Nevertheless, k p undergoes more or less important changes between 120 K and 200 K. Over 200 K, k p degrades very rapidly due to the depoling effect deduced from the hysterisis measurements. Dielectric and structural properties of BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  1. Structural and Mössbauer spectroscopy characterization of bulk and nanostructured TiFe0.5 Ni0.5/graphite compounds and their hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, M. A. R.; André-Filho, J.; Félix, L. L.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Garg, V. K.; Oliveira, A. C.; Mestnik-Filho, J.

    2015-06-01

    The structural and hyperfine properties of bulk TiFe0.5Ni0.5 intermetallic and ball-milled TiFe0.5Ni0.5/graphite compounds and their hydrides have been studied. The bulk and nanostructured TiFe0.5Ni0.5 compounds crystallize in the cubic crystal structure of CsCl (B2). After hydrogenation, the formation of hydrogen-poor phase (∝-phase) and hydride phase ( β-phase) have been determined for the bulk compound. However, the formation of the ∝-phase and the hydrogen-richest phase ( γ-phase) and other secondary phases have been determined for the ball-milled TiFe0.5Ni0.5/graphite sample. It has been determined that the ball-milled TiFe0.5Ni0.5/graphite sample presents a large amount of the γ-phase which indicates that the presence of graphite nearby nanostructured intermetallic grains enhances the absorption of hydrogen. Mossbauer results are consistent with the structural results. Meanwhile, no significant changes in the isomer shift (IS) value has been determined for the α-phase with respect to the intermetallic compound, a strong increase in the IS value has been determined for the β- and γ-phases with respect to the ∝-phase. That increase indicates a decrease of the s-electron density at the Fe nuclei due to the charge transfer from the metal to the nearby hydrogen atoms.

  2. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Fabrication and magnetic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibres by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jun; Shen, Xiang-Qian; Song, Fu-Zhan; Liu, Ming-Quan

    2009-11-01

    NiZn ferrite/polyvinylpyrrolidone composite fibres were prepared by sol-gel assisted electrospinning. Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibres with a pure cubic spinel structure were obtained subsequently by calcination of the composite fibres at high temperatures. This paper investigates the thermal decomposition process, structures and morphologies of the electrospun composite fibres and the calcined Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibres at different temperatures by thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The magnetic behaviour of the resultant nanofibres was studied by a vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that the grain sizes of the nanofibres increase significantly and the nanofibre morphology gradually transforms from a porous structure to a necklace-like nanostructure with the increase of calcination temperature. The Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibres obtained at 1000 °C for 2 h are characterized by a necklace-like morphology and diameters of 100-200 nm. The saturation magnetization of the random Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibres increases from 46.5 to 90.2 emu/g when the calcination temperature increases from 450 to 1000 °C. The coercivity reaches a maximum value of 11.0 kA/m at a calcination temperature of 600 °C. Due to the shape anisotropy, the aligned Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibres exhibit an obvious magnetic anisotropy and the ease magnetizing direction is parallel to the nanofibre axis.

  3. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and β-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health.

  4. Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Parent Reports of Child Language at Ages 2 and 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Thomas F.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Rockette, Howard E.; Dale, Philip S.; Colborn, D. Kathleen; Paradise, Jack L.

    2005-01-01

    The MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI; Dale, 1996; Fenson et al., 1994), parent reports about language skills, are being used increasingly in studies of theoretical and public health importance. This study (N = 113) correlated scores on the CDI at ages 2 and 3 years with scores at age 3 years on tests of cognition and receptive language and measures from parent–child conversation. Associations indicated reasonable concurrent and predictive validity. The findings suggest that satisfactory vocabulary scores at age 2 are likely to predict normal language skills at age 3, although some children with limited skills at age 3 will have had satisfactory scores at age 2. Many children with poor vocabulary scores at 2 will have normal skills at 3. PMID:16026501

  5. Structural, thermal and electrical conductivity characteristics of Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (Ln: La, Nd and Sm) complex perovskites as anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Jihoon; Azad, Abul K.; Schlegl, Harald; Kim, Byungjun; Baek, Seung-Wook; Kim, Keunsoo; Kang, Hyunil; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2015-03-15

    The Ti and Mn replaced complex perovskites, Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (Ln: La, Nd and Sm), were reported as potential anode materials for high temperature-operating solid oxide fuel cells (HT-SOFCs). For the present research study, synthesis, crystallographic, thermal and electrical conductivity properties of Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} complex perovskites were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld method, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and electrical conductivity to apply these oxide materials for the HT-SOFC anode materials. XRD results showed that Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} oxide systems synthesized as single phases did not react with 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) and 10 mol% Gd-doped cerium oxide (CGO91) up to 1500 °C and did not decompose under dry 3.9% hydrogen at 850 °C. The crystal structures of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (LSTM), Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (NSTM) and Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (SSTM) showed orthorhombic symmetry with the space group Pbnm and SSTM showed a more distorted structure. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) proved weight gains in these three sample occurred under oxidizing conditions and weight loss under reducing conditions. Electrical conductivity values of NSTM were higher than those of LSTM and SSTM under oxidizing and reducing conditions. - Graphical abstract: The B-site cations (Ti/Mn) are surrounded by regular octahedra of oxygen in Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d}(NSTM). These octahedra are linked together in a corner sharing three dimensional framework, while Nd/Sr ion occupies 12-coordinated A-site between these octahedra. The Ti/Mn–O{sub 6} octahedra are elongated along the c-axis. The crystal structure distortion was due to the smaller ionic radius of the A-site cations, which force the (Ti

  6. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    PubMed

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2017-02-01

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling.

  7. Hospitalizations of adults ≥60 years of age with venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Hussain R; Reyes, Nimia; Zhang, Qing C; Okoroh, Ekwutosi M; Siddiqi, Azfar-E-Alam; Tsai, James

    2014-03-01

    We assessed the rates, trends, and factors associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) diagnosis among hospitalizations of adults ≥60 years of age during the period 2001 to 2010. Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey were used for this study. During the period 2001 to 2010, the estimated annual number of hospitalizations in which a VTE diagnosis was recorded, among adults ≥ 60 years of age, ranged from approximately 2 70 000 in 2001 to 4 23 000 in 2010. The rate of such hospitalizations per 1 00 000 US population ≥60 years of age ranged from 581 in 2001 to 739 in 2010. During the period 2001 to 2004, there was a significant increasing trend in the rate of hospitalizations with VTE among women ≥60 years of age. The factors positively associated with an increased risk of VTE diagnosis were female sex, summer and autumn seasons (compared with spring), venous catheterization, cancer, and greater length of hospital stay.

  8. How Special Education Preschool Graduates Finish: Status at 19 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Dale, Philip S.; Mills, Paulette E.; Cole, Kevin N.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the academic and special education status of 129 graduates of special education preschools at 19 years of age. Participants had been randomly assigned to either direct instruction or mediated learning preschool classrooms. At age 19, their achievement was approximately one standard deviation below average. Consistent with…

  9. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  10. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

  11. Color Vision Deficiencies in Youths 12-17 Years of Age United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean

    The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…

  12. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  13. Avoidable mortality measured by years of potential life lost (YPLL) aged 5 before 65 years in Kyrgyzstan, 1989-2003.

    PubMed

    Bozgunchievz, Maratbek; Ito, Katsuki

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable willingness in the entire medical society of Kyrgyzstan, which was directly involved in the reform process, to obtain reliable information about changes in population health that have occurred in the last decade, as well as about changes in mortality, which is the basic component of population health. The objective of this paper is to introduce the Year of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) in Kyrgyzstan caused by avoidable mortality in the population between 5 and 65 years of age during 1989-2003, and to provide a basis for setting the priorities for the reducing YPLL in the coming years. YPLL was calculated using data from the annual mortality tables according to causes of deaths and age for 1989, 1996, 1999 and 2003. YPLL is defined as the summation of the difference between 65 years of age and the age at death from the age of 5 and before 65. In 2003, the total number of YPLL due to avoidable mortality among those who died was 216,860, which represents a decline of 5.0% in comparison with 228,266 in 1989. During the study years, the largest proportion of YPLL in the population between 5 and 65 years of age resulted from injury and poisoning. In 2003, this proportion represented 41.5% of the total amount of YPLL due to all the causes studied here, followed by infections and parasitic diseases (12.0%), circulatory disturbance of the brain (11.5%), chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis (11.4%), diseases of the respiratory system (9.2%), and malignant neoplasm of the upper airways and digestive tract (4.6%). The decline in avoidable mortality caused by injury and poisoning, infections disease, malignant neoplasm of the female breast and uterus has to be priority-driven direction for developing Health Policy in the coming years in Kyrgyzstan. Attention also has to be given to reducing of avoidable mortality caused by malignant neoplasm of the female breast by implementing screening programs.

  14. Characterization of Cu3P phase in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu0.5P/Cu solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-xun; Zhao, Xing-ke; Zou, Xu-chen; Huang, Ji-hua; Hu, Hai-chun; Luo, Hai-lian

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the effects of phosphorus addition on the melting behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder. The melting behavior of the solder alloys was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The interfacial microstructure and phase composition of solder/Cu joints were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. Thermodynamics of Cu-P phase formation at the interface between Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu0.5P solder and the Cu substrate was characterized. The results indicate that P addition into Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder can change the microstructure and cause the appearance of rod-like Cu3P phase which is distributed randomly in the solder bulk. The Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu0.5P joint shows a mixture of ductile and brittle fracture after shear testing. Meanwhile, the solidus temperature of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder is slightly enhanced with P addition.

  15. Thermal Stability and Humidity Resistance of ScTaO4 Modified (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li-Mei; Wang, Jin-Feng; Wang, Chun-Ming; Wu, Qing-Zao; Zang, Guo-Zhong

    2009-12-01

    Lead-free (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-xmol% ScTaO4 (x = 0-1.5) ceramics are prepared using the conventional solid-state reaction method and their properties are investigated in detail. The results indicate that the piezoelectric properties and density are improved by the introduction of ScTaO4. Due to the high orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition temperature TO-T (around 200° C), stable piezoelectric properties against temperature are obtained. In a wide temperature range of 15-160° C, kp of the (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.5 mol% ScTaO4 ceramic remains almost unchanged and d31 increases slightly from 59 pC/N to 71 pC/N. The deliquescent problem is effectively solved by the addition of ScTaO4. The piezoelectric properties of ScTaO4 modified (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramics show no obvious reduction and dielectric loss increases slightly after 120 h of immersion. From the analysis, it is suggested that the density is an important factor that improves the humidity resistance of the specimens.

  16. Effect of Zn2+ Substitution on the Structure and Magnetic Properties of Co0.5Cu0.5Fe2O4 Synthesized by Solvothermal Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xusheng; Zhou, Yuan; Wu, Wenwei; Xu, Jiawei; Liu, Shangqian; Liu, Dongsheng; Wu, Juan

    2016-06-01

    A series of Zn2+ doped Co-Cu ferrites with the formula Co0.5Cu0.5- x Zn x Fe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) have been successfully synthesized using the solvothermal method. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results indicate that a high-crystallized cubic Co0.5Cu0.5- x Zn x Fe2O4 with rod-like structure is obtained when the precursor is calcined at 800°C in air for 3 h. The lattice parameters increase with the increase of Zn2+ additional amount, attributed to the larger ionic radius of the substituted ion Zn2+ than Cu2+ ionic radius. Zn2+ substitution can improve the magnetic properties of Co0.5Cu0.5- x Zn x Fe2O4. Co0.5Cu0.4Zn0.1Fe2O4 obtained at 800°C has the highest specific saturation magnetization (73.7 ± 0.9 emu/g) and magnetic moment (3.13 ± 0.04 B.M.).

  17. Temperature dependent structures and properties of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based lead free piezoelectric composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Sun, Lei; Geng, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Yuan, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Shan-Tao

    2016-07-05

    The thermal depolarization around 100 °C of the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based piezoelectric solid solutions leads to the disappearance of macroscopic ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties and remains a long-standing obstacle for their actual applications. In this communication, we report lead-free piezoelectric composites of 0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3:0.5ZnO (BNT-6BT:0.5ZnO, where 0.5 is the mole ratio of ZnO to BNT-6BT) with deferred thermal depolarization, which is experimentally confirmed by systematic temperature dependent dielectric, ferroelectric, piezoelectric measurements. Especially, based on temperature dependent X-ray diffraction measurements on unpoled and poled samples, thermal depolarization is confirmed to have no relationship with the structural phase transition, the possible mechanism for the deferred thermal depolarization is correlated with the ZnO-induced local electric field which can suppress the depolarization field. We believe our results may be helpful for understanding the origin of thermal depolarization in BNT-based piezoelectric materials, and thus provide an effective way to overcoming this obstacle.

  18. Synergetic effect of Zn substitution on the electron and phonon transport in Mg2Si0.5Sn0.5-based thermoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongli; Zhu, Tiejun; Zhao, Xinbing; Deng, Yuan

    2014-10-07

    Mg2Si1-xSnx alloys are a prospective material for thermoelectric generators at moderate temperatures. The thermoelectric properties of Mg2Si0.5Sn0.5-based thermoelectric materials with only Zn substitution or Zn/Sb co-doping were investigated. Isoelectronic Zn substitution did not affect the carrier concentration, but improved the carrier mobility. Zn atoms incorporated into a Sb-doped Mg2Si0.5Sn0.5 matrix simultaneously boosted the power factor and suppressed the lattice thermal conductivity, leading to an enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of the resulting bulk materials. The interplay between the electron and phonon transport of Mg2Si0.5Sn0.49Sb0.01 substituted with Zn at Mg sites results in an enhancement of the ZT by 25% at ∼730 K, from ZT≈ 0.8 in Mg2Si0.5Sn0.49Sb0.01 to ZT≈ 1.0 in Mg1.98Zn0.02Si0.5Sn0.49Sb0.01. Solid solutions in the Mg2Si-Mg2Sn system appear to be more promising for thermoelectric applications.

  19. Robust NdBa0.5Sr0.5Co1.5Fe0.5O5+δ cathode material and its degradation prevention operating logic for intermediate temperature-solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Hee; Park, Ka-Young; Kim, Nam-In; Song, Sun-Ju; Hong, Ki-Ha; Ahn, Docheon; Azad, Abul K.; Hwang, Junyeon; Bhattacharjee, Satadeep; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Park, Jun-Young

    2016-11-01

    We report solutions (durable material and degradation prevention method) to minimize the performance degradation of cell components occurring in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation. Reliability testing is carried out with the Nisbnd Nd0.1Ce0.9O2-δ (NDC) anode-supported intermediate temperature-SOFCs. For the cathode materials, single perovskite structured Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) and double perovskite structured NdBa0.5Sr0.5Co1.5Fe0.5O5+δ (NBSCF) are prepared and evaluated under harsh SOFC operating conditions. The double perovskite NBSCF cathode shows excellent stability in harsh SOFC environments of high humidity and low flow rate of air. Furthermore, we propose the concurrent fuel and air starvation mode, in which the cell potential is temporarily reduced due to the formation of both fuel-starvation (in the anode) and air-depletion (in the cathode) concurrently under a constant load. This is carried out in order to minimize the performance decay of the stable NBSCF-cell through the periodic and extra reduction of aH2 O (and aO2) in the anode. The operating-induced degradation of SOFCs, which are ordinarily assumed to be unrecoverable, can be completely circumvented by the proposed periodical operation logic to prevent performance degradation (concurrent fuel-starvation and air-depletion mode).

  20. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  1. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  2. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  3. La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowders prepared by the hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Putjuso, Thanin; Maensiri, Santi; Hunpratub, Sitchai; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: LRTEM image of the single-phase La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} particles. It is seen from the figure that the product has a plate-like morphology with average particles sizes in the range of 100–300 nm. In addition, the SAED data taken from an individual particle (lower inset) shows the presence of sharp diffraction rings, which are indicative of polycrystalline La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} formation. The high-resolution TEM image (upper inset) shows for further confirmation of a crystalline structure of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} powder. This image shows a clearly resolved crystalline domain with uniform interplanar spacing of 0.276 nm. Highlights: ► La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowder is prepared in 2 M KOH solution by hydrothermal method. ► The solution is heat treated at 220 °C for 24 h in air. ► LRTEM reveals a plate-like morphology of particle with average size of 100–300 nm. ► HRTEM image shows a crystalline domain with interplanar spacing of 0.276 nm. -- Abstract: La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowders were prepared by the hydrothermal method. The influence of processing parameters, including KOH concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time on the obtained products were studied. The structure and morphology of the obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD results show that pure phase La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowders can be successfully synthesized with 2 M KOH concentration at a low temperature of 220 °C for 24 h. In addition, the product has a plate-like shape with particle sizes in the range of 25–100 nm as estimated by TEM.

  4. Synthesis and electrochemical assessment of Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} ceramics and derived composite electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, Natércia C.T.; Rajesh, Surendran; Marques, Fernando M.B.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} prepared for the first time through solid state reaction. • High energy milling needed to assist the ceramic route. • Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} is oxide-ion conductor in air and n-type conductor at low pO{sub 2}. • Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} decomposes slightly when exposed to alkaline carbonates. • Composites based on Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} show standard electrical performance. - Abstract: Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} was prepared for the first time through high temperature (1600 °C for 5 h) solid state reaction, after high energy milling to enhance the mechano-chemical interaction of precursor oxides (CeO{sub 2} and Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Single phase formation was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. Impedance spectroscopy data obtained under wide temperature (300–800 °C) and oxygen partial pressure (0.21 to about 10{sup −25} atm) ranges indicates that this material exhibits predominant oxide-ion conductivity under oxidizing conditions while n-type electronic conductivity prevails at low oxygen partial pressure. The mixed oxide shows modest ionic conductivity (1.1 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 800 °C) with activation energy of 1.3 eV in the 600–800 °C temperature range. When combined with molten carbonates (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, 1:1 molar ratio) to produce composite electrolytes, Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} slightly decomposed. However, the composite electrical performance is still acceptable and closely matches the conductivity of similar materials (>0.1 S cm{sup −1} immediately above 500 °C)

  5. Cardiac Mortality Among 200 000 Five-Year Survivors of Cancer Diagnosed at 15 to 39 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Katherine E.; Reulen, Raoul C.; Winter, David L.; Bright, Chloe J.; Fidler, Miranda M.; Frobisher, Clare; Guha, Joyeeta; Wong, Kwok F.; Kelly, Julie; Edgar, Angela B.; McCabe, Martin G.; Whelan, Jeremy; Cutter, David J.; Darby, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Survivors of teenage and young adult cancer are acknowledged as understudied. Little is known about their long-term adverse health risks, particularly of cardiac disease that is increased in other cancer populations where cardiotoxic treatments have been used. Methods: The Teenage and Young Adult Cancer Survivor Study cohort comprises 200 945 5-year survivors of cancer diagnosed at 15 to 39 years of age in England and Wales from 1971 to 2006, and followed to 2014. Standardized mortality ratios, absolute excess risks, and cumulative risks were calculated. Results: Two thousand sixteen survivors died of cardiac disease. For all cancers combined, the standardized mortality ratios for all cardiac diseases combined was greatest for individuals diagnosed at 15 to 19 years of age (4.2; 95% confidence interval, 3.4–5.2) decreasing to 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.3) for individuals aged 35 to 39 years (2P for trend <0.0001). Similar patterns were observed for both standardized mortality ratios and absolute excess risks for ischemic heart disease, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. Survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma, acute myeloid leukaemia, genitourinary cancers other than bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, leukaemia other than acute myeloid, central nervous system tumour, cervical cancer, and breast cancer experienced 3.8, 2.7, 2.0, 1.7, 1.7, 1.6, 1.4, 1.3 and 1.2 times the number of cardiac deaths expected from the general population, respectively. Among survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma aged over 60 years, almost 30% of the total excess number of deaths observed were due to heart disease. Conclusions: This study of over 200 000 cancer survivors shows that age at cancer diagnosis was critical in determining subsequent cardiac mortality risk. For the first time, risk estimates of cardiac death after each cancer diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39 years have been derived from a large population-based cohort with prolonged

  6. Chiropractic treatment of patients younger than 18 years of age: Frequency, patterns and chiropractors’ beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Claire L; Verhoef, Marja J; Conway, Phil J; Sauve, Reg S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore how and when chiropractors are involved in the care of patients younger than 18 years of age, and to examine chiropractors’ beliefs about treating paediatric patients. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 140 chiropractors practising in Alberta. Data were collected by means of a mailed questionnaire, which elicited practice information and chiropractors’ beliefs, and included closed-and open-ended questions related to six vignettes of paediatric health problems. RESULTS: Fifty-seven per cent of chiropractors responded to the questionnaire. All chiropractors indicated that they treat patients younger than 18 years of age. Nine per cent of respondents do not treat patients younger than age two years, and 4% do not treat patients from ages six to 11 years. On average, 13% of chiropractors’ total patient load over the month preceding the completion of the questionnaires consisted of patients younger than the age of 18 years. With increasing age, patients are more likely to present with musculoskeletal problems (23% of patients younger than age two years, 84% of those aged 14 to 17 years). Chiropractors reported that they provided musculoskeletal treatment regardless of the cause of the problem. A high percentage of chiropractors refer to physicians and reported that they would like to provide concomitant care with physicians. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that chiropractors do treat children and that their opinions about this practice vary by specific condition. In addition, substantial percentages of chiropractors indicated that they would like to work with physicians in treating patients with nonmusculoskeletal conditions. PMID:20107550

  7. Colorectal cancer in patients under 50 years of age: A retrospective analysis of two institutions' experience

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Elizabeth A; Feingold, Daniel L; Forde, Kenneth A; Arnell, Tracey; Jang, Joon Ho; Whelan, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients under 50 years of age across two institutions. METHODS: Records of patients under age 50 years of age who had CRC surgery over a 16 year period were assessed at two institutions. The following documents where reviewed: admission notes, operative notes, and discharge summaries. The main study variables included: age, presenting symptoms, family history, tumor location, operation, stage/differentiation of disease, and post operative complications. Stage of disease was classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system: tumor depth; node status; and metastases. RESULTS: CRC was found in 180 patients under age 50 years (87 females, 93 males; mean age 41.4 ± 6.2 years). Young patients accounted for 11.2% of cases during a 6 year period for which the full data set was available. Eight percent had a 1st degree and 12% a 2nd degree family CRC history. Almost all patients (94%) were symptomatic at diagnosis; common symptoms included: bleeding (59%), obstruction (9%), and abdominal/rectal pain (35%). Evaluation was often delayed and bleeding frequently attributed to hemorrhoids. Advanced stage CRC (Stage 3 or 4) was noted in 53% of patients. Most tumors were distal to the splenic flexure (77%) and 39% involved the rectum. Most patients (95%) had segmental resections; 6 patients had subtotal/total colectomy. Poorly differentiated tumors were noted in 12% and mucinous lesions in 19% of patients of which most had Stage 3 or 4 disease. Twenty-two patients (13%) developed recurrence and/or progression of disease to date. Three patients (ages 42, 42 and 49 years) went on to develop metachronous primary colon cancers within 3 to 4 years of their initial resection. CONCLUSION: CRC was common in young patients with no family history. Young patients with symptoms merit a timely evaluation to avoid presentation with late stage CRC. PMID:24039357

  8. Assessment of Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Children Aged 1 to 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Filho, Roberto Pecoits

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI) on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2) were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%); males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%); males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%); males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243). CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004). Conclusions CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years. PMID:26959401

  9. 125Te Synchrotron-Radiation-Based Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Fe1.1Te and FeTe0.5Se0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Kitao, Shinji; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Saito, Makina; Masuda, Ryo; Mitsui, Takaya; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Seto, Makoto

    2014-04-01

    The 125Te Mössbauer spectra of Fe1.1Te and FeTe0.5Se0.5 were measured using synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer spectroscopy. The hyperfine field of Te in the antiferromagnetic phase of Fe1.1Te was evaluated to be 4(1) T at 20 K, and this hyperfine field is considered to be due to the transferred hyperfine field from Fe magnetic moments. The evaluated hyperfine field was comparatively large, suggesting the strong correlation with the magnetic moment of Fe that forms a double-stripe type magnetic structure. For the superconductor FeTe0.5Se0.5, no marked change in its Mössbauer parameters was observed below or above the superconducting transition temperature, indicating that the change in the electronic state of Te was small.

