Science.gov

Sample records for 0-5 year age

  1. Mathematical Model for the 0.5 Billion Years Aged Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatomir, E.

    An algorithm is given for constructing evolutionary tracks for a star with the mass equal to one solar mass. The presented model can be applied to the stars belonging to the inferior main sequence, which have the proton-proton reaction as energy source and present a radiative core and a convective shell. This paper presents an original way of solving the system of equations corresponding to the radiative nucleus by using Taylor's series in close vicinity to the center of the Sun. It also presents the numerical integration and the results for a 0.5 billion years aged solar model.

  2. Femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiayou; Tang, Jin; Zhou, Libo; Zeng, Rong; Mou, Jinsong; Zhang, Lingli

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children. Between January and December, 2007, we randomly sampled 1,450 healthy Chinese children (0-5 years old) from Hunan Provincial Children's Hospital in Changsha, Hunan, China. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis was measured by pelvic X-ray photography and processed by medical image processing software. The growth of femoral head epiphysis in girls was 2-3 months earlier than that in boys. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis increased with advancing age in both girls and boys, but the diameter of femoral head epiphysis in 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10-month-old girls was significantly larger than that in boys. Cubic regression equations between the diameter of femoral head epiphysis and age were created for boys and girls that could be used to predict the diameter of femoral head epiphysis. In conclusion, there was gender difference in femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children, and our prediction models will provide the guidance for early diagnosis of diseases related to the growth and development of the femoral head epiphysis.

  3. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  4. Spectroscopically identified intermediate age stars at 0.5-3 pc distance from Sagittarius A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Shogo; Schödel, Rainer; Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito; Nagata, Tetsuya; Minowa, Yosuke; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-04-01

    Context. Nuclear star clusters (NSCs) at the dynamical center of galaxies appear to have a complex star formation history. This suggests repeated star formation, even in the influence of the strong tidal field from supermassive black holes. Although the central region of our Galaxy is an ideal target for studies of the star formation history in the NSCs, most studies in the past have concentrated on a projected distance of RSgr A ∗ ~ 0.5 pc from the supermassive black hole Sgr A*. Aims: In our previous study, we detected 31 so far unknown early-type star candidates throughout the Galactic NSC (at RSgr A ∗ = 0.5-3 pc). They were found via near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations with narrow-band filters which are sensitive to CO absorption lines at ~2.3 μm, a prominent feature for old, late-type stars. The aim of this study is to confirm the spectral type for the early-type star candidates. Methods: We have carried out NIR spectroscopic observations of the early-type star candidates using Subaru/IRCS/AO188 and the laser guide star system. K-band spectra for 20 out of the 31 candidates and reference late-type stars were obtained. By determining an equivalent width, EW(CO), of the 12CO absorption feature at ≈2.294 μm, we have derived an effective temperature and a bolometric magnitude for each candidate and late-type star, and then constructed an HR diagram. Results: No young (~Myr) massive stars are included in the 20 candidates we observed; however, 13 candidates are most likely intermediate-age giants (50-500 Myr). Two other sources have ages of ~1 Gyr and the remaining five sources are old (>1 Gyr), late-type giants. Conclusions: Although none of the early-type star candidates from our previous narrow-band imaging observations can be confirmed as a young star, we find that the photometric technique can distinguish old, late-type giants from young and intermediate-age populations. From the 20 spectroscopically observed candidates, 65% of them are confirmed

  5. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Early Years (0-5 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters (ECM) areas…

  6. Early Book Stages, 0-5 Years [and] Creciendo con Libros (Growing [up] with Books). [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holguin, Roxanna

    Using a lighthearted and simple approach, this 23-minute videotape in English and Spanish versions presents interactions between parents and children while reading books. The children in the videotape range in age from 0 to 5 years. The video is introduced by scenes of children enjoying books while narration discussing the impact of reading to…

  7. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Skin Brightening/Anti-Aging Cosmeceutical Containing Retinol 0.5%, Niacinamide, Hexylresorcinol, and Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Farris, Patricia; Zeichner, Joshua; Berson, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly interested in over-the-counter skin care products that can improve the appearance of photodamaged and aging skin. This 10-week, open-label, single- center study enrolled 25 subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and other clinical stigmata of cutaneous aging including fine lines, sallowness, lack of clarity, and wrinkling. Their mean age was 53.4±7.7 years. The test product contained retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide 4.4%, resveratrol 1%, and hexylresorcinol 1.1% in a moisturizing base. Subjects were provided a skin care regimen including a cleanser, hydrating serum, moisturizer, and an SPF 30 sunscreen for daily use. The test product was applied only at night.

    The use of this skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical was found to provide statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints by study end. Fine lines, radiance, and smoothness were significantly improved as early as week 2 (P<.001). By week 4, hyperpigmentation, overall skin clarity, evenness of skin tone, and wrinkles showed statistically significant improvement compared to baseline. Mild retinoid dermatitis including flaking and redness occurred early in the study as reflected by tolerability scores. By week 10, subjects reported no stinging, itching, dryness, or tingling.

    The results of this open-label clinical study suggest that a topical cream containing retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide, resveratrol, and hexylresorcinol is efficacious and tolerable for skin brightening/anti-aging when used with a complementary skin care regimen including SPF 30 sun protection.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):863-868.

  8. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Skin Brightening/Anti-Aging Cosmeceutical Containing Retinol 0.5%, Niacinamide, Hexylresorcinol, and Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Farris, Patricia; Zeichner, Joshua; Berson, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly interested in over-the-counter skin care products that can improve the appearance of photodamaged and aging skin. This 10-week, open-label, single- center study enrolled 25 subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and other clinical stigmata of cutaneous aging including fine lines, sallowness, lack of clarity, and wrinkling. Their mean age was 53.4±7.7 years. The test product contained retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide 4.4%, resveratrol 1%, and hexylresorcinol 1.1% in a moisturizing base. Subjects were provided a skin care regimen including a cleanser, hydrating serum, moisturizer, and an SPF 30 sunscreen for daily use. The test product was applied only at night.

    The use of this skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical was found to provide statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints by study end. Fine lines, radiance, and smoothness were significantly improved as early as week 2 (P<.001). By week 4, hyperpigmentation, overall skin clarity, evenness of skin tone, and wrinkles showed statistically significant improvement compared to baseline. Mild retinoid dermatitis including flaking and redness occurred early in the study as reflected by tolerability scores. By week 10, subjects reported no stinging, itching, dryness, or tingling.

    The results of this open-label clinical study suggest that a topical cream containing retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide, resveratrol, and hexylresorcinol is efficacious and tolerable for skin brightening/anti-aging when used with a complementary skin care regimen including SPF 30 sun protection.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):863-868. PMID:27391637

  9. Sugerencias para la Evolucion del Desarrollo: 0-5 Anos (Stages for the Development of Discovery [Learning in] 0-5 Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

    Some points that may serve as a foundation of experience and reference in the stimulation of mentally retarded children during the years of one through five are presented. Points of development are given for the following breakdowns of time: three months, six months, nine months, 12 months, 18 months, two years, three years, four years, and five…

  10. Mechanical Behavior of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu/Cu Solder Joints After Isothermal Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Luong; Chung, Chin-Sung; Kim, Ho-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The tensile impact behavior of lead-free Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu/Cu solder joints aged at 413 K and 453 K for times ranging from 24 h to 1000 h has been investigated in this study. The activation energy for growth of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was estimated and compared with literature values. Additionally, the tensile strength of solder joints with IMC thickness of 17.6 μm was found to be more sensitive to the strain rate as compared with solder joints with thinner IMC layers. Equations representing the relationships among the effective stress, strain rate, aging time, and aging temperature as well as IMC thickness were established using matrix laboratory (MATLAB) software. These equations show that the tensile strength decreases with increase in the IMC thickness to about 8 μm, after which it becomes nearly constant when the IMC thickness is between approximately 8 μm and 14 μm, before decreasing significantly when the IMC thickness exceeds 14 μm. The main reason for these characteristics was excessive increase in the IMC thickness of solder joints, causing a change in the stress concentration of the tensile load from the protruding region to the inside of the IMC layer at the same tested strain rate.

  11. Prenatal exposure to air toxics and risk of Wilms’ tumor in 0-5 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Anshu; Ritz, Beate; Wilhelm, Michelle; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Heck, Julia E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study prenatal air toxics exposure and Wilms’ tumor in children. Methods We identified 337 Wilms’ tumor cases among children <6 years (1988-2008) from the California Cancer Registry, randomly selected 96,514 controls from California birth rolls in 20:1 ratio matched to all cancer cases, then linked birth addresses to air monitors within 15 miles to assess exposures. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to estimate effects. Results Children prenatally exposed to formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, perchloroethylene, or acetaldehyde in the third trimester had an increased odds of Wilms’ tumor per interquartile increase in concentration (OR [95%CI]: 1.28 [1.12, 1.45], 1.10 [0.99, 1.22], 1.09 [1.00, 1.18], 1.25 [1.07, 1.45] respectively). Conclusions We found positive associations for four air toxics. This is the first study of this kind. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24854250

  12. Effect of Thermal Aging on the Mechanical Properties of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/Cu Solder Joints Under High Strain Rate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Luong; Kim, Ho-Kyung

    2015-07-01

    Shear tests with velocities between 0.5 m/s and 2.5 m/s were conducted to investigate the deformation characteristics of 0.76 mm lead-free Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder ball joints after thermal aging at 373 K up to 1000 h. A scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy was then used to examine the fracture surfaces and microstructures of the solder joints. The results showed that the main failure mode of the solder joints was the brittle interfacial fracture mode with cleavage failure in the intermetallic compound (IMC). The maximum shear strength and the fracture toughness ( K C) of the solder joint decreased substantially after aging for the initial aging time, after which they decreased gradually with further aging or an increase in the strain rate. The evolution of the IMC layer when it was thicker and had coarser nodules due to thermal aging was the primary cause of the reduction in the shear strength and fracture toughness in this study.

  13. Microstructure Evolution in a Cu-0.5Cr-0.2Zr Alloy Subjected to Equal Channel Angular Pressing, Rolling or Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Igor V.; Sitdikov, Vil D.; Abramova, Marina M.; Sarkeeva, Elena A.; Wei, Kun Xia; Wei, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of microstructure in the Cu-0.5%Cr-0.2%Zr alloy subjected to thermomechanical treatment has been studied by means of the x-ray analysis. The workpieces have been subjected to 1, 2, 4 and 8 passes of equal channel angular pressing, plain cold rolling and aging treatment. The results of the XRD investigations reflect the evolution of the lattice parameter, the size of coherently scattering domains, the elastic microdistortions and the dislocation density in Cu matrix. The observed changes in the microstructure are explained by the competition between the developing defects and precipitation of the Cr phase particles from the Cu matrix.

  14. Microstructure Evolution in a Cu-0.5Cr-0.2Zr Alloy Subjected to Equal Channel Angular Pressing, Rolling or Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Igor V.; Sitdikov, Vil D.; Abramova, Marina M.; Sarkeeva, Elena A.; Wei, Kun Xia; Wei, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of microstructure in the Cu-0.5%Cr-0.2%Zr alloy subjected to thermomechanical treatment has been studied by means of the x-ray analysis. The workpieces have been subjected to 1, 2, 4 and 8 passes of equal channel angular pressing, plain cold rolling and aging treatment. The results of the XRD investigations reflect the evolution of the lattice parameter, the size of coherently scattering domains, the elastic microdistortions and the dislocation density in Cu matrix. The observed changes in the microstructure are explained by the competition between the developing defects and precipitation of the Cr phase particles from the Cu matrix.

  15. The immunogenicity and safety of a single 0.5 mL dose of virosomal subunit influenza vaccine administered to unprimed children aged ≥6 to <36 months: data from a randomized, Phase III study.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Marchisio, Paola; Montinaro, Valentina; Bianchini, Sonia; Weverling, Gerrit Jan; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Fabiano, Valentina; Pivetti, Valentina; Zanetti, Alessandro; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2012-11-19

    This study evaluated the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of a single 0.5 mL dose of the seasonal virosomal subunit influenza vaccine (Inflexal V, Crucell, Switzerland) in 205 healthy, unprimed children aged at least 6 to <36 months, evaluated at four weeks post-vaccination and seven months from baseline. Of the enrolled children, 102 received one single 0.5 mL dose and 103 received the standard two 0.25 mL doses given four weeks apart. Both treatments evoked an immune response that satisfied the EMA/CHMP criteria for yearly vaccine licensing for all three vaccine strains. Exploratory analyses revealed no differences between the groups at four weeks post-vaccination. Furthermore, immunogenicity was maintained seven months after the first vaccination after both the 0.5 mL and standard two 0.25 mL doses. Adverse events were comparable between groups and were as expected according to the safety profile of the vaccine; overall, the vaccine was well tolerated. Our results show that a single 0.5 mL dose effectively and safely provided long-term immunogenicity to all three influenza strains in unprimed children aged at least 6 to <36 months.

  16. Ages of Massive Galaxies at 0.5 > z > 2.0 from 3D-HST Rest-frame Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Franx, Marijn; van Dokkum, Pieter; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Brammer, Gabriel; Nelson, Erica; Maseda, Michael; Momcheva, Ivelina; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Lundgren, Britt; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2016-05-01

    We present low-resolution near-infrared stacked spectra from the 3D–HST survey up to z = 2.0 and fit them with commonly used stellar population synthesis models: BC03, FSPS10 (Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis), and FSPS-C3K. The accuracy of the grism redshifts allows the unambiguous detection of many emission and absorption features and thus a first systematic exploration of the rest-frame optical spectra of galaxies up to z = 2. We select massive galaxies ({log}({M}*/{M}ȯ )\\gt 10.8), we divide them into quiescent and star-forming via a rest-frame color–color technique, and we median-stack the samples in three redshift bins between z = 0.5 and z = 2.0. We find that stellar population models fit the observations well at wavelengths below the 6500 Å rest frame, but show systematic residuals at redder wavelengths. The FSPS-C3K model generally provides the best fits (evaluated with χ 2 red statistics) for quiescent galaxies, while BC03 performs the best for star-forming galaxies. The stellar ages of quiescent galaxies implied by the models, assuming solar metallicity, vary from 4 Gyr at z ˜ 0.75 to 1.5 Gyr at z ˜ 1.75, with an uncertainty of a factor of two caused by the unknown metallicity. On average, the stellar ages are half the age of the universe at these redshifts. We show that the inferred evolution of ages of quiescent galaxies is in agreement with fundamental plane measurements, assuming an 8 Gyr age for local galaxies. For star-forming galaxies, the inferred ages depend strongly on the stellar population model and the shape of the assumed star-formation history.

  17. Responses of the Ocular Anterior Segment and Refraction to 0.5% Tropicamide in Chinese School-Aged Children of Myopia, Emmetropia, and Hyperopia

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Zhengwei; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; Du, Ergang; Jiang, Kelimu; Zheng, Wenjing; Ke, Bilian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the changes of anterior segment after cycloplegia and estimate the association of such changes with the changes of refraction in Chinese school-aged children of myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia. Methods. 309 children were recruited and eligible subjects were assigned to three groups: hyperopia, emmetropia, or myopia. Cycloplegia was achieved with five cycles of 0.5% tropicamide. The Pentacam system was used to measure the parameters of interest before and after cycloplegia. Results. In the myopic group, the lenses were thinner and the lens position was significantly more posterior than that of the emmetropic and hyperopic groups in the cycloplegic status. The correlations between refraction and lens thickness (age adjusted; r = 0.26, P < 0.01), and lens position (age adjusted; r = −0.31, P < 0.01) were found. After cycloplegia, ACD and ACV significantly increased, while ACA significantly decreased. Changes in refraction, ACD, ACV, and ACA were significantly different among the three groups (P < 0.05, all). Changes of refraction were correlated with changes of ACD (r = 0.41, P < 0.01). Conclusions. Myopia presented thinner lenses and smaller changes of anterior segment and refraction after cycloplegia when compared to emmetropia and hyperopia. Changes of anterior chamber depth were correlated with refraction changes. This may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between anterior segment and myopia. PMID:26457196

  18. Responses of the Ocular Anterior Segment and Refraction to 0.5% Tropicamide in Chinese School-Aged Children of Myopia, Emmetropia, and Hyperopia.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Zhengwei; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; Du, Ergang; Jiang, Kelimu; Zheng, Wenjing; Ke, Bilian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the changes of anterior segment after cycloplegia and estimate the association of such changes with the changes of refraction in Chinese school-aged children of myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia. Methods. 309 children were recruited and eligible subjects were assigned to three groups: hyperopia, emmetropia, or myopia. Cycloplegia was achieved with five cycles of 0.5% tropicamide. The Pentacam system was used to measure the parameters of interest before and after cycloplegia. Results. In the myopic group, the lenses were thinner and the lens position was significantly more posterior than that of the emmetropic and hyperopic groups in the cycloplegic status. The correlations between refraction and lens thickness (age adjusted; r = 0.26, P < 0.01), and lens position (age adjusted; r = -0.31, P < 0.01) were found. After cycloplegia, ACD and ACV significantly increased, while ACA significantly decreased. Changes in refraction, ACD, ACV, and ACA were significantly different among the three groups (P < 0.05, all). Changes of refraction were correlated with changes of ACD (r = 0.41, P < 0.01). Conclusions. Myopia presented thinner lenses and smaller changes of anterior segment and refraction after cycloplegia when compared to emmetropia and hyperopia. Changes of anterior chamber depth were correlated with refraction changes. This may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between anterior segment and myopia.