  10. Investigation of Coulomb scattering on sSi/Si0.5Ge0.5/sSOI quantum-well p-MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Wen; Qiang, Liu; Chang, Liu; Yize, Wang; Bo, Zhang; Zhongying, Xue; Zengfeng, Di; Wenjie, Yu; Qingtai, Zhao

    2016-09-01

    sSi/Si0.5Ge0.5/sSOI quantum-well (QW) p-MOSFETs with HfO2/TiN gate stack were fabricated and characterized. According to the low temperature experimental results, carrier mobility of the strained Si0.5Ge0.5 QW p-MOSFET was mainly governed by phonon scattering from 300 to 150 K and Coulomb scattering below 150 K, respectively. Coulomb scattering was intensified by the accumulated inversion charges in the Si cap layer of this Si/SiGe heterostructure, which led to a degradation of carrier mobility in the SiGe channel, especially at low temperature. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61306126, 61306127, 61106015) and the CAS International Collaboration and Innovation Program on High Mobility Materials Engineering.

  11. Electric field-induced tuning of magnetism in PbFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Rayaprol, S. E-mail: brangadi@gmail.com; Mukherjee, S.; Kaushik, S. D.; Matteppanavar, S.; Angadi, B. E-mail: brangadi@gmail.com

    2015-08-07

    We study the influence of electrical poling, carried out at room temperature, on the structure and magnetism of Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} by analyzing the differences observed in structural and magnetic properties before and after the electrical poling. The changes observed in magnetization of Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} before and after electrical poling exhibit considerably strong converse magnetoelectric effect at room temperature. In addition, the strengthening of Fe/Nb-O bond due to electrical poling is discussed on the basis of Raman spectral studies and analysis of neutron diffraction patterns. The potential tunability of magnetization with electrical poling can be an ideal tool for realization of application potential of this multiferroic material.

  12. Phase competition and effect of chemical ordering in ferroelectric relaxor PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paściak, M.; Welberry, T. R.; Hlinka, J.

    2016-08-01

    We present results of first principles calculations for ferroelectric relaxor PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3. An ordered supercell with Sc and Nb atoms alternating in all directions (NaCl-like superstructure) has a ferroelectric ground state with R3 spacegroup. It is characterized by a tilt system a-a-a- as well as different sizes of adjacent oxygen octahedra. Analysis of phonon instabilities in cubic ? reveals similarity with an antiferroelectric PbZrO3. This is further confirmed by the fact that possibly antiferroelectric P21/b structure of PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 (symmetry lowered from Pbam due to Sc/Nb superstructure) is energetically very close to the ground state. The ferroelectric order is shown to be less sensitive to deviations in the B-site distribution than the antiferroelectric one.

  13. Effects of capping on GaN quantum dots deposited on Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Korytov, M.; Benaissa, M.; Huault, T.; Neisius, T.

    2009-04-06

    The impact of the capping process on the structural and morphological properties of GaN quantum dots (QDs) grown on fully relaxed Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N templates was studied by transmission electron microscopy. A morphological transition between the surface QDs, which have a pyramidal shape, and the buried ones, which have a truncated pyramid shape, is evidenced. This shape evolution is accompanied by a volume change: buried QDs are bigger than surface ones. Furthermore a phase separation into Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N barriers was observed in the close vicinity of buried QDs. As a result, the buried QDs were found to be connected with the nearest neighbors by thin Ga-rich zones, whereas Al-rich zones are situated above the QDs.

  14. Low-temperature synthesis and growth of superparamagnetic Zn 0.5Ni 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanosized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia; Wang, Guisu

    2009-05-01

    Mono-disperse spinel Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanosized particles have been synthesized via a hydrothermal method at low temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis indicated that the synthesized nanocrystals were of pure cubic spinel structure with the size about 6-20 nm. The activation energy of grain growth is 35.06 kJ/mol experimented by the Arrhenius equation. A primary experimental model was put forward to shed light on the growth mechanism of crystallined spinel Ni-Zn ferrite nanosized particles under hydrothermal conditions. The magnetic measurements shows that the prepared Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanoparticle possess good superparamagnetic behavior.

  15. Neutron Scattering Study of Magnetic Excitation Spectrum on Fe1-x(Ni/Cu)xTe0.5Se0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Xu, Guangyong; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John

    2012-02-01

    We have performed a series of neutron scattering and magnetization measurements on Fe1-x(Ni/Cu)xTe0.5Se0.5 with different Ni/Cu compositions to study the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity. Substituting 2% and 4% of Ni for Fe reduces Tc from 15 K to 12 K and 8 K, while 10% of Cu results in lost of superconductivity. Spin resonance with lower energy are found in all superconducting samples. The overall shape of the low energy magnetic dispersion changes from two incommensurate vertical columns at T>>Tc to a distinctly different U-shaped dispersion at low temperature in superconducting samples. This spectral reconstruction is apparent for temperature up to 3Tc. On the other hand, no static order around (0.5,0,0.5) was found in any of these samples.

  16. Strikingly dissimilar effect of Mn and Zn dopants imposed on local structural distortion of Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 superconductor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Dong, Peng; Chu, Wangsheng; Xu, Wei; Wen, Haihu; Marcelli, Augusto; Wu, Ziyu

    2013-05-01

    To clarify the contrasting impurity effects of Mn and Zn dopants on the critical temperature of optimally doped Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 superconductors, extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy was implemented at the Fe and As K-edge. In Mn-doped compounds a gradual deviation of the symmetric FeAs4 tetrahedron and weakening of the Fe-As bond was observed. Conversely, in Zn-doped compounds the perfect FeAs4 tetrahedron is maintained and the Fe-As bond is rigid. The local structural details are consistent with the development of superconductivity in these two systems, suggesting a significant role played by the topology of the FeAs4 tetrahedron and rigidness of the Fe-As bond in Mn/Zn-doped Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 superconductors.

  17. Thermochromic effect at room temperature of Sm{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Boileau, A.; Capon, F.; Barrat, S.; Pierson, J. F.; Laffez, P.

    2012-06-01

    Sm{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} thermochromic thin films were synthesized using dc reactive magnetron co-sputtering and subsequent annealing in air. The film structure was studied by x-ray diffraction analysis. To validate the thermochromic potentiality of Sm{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3}, electrical resistivity and infrared transmittance spectra were recorded for temperatures ranging from 77 K to 420 K. The temperature dependence of the optical band gap was estimated in the near infrared range. Upon heating, the optical transmission decreases in the infrared domain showing a thermochromic effect over a wide wavelength range at room temperature.

  18. Anharmonicity of Zone-Center Optical Phonons: Raman Scattering Spectra of GaSe0.5S0.5 Layered Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasanly, N. M.; Aydinli, A.; Aydinli, A.; Kocabaş, C.; Özkan, H.

    The temperature dependencies (10-300 K) of the eight Raman-active mode frequencies and linewidths in GaSe0.5S0.5 layered crystal have been measured in the frequency range from 10 to 320 cm-1. We observed softening and broadening of the optical phonon lines with increasing temperature. Comparison of the experimental data with the theories of the shift and broadening of the interlayer and intralayer phonon lines showed that the temperature dependencies can be explained by the contributions from thermal expansion, lattice anharmonicity and crystal disorder. The purely anharmonic contribution (phonon-phonon coupling) is found to be due to three-phonon processes. It was established that the effect of crystal disorder on the broadening of phonon lines is greater for GaSe0.5S0.5 than for binary compounds GaSe and GaS.

  19. Global and local structural variations near the antiferroelectric regime in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Thangavelu, Karthik; Rayaprol, S.; Siruguri, V.; Sastry, P. U.; Asthana, Saket

    2015-06-24

    Rietveld refinement of neutron and x-ray diffraction data of Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} shows R3c phase stabilization at room temperature. The intermediate antiferroelectric region between 180°C to 280°C exhibits phase coexistence i.e R3c + Pnma, along with decrease in octahedral tilt angle and increase in unit cell volume. The local structural changes observed from Raman scattering in the A-O, Ti-O and TiO{sub 6} phonon modes favor the global structural variation. A possible antiparallel cation displacement due to Pnma phase formation leads to the origin of antiferroelectric ordering in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}.

  20. Dielectric characterization of multiferroic magnetoelectric double-perovskite Y(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coy, L. E.; Fina, I.; Ventura, J.; Yate, L.; Langenberg, E.; Polo, M. C.; Ferrater, C.; Varela, M.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the functional properties of the Y(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O3 epitaxial thin films, growth by pulsed laser deposition, observing the clear features of their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic nature at cryogenic temperature. The characterization of temperature-dependent complex impedance spectroscopy has shown a dielectric anomaly around the ferromagnetic Curie temperature (≈100 K) indicative of coupling between magnetic and electric orders.

  1. Fully ALD-grown TiN/Hf0.5Zr0.5O2/TiN stacks: Ferroelectric and structural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarubin, Sergei; Suvorova, Elena; Spiridonov, Maksim; Negrov, Dmitrii; Chernikova, Anna; Markeev, Andrey; Zenkevich, Andrei

    2016-11-01

    Since the discovery of ferroelectricity (FE) in HfO2-based thin films, they are gaining increasing attention as a viable alternative to conventional FE in the next generation of non-volatile memory devices. In order to further increase the density of elements in the integrated circuits, it is essential to adopt a three-dimensional design. Since atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes are extremely conformal, ALD is the favored approach in the production of 3D ferroelectric random access memory. Here, we report the fabrication of fully ALD-grown capacitors comprising a 10-nm-thick FE Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 layer sandwiched between TiN electrodes, which are subjected to a detailed investigation of the structural and functional properties. The robust FE properties of Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films in capacitors are established by several alternative techniques. We demonstrate a good scalability of TiN/Hf0.5Zr0.5O2/TiN FE capacitors down to 100-nm size and the polarization retention in the test "one transistor-one capacitor" (1T-1C) cells after 1010 writing cycles. The presence of a non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic phase responsible for FE properties in the alloyed polycrystalline Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films is established by transmission electron microscopy. Given the ability of the ALD technique to grow highly conformal films and multilayered structures, the obtained results indicate the route for the design of FE non-volatile memory devices in 3D integrated circuits.

  2. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals.

    PubMed

    Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.

  3. Rotational and Cyclical Variabiity in gamma Cassiopeia (B0.5e)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A.; Henry, G. W.

    2005-12-01

    We report on robotic telescope (APT) photometric monitoring in B, V Johnson bandpasses over nine years of the classical B0.5e star γ Cas. This star is unusual in emiting copious hard X-rays as well as varying over many timescales in the optical. In our work two types of variability stand out: unpredictable cycles of 60-90 day lengths and 2-3% amplitudes, which are slightly larger in the V bandpass, and a colorless, coherent variation with a period of 1.21581{± .00002} days and a full amplitude of 0.5%. The long cycles show irregular glitches and sometimes damp or grow with timescales of even two weeks. The redness of this variation suggests their origin is in the disk. We suggest that an dynamo induced by a magnetorotational instability in the Be disk is responsible for these and associated X-ray variations. The 1.2 day period is undoubtedly a signature of rotational modulation. Its "sawtooth" waveform offers a challenge to any interpretation. However, we suggest it is caused by a helium anomalous distribution on the star's surface. Could γ Cas be a multipole, hot analog of magnetic Bp stars? MAS acknowledges support from NASA Grant NNG05GB60C.

  4. Phase diagram for Bi1-xCaxMnO3 (x < 0.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuhai; Tyson, Trevor; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Xu, Xiaonong

    2007-03-01

    The multiferroic BiMnO3 system, in which ferroelectronic and ferromagnetic orders can coexist, has attracted much research work in the past years for its potential technological applications. For the more general system Bi1-xCaxMnO3, the phase diagram for the Ca rich region (x > 0.4) has been established [1]. In order to understand the multiferroic behavior near the x=0 system, the hole-doped region (00.5) was investigated. We have completed the magnetic, transport, and structural phase diagram of Bi1-xCaxMnO3, by performing detailed structural (XRD and XAFS), magnetization (ZFC/FC) and electrical measurements on Bi1-xCaxMnO3 (00.5), showing the transition form the highly distorted monoclinic phase to the orthorhombic phase. This work is supported by NSF DMR-0512196. [1] H. Woo, T. A. Tyson, M. Croft, S. W. Cheong, and J. C. Woicik, Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 63, 134412/1 (2001).

  5. Ultrasonic Study on Charge Ordering in Nd0:5Ca0:5Mn1-xAlxO3 (x=0,0.03)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Kong, Hui; Su, Jin-rui; Zh, Chang-fei

    2006-12-01

    The ultrasonic, magnetic and transport properties of Nd0:5Ca0:5Mn1-xAlxO3 (x=0,0.03) were studied from 15 to 300 K. The temperature dependencies of resistivity and magnetization show that Nd0:5Ca0:5MnO3 undergoes a charge ordering transition at TCO ~ 257 K. An obvious softening of the longitudinal sound velocity above TCO and a dramatic stiffening below TCO accompanied by an attenuation peak were observed. These features imply a strong electron-phonon interaction via the Jahn-Teller effect in the sample. Another broad attenuation peak was observed at around Tp ~ 80 K. This anomaly is attributed to the phase separation between the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and paramagnetic (PM) phases and gives a direct evidence for spin-phonon coupling in the compound. For the x=0.03 sample, both the minimum of sound velocity and attenuation peaks shift to a lower temperature. The results indicate that the charge ordering and CE-type AFM state in Nd0:5Ca0:5MnO3 are both partially suppressed by replacing Mn with Al.

  6. Co-doping of (Bi(0.5)Na(0.5))TiO(3): secondary phase formation and lattice site preference of Co.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, V; Staab, T E M

    2012-11-14

    Bismuth sodium titanate (Bi(0.5)Na(0.5))TiO(3) (BNT) is considered to be one of the most promising lead-free alternatives to piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). However, the effect of dopants on the material has so far received little attention from an atomic point of view. In this study we investigated the effects of cobalt-doping on the formation of additional phases and determined the preferred lattice site of cobalt in BNT. The latter was achieved by comparing the measured x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra to numerically calculated spectra of cobalt on various lattice sites in BNT. (Bi(0.5)Na(0.5))TiO(3) + x mol% Co (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.6) was synthesized via solid state reaction. As revealed by SEM backscattering images, a secondary phase formed in all doped specimens. Using both XRD and SEM-EDX, it was identified as Co(2)TiO(4) for dopant levels >0.5 mol%. In addition, a certain amount of cobalt was incorporated into BNT, as shown by electron probe microanalysis. This amount increased with increasing dopant levels, suggesting that an equilibrium forms together with the secondary phase. The XANES experiments revealed that cobalt occupies the octahedral B-site in the BNT perovskite lattice, substituting Ti and promoting the formation of oxygen vacancies in the material.

  7. Enhancement of magnetic ordering temperature and magnetodielectric coupling by hole doping in a multiferroic DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mohit K.; Basu, Tathamay; Mukherjee, K.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.

    2017-03-01

    We report the results of our investigation of magnetic, thermodynamic and dielectric properties of Ca substituted half-doped orthochromite, Dy0.6Ca0.4Fe0.5Cr0.5O3. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data bring out that this compound undergoes two antiferromagnetic transitions, one at ~132 and the other at ~22 K. These values are higher than those of DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3. This finding highlights that non-magnetic hole doping in form of Ca+2 in the place of magnetic Dy+3 tends to enhance magnetic transition temperatures in this half-doped orthochromite. We attribute it to possible change in the valence state of Cr/Fe-ion ions due to hole doping. Dielectric anomalies are also seen near the magnetic ordering temperatures indicating magnetodielectric coupling, which is confirmed by magnetic field dependent dielectric studies. The most notable observation is that magnetodielectric coupling strength gets significantly enhanced as compared to DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3. The results reveal that it is possible to tune magnetodielectric coupling by hole doping in this system.

  8. Grain boundary defect compensation in Ti-doped BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaojun; Deng, Jianming; Liu, Saisai; Yan, Tianxiang; Peng, Biaolin; Jia, Wenhao; Mei, Zaoming; Su, Hongbo; Fang, Liang; Liu, Laijun

    2016-09-01

    Giant dielectric ceramics Ba(Nb0.5Fe0.5- x Ti x )O3 (BNFT) have been fabricated by a conventional solid-state reaction. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the crystal structure of these ceramics can be described by the cubic centrosymmetric with Pm- 3m space group. The real part ( ɛ') of dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss (tan δ) of the BNFT ceramics was measured in a frequency range from 40 Hz to 100 MHz at room temperature. The ( ɛ') of all these samples displays a high value (~6500) and a small frequency-dependence from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. We have established a link between conductivity activation energy and defect compensation at grain boundaries. The Ti4+-doped Ba(Nb0.5Fe0.5)O3 as a donor makes a great influence on the grain boundary behavior, which restricts the migration of oxygen vacancy and depresses dielectric loss factor for Ba(Nb0.5Fe0.5)O3 ceramics.

  9. Valence states and metamagnetic phase transition in partially B -site-disordered perovskite EuMn0.5Co0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, A. N.; Volkova, O. S.; Lobanovskii, L. S.; Troyanchuk, I. O.; Hu, Z.; Tjeng, L. H.; Khomskii, D. I.; Lin, H.-J.; Chen, C. T.; Tristan, N.; Kretzschmar, F.; Klingeler, R.; Büchner, B.

    2008-03-01

    The valence states of transition metals were studied by measuring the x-ray absorption spectra at both MnL2,3 and CoL2,3 edges of partially B -site-disordered perovskite EuMn0.5Co0.5O3 . By comparison with analogous spectra in various Co- and Mn-based compounds, the divalent state of the Co ions and the tetravalent state of the Mn ions were established analogous to Mn4+/Co2+ charge ordering found by Dass and Goodenough [Phys. Rev. B 67, 014401 (2003)] in LaMn0.5Co0.5O3 . The specific heat and magnetic susceptibility data indicate the formation of the magnetically ordered state at TC˜120K . The first-order metamagnetic transitions seen in EuMn0.5Co0.5O3 at T

  10. Preparation of nanocrystalline-coated carbon nanotube/Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 composite with excellent electromagnetic property as microwave absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Bing; Shen, Lu; Li, Lei; Huang, Tong-Ming; Hu, Chun-Feng; Pan, Wei-Ming; Jin, Xi-Hai; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian; Huang, Qing

    2013-04-01

    A combined precipitation-hydrothermal method was used to fabricate carbon nanotube/Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite composite powders. The phase, microstructure and electromagnetic properties of CNT/Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 composites were investigated. After surface modification, The zeta potential value of CNTs could maintain at about -50 mV when pH is higher than 8, which affords a suitable surface environment for in situ coating of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanocrystallines. With increasing CNTs content, the saturation magnetization of the composites is gradually reduced, while the complex magnetic permeability changes little. The complex dielectric constant of the composites is significantly increased when the concentration of CNTs approaches the percolation threshold value of 2 wt%. When CNTs content is 5 wt%, the reflection ratios are less than -10 dB within the frequency range 2-9 GHz, and the reflection ratios reach a minimum -32.5 dB at a frequency of about 3.9 GHz.

  11. Phase transition and electrical properties of (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb1-xTax)O3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dunmin; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, H. L. W.

    2008-04-01

    (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb1-xTax)O3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been prepared by an ordinary sintering technique. The results of X-ray diffraction reveal that Ta5+ diffuses into the K0.5Na0.5NbO3 lattices to form a solid solution with an orthorhombic perovskite structure. Because of the high melting temperature of KTaO3, the (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb1-xTax)O3 ceramics can be sintered at higher temperatures. The partial substitution of Ta5+ for the B-site ion Nb5+ decreases both paraelectric/cubic ferroelectric/tetragonal and ferroelectric/tetragonal ferroelectric/orthorhombic phase transition temperatures, TC and TO-T. It also induces a relaxor phase transition and weakens the ferroelectricity of the ceramics. The ceramics become ‘softened’, leading to improvements in d33, kp, kt and ɛr and a decease in Ec, Qm and Np. The ceramics with x=0.075 0.15 become optimum, having d33=127 151 pC/N, kp=0.43 0.44, kt=0.43 0.44, ɛr=541 712, tanδ=1.75 2.48% and TC=378 329 °C.

  12. Realisation of magnetically and atomically abrupt half-metal/semiconductor interface: Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5/Ge(111).

    PubMed

    Nedelkoski, Zlatko; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Glover, Stephanie E; Sanchez, Ana M; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Ghasemi, Arsham; Burrows, Christopher W; Yamada, Shinya; Hamaya, Kohei; Ramasse, Quentin M; Hasnip, Philip J; Hase, Thomas; Bell, Gavin R; Hirohata, Atsufumi; Lazarov, Vlado K

    2016-11-21

    Halfmetal-semiconductor interfaces are crucial for hybrid spintronic devices. Atomically sharp interfaces with high spin polarisation are required for efficient spin injection. In this work we show that thin film of half-metallic full Heusler alloy Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5 with uniform thickness and B2 ordering can form structurally abrupt interface with Ge(111). Atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals that there is a small outdiffusion of Ge into specific atomic planes of the Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5 film, limited to a very narrow 1 nm interface region. First-principles calculations show that this selective outdiffusion along the Fe-Si/Al atomic planes does not change the magnetic moment of the film up to the very interface. Polarized neutron reflectivity, x-ray reflectivity and aberration-corrected electron microscopy confirm that this interface is both magnetically and structurally abrupt. Finally, using first-principles calculations we show that this experimentally realised interface structure, terminated by Co-Ge bonds, preserves the high spin polarization at the Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5/Ge interface, hence can be used as a model to study spin injection from half-metals into semiconductors.