  19. Responses of the Ocular Anterior Segment and Refraction to 0.5% Tropicamide in Chinese School-Aged Children of Myopia, Emmetropia, and Hyperopia.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Zhengwei; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; Du, Ergang; Jiang, Kelimu; Zheng, Wenjing; Ke, Bilian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the changes of anterior segment after cycloplegia and estimate the association of such changes with the changes of refraction in Chinese school-aged children of myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia. Methods. 309 children were recruited and eligible subjects were assigned to three groups: hyperopia, emmetropia, or myopia. Cycloplegia was achieved with five cycles of 0.5% tropicamide. The Pentacam system was used to measure the parameters of interest before and after cycloplegia. Results. In the myopic group, the lenses were thinner and the lens position was significantly more posterior than that of the emmetropic and hyperopic groups in the cycloplegic status. The correlations between refraction and lens thickness (age adjusted; r = 0.26, P < 0.01), and lens position (age adjusted; r = -0.31, P < 0.01) were found. After cycloplegia, ACD and ACV significantly increased, while ACA significantly decreased. Changes in refraction, ACD, ACV, and ACA were significantly different among the three groups (P < 0.05, all). Changes of refraction were correlated with changes of ACD (r = 0.41, P < 0.01). Conclusions. Myopia presented thinner lenses and smaller changes of anterior segment and refraction after cycloplegia when compared to emmetropia and hyperopia. Changes of anterior chamber depth were correlated with refraction changes. This may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between anterior segment and myopia. PMID:26457196

  20. LIME 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-14

    LIME 0.5 is an initial version of a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes. LIME by itself is not a code for doing multiphysics simulations. Instead, LIME provides the key high-level software, a flexible but defined approach, and interface requirements for a collection of (potentially disparate) physics codes to be combined with strong coupling (when needed) though non-linear solution methods (e.g. JFNK, fixed point), thus creating a new multi-physics simulation capability customized for a particular need. ! ! The approach taken is designed to! •! preserve and leverage any important specialized algorithms and/or functionality an existing application may provide,! •! minimize the requirements barrier for an application to participate,! •! work within advanced solver frameworks (e.g. as extensions to the Trilinos/NOX nonlinear solver libraries, PETSc, . . .),! Of note is that components/physics codes that can be coupled within LIME are NOT limited to:! •! components written in one particular language,! •! a particular numerical discretization approach ( e.g. Finite Element), or! •! physical models expressed as PDEʼs.!

  1. LIME 0.5

    2011-01-14

    LIME 0.5 is an initial version of a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes. LIME by itself is not a code for doing multiphysics simulations. Instead, LIME provides the key high-level software, a flexible but defined approach, and interface requirements for a collection of (potentially disparate) physics codes to be combined with strong coupling (when needed) though non-linear solution methods (e.g. JFNK, fixed point), thus creating a new multi-physics simulation capability customized for amore » particular need. ! ! The approach taken is designed to! •! preserve and leverage any important specialized algorithms and/or functionality an existing application may provide,! •! minimize the requirements barrier for an application to participate,! •! work within advanced solver frameworks (e.g. as extensions to the Trilinos/NOX nonlinear solver libraries, PETSc, . . .),! Of note is that components/physics codes that can be coupled within LIME are NOT limited to:! •! components written in one particular language,! •! a particular numerical discretization approach ( e.g. Finite Element), or! •! physical models expressed as PDEʼs.!« less

  2. Lifestyle counseling for type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care: results of the APHRODITE study after 0.5 and 1.5 years.

    PubMed

    Vermunt, Paulina W A; Milder, Ivon E J; Wielaard, Frits; de Vries, Jeanne H M; van Oers, Hans A M; Westert, Gert P

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the overall effect of the Active Prevention in High-Risk Individuals of Diabetes Type 2 in and Around Eindhoven (APHRODITE) lifestyle intervention on type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care after 0.5 and 1.5 years and to evaluate the variability between general practices. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score ≥13) were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n = 479) or a usual-care group (n = 446). Comparisons were made between study groups and between general practices regarding changes in clinical and lifestyle measures over 1.5 years. Participant, general practitioner, and nurse practitioner characteristics were compared between individuals who lost weight or maintained a stable weight and individuals who gained weight. RESULTS Both groups showed modest changes in glucose values, weight measures, physical activity, energy intake, and fiber intake. Differences between groups were significant only for total physical activity, saturated fat intake, and fiber intake. Differences between general practices were significant for BMI and 2-h glucose but not for energy intake and physical activity. In the intervention group, the nurse practitioners' mean years of work experience was significantly longer in individuals who were successful at losing weight or maintaining a stable weight compared with unsuccessful individuals. Furthermore, successful individuals more often had a partner. CONCLUSIONS Risk factors for type 2 diabetes could be significantly reduced by lifestyle counseling in Dutch primary care. The small differences in changes over time between the two study groups suggest that additional intervention effects are modest. In particular, the level of experience of the nurse practitioner and the availability of partner support seem to facilitate intervention success. PMID:21775759

  3. The effect of socio-demographic variables and dairy use on the intake of essential macro- and micronutrients in 0.5-12-year-old Indonesian children.

    PubMed

    Widodo, Yekti; Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Sumedi, Edith; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-01-01

    背景与目的:研究营养素摄入、奶制品摄入和社会经济因素之间的关系。方法 与研究设计:采用24 小时膳食回顾法收集3600 名年龄为0.5-12 岁儿童的膳食 摄入量,并收集其乳制品的使用频率、人体测量指标和社会人口学指标。结 果:总的年龄别身高Z 分数和年龄别体质指数Z 分数(均数±标准误)分别为- 1.40±0.03 和-0.48±0.03,其与人群中发育迟缓和消瘦的高发生率相关。不使用 任何乳制品的儿童占总人数的71%,并且这一比例随着年龄的增长而稳步增 长。乳制品来源的总能量摄入平均为99±3 千卡/人/天,乳制品使用者来自总乳 制品的能量为291±7 千卡/人/天。乳制品的使用没有性别差异,但城市地区高 于农村地区。另外,如果母亲受教育程度越高、母亲有一份稳定的工作、或者 家庭的收入状况处于偏上水平的儿童,其奶制品的使用频率也较高。3 岁之 后,除了蛋白质,能量和所有营养素的摄入是不足的。校正乳制品来源的更高 能量摄入和社会人口因素之后,与非乳制品使用者相比,乳制品使用者所有营 养素达到推荐膳食摄入量的比例更高,随着乳制品使用频率的增加贡献也增 加。结论:摄入充足的乳制品将大大促进印度尼西亚儿童达到推荐膳食摄入 量。.

  4. Long-term safety and efficacy of once-daily topical brimonidine tartrate gel 0.5% for the treatment of moderate to severe facial erythema of rosacea: results of a 1-year open-label study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Angela; Kempers, Steven; Murakawa, George; Weiss, Jonathan; Tauscher, Amanda; Swinyer, Leonard; Liu, Hong; Leoni, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Once-daily topical brimonidine tartrate (BT) gel 0.5% was shown to be efficacious and safe for the treatment of erythema of rosacea in previous studies including a 4-week treatment phase. In the present 1-year study, we aimed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of the treatment. Subjects with moderate to severe erythema of rosacea were instructed to apply topical BT gel 0.5% once daily for 12 months. Severity of erythema and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. Approximately 345 subject years of exposure to BT gel 0.5% was achieved in the study. The incidence of AEs and AEs judged to be related to the study drug was higher at the beginning and decreased over the course of the study. Similar safety profiles were observed between the subjects who had received or not received concomitant therapies for the inflammatory lesions of rosacea. Effect of topical BT gel 0.5% on erythema severity was observed after the first application and the durability of the effect was maintained until the end of the study at month 12, with no tachyphylaxis observed. In conclusion, once-daily topical BT gel 0.5% is safe and consistently effective for the long-term treatment of moderate to severe erythema of rosacea, even in the presence of concomitant therapies for the inflammatory lesions of rosacea.

  5. Teenagers (15-17 years of age)

    MedlinePlus

    ... until 18-21 years of age. Choose My Plate- Preschoolers The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information ... up mentally healthy and drug-free. Choose My Plate- Preschoolers The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information ...

  6. In-Situ Study of the Tensile Deformation and Fracture Modes in Peak-Aged Cast Mg-11Y-5Gd-2Zn-0.5Zr (Weight Percent)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, D. D.; Wang, Q. D.; Boehlert, C. J.; Chen, Z.; Li, H. M.; Mishra, R. K.; Chakkedath, A.

    2016-09-01

    Tensile deformation and fracture modes in peak-aged cast Mg-11Y-5Gd-2Zn-0.5Zr (wt pct) (WGZ1152) samples at temperatures between 298 K [25 °C, room temperature (RT)] and 623 K (350 °C) (0.33 to 0.69T m) were studied in situ inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and slip trace analysis. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) (265 MPa) and yield strength (YS) (193 MPa) at 523 K (250 °C) were 91 and 80 pct of those at RT, respectively. The observed dominant slip mode transitioned from basal slip (100 pct) to basal slip (81 pct) combined with prismatic slip (12 pct) from RT to 473 K (200 °C). As the temperature increased to 623 K (350 °C), basal slip (67 pct) and pyramidal slip (25 pct) became the dominant slip modes. The estimated critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) ratio of pyramidal slip/basal slip (7.3) was lower than that of prismatic slip/basal slip (12.7) at temperatures above 573 K (300 °C). Prismatic slip and pyramidal slip were more active at higher strains for moderate temperatures [473 K to 523 K (200 °C to 250 °C)] and at high temperatures [573 K to 623 K (300 °C to 350 °C)], respectively. A transition in the dominant fracture mode occurred from transgranular cracking (40 pct) combined with intergranular cracking (60 pct) to intergranular cracking as temperatures increased from RT to 623 K (350 °C). The intergranular crack nucleation sites tended to be located at grain boundaries and the interface between the Mg matrix and the large intermetallic grain boundary X phase. Slip bands were associated with transgranular crack nucleation.

  7. 28 CFR 0.5 - Attorney General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attorney General. 0.5 Section 0.5... Attorney General § 0.5 Attorney General. The Attorney General shall: (a) Supervise and direct the administration and operation of the Department of Justice, including the offices of U.S. Attorneys and...

  8. 28 CFR 0.5 - Attorney General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Attorney General. 0.5 Section 0.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.5 Attorney General. The Attorney General shall: (a) Supervise and direct...

  9. 28 CFR 0.5 - Attorney General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Attorney General. 0.5 Section 0.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.5 Attorney General. The Attorney General shall: (a) Supervise and direct...

  10. 43 CFR 2710.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 2710.0-5 Section 2710.0-5... Sales: General Provisions § 2710.0-5 Definitions. As used in this part, the term (a) Public lands means... and taxes, which will sustain a family sized agribusiness operation above the poverty level for...

  11. 43 CFR 2710.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 2710.0-5 Section 2710.0-5... Sales: General Provisions § 2710.0-5 Definitions. As used in this part, the term (a) Public lands means... and taxes, which will sustain a family sized agribusiness operation above the poverty level for...

  12. 43 CFR 2710.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 2710.0-5 Section 2710.0-5... Sales: General Provisions § 2710.0-5 Definitions. As used in this part, the term (a) Public lands means... and taxes, which will sustain a family sized agribusiness operation above the poverty level for...

  13. 43 CFR 2710.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 2710.0-5 Section 2710.0-5... Sales: General Provisions § 2710.0-5 Definitions. As used in this part, the term (a) Public lands means... and taxes, which will sustain a family sized agribusiness operation above the poverty level for...

  14. 43 CFR 2361.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 2361.0-5 Section 2361.0-5... and Protection of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska § 2361.0-5 Definitions. As used in this... described in Public Land Order 2344 (the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory—surface estate only) dated...

  15. Psychology and Aging: The First 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zacks, Rose T.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Haley, William E.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a review of the first 20 years of Psychology and Aging, the American Psychological Association’s first and only scholarly journal devoted to the topic of aging. The authors briefly summarize its history, its contributions to the study of aging, and its broader status as a scholarly publication. One theme highlighted in our review is the diversity of content in the journal throughout its history. Another is the strong impact that articles published in the journal have had on both basic and applied topics in aging. Efforts to encompass the breadth of topics and methodologies in aging research while retaining excellent quality remain the exciting but essential challenge for Psychology and Aging. PMID:16594786

  16. Psychology and Aging: the first 20 years.

    PubMed

    Zacks, Rose T; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Haley, William E

    2006-03-01

    This article provides a review of the first 20 years of Psychology and Aging, the American Psychological Association's first and only scholarly journal devoted to the topic of aging. The authors briefly summarize its history, its contributions to the study of aging, and its broader status as a scholarly publication. One theme highlighted in our review is the diversity of content in the journal throughout its history. Another is the strong impact that articles published in the journal have had on both basic and applied topics in aging. Efforts to encompass the breadth of topics and methodologies in aging research while retaining excellent quality remain the exciting but essential challenge for Psychology and Aging.

  17. Giant dielectric permittivity and weak ferromagnetic behavior in Bi0.5La0.5Fe0.5Cr0.5O3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupathi, Patri; Raju, K.; Peetla, Naresh; Pantangi, Ramakrishna; Pastor, Mukul

    2016-05-01

    A pervoskite (Bi0.5La0.5)(Fe0.5Cr0.5)O3 (BLFC) nanoparticles were synthesized by high energy ball milling. Rietveld refined X-ray diffraction studies revealed that this compound shows orthorhombic structure with Pbnm space group. The dielectric studies were investigated in wide frequency (102-106) range indicating giant dielectric permittivity behavior similar to LaFeO3 ceramic. The noted dielectric loss relaxation frequency dependent is as following the Arrhenius law can be ascribed as polaronic conduction. Further, magnetic transition at around 337 K and coexistence of weak ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic behavior is observed below magnetic transition.

  18. Stimulation Activities: Age Birth to Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Dave

    This handbook provides a collection of stimulation activities that encourage a child's physical and mental growth from birth to five years of age. Emphasis is placed on making stimulation aids that are inexpensive or can be made from scrap materials. Advice is given about ways to carry out designated activities. All activities have been tried and…

  19. 43 CFR 3142.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 3142.0-5 Section 3142.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Paying...

  20. 43 CFR 3142.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 3142.0-5 Section 3142.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Paying...

  1. 43 CFR 3142.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 3142.0-5 Section 3142.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Paying...

  2. 43 CFR 3142.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 3142.0-5 Section 3142.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Paying...

  3. 43 CFR 9212.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 9212.0-5 Section 9212.0-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention §...

  4. 43 CFR 2520.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-5 Definitions. (a) As used in the desert-land laws and the regulations of this subpart:...

  5. 43 CFR 2520.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-5 Definitions. (a) As used in the desert-land laws and the regulations of this subpart:...

  6. 43 CFR 2520.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-5 Definitions. (a) As used in the desert-land laws and the regulations of this subpart:...

  7. 43 CFR 8223.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.0-5 Definitions. (a) Research natural area means an area that is established and maintained for the primary purpose of research... threatened or endangered plant or animal species; (4) A typical representation of common geologic, soil,...

  8. 43 CFR 3140.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Existing Oil and Gas Leases and Valid Claims Based on Mineral Locations § 3140.0-5 Definitions. As used in... for the removal of gas and nongaseous hydrocarbon substances other than coal, oil shale or gilsonite... the information requirements of 43 CFR 3592 for both exploration plans and mining plans, as well...

  9. 43 CFR 2094.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; Shore Space § 2094.0-5 Definitions. The term navigable waters is defined in section 2 of the Act of May 14, 1898 (30 Stat. 409; 48 U.S.C. 411), to include all tidal waters up to the line of ordinary high tide and all nontidal waters navigable in fact up to the line of ordinary highwater mark....

  10. 43 CFR 8224.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-5... Land Management designated to perform the duties described in this subpart: (b) Fossil means the..., bitumen, lignite, asphaltum and tar sands, even though they are of biologic origin: (c) Fossil Forest...

  11. 43 CFR 8224.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-5... Land Management designated to perform the duties described in this subpart: (b) Fossil means the..., bitumen, lignite, asphaltum and tar sands, even though they are of biologic origin: (c) Fossil Forest...

  12. 43 CFR 8224.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-5... Land Management designated to perform the duties described in this subpart: (b) Fossil means the..., bitumen, lignite, asphaltum and tar sands, even though they are of biologic origin: (c) Fossil Forest...

  13. 43 CFR 8224.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-5... Land Management designated to perform the duties described in this subpart: (b) Fossil means the..., bitumen, lignite, asphaltum and tar sands, even though they are of biologic origin: (c) Fossil Forest...

  14. 43 CFR 3400.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-5 Definitions. As used in this group: (a) Alluvial valley floor has the meaning set forth in 30 CFR... consistent with 40 CFR 1508.9. (k) Exploration has the meaning set forth in § 3480.0-5(a)(17) of this title... approved mining or exploration plan. This is the same as the Federal lease bond referred to in 30 CFR...

  15. 43 CFR 1882.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Mineral... means the Act of February 25, 1920, as amended (30 U.S.C. 181). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 1882.0-5 Section...

  16. 43 CFR 1815.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL GUIDANCE Disaster Relief § 1815.0-5 Definitions. Major disaster means any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, winddriven... to warrant disaster assistance by the Federal Government to supplement the efforts and...

  17. 43 CFR 9212.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fire occurring out of doors used for cooking, branding, personal warmth, lighting, ceremonial or..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-5... Outer Continental Shelf; and (2) Lands held for the benefit of Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos. (d)...