  13. Synthesis, structure and electrochemical properties of LiNaCo0.5Fe0.5PO4F fluoride-phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, Stanislav S.; Kuzovchikov, Sergey M.; Khasanova, Nellie R.; Drozhzhin, Oleg A.; Filimonov, Dmitriy S.; Karakulina, Olesia M.; Hadermann, Joke; Abakumov, Artem M.; Antipov, Evgeny V.

    2016-10-01

    LiNaCo0.5Fe0.5PO4F fluoride-phosphate was synthesized via conventional solid-state and novel freeze-drying routes. The crystal structure was refined based on neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and validated by electron diffraction (ED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The alkali ions are ordered in LiNaCo0.5Fe0.5PO4F and the transition metals jointly occupy the same crystallographic sites. The oxidation state and oxygen coordination environment of the Fe atoms were verified by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Electrochemical tests of the LiNaCo0.5Fe0.5PO4F cathode material demonstrated a reversible activity of the Fe3+/Fe2+ redox couple at the electrode potential near 3.4 V and minor activity of the Co3+/Co2+ redox couple over 5 V vs Li/Li+. The material exhibited the discharge capacity of more than 82% (theo.) regarding Fe3+/Fe2+ in the 2.4÷4.6 V vs Li/Li+ potential range.

  14. Ordered structure and thermal expansion in tungsten bronze Pb₂K(0.5)Li(0.5)Nb₅O₁₅.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun; Rong, Yangchun; Wu, Hui; Huang, Qingzhen; You, Li; Ren, Yang; Fan, Longlong; Chen, Jun; Xing, Xianran

    2014-09-02

    The crystal structure and thermal expansion behaviors of a new tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) ferroelectric, Pb2K(0.5)Li(0.5)Nb5O15, were systematically investigated by selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), neutron powder diffraction, synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-temperature XRD. SAED and Rietveld refinement reveal that Pb2K(0.5)Li(0.5)Nb5O15 displays a commensurate superstructure of simple orthorhombic TTB structure at room temperature. The structure can be described with space group Bb2₁m. The transition to a paraelectric phase (P4/mbm) occurs at 500 °C. Compared with Pb2KNb5O15 (PKN), the substitution of 0.5K(+) with small 0.5Li(+) into PKN causes the tilting of NbO6 octahedra away from the c axis with Δθ ≈ 10° and raises the Curie temperature by 40 °C, and the negative thermal expansion coefficient along the polar b axis increases more than 50% in the temperature range 25-500 °C. We present that, by introduction of Li(+), the enhanced spontaneous polarization is responsible for the enhanced negative thermal expansion along the b axis, which may be caused by more Pb(2+) in the pentagonal caves.

  15. Spin state and magnetic ordering of half-doped Nd0.5Sr0.5CoO3 cobaltite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, M. S.; Rocco, D. L.; Caraballo Vivas, R. J.; Pimentel, B.; Checca, N. R.; Torrão, R.; Paixão, L.; dos Santos, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Cobaltites show intriguing magnetic and transport properties, when compared with manganites for instance, as they exhibit an additional degree of freedom: the spin state of the Co ions. For Nd0.5Sr0.5CoO3 this spin configuration is not well-established, as well as the magnetic ordering below the Curie temperature. Thus, in the present effort, magnetization measurements and a mean-field theoretical model were developed in order to understand in detail these aspects of the half-doped Nd0.5Sr0.5CoO3 cobaltite. These results show that the Co and Nd magnetic sub-lattices couple antiferromagnetically below Curie temperature Tc=215 K down to very low temperature. These findings clarify the presence of the plateau observed at 80 K on M(T) curve, which is erroneously attributed, in the literature, to the onset of an antiferromagnetic ordering. Magnetization data also clearly shows that Co3+ and Co4+ are in an intermediate spin state. In addition, experimental and theoretical magnetic entropy changes were determined and a comparative analysis among these two leads to ratify the results above claimed. Finally, from all those results, a magnetic phase diagram for Nd0.5Sr0.5CoO3. could be drawn.

  16. Bulk Superconductivity Induced by In-Plane Chemical Pressure Effect in Eu0.5La0.5FBiS2-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinno, Gen; Jha, Rajveer; Yamada, Akira; Higashinaka, Ryuji; Matsuda, Tatsuma D.; Aoki, Yuji; Nagao, Masanori; Miura, Osuke; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu

    2016-12-01

    We have investigated the Se substitution effect on the superconductivity of optimally doped BiS2-based superconductor Eu0.5La0.5FBiS2. Eu0.5La0.5FBiS2-xSex samples with x = 0-1 were synthesized. With increasing x, in-plane chemical pressure is enhanced. For x ≥ 0.6, superconducting transitions with a large shielding volume fraction are observed in magnetic susceptibility measurements, and the highest Tc is 3.8 K for x = 0.8. From low-temperature electrical resistivity measurements, a zero-resistivity state is observed for all the samples, and the highest Tc is observed for x = 0.8. With increasing Se concentration, the characteristic electrical resistivity changes from semiconducting-like to metallic, suggesting that the emergence of bulk superconductivity is linked with the enhanced metallicity. A superconductivity phase diagram of the Eu0.5La0.5FBiS2-xSex superconductor is established.

  17. Realisation of magnetically and atomically abrupt half-metal/semiconductor interface: Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5/Ge(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelkoski, Zlatko; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Glover, Stephanie E.; Sanchez, Ana M.; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Ghasemi, Arsham; Burrows, Christopher W.; Yamada, Shinya; Hamaya, Kohei; Ramasse, Quentin M.; Hasnip, Philip J.; Hase, Thomas; Bell, Gavin R.; Hirohata, Atsufumi; Lazarov, Vlado K.

    2016-11-01

    Halfmetal-semiconductor interfaces are crucial for hybrid spintronic devices. Atomically sharp interfaces with high spin polarisation are required for efficient spin injection. In this work we show that thin film of half-metallic full Heusler alloy Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5 with uniform thickness and B2 ordering can form structurally abrupt interface with Ge(111). Atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals that there is a small outdiffusion of Ge into specific atomic planes of the Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5 film, limited to a very narrow 1 nm interface region. First-principles calculations show that this selective outdiffusion along the Fe-Si/Al atomic planes does not change the magnetic moment of the film up to the very interface. Polarized neutron reflectivity, x-ray reflectivity and aberration-corrected electron microscopy confirm that this interface is both magnetically and structurally abrupt. Finally, using first-principles calculations we show that this experimentally realised interface structure, terminated by Co-Ge bonds, preserves the high spin polarization at the Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5/Ge interface, hence can be used as a model to study spin injection from half-metals into semiconductors.

  18. Realisation of magnetically and atomically abrupt half-metal/semiconductor interface: Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5/Ge(111)

    PubMed Central

    Nedelkoski, Zlatko; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Glover, Stephanie E.; Sanchez, Ana M.; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Ghasemi, Arsham; Burrows, Christopher W.; Yamada, Shinya; Hamaya, Kohei; Ramasse, Quentin M.; Hasnip, Philip J.; Hase, Thomas; Bell, Gavin R.; Hirohata, Atsufumi; Lazarov, Vlado K.

    2016-01-01

    Halfmetal-semiconductor interfaces are crucial for hybrid spintronic devices. Atomically sharp interfaces with high spin polarisation are required for efficient spin injection. In this work we show that thin film of half-metallic full Heusler alloy Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5 with uniform thickness and B2 ordering can form structurally abrupt interface with Ge(111). Atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals that there is a small outdiffusion of Ge into specific atomic planes of the Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5 film, limited to a very narrow 1 nm interface region. First-principles calculations show that this selective outdiffusion along the Fe-Si/Al atomic planes does not change the magnetic moment of the film up to the very interface. Polarized neutron reflectivity, x-ray reflectivity and aberration-corrected electron microscopy confirm that this interface is both magnetically and structurally abrupt. Finally, using first-principles calculations we show that this experimentally realised interface structure, terminated by Co-Ge bonds, preserves the high spin polarization at the Co2FeSi0.5Al0.5/Ge interface, hence can be used as a model to study spin injection from half-metals into semiconductors. PMID:27869132

  19. Enhancement of magnetic ordering and magnetodielectric coupling by hole doping in a multiferroic DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mohit; Basu, Tathamay; Mukherjee, Kaustav; Sampathkumaran, E

    2016-12-19

    We report the results of our investigations of magnetic, thermodynamic and dielectric properties of Ca substituted half-doped orthochromite, Dy0.6Ca0.4Fe0.5Cr0.5O3. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data bring out that this compound undergoes two magnetic transitions, one at ~ 132 and the other at ~22 K. These values are higher than that those of DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3. This finding highlights that non-magnetic hole doping of Ca+2 in the place of magnetic Dy+3 tends to enhance magnetic transition temperatures in this half-doped orthochromite. We attribute it to possible change in the valence state of Cr/Fe-ion ions due to hole doping. Dielectric anomalies are also seen near the magnetic ordering temperatures indicating magnetodielectric coupling, which is confirmed by magnetic field dependent dielectric studies. The most notable observation is that magnetodielectric coupling strength gets significantly enhanced as compared to DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3. The results reveal that it is possible to tune magnetoelectric coupling by hole doping in this system.

  20. Prevalence of cataract in adult Down's syndrome patients aged 28 to 83 years

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Age-related cataract is the major cause of blindness in humans throughout the world. The majority of previous studies of cataract in Down's syndrome (which usually results from trisomy 21) have reported that the prevalence of this ocular abnormality is higher for a given age range than in the general population. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of cataract in a well-defined population of adults with Down's syndrome. Methods An in-patient population of 68 adults (35 males and 33 females) with Down's syndrome, aged between 28.9 and 83.3 years, underwent ophthalmological examination for the presence of cataracts. Results Overall, the prevalence of cataract was 16.2%, with no significant difference in the prevalence between males (17.1%) and females (15.2%). In those aged between 45 and 64 years, the prevalence was 16.7%, rising in those aged between 65 and 75 years to 28.6%. Conclusion Compared with the general population, the prevalence of cataract in Down's syndrome was raised in those aged 45 to 64, but not in those aged 65 to 75 years; the latter might be a function of the relatively small number of patients in this age group. The increased prevalence of cataract found in those in the 45- to 64-year-old age group may be the result of increased levels of the copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase enzyme (CuZnSOD), in turn resulting from the location of the associated five exons of SOD1 on chromosome 21. These elevated levels of superoxide dismutase may give rise to increased levels of reactive species, including hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, which may increase the risk of cataractogenesis. It is suggested that nutritional supplementation with antioxidants may therefore help reduce the prevalence of cataract in Down's syndrome. PMID:18034878

  1. Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Cognitive, Academic, and Behavior Outcomes at 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…

  2. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

  3. Pap Smear Test Prevalence within Three Years (Age 18+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For Pap smear test, a woman 18 years of age or older must have reported having at least one Pap smear test in her life. Furthermore, she should have had one within the last three years by the time of interview.

  4. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  5. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  6. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22233 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation...

  7. 77 FR 53892 - Determination That ALOXI (Palonosetron Hydrochloride) Capsules, 0.5 Milligram (Base), Were Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...) Capsules, 0.5 Milligram (Base), Were Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY... determined that ALOXI (palonosetron hydrochloride (HCl)) Capsules, 0.5 milligram (mg) (base), were not... abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for palonosetron HCl capsules, 0.5 mg (base), if all other legal...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22233 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation...

  9. Neutron structural characterization and transport properties of oxidized and reduced La0.5Sr0.5M0.5Ti0.5O3 (M = Mn, Fe) perovskites: Possible electrode materials in solid-oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Coronado, R.; Alonso, J. A.; Aguadero, A.; Perez-Coll, D.; Fernández-Díaz, M. T.

    2013-03-01

    Oxygen-stoichiometric La0.5Sr0.5M0.5Ti0.5O3 (M = Mn, Fe) perovskites and the corresponding reduced specimens, of La0.5Sr0.5M0.5Ti0.5O3-δ composition, have been prepared and characterized by x-ray diffraction and neutron powder diffraction (NPD), in complement with thermal analysis, electrical conductivity, and thermal expansion measurements. NPD data show that these perovskites are all orthorhombic, space group Pbnm (No. 62). The total reduction of M3+ to M2+ in the reduced phases is accompanied with the occurrence of oxygen vacancies, which was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Above room-temperature, these phases undergo two structural phase transitions studied in situ from NPD data; the former to a tetragonal (I4/mcm) structure, and the second one to a cubic (Pm-3m) phase. All the oxides display a semiconductor-like behavior with a maximum conductivity value of 15 S.cm-1 for the oxidized La0.5Sr0.5Mn0.5Ti0.5O3 phase at 850 °C. The measured thermal expansion coefficients perfectly match with the values usually displayed by solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolytes. The obtained results present these perovskites as alternative electrodes for SOFCs.

  10. Similarity of the CDC and WHO weight-for-length growth charts in predicting risk of obesity at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 weight-for-length (WFL) or BMI growth charts are now recommended as the new standard for children under 24 months. The objective of this study was to examine associations of ever being overweight during 1-24 months, based on the older Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and WHO cutpoints, with risk of obesity at age 5 years. From well-child visits to a Massachusetts multi-site group practice during 1980-2008, we studied 15,488 children with length/height and weight measurements at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and at 5 years. The main exposures were ever being overweight during 1-24 months using each of three cutpoints: CDC WFL ≥ 95th percentile, WHO WFL or BMI ≥ 97.7th percentile. The main outcome was obesity at 5 years (CDC BMI ≥ 95th percentile). We calculated multivariable odds ratios (ORs), adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and year. At 5 years, 10.8% of participants were obese. During 1-24 months, 21.3, 18.3, and 20.2% were ever overweight using CDC WFL, WHO WFL, and WHO BMI cutpoints, respectively. ORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) for associations of ever being overweight during 1-24 months with obesity at 5 years were 6.0 (5.4, 6.6), 6.3 (5.7, 7.0), and 6.0 (5.4, 6.7), respectively. Ever being overweight in the first 2 years of life is a strong predictor of obesity at 5 years. CDC WFL, WHO WFL, and WHO BMI cutpoints for overweight in early childhood provided similar estimates of later obesity risk.

  11. Elective shoulder arthroplasty in patients older than ninety years of age.

    PubMed

    Churchill, R Sean

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the outcome of elective shoulder arthroplasty for glenohumeral osteoarthritis or rotator cuff arthropathy in patients aged older than 90 years. The study included 7 shoulders in 6 patients with an average age of 93 years 5 months, (range, 91 years 0 months to 97 years 4 months). Average follow-up was 2.2 years, (range, 1-4 years). Preoperative range of motion, Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, and Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) scores were obtained and compared with postoperative values at 3 and 6 months and yearly thereafter. Average forward elevation improved from 87 degrees to 137 degrees (P < .00001), and external rotation to the side improved from 0 degrees to 50 degrees (P < .0001). The SST scores improved from a preoperative average of 2.0 to 6.1 at 3 months (P < .0001), 6.9 at 6 months (P < .0001), 8.0 at 1 year (P < .00001), and 7.4 at 2 years (P < .0001). Significant improvements occurred in 6 of 8 SF-36 domains: Mental Health (P < .05), Vitality (P < .01), Role limitations due to emotional problems (P < .05), Social Function (P < .001), Role limitations due to physical health (P < .001), and Comfort (P < .00001). No patient had worse pain or function postoperatively. These data suggest that elective shoulder arthroplasty can be performed in patients 90 years of age and older, providing excellent pain relief, improved functional outcome, and enhanced general health status.

  12. The Pre-Retirement Years: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnes, Herbert S.; And Others

    This volume examines a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle-aged men. It is based on a unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews among the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971. The data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period,…

  13. Factors influencing survival in hemodialysis patients aged older than 75 years: 2.5-year outcome study.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, P; Combe, C; Laville, M; Fouque, D; Azar, R; Cano, N; Canaud, B; Roth, H; Leverve, X; Aparicio, M

    2001-05-01

    The incidence of malnutrition is widely held to be greater in the elderly, but this specific factor has not been extensively studied in elderly dialysis patients. In a 30-month follow-up prospective study, we evaluated the role of nutrition on the outcome of 290 stable hemodialysis (HD) outpatients aged older than 75 years followed up in 20 French HD centers (167 men, 123 women; age, 79.8 +/- 4.2 years; previous time on dialysis, 41 +/- 38 months). On the same day in January 1996, predialysis and postdialysis blood samples were collected according to recommended procedures for dialysis quantification. Normalized protein catabolic rate, dialysis adequacy parameters, and estimation of lean body mass (LBM; expressed as observed/expected LBM values [obs/exp LBM]) were computed from predialysis and postdialysis urea and creatinine levels. Overall survival rates were 80% and 65% after 1 and 2 years of follow-up, respectively, and were significantly less in patients with the lower quartile of obs/exp LBM. In univariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model, survival was significantly influenced by age, albumin level, prealbumin level, body mass index, and diabetes, but not by sex, Kt/V, duration of dialysis, cholesterol level, hemoglobin level, or obs/exp LBM. In multivariate analysis, no variable remained significant. Cardiovascular mortality accounted for 52.1% of the patient deaths. We conclude that in elderly HD patients, malnutrition influences overall survival despite adequate dialysis treatment.

  14. North Atlantic circulation and reservoir age changes over the past 41,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Joseph V.; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.

    2013-07-01

    on the timing of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) changes during the last deglaciation are fundamental to understanding the climate's rapid response to insolation forcing. However, uncertainty about high-latitude North Atlantic (HLNA) radiocarbon reservoir ages has previously precluded robust age model development for this critical region. HLNA reservoir ages also serve as a proxy for AMOC strength. We present regionally averaged HLNA reservoir ages for 0 to 41 thousand years before the present (kyr BP) based on over 500 radiocarbon dates from 33 North Atlantic cores. An early deglacial increase to >1000 14C yr reservoir ages between 18.5 and 16.5 kyr BP suggests reduced AMOC before peak Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) ice-rafted debris (IRD). A rapid decrease in reservoir ages coincident with the IRD maximum at 16 kyr BP indicates strong stratification of the upper water column caused by massive freshwater release.

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Malnutrition among Guatemalan Children at 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gippetti, James; Wager, Stefan; Chavez, Alejandro; Wise, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence and predictors of malnutrition among 2-year old children in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Methods Prospective cohort of 852 Guatemalan children in San Lucas Toliman, Guatemala followed from birth to age 2 from May 2008 to December 2013. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and health data of children was collected at 2 month intervals. Results Among the 402 males and 450 females in the cohort, mean weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) declined from -0.67 ± 1.01 at 1 year to -1.07 ± 0.87 at 2 years, while mean height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) declined from -1.88 ± 1.19 at 1 year to -2.37 ± 0.99 at 2 years. Using multiple linear regression modeling, number of children <5 years old, vomiting in the past week, fever in the past week, and WAZ at 1 year were significant predictors of WAZ at 2 years. Significant predictors of HAZ at 2 years included household size, number of children <5 years old, diarrhea in the past week, WAZ at 1 year, and HAZ at 1 year. Vomiting in the past week and WAZ at 1 year were significant predictors of weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) at 2 years. Conclusions Number of children <5 years old, symptoms such as vomiting or diarrhea in the previous week, and prior nutritional status were the most significant predictors of malnutrition in this cohort. Future research may focus on the application of models to develop predictive algorithms for mobile device technology, as well as the identification of other predictors of malnutrition that are not well characterized such as the interaction of environmental exposures with protein consumption and epigenetics. PMID:27806066

  16. Eribulin Monotherapy in Patients Aged 70 Years and Older With Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Javier; Vahdat, Linda T.; Cardoso, Fatima; Twelves, Chris; Wanders, Jantien; Dutcus, Corina E.; Yang, Jay; Seegobin, Seth; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Following the demonstrated efficacy and safety of eribulin mesylate in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer, an exploratory analysis was performed to investigate the effect of age in these patients. Methods. Data were pooled from two single-arm phase II studies and one open-label randomized phase III study in which patients received eribulin mesylate at 1.4 mg/m2 as 2- to 5-minute intravenous infusions on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. The effect of age on median overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), and incidence of adverse events (AEs) was calculated for four age groups (<50 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, ≥70 years). Results. Overall, 827 patients were included in the analysis (<50 years, n = 253; 50–59 years, n = 289; 60–69 years, n = 206; ≥70 years, n = 79). Age had no significant impact on OS (11.8 months, 12.3 months, 11.7 months, and 12.5 months, respectively; p = .82), PFS (3.5 months, 2.9 months, 3.8 months, and 4.0 months, respectively; p = .42), ORR (12.7%, 12.5%, 6.3%, and 10.1%, respectively), or CBR (20.2%, 20.8%, 20.4%, and 21.5%, respectively). Although some AEs had higher incidence in either the youngest or the oldest subgroup, there was no overall effect of age on the incidence of AEs (including neuropathy, neutropenia, and leukopenia). Conclusion. Eribulin monotherapy in these selected older patients with good baseline performance status led to OS, PFS, ORR, CBR, and tolerability similar to those of younger patients with metastatic breast cancer. The benefits and risks of eribulin appear to be similar across age groups. PMID:24682463

  17. [Bolsa Família: food and nutrition insecurity of children under five years of age].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Flávia; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha; da Costa, Islandia Bezerra; Almeida, Claudia Choma Bettega; Matuda, Nívea da Silva

    2014-05-01

    This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of the population base conducted in the town of Colombo in the state of Paraná. The objectives were to identify the prevalence of food insecurity in families that are beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program and the factors related to this condition, and describe the nutritional status of children under five years of age. Analyses of association were performed using Fisher's exact test. The sample included 442 families, of which 168 have children under five years of age. The Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale was applied to evaluate food insecurity and the nutritional status of the 199 children evaluated was determined by the height-for-age, weight-for-age and body mass-for-age indices in accordance with the WHO reference values for 2006. The prevalence of food insecurity was 81.6%. Overweight and stunting among children coexisted. Food insecurity was found to be associated with the height-for-age index among children under two years of age. The per capita income and food deficits influenced the situation of food insecurity significantly.