  18. 43 CFR 9212.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fire occurring out of doors used for cooking, branding, personal warmth, lighting, ceremonial or..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-5... Outer Continental Shelf; and (2) Lands held for the benefit of Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos. (d)...

  19. 43 CFR 9212.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fire occurring out of doors used for cooking, branding, personal warmth, lighting, ceremonial or..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-5... Outer Continental Shelf; and (2) Lands held for the benefit of Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos. (d)...

  20. 43 CFR 2520.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., or appropriation in accordance with state law, to use water on the land to be irrigated. ... § 2520.0-5 Definitions. (a) As used in the desert-land laws and the regulations of this subpart: (1) Reclamation requires conducting water in adequate amounts and quality to the land so as to render it...

  1. 43 CFR 3141.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-5 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the term: (a) Combined hydrocarbon lease means a lease issued in a Special Tar Sand Area for the removal of any gas and...

  2. Dielectric and electrical characteristics of La0.5Na0.5Ga0.5V0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Truptimayee; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2016-07-01

    La0.5Na0.5Ga0.5V0.5O3 (LNGVO) ceramic was prepared using a high-temperature solid-state reaction method. The structural phase, microstructure, dielectric, ferroelectric and optical properties of the material were systematically investigated. The preliminary structural analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD) data shows the formation of the material in an orthorhombic crystal structure at room temperature. Detailed studies of dielectric and electrical properties have been carried out over a wide range of frequency (1 kHz-1 MHz) and temperature (25-450 °C) in order to elucidate the basic mechanism of the conduction and relaxation process. The dielectric characteristics show that the ceramic is a relaxor with strong diffuse phase transition and frequency dispersion. The nature of the variation of ac conductivity as a function of frequency obeys the universal power law, and confirms the existence of a hopping conduction mechanism in the material. The material also exhibits ferroelectricity at room temperature with a very low value of remnant polarization. The ionic conductivity and transport number of the ferroelectric ionic conductor were obtained with the standard experiment and calculation respectively. The material shows NTCR behavior similar to that of a semi-conductor. Similar behavior has also been observed in the study of I-V characteristics of the material.

  3. 43 CFR 3180.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: General § 3180.0-5 Definitions. The following terms, as used in this... or plan. Unitized substances. Deposits of oil and gas contained in the unitized land which...

  4. 43 CFR 3180.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: General § 3180.0-5 Definitions. The following terms, as used in this... or plan. Unitized substances. Deposits of oil and gas contained in the unitized land which...

  5. 43 CFR 3130.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING: NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE, ALASKA Oil and Gas Leasing, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska: General § 3130.0-5 Definitions. As used in... exploring, testing, surveying or otherwise investigating the potential of a lease for oil and gas or...

  6. 43 CFR 3130.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING: NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE, ALASKA Oil and Gas Leasing, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska: General § 3130.0-5 Definitions. As used in... exploring, testing, surveying or otherwise investigating the potential of a lease for oil and gas or...

  7. 43 CFR 3180.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: General § 3180.0-5 Definitions. The following terms, as used in this... or plan. Unitized substances. Deposits of oil and gas contained in the unitized land which...

  8. 43 CFR 3130.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING: NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE, ALASKA Oil and Gas Leasing, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska: General § 3130.0-5 Definitions. As used in... exploring, testing, surveying or otherwise investigating the potential of a lease for oil and gas or...

  9. 43 CFR 3180.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: General § 3180.0-5 Definitions. The following terms, as used in this... or plan. Unitized substances. Deposits of oil and gas contained in the unitized land which...

  10. 43 CFR 3400.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-5 Definitions. As used in this group: (a) Alluvial valley floor has the meaning set forth in 30 CFR... consistent with 40 CFR 1508.9. (k) Exploration has the meaning set forth in § 3480.0-5(a)(17) of this title... approved mining or exploration plan. This is the same as the Federal lease bond referred to in 30 CFR...

  11. 43 CFR 3400.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-5 Definitions. As used in this group: (a) Alluvial valley floor has the meaning set forth in 30 CFR... consistent with 40 CFR 1508.9. (k) Exploration has the meaning set forth in § 3480.0-5(a)(17) of this title... approved mining or exploration plan. This is the same as the Federal lease bond referred to in 30 CFR...

  12. 43 CFR 3400.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-5 Definitions. As used in this group: (a) Alluvial valley floor has the meaning set forth in 30 CFR... consistent with 40 CFR 1508.9. (k) Exploration has the meaning set forth in § 3480.0-5(a)(17) of this title... approved mining or exploration plan. This is the same as the Federal lease bond referred to in 30 CFR...

  13. Structural, Optical and Electrical Characteristics of a La0.5K0.5Ga0.5V0.5O3 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Truptimayee; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2016-02-01

    The polycrystalline sample of La0.5K0.5Ga0.5V0.5O3 (LKGVO) was prepared using a high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. X-ray structural analysis of the sample confirmed the formation of a single-phase compound in an orthorhombic crystal system. Preliminary molecular structural analysis using infrared (IR) spectroscopy further supports the formation of a single-phase compound. The optical indirect band gaps in LKGVO were obtained from the ultraviolet-visible light (UV-Vis) absorption spectral analysis. The micro-structural study on the LKGVO pellet sample by scanning electron microscopy shows that well-defined grains are distributed uniformly throughout the surface of the sample. Detailed studies of dielectric and impedance parameters as a function of temperature and frequency have shown the significant effect of grains and grain boundaries in the relaxation process. A I- V characteristic of the material shows a negative temperature co-efficient of resistance which is similar to that of a semi-conductor. Based on the appearance of a distinct dielectric anomaly and an unsaturated P- E hysteresis loop, like many other compounds, the existence of ferroelectricity in the compound can be expected in spite of it having moderate ionic conductivity.

  14. 43 CFR 8223.0-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.0-5 Definitions. (a) Research natural area means an area that is established and maintained for the primary purpose of research... representation of a common plant or animal association; (2) An unusual plant or animal association; (3)...

  15. Ultrathin Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 Ferroelectric Films on Si.

    PubMed

    Chernikova, Anna; Kozodaev, Maksim; Markeev, Andrei; Negrov, Dmitrii; Spiridonov, Maksim; Zarubin, Sergei; Bak, Ohheum; Buragohain, Pratyush; Lu, Haidong; Suvorova, Elena; Gruverman, Alexei; Zenkevich, Andrei

    2016-03-23

    Because of their immense scalability and manufacturability potential, the HfO2-based ferroelectric films attract significant attention as strong candidates for application in ferroelectric memories and related electronic devices. Here, we report the ferroelectric behavior of ultrathin Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films, with the thickness of just 2.5 nm, which makes them suitable for use in ferroelectric tunnel junctions, thereby further expanding the area of their practical application. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis of the films grown on highly doped Si substrates confirms formation of the fully crystalline non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic phase responsible for ferroelectricity in Hf0.5Zr0.5O2. Piezoresponse force microscopy and pulsed switching testing performed on the deposited top TiN electrodes provide further evidence of the ferroelectric behavior of the Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films. The electronic band lineup at the top TiN/Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 interface and band bending at the adjacent n(+)-Si bottom layer attributed to the polarization charges in Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 have been determined using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The obtained results represent a significant step toward the experimental implementation of Si-based ferroelectric tunnel junctions.

  16. Using Dental Age to Estimate Chronological Age in Czech Children Aged 3-18 Years.

    PubMed

    Ginzelová, Kristina; Dostálová, Taťjana; Eliášová, Hana; Vinšů, Alex; Buček, Antonín; Bučková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The Demirjian methods to determine dental age are based on analysis of orthopantograms. The dental age estimation is based on establishing the tooth development stages. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of estimation of dental age by Demirjian in the use of all of his four methods. 505 Czech healthy boys and girls aged 3 to 18 years were examined radiographically at the Department of Stomatology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. It was mentioned the factors of underlying diseases influence the accuracy of the dental age estimation. For statistical evaluation, descriptive statistics was used to compare deviations of the mean values of chronological and dental age in each age group. The resulting difference between dental age and chronological age is not significant in both genders only when using both Demirjian 7-teeth methods of 1973 and 1976. Therefore these may be most appropriately used for forensic age estimation. There are shown standard deviation differences in different countries. Demirjian's original 7-teeth method from 1973 and Demirjian's revised 4-teeth method from 1976 appear to be the best methods for calculating the dental age of healthy Czech children of both genders. PMID:26093668

  17. Coming from behind to win - A Qualitative research about psychological conditions of adolescents who have undergone open-heart surgery for single ventricle between the ages 0-5

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Early recognition of congenital cardiac pathologies and their treatment by means of palliative or corrective surgery at birth or infancy has vital importance. Successful repair of congenital cardiac defects by surgical methods has gained importance especially during the last twenty years. As the scope of the surveillance increased so did the interest in the outcomes of these treatments when the patients had reached puberty and adulthood. The purpose of our research was to study the psychological framework of the adolescents who had experienced these surgeries by listening both the children and the parents talk about their feelings and experiences. Our data was accumulated through interviews with 17 adolescents and their families, using qualitative methods. The main theme at the end of the analysis was "to be strong and resistive". We reached the conclusion that this condition was not a pathological build up but an attitude of coping, as it did not cause loss of functionality. The defensive psychological mechanisms used by these adolescents consisted of repression, compensation and reaction formation. We believe that this information is important to understand the real meaning of the manners displayed when these adolescents and their families pursue their daily lives, communicate and make relationships with their environment and especially professionals in the health services. PMID:22112589

  18. Age at exposure versus years of exposure.

    PubMed

    Seidman, H

    1985-05-01

    The pattern of incidence rates according to age for many forms of cancer has been found to be in reasonable accord with the equation or some modification of it: It = btk, where It is the incidence rate at age t, and b and k are constants. An alternative equation postulates that the risk of cancer is determined not by the age of a person but by the length of time exposed to a carcinogenic agent: It = b(t-w)k, where t-w represents the "effective exposure" between first exposure and clinical evidence of cancer. Mesothelioma rates in asbestos insulation workers were strongly related to time from onset of exposure regardless of age at first exposure. However, the same pattern was not evident for lung cancer mortality in the same workers compared with blue collar worker controls from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study I. Lung cancer mortality by attained rates and by duration of smoking were shown for current smokers of cigarettes only for the Cancer Society study, classified by age at which they started smoking. Lung cancer results were also given for men who never smoked regularly.

  19. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe0.5Ni0.5 permalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, D.; Majumdar, S.; Giri, S.

    2012-06-01

    We investigate magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe0.5Ni0.5 alloy embedded in the amorphous SiO2 host with volume fractions φ ≈ 10%. The static and dynamic aspects of the magnetic properties are investigated by investigating thermal and time dependence of low-field dc magnetization. Signature of strong interparticle interaction is noted in the magnetization results. The relaxation process at low temperature is fitted with stretched exponential function, displaying coexistence of ferromagnetic and glassy magnetic components.

  20. Magnetization reversal in the orthochromite Y0 . 5 Gd0.5 CrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Alejandro; Escudero, Roberto; Escamilla, Raul; Morales, Fransisco; Verdin, Eduardo

    Complex oxide of transition metal with perovskite structure represent fascinating playground for basic solid state research: new electronics and exotic ground states emerge via the competing interplay like spin, orbital, charge as well as lattice degree of freedom. Accordingly, orthochromites are not exception to the rule. In these compounds have been found ferroelectric polarization, spin reorientation transition along with the characteristic behavior known as; magnetization reversal (MR) consisting that a characteristic temperature, T*, the system becomes diamagnetic. In this work, the magnetic behavior of the equimolar Y0.5Gd0.5CrO3 composition was studied. Negative magnetization was observed at T*~70 K in FC mode, and applied field of 100 Oe. The characteristic hysteresis loop in the M-H graph of the pristine sample disappears for a wide range of temperature below of TN, and the characteristic spin reorientation is shifted from 14 K in GdCrO3 to 5 K for Y0.5Gd0.5CrO3. The negative magnetization is explained according the model that take into account the anisotropic and antisymmetric exchange interaction between Gd +3 - Cr +3 sublattice. A.D. and R.E. thanks to grants by DGAPA-PAPIIT, IN103213 and IN 106014 respectively.

  1. [The new legal marriage age: 21 years].

    PubMed

    Tallon, F

    1992-12-01

    In Rwanda, Presidential Decree No. 102/05 of March 13, 1992 executed Law No. 42/1988, which was not enforced after its passage in October 1988. Its principal provisions relate to civil marriage. Only monogamous civil marriage is recognized by law. Civil marriage is the voluntary union of a man and woman. A man and woman younger than 21 cannot marry except for grave reasons. Consanguineous marriages down to the seventh line of the family tree are prohibited. Other prohibited marriages include marriages between a person and his/her parents-in-law, an adoptive parent and the adopted child, an adoptive parent and descendants of the adopted child, the spouse of an adoptive parent and the adopted child, adopted children of the same adoptive parent, and an adopted child and a child of the adoptive parent. No one can remarry before annulment or dissolution of the preceding marriage. The wife cannot remarry before 300 days have passed since the end of the preceding marriage in case of pregnancy. At the end of the 300 days, she must have a medical certificate established by an ad hoc commission attesting that she is or is not pregnant. Before the wedding, the civil service officer posts at the civil state bureau information on future spouses and where the wedding will take place. The most important issue to emerge from this law is the legal marriage age being 21 rather than 18. The legislator set it at 21 as a means to realize objectives of the population policy. It favors a fertility slow-down. Some persons will say that this new law will have little effect on fertility. It is perhaps true since the last population census shows that the mean age at first union is almost 23 and civil marriage is only one of three existing forms of union.

  2. Ellipsometric study of Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieg, R. M.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Croke, E. T.; Harrell, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    An ellipsometric study of two Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer super lattices grown by MBE at low temperature (500 C) is presented, and results are compared with x ray diffraction (XRD) estimates. Excellent agreement is obtained between target values, XRD, and ellipsometry when one of two available Si(x)Ge(1-x) databases is used. It is shown that ellipsometry can be used to nondestructively determine the number of superlattice periods, layer thicknesses, Si(x)Ge(1-x) composition, and oxide thickness without resorting to additional sources of information. It was also noted that we do not observe any strain effect on the E(sub 1) critical point.

  3. Ellipsometric study of Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieg, R. M.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Croke, E. T.; Harrell, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    We present an ellipsometric study of two Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer superlattices grown by MBE at low temperature (500 C), and compare our results with X-ray diffraction (XRD) estimates. Excellent agreement is obtained between target values, XRD, and ellipsometry when one of two available Si(x)Ge(1-x) databases is used. We show that ellipsometry can be used to nondestructively determine the number of superlattice periods, layer thicknesses, Si(x)Ge(1-x) composition, and oxide thickness without resorting to additional sources of information. We also note that we do not observe any strain effect on the E1 critical point.

  4. Pregnancy Outcome of Multiparous Women Aged over 40 Years.

    PubMed

    Ates, Seda; Batmaz, Gonca; Sevket, Osman; Molla, Taner; Dane, Cem; Dane, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal age on prenatal and obstetric outcome in multiparaous women. Materials and Methods. A retrospective case control study was conducted, including women aged 40 years and over (study group, n = 97) who delivered at 20 week's gestation or beyond and women aged 20-29 years (control group, n = 97). Results. The mean age of women in the study group was 41.2 ± 1.7 years versus 25.4 ± 2.3 years in the control group. Advanced maternal age was associated with a significantly higher rate of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, fetal complication, and 5-minute Apgar scores <7 (P < 0.05). Caeserean section rate, incidence of placental abruption, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission were more common in the older group, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions. Advanced maternal age is related to maternal and neonatal complications.

  5. Age differences in health care spending, fiscal year 1977.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R M; Fisher, C R

    1979-01-01

    This report of health care spending in fiscal year 1977 reveals that of the $142.6 billion spent by the Nation for personal health care in fiscal year 1977, 29 percent was spent for those aged 65 or older, 59 percent for those aged 19-64, and 13 percent for those below age 19. The average health bill reached $1,745 for the aged, $661 for the intermediate age group, and $253 for the young. Public funds financed 67 percent of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 61 percent. More than two-thirds of the health expenses of the young and 71 percent of the expenses of those aged 19-64 were paid by private sources. Third-party payments met 68 percent of the health expenditures of all those under age 65. PMID:107600

  6. Association between energy-dense food consumption at 2 years of age and diet quality at 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Sofia; Oliveira, Andreia; Ramos, Elisabete; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2014-04-14

    The present study aimed to evaluate the association between the consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age and the consumption of foods and diet quality at 4 years of age. The sample included 705 children evaluated at 2 and 4 years of age, as part of the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Data on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of both children and mothers were collected by face-to-face interviews. The weight and height of children were measured by trained professionals. Based on FFQ, four energy-dense food groups were defined: soft drinks; sweets; cakes; salty snacks. A healthy eating index was developed using the WHO dietary recommendations for children (2006) aged 4 years. The associations were evaluated through Poisson regression models. After adjustment for maternal age and education, child's carer, child's siblings and child's BMI, higher consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was found to be associated with higher consumption of the same foods 2 years later. An inverse association was found between the intake (≥ median) of soft drinks (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.74, 95% CI 0.58, 0.95), salty snacks (IRR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.65, 1.00) and sweets (IRR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.58, 0.91) at 2 years of age and the consumption of fruit and vegetables at 4 years of age (≥ 5 times/d). Weekly and daily consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was associated with a lower healthy eating score at 4 years of age (IRR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.58, 0.96; IRR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.41, 0.77, respectively). The consumption of energy-dense foods at young ages is negatively associated with the diet quality of children a few years later.