  18. Herpes zoster vaccine awareness among people ≥ 50 years of age and its implications on immunization.

    PubMed

    Javed, Saba; Javed, Fatima; Mays, Rana M; Tyring, Stephen K

    2012-08-15

    Herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine was recently approved for adults ≥ 50 years of age and has been shown to reduce the incidence of zoster, postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and associated healthcare costs. However, currently HZ immunization is sub-optimal. We examined awareness of HZ and of the HZ vaccine. Information was gathered via a one-page survey given to patients ≥ 50 years of age presenting at the dermatology clinic. From the surveyed population of 1000 individuals, the HZ vaccination rate was 11.9 percent. Vaccination coverage was highest for the ≥ 70 age group (18.3%), followed by age groups 60-69 (8.9%) and 50-59 (1.4%). Individuals with female gender, older age (≥ 70 years), higher level of education (college and beyond), retired employment status, memory of chickenpox, knowledge of shingles, and history of shingles and influenza vaccination in the past year all were more likely to have heard of and have received the HZ vaccine (except female gender, education level, and awareness of shingles). Our study suggests lack of awareness to be a significant factor in non-immunization with zoster vaccine. Targeting adults in younger age groups and minorities would be beneficial towards increasing zoster vaccine awareness and thus preventing herpes zoster and its many complications.

  19. Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo schoolchildren during the last 60 years.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H; Liestøl, K; Walløe, L

    1980-01-01

    Every 5th year since 1920 the heights and weights of all Oslo schoolchildren (aged 7 to 18 years) have been measured, and the measurements processed centrally. For ages between 8 and 14 the mean height increased by about 4 cm per decade between 1920 and 1940 for both sexes. A drop of about 1.5 cm occurred during World War II, followed by a rapid catch-up. Since 1950, height has increased only moderately. A weight increase of between 1.5 kg (8 years old) and 3.5 kg (13 years old) per decade before 1940 was followed by a drop during the war equivalent to somewhat less than one decade's gain. A rapid catch-up after the war was followed by a slight decrease since 1950, especially for ages above puberty. A stable difference in the social composition of the eastern and western districts of Oslo allowed comparison of the trends for lower and higher social strata. Before the war, children from higher strata were taller than children from lower strata, but this difference has now practically disappeared. Children from the higher strata weighed more until about 1955, but later those from the lower strata weighed markedly more, especially during adolescence. The difference in menarcheal age between social strata was examined in 1928, 1952, 1970 and 1975. The time trend parallels that for weight: menarcheal age was lowest among higher strata until the 1950s, but after that the lower strata experienced the lowest menarcheal age.

  20. Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-07-12

    Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide.

  1. Structural and Magnetic Properties Evolution of Li-Substituted Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 Ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuehang; Chen, Wen; Wu, Wenwei; Li, Hongjiao; Lin, Cuiwu

    2017-01-01

    Four types of Co-Ni based ferrites materials with the general formula Li x Co0.5Ni0.5- x Fe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x≤0.3) were successfully synthesized by thermal decomposition of oxalates in air. The effect of substitution of diamagnetic Li+ ions for partial Ni2+ ions in a spinel lattice on the crystalline structure and the magnetic properties of Co-Ni ferrites was studied. X-ray diffraction examination confirms that a high-crystallized Li x Co0.5Ni0.5- x Fe2O4 with cubic spinel structure is obtained when the precursor is calcined at 900°C in air for 3 h. The substitution of Li+ ions for partial Ni2+ ions does not change the spinel crystalline structure of MFe2O4, but crystallinity of Li x Co0.5Ni0.5- x Fe2O4 can be improved. The incorporation of Li+ ions in place of Ni2+ ions in Co-Ni ferrites decreases the average crystallite size and results in higher specific saturation magnetization as compared to un-substituted Co-Ni ferrites. In this study, Li0.1Co0.5Ni0.4Fe2O4, obtained at 900°C, exhibits the highest specific saturation magnetization of 88 emu/g ± 2 emu/g and magnetic moment (3.60 μ B ± 0.05 μ B).

  2. Investigation of structural and temperature dependent electromagnetic properties of Co0.5Zn0.5CrxFe2-xO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. H. R.; Hossain, A. K. M. Akther

    2015-10-01

    Mixed ferrites with nominal chemical compositions Co0.5Zn0.5CrxFe2-xO4 ranging from x=0 to 0.5 in the steps of 0.1 have been prepared by the standard solid state reaction method. XRD patterns confirm single phase and formation of cubic spinel structure. The lattice constant (a0), average grain size (D) and bulk density (ρB) are decreased with increasing Cr content. The ρB decreases with Cr content due to lighter atomic weight. On the other hand, both D and ρB of each composition increase with increasing sintering temperature (Ts). All samples show reentrant spin glass transition at low temperature in zero field cooled magnetization. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and Néel temperature (TN) decrease with Cr substitution due to weakening the super-exchange interaction. The coercivity (Hc) increases with increasing Cr content for various Co0.5Zn0.5CrxFe2-xO4. It may be attributed to the effect of decreasing D. Frequency dependent initial permeability (μ‧i) decreases with increasing Cr content. The Ms and ρB play an important role in changing μ‧i. On the other hand, the μ‧i for each composition increases with increasing Ts. The highest relative quality factor (Q) is observed for various Co0.5Zn0.5CrxFe2-xO4 sintered at 1573 K. The DC electrical resistivity (ρDC) of these samples increases with increasing Cr content due to decreasing Fe3+ ions at B-site.

  3. Oxidative Stress Function in Women over 40 Years of Age, Considering Their Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves Mota, Maria Paula; Santos, Zirlene; Soares, Jorge; Pereira, Ana; Fonseca, Sandra; Peixoto, Francisco; Gaivão, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Aging is dependent on biological processes that determine the aging of the organism at the cellular level. The Oxidative Stress Theory of Aging might explain some of the age-related changes in cell macromolecules. Moreover, exposome and lifestyle may also induce changes in cell damage induced by oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to analyze the related redox changes in lymphocyte function of healthy women over 40 years old. Three groups: younger (YG: 40–49 years), middle aged (MAG: 50–59 years), and older (OG: ≥60 years) were evaluated on anthropometric variables, blood pressure, cardiovascular fitness, lifestyle habits, perceived stress, DNA damage, malondialdehyde, catalase activity, and total antioxidant capacity. Physical activity and cardiovascular fitness were significantly higher in YG and MAG as compared to the OG. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly with group age. Frequency and total amount of alcohol intake were lower in the OG and higher in the MAG. No significant differences were observed between the three groups in oxidative stress parameters. Only alcohol consumption was associated with the higher DNA FPG-sensitive sites, and only in the YG (p < 0.05). Healthy lifestyle is critical to avoiding major ailments associated with aging. This may be inferred from the lack of significant differences in the various oxidative stress parameters measured in the healthy women over the age of 40 who took part in the study. Conscious lifestyle behaviors (decrease in alcohol and smoking habits) could have impaired the expected age-related oxidative stress increase. PMID:28360887

  4. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  5. Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  6. Velopharyngeal function from the age of three to eight years in cleft palate patients.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, J; Haapanen, M L; Paaso, M; Laitinen, J; Ranta, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study changes of velopharyngeal function between the ages of 3 and 8 years. The subjects were 65 (30 girls and 35 boys) Finnish-speaking non-syndromic children with isolated cleft palate (CP, n = 35) and with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP, n = 30) operated primarily at the age of 1.0-2.0 years. Before the age of 8 years, 16 children required velopharyngoplasty (VPP, ad modum Hoenig). The children were followed up for speech at the age of 3, 6 and 8 years. The perceptual speech characteristics nasal air emission, hypernasality, weakness of pressure consonants and compensatory articulations were registered. Indications for a velopharyngeal flap (by VPP) were identified on the basis of perceptual speech characteristics and confirmed by instrumental examinations. The results indicated that the method and timing of primary palatoplasty and sex did not correlate with the quality of velopharyngeal function. It was good both in children treated conservatively or with VPP at the age of 8 years. The children with a flap required speech therapy significantly more often than other children. No child with VPP and only 12% of the children without VPP had simultaneous nasal air emissions and hypernasality. Compensatory articulation was completely eliminated and weakness of pressure consonants was diagnosed only in 1 child without VPP. The CP children required significantly more often a velopharyngeal flap than the UCLP children. In conclusion, the CP and UCLP children develop a similar velopharyngeal function but in a different way.

  7. New Observations of Soft X-ray (0.5-5 keV) Solar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, A.; Woods, T. N.; Mason, J. P.; Jones, A. R.; Warren, H. P.

    2013-12-01

    The solar corona is the brightest source of X-rays in the solar system, and the X-ray emission is highly variable on many time scales. However, the actual solar soft X-ray (SXR) (0.5-5 keV) spectrum is not well known, particularly during solar quiet periods, as, with few exceptions, this energy range has not been systematically studied in many years. Previous observations include high-resolution but very narrow-band spectra from crystal spectrometers (e.g., Yohkoh/BCS), or integrated broadband irradiances from photometers (e.g., GOES/XRS, TIMED/XPS, etc.) that lack detailed spectral information. In recent years, broadband measurements with moderate energy resolution (~0.5-0.7 keV FWHM) were made by SphinX on CORONAS-Photon and SAX on MESSENGER, although they did not extend to energies below ~1 keV. We present observations of solar SXR emission obtained using new instrumentation flown on recent SDO/EVE calibration rocket underflights. The photon-counting spectrometer, a commercial Amptek X123 with a silicon drift detector and an 8 μm Be window, measures the solar disk-integrated SXR emission from ~0.5 to >10 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution and 1 s cadence. A novel imager, a pinhole X-ray camera using a cooled frame-transfer CCD (15 μm pixel pitch), Ti/Al/C filter, and 5000 line/mm Au transmission grating, images the full Sun in multiple spectral orders from ~0.1 to ~5 nm with ~10 arcsec/pixel and ~0.01 nm/pixel spatial and spectral detector scales, respectively, and 10 s cadence. These instruments are prototypes for future CubeSat missions currently being developed. We present new results of solar observations on 04 October 2013 (NASA sounding rocket 36.290). We compare with previous results from 23 June 2012 (NASA sounding rocket 36.286), during which solar activity was low and no signal was observed above ~4 keV. We compare our spectral and imaging measurements with spectra and broadband irradiances from other instruments, including SDO/EVE, GOES/XRS, TIMED

  8. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  9. Unusual high-spin Fe5 +-Ni3 + state and strong ferromagnetism in the mixed perovskite SrFe0.5Ni0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fengren; Li, Zhengwei; Zhao, Zhen; Yang, Ke; Wu, Hua

    2016-12-01

    The charge-spin-orbital state plays a vital role in correlated oxides with mixed transition-metal elements, and it is often a matter of debate. Here, we address this issue for the newly synthesized unusual high-valence perovskite SrFe1 -xNixO3 , using an analysis of crystal-field level diagrams, density functional calculations, and Monte Carlo simulations. We have identified the formal high-spin Fe5 +(t2g 3, S =3 /2 ) and high-spin Ni3 +(t2g 5eg2 , S =3 /2 ) state for SrFe0.5Ni0.5O3 , rather than the previously suggested high-spin Fe4 +(t2g 3eg1, S =2 ) and low-spin Ni4 + (t2g 6, S =0 ) state. Moreover, our model and the present results well explain the observed small lattice variation of SrFe1 -xNixO3 (0 ≤x ≤0.5 ) and the above room temperature ferromagnetic order in SrFe0.5Ni0.5O3 regardless of a Fe-Ni atomic order or disorder.

  10. Dielectric relaxation and magnetodielectric response in DyMn{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, B.; Yang, J. Zuo, X. Z.; Zhu, X. B.; Dai, J. M.; Song, W. H.; Kan, X. C.; Zu, L.; Sun, Y. P.

    2015-09-28

    We investigate the structural, magnetic, and magnetodielectric properties of DyMn{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. The sample can be indexed with an orthorhombic phase with B site disordered space group Pbnm. The valence state of both Mn and Cr ions are suggested to be +3 based on the results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Two thermally excited dielectric relaxation at temperatures T{sub N2} < T< 300 K and large magnetodielectric effect (MDC = 20%–30%) due to the disordered arrangement of Mn{sup 3+}/Cr{sup 3+} ions associated with electron hopping between them are observed. The absence of any noticeable magnetoresistance effect (MR < 0.5%) demonstrates that the observed magnetodielectric effect is an intrinsic behavior. These results suggest that DyMn{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} is a magnetodielectric compound, whose dielectric properties are dependence of the applied magnetic field, which exhibits such effects near room temperature and holds great promise for future device applications.

  11. Age-associated losses of brain volume predict longitudinal cognitive declines over 8 to 20 years.

    PubMed

    Rabbitt, Patrick; Ibrahim, Said; Lunn, Mary; Scott, Marietta; Thacker, Neil; Hutchinson, Charles; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Jackson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Absolute differences in global brain volume predict differences in cognitive ability among healthy older adults. However, absolute differences confound lifelong differences in brain size with amounts of age-related shrinkage. Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume were made to estimate age-related shrinkage in 93 healthy volunteers aged 63 to 86 years. Their current levels of brain shrinkage predicted their amounts of decline over the previous 8 to 20 years on repeated assessments during a longitudinal study on the Cattell "Culture Fair" Intelligence Test, on two tests of information processing speed, and marginally on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1981), but not on three memory tests. Loss of brain volume is an effective marker both for current cognitive status and for amounts and rates of previous age-related cognitive losses.

  12. Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

    2012-08-01

    We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new data collected in 2009 and 2010. The age record is analyzed to explore the potential value of groundwater age monitoring for (1) providing additional constraints on the age distribution in mixed-age samples, and (2) identifying temporal changes in groundwater recharge. Motivation for this study is provided by a lack of knowledge of how groundwater recharge and discharge (stream baseflow) in mountain watersheds might respond to climate change, and a resulting need to better understand mountain aquifer residence times, storage, and recharge. Piston-flow ages for the springs generally range from 10 to 50 yr. The plausibility of different age mixing models is tested by comparing observed temporal variations in age with those simulated using simple numerical models, and by examining plots comparing the concentrations of different age tracers. We find that most spring waters are best characterized by a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (recharged after 1950). Identification of this mixing model would not have been possible without data from multiple age tracers and data from multiple years. Computed mean ages vary substantially (often by 3-7 yr) between sampling events for most springs, including those with ages of 20-50 yr. Mean age variations are likely controlled by variations in the magnitude of the new fraction, which is positively correlated with annual snowpack water content. Most springs show overall upward trends in mean age for the sampling period, consistent with decreasing recharge rates in response to diminishing snowpack. Groundwater age monitoring appears to be a potentially

  13. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis-related years of potential life lost before age 65 years - United States, 1968-2006.

    PubMed

    2009-12-25

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a preventable, slowly progressive parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation and deposition of coal mine dust in the lungs. The incidence and rate of CWP progression is related to the amount of respirable coal dust to which miners were exposed during their working lifetime. Early pneumoconiosis can be asymptomatic, but advanced disease often leads to disability and premature death. To characterize the impact of premature mortality attributed to CWP in the United States, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed annual underlying cause of death data from 1968-2006, the most recent years for which complete data were available. Years of potential life lost before age 65 years (YPLL), and mean YPLL were calculated using standard methodology. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicate that during 1968-2006, a total of 22,625 YPLL were attributed to CWP (mean per decedent: 5.7). Annual YPLL attributed to CWP decreased 91.2%, from an average of 1,484 YPLL per year during 1968-1972 to 154 per year during 2002-2006. However, annual YPLL from CWP have been increasing since 2002, from 135 in that year to 169 YPLL in 2006, suggesting a need for strengthening CWP prevention measures. CDC intends to maintain surveillance of CWP deaths to determine future trends and promote safer work environments.

  14. Geostatistical Model-Based Estimates of Schistosomiasis Prevalence among Individuals Aged ≤20 Years in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou; Traoré, Mamadou S.; Ndir, Omar; Ratard, Raoult C.; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. Methodology We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i) to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ≤20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii) to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. Principal Findings Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ≤20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia) and 37.1% (Liberia) for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia) and 51.6% (Sierra Leone) for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3%) than reported before (30.0%). Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. Conclusion/Significance We

  15. Pregnancy and labor in Tanzanian primigravidae aged 15 years and under.

    PubMed

    Arkutu, A A

    The outcome of pregnancy and labor in 259 Tanzanian primigravidae 15 years and under is compared with that of 377 primigravidae between the ages of 21 and 25. The risk of antenatal complications, such as anemia, and premature labor and low birth weight babies was much higher in the younger age group. There was no difference in the incidence of preeclampsia or complications during labor between the two groups. The younger women had a lower perinatal mortality rate than the controls.

  16. Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Laurier, D; Hémon, D; Clavel, J

    2008-09-01

    A recent study indicated an excess risk of leukaemia among children under the age of 5 years living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Germany. We present results relating to the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France for the same age range. These results do not indicate an excess risk of leukaemia in young children living near French nuclear power plants.

  17. Changes in condylar path inclination during maximum protrusion between the ages of 6 and 12 years.

    PubMed

    Baqaien, M A; Al-Salti, F M; Muessig, D

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the changes in sagittal condylar path inclination during mandibular protrusion between the ages of 6 and 12 years. A total of 172 children (82 males and 90 females) ranging in age from 6.5 to 12.9 years were divided according to their chronological age into five subgroups with mean ages of 7.1, 8, 9, 10 and 11.4 years respectively. The control group consisted of 41 adults with a mean age of 28 years. All subjects had a normal temporomandibular joint function and neutral occlusion. Five maximum protrusion-retrusion movements were recorded with six degrees of freedom in each subject using an ultrasound (JMA) jaw-tracking system. Initially, condylar path inclination angle (CPIA) was calculated stepwise for each millimetre distance, for the first 10 mm of protrusive tracing path on both sides. A single mean value was then assigned for the entire protrusive path. One-way analysis of variance proved to be significant among the five subgroups of children. Linear regression analysis showed that condylar path had a tendency to become steeper with age, although it was statistically weak. The data indicated that the mean CPIA is 43 degrees -44 degrees at the age of seven, increases annually by 1.2 degrees -1.3 degrees and reaches an average of 49 degrees -50 degrees by the age of 12 at which time it attains around 83-85% of its adult level. In subgroup V, the female population had significantly steeper condylar path on the left-hand side than the male population. Condylar path inclinations indicated a symmetrical growth pattern of the articular eminence.

  18. GWPs and GTPs for forest bioenergy and products with global coverage at 0.5° x 0.5° spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbrets, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; Bright, Ryan; Van Zelm, Rosalie; Van Der Velde, Marijn; Strømman, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The effects on climate of various greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be aggregated in common units through a variety of emission metrics. The Global Warming Potential (GWP), introduced by the IPCC in 1990, is based on the integrated radiative forcing of a pulse emission divided by an equivalent integration for the reference gas, usually CO2, at an arbitrary time horizon (TH). The Global Temperature change Potential (GTP) is the ratio between the temperature response to a GHG emission pulse at a certain point in time and the temperature response for a reference gas. Other metrics like the integrated GTP (iGTP), TEMP, and metrics embedding economic considerations or a dynamic, target-specific TH are used in the literature. Recent studies developed impulse response functions and emission metrics for CO2 emissions from biomass combustion or oxidation for applications in bioenergy and harvested wood products (HWP) analyses. As the resulting metrics depend on the resource turnover time and hence on site specific characteristics like the type of biomass species, local climate, site productivity and other factors, these metrics are today available only for a limited number of cases and selected locations. In this work, we provide spatially-explicit GWPs and GTPs for bioenergy and HWP sourced from renewable forests with a global coverage of forest areas at a resolution of 0.5 degrees x 0.5 degrees. The Global Forest Model (G4M) developed at IIASA is used to provide the mean annual increments (MAI), rotation periods and above ground carbon of the forests of the globe. G4M uses a dynamic Net Primary Production (NPP) model to simulate how growth rates are affected by changes in temperature, precipitation, radiation, and CO2 concentrations. NPP post harvest dynamics are then modeled using tree-specific functions combined with the grid-specific MAI. Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is exogenously modeled with the YASSO model. NPP and Rh are then combined in a Net Ecosystem

  19. Doxylamine pharmacokinetics following single dose oral administration in children ages 2-17 years.

    PubMed

    Balan, Guhan; Thompson, Gary A; Gibb, Roger; Li, Lijuan; Hull, David; Seeck, Molly

    2013-11-01

    To characterize doxylamine pharmacokinetics in children. This study was conducted in 41 subjects, ages 2-17 years. Doxylamine succinate doses based on age/weight ranged from 3.125 to 12.5 mg. A single oral dose was administered with 2 to 4 oz. of water or decaffeinated beverages ∼2 hours after a light breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 72 hours after dosing and analyzed for doxylamine using HPLC MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods and relationships with age were assessed using linear regression. Over the fourfold dose range, Cmax was similar while AUC increased only 60%, although not statistically significant (P-value = 0.0517). As expected due to increasing body size, CLo and Vz /F increased with age. Due to a similar increase with age for Clo and Vz /F, no age-related differences in t1/2,z were observed (∼16 hours). Allometric scaling indicated no maturation related changes in CLo ; although Vz /F remained age-dependent, the predicted range decreased ∼70%. Overall, the single doses were well tolerated. Somnolence was the most common reported AE with no apparent differences in incidence noted with age. An age/weight dosing nomogram utilizing a fourfold range of doses achieves similar Cmax , whereas AUC increases only 60%.

  20. Screening for developmental delay among children aged 1-4 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rachel; Kenny, Meghan; Bennett, Teresa; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Sherifali, Diana; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Existing guidelines on screening children less than 5 years of age for developmental delay vary. In this systematic review, we synthesized the literature on the effectiveness and harms of screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO for relevant articles published to June 16, 2015. We identified studies that included children aged 1-4 years who were not at high risk of developmental delay, screened in a primary care setting. Randomized trials and controlled cohort studies were considered for benefits (cognitive, academic and functional outcomes); no restrictions on study design were imposed for the review of harms. Results: Two studies were included. One used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II for screening and reported significantly more referrals to early intervention in the intervention groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.54, in the intervention group with office support and RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25, in the intervention group without office support). The time to referral was 70% shorter in the intervention group with office support (rate ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48) and 64% shorter in the intervention group without office support (rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.59), compared with the control group. The other study used the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument to screen children aged 15 months at enrolment for language delay. It reported no differences between groups in academic performance outcomes at age 8 years. Interpretation: The evidence on screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years is inconclusive. Further research with longer-term outcomes is needed to inform decisions about screening and screening intervals. PMID:27226967

  1. [Anesthetic maintenance during myocardial revascularization in patients over 70 years of age].