  7. Radiocarbon ages and age models for the past 30,000 years in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Kaufman, D.S.; Dean, W.E.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses of pollen, ostracodes, and total organic carbon (TOC) provide a reliable chronology for the sediments deposited in Bear Lake over the past 30,000 years. The differences in apparent age between TOC, pollen, and carbonate fractions are consistent and in accord with the origins of these fractions. Comparisons among different fractions indicate that pollen sample ages are the most reliable, at least for the past 15,000 years. The post-glacial radiocarbon data also agree with ages independently estimated from aspartic acid racemization in ostracodes. Ages in the red, siliclastic unit, inferred to be of last glacial age, appear to be several thousand years too old, probably because of a high proportion of reworked, refractory organic carbon in the pollen samples. Age-depth models for five piston cores and the Bear Lake drill core (BL00-1) were constructed by using two methods: quadratic equations and smooth cubic-splinefits. The two types of age models differ only in detail for individual cores, and each approach has its own advantages. Specific lithological horizons were dated in several cores and correlated among them, producing robust average ages for these horizons. The age of the correlated horizons in the red, siliclastic unit can be estimated from the age model for BL00-1, which is controlled by ages above and below the red, siliclastic unit. These ages were then transferred to the correlative horizons in the shorter piston cores, providing control for the sections of the age models in those cores in the red, siliclastic unit. These age models are the backbone for reconstructions of past environmental conditions in Bear Lake. In general, sedimentation rates in Bear Lake have been quite uniform, mostly between 0.3 and 0.8 mm yr-1 in the Holocene, and close to 0.5 mm yr-1 for the longer sedimentary record in the drill core from the deepest part of the lake. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  8. Usefulness of a normal coronary angiogram in patients aged ≥65 years to foretell survival.

    PubMed

    Moreyra, Abel E; Charalambous, Marinos; Cosgrove, Nora M; Rajaei, Sheeva; Cullen, Kathryn; Cheng, Jerry Q; David, Alice; Kostis, William J; Kostis, John B

    2015-11-15

    A normal coronary angiogram (CA) has been reported to confer a good prognosis. However, how this applies to patients aged ≥65 years is not well known. From 1986 to 1996, 11,625 patients aged ≥65 underwent coronary angiography. We identified 271 patients with either normal (NORM, n = 160) CA or <30% diameter stenosis disease (NEAR-NORM, n = 111). Using the Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System, we examined the probability of survival and the risk of developing an ischemic event or undergoing a revascularization procedure during an average of 15.1 ± 6.2 years (range 0.5 to 25.8 years). Matched actuarial subjects were used to compare survival to the general population. The incidence of an ischemic event was low (2.0 events per 100 persons/year for the NORM and 2.8 patients per 100 persons/year for the NEAR-NORM group, p = NS). Rates of revascularization were higher in the NEAR-NORM group compared to the NORM group (1 per 100 persons/year vs 0.5 per 100 persons/year, p = 0.04). During the 25.8-year follow-up, there were 77 deaths (48.4%) for the NORM and 64 (57.1%) for the NEAR-NORM group (χ2 = 1.7, NS). The NORM group survived 6,789 days, 1,517 more days than the actuarial subjects (95% confidence interval [CI] 1,072 to 1,956; p <0.0001) and the NEAR-NORM group survived 5,922 days, 875 more days (95% CI 368 to 1,376; p <0.005). In conclusion, patients with normal or near-normal CA at age ≥65 years have a low rate of myocardial ischemic events and have significantly longer survival than matched subjects from the general population. PMID:26411358

  9. Influence of electron beam irradiation on the structural, electrical and thermal properties of Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 and Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, B. S.; Rao, Ashok; Babu, P. D.; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Okram, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present systematic studies on the effect of electron beam irradiation on structural, electrical and thermal properties of Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 and Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 manganites. The XRD patterns and Rietveld analysis show that the samples remain single phased even after they undergo electron beam irradiation. Both the series of the samples Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 and Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 show insulating trends in their temperature dependent electrical resistivity, ρ(T) behavior. The resistivity data for both the series of samples (pristine as well as irradiated) indicate that the small polaron hopping model is valid in high temperature region; on contrary, variable range hopping model governs the low temperature regime. Magnetic studies demonstrate that the Neel temperatures of pristine and irradiated samples of Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 and Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 do not change appreciably when they are subjected to irradiation. Thermo-electrical power is observed to increase with irradiation in Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 samples, whereas for Dy0.5Sr0.5MnO3 samples a decrease in thermo-electric power is seen when the samples are irradiated.

  10. Age differences in health care spending, fiscal year 1976.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R M; Mueller, M S; Fisher, C R

    1977-08-01

    Of the $120.4 billion spent by the Nation for personal health care in fiscal year 1976, 29% was spent for those aged 65 or older, 15% for those under age 19, and the remaining 56% for those aged 19-64. The average health bill reached $1,521 for the aged, $547 for the intermediate age group, and $249 for the young. Public funds financed 68% of the health expenses of the aged with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 59%. Private sources paid 74% of the health expenses of the young and 70% of the expenses of those aged 19-64. Third-party payments met 65% of the health expenditures of all those under age 65. PMID:408934

  11. Placental measurements associated with intelligence quotient at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Misra, D P; Salafia, C M; Charles, A K; Miller, R K

    2012-06-01

    We hypothesized that placental villous branching that is measured by disk chorionic plate expansion and disk thickness is correlated with factors also involved in regulation of branching growth of other fetal viscera (e.g. lung, kidney) including neuronal dendrites, and thus may be associated with variation in childhood intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ at age 7 years was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Placental measures [placental weight (g), thickness (mm), chorionic plate surface diameters (cm), area (cm2), shape, and cord length and cord eccentricity] were independent variables in regression analyses of age 7-year IQ in 12,926 singleton term live born infants with complete placental data. Analyses were stratified on gender with adjustment for socioeconomic status, race, parity, gestational age, exact age at testing and centered parental ages. After adjustment for covariates, placental measurements were independently associated with IQ at age 7 years but results varied by gender. Chorionic plate diameters were only associated with higher IQ in girls. Placental thickness was positively associated with higher IQ for boys and girls. We have previously shown that placental measures affect age 7-year body mass index and diastolic blood pressure. Here we demonstrate that specific measures, placental chorionic plate diameters in girls and disk thickness, independent of gender, are correlated with age 7-year IQ. Further exploration of the possible interaction of these factors on the placental villous arborization reflected by the chorionic plate expansion and placental thickness that correlate with age 7-year IQ, as well as other age 7 somatic features as previously addressed, is indicated.

  12. Young Teens (12-14 years of age)

    MedlinePlus

    ... until 18-21 years of age. Choose My Plate- Preschoolers The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information ... up mentally healthy and drug-free. Choose My Plate- Preschoolers The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information ...

  13. Individual differences in phonological development: ages one and three years.

    PubMed

    Vihman, M M; Greenlee, M

    1987-12-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of the persistence of individual differences in the phonological development of 10 normally developing children observed at age 1 year and again at age 3 years. Data were based on 1/2-hr audio and video recordings of weekly spontaneous mother-child interaction sessions in the home between 9 and 17 months and at 36 months. In addition, phonological and cognitive probes were administered at age 3. At age 1 the children were compared at four times selected on the basis of the number of different word types used in a session. Preferences for particular phonological categories (fricatives, liquids, final consonants) were found not to correspond to relative mastery of those categories at age 3. Based on both babble and words, high use of vocalizations containing true consonants was found to be predictive of greater phonological advance at age 3. Phonological errors of two kinds were distinguished for age 3: those resulting from difficulty with specific segments and those more typical of younger children, involving the rearrangement, assimilation, or deletion of segments or syllables (prosodic errors). The children differed in intelligibility and in specific segment substitutions and cluster reductions. They also differed in the proportion of prosodic errors made and in consistency in segmental errors. Lastly, aspects of cognitive or learning style as expressed in phonological organization were found to be recognizable at both age 1 and age 3.

  14. Anthropometric measurements of Saudi boys aged 6-14 years.

    PubMed

    al-Hazzaa, H M

    1990-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements of 1169 Saudi school boys between the ages of 6 and 14 years are reported. The boys were randomly selected from primary schools in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Measurements of height, weight, grip strength, chest, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses as well as biacromial, chest, bi-iliac, knee, and elbow breadths were taken. Saudi boys have slightly lower values for body weight and height than American boys (NCHS standards). Values of skinfold measurements increased with age up to age 11 where they plateaued and took then a sharp increase by age 14. Means of triceps and subscapular skinfolds of the Saudi boys are also lower than some standards from U.S.A. throughout age 13. At age 14, however, the Saudi boys have higher means than the U.S.A. boys.

  15. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  16. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  17. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  18. Ni-doped La0.5Sr0.5TiO3 nanofibers: Fabrication and intrinsic ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponhan, Wichaid; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Maensiri, Santi

    2016-06-01

    We report room-temperature ferromagnetism in ˜104-133 nm nanofibers of La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.05). As-spun nanofibers of La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 are fabricated by an electrospinning technique. Nanofibers of the as spun and calcined La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 samples are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) determination, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results of XRD analysis and TEM together with selected electron diffraction (SEAD) analysis indicate that La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 nanofibers have a cubic perovskite structure with no secondary phase. The as-spun samples are paramagnetic, whereas the La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 samples are ferromagnetic having specific magnetizations of 0.098-0.484 emu/g at 10 kOe. The XPS spectra show that there are some oxygen vacancies in the nanofibers, which its may play an important role in inducing room-temperature ferromagnetism in La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 nanofibers. XANES spectra show that most of the Ni ions in La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 nanofibers are in the Ni2+ state mixed with some Ni metal. The finding of room temperature ferromagnetism in this nanofibrous structure of the La0.5Sr0.5Ti1- x Ni x O3 system is of interest in research on diluted magnetic oxides.

  19. Near-infrared emitting CdTe0.5Se0.5/Cd0.5Zn0.5S quantum dots: synthesis and bright luminescence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We present how CdTe0.5Se0.5 cores can be coated with Cd0.5Zn0.5S shells at relatively low temperature (around 200°C) via facile synthesis using organic ammine ligands. The cores were firstly fabricated via a less toxic procedure using CdO, trioctylphosphine (TOP), Se, Te, and trioctylamine. The cores with small sizes (3.2-3.5 nm) revealed green and yellow photoluminescence (PL) and spherical morphologies. Hydrophobic core/shell CdTe0.5Se0.5/Cd0.5Zn0.5S quantum dots (QDs) with tunable PL between green and near-infrared (a maximum PL peak wavelength of 735 nm) were then created through a facile shell coating procedure using trioctylphosphine selenium with cadmium and zinc acetate. The QDs exhibited high PL efficiencies up to 50% because of the formation of a protective Cd0.5Zn0.5S shell on the CdTe0.5Se0.5 core, even though the PL efficiency of the cores is low (≤1%). Namely, the slow growth process of the shell plays an important role for getting high PL efficiencies. The properties of the QDs are largely determined by the properties of CdTe0.5Se0.5 cores and shells preparation conditions such as reaction temperature and time. The core/shell QDs exhibited a small size diameter. For example, the average diameter of the QDs with a PL peak wavelength of 735 nm is 6.1 nm. Small size and tunable bright PL makes the QDs utilizable as bioprobes because the size of QD-based bioprobes is considered as the major limitation for their broad applications in biological imaging. PMID:23130948

  20. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  1. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  2. Perinatal air pollution exposure and development of asthma from birth to age 10 years.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Within-city variation in air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma development, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined whether perinatal air pollution exposure affected asthma onset during "pre-school and "school age" periods in a population-based birth cohort.65,254 children born between 1999 and 2002 in the greater Vancouver metropolitan region were followed until age 10 years using linked administrative health databases. Asthma cases were sex- and age-matched to five randomly chosen controls. Associations between exposure to air pollutants estimated with different methods (interpolation (inverse-distance weighted (IDW)), land use regression, proximity) and incident asthma during the pre-school (0-5years) and school age (6-10 years) periods were estimated with conditional logistic regression.6948 and 1711 cases were identified during the pre-school and school age periods, respectively. Following adjustment for birthweight, gestational period, household income, parity, breastfeeding at discharge, maternal age and education, asthma risk during the pre-school years was increased by traffic pollution (adjusted odds ratio using IDW method per interquartile increase (95% CI): nitric oxide 1.06 (1.01-1.11), nitrogen dioxide 1.09 (1.04-1.13) and carbon monoxide 1.05 (1.01-1.1)). Enhanced impacts were observed amongst low-term-birthweight cases. Associations were independent of surrounding residential greenness.Within-city air pollution variation was associated with new asthma onset during the pre-school years.

  3. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur; Bresee, Joseph; Ramirez, Katharine-Sturm; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals. Results We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh. PMID:26840782

  4. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  5. Marine radiocarbon reservoir age simulations for the past 50000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butzin, Martin; Köhler, Peter; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    We present simulations of marine radiocarbon reservoir ages using the ocean general circulation model LSG-HAMOCC2s, and evaluate the results with Marine13 raw data records. Our model considers various climatic background states. Radiocarbon cycle boundary conditions are atmospheric Δ14C values according to IntCal13, a recent atmospheric CO2 reconstruction, and spatially variable concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from marine carbon cycle simulations. Our model reasonably agrees with glacial marine Δ14C records but indicates reservoir ages varying with time, different to the invariant reservoir age corrections applied to the observations and to Marine13. Modelled global-mean reservoir ages are in the range 400-800 years compared to the invariant Marine13 value of 405 years. Self-consistent simulations involving the Cariaco Basin record (which is the most continuous marine record contributing to IntCal13 for periods prior to about 30 kyears) amplify the temporal reservoir age variability with global-mean values of about 350-850 years, and improve the agreement with Δ14C observations in some areas.

  6. Enhanced ferroelectric properties and thermal stability of nonstoichiometric 0.92(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.08(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiwu; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Xiangyong; Deng, Hao; Li, Long; Lin, Di; Li, Xiaobing; Ren, Bo; Luo, Haosu; Yan, Jun

    2013-11-01

    Bi deficient, Mn doped 0.92(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.08(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 single crystals were grown by carefully controlled top-seeded solution growth method. Local structures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The site occupation and valence state of manganese were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. The leakage current density in the as-grown single crystals is effectively depressed. The introduced defect complexes suppress the temperature induced phase transformation, increasing the depolarization temperature (165 °C) and thermal stability of ferroelectric properties.

  7. EATING AND FEEDING DISORDERS IN THE FIRST FIVE YEARS OF LIFE: REVISING THE DC:0-3R DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD AND RATIONALE FOR THE NEW DC:0-5 PROPOSED CRITERIA.

    PubMed

    Keren, Miri

    2016-09-01

    Problems of eating and feeding are one of the most common reasons of referral to pediatric and infant mental health clinics. This article is drawn from work done by the ZERO TO THREE Task Force developing the DC:0-5 Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, specifically dealing with eating disorders in the first 5 years of life. The proposed changes come from both reviewing major studies and reviews published in the last 10 years and reports from clinicians collected through surveys commissioned by the Task Force. The main changes that are proposed include changes in terminology, such as Eating Disorders instead of Feeding Behavior Disorders, as well as focusing on the child's observed eating symptoms rather than on classifying the eating problems by inferred etiologies. Another major change relates to the differentiation between eating disorders that are observed beyond any specific caregiver-child relationship context and those that are confined to one specific relationship. A new category, Overeating Disorder, has been added, as it has been increasingly recognized as a significant and not rare clinical condition. Two illustrative cases are described. The proposed changes in the classification of eating disorders in the first 5 years of life are intended to encourage both clinicians and researchers to study these important disorders in young children. PMID:27554996

  8. EATING AND FEEDING DISORDERS IN THE FIRST FIVE YEARS OF LIFE: REVISING THE DC:0-3R DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD AND RATIONALE FOR THE NEW DC:0-5 PROPOSED CRITERIA.

    PubMed

    Keren, Miri

    2016-09-01

    Problems of eating and feeding are one of the most common reasons of referral to pediatric and infant mental health clinics. This article is drawn from work done by the ZERO TO THREE Task Force developing the DC:0-5 Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, specifically dealing with eating disorders in the first 5 years of life. The proposed changes come from both reviewing major studies and reviews published in the last 10 years and reports from clinicians collected through surveys commissioned by the Task Force. The main changes that are proposed include changes in terminology, such as Eating Disorders instead of Feeding Behavior Disorders, as well as focusing on the child's observed eating symptoms rather than on classifying the eating problems by inferred etiologies. Another major change relates to the differentiation between eating disorders that are observed beyond any specific caregiver-child relationship context and those that are confined to one specific relationship. A new category, Overeating Disorder, has been added, as it has been increasingly recognized as a significant and not rare clinical condition. Two illustrative cases are described. The proposed changes in the classification of eating disorders in the first 5 years of life are intended to encourage both clinicians and researchers to study these important disorders in young children.

  9. Breast Cancer Subtypes in Patients Aged 70 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    Königsberg, Robert; Pfeiler, Georg; Hammerschmid, Nicole; Holub, Oliver; Glössmann, Kerstin; Larcher-Senn, Julian; Dittrich, Christian

    2016-05-27

    Recurrence and survival pattern in breast cancer (bc) patients (pts) ≥ 70 years subcategorized according to subtype and age are still an area of uncertainty. Tumor characteristics, patient demographics, therapies applied, and recurrence pattern were compared between luminal A (LA), luminal B (LB), Her2/neu overexpressing (Her+) and triple-negative (TN) bc subtypes and the age subcategories 70-74, 75-79, ≥80 years. Based on univariate Cox-regression-analyses distant-disease-free-survival (DDFS) differed significantly for bc subtypes (p = 0.0002), notably for Her+ vs. LA (p = 0.0014), TN vs. LA (p < 0.001), and TN vs. LB (p = 0.0086). Not age, but Her+ and TN represented prognostic factors for DDFS. PMID:27215407

  10. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along ("hindsight bias"). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age…

  11. Impact of mechanical stress on ferroelectricity in (Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Takahisa; Katayama, Kiliha; Yokouchi, Tatsuhiko; Shimizu, Takao; Oikawa, Takahiro; Sakata, Osami; Uchida, Hiroshi; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kiguchi, Takanori; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the impact of mechanical stress on their ferroelectric properties, polycrystalline (Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2 thin films were deposited on (111)Pt-coated SiO2, Si, and CaF2 substrates with thermal expansion coefficients of 0.47, 4.5, and 22 × 10-6/ °C, respectively. In-plane X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the (Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2 thin films deposited on SiO2 and Si substrates were under in-plane tensile strain and that their volume fraction of monoclinic phase decreased as this strain increased. In contrast, films deposited on CaF2 substrates were under in-plane compressive strain, and their volume fraction of monoclinic phase was the largest among the three kinds of substrates. The maximum remanent polarization of 9.3 μC/cm2 was observed for Pt/(Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2/Pt/TiO2/SiO2, while ferroelectricity was barely observable for Pt/(Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2/Pt/TiO2/SiO2/CaF2. This result suggests that the in-plane tensile strain effectively enhanced the ferroelectricity of the (Hf0.5Zr0.5)O2 thin films.

  12. Non-random cation distribution in hexagonal Al 0.5Ga 0.5PO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulshreshtha, S. K.; Jayakumar, O. D.; Sudarsan, V.

    2010-05-01

    Based on powder X-ray diffraction and 31P Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) investigations of mixed phosphate Al 0.5Ga 0.5PO 4, prepared by co-precipitation method followed by annealing at 900 °C for 24 h, it is shown that Al 0.5Ga 0.5PO 4 phase crystallizes in hexagonal form with lattice parameter a=0.491(2) and c=1.106(4) nm. This hexagonal phase of Al 0.5Ga 0.5PO 4 is similar to that of pure GaPO 4. The 31P MAS NMR spectrum of the mixed phosphate sample consists of five peaks with systematic variation of their chemical shift values and is arising due to existence of P structural units having varying number of the Al 3+/Ga 3+ cations as the next nearest neighbors in the solid solution. Based on the intensity analysis of the component NMR spectra of Al 0.5Ga 0.5PO 4, it is inferred that the distribution of Al 3+ and Ga 3+ cations is non-random for the hexagonal Al 0.5Ga 0.5PO 4 sample although XRD patterns showed a well-defined solid solution formation.

  13. Synthesis and luminescence characterization of Sr(0.5)Ca(0.5)TiO3:Sm(3+) phosphor.

    PubMed

    Vidyadharan, Viji; Remya, Mohan P; Gopi, Subhash; Thomas, Sunil; Joseph, Cyriac; Unnikrishnan, N V; Biju, P R

    2015-11-01

    The spectroscopic properties of trivalent samarium doped Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 perovskite phosphor material (Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3:xSm(3+), x=0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5) synthesized by the solid state method have been studied. The X-Ray Diffraction profile confirms the orthorhombic perovskite Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 structure of the prepared samples. The SEM study reveals the surface morphology. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were calculated for 0.5 wt% Sm(3+) doped Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3. Transition probabilities, branching ratios and radiative lifetime were evaluated by using Judd-Ofelt analysis. The emission spectra under 405 nm excitation shows five emission peaks at 564 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm, 707 nm and 776 nm corresponding to the transitions (4)G5/2→(6)Hj (j=5/2, 7/2, 9/2, 11/2 and 13/2) respectively. The higher values of branching ratio and stimulated emission cross-section for (4)G5/2→(6)H7/2 transition of Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3:0.5 wt% Sm(3+) shows its suitability in the field of visible lasers and optical fiber amplifiers. The experimental lifetimes of Sm(3+) doped samples were estimated using the decay curves corresponding to (4)G5/2→(6)H7/2 transition upon 405 nm excitation. Concentration dependence on emission intensity and experimental lifetime were also studied. From the CIE diagram we can see that as the concentration of Sm(3+) ions increases from 0.05 wt% to 1.5 wt% the CIE color co-ordinates changes from greenish yellow to yellowish orange.

  14. Ga0.5In0.5P Barrier Layer for Wet Oxidation of AlAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Wei-I

    2000-05-01

    We study the stability of Ga0.5In0.5P and Al0.4Ga0.6As barrier layers for wet thermal oxidation of AlAs on GaAs. Samples with a Ga0.5In0.5P or Al0.4Ga0.6As barrier layer are oxidized in a water vapor environment under various oxidation conditions. The results of photoluminescence and secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile measurements indicate that the Ga0.5In0.5P barrier layer is more stable than the Al0.4Ga0.6As layer at higher oxidation temperatures and longer periods of oxidation time.

  15. Shear strain in Nd0.5Ca0.5MnO3 at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Arulraj, Anthony; Dinnebier, Robert E; Carlson, Stefan; Hanfland, Michael; van Smaalen, Sander

    2005-04-29

    High-pressure x-ray powder diffraction has been measured on the half doped rare earth manganite Nd0.5Ca0.5MnO3 up to a pressure of 15 GPa. We report the presence of a quantifiable amount of shear distortion of the MnO6 octahedra in Nd0.5Ca0.5MnO3 at high pressures. The lattice strain of Nd0.5Ca0.5MnO3 is minimal at a crossover pressure of p* approximately 7 GPa, with the same lattice strain above and below this pressure achieved by shear and Jahn-Teller-type distortions, respectively. The increase in shear strain with increasing pressure provides a mechanism for the insulating behavior of manganites at high pressures that has not been considered before. PMID:15904242

  16. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    PubMed

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  17. Topochemical reduction of the Ruddlesden-Popper phases Sr2Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5)O4 and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7.

    PubMed

    Denis Romero, Fabio; Gianolio, Diego; Cibin, Giannantonio; Bingham, Paul A; d'Hollander, Jeanne-Clotilde; Forder, Susan D; Hayward, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    Reaction of the Ruddlesden-Popper phases Sr2Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5)O4 and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 with CaH2 results in the topochemical deintercalation of oxide ions from these materials and the formation of samples with average compositions of Sr2Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5)O(3.35) and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O(5.68), respectively. Diffraction data reveal that both the n = 1 and n = 2 samples consist of two-phase mixtures of reduced phases with subtly different oxygen contents. The separation of samples into two phases upon reduction is discussed on the basis of a short-range inhomogeneous distribution of iron and ruthenium in the starting materials. X-ray absorption data and Mössbauer spectra reveal the reduced samples contain an Fe(3+) and Ru(2+/3+) oxidation state combination, which is unexpected considering the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) and Ru(3+)/Ru(2+) redox potentials, suggesting that the local coordination geometry of the transition metal sites helps to stabilize the Ru(2+) centers. Fitted Mössbauer spectra of both the n = 1 and n = 2 samples are consistent with the presence of Fe(3+) cations in square planar coordination sites. Magnetization data of both materials are consistent with spin glass-like behavior.

  18. Structure, phase evolution, and microwave dielectric properties of (Ag0.5Bi0.5)(Mo0.5W0.5)O4 ceramic with ultralow sintering temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Di; Li, Wen-Bo; Guo, Jing; Pang, Li-Xia; Qi, Ze-Ming; Shao, Tao; Xie, Hui-Dong; Yue, Zhen-Xing; Yao, Xi

    2014-06-01

    In the present work, the microwave dielectric ceramic (Ag0.5Bi0.5)(Mo0.5W0.5)O4 was prepared by using the solid-state reaction method. (Ag0.5Bi0.5)(Mo0.5W0.5)O4 was found to crystallize in the scheelite structure, in which Ag(+) and Bi(3+) occupy the A site randomly with 8-coordination while Mo(6+) and W(6+) occupy the B site with 4-coordination, at a sintering temperature above 500 °C, with lattice parameters a = b = 5.29469(2) Å and c = 11.62114(0) Å, space group I4(1)/a (No. 88), and acceptable Rp = 9.38, Rwp = 11.2, and Rexp = 5.86. High-performance microwave dielectric properties, with permittivity ∼26.3, Qf value ∼10,000 GHz, and temperature coefficient ∼+20 ppm/°C, were obtained in the sample sintered at 580 °C. Its chemical compatibility with aluminum at its sintering temperature was revealed and confirmed by both X-ray and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis. This ceramic could be a good candidate for ultralow-temperature cofired ceramics. PMID:24848200

  19. 16 CFR 0.5 - Laws authorizing monetary claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 0.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.5 Laws authorizing monetary claims. The Commission is authorized to entertain monetary claims against it under three statutes. The Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671-2680) provides that...

  20. 16 CFR 0.5 - Laws authorizing monetary claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 0.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.5 Laws authorizing monetary claims. The Commission is authorized to entertain monetary claims against it under three statutes. The Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671-2680) provides that...

  1. 16 CFR 0.5 - Laws authorizing monetary claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 0.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.5 Laws authorizing monetary claims. The Commission is authorized to entertain monetary claims against it under three statutes. The Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671-2680) provides that...

  2. 16 CFR 0.5 - Laws authorizing monetary claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 0.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.5 Laws authorizing monetary claims. The Commission is authorized to entertain monetary claims against it under three statutes. The Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671-2680) provides that...

  3. 16 CFR 0.5 - Laws authorizing monetary claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 0.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.5 Laws authorizing monetary claims. The Commission is authorized to entertain monetary claims against it under three statutes. The Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671-2680) provides that...

  4. Thermochromic effect at room temperature of Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boileau, A.; Capon, F.; Barrat, S.; Laffez, P.; Pierson, J. F.

    2012-06-01

    Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3 thermochromic thin films were synthesized using dc reactive magnetron co-sputtering and subsequent annealing in air. The film structure was studied by x-ray diffraction analysis. To validate the thermochromic potentiality of Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3, electrical resistivity and infrared transmittance spectra were recorded for temperatures ranging from 77 K to 420 K. The temperature dependence of the optical band gap was estimated in the near infrared range. Upon heating, the optical transmission decreases in the infrared domain showing a thermochromic effect over a wide wavelength range at room temperature.

  5. Structural stability, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of zincblende Zn0.5V0.5Te under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhu-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2016-10-01

    The structural stability, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of zincblende Zn0.5V0.5Te under pressures 0-5 GPa are investigated by the spin-polarized first-principles calculation. Under pressure, the Zn0.5V0.5Te is always half-metal with the total magnetic moment μtot of 3μB / cell mainly contributed by V2+ ion, but the spin-down channel opens a band gap. The Zn0.5V0.5Te also behaves in a ductile manner and is mechanical stable until 3.78 GPa pressure. The static dielectric function ε1 (0) and refractive index n (0) increase with pressure. The two absorption peaks located in energy regions 0-20 eV and 35-50 eV not only increase but also shift to the higher energy region (blue shift) with pressure. So the electronic and optical properties of Zn0.5V0.5Te could be tuned through external pressure, which is beneficial to the electronic and optical applications.

  6. Body build classification for ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18 years) and volleyball girls (aged 13-16 years).

    PubMed

    Kaarma, Helje; Stamm, Raini; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Slide

    2005-03-01

    The article describes two Estonian anthropometric cross-sectional studies of 1549 ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18) and 46 girls, who regularly practised volleyball (aged 13-16). Data are presented on 22 basic anthropometric measurements and 6 body composition characteristics (body mass index, mean skinfold, body density, relative mass of fat by Siri, absolute mass and relative mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue). All anthropometric variables were classified into five height-weight SD classes. Schoolgirls were divided into six age groups (7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18). Volleyballers were observed as one group as their age in SD classes did not differ significantly. The classification consisted of five categories: three height-weight concordant categories: I--small (small height, small weight), II--medium (medium height, medium weight), III large--(big height, big weight) and two height/weight discordant categories: IV--so-called pyknomorphs, V--so-called leptomorphs. To assess the differences between classes the Scheffé-test was used (alpha = 0.05). It proved likewise possible to comparatively systematize length, breadth and depth measurements, circumferences and body composition characteristics in all six age groups (7-18 years) of ordinary schoolgirls and in 13-16-year-old volleyballers as in their case the average age did not differ significantly between the classes.

  7. Lung cancer in patients under the age of 40 years

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarczyk, Grzegorz; Porębska, Irena; Szmygin-Milanowska, Katarzyna; Gołecki, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study In the paper clinical cases of individuals diagnosed with lung cancer below the age of 40 years have been analyzed. Material and methods The analysis included: sex, age, clinical symptoms found before and at the moment of diagnosis, character of changes visible in radiological imaging, time that passed from the first symptoms to reporting to a doctor and to establishing a diagnosis, type of diagnostic method used in establishing the final diagnosis, histopathologic type of cancer, degree of cancer progression. Results The results have been compared with a peer group who had been diagnosed 20 years earlier. Currently 7% of patients were diagnosed at the age of 25 or younger, whereas in the previous cohort patients in this age constituted 2%. The predominant pathological type was adenocarcinoma (currently 33%, previously 4%) in contrast to the earlier group in which 57% of patients had small cell lung cancer (57%). The incidence is equally distributed between both sexes, although there is an evident increase in female lung cancer cases. In the majority of patients the clinical presentation is a peripheral mass on chest X-ray. 20% of patients present pleural effusion on diagnosis. Patients reported the following complaints: breathlessness, chest pain, weight loss and fatigue. The majority of cases were diagnosed in advanced stages on the basis of a bronchoscopy acquired specimen. Time course from symptoms to diagnosis tends to be shorter than 20 years ago. PMID:23788919

  8. 25 Years after age-1: Genes, Interventions and the Revolution in Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This communication will briefly review more than 30 years of research on aging using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (“The Worm”) as carried out in the labs of Tom Johnson. We will highlight research directions initiated in the 1980’s, which were exciting for those of us trying to turn over a new leaf in aging research. In this narrative, I will discuss primarily the science that I and my lab have been involved with for the last 30 years. This area has been fascinating to those studying the sociology of science as modern aging research has moved to replace the simplistic, poorly controlled and outright fictitious approaches seen in much of the previous aging research. PMID:23466302

  9. Fully gapped superconductivity in In-doped topological crystalline insulator Pb0.5Sn0.5Te

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Guan; Gu, G. D.; Du, Zengyi; Fang, Delong; Yang, Huan; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J.; Wen, Hai -Hu

    2015-07-27

    In this study, superconductors derived from topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators by chemical doping have long been considered to be candidates as topological superconductors. Pb0.5Sn0.5Te is a topological crystalline insulator with mirror symmetry protected surface states on (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented surfaces. The superconductor (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te is produced by In doping in Pb0.5Sn0.5Te, and is thought to be a topological superconductor. Here we report scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the superconducting state as well as the superconducting energy gap in (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te on a (001)-oriented surface. The spectrum can be well fitted by an anisotropic s-wave gap function of Δ =more » 0.72 + 0.18cos4θ meV using Dynes model. The results show that the superconductor seems to be a fully gapped one without any in-gap states, in contradiction with the expectation of a topological superconductor.« less

  10. Preparation and Thermoelectric Properties of the Skutterudite-Related Phase Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, T.; Kulleck, J.; Borshchevsky, A.; Fleurial, J.-P.

    1996-01-01

    A new skutterudite phase Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3 was prepared. This new phase adds to a large number of already known materials with the skutterudite structure which have shown good potential for thermoelectric applications. Single phase, polycrystalline samples were prepared and characterized by x-ray analysis, electron probe microanalysis, density, sound velocity, thermal-expansion coefficient, and differential thermal analysis measurements. Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3 has a cubic lattice, space group Im3 (T(sup 5, sub h)), with a = 9.298 A and decomposes at about 920 K. The Seebeck coefficient, the electrical resistivity, the Hall effect, and the thermal conductivity were measured on hot-pressed samples over a wide range of temperatures. Preliminary results show that Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3 behaves as a heavily doped semiconductor with an estimated band gap of about 0.6 eV. The lattice thermal conductivity of Ru(0.5)Pd(0.5)Sb3 is substantially lower than that of the binary isostructural compounds CoSb3 and IrSb3. The unusually low thermal conductivity might be explained by additional hole and charge transfer phonon scattering in this material. The potential of this material for thermoelectric applications is discussed.

  11. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  12. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  13. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality. PMID:26039396

  14. Structure and dielectric dispersion in cubic-like 0.5K0.5Na0.5NbO3-0.5Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Laijun; Knapp, Michael; Schmitt, Ljubomira Ana; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Fang, Liang; Fuess, Hartmut; Hoelzel, Markus; Hinterstein, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    The nature of the cubic-like state in the lead-free piezoelectric ceramics 0.5K0.5Na0.5NbO3-0.5Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (KNN-50BNT) has been examined in detail by synchrotron x-ray diffraction (SD), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), neutron diffraction (ND), and temperature-dependent dielectric characterization. The SD pattern of KNN-50BNT presents a pure perovskite structure with pseudocubic symmetry. However, superlattice reflections were observed by SAED and completely indexed by tetragonal symmetry with P4bm space group in ND pattern. The relaxor behavior of KNN-50BNT is compared with Pb-based and Ba-based relaxors and discussed in the framework of the Vogel-Fulcher law and the new glass model. The KNN-50BNT ceramic exhibits the strongest dielectric dispersion among them.