    PubMed

    Trekova, N A; Aksel'rod, B A; Shmyrin, M M; Zaĭtseva, S V; Aleksandrova, E N

    2010-01-01

    The authors performed a comparative retrospective analysis of preoperative and intraoperative periods in 50 patients aged 70-83 years with coronary heart disease (CHD). A control group comprised the similar patients aged 40-59 years. The geriatric patients showed a higher incidence of arterial hypertension, respiratory and central nervous system diseases, cardiac arrhythmias, and anemia as an outcome. In CHD patients aged 70-80 years, balanced general anesthesia based on lower-dose midazolam and fentanyl, on subnarcotic-dose ketamine during the metered use of isoflurane and adequate infusion therapy provided reasonable hemodynamic stability during the induction of anesthesia and the preperfiusion period without administering cardiotonic agents. Intraoperatively, there was a more pronounced reduction in pulmonary oxygenizing function, body temperature and more needs for cardiotonic and diuretic therapy and erythrocyte mass after the basic stage of surgery.

  2. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  3. Improvement in synthesis of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 powders by Ge4+ acceptor doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yajing; Chen, Yan; Chen, Kepi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the effects of doping with GeO2 on the synthesis temperature, phase structure and morphology of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) ceramic powders were studied using XRD and SEM. The results show that KNN powders with good crystallinity and compositional homogeneity can be obtained after calcination at up to 900°C for 2 h. Introducing 0.5 mol.% GeO2 into the starting mixture improved the synthesis of the KNN powders and allowed the calcination temperature to be decreased to 800°C, which can be ascribed to the formation of the liquid phase during the synthesis.

  4. Optical Properties of Ferroelectric Epitaxial K0.5Na0.5NbO3 Films in Visible to Ultraviolet Range

    PubMed Central

    Pacherova, O.; Kocourek, T.; Jelinek, M.; Dejneka, A.; Tyunina, M.

    2016-01-01

    The complex index of refraction in the spectral range of 0.74 to 4.5 eV is studied by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in ferroelectric K0.5Na0.5NbO3 films. The 20-nm-thick cube-on-cube-type epitaxial films are grown on SrTiO3(001) and DyScO3(011) single-crystal substrates. The films are transparent and exhibit a significant difference between refractive indices Δn = 0.5 at photon energies below 3 eV. The energies of optical transitions are in the range of 3.15–4.30 eV and differ by 0.2–0.3 eV in these films. The observed behavior is discussed in terms of lattice strain and strain-induced ferroelectric polarization in epitaxial perovskite oxide films. PMID:27074042

  5. Heart rate responses of women aged 23–67 years during competitive orienteering

    PubMed Central

    Bird, S; George, M; Balmer, J; Davison, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the heart rate responses of women orienteers of different standards and to assess any relation between heart rate responses and age. Methods: Eighteen competitive women orienteers completed the study. They were divided into two groups: eight national standard orienteers (ages 23–67 years); 10 club standard orienteers (ages 24–67 years). Each participant had her heart rate monitored during a race recognised by the British Orienteering Federation. Peak heart rate (HRPEAK), mean heart rate (HRMEAN), standard deviation of her heart rate during each orienteering race (HRSD), and mean change in heart rate at each control point (ΔHRCONTROL) were identified. The data were analysed using analysis of covariance with age as a covariate. Results: National standard orienteers displayed a lower within orienteering race standard deviation in heart rate (6 (2) v 12 (2) beats/min, p<0.001) and a lower ΔHRCONTROL (5 (1) v 17 (4) beats/min, p<0.001). The mean heart rate during competition was higher in the national standard group (170 (11) v 158 (11) beats/min, p = 0.025). The HRMEAN for the national and club standard groups were 99 (8)% and 88 (9)% of their age predicted maximum heart rate (220-age) respectively. All orienteers aged >55 years (n = 4) recorded HRMEAN greater than their age predicted maximum. Conclusions: The heart rate responses indicate that national and club standard women orienteers of all ages participate in the sport at a vigorous intensity. The higher ΔHRCONTROL of club standard orienteers is probably due to failing to plan ahead before arriving at the controls and this, coupled with slowing down to navigate or relocate when lost, produced a higher HRSD. PMID:12782552

  6. Thermoelectric and Magnetic Properties of Sn1- x O2:Mn0.5 x Co0.5 x Nanoparticles Produced by the Microwave Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, Numan; Habib, Sami; Azam, Ameer

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of Sn1- x O2:Mn0.5 x Co0.5 x with x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1 were synthesized by the microwave-assisted route and characterized for their thermoelectric and magnetic properties. As a result of Mn and Co co-doping, a considerable increase in the values of energy band gap and lattice constant c of Sn1- x O2:Mn0.5 x Co0.5 x NPs was observed. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra revealed that Mn and Co ions were incorporated in their 4+ and 2+ states, respectively. The resistivity and calculated activation energy of these NPs were found to decrease by increasing the Mn and Co contents. A negative Seebeck coefficient was observed, whose value was found to be significantly increased by increasing the value of x. The magnetic measurement results revealed that all the microwave-synthesized Sn1- x O2:Mn0.5 x Co0.5 x NPs including the pure SnO2 have distinctly wide hysteresis loops. This indicates that samples have room-temperature ferromagnetism. The optimum value for x to have maximum saturation magnetism was observed to be 0.04. Diamagnetic contributions from the core of these NPs were noticed at higher magnetic fields. The observed magnetism was attributed to the presence of defects at the NPs' interfacing sites, grain boundaries, atom vacancies and an optimum level of Mn and Co co-dopants. The observed wide hysteresis loops in these NPs might be useful for producing nanoscale magnets and magnetic memory devices. Moreover, the observed thermoelectric properties, i.e. Seebeck coefficient and power factor in these NPs, might be useful for the development of thermoelectric devices.

  7. Coexistence of interacting ferromagnetic clusters and small antiferromagnetic clusters in La0.5Ba0.5CoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Devendra; Banerjee, A.

    2013-05-01

    We report detailed dc magnetization and linear and nonlinear ac susceptibility measurements on the hole doped disordered cobaltite La0.5Ba0.5CoO3. Our results show that the magnetically ordered state of the system consists of coexisting non-ferromagnetic phases along with percolating ferromagnetic clusters. The percolating ferromagnetic clusters possibly start a magnetic ordering at the Curie temperature of 201.5(5) K. The non-ferromagnetic phases mainly consist of antiferromagnetic clusters with size smaller than the ferromagnetic clusters. Below the Curie temperature the system exhibits an irreversibility in the field cooled and zero field cooled magnetization and a frequency dependence in the peak of ac susceptibility. These dynamical features indicate the possible coexistence of spin-glass phase along with ferromagnetic clusters similar to La1-xSrxCoO3 (x ≥ 0.18), but the absence of field divergence in the third harmonic of ac susceptibility and zero field cooled memory clearly rule out any such possibility. We argue that the spin-glass phase in La1-xSrxCoO3 (x ≥ 0.18) is associated with the presence of incommensurate antiferromagnetic ordering in non-ferromagnetic phases, which is absent in La0.5Ba0.5CoO3. Our analysis shows that the observed dynamical features in La0.5Ba0.5CoO3 may be due to progressive thermal blocking of ferromagnetic clusters, which is further confirmed by Wohlfarth’s model of superparamagnetism. The frequency dependence of the peak of ac susceptibility obeys the Vogel-Fulcher law with τ0 ≈ 10-9 s. This together with the existence of an AT-line in H-T space indicates the presence of significant inter-cluster interaction among these ferromagnetic clusters.

  8. Eating habits and caloric intake of physically active young boys, ages 10 to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M J; Cunningham, D A; Wearring, G A

    1980-03-01

    Eating habits of 104 male participants (ages 10 to 14 years) in organized ice hockey were compared across age groups and levels of competition. The boys were members of either a highly skilled and intensively active competitive league group (CL) or a less skilled, moderately active house league group (HL). Eating habits were recorded during a school day from a 24 hour recall questionnaire administered by a trained interviewer. The types and amounts of foods eaten were recorded and caloric intake was calculated. The total caloric intakes were not significantly different by age or competitive group. The boys had higher caloric intakes by age (200 kcal day-1) than reported by other studies but the caloric intake by kilogram of body weight was similar. There was a trend towards larger caloric intake by the CL boys (ages 10 and 11 years), however when divided by body weight the differences were not significant suggesting that this trend was due to a greater body weight of the CL boys and not a significantly increased caloric expenditure. The types of foods eaten (fruit, vegetables, dairy, meat, bread or "empty calories") were similar for the two activity groups and across ages 10 to 14 years. The caloric intakes of dairy and meat products of both groups were significantly higher than for the other food groups.

  9. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3M<0.08) was 18 years of age or older was 95.6%.

  10. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs), in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004) or 2005 (cohort 2005) in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004) to 51% (cohort 2005) in the studied regions (p < 0.001). More than half of the vaccinated children of cohort 2004 and two third of cohort 2005 were immunised at the recommended age 11 to 14 months. The level of vaccination coverage of cohort 2004 was significantly associated with the delay in introduction of cost coverage since the recommendation of varicella vaccination (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from

  11. Photoluminescence and electrical properties of Eu-doped (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 ferroelectric single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiwu; Zhao, Xiangyong; Deng, Hao; Chen, Chao; Lin, Di; Li, Xiaobing; Yan, Jun; Luo, Haosu

    2014-02-01

    Eu3+-doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (Eu:NBT) single crystals were grown by a top-seeded solution growth method. Photoluminescence emission and excitation spectra of Eu:NBT were investigated. The two transitions in 7F0 → 5D0 excitation spectra reveal that Eu3+ ions were incorporated into two adjacent crystallographic sites in NBT, i.e., Bi3+ and Na+ sites. The former has a symmetrical surrounding, while the later has a disordered environment, which was confirmed by decay curve measurements. The dielectric dispersion behavior was depressed and the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were improved after Eu doping.

  12. Contribution of oxygen vacancies to the ferroelectric behavior of Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Takao; Yokouchi, Tatsuhiko; Oikawa, Takahiro; Shiraishi, Takahisa; Kiguchi, Takanori; Akama, Akihiro; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Gruverman, Alexei; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    The ferroelectric properties of the (Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2 films on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate are investigated. It is found that the films crystallized by annealing in O2 and N2 atmospheres have similar crystal structures as well as remanent polarization and coercive fields. Weak temperature and frequency dependences of the ferroelectric properties indicate that the hysteretic behavior in HfO2-based films originates not from the mobile defects but rather from the lattice ionic displacement, as is the case of the typical ferroelectric materials.

  13. Optical properties of Ag nanoparticles embedded Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films prepared by alternating pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Suk; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Kim, Sang Sub

    2006-11-01

    Nanocomposite thin films consisting of nanometer-sized Ag particles embedded in amorphous Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 matrix were prepared on fused silica substrates by an alternating pulsed laser deposition method. Their optical nonlinearities have been studied using the Z-scan method. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak shifts to red and increases with the increasing the volume fraction of Ag in the nanocomposite films. The magnitude of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the nanocomposite with an Ag volume fraction of 3.3% was calculated to be approximately 2 x 10(-8) esu at the SPR wavelength.

  14. Effect of grain size on charge and spin correlations in Bi0.5Ca0.5MnO3 manganite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ade, Ramesh; Singh, Rajender

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report the electron spin resonance (ESR) and magnetization (M) studies to understand the effect of grain size (GS) on the charge ordering and spin correlations in Bi0.5Ca0.5MnO3 manganite synthesized by sol-gel method. The suppression of charge ordering (CO), long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, shifting of ferromagnetic (FM)-cluster glass (CG) transition towards higher temperatures and evolution of different magnetic correlations with decrease in GS are discussed in view of the changes in surface to volume ratio of nano-grains.

  15. Synthesis of manganite perovskite Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticles in w/o-microemulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Trosell, Alejandra . E-mail: Lopez.Alejandra@chem.tu-berlin.de; Schomaecker, Reinhard . E-mail: schomaecker@tu-berlin.de

    2006-02-02

    In this paper, w/o-microemulsions were employed to produce nanoparticles of the perovskite Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3}, which have a size of approximately 20-50 nm. The procedure was carried out using sodium hydroxide or ammonia as co-precipitation agent. The precursor was transformed to perovskite by calcinations at 580 deg. C. Nanosized particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption (BET)

  16. Characterization of (Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)) TiO3 Thin Films for Ku-Band Phase Shifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl H.; VanKeuls, Fredrick W.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Miranda, Felix A.; Warner, Joseph D.; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Ramesh, Rammamoorthy

    1999-01-01

    The microstructural properties of (Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)TiO3) (BSTO) thin films (300, 700, and 1400 nm thick) deposited on LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates were characterized using high-resolution x-ray diffractometry. Film crystallinity was the parameter that most directly influenced tunability, and we observed that a) the crystalline quality was highest in the thinnest film and progressively degraded with increasing film thickness; and b) strain at the film/substrate interface was completely relieved via dislocation formation. Paraelectric films such as BSTO offer an attractive means of incorporating low-cost phase shifter circuitry into beam-steerable reflectarray antennas.

  17. Effects of cation disorder and size on metamagnetism in A-site substituted Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavani, K. R.; Paulose, P. L.

    2005-04-01

    The effects of A-site cation disorder and size on metamagnetism of ABO3 type charge and orbital ordered Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 system have been studied by substituting Ba+2 for Ca+2 or La+3 for Pr+3. Substitution of 5% Ba+2 or 5% La+3 drastically reduces the critical magnetic field (Hc) for metamagnetism and induces successive steplike metamagnetic transitions at low temperatures. Interestingly, with further increase in substitution, Hc rises. We find that there is a sharp decrease in electrical resistivity corresponding to the metamagnetic transitions, which is indicative of strongly correlated magnetic and electronic transitions in these manganites.

  18. Direct band-gap measurement on epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} Heusler-alloy films

    SciTech Connect

    Alhuwaymel, Tariq F.; Carpenter, Robert; Yu, Chris Nga Tung; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Lazarov, Vlado K.; Abdullah, Ranjdar M.; El-Gomati, Mohamed; Hirohata, Atsufumi

    2015-05-07

    In this study, a newly developed band-gap measurement technique has been used to characterise epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} (CFAS) films. The CFAS films were deposited on MgO(001) substrate by ultra high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The band-gap for the as deposited films was found to be ∼110 meV when measured at room temperature. This simple technique provides a macroscopic analysis of the half-metallic properties of a thin film. This allows for simple optimisation of growth and annealing conditions.

  19. Clinical aspects of pregnancy after the age of 35 years: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    van Katwijk, C; Peeters, L L

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an update of our current knowledge about the impact of maternal age on pregnancy outcome. Pregnancy in women > or =35 years old is associated with a higher maternal and perinatal mortality. The older gravida also has a higher chance of being delivered by Caesarean section. Most of the complications associated with older age are caused by age-related confounders such as leiomyomas, type II diabetes, hypertension and multiparity. Diabetes and hypertension increase almost linearly with age. Pregnant women with diabetes or hypertension are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome irrespective of age. The currently available literature indicates that premenopausal pregnant women of advanced age who are in good health do not need special care besides the normal obstetric practice. At present, establishing pregnancy in postmenopausal women is more an ethical than a medical issue, partly because the information reported on pregnancy in postmenopausal women is insufficient to determine a reliable risk profile. In these women cardiovascular ageing accelerates. Therefore, until proven otherwise, postmenopausal women should be considered particularly at increased risk for vascular complications during pregnancy. This risk is likely to increase progressively with the number of years elapsed since the onset of postmenopause.

  20. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  1. Effect of La-substitution on structural, dielectric and electrical properties of (Bi0.5Pb0.5) (Fe0.5Zr0.25Ti0.25)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Niranjan; Pattanayak, Samita; Choudhary, R. N. P.; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-09-01

    As lead zirconium titanate and bismuth ferrite (BFO), members of perovskite family, have high dielectric constant and ferroelectric/ferromagnetic phase transition temperature, they are used for many potential applications including random access memory, sensors. The present work describes the modifications in the ferroelectric behaviour of PZT doped BFO due to substitution of few molar percent of La on Fe-site. A thorough comparative investigation of the frequency and temperature response of dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, electric modulus, complex impedance and ferroelectric properties of Bi0.5Pb0.5 [Fe(0.5- x) La x (Zr0.25Ti0.25)] O3, where x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 (hence forth called as BFPZLTO) compounds were studied in a wide frequency range 10 kHz to 1 MHz at temperature range 25-400 °C using ac impedance spectroscopy and electric modulus analysis. The structural analysis of compound revealed the tetragonal phase with space group P4 mm at room temperature. Cole-Cole plots are used for interpretation of relaxation mechanism in the materials. The materials especially the compound with x = 0.3 found more suitable to be used in transducers, RAMs, flip-flop memories, etc., for electronics applications.

  2. Electrical Characterization Induced by Structural Modulation in (Ca0.28Ba0.72)2.5-0.5 x (Na0.5K0.5) x Nb5O15 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bian; Wei, Lingling; Wang, Zhongming; Kang, Shoucheng; Chao, Xiaolian; Yang, Zupei

    2016-01-01

    (Ca0.28Ba0.72)2.5-0.5 x (Na0.5K0.5) x Nb5O15 ceramics (CBNKN, 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) with `unfilled' tungsten bronze structure were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. Effects of alkalis-introducing concentration in A-sites on the microstructure, dielectric and ferroelectric properties were investigated in detail. Pure tungsten bronze structure could be obtained in all compositions according to the x-ray diffraction patterns. Raman spectroscopy results showed that co-introducing Na+ and K+ in A sites to decrease the structural vacancy could enhance the dielectric and ferroelectric properties, which was attributed to the stronger interaction inside NbO6 octahedron and large distortion degree of NbO6 polar unit. Traditional temperature dependence of dielectric characteristics and well-saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed for all CBNKN ceramics. The better comprehensive dielectric and ferroelectric properties were obtained at x = 0.2 due to the bigger distortion degree of NbO6 polar unit and the highest densification. Whereas higher alkalis-introducing concentration would deteriorate the physical and electrical properties due to the poor sintering behavior. In addition, the frequency dependence of ɛ around transition temperature ( T c) and the temperature dependence of ferroelectric properties were discussed to further clarify the relationship between composition and performance.

  3. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  4. Pregnancy and Obstetrical Outcomes in Women Over 40 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dietl, A.; Cupisti, S.; Beckmann, M. W.; Schwab, M.; Zollner, U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Delayed childbearing is increasing, and advanced maternal age has been associated with an increased risk of obstetrical complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with advanced maternal age (≥ 40 years). Methods: Maternal and obstetrical data were collected from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Wuerzburg for the period from 2006 to 2011. In this retrospective analysis we compared the outcomes for women aged ≥ 40 years (n = 405) with those of three younger subgroups (I: < 30 y; II: 30–34 y; III: 35–39 y). Results: Pregnant women older than 40 years had more chronic diseases such as hypertension, needed medical treatment more frequently and had a higher thrombosis risk. Pregnancy-induced diseases such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension occurred more often in women ≥ 40 years of age. Compared to mothers who were younger than 30 years, primiparous women ≥ 40 years had a more than four times higher overall cesarean section rate and four times higher elective cesarean section rate. Furthermore, they required longer hospital stays, both after cesarean section and after vaginal delivery. The preterm birth rate (≤ 32 weeks of gestation) was similar across the different age groups. Conclusions: The outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth and for newborns born to women ≥ 40 years did not vary significantly from those of younger women if the following conditions were met: a) pre-existing chronic diseases were treated medically and dietetically; b) pregnancy-induced morbidity was monitored regularly and controlled medically; c) women attended regular prenatal check-ups; d) a healthy lifestyle was adhered to during pregnancy, and e) delivery occurred in a perinatal center. PMID:26366002

  5. High thermal stability of piezoelectric properties in (Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3)x-(BaTiO3)y-(Na0.5K0.5NbO3)1-x-y ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shashaank; Priya, Shashank

    2013-01-01

    We report the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of (Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3)x-(BaTiO3)y-(Na0.5K0.5NbO3)1-x-y ceramics for Na0.5K0.5NbO3 rich end of composition (x, y ≤ 0.04 mol. %). These compositions were found to exhibit significantly improved thermal stability of piezoresponse. Variation of dielectric constant as a function of temperature revealed that orthorhombic-tetragonal (To-t) and tetragonal-cubic (Tc) transition temperatures for these compositions were in the vicinity of 0 °C and 330 °C, respectively. Dynamic scaling and temperature dependent X-ray diffraction analysis were conducted. Results are discussed in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the piezoelectric response explaining the temperature dependent behavior.

  6. The association of obesity with hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years.

    PubMed

    Üçler, Rıfkı; Turan, Mahfuz; Garça, Fatih; Acar, İsmail; Atmaca, Murat; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    An elevation in hearing thresholds and decrease in hearing sensitivity in adults, particularly due to aging, are quite common. Recent studies have shown that, apart from aging, various other factors also play a role in auditory changes. Studies on the association of hearing loss (HL) with obesity are limited in advanced age cases and present contradictions. In this study, the association between obesity and hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years has been assessed. Forty women diagnosed with obesity (mean age, 31.8 years) and 40 healthy non-obese female controls (mean age, 30.5 years) were included in this prospective study. Each subject was tested with low (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high (4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz) frequency audiometry. In the case and control groups, the average hearing thresholds at low frequencies were 16.03 ± 4.72 and 16.15 ± 2.72 (p = 0.885) for the right ear, respectively, and 16.15 ± 5.92 and 14.71 ± 3.18 (p = 0.180) for the left ear, respectively. The average hearing threshold levels at high frequencies were 20.70 ± 10.23 and 15.33 ± 3.87 (p = 0.003), respectively, for the right ear, and 22.91 ± 15.54 and 15.87 ± 4.35 (p = 0.007), respectively, for the left ear with statistical significance. This is the first report on the association of obesity with hearing threshold in women aged 18-40 years. We have demonstrated that obesity may affect hearing function, particularly that related to high frequencies. Hearing loss can be prevented by avoidance or control of obesity and its risk factors. Moreover, an auditory screening of obese cases at an early stage may provide early diagnosis of HL and may also contribute to their awareness in the fight against obesity.