  15. Phase diagram of (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-(Bi0.5Na0.5)ZrO3 solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruiping; Itoh, Mitsuru

    2016-06-01

    Phase diagram of (1‑x)Na0.5K0.5NbO3-x(Bi0.5Na0.5)ZrO3 solid solution has been established from dielectric constant measurements and structure analyses. It is found that with increasing x, the C-T phase transition temperature TC‑T and the T-O phase transition temperature TT‑O decrease, while the O‑R phase transition temperature TO‑R increases. TT‑O of NKN-xBNZ is much different from that of NKN-xBZ solid solution. The result could be mainly elucidated by the hybridization between the A-site ion and oxygen.

  16. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (R(PACA)) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either R(PACA) or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of R(PACA) were all negative; i.e., an increase in R(PAC) is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., β -0.29%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial R(PACA) with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher R(PACA) from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., β 4.37%; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk.

  17. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (R(PACA)) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either R(PACA) or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of R(PACA) were all negative; i.e., an increase in R(PAC) is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., β -0.29%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial R(PACA) with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher R(PACA) from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., β 4.37%; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk. PMID:26486892

  18. P2-NaCo(0.5)Mn(0.5)O2 as a Positive Electrode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peilei; Zhang, Chaoyang; Li, Malin; Yang, Xu; Wang, Chunzhong; Bie, Xiaofei; Wei, Yingjin; Chen, Gang; Du, Fei

    2015-11-16

    As a promising positive electrode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), layered sodium oxides have attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this work, stoichiometric P2-phase NaCo(0.5)Mn(0.5)O2 was prepared through the conventional solid-state reaction, and its structural and physical properties were studied in terms of XRD, XPS, and magnetic susceptibility. Furthermore, the P2-NaCo(0.5)Mn(0.5)O2 electrode delivered a discharge capacity of 124.3 mA h g(-1) and almost 100% initial coulombic efficiency over the potential window of 1.5-4.15 V. It also showed good cycle stability, with a reversible capacity and capacity retention reaching approximately 85 mA h g(-1) and 99%, respectively, at the 5 C rate after 100 cycles. Additionally, cyclic voltammetry and ex situ XRD were employed to explain the electrochemical behavior at the different electrochemical stages. Owing to the applicable performances, P2-NaCo(0.5)Mn(0.5)O2 can be considered as a potential positive electrode material for SIBs.

  19. Physical activity in Dublin children aged 7–9 years

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, J; Gormley, J; Bell, C

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate the amount of regular activity and time spent in sedentary occupations in children aged 7–9 years. Sex differences in levels of activity and time and facilities for physical education at school were also examined. Methods—A 10% sample of Dublin National Schools were selected. Parents of children in second class were surveyed. The questionnaire used was a modification of the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Teachers of second class were questioned about the time and facilities for physical education in schools. Results—Some 39% of children were participating in hard exercise for at least 20 minutes three or more times a week, with fewer girls (28%) than boys (53%) contributing to this result. A further 57% of children were engaging in at least 20 minutes of light exercise three or more times a week, with no sex differences. Estimated energy expenditure in regular activity was higher in boys than girls. Most (78%) of the children were spending one to three hours a day sedentary in front of a screen. Conclusions—This study provides comprehensive data on physical activity levels in Dublin schoolchildren aged 7–9 years. The amount of inactivity is of concern. Even at this young age, boys are reported to participate in more physical activity than girls. Key Words: physical activity; exercise; children PMID:11477025

  20. Play Opportunities for School-Age Children, 6 to 14 Years of Age. Advisory Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Suggestions for the planning and design of playgrounds to meet the needs of children between 6 to 14 years of age living in medium- and high-density residential areas are offered in this document. The first and second chapters briefly focus on the child's right to play and present an overview of the developmental characteristics of children at…

  1. Growth and structure of In0.5Ga0.5Sb quantum dots on GaP(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, E. M.; Stracke, G.; Selve, S.; Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M.; Schlichting, S.; Nippert, F.; Callsen, G.; Strittmatter, A.; Bimberg, D.

    2016-09-01

    Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth of In0.5Ga0.5Sb quantum dots (QDs) on GaP(001) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is demonstrated. A thin GaAs interlayer prior to QD deposition enables QD nucleation. The impact of a short Sb-flush before supplying InGaSb is investigated. QD growth gets partially suppressed for GaAs interlayer thicknesses below 6 monolayers. QD densities vary from 5 × 109 to 2 × 1011 cm-2 depending on material deposition and Sb-flush time. When In0.5Ga0.5Sb growth is carried out without Sb-flush, the QD density is generally decreased, and up to 60% larger QDs are obtained.

  2. Superconductivity induced by In substitution into the topological crystalline insulator Pb0.5Sn0.5Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J. A.; Liu, T. S.; Camino, F. E.; Tranquada, J. M.; Gu, G. D.

    2014-07-01

    Indium substitution turns the topological crystalline insulator (TCI) Pb0.5Sn0.5Te into a possible topological superconductor. To investigate the effect of the indium concentration on the crystal structure and superconducting properties of (Pb0.5Sn0.5)1-xInxTe, we have grown high-quality single crystals using a modified floating-zone method and have performed systematic studies for indium content in the range 0≤x≤0.35. We find that the single crystals retain the rocksalt structure up to the solubility limit of indium (x ˜0.30). Experimental dependencies of the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) and the upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) on the indium content x have been measured. The maximum Tc is determined to be 4.7 K at x =0.30, with μ0Hc2(T =0)≈5 T.

  3. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along (hindsight bias). Here we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the lifespan. 194 participants aged 3 to 95 years completed three tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age groups demonstrated hindsight bias on all three tasks; however, preschoolers and the elderly exhibited more bias than older children and younger adults. Multinomial processing tree analyses of these data revealed that preschoolers’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them substituting the correct answer for their original answer in their recall (a qualitative error). Conversely, older adults’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them forgetting their original answer and recalling an answer closer to, but not equal to, the correct answer (a quantitative error). We discuss these findings in relation to mechanisms of memory, perspective-taking, theory of mind, and executive function. PMID:21299327

  4. [Suicide attempts in children under 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Stordeur, C; Acquaviva, E; Galdon, L; Mercier, J-C; Titomanlio, L; Delorme, R

    2015-03-01

    Suicide attempts (SA) in children are often considered rare and poorly studied. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics of SA in children under 12 years of age. A retrospective assessment was conducted in 30 consecutive SAs reported in children under 12 years of age admitted to the emergency department at the Robert-Debré University Hospital (Paris, France) from 2007 to 2010 and the Regional University Hospital (Besançon, France) from 2000 to 2008. All suicide attempters were directly assessed at the somatic and psychiatric level. Patients were 8-11 years old (mean, 10.2±0.8). The sex ratio was 0.9 boys for 1 girl. The leading SA methods were poisoning by medication (53.3%), hanging or strangulation (23.3%), jumping from a height (16.7%), poisoning by chemicals (3.3%), and lesions inflicted by sharp objects (3.3%). In addition, SAs were characterized by high lethality (43.7%) contrasting with their low to moderate suicidal intentionality (43.8% and 56.2%, respectively). In conclusion, we reported that SA in children differs from those of adolescents by their greater lethality related to the methods used, but contrasting with the low intentionality mentioned by these patients.

  5. Aging in Place in a Retirement Community: 90+ Year Olds.

    PubMed

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia

    2013-01-01

    Aging in place, an image of growing old in one's home and maintaining one's daily routine, is desired by most older adults. To identify variables promoting such independent living in the oldest-old, we examined the association between living situation of a population-based cohort of 90+ year olds with health and lifestyle variables. Of 1485 participants, 53% still lived in their home at a retirement community designed to foster wellness. Those living at home tended to be healthier, with smaller proportions having chronic diseases or hospitalizations in the preceding year and a greater proportion having normal functional ability. Dementia was the chronic disease most significantly related to living situation. In addition to not having dementia, not using a wheelchair or bath aid, receiving meals on wheels, and being married were jointly related to living at home. With the help of family and friends and with a medical and social support system, many 90+ year olds can age in place. This is often because they have a caregiving spouse or paid caregiver.

  6. Structural transitions in the manganite Pr 0.5Sr 0.5MnO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damay, F.; Martin, C.; Hervieu, M.; Maignan, A.; Raveau, B.; André, G.; Bourée, F.

    1998-04-01

    The structural transitions in the Pr 0.5Sr 0.5MnO 3 CMR perovskite have been studied, coupling neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and electron microscopy (EM) techniques. Both techniques show the existence of a Fmmm type structure at low temperature ( T<135 K) that corresponds to the antiferromagnetic insulating (AFMI) state. No evidence of charge ordering is observed. At 135 K a transition to a ferromagnetic I4/mcm structure is observed by NPD. Further increasing the temperature ( T⩾265 K), Pr 0.5Sr 0.5MnO 3 becomes paramagnetic but keeps its I4/mcm structure. By EM, the transition occurring around 135 K is also observed, but it corresponds to a change from the Fmmm to an Imam structure, with a simultaneous disappearance of the twinning domains present in the Fmmm structure. This effect is reversible. The EM study also evidences that at high temperature ( T˜430 K) another transition from the Imam to an I4/mcm structure occurs. The divergence between the NPD and EM observations is attributed to the fact that the structure of Pr 0.5Sr 0.5MnO 3 may be sensitive to the magnetic field that exists in the electron microscope (1 or 2 T).

  7. Solid state synthesis and characterization of bulk FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onar, K.; Yakinci, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    FeTe0.5Se0.5 polycrystalline superconductor samples were synthesized by solid- state reaction method at different heating temperatures. The morphological and structural characterization of FeTe0 5Se0.5 samples were carried out by X-rays Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The electrical, magnetic and thermal transport properties were investigated up to 8 T by using physical property measurement system. The results reveal that the sensitivity of electrical and magnetic properties strongly depends on the heat treatment cycles. The upper critical field, Hc2(0), was determined with the magnetic field parallel to the sample surface. It gives a maximum value of 36.3 T. The lower critical field, Hc1(T), was obtained as 210, 140 and 70 Oe at 5, 8 and 12 K, respectively. The coherence length, ξ, at the zero field, was calculated to be 1.94 nm and suggested a transparent intergrain boundaries peculiarity. The μ0Hc2(0)/kBTc rate shows higher value (3.36 T/K) than the Pauli limit (1.84 T/K) which suggests unconventional nature of superconductivity for the polycrystalline FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconducting samples.

  8. Prostate Brachytherapy in Men {>=}75 Years of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S. Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Adamovich, Edward

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged {>=}75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged {>=}75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients.

  9. Trisomy 13 in a female over 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Mankinen, C B; Sears, J W

    1976-01-01

    A case of simple trisomy 13, confirmed by G-banded chromosome analysis, is reported in a Caucasian female over 5 years of age. There is no cytogenetic evidence available for mosaicism in the propositus or her parents. The patient's salient clinical features are: profound mental and motor retardation; microcephaly with trigonocephaly; ear malformations; small, sunken eyes; unusual eyebrows; cleft lip and palate; bulbar nose; coloboma iris; polydactyly; unusual dermatoglyphic patterns; large adductor thumbs; enlarged great toes; multiple capillary haemangiomas; club feet; inguinal and umbilical hernias; hyperconvexed fingernails; and seizure disorder. Images PMID:933114

  10. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Structural evaluations were conducted on several parachute systems to determine the effects of aging on parachute materials. Most of the parachutes were 25 years old. Five 64 ft parachutes were evaluated along with one 4 ft guide surface parachute and three 16.5 ft ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Results were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. The results indicate that over a period of about 25 years, parachute nylon materials do not degrade to unacceptable levels. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Disparities in Age-Appropriate Child Passenger Restraint Use Among Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. METHODS: A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. RESULTS: Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ≤4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27–6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, κ = 0.74) between parent report of their child’s usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children. PMID:24420814

  12. Optical properties of epitaxial relaxor ferroelectric PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnyk, A.; Chvostova, D.; Pacherova, O.; Kocourek, T.; Jelinek, M.; Dejneka, A.; Tyunina, M.

    2013-09-01

    The optical properties of epitaxial perovskite-structure relaxor ferroelectric PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 thin films are studied in broad spectral and temperature ranges by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The films possess a metrically tetragonal crystal structure with a biaxial in-plane compressive strain of 0.1%-0.8%. The optical constants of the films with thickness of 10-50 nm are determined accurately using the advanced ellipsometry technique. The dramatic changes in the spectra of the dielectric functions and the absorption coefficient are found under various strain conditions. The characteristic energies of the spectra, including the bandgaps, vary by 0.1-0.5 eV. A frustration of the ferroelectric phase transition is evidenced by thermo-optical studies. A complex relationship between strain, polarization, and optical properties is discussed in terms of possible ionic displacements in metrically tetragonal PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 films.

  13. Charge-ordered ferromagnetic phase in La(0.5)Ca(0.5)MnO3.

    PubMed

    Loudon, James C; Mathur, Neil D; Midgley, Paul A

    Mixed-valent manganites are noted for their unusual magnetic, electronic and structural phase transitions. For example, the La(1-x)Ca(x)MnO(3) phase diagram shows that below transition temperatures in the range 100-260 K, compounds with 0.2 < x < 0.5 are ferromagnetic and metallic, whereas those with 0.5 < x < 0.9 are antiferromagnetic and charge ordered. In a narrow region around x = 0.5, these totally dissimilar ground states are thought to coexist. It has been shown that charge order and charge disorder can coexist in the related compound, La(0.25)Pr(0.375)Ca(0.375)MnO(3). Here we present electron microscopy data for La(0.5)Ca(0.5)MnO(3) that shed light on the distribution of these coexisting phases, and uncover an additional, unexpected phase. Using electron holography and Fresnel imaging, we find micrometre-sized ferromagnetic regions spanning several grains coexisting with similar-sized regions with no local magnetization. Holography shows that the ferromagnetic regions have a local magnetization of 3.4 +/- 0.2 Bohr magnetons per Mn atom (the spin-aligned value is 3.5 micro (B) per Mn). We use electron diffraction and dark-field imaging to show that charge order exists in regions with no net magnetization and, surprisingly, can also occur in ferromagnetic regions.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of (Bi{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}) (Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}) O{sub 3} ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Parida, B.N.; Das, Piyush R.; Padhee, R.; Suara, D.; Mishra, A.; Rout, J.; Choudhary, R.N.P.

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Temperature variation of (a) dielectric constant (b) dielectric loss of the sample. - Highlights: • The high values of dielectric permittivity and low value of tangent loss. • It used for microwave applications. • The impedance and dielectric relaxation in the material is non exponential and non Debye-type. • Its ac conductivity obeys Jonscher universal power law. - Abstract: The polycrystalline sample of (Bi{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}) (Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}) O{sub 3} (BF–BT) was prepared by a standard mixed oxide method. Analysis of room temperature XRD pattern and Raman/FTIR spectra of the compound does not exhibit any change in its crystal structure of BaTiO{sub 3} on addition of BiFeO{sub 3} in equal ratio. The surface morphology of the gold-plated sintered pellet sample recorded by SEM (scanning electron microscope) exhibits a uniform distribution of grains with less porosity. Detailed studies of nature and quantity of variation of dielectric constant, tangent loss, and polarization with temperature and frequency indicate the existence of ferroelectric phase transition at high-temperature. There is a low-temperature anti-ferromagnetic phase transition below 375 °C in the material. Detailed studies of electrical properties (impedance, modulus, etc.) of the material confirmed a strong correlation between micro-structure and properties.

  15. Infrared absorption spectra of a Nd0.5Ho0.5Fe3(BO3)4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova, Yu. V.; Sofronova, S. N.; Gudim, I. A.; Oreshonkov, A. S.; Vtyurin, A. N.; Ivanenko, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of a Nd0.5Ho0.5Fe3(BO3)4 crystal in the spectral range of 30-1700 cm-1 have been measured at temperatures from 6 to 300 K. The experimental spectra have been analyzed based on the semiempirical calculation of the lattice dynamics and the analysis of correlation diagrams of borate complexes. No changes associated with structural phase transitions have been detected in the temperature range of measurements; the effect of magnetic ordering on the infrared absorption spectra has not been observed.

  16. Nanostructured multiferroic PbFe0.5Nb0.5O3 and its physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubushaeva, E. N.; Abdulvakhidov, K. G.; Mardasova, I. V.; Abdulvakhidov, B. K.; Vitchenko, M. A.; Amirov, A. A.; Batdalov, A. B.; Gamzatov, A. G.

    2010-11-01

    Polycrystalline multiferroic PbFe0.5Nb0.5O3 (PFN) fabricated by a solid-phase method is studied. Before sintering, a synthesized PFN powder is processed in Bridgman anvils via a force action in combination with shear deformation (FASD) at room temperature. The electrophysical properties and structural parameters of processed samples and a reference sample are compared. Point defects are shown to play a key role in the formation of the physical properties beginning from an FASD of 200 MPa.

  17. Radiation hardness of Ga0.5In0.5 P/GaAs tandem solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Sarah R.; Olson, J. M.; Bertness, K. A.; Friedman, D. J.; Kibbler, A.; Cavicchi, B. T.; Krut, D. D.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation hardness of a two-junction monolithic Ga sub 0.5 In sub 0.5 P/GaAs cell with tunnel junction interconnect was investigated. Related single junction cells were also studied to identify the origins of the radiation losses. The optimal design of the cell is discussed. The air mass efficiency of an optimized tandem cell after irradiation with 10(exp 15) cm (-2) 1 MeV electrons is estimated to be 20 percent using currently available technology.