  7. Charnley low-frictional torque arthroplasty in patients under the age of 51 years. Follow-up to 33 years.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, B M; Siney, P D; Fleming, P A

    2002-05-01

    Between November 1962 and December 1990 a group of 1092 patients, 668 women and 424 men, under the age of 51 years at the time of surgery, underwent 1434 primary Charnley low-frictional torque arthroplasties and are being followed up indefinitely. Their mean age at operation was 41 years (12 to 51). At the latest review in June 2001 the mean follow-up had been for 15 years 1 month. Of the 1092 patients 54 (66 hips) could not be traced, 124 (169 hips) were known to have died and 220 (248 hips) had had a revision procedure. At a mean follow-up of 17 years and 5 months, 759 patients (951 hips) are still attending. In this group satisfaction with the outcome is 96.2%. The incidence of deep infection for the whole group was 1.67%. It was more common in patients who had had previous surgery (hemi- and total hip arthroplasties excluded), 2.2% compared with 1.5% in those who had not had previous surgery, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.4). There were fewer cases of deep infection if gentamicin-containing cement was used, 0.9% compared with 1.9% in those with plain acrylic cement, but this was not also statistically significant (p = 0.4). There was a significantly higher rate of revision in patients who had had previous hip surgery, 24.8% compared with 14.1% in those who had not had previous surgery (p < 0.001). At the latest review, 1.95% are known to have had at least one dislocation and 0.4% have had a revision for dislocation. The indication for revision was aseptic loosening of the cup (11.7%), aseptic loosening of the stem (4.9%), a fractured stem (1.7%), deep infection (1.5%) and dislocation (0.4%). With revision for any indication as the endpoint the survivorship was 93.7% (92.3 to 95.0) at ten years, 84.7% (82.4 to 87.1) at 15 years, 74.3% (70.5 to 78.0) at 20 years and 55.3% (45.5 to 65.0) at 27 years, when 55 hips remained 'at risk'.

  8. Soft tissue thickness values for black and coloured South African children aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Briers, N; Briers, T M; Becker, P J; Steyn, M

    2015-07-01

    In children, craniofacial changes due to facial growth complicate facial approximations and require specific knowledge of soft tissue thicknesses (STT). The lack of South African juvenile STT standards of particular age groups, sex and ancestry is problematic. According to forensic artists in the South African Police Service the use of African-American values to reconstruct faces of Black South African children yields poor results. In order to perform a facial approximation that presents a true reflection of the child in question, information regarding differences in facial soft tissue at different ages, sexes and ancestry groups is needed. The aims of this study were to provide data on STT of South African Black and Coloured children and to assess differences in STT with respect to age, sex and ancestry. STT was measured using cephalograms of South African children (n=388), aged 6-13 years. After digitizing the images, STT measurements were taken at ten mid-facial landmarks from each image using the iTEM measuring program. STT comparisons between groups per age, sex and ancestry were statistically analyzed. The results showed that STT differences at lower face landmarks are more pronounced in age groups per ancestry as opposed to differences per age and sex. Generally, an increase in STT was seen between 6-10 year old groups and 11-13 year old groups, regardless of ancestry and sex, at the midphiltrum, labiale inferius, pogonion, and beneath chin landmarks. This research created a reference dataset for STT of South African children of Black and Coloured ancestry per age and sex that will be useful for facial reconstruction/approximation of juvenile remains.

  9. Trends in cell phone use among children in the Danish national birth cohort at ages 7 and 11 years.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Madhuri; Olsen, Jørn; Sigsgaard, Torben; Kheifets, Leeka

    2016-11-01

    We prospectively examined trends in cell phone use among children in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Cell phone use was assessed at ages 7 and 11 years, and we examined use patterns by age, by year of birth, and in relation to specific individual characteristics. There was an increase in cell phone use from age 7 (37%) to 11 years (94%). There was a clear pattern of greater reported cell phone use among children at age 7 years with later birth year, but this trend disappeared at age 11. Girls and those who used phones at age 7 talked more often and for longer durations at age 11 years. Low socio-economic status and later year of birth were associated with voice calls at age 7 but not at age 11 years. At age 11 most used cell phones for texting and gaming more than for voice calls. Further, children who started using cell phones at age 7 years were more likely to be heavy cell phone voice users at age 11 years, making early use a marker for higher cumulative exposure regardless of year of birth. As cell phone technology continues to advance, new use patterns will continue to emerge, and exposure assessment research among children must reflect these trends.

  10. Colorectal Cancer Screening in US Seniors Ages 76-84 Years.

    PubMed

    Klabunde, Carrie N; Shapiro, Jean A; Kobrin, Sarah; Nadel, Marion R; Zapka, Jane M

    2015-08-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends patient-physician discussions about the appropriateness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among adults ages 76-84 years who have never been screened. In this study, we used data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey to examine patterns of CRC screening and provider recommendation among seniors ages 76-84 years, and made some comparisons to younger adults. Nationally-representative samples of 1379 adults ages 76-84 years and 8797 adults ages 50-75 years responded to questions about CRC screening status, receipt of provider recommendation, and discussion of test options; 22.7% (95% CI 20.1-25.3) of seniors ages 76-84 had never been tested for CRC and therefore were not up-to-date with guidelines; 3.9% (95% CI 2.0-7.6) of these individuals reported a recent provider recommendation for screening. In multivariate analyses, the likelihood of never having been tested was significantly greater for seniors of other/multiple race or Hispanic ethnicity; with high school or less education; without private health insurance coverage; who had ≤ 1 doctor visit in the past year; without recent screening for breast, cervical, or prostate cancer; with no or unknown CRC family history; or with ≤ 1 chronic disease. Among the minority of respondents ages 50-75 and 76-84 reporting a provider recommendation, 73.2% indicated that the provider recommended particular tests, which was overwhelmingly colonoscopy (≥ 89 %). Nearly one-quarter of adults 76-84 have never been screened for CRC, and rates of provider recommendation in this group are very low. Greater attention to informed CRC screening discussions with screening-eligible seniors is needed.

  11. Synthesis, Structure, and Electrochemical Performance of High Capacity Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2 Cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Ruther, Rose E; Zhou, Hui; Dhital, Chetan; ...

    2015-09-08

    Orthorhombic Li2NiO2, Li2CuO2, and solid solutions thereof have been studied as potential cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to their high theoretical capacity and relatively low cost. While neither endmember shows good cycling stability, the intermediate composition, Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2, yields reasonably high reversible capacities. A new synthetic approach and detailed characterization of this phase and the parent Li2CuO2 are presented. The cycle life of Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2 is shown to depend critically on the voltage window. The formation of Cu1+ at low voltage and oxygen evolution at high voltage limit the electrochemical reversibility. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), in situ Raman spectroscopy,more » and gas evolution measurements are used to follow the chemical and structural changes that occur as a function of cell voltage.« less

  12. Enhancement of transition temperature in Fe{sub x}Se{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} film via iron vacancies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, J. C.; Yeoh, W. K. E-mail: zxshi@seu.edu.cn; Cui, X. Y.; Ringer, S. P.; Kim, J. H.; Shi, D. Q.; Wang, X. L.; Dou, S. X.; Shi, Z. X. E-mail: zxshi@seu.edu.cn

    2014-06-30

    The effects of iron deficiency in Fe{sub x}Se{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} thin films (0.8 ≤ x ≤ 1) on superconductivity and electronic properties have been studied. A significant enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub C}) up to 21 K was observed in the most Fe deficient film (x = 0.8). Based on the observed and simulated structural variation results, there is a high possibility that Fe vacancies can be formed in the Fe{sub x}Se{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} films. The enhancement of T{sub C} shows a strong relationship with the lattice strain effect induced by Fe vacancies. Importantly, the presence of Fe vacancies alters the charge carrier population by introducing electron charge carriers, with the Fe deficient film showing more metallic behavior than the defect-free film. Our study provides a means to enhance the superconductivity and tune the charge carriers via Fe vacancy, with no reliance on chemical doping.

  13. Multiferroicity and magnetoelectric coupling enhanced large magnetocaloric effect in DyFe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, L. H.; Yang, J.; Dai, J. M.; Song, W. H.; Zhang, R. R.; Sun, Y. P.

    2014-01-20

    DyFe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} has been synthesized using a sol-gel method. It exhibits ferroelectricity at the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature T{sub N1}∼261 K. Large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) (11.3 J/kg K at 4.5 T) enhanced by magnetoelectric coupling due to magnetic field and temperature induced magnetic transition was observed. Temperature-dependent Raman study shows an anomalous behavior near T{sub N1} in the phonon modes related to the vibration of Dy atoms and stretching of CrO{sub 6}/FeO{sub 6} octahedra, suggesting the ferroelectricity in DyFe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} is associated with the spin-phonon coupling with respect to both Dy and Cr/Fe ions. These results suggest routes to obtain high-temperature multiferroicity and large MCE for practical applications.

  14. Poling-Written Ferroelectricity in Bulk Multiferroic Double-Perovskite BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, Davide; Mezzadri, Francesco; Gilioli, Edmondo; Solzi, Massimo; Calestani, Gianluca; Bolzoni, Fulvio; Cabassi, Riccardo

    2016-06-20

    We present a comprehensive study of the electrical properties of bulk polycrystalline BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3, a double perovskite synthesized in high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 shows an antiferromagnetic character with TN = 288 K overlapped with an intrinsic antiferroelectricity due to the Bi(3+) stereochemical effect. Beyond this, the observation of a semiconductor-insulator transition at TP ≈ 140 K allows one to define three distinct temperature ranges with completely different electrical properties. For T > TN, electric transport follows an ordinary thermally activated Arrhenius behavior; the system behaves as a paramagnetic semiconductor. At intermediate temperatures (TP < T < TN), electric transport is best described by Mott's variable range hopping model with lowered dimensionality D = 1, stabilized by the magnetic ordering process and driven by the inhomogeneity of the sample on the B site of the perovskite. Finally, for T < TP, the material becomes a dielectric insulator, showing very unusual poling-induced soft ferroelectricity with high saturation polarization, similar to the parent compound BiFeO3. Under external electric poling, the system irreversibly evolves from antiferroelectric to polar arrangement.

  15. Epitaxial Ferroelectric Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)TiO3 Thin Films for Room-Temperature High-Frequency Tunable Element Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. L.; Feng, H. H.; Zhang, Z.; Brazdeikis, A.; Miranda, F. A.; VanKeuls, F. W.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Huang, Z. J.; Liou, Y.; Chu, W. K.; Chu, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    Perovskite Ba(0.5)SR(0.5)TiO3 thin films have been synthesized on (001) LaAl03 substrates by pulsed laser ablation. Extensive X-ray diffraction, rocking curve, and pole-figure studies suggest that the films are c-axis oriented and exhibit good in-plane relationship of <100>(sub BSTO)//<100>(sub LAO). Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry studies indicate that the epitaxial films have excellent crystalline quality with an ion beam minimum yield chi(sub min) Of only 2.6 %. The dielectric property measurements by the interdigital technique at 1 MHz show room temperature values of the relative dielectric constant, epsilon(sub r), and loss tangent, tan(sub delta), of 1430 and 0.007 with no bias, and 960 and 0.001 with 35 V bias, respectively. The obtained data suggest that the as-grown Ba(0.5)SR(0.5)TiO3 films can be used for development of room-temperature high-frequency tunable elements.

  16. Oxygen-Vacancy-Induced Antiferromagnetism to Ferromagnetism Transformation in Eu0.5Ba0.5TiO3−δ Multiferroic Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiwei; Zhao, Run; Wang, Le; Tang, Rujun; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Lee, Joo Hwan; Cao, Haixia; Cai, Tianyi; Guo, Haizhong; Wang, Can; Ling, Langsheng; Pi, Li; Jin, Kuijuan; Zhang, Yuheng; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Yongqiang; Ju, Sheng; Yang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen vacancies (VO) effects on magnetic ordering in Eu0.5Ba0.5TiO3−δ (EBTO3−δ) thin films have been investigated using a combination of experimental measurements and first-principles density-functional calculations. Two kinds of EBTO3−δ thin films with different oxygen deficiency have been fabricated. A nuclear resonance backscattering spectrometry technique has been used to quantitatively measure contents of the VO. Eu0.5Ba0.5TiO3 ceramics have been known to exhibit ferroelectric (FE) and G-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) properties. While, a ferromagnetic (FM) behavior with a Curie temperature of 1.85 K has been found in the EBTO3−δ thin films. Spin-polarized Ti3+ ions, which originated from the VO, has been proven to mediate a FM coupling between the local Eu 4f spins and were believed to be responsible for the great change of the magnetic ordering. Considering the easy formation of VO, our work opens up a new avenue for achieving co-existence of FM and FE orders in oxide materials. PMID:24018399

  17. A study on the wake-up effect of ferroelectric Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films by pulse-switching measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han Joon; Park, Min Hyuk; Kim, Yu Jin; Lee, Young Hwan; Moon, Taehwan; Kim, Keum Do; Hyun, Seung Dam; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of ferroelectric (FE) and anti-ferroelectric (AFE) properties in HfO2-based thin films is highly intriguing in terms of both the scientific context and practical application in various electronic and energy-related devices. Interestingly, these materials showed a ``wake-up effect'', which refers to the increase in remanent polarization with increasing electric field cycling number before the occurrence of the fatigue effect. In this work, the wake-up effect from Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 was carefully examined by the pulse-switching experiment. In the pristine state, the Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 film mostly showed FE-like behavior with a small contribution from AFE-like distortion, which could be ascribed to the involvement of the AFE phase. The field cycling of only 100 cycles almost completely transformed the AFE phase into the FE phase by depinning the pinned domains. The influence of field cycling on the interfacial layer was also examined through the pulse-switching experiments.

  18. Electrical Characteristics and Preparation of (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 Films by Spray Pyrolysis and Rapid Thermal Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Horng-Show; Chen, Mi; Ku, Hong-Kou; Kawai, Tomoji

    2007-04-01

    Functional films of (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 on Pt (1000 Å)/Ti (100 Å)/SiO2 (2000 Å)/Si substrates are prepared by spray pyrolysis and subsequently rapid thermal annealing. Barium nitrate, strontium nitrate and titanium isopropoxide are used as starting materials with ethylene glycol as solvent. For (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 functional thin film, thermal characteristics of the precursor powder scratched from as-sprayed films show a remarkable peak around 300-400 °C and 57.7% weight loss up to 1000 °C. The as-sprayed precursor film with coffee-like color and amorphous-like phase is transformed into the resultant film with white, crystalline perovskite phase and characteristic peaks (110) and (100). The resultant films show correspondent increases of dielectric constant, leakage current and dissipation factor with increasing annealing temperatures. The dielectric constant is 264 and tangent loss is 0.21 in the resultant films annealed at 750 °C for 5 min while leakage current density is 1.5× 10-6 A/cm2 in the film annealed at 550 °C for 5 min.

  19. Theoretical study of magnetic properties and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism of the ordered Fe{sub 0.5}Pd{sub 0.5} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Galanakis, I.; Ostanin, S.; Alouani, M.; Dreysse, H.; Wills, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed theoretical study of magnetic and structural properties of Fe{sub 0.5}Pd{sub 0.5} ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct) alloy, using both the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), is presented. The total energy surface as a function of the lattice parameters a and c shows a long valley where stable structures may exist. Our calculation using the GGA predicts a magnetic phase transition from perpendicular to parallel magnetization as a function of the lattice parameter, whereas LSDA favors always the [001] magnetization axis for all values of the lattice parameters. The spin and orbital magnetic moments and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra are calculated for the easy [001] and the hard [100] magnetization axis and for three sets of experimental lattice parameters, and are compared to the available experimental results on these films. A supercell calculation for a 4 monolayer Fe{sub 0.5}Pd{sub 0.5} thin film produced similar results. While the spin magnetic moments are in fair agreement with experiment, the orbital magnetic moments are considerably underestimated. To improve the agreement with experiment we included an atomic orbital polarization term; however, the computed orbital moments scarcely changed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  20. Piezoelectric properties of Li- and Ta-modified (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenstein, Evelyn; Davis, Matthew; Damjanovic, Dragan; Setter, Nava

    2005-10-01

    Lead-free, potassium sodium niobate piezoelectric ceramics substituted with lithium (K0.5-x/2,Na0.5-x/2,Lix)NbO3 or lithium and tantalum (K0.5-x/2,Na0.5-x/2,Lix)(Nb1-y,Tay)O3 have been synthesized by traditional solid state sintering. The compositions chosen are among those recently reported to show high piezoelectric properties [Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, Nature (London) 42, 84 (2004); Y. Guo, K. Kakimoto, and H. Ohsato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4121 (2004); Mater. Lett. 59, 241 (2005)]. We show that high densities and piezoelectric properties can be obtained for all compositions by pressureless sintering in air, without cold isostatic pressing, and without any sintering aid or special powder treatment. Resonance and converse piezoelectric (strain-field) measurements show a thickness coupling coefficient kt of 53% and converse piezoelectric coefficient d33 around 200pm/V for the Li-substituted ceramics, and a kt of 52% and d33 over 300pm/V for the Li- and Ta-modified samples. The unipolar strain-field hysteresis is small and comparable to that measured under similar conditions in hard Pb(Zr ,Ti)O3. A peak of piezoelectric properties can be noted close to the morphotropic phase boundary. These ceramics look very promising as possible, practicable, lead-free replacements for lead zirconate titanate.

  1. Structure and magnetic properties of the perovskite YCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yingfen; Gui, Hong; Zhao, Zhenjie; Xie, Wenhui; Li, Junrui; Li, Xiaohong; Liu, Yong; Xin, Shengwei

    2014-12-15

    Y Co{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}, in a structure of perovskite, has been successfully prepared with citrate precursors at 950-1100 °C in air by the sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the samples are orthorhombic within the space group Pnma, where the Co and Fe ions are disordered at the 4b crystallographic sites. The crystal structure refinement undertaken by the Rietveld method has shown that the distortion of Co(Fe)O{sub 6} octahedra are large, where the ratio of Co/Fe-O bonding length along a axis to that in the bc plane is about 1.07. Such a large crystal lattice distortion implies a strong lattice-magnetism coupling, which may be utilized in the magnetoelectric devices. Magnetic measurement indicates that the Y Co{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} is antiferromagnetic but showing weak ferromagnetism. We find that Fe{sup 3+} ions are in high-spin states, while Co{sup 3+} ions are in low-spin states which do not contribute to the magnetism. Both Fe{sup 3+} and Co{sup 3+} ions are not Jahn-Teller activated although the lattice distortion is large.

  2. Pressure-induced phase transition in La1–xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2

    DOE PAGES

    Fang, Y.; Yazici, D.; White, B. D.; ...

    2015-09-15

    Electrical resistivity measurements on La1–xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8) have been performed under applied pressures up to 2.6 GPa from 2 K to room temperature. The superconducting transition temperature Tc of each sample significantly increases at a Sm-concentration dependent pressure Pt, indicating a pressure-induced phase transition from a low-Tc to a high-Tc phase. At ambient pressure, Tc increases dramatically from 2.8 K at x = 0.1 to 5.4 K at x = 0.8; however, the Tc values at P > Pt decrease slightly with x and Pt shifts to higher pressures with Sm substitution. In the normal state,more » semiconducting-like behavior is suppressed and metallic conduction is induced with increasing pressure in all of the samples. Furthermore, these results suggest that the pressure dependence of Tc for the BiS2-based superconductors is related to the lattice parameters at ambient pressure and enable us to estimate the evolution of Tc for SmO0.5F0.5BiS2 under pressure.« less

  3. Synthesis of nanosized (Li0.5xFe0.5xZn1-x)Fe2O4 particles and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, S. H.; Hong, Y. K.; Park, M. H.; Erickson, D. W.; Lamb, P. J.; Sur, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    In an attempt to synthesize nanosized (Li0.5xFe0.5xZn1-x)Fe2O4 (0⩽x⩽1) particles with high magnetic saturation and low coercivity, the energetic ball milling technique was employed. LiCO3, α-Fe2O3, and ZnO powders were used as starting materials. The ball milled, partially crystallized lithium zinc ferrite starts to crystallize at about 600 °C. This is much lower than the temperature of 1000 °C, which is used in conventional methods. Particle size of lithium zinc ferrite was in the range of 20 to 50 nm. Regardless of the annealing temperature, the saturation magnetization increases with increasing x and reaches the maximum (about 80 emu/g) at x=0.7 [(Li0.35Fe0.35Zn0.3)Fe2O4], followed by a decrease to 60 emu/g for x=1 [(Li0.5Fe0.5)Fe2O4]. On the other hand, the coercivity of x=0.7 composition decreases with increasing annealing temperatures. Saturation magnetization and low coercivity for x=0.7 annealed at various temperatures are discussed in terms of site occupation.

  4. The proton conducting electrolyte BaTi0.5In0.5O2.75: determination of the deuteron site and its local environment.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Stefan T; Rahman, Seikh M H; Hull, Stephen; Knee, Christopher S; Eriksson, Sten G

    2013-11-13

    Deuterated BaTi0.5In0.5O2.75 has been studied with neutron total (Bragg plus diffuse) scattering data, using both the Rietveld refinement method and the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling technique, to investigate the preferred proton site and its local structural environment. The Rietveld analysis shows an excellent fit between experimental data and a long-range cubic description of the BaTi0.5In0.5O2.53(OD)0.44 perovskite structure containing a statistical distribution of Ti and In ions at the centre of regular (Ti/In)O6 octahedra. However, an RMC analysis of the data reveals substantial local structural features that reflect limitations of the Rietveld method for studies of this type. The Ti-O and In-O pair distribution functions given by the RMC analysis are markedly different from each other, with average Ti-O and In-O bond distances of 2.035 Å and 2.159 Å, respectively. The InO6 octahedra are regular in shape whereas the TiO6 octahedra are distorted. The average O-D bond distance is roughly 0.96 Å, and the preferred deuteron sites have a second nearest oxygen distance of 2.13 Å, which confirms localized tilting of the deuteron and indicates a substantial degree of hydrogen bonding. The impact of octahedral distortion and hydrogen bonding on the proton conduction mechanism is discussed.

  5. Location of trivalent lanthanide dopant energy levels in (Lu{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Retot, H.; Viana, B.; Bessiere, A.; Galtayries, A.

    2011-06-15

    The location of Ln{sup 3+} dopant energy levels relative to bands in (Lu{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied. A several-steps analysis of XPS measurements on heavy lanthanides sesquioxides Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) and on Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} reference materials were used to locate Ln{sup 3+} dopant ground state relative to the top of the valence band in (Lu{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 3} within an error bar of {+-}0.4 eV. The agreement between XPS data and model was found improved relative to previous studies. When compared to XPS analysis, prediction based on optical absorption shows a slight underestimation attributed to the lack of precision in Ce{sup 4+} charge transfer band measurement.

  6. A study on the wake-up effect of ferroelectric Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films by pulse-switching measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Joon; Park, Min Hyuk; Kim, Yu Jin; Lee, Young Hwan; Moon, Taehwan; Kim, Keum Do; Hyun, Seung Dam; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-21

    The appearance of ferroelectric (FE) and anti-ferroelectric (AFE) properties in HfO2-based thin films is highly intriguing in terms of both the scientific context and practical application in various electronic and energy-related devices. Interestingly, these materials showed a "wake-up effect", which refers to the increase in remanent polarization with increasing electric field cycling number before the occurrence of the fatigue effect. In this work, the wake-up effect from Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 was carefully examined by the pulse-switching experiment. In the pristine state, the Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 film mostly showed FE-like behavior with a small contribution from AFE-like distortion, which could be ascribed to the involvement of the AFE phase. The field cycling of only 100 cycles almost completely transformed the AFE phase into the FE phase by depinning the pinned domains. The influence of field cycling on the interfacial layer was also examined through the pulse-switching experiments.

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic activity over Cd0.5Zn0.5S with stacking fault structure combined with Cu2+ modified carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Beini; Lu, Yonghong; Wu, Pingxiao; Huang, Zhujian; Zhu, Yajie; Dang, Zhi; Zhu, Nengwu; Lu, Guining; Huang, Junyi

    2016-03-01

    For enhanced photocatalytic performance of visible light responsive CdZnS, a series of Cd0.5Zn0.5S solid solutions were fabricated by different methods. It was found that the semiconductor obtained through the precipitation-hydrothermal method (CZS-PH) exhibited the highest photocatalytic hydrogen production rate of 2154 μmol h-1 g-1. The enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production of CZS-PH was probably due to stacking fault formation as well as narrow bandgap, a large surface area and a small crystallite size. Based on this, carbon nanotubes modified with Cu2+ (CNTs (Cu)) were used as a cocatalyst for CZS-PH. The addition of CNTs (Cu) enhanced notably the absorption of the composites for visible light. The highest photocatalytic hydrogen production rate of the Cd0.5Zn0.5S-CNTs (Cu) composite was 2995 μmol h-1 g-1 with 1.0 wt.% of CNTs (Cu). The improvement of the photocatalytic activity by loading of CNTs (Cu) was not due to alteration of bandgap energy or surface area, and was probably attributed to suppression of the electron-hole recombination by the CNTs, with Cu2+ anchored in the interface optimizing the photogenerated electron transfer pathway between the semiconductor and CNTs. We report here the successful combination of homojunction and heterojunction in CdZnS semiconductor, which resulted in promotion of charge separation and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  8. Evolution of Eu valence and superconductivity in layered Eu0.5La0.5FBiS2 -xSex system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuguchi, Y.; Paris, E.; Wakita, T.; Jinno, G.; Puri, A.; Terashima, K.; Joseph, B.; Miura, O.; Yokoya, T.; Saini, N. L.

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the effect of Se substitution on Eu valence in a layered Eu0.5La0.5FBiS2 -xSex superconductor using a combined analysis of x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Eu L3-edge XANES spectra reveal that Eu is in the mixed valence state with coexisting Eu2 + and Eu3 +. The average Eu valence decreases sharply from ˜2.3 for x =0.0 to ˜2.1 for x =0.4 . Consistently, Eu 3 d XPS shows a clear decrease in the average valence by Se substitution. Bi 4 f XPS indicates that effective charge carriers in the BiCh2 (Ch = S, Se) layers are slightly increased by Se substitution. On the basis of the present results it has been discussed that the metallic character induced by Se substitution in Eu0.5La0.5FBiS2 -xSex is likely to be due to increased in-plane orbital overlap driven by reduced in-plane disorder that affects the carrier mobility.

  9. Synthesis and Properties of [Bi0.5(Na1-xAgx)0.5]1-yBayTiO3 Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lang; Xiao, Ding-Quan; Lin, Dun-Min; Zhu, Jian-Guo; Yu, Ping

    2005-12-01

    A new group of ABO3-type lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, [Bi0.5(Na1-xAgx)0.5]1-yBayTiO3, was developed, and the corresponding invention patent was submitted. The ceramics were synthesized by the conventional ceramic sintering technique using electronic grade raw materials, and the preparation techniques are very stable and convenient. The crystalline phase, microstructure and electric properties of the ceramics were also investigated. All the ceramics have high densities of about 5.70-5.84 g/cm3, which are more than 95% of the theoretical values. This system provides high piezoelectric performances: d33=168 pC/N, kp=0.31 when x=0.06, y=0.06. Moreover, the samples doped with a moderate amount of Mn could increase the mechanical quality factor Qm and reduce the dielectric loss \\mathop{tg}δ simultaneously. The temperature dependence of piezoelectric properties measured show that at up to 180°C, d33 can still remain 126 pC/N for [Bi0.5(Na0.96Ag0.04)0.5]0.90Ba0.10TiO3 ceramics, which has a d33 of 137 pC/N at room temperature.

  10. Estimation of Joule heating and its role in nonlinear electrical response of Tb0.5Sr0.5MnO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhalil, Hariharan; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-12-01

    Highly non-linear I-V characteristics and apparent colossal electro-resistance were observed in non-charge ordered manganite Tb0.5Sr0.5MnO3 single crystal in low temperature transport measurements. Significant changes were noticed in top surface temperature of the sample as compared to its base while passing current at low temperature. By analyzing these variations, we realize that the change in surface temperature (ΔTsur) is too small to have caused by the strong negative differential resistance. A more accurate estimation of change in the sample temperature was made by back-calculating the sample temperature from the temperature variation of resistance (R-T) data (ΔTcal), which was found to be higher than ΔTsur. This result indicates that there are large thermal gradients across the sample. The experimentally derived ΔTcal is validated with the help of a simple theoretical model and estimation of Joule heating. Pulse measurements realize substantial reduction in Joule heating. With decrease in sample thickness, Joule heating effect is found to be reduced. Our studies reveal that Joule heating plays a major role in the nonlinear electrical response of Tb0.5Sr0.5MnO3. By careful management of the duty cycle and pulse current I-V measurements, Joule heating can be mitigated to a large extent.

  11. Observation of selective surface element substitution in FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductor thin film exposed to ambient air by synchrotron radiation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nian; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Jia-Li; Lei, Tao; Wang, Jia-Ou; Qian, Hai-Jie; Wu, Rui; Yan, Lei; Guo, Hai-Zhong; Ibrahim, Kurash

    2016-09-01

    A systematic investigation of oxidation on a superconductive FeTe0.5Se0.5 thin film, which was grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3 (001) by pulsed laser deposition, has been carried out. The sample was exposed to ambient air for one month for oxidation. Macroscopically, the exposed specimen lost its superconductivity due to oxidation. The specimen was subjected to in situ synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements following cycles of annealing and argon ion etching treatments to unravel what happened in the electronic structure and composition after exposure to air. By the spectroscopic measurements, we found that the as-grown FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductive thin film experienced an element selective substitution reaction. The oxidation preferentially proceeds through pumping out the Te and forming Fe-O bonds by O substitution of Te. In addition, our results certify that in situ vacuum annealing and low-energy argon ion etching methods combined with spectroscopy are suitable for depth element and valence analysis of layered structure superconductor materials. Project supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 1G2009312311750101) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11375228, 11204303, and U1332105).

  12. Superparamagnetic behavior of heat treated Mg0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Ch.; Singh, S. B.; Tirupanyam, B. V.; Meena, S. S.; Yusuf, S. M.; Prasad, S. A. V.; Krishna, K. S. Rama; Sastry, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    Nanoparticles of Mg0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopic results of Mg0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 annealed at 200 °C, 500 °C and 800 °C are reported. It was observed that the crystallite size increases and the lattice parameter decreases with increase in annealing temperature. The observed decrease in lattice strain supports the increase in crystallite size. The Mössbauer spectra of the samples annealed at 200 °C and 500 °C exhibits superparamagnetic doublets whereas the Mössbauer spectrum of the sample annealed at 800 °C exhibits paramagnetic doublet along with weak sextet of hyperfine interaction. The values of isomer shift resemble the presence of high spin iron ions. The studied ferrite nanoparticles are suitable for biomedical applications. The results are incorporated employing core-shell model and cation redistribution.

  13. Assessment of working memory components at 6years of age as predictors of reading achievements a year later.

    PubMed

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-05-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97 children. Among all working memory components, phonological complex memory contributed most to predicting all three reading abilities. A capacity measure of phonological complex memory, based on passing a minimum threshold in those tasks, contributed to the explained variance of decoding and reading comprehension. Findings suggest that a minimal ability of phonological complex memory is necessary for children to attain a normal reading level. Adding assessment of phonological complex memory, before formal teaching of reading begins, to more common measures might better estimate children's likelihood of future academic success.

  14. Pure and strong red photoluminescence from Na0.5Gd0.5TiO3: Eu ferroelectric thin films under ultraviolet light excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng; Sun, Lina; Tan, Jun; Li, Xinsheng; Liu, Dongyun; Liang, Duoqiang

    2017-02-01

    A series of novel photoluminescent ferroelectric thin films Na0.5Gd0.5TiO3: xEu (NGT: Eu) with various Eu3+ doping concentrations were prepared at various heat-treated temperature, which have single pseudo-cubic perovskite structure at proper heat-treated temperature from 700 °C to 800 °C according to X-ray diffraction results. There existed narrow and intensive emission bands located at red light region ascribed to 5D0 → 7F2 and 5D0 → 7F1 transitions of Eu3+ by 283 nm excitation. The strong energy absorption of NGT host and efficient energy transfer to Eu3+ should be primarily responsible for the emissions. Gd3+ acts as sensitizer which has an important role on the energy transfer from the host NGT to Eu3+. The luminescence from NGT: 0.25Eu thin films is the strongest for all the NGT: Eu films, and its color coordinate is (0.65, 0.32) close to ideal red light. The quenching concentration in NGT: Eu films reaches as high as 25%. The lifetime of emissive energy level Eu3+: 5D0 in NGT: 0.1Eu and NGT: 0.5Eu thin films is 1.024 ms and 0.931 ms, respectively. Finally, the ferroelectric property of NGT: 0.25Eu thin films was tested and the remanent polarization (2Pr) is 7.10 μC/cm2 lower than that of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3.

  15. Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

    2009-10-01

    Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention.

  16. Head Circumference Charts for Turkish Children Aged Five to Eighteen Years

    PubMed Central

    KARA, Bülent; ETİLER, Nilay; AYDOĞAN UNCUOĞLU, Ayşen; MARAŞ GENÇ, Hülya; ULAK GÜMÜŞLÜ, Esen; GÖKÇAY, Gülbin; FURMAN, Andrezej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most head circumference growth references are useful during the first years of life, but they are also useful for older children when screening for developmental, neurological, and genetic disorders. We aimed to develop head circumference growth reference charts for age, height, and waist circumference for Turkish children aged 5–18 years. Methods Head circumference, height, and waist circumference measurements were obtained from 5079 students aged 5–18 years from İzmit, Kocaeli Province, Turkey. The LMS method was used to construct reference centile curves. Results Head circumference measurements were strongly correlated with height (r=0.74), weight (r=0.76), and waist circumference (r=0.68). The mean head circumference values for boys were larger than those for girls at all ages. Compared with data from the United States, the World Health Organization, and other studies from Turkey, our data showed a decrease in head circumference at all ages for both sexes. Conclusion Local growth charts can be used to evaluate head circumference growth in older Turkish children and adolescents. PMID:28360767

  17. The development of fine-grained sensitivity to eye contact after 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mark D; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-06-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the left/right or upward/downward and judged whether the model's gaze was direct or averted to the left/right or upward/downward. The horizontal range of fixation positions leading to the perception of direct gaze (the cone of gaze) was more than 50% larger in 6-year-olds than in adults, but it was adult-like and smaller than the vertical cone of gaze by 8 years of age. The vertical cone of gaze was large and statistically adult-like by age 6, with only a small linear reduction thereafter. In all age groups, the horizontal cone of gaze was centered on the bridge of the participant's nose and the vertical cone was centered slightly below the participant's eye height. These findings indicate that until after age 6, relatively poor sensitivity to direct versus averted gaze limits children's ability to use gaze cues to make social judgments.

  18. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2009-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Results demonstrated that in both boys and girls: (1) fear conditioning increased across age, particularly from ages 5 to 6 years, (2) the three components of skin conductance fear conditioning that reflect different degrees of automatic and controlled cognitive processes exhibited different developmental profiles, and (3) individual differences in arousal, orienting, and the unconditioned response were associated with individual differences in conditioning, with the influence of orienting increasing at later ages. This first longitudinal study of the development of skin conductance fear conditioning in children both demonstrates that children as young as age 3 years evidence fear conditioning in a difficult acquisition paradigm, and that different sub-components of skin conductance conditioning have different developmental trajectories. PMID:20121876

  19. Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group.

  20. Height and age adjustment for cross sectional studies of lung function in children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, S; Rona, R J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No standard exists for the adjustment of lung function for height and age in children. Multiple regression should not be used on untransformed data because, for example, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), though normally distributed for height, age, and sex, has increasing standard deviation. A solution to the conflict is proposed. METHODS: Spirometry on representative samples of children aged 6.5 to 11.99 years in primary schools in England. After exclusion of children who did not provide two repeatable blows 910 white English boys and 722 girls had data on FEV1 and height. Means and standard deviations of FEV1 divided by height were plotted to determine whether logarithmic transformation of FEV1 was appropriate. Multiple regression was used to give predicted FEV1 for height and age on the transformed scale; back transformation gave predicted values in litres. Other lung function measures were analysed, and data on inner city children, children from ethnic minority groups, and Scottish children were described. RESULTS: After logarithmic (ln) transformation of FEV1 standard deviation was constant. The ratios of actual and predicted values of FEV1 were normally distributed in boys and girls. From the means and standard deviations of these distributions, and the predicted values, centiles and standard deviation scores can be calculated. CONCLUSION: The method described is valid because the assumption of stable variance for multiple regression was satisfied on the log scale and the variation of ratios of actual to predicted values on the original scale was well described by a normal distribution. The adoption of the method will lead to uniformity and greater ease of comparison of research findings. PMID:1440464

  1. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  2. Psychiatric Disorders in Extremely Preterm Children: Longitudinal Finding at Age 11 Years in the EPICure Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Hollis, Chris; Kochhar, Puja; Hennessy, Enid; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children. Method: All babies born less than 26 weeks gestation in the United Kingdom and Ireland from March through December 1995 were recruited to the EPICure Study. Of 307 survivors at 11 years of age, 219 (71%) were assessed alongside 153…

  3. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Prevention of Dental Caries in Children From Birth Through Age Five Years. ... Children’ s Oral Health ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Tooth Decay — Early Childhood ( MedlinePlus) May 2014 Task Force FINAL ...

  4. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  5. Developing and Instituting a Parenting Course for Parents of Children Ages 3 through 14 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innes, Ruth S.

    A licensed counselor working in a privately owned mental health facility implemented a practicum study designed to improve the parenting skills and quality of family communication in families with children between 3 and 14 years of age. Practicum goals were to: (1) give parents information that would improve their parenting skills; and (2)…

  6. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  7. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  8. Correlates of Depressive Disorders in the Quebec General Population 6 to 14 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Lise; Valla, Jean-Pierre; Smolla, Nicole; Piche, Genevieve; Berthiaume, Claude; St.-Georges, Marie

    2007-01-01

    There are relatively few community-based epidemiological studies in which correlates of depressive disorders were identified through multivariate analyses in children and adolescents aged 6-14 years. Moreover, several family characteristics (e.g., parent-child relationship) have never been explored in this regard. The purpose of this study was…

  9. Holistic Face Processing Is Mature at 4 Years of Age: Evidence from the Composite Face Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Heering, Adelaide; Houthuys, Sarah; Rossion, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Although it is acknowledged that adults integrate features into a representation of the whole face, there is still some disagreement about the onset and developmental course of holistic face processing. We tested adults and children from 4 to 6 years of age with the same paradigm measuring holistic face processing through an adaptation of the…

  10. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  11. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  12. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  13. 24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. Rejuvenating immunity: “anti-aging drug today” eight years later

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 year ended with celebration: Everolimus, a rapamycin analog, was shown to improve immunity in old humans, heralding ‘a turning point’ in research and new era in human quest for immortality. Yet, this turning point was predicted a decade ago. But what will cause human death, when aging will be abolished? PMID:25844603

  19. The Five to Seven Year Shift: The Age of Reason and Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J., Ed.; Haith, Marshall M.

    This book reviews the contemporary state of knowledge on developmental transitions between 5 and 7 years. Contributions are: (1) "Interpreting Developmental Transitions" (Arnold Sameroff; Marshall Haith); (2) "The Child's Entry into the 'Age of Reason'" (Sheldon White); (3) "Is There a Neural Basis for Cognitive…

  20. The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the…

  1. The Conception of Risk in Minority Young Adolescents Aged 12-14 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…

  2. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  3. Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

  4. Culture and diet among Chinese American children aged 9–13 years: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years in community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX using constructs fro...

  5. Students' Perspective (Age Wise, Gender Wise and Year Wise) of Parameters Affecting the Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…

  6. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English…

  7. Malocclusions in children at 3 and 7 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor; Lennartsson, Bertil; Söderfeldt, Björn; Bondemark, Lars

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to compare the prevalence of malocclusion at ages 3 and 7 years in a sample of children, exploring the hypothesis that prevalence of malocclusion is higher at 3 than at 7 years of age and may be influenced by sucking habits. The study sample comprised 386 children (199 girls and 187 boys), aged 3 years at study start, sourced from three Public Dental Service clinics in Sweden. Malocclusion was diagnosed by clinical examination, using a specific protocol. Data on allergy, traumatic injuries, sucking habits, and breathing pattern including nocturnal breathing disturbances were obtained by means of a questionnaire answered by child and parent in conjunction with the initial and final clinical examination. The overall prevalence of malocclusion decreased significantly, from 70 to 58% (P < 0.0001): predominantly anterior open bite, excessive overjet, and Class III malocclusion. Although high rates of spontaneous correction were also noted for deep bite, Class II malocclusion and posterior and anterior crossbites, new cases developed at almost the same rate; thus, the prevalence was unchanged at the end of the observation period. Anterior open bite and posterior crossbite were the only conditions showing significant associations with sucking habits. The results confirm the hypothesis of higher prevalence of malocclusion at 3 years of age and clearly support the strategy of deferring orthodontic correction of malocclusion until the mixed dentition stage.

  8. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  9. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Guidance for Health Children Ages 2 to 11 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical acti...

  10. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

  11. Longitudinal posturography and rotational testing in children 3-9 years of age: Normative data

    PubMed Central

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L.; Mandel, Ellen M.; Sparto, Patrick J; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Fall, Patricia A.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To obtain normative longitudinal vestibulo-ocular and balance test data in children from ages 3 to 9 with normal middle-ear status. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort Setting Tertiary care pediatric hospital Subjects and Methods Three-year-old children were entered and tested yearly. Subjects underwent earth vertical axis rotation testing using sinusoidal and constant velocity stimuli and performed the Sensory Organization Test. Results One hundred forty-eight children were entered and usable data were collected on 127 children. A linear increase in the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as children aged was found, without a change in the phase of the response. An age-related linear increase in Equilibrium Scores, indicating reduced postural sway, was also observed. Conclusion These normative data can be used in the evaluation of dizziness and balance disorders in children. PMID:20416461

  12. Gradual improvement in fine-grained sensitivity to triadic gaze after 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mark D; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-02-01

    The current research compared the ability of adults and children to determine where another person is looking in shared visual space (triadic gaze). In Experiment 1, children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults viewed photographs of a model fixating a series of positions separated by 1.6° along the horizontal plane. The task was to indicate whether the model was looking to the left or right of one of three target positions (midline, 6.4° left, or 6.4° right). By 6 years of age, thresholds were quite small (M=1.94°) but were roughly twice as large as those of adults (M=1.05°). Thresholds decreased to adult-like levels around 10 years of age. All age groups showed the same pattern of higher sensitivity for central targets than peripheral targets and of misjudging gaze toward peripheral targets as farther from midline than it really was. In subsequent experiments, we evaluated possible reasons for the higher thresholds in 6- and 8-year-olds. In Experiment 2, the thresholds of 6-year-olds did not improve when the range of deviations from the target position that the model fixated covered a much wider range. In Experiment 3, 8-year-olds were less sensitive than adults to small shifts in eye position even though the task required only matching faces with the same eye position and not determining where the person was looking. These findings suggest that by 6 years of age, children are quite sensitive to triadic gaze, which may support inferences about others' interests and intentions. Subsequent improvements in sensitivity involve, at least in part, an increase in sensitivity to eye position.

  13. Sixty years old is the breakpoint of human frontal cortex aging.

    PubMed

    Cabré, Rosanna; Naudí, Alba; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Mayelin; Ayala, Victòria; Jové, Mariona; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Piñol-Ripoll, Gerard; Gil-Villar, Maria Pilar; Rué, Montserrat; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2017-02-01

    Human brain aging is the physiological process which underlies as cause of cognitive decline in the elderly and the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Human neurons are functional throughout a healthy adult lifespan, yet the mechanisms that maintain function and protect against neurodegenerative processes during aging are unknown. Here we show that protein oxidative and glycoxidative damage significantly increases during human brain aging, with a breakpoint at 60 years old. This trajectory is coincident with a decrease in the content of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I-IV. We suggest that the deterioration in oxidative stress homeostasis during aging induces an adaptive response of stress resistance mechanisms based on the sustained expression of REST, and increased or decreased expression of Akt and mTOR, respectively, over the adult lifespan in order to preserve cell neural survival and function.

  14. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    PubMed Central

    Shenkin, S; Starr, J; Pattie, A; Rush, M; Whalley, L; Deary, I; PHARAOH, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.
METHODS—Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932.Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were traced on 449of these children.
RESULTS—Mean score on Moray House Test increased from 30.6 at a birth weight of <2500 g to 44.7 at 4001-4500 g, after correcting for gestational age, maternal age, parity, social class, and legitimacy of birth. Multiple regression showed that 15.6% of the variance in Moray House Test score is contributed by a combination of social class (6.6%), birth weight (3.8%), child's exact age (2.4%), maternal parity (2.0%), and illegitimacy (1.5%). Structural equation modelling confirmed the independent contribution from each of these variables in predicting cognitive ability. A model in which birth weight acted as a mediator of social class had poor fit statistics.
CONCLUSION—In this 1921 birth cohort, social class and birth weight have independent effects on cognitive function at age 11. Future research will relate these childhood data to health and cognition in old age.