  18. Highly tunable microwave stub resonator on ferroelectric KTa0.5Nb0.5O3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Q.; Corredores, Y.; Castel, X.; Benzerga, R.; Sauleau, R.; Mahdjoubi, K.; Le Febvrier, A.; Députier, S.; Guilloux-Viry, M.; Zhang, L.; Laurent, P.; Tanné, G.

    2011-08-01

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW) stub resonator has been fabricated on a pulsed-laser deposited KTa0.5Nb0.5O3 (KTN) thin film (600 nm-thick) onto a r-plane sapphire substrate. It was designed to operate at 10 GHz when the applied bias voltage is zero. We show experimentally that the resonance frequency is shifted by 44% under a 70 kV/cm DC applied electric field. In addition, the dielectric characteristics of the KTN film have been assessed through post-processed measurements of CPW 50-Ω transmission lines using the conformal mapping method.

  19. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control. PMID:27294182

  20. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control.

  1. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The results of structural evaluations on several parachute systems were examined to determine if any trends could be found that would indicate significant aging in the materials. All of the parachutes were more than 20 years old. Five 64 ft diameter parachutes were evaluated along with three 16.5 ft diameter ribbon parachutes and one 4 ft diameter guide surface parachute. Another group included six 48 ft diameter ribbon parachutes, two 4 ft diameter guide surface parachutes, and two 16.5 ft diameter extraction ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Data were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. Generally speaking, after 25 years the material properties of the 64 ft parachutes were within specifications. The same generalization cannot be made for the 48 ft parachutes which were about 23 years old. The explanation for their differences may lie in their respective histories. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Dielectric Properties in the Microwave Range of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lu; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei

    2016-08-01

    Dielectric properties of a potassium sodium niobate (KNN) system in the microwave range up to GHz have rarely been studied. Since K0.5Na0.5NbO3 is the most common and typical type of KNN materials, non-doped K0.5Na0.5 NbO3 ceramics were synthesized at different temperatures (1080°C, 1090°C, 1100°C, and 1110°C) by a traditional solid reaction method for further characterization and analysis. The ceramics were in perovskite phase with orthorhombic symmetry. A small quantity of second phase was found in the 1110°C sintered specimen, which resulted from the volatilization of alkali oxides as the temperature increased. The complex permittivity was measured for the first time in the microwave range (8.2-12.4 GHz) and in the temperature range from 100°C to 220°C, and the effects of annealing on the dielectric properties were studied. The results indicate that the complex permittivity of KNN ceramics over the microwave range increases mainly due to high bulk density and the additional dielectric contributions of oxygen vacancies at high temperature.

  3. Superconductivity and abnormal pressure effect in Sr{}_{0.5}La{}_{0.5}FBiSe2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Xiang, Yongliang; Chen, Yihong; Jiao, Wenhe; Zhang, Chuhang; Zhang, Li; Dai, Jianhui; Li, Yuke

    2016-04-01

    Through the solid state reaction method, we synthesized a new BiSe2-based superconductor Sr{}0.5La{}0.5FBiSe2 with superconducting transition temperature T {}c ≈ \\quad 3.8 K. A strong diamagnetic signal below T c in susceptibility χ (T) is observed indicating the bulk nature of superconductivity. Different to most BiS2-based compounds where superconductivity develops from a semiconducting-like normal state, the present compound exhibits a metallic behavior down to T c . Under weak magnetic field or pressure, however, a remarkable crossover from metallic to insulating behaviors takes place around T min where the resistivity picks up a local minimum. With increasing pressure, T {}c decreases monotonously and T min shifts to high temperatures, while the absolute value of the normal state resistivity at low temperatures first decreases and then increases with pressure up to 2.5 GPa. These results imply that the electronic structure of Sr{}0.5La{}0.5FBiSe2 may be different to those in the other BiS2-based systems.

  4. The spin glass delafossite CuFe(0.5)V(0.5)O(2): a dipolar glass?

    PubMed

    Singh, Kiran; Maignan, Antoine; Simon, Charles; Hardy, Vincent; Pachoud, Elise; Martin, Christine

    2011-03-30

    The ferroelectric and spin glass properties of CuFe(0.5)V(0.5)O(2) have been studied. Magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements reveal a spin glass behavior (T(f) = 20.5 K) for this delafossite. In CuFeO(2), substitution of trivalent diamagnetic cations for Fe(3 + ) is known to change the antiferromagnetic state and induce ferroelectricity. But partial occupation of the Fe(3 + ) site by V(3 + ) is responsible for disordered magnetism in CuFe(0.5)V(0.5)O(2). The dielectric permittivity shows a frequency dependence reminiscent of relaxor ferroelectrics in which different cations occupy the same crystallographic site. Polarization measurements show the existence of a ferroelectric state below T(f) with P(5 K)≈1.3 µC m( - 2). These results point towards a relaxor-type ferroelectricity originating from a disordered array of magnetic cations. A clear coupling between electronic charges and spins is evidenced by the magnetodielectric effect.

  5. Specific Heat of Single Crystalline Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Carlos; Aguilar, Victor; Bernal, Oscar; Zhao, Guo-Meng

    2014-03-01

    Substantial studies of magnetization and specific heat on Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 have demonstrated the existence of a charge ordering (CO), ferromagnetic (FM), antiferromagnetic (AFM) transitions. In this work, the specific heat of two single crystalline Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 samples, one containing 16O and the other highly concentrated 18O, was measured as a function of temperature, from 3K to 300K, at both zero and 50 kOe applied field. Measurements were done using a Quantum Design Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS) with Specific Heat option. The FM transition was found to depend on the isotope mass, which seems to agree with previous works. The CO transitions was observed as a sharp peak at the CO temperature (Tco), which seems to depend strongly on field, oxygen isotope mass, and thermal cycling history. Work Supported by NSF-DMR 1105380. CSU-LSAMP is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant # HRD-1302873 and the CSU Office of the Chancellor.

  6. Li(V0.5Ti0.5)S2 as a 1 V lithium intercalation electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Steve J.; Wang, Da; Armstrong, A. Robert; Bruce, Peter G.

    2016-03-01

    Graphite, the dominant anode in rechargeable lithium batteries, operates at ~0.1 V versus Li+/Li and can result in lithium plating on the graphite surface, raising safety concerns. Titanates, for example, Li4Ti5O12, intercalate lithium at~1.6 V versus Li+/Li, avoiding problematic lithium plating at the expense of reduced cell voltage. There is interest in 1 V anodes, as this voltage is sufficiently high to avoid lithium plating while not significantly reducing cell potential. The sulfides, LiVS2 and LiTiS2, have been investigated as possible 1 V intercalation electrodes but suffer from capacity fading, large 1st cycle irreversible capacity or polarization. Here we report that the 50/50 solid solution, Li1+x(V0.5Ti0.5)S2, delivers a reversible capacity to store charge of 220 mAhg-1 (at 0.9 V), 99% of theoretical, at a rate of C/2, retaining 205 mAhg-1 at C-rate (92% of theoretical). Rate capability is excellent with 200 mAhg-1 at 3C. C-rate is discharge in 1 h. Polarization is low, 100 mV at C/2. To the best of our knowledge, the properties/performances of Li(V0.5Ti0.5)S2 exceed all previous 1 V electrodes.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Elderly Patients Aged over 80 Years.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Laurent; Cazaubon, Yoann; Debeurme, Guillaume; Loue, Constance; Ducher, Michel; Goutelle, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Since the 1950s, vancomycin has remained a reference treatment for severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Vancomycin is a nephrotoxic and ototoxic drug mainly eliminated through the kidneys. It has a large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which justifies monitoring its plasma concentrations in patients. This is especially important in patients aged over 80 years, who frequently have renal impairment. However, the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in this population is very poorly described in the literature. The objective of this work was to propose a model able to predict the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in very elderly people. First, a population pharmacokinetic model was carried out using the algorithm NPAG (nonparametric adaptive grid) on a database of 70 hospitalized patients aged over 80 years and treated with vancomycin. An external validation then was performed on 41 patients, and the predictive capabilities of the model were assessed. The model had two compartments and six parameters. Body weight and creatinine clearance significantly influenced vancomycin volume of distribution and body clearance, respectively. The means (± standard deviations) of vancomycin volume of distribution and clearance were 36.3 ± 15.2 liter and 2.0 ± 0.9 liter/h, respectively. In the validation group, the bias and precision were -0.75 mg/liter and 8.76 mg/liter for population predictions and -0.39 mg/liter and 2.68 mg/liter for individual predictions. In conclusion, a pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin in a very elderly population has been created and validated for predicting plasma concentrations of vancomycin.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Elderly Patients Aged over 80 Years.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Laurent; Cazaubon, Yoann; Debeurme, Guillaume; Loue, Constance; Ducher, Michel; Goutelle, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Since the 1950s, vancomycin has remained a reference treatment for severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Vancomycin is a nephrotoxic and ototoxic drug mainly eliminated through the kidneys. It has a large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which justifies monitoring its plasma concentrations in patients. This is especially important in patients aged over 80 years, who frequently have renal impairment. However, the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in this population is very poorly described in the literature. The objective of this work was to propose a model able to predict the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in very elderly people. First, a population pharmacokinetic model was carried out using the algorithm NPAG (nonparametric adaptive grid) on a database of 70 hospitalized patients aged over 80 years and treated with vancomycin. An external validation then was performed on 41 patients, and the predictive capabilities of the model were assessed. The model had two compartments and six parameters. Body weight and creatinine clearance significantly influenced vancomycin volume of distribution and body clearance, respectively. The means (± standard deviations) of vancomycin volume of distribution and clearance were 36.3 ± 15.2 liter and 2.0 ± 0.9 liter/h, respectively. In the validation group, the bias and precision were -0.75 mg/liter and 8.76 mg/liter for population predictions and -0.39 mg/liter and 2.68 mg/liter for individual predictions. In conclusion, a pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin in a very elderly population has been created and validated for predicting plasma concentrations of vancomycin. PMID:27185796

  9. Comparative Dielectric and Ferroelectric Characteristics of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, CaCu3Ti4O12, and 0.5Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.5CaCu3Ti4O12 Electroceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Laxman; Yadava, Shiva Sundar; Sin, Byung Cheol; Rai, Uma Shanker; Mandal, K. D.; Lee, Youngil

    2016-06-01

    The dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT), CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO), and 0.5Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.5CaCu3Ti4O12 (BNT/CCTO) ceramics are compared. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of single phase of all the ceramics after sintering at 950°C for 15 h. Scanning electron microscopy images of the sintered ceramics reveal average grain sizes in the range from 200 nm to 2.5 μm. Energy-dispersive x-ray mapping and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show the presence of the elements Bi, Na, Ca, Cu, Ti, and O with uniform distribution in the ceramics. BNT/CCTO exhibits high dielectric constant ( ɛ r ˜ 6.9 × 104) compared with BNT ( ɛ r ˜ 0.13 × 104) and CCTO ( ɛ r ˜ 1.68 × 104) ceramics at 1 kHz and 503 K. The high dielectric constant of BNT/CCTO compared with BNT and CCTO is associated with a major contribution from grain boundaries, as confirmed by impedance and modulus analyses. The P- E hysteresis loop of all the ceramics measured at room temperature and 50°C exhibited typical ferroelectric nature. The remanent polarization ( P r) of BNT (1.58 μC/cm2) and CCTO (0.654 μC/cm2) ceramics are higher than that of BNT/CCTO (0.267 μC/cm2) ceramic.

  10. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  11. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  12. Assessment of handgrip strength in preschool children aged 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Delgado, G; Cadenas-Sanchez, C; Mora-Gonzalez, J; Martinez-Tellez, B; Chillón, P; Löf, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether there is an optimal grip span for determining the maximum handgrip strength in preschool children and if it is influenced by gender, age, or hand size. A total of 292 preschool children (3-5 years; 59.2% boys) carried out the handgrip strength test with different grip spans (4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0 cm). The hand size was also measured. We also determined the reliability of the optimal grip span in another group of children (n = 56, 57% boys) who did the test twice, with a 3-hour difference between tests. The results showed that 4.0 cm is the optimal grip span to determine the maximum handgrip strength in preschool children. This result applied to both genders, all age groups, and hand sizes. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences between test and retest. These findings may guide clinicians and researchers in selecting the optimal grip span when measuring handgrip strength in preschool children.Level IV.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and safety of 0.5% ivermectin lotion for head louse infestations.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Lydie; Berg, Jeffrey E; Bowman, James P; Murray, John V; Ryan, William G

    2013-01-01

    The safety of a novel 0.5% ivermectin lotion (IVL) and potential for ivermectin absorption after application was investigated in an open-label study in young children, and a human repeat insult patch test (HRIPT) and cumulative irritation test (CIT) assessed any potential for cumulative dermal irritation and contact sensitization. In the pharmacokinetic and safety study, 30 head louse-infested children ages 6 months to 3 years received a 10-minute application of IVL on day 1. Blood was collected before application; 0.5, 1, and 6 hours after rinsing; and on days 2 and 8. Samples from 20 subjects were assayed for ivermectin (test sensitivity 0.05 ng/mL). Liver panel and complete blood counts were completed for all subjects. For the HRIPT/CIT, occlusive patches containing IVL or vehicle control lotion (CL) were repeatedly applied to 220 healthy adult subjects to assess contact sensitization; for cumulative dermal irritation testing, additional patches with normal saline and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were applied to 36 subjects. In the open-label study, all detected ivermectin plasma concentrations were <1 ng/mL. No safety signals emerged, and treatment was well tolerated. In the HRIPT/CIT, IVL was significantly less irritating than normal saline and SDS, with no evidence of dermal irritation or sensitization in human skin. IVL was safe when applied topically, absorption was de minimus, there was no evidence of irritation or sensitization from repeated exposures, and results support the safety of topical IVL use in children as young as 6 months.

  14. Magnetocaloric and magnetic properties of SmFe0.5Mn0.5O3 complex perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Santana, M. C.; daSilva, C. A.; Barrozo, P.; Plaza, E. J. R.; de los Santos Valladares, L.; Moreno, N. O.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the physical properties of SmFe0.5Mn0.5O3 complex perovskite samples, synthesized by means of combustion reaction method. X-ray powder diffraction indicates the formation of single phase perovskite with orthorhombic structure. Low magnetic field measurements show remarkable transition at 234 K related to spin reorientation. The magnetocaloric effect shows two peaks related to magnetic behavior changes, at 18 K and at 234 K. The transition about 234 K presents inverse magnetocaloric effect. The entropy variation from magnetocaloric effect shows power law as function of applied magnetic field with maximum entropy change 5.6 J/kg K with field variation of 70 kOe. Critical exponents extracted from ΔS vs. H presents a remarkable sharp peak near antiferromagnetic to weak ferromagnetic transition temperature.

  15. Zr and Sn substituted (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 -based solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchuk, V. M.; Gusakova, L. G.; Kisel, N. G.; Kuzenko, D. V.; Spiridonov, N. A.; Sobolev, V. L.

    2016-02-01

    The paper attempts to investigate the phase formation of a Zr- and Sn-substituted [(Na0.5Bi0.5)0.80Ba0.20](Ti1-yBy)O3 system during its solid state synthesis. The synthesis was found to be a multi-step process associated with the formation of a number of intermediate phases which however depended on the compositions and sintering temperatures. Single phase solid solutions were obtained when the sintering temperature was increased to 1000 °C-1100 °C. Increase in the concentration of substituting ions, on the one hand, tends to linearly increase the crystal cell size whereas the tolerance factor, on the other hand, gets reduced bolstering the stability of anti-ferroelectric phase as compared to that of ferroelectric phase’.

  16. Synthesis of functionalized Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohara, R. A.; Yadav, H. M.; Thorat, N. D.; Mali, S. S.; Hong, C. K.; Nanaware, S. G.; Pawar, S. H.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we report a simple one step method for the synthesis of uniform, water dispersible amine functionalized Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (AF-CZF) of size about 6 nm. The synthesis process was accomplished by refluxing Fe(acac)3, Co(acac)2 and Zn(acac)2 in diethylene glycol and ethanolamine. The magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TGDTA, FTIR, SEM and TEM techniques. Their magnetic properties were also studied by using SQUID. The synthesized particles show superparamagnetism at room temperature. AF-CZF nanoparticles exhibit good cell viability, which is above 95% at a concentration of 80 μg mL-1 on MCF7 cell line. The AF-CZF can be a new versatile platform for many interesting biomedical applications.

  17. Unraveling the magnetic properties of BiFe0.5Cr0.5O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinai, G.; Khare, A.; Rana, D. S.; Di Gennaro, E.; Gobaut, B.; Moroni, R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Scotti di Uccio, U.; Rossi, G.; Miletto Granozio, F.; Panaccione, G.; Torelli, P.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the structural, chemical, and magnetic properties on BiFe0.5Cr0.5O3 (BFCO) thin films grown on (001) (110) and (111) oriented SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and x-ray diffraction. We show how highly pure BFCO films, differently from the theoretically expected ferrimagnetic behavior, present a very weak dichroic signal at Cr and Fe edges, with both moments aligned with the external field. Chemically sensitive hysteresis loops show no hysteretic behavior and no saturation up to 6.8 T. The linear responses are induced by the tilting of the Cr and Fe moments along the applied magnetic field.