 PMID:11517097

  15. Does baseline innate immunity change with age? A multi-year study in great tits.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Anke; Eens, Marcel; Van Dongen, Stefan; Müller, Wendt

    2017-03-16

    Throughout their life animals progressively accumulate mostly detrimental changes in cells, tissues and their functions, causing a decrease in individual performance and ultimately an increased risk of death. The latter may be amplified if it also leads to a deterioration of the immune system which forms the most important protection against the permanent threat of pathogens and infectious diseases. Here, we investigated how four baseline innate immune parameters (natural antibodies, complement activity, concentrations of haptoglobin and concentrations of nitric oxide) changed with age in free-living great tits (Parus major). We applied both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches as birds were sampled for up to three years of their lives. Three out of the four selected innate immune parameters were affected by age. However, the shape of the response curves differed strongly among the innate immune parameters. Natural antibody levels increased during early life until mid-age to decrease thereafter when birds aged. Complement activity was highest in young birds, while levels slightly decreased with increasing age. Haptoglobin levels on the other hand, showed a linear, but highly variable increase with age, while nitric oxide concentrations were unaffected by age. The observed differences among the four studied innate immune traits not only indicate the importance of considering several immune traits at the same time, but also highlight the complexity of innate immunity. Unraveling the functional significance of the observed changes in innate immunity is thus a challenging next step.

  16. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice.

  17. Nonsurgical management of solid abdominal organ injury in patients over 55 years of age.

    PubMed

    Falimirski, M E; Provost, D

    2000-07-01

    Age greater than 55 is often stated to be a contraindication to nonoperative management of intraperitoneal solid organ injury, based upon failures in early experiences of nonoperative therapy. Refinements in the criteria for nonoperative management of hepatic and splenic injuries have yielded improved success rates compared with those in initial reports, raising questions as to the validity of an age-related contraindication. A retrospective chart review of patients more than 55 years of age sustaining blunt hepatic and/or splenic injury at two urban Level I trauma centers was performed. Patients were stratified into three groups in which selection criteria could not consistently be determined: those managed nonoperatively, those managed operatively, and those who died within 24 hours. The purpose of this review is to identify whether age is a determinant for nonoperative management of abdominal solid organ injury. Eighty-eight patients were identified (mean age, 68.7 +/- 9.8), 17 of whom died in the emergency department or after operative intervention. Of the remaining 71 patients, 37 were originally managed nonoperatively (mean age 69.9 +/- 9.1, mean Injury Severity Score 19.9), 24 sustained hepatic injuries (grades I-IV), 12 sustained splenic injuries (grades I-III), and one patient sustained both organ injuries. Three patients with multisystem trauma died from complications unrelated to their solid organ injury (one brain death, one septic death, and one respiratory arrest). A single patient, with a grade I liver injury, required delayed exploration (for a persistent, unexplained metabolic acidosis) and underwent a nontherapeutic celiotomy. All but one of the 37 patients were successfully treated nonoperatively, for a 97 per cent success rate. We conclude that hemodynamically stable patients more than 55 years of age sustaining intra-abdominal injury can be observed safely. Age alone should no longer be considered an exclusion criterion for nonoperative

  18. Normative values for mandibular mobility in Scandinavian individuals 4-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Stoustrup, P; Kristensen, K D; Küseler, A; Herlin, T; Pedersen, T K

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of mandibular mobility is an important part of the clinical oro-facial examination of paediatric and adolescent patients. The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to establish age-related normative values for mandibular mobility in a Scandinavian paediatric and adolescent cohort and to assess the validity of universal cut-off values for lower 'normal' mandibular ranges of motion. A total of 1114 Danish individuals between 4-17 years of age were included. Maximal mouth opening capacity and laterotrusion capacity were assessed, in each individual, according to a standardised measurement protocol. The mean maximal mouth opening capacity gradually increased from 38 mm (SD 6·1 mm) at age 4 to 54·5 mm (SD 6·8 mm) at age 17. No inter-gender difference in maximal mouth opening capacity was observed (P > 0·15). The mean maximal laterotrusion capacity gradually increased from 7·4 mm (SD. 1·1 mm) at age four to 10·1 mm (SD 1·9 mm) at age 17. A statistical significant inter-gender difference of 0·8 mm (SD 0·4 mm) was observed in relation to the total laterotrusion capacity; however, the clinical relevance of this significant difference is questionable. Normative values of mandibular function was established in individuals 4-17 years of age. Our findings oppose the use of a single universal cut-off value for 'normal' range of motion in paediatric and adolescent patients. Instead, we recommend to use the age-related normative values of mandibular range of motion as basis for the assessment of the development of oro-facial function.

  19. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort

  20. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years.

    PubMed

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hoefer, Imo E; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-04-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavorable risk factor burden.

  1. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  2. Direction of associations between added sugar intake in early childhood and body mass index at age 7 years may depend on intake levels.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Antje; Diethelm, Katharina; Cheng, Guo; Alexy, Ute; Icks, Andrea; Buyken, Anette E

    2011-07-01

    Dietary factors, especially during early childhood, have been discussed as potentially critical for the development of childhood overweight. This study evaluated associations between added sugar intake during early childhood and BMI and body fat at age 7 y. Analysis was based on data from 216 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study. Life-course plots were constructed to evaluate the association between added sugar intake at different ages (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 y) and BMI SD score (BMI-SDS) and % body fat (%BF) at age 7 y. Multivariable analyses were performed for the periods identified as critical for later BMI and body fat. Added sugar intake at age 1 y and the change in intake levels during the second year of life emerged as potentially critical. At age 1 y, a higher total added sugar intake was related to a lower BMI-SDS at age 7 y [adjusted β ± SE: -0.116 ± 0.057 BMI-SDS/percent energy (%En) added sugar; P = 0.04]. Conversely, an increase in total added sugar in the second year of life (Δ%En between age 1 and 2 y) tended to be associated with a higher BMI-SDS (adjusted β ± SE: 0.074 ± 0.043 BMI-SDS/Δ%En added sugar; P = 0.09). No associations were observed with %BF. In conclusion, added sugar intake at low intake levels during early childhood does not appear to be critical for BMI and body fat at age 7 y. However, detrimental effects on BMI development may emerge when added sugar intakes are increased to higher levels.

  3. Heart rate responses of male orienteers aged 21-67 years during competition.

    PubMed

    Bird, S; George, M; Theakston, S; Balmer, J; Davison, R C R

    2003-03-01

    Orienteering is a sport in which it is common for most participants to be aged over 40 years, but research into the demands of the sport has focused almost exclusively on elite participants aged 21-35 years. The aim of the present study was to examine the heart rate responses of older male orienteers. Thirty-nine competitive male orienteers were divided into three groups: group 1 (international competitive standard, n = 11, age 21-67 years), group 2 (national competitive standard, n = 15, age 24-66 years) and group 3 (club competitive standard, n = 13, age 23-60 years). Each participant had his heart rate monitored during two orienteering races of contrasting technical difficulty. The results were analysed using analysis of covariance, with age as a covariate, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients to determine whether age was related to the observed heart rate responses. The groups did not differ in their peak (175 +/- 12 beats x min(-1), P = 0.643) or mean (159 +/- 13 beats x min(-1), P = 0.171) heart rates during the races. There was a decline of 6 beats x min(-1) x decade(-1) (P = 0.001) for peak heart rate and 5 beats x min(-1) x decade(-1) (P < 0.001) for mean heart rate. Mean heart rates were 86 +/- 6% of the participants' maximal heart rates and were not associated with age. The orienteers in group 1 displayed a lower (P < 0.005) within-race standard deviation in heart rate (6 +/- 2 beats x min(-1)) than those in groups 2 and 3 (10 +/- 3 and 10 +/- 4 beats x min(-1), respectively). In conclusion, the mean heart rates indicated that all three groups of orienteers ran at a relative high intensity and the international competitive standard orienteers displayed a less variable heart rate, which may have been related to fewer instances of slowing down to relocate and being able to navigate while running at relatively high speeds.

  4. 47 CFR 0.5 - General description of Commission organization and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and operations. 0.5 Section 0.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Engineering and Technology. (3) Office of General Counsel. (4) Office of Strategic Planning and Policy.... (8) Office of Communications Business Opportunities. (9) Office of Administrative Law Judges....

  5. Effect of current induced charge-order melting of Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 in partially masked superconducting Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3/YBa2Cu3O7 bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Baisnab, Dipak; Janawadkar, M. P.; Vaidhyanathan, L. S.; Bharathi, A.

    2013-12-01

    In order to investigate the effect of current induced charge-order melted ferromagnetic Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 on superconducting YBa2Cu3O7, current and magnetic field dependent resistance measurements have been carried out in Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3/YBa2Cu3O7 thin film heterostructure in which a part of the YBa2Cu3O7 thin film is covered by Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3. The measurements show that superconducting transition temperature of the uncovered YBa2Cu3O7 is suppressed to lower temperatures with a progressive increase in current. Results show the possibility of controlling the superconducting properties of the uncovered part of the YBa2Cu3O7 thin film by influencing the part covered by Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3.

  6. A Temperature-Insensitive Ba3.75Nd9.5Ti17.5(Cr0.5Nb0.5)0.5O54 Microwave Dielectric Ceramic by Bi3+ Substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hetuo; Tang, Bin; Guo, Xia; Wei, Meng; Si, Feng; Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Shuren

    2017-02-01

    In this study, effects of Bi3+ substitution upon microwave dielectric properties of the (Cr0.5Nb0.5)4+ replaced Ba3.75Nd9.5Ti18O54 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) ceramic have been reported. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows a single phase for all compositions with peak position fluctuation. Within the whole x range, while the quality factor ( Q) is degraded, the dielectric constant ( ɛ r) can be improved by as high as 32% and the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency ( τ f) is tailored from around +40 ppm/°C to the vicinity of zero. Considering practical requirements, we can obtain a series of temperature-insensitive ceramics ( τ f ˜ 0 ppm/°C) with relative permittivity about 95 and Qf (defined as Q times the resonant frequency f) higher than 6000 GHz. They have the potential of being utilized in wireless microwave communication applications.

  7. Studies on the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of LaCrO{sub 3}, LaCr{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} and LaCr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} by sol–gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Nithya, V.D.; Jacob Immanuel, R.; Senthilkumar, S.T.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Perelshtein, I.; Zitoun, D.; Kalai Selvan, R.

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► LaCr{sub 0.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (M = Cr{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) was synthesized by simple sol–gel technique with subsequent heat treatment. ► The compound formation temperature was optimized through XRD analysis. ► The effects of Cu{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} on the electrical properties of LaCrO{sub 3} were studied using impedance spectroscopy. ► The temperature dependence of electrical conductivity was discussed for LaCr{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. ► The magnetization was found to be enhanced in the LaCr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. -- Abstract: The structural, electrical and magnetic properties of LaCr{sub 0.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (M = Cr{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) synthesized by a sol–gel technique were studied. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows the structure to be orthorhombic and the size of the particles is around 100 nm as seen from the TEM images. The effects of Cu{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} on the electrical properties of LaCrO{sub 3} were studied using impedance spectroscopy at room temperature (RT). The properties of LaCr{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} were studied over a wide range of temperature from RT to 533 K. A maximum conductivity of 1.7 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} was observed for LaCr{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} at a measured temperature of 533 K. The impedance spectra indicate a negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) and also imply the conduction is through bulk of the material. The magnetic studies performed using a SQUID magnetometer interpret the antiferromagnetically ordered LaCrO{sub 3} to behave ferromagnetically on the addition of Cu{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, and the magnetization was found to be enhanced in the LaCr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}.

  8. Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight status at four years of age.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Nambiar, Smita; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal-report of child eating behaviour at two years predicted self-regulation of energy intake and weight status at four years. Using an 'eating in the absence of hunger' paradigm, children's energy intake (kJ) from a semi-standardized lunch meal and a standardized selection of snacks were measured. Participants were 37 mother-child dyads (16 boys, Median child age=4.4years, Inter-quartile range=3.7-4.5years) recruited from an existing longitudinal study (NOURISH randomised controlled trial). All participants were tested in their own home. Details of maternal characteristics, child eating behaviours (at age two years) reported by mothers on a validated questionnaire, and measured child height and weight (at age 3.5-4years) were sourced from existing NOURISH trial data. Correlation and partial correlation analyses were used to examine longitudinal relationships. Satiety responsiveness and Slowness in eating were inversely associated with energy intake of the lunch meal (partial r=-.40, p=.023, and partial r=-.40, p=.023) and the former was also negatively associated with BMI-for-age Z score (partial r=-.42, p=.015). Food responsiveness and Enjoyment of food were not related to energy intake or BMI Z score. None of the eating behaviours were significantly associated with energy intake of the snacks (i.e., eating in the absence of hunger). The small and predominantly 'healthy weight' sample of children may have limited the ability to detect some hypothesized effects. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence for the predictive validity of two eating behaviours and future research with a larger and more diverse sample should be able to better evaluate the predictive validity of other children's early eating behaviour styles.

  9. High P-T Raman study of transitions in relaxor multiferroic Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3

    DOE PAGES

    Wilfong, Brandon; Ahart, Muhtar; Gramsch, Stephen A.; ...

    2015-09-02

    The vibrational and structural properties of Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy up to 40 GPa at 300 K and from 300 to 415 K at selected pressures. The measurements reveal three phase transitions at 5.5, 8.7 and 24 GPa at room temperature. The temperature dependences of the spectra indicated transitions at 1.5 GPa, at 335 and 365 K. The results support the appearance of an intermediate tetragonal P4mm phase between ferroelectric R3m and paraelectric Pm-3m phases. Furthermore, a P-T phase diagram is proposed that allows further insight into the magnetoelectric coupling present in this material.

  10. Efficient Removal of Uranium from Aqueous Solution by Reduced Graphene Oxide-Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 Ferrite-Polyaniline Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Dat Quang; Pham, Hung Thanh; Do, Hung Quoc

    2017-03-01

    Reduced graphene oxide-Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 ferrite-polyaniline nanocomposite (RGO-ZNF-PANI) was synthesized by a three-step method. The prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. In particular, we found that this material is capable of effectively removing uranium from an aquatic environment. This is confirmed by our experimental results using the method of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Adsorptive behaviour of uranium from an aqueous solution on the RGO-ZNF-PANI nanocomposite was examined as a function of pH, contact time, and equilibrium. Uranium concentration was carried out by batch techniques. The adsorption isotherm agrees well with the Langmuir model, having a maximum sorption capacity of 1885 mg/g, at pH 5 and 25°C.

  11. Series resistance effects in La0.5Ca0.5MnO3/SrTiO3:Nb(0 0 1) heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. F.; Cao, D.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, X. Y.; Jiao, Z. W.; Gao, J.

    2015-09-01

    The effects of series resistance in heterojunctions composed of La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 (LCMO) and Nb:SrTiO3 with 0.05 wt.% and 0.7 wt.% of Nb doping (0.05NbSTO and 0.7NbSTO) have been investigated in detail using current-voltage curves with and without light illumination. Two linear plots, namely, dV/dlnJ versus J and H(J)[≡V-(nk B T/q)ln(J/A**T 2)] versus J, have been used to extract the series resistance. These two plots give very close values. The extracted series resistance exhibits a monotonous increase with decreasing temperatures, which could explain the observed anomalous temperature dependence of short circuit current in LCMO/0.7NbSTO.

  12. The energy gap of the compound FeSe0.5Te0.5 determined by specific heat and Point Contact Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Roberto; López-Romero, Rodolfo E.

    2015-10-01

    The superconductor FeSe0.5Te0.5 was studied with Point Contact spectroscopy and specific heat in polycrystalline samples. The transition temperature determined by magnetic measurement was TC=14.5 K. The size of the energy gap measured by junctions is Δ = 1.9 meV, whereas the gap determined by the specific heat measurements was Δ = 2.3 meV. The gap evolution with temperature follows BCS, the ratio 2Δ/KBTC has values between 2.88 ≤ 2 Δ /KBTC ≤ 3.04. The compound was grown by solid state synthesis in quartz ampoules under vacuum at 950 °C. Crystal structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction. The superconducting properties were characterized by magnetization, resistivity and specific heat. This superconductor shows an isotropic energy gap as observed with the fitting of the specific heat at low temperature.

  13. Doubling the critical current density in superconducting FeSe0.5Te0.5 thin films by low temperature oxygen annealing

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Cheng; Si, Weidong; Li, Qiang

    2016-11-14

    Iron chalcogenide superconducting thin films and coated conductors are attractive for potential high field applications at liquid helium temperature for their high critical current densities Jc, low anisotropies, and relatively strong grain couplings. Embedding flux pinning defects is a general approach to increase the in-field performance of superconductors. However, many effective pinning defects can adversely affect the zero field or self-field Jc, particularly in cuprate high temperature superconductors. Here, we report the doubling of the self-field Jc in FeSe0.5Te0.5 films by low temperature oxygen annealing, reaching ~3 MA/cm2. In-field performance is also dramatically enhanced. In conclusion, our results demonstrate thatmore » low temperature oxygen annealing is a simple and cost-efficient post-treatment technique which can greatly help to accelerate the potential high field applications of the iron-based superconductors.« less

  14. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Cu0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4-Polyaniline Nanocomposite: Preparation, Characterization and Microwave Absorption Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dat, Tran Quang; Ha, Nguyen Tran; Hung, Do Quoc

    2017-02-01

    Reduced graphene oxide-Cu0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4-polyaniline nanocomposite (RGO-CNF-PANI) was synthesized by a three-step method. The morphology, structure and magnetic properties of composite samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy (RAMAN) and vibrating sample magnetometer. It was found that reduced graphene oxide was exfoliated and decorated homogeneously with ferrite nanoparticles having diameters between 11 nm and 21 nm. The polyaniline was coated by an in situ chemical oxidation polymerization. The measurement of magnetic properties found the remanence (Mr) and coercive field (Hc) were near zero, indicating that the obtained material was superparamagnetic. The microwave measurements found that the nanocomposite exhibited a good absorption property with the optimum matching thickness of 3 mm in the frequency of 8-12 GHz. The value of the maximum RL was -40.7 dB at 9.8 GHz.

  15. Anomalous reduction of the switching voltage of Bi-doped Ge{sub 0.5}Se{sub 0.5} ovonic threshold switching devices

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Juhee; Ahn, Hyung-Woo; Shin, Sang-yeol; Cheong, Byung-ki; Lee, Suyoun

    2014-04-14

    Switching devices based on Ovonic Threshold Switching (OTS) have been considered as a solution to overcoming limitations of Si-based electronic devices, but the reduction of switching voltage is a major challenge. Here, we investigated the effect of Bi-doping in Ge{sub 0.5}Se{sub 0.5} thin films on their thermal, optical, electrical properties, as well as on the characteristics of OTS devices. As Bi increased, it was found that both of the optical energy gap (E{sub g}{sup opt}) and the depth of trap states decreased resulting in a drastic reduction of the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) by over 50%. In addition, E{sub g}{sup opt} was found to be about three times of the conduction activation energy for each composition. These results are explained in terms of the Mott delocalization effect by doping Bi.

  16. Simultaneous laser excitation of backward volume and perpendicular standing spin waves in full-Heusler Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 films

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhifeng; Yan, Yong; Li, Shufa; Xu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yong; Lai, Tianshu

    2017-01-01

    Spin-wave dynamics in full-Heusler Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 films are studied using all-optical pump-probe magneto-optical polar Kerr spectroscopy. Backward volume magnetostatic spin-wave (BVMSW) mode is observed in films with thickness ranging from 20 to 100 nm besides perpendicular standing spin-wave (PSSW) mode, and found to be excited more efficiently than the PSSW mode. The field dependence of the effective Gilbert damping parameter appears especial extrinsic origin. The relationship between the lifetime and the group velocity of BVMSW mode is revealed. The frequency of BVMSW mode does not obviously depend on the film thickness, but the lifetime and the effective damping appear to do so. The simultaneous excitation of BVMSW and PSSW in Heusler alloy films as well as the characterization of their dynamic behaviors may be of interest for magnonic and spintronic applications. PMID:28195160

  17. Vacancy related defects in La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Keeble, D.J.; Krishnan, A.; Nielsen, B.

    1996-12-31

    Laser ablated La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} thin films have been studied by Doppler-broadening-detected positron annihilation using a variable-energy positron beam. The oxygen partial pressure during cooling from the growth temperature was altered through the range 760 torr to 10{sup -5} torr to change the oxygen non-stoichiometry of the films. The measured Doppler broadened lineshape parameter S was found to increase with increasing oxygen nonstoichiometry. For films cooled with an oxygen partial pressure of {le} 10{sup -4} Torr positron trapping to monovacancy type defects is inferred. For the film cooled in 10{sup -5} torr oxygen the magnitude of the increase in S, with respect to that measured from the film cooled in 760 Torr oxygen, showed positron trapping to vacancy cluster defects was occurring.

  18. 4-ps passively mode-locked Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror.

    PubMed

    He, Jing-Liang; Fan, Ya-Xian; Du, Juan; Wang, Yong-Gang; Liu, Sheng; Wang, Hui-Tian; Zhang, Lian-Han; Hang, Yin

    2004-12-01

    We have demonstrated a passively mode-locked diode end-pumped all-solid-state laser, which is composed of a Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 crystal and a folded cavity with a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition. Stable cw mode locking with a 3.8-ps pulse duration at a repetition rate of 112 MHz was obtained. At 13.6 W of the incident pump power, a clean mode-locked fundamental-mode average output power of 3.9 W was achieved with an overall optical-to-optical efficiency of 29.0%, and the slope efficiency was 38.1%.

  19. A novel counter electrode material of La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yongfeng; Qin, Tianze; Yang, Bo; Zuo, Xueqin; Li, Guang; Wu, Mingzai; Ma, Yongqing; Jin, Shaowei; Zhu, Kerong

    2016-11-01

    In this work, La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (LSCO) perovskite oxide with perfect crystallinity was successfully synthesized via a sol-gel method and then used as counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSCs with LSCO CEs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the triiodide reduction and yielded a power conversion efficiency of 7.17%, which is greater than that of the Pt electrode (7.06%). Compared with the hydrothermal method and solvothermal method, sol-gel method is more suitable for large scale preparation. This work should open up a new class of CE materials for low-cost and high-efficiency DSSCs.

  20. The microstructures and superconducting properties of FeSe0.5Te0.5 bulks with original milled powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoting; Gao, Zhiming; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Yu, Liming; Li, Huijun; Yang, Hanzhang

    2013-10-01

    A combination of mechanical alloying (MA) and solid-state reaction was applied to synthesize bulk FeSe0.5Te0.5 superconductor. The influence of milling time on microstructures and superconducting properties were investigated in detail. The results showed that both the grain size and the amount of β-FeSe in the final sintered samples decreased as the milling time increased. In addition, lattice parameters a and c of β-FeSe also decreased with the milling time increasing, implying the introduction of a positive chemical pressure, which was not favorable for superconductivity of Fe chalcogenides. According to the measured results of resistivity, only the 20 h-milled sintered sample exhibited superconductivity, with Tconset and Tc0 of values 14 K and 10 K, respectively. As the milling time increased, the superconductivity was depressed or even damaged completely.