  18. Ferroelectricity and ferroelectric resistive switching in sputtered Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhen; Xiao, Juanxiu; Wang, Jingxian; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Jinyu; Liu, Ziyan; Dong, Zhili; Wang, John; Chen, Jingsheng

    2016-06-01

    Ferroelectric properties and ferroelectric resistive switching (FE-RS) of sputtered Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 (HZO) thin films were investigated. The HZO films with the orthorhombic phase were obtained without capping or post-deposition annealing. Ferroelectricity was demonstrated by polarization-voltage (P-V) hysteresis loops measured in a positive-up negative-down manner and piezoresponse force microscopy. However, defects such as oxygen vacancies caused the films to become leaky. The observed ferroelectricity and semiconducting characteristics led to the FE-RS effect. The FE-RS effect may be explained by a polarization modulated trap-assisted tunneling model. Our study not only provides a facile route to develop ferroelectric HfO2-based thin films but also explores their potential applications in FE-RS memories.

  19. Pressure-induced superconductivity in Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Malone, Walter; Uhoya, Walter; Mitchell, Jonathan E.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Sefat, Athena S.; Weir, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    High-pressure electrical resistance measurements have been performed on single crystal Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe2As2 platelets to pressures of 16 GPa and temperatures down to 10 K using designer diamond anvils under quasi-hydrostatic conditions with an insulating steatite pressure medium. The resistance measurements show evidence of pressure-induced superconductivity with an onset transition temperature at ˜31 K and zero resistance at ˜22 K for a pressure of 3.3 GPa. The transition temperature decreases gradually with increasing pressure before completely disappearing for pressures above 12 GPa. The present results provide experimental evidence that a solid solution of two 122-type materials, i.e., Ba1-xSrxFe2As2 (0 < x < 1), can also exhibit superconductivity under high pressure.

  20. Exchange bias in a mixed metal oxide based magnetocaloric compound YFe0.5Cr0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mohit K.; Singh, Karan; Mukherjee, K.

    2016-09-01

    We report a detailed investigation of magnetization, magnetocaloric effect and exchange bias studies on a mixed metal oxide YFe0.5Cr0.5O3 belonging to perovskite family. Our results reveal that the compound is in canted magnetic state (CMS) where ferromagnetic correlations are present in an antiferromagnetic state. Magnetic entropy change of this compound follows a power law (∆SM∼Hm) dependence of magnetic field. In this compound, inverse magnetocaloric effect (IMCE) is observed below 260 K while conventional magnetocaloric effect (CMCE) above it. The exponent 'm' is found to be independent of temperature and field only in the IMCE region. Investigation of temperature and magnetic field dependence studies of exchange bias, reveal a competition between effective Zeeman energy of the ferromagnetic regions and anisotropic exchange energy at the interface between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic regions. Variation of exchange bias due to temperature and field cycling is also investigated.

  1. High pressure Raman study of layered Mo0.5W0.5S2 ternary compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joon-Seok; Moran, Samuel T.; Nayak, Avinash P.; Pedahzur, Shahar; Ruiz, Itzel; Ponce, Gabriela; Rodriguez, Daniela; Henny, Joanna; Liu, Jin; Lin, Jung-Fu; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-06-01

    Ternary two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide compounds exhibit a tunable electronic structure allowing for control of the interlayer and the intralayer atomic displacement to efficiently tune their physical and electronic properties. Using a diamond anvil cell, hydrostatic pressure was applied to Mo0.5W0.5S2 up to 40 GPa in order to study the optical phonon vibrational modes. Analysis of the high-pressure Raman spectra shows that the two in-plane E2g modes resembling that of pristine MoS2 and WS2, as well as disorder-activated longitudinal acoustic phonon mode, are hardened and suppressed as pressure increases. The two A1g modes of the ternary compound that resemble the A1g modes of pristine MoS2 and WS2, displayed similar Raman shifts to the pristine compounds as pressure increases. A Raman peak at 470 cm-1 that is close to A1g peaks emerges at ˜8 GPa, which represents a disorder-activated pressure-induced out-of-plane Raman mode observed only in the ternary compound under high pressure. At pressures above ˜30 GPa, a Raman peak at approximately 340 cm-1 is observed, signifying additional disorder-activated vibration mode. Our results reveal the enhanced interactions in the structural and vibrational behavior of the MoS2 and WS2 domains in the Mo0.5W0.5S2 compound under hydrostatic pressure. These results could have implications in understanding the electronic, optical, and structural properties of the new 2D ternary compound materials under extreme mechanical conditions.

  2. A 0.5-GHz CMOS digital RF memory chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnaitter, W. M.; Lewis, E. T.; Gordon, B. E.

    1986-10-01

    Digital RF memories (DRFM's) are key elements for modern radar jamming. An RF signal is sampled, stored in random access memory (RAM), and later recreated from the stored data. Here the first CMOS DRFM chip, integrating static RAM, control circuitry, and two channels of shift registers, on a single chip is described. The sample rate achieved was 0.5 GHz, VLSI density was made possible by the low-power dissipation of quiescent CMOS circuits. An 8K RAM prototype chip has been built and tested.

  3. Acute promyelocytic leukemia in patients aged >70 years: the cure beyond the age.

    PubMed

    Finsinger, Paola; Breccia, Massimo; Minotti, Clara; Carmosino, Ida; Girmenia, Corrado; Chisini, Marta; Volpicelli, Paola; Vozella, Federico; Romano, Angela; Montagna, Chiara; Colafigli, Gioia; Cimino, Giuseppe; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Petti, Maria Concetta; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Foà, Roberto; Latagliata, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has made acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) a very curable disease also in patients aged >60 years; however, there are only few case reports in very elderly APL patients. To address this issue, we reviewed treatment results in 13 patients aged >70 years with newly diagnosed APL followed at our institution from January 1991 to December 2008. According to Sanz score, seven patients were at low risk, five at intermediate risk, and one at high risk. Induction therapy consisted of ATRA + idarubicin in nine patients (3/9 with reduced idarubicin dosage) and ATRA alone in four patients; in this latter group, however, 2/4 needed to add chemotherapy (CHT) due to hyperleukocytosis during ATRA treatment. All patients achieved both morphological and molecular complete remission (CR) after a median time of 51 [interquartile range (IR) 43-55] and 114 (IR 74-155) days, respectively. Infective complications were observed in 10/13 patients, APL differentiation syndrome in 3/13 patients. Twelve patients received consolidation therapy, followed by maintenance treatment in nine patients. Five patients relapsed after 7, 8, 11, 35, and 56 months. At present, seven patients are still alive, five died due to disease progression (four) or senectus while in CR (one), and one was lost to follow-up while in CR. The 5-year event-free survival was 56.1 % (95 % CI, 26.0-86.2); the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 64.5 % (95 % CI, 35.6-93.4). ATRA-based treatment of APL is safe and effective also in very elderly patients, with long-lasting disease-free OS. PMID:25186786

  4. Structural characteristics of thermally evaporated Cu0.5Ag0.5InSe2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullu, H. H.; Parlak, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, Cu0.5Ag0.5InSe2 (CAIS) thin film samples were prepared by thermal evaporation of Cu, Ag, InSe and Se evaporants sequentially on glass substrates. Following the deposition, annealing processes were applied at different temperatures. The as-grown and annealed CAIS samples were nearly stoichiometric in the detection limit of the compositional measurement. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that they were in polycrystalline structure with a preferred orientation along the (112) direction. Moreoever, the crystallinity of the films improved with increasing annealing temperature. According to the results of Raman measurements, the highest Raman intensity was found in the A1 mode which is directly proportional to the crystallinity of the samples. The surface properties of the thin films were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These results showed that there was a Se agglomeration on the deposited film surfaces and with annealing processes segregation effects were observed on the surface of the annealed samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were carried out to get information about surface and near-surface properties of the films. The results from the surface and depth surface analyses of the films were found to be in agreement with the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis.

  5. Magnetic properties of the Nd0.5Gd0.5Fe3(BO3)4 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakhovskii, A. V.; Eremin, E. V.; Velikanov, D. A.; Kartashev, A. V.; Vasil'Ev, A. D.; Gudim, I. A.

    2011-10-01

    The magnetic properties of the Nd0.5Gd0.5Fe3(BO3)4 single crystal have been studied in principal crystallographic directions in magnetic fields to 90 kG in the temperature range 2-300 K; in addition, the heat capacity has been measured in the range 2-300 K. It has been found that, below the Néel temperature T N = 32 K down to 2 K, the single crystal exhibits an easy-plane antiferromagnetic structure. A hysteresis has been detected during magnetization of the crystal in the easy plane in fields of 1.0-3.5 kG, and a singularity has been found in the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility in the easy plane at a temperature of 11 K in fields B < 1 kG. It has been shown that the singularity is due to appearance of the hysteresis. The origin of the magnetic properties of the crystal near the hysteresis has been discussed.

  6. Illuminating Australia's conductivity structure at 0.5x0.5° resolution: AusLAMP progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopping, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Australian Lithospheric Architecture Magnetotelluric Project (AusLAMP) collaborative project is a program designed to deploy long period magnetotelluric (MT) stations across the Australian continent at a nominal resolution of 0.5x0.5° (approximately 50 by 50 km). The program brings together Federal and State government geological surveys with universities to acquire these MT data sites. The aim is to use these data to produce a 3D model of the conductivity of Australia to lithospheric depths. To date, the entire state of Victoria has been imaged, along with a large portion of South Australia, and smaller regions in Queensland and New South Wales. A pool of instruments are used for these data collection tranches, with standards for acquisition parameters, processing and modelling developed to ensure consistent data acquisition. We will provide an update on the program, including current deployments, plus an overview of data collected so far. Finally, we will discuss the future acquisition plans of the AusLAMP project.

  7. Compositional inhomogeneityand segregation in (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Kepi; Tang, Jing; Chen, Yan

    2016-03-11

    The effects of the calcination temperature of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) powder on the sintering and piezoelectric properties of KNN ceramics have been investigated in this report. KNN powders are synthesized via the solid-state approach. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction characterizations indicate that the incomplete reaction at 700 °C and 750 °C calcination results in the compositional inhomogeneity of the K-rich and Na-rich phases while the orthorhombic single phase is obtained after calcination at 900 °C. During the sintering, the presence of the liquid K-rich phase due to the lower melting point has a significant impact on the densification, the abnormalmore » grain growth and the deteriorated piezoelectric properties. From the standpoint of piezoelectric properties, the optimal calcination temperature obtained for KNN ceramics calcined at this temperature is determined to be 800 °C, with piezoelectric constant d33=128.3 pC/N, planar electromechanical coupling coefficient kp=32.2%, mechanical quality factor Qm=88, and dielectric loss tan δ=2.1%.« less

  8. Magnetic structure of the kagome mixed compound (Co(0.5)Ni(0.5))(3)V(2)O(8).

    PubMed

    Qureshi, N; Fuess, H; Ehrenberg, H; Ouladdiaf, B; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J; Hansen, T C; Wolf, Th; Meingast, C; Zhang, Q; Knafo, W; Löhneysen, H V

    2008-06-11

    We report the magnetic structure of (Co(0.5)Ni(0.5))(3)V(2)O(8) (CNVO) deduced by single crystal neutron diffraction. This compound exhibits features which differ from that of its parent compounds, which are absolutely collinear along the a axis for Co(3)V(2)O(8) (CVO) or exhibit magnetic moments predominantly in the a-b plane with small components along c in the case of Ni(3)V(2)O(8) (NVO). The averaged magnetic moments of the statistically distributed Ni(2+) and Co(2+) ions in CNVO are oriented in the a-c plane and form loops of quasiferromagnetically coupled spins. These loops are connected along the a axis and separated along the c axis by cross-tie spins forming a quasiferromagnetic wave with the upper part of the respective neighbouring loops. The magnetic moments are sinusoidally modulated by the propagation vector k = (0.49,0,0) with an average amplitude of 1.59(1) μ(B) for a magnetic ion on a cross-tie site and 1.60(1) μ(B) for the spine site. In addition to neutron diffraction, specific heat and magnetization data, which confirm that the only magnetic phase transition above 1.8 K is the onset of antiferromagnetic order at T(N) = 7.4(1) K, are presented.

  9. Colossal elastoresistance, electroresistance and magnetoresistance in Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liping; Guo, Xuexiang; Gao, J.

    2016-05-01

    Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 thin films on substrates of (001)-oriented LaAlO3 were epitaxially grown by pulsed laser deposition. It was found that a substrate-induced strain of ~1.3% brings a great resistivity change of ~98% at 25 K. We studied the dependence of resistivity on the applied electric current and magnetic field. In the greatly strained films of 60 nm thickness the electroresistance ER=[ρ(I1 μA)-ρ(I1000 μA)]/ρ(I1 μA) reaches ~70% at T=25 K, much higher than ER~7% in the strain-relaxed films of 400 nm thickness, implying the strain effect on ER. Also the magnetoresistance of the film falls with strain-relaxation. Therefore the electric properties of the film could be efficiently modified by strain, electric current and magnetic field. All of them may be explained by the effect on the percolative phase separation and competition in the half-doped manganite material. The manganite films located at phase boundary are expected to be an ideal compound for providing practical colossal effects of elastoresistance, electroresistance and magnetoresistance due to the multiphase coexistence.

  10. Upper critical field and AC-Susceptibility studies on FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zargar, Rayees A.; Pal, Anand; Hafiz, A. K.; Awana, V. P. S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study we present synthesis and characterization of FeTe0.5Se0.5 sample that has been prepared by solid state reaction route by encapsulation of stoichiometric high purity (5N) ingredients in an evacuated quartz tube at 750 °C. The resultant compound is crystallized in single phase tetragonal structure with space group P4/nmm, having lattice parameters a = 3.792(1) Å and c = 6.0081(3) Å. The studied compound is superconducting at below 13K in both magnetic and transport measurements. Further superconductivity is barely affected by external applied magnetic field, giving rise to upper critical field of above 180 Tesla at 0 K. The sample is studied extensively for AC susceptibility measurements in superconducting state. The AC drive field and frequency are varied from 1-13 Oe and 33-9999 Hz respectively. It is concluded that though the grain boundaries of this superconductor are mainly metallic the minor (undetectable in XRD) foreign phases and the role of porosity cannot be ruled out completely. This is because both frequency and amplitude affects slightly the superconductivity coupling temperature of the grains.

  11. Magnetic structure of the kagome mixed compound (Co0.5Ni0.5)3V2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, N.; Fuess, H.; Ehrenberg, H.; Ouladdiaf, B.; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J.; Hansen, T. C.; Wolf, Th; Meingast, C.; Zhang, Q.; Knafo, W.; Löhneysen, H. v.

    2008-06-01

    We report the magnetic structure of (Co0.5Ni0.5)3V2O8 (CNVO) deduced by single crystal neutron diffraction. This compound exhibits features which differ from that of its parent compounds, which are absolutely collinear along the a axis for Co3V2O8 (CVO) or exhibit magnetic moments predominantly in the a-b plane with small components along c in the case of Ni3V2O8 (NVO). The averaged magnetic moments of the statistically distributed Ni2+ and Co2+ ions in CNVO are oriented in the a-c plane and form loops of quasiferromagnetically coupled spins. These loops are connected along the a axis and separated along the c axis by cross-tie spins forming a quasiferromagnetic wave with the upper part of the respective neighbouring loops. The magnetic moments are sinusoidally modulated by the propagation vector k = (0.49,0,0) with an average amplitude of 1.59(1) μB for a magnetic ion on a cross-tie site and 1.60(1) μB for the spine site. In addition to neutron diffraction, specific heat and magnetization data, which confirm that the only magnetic phase transition above 1.8 K is the onset of antiferromagnetic order at TN = 7.4(1) K, are presented.

  12. BaZr0.5Ti0.5O3 : Lead-free relaxor ferroelectric or dipolar glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipič, C.; Kutnjak, Z.; Pirc, R.; Canu, G.; Petzelt, J.

    2016-06-01

    Glassy freezing dynamics was investigated in BaZr0.5Ti0.5O3 (BZT50) ceramic samples by means of dielectric spectroscopy in the frequency range 0.001 Hz-1 MHz at temperatures 10

  13. Individual Differences in Phonological Development: Ages One and Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vihman, Marilyn May; Greenlee, Mel

    1987-01-01

    The persistence of individual differences in phonological development of 10 normally developing children observed at age one and again at age three was studied. The children differed considerably in rate of vocabulary acquisition and relative phonological maturity and also in their general approach to learning. (Author/JDD)

  14. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

  15. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  16. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  17. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  18. Routine Eye Examinations for Persons 20-64 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    suggest that prevalent glaucoma is statistically significantly greater in a black population 50 years of age and older compared with a white population of similar age. There is an overall 4-fold increase in prevalent POAG in a black population compared with a white population. This increase may be due to a confounding variable not accounted for in the analysis. The quality of the evidence is low. Refractive Error Four cross-sectional studies assessed the association of myopia and POAG. These data suggest an association between myopia defined as a spherical equivalent of -1.00D or worse and prevalent POAG. However, there is inconsistency in results regarding the statistical significance of the association between myopia when defined as a spherical equivalent of -0.5D. The quality of the evidence is very low. Family History of POAG Three cross-sectional studies investigated the association between family history of glaucoma and prevalent POAG. These data suggest a 2.5 to 3.0 fold increase in the odds having POAG in persons with a family history (any first-degree relative) of POAG. The quality of the evidence is moderate. Age-Related Maculopathy Age Four cohort studies evaluated the association between age and early ARM and AMD. After 55 years of age, the incidence of both early ARM and AMD increases with increasing age. Progression to AMD occurs in up to 12% of persons with early ARM. The quality of the evidence is low Gender Four cohort studies evaluated the association between gender and early ARM and AMD. Gender differences in incident early ARM and incident AMD are not supported from these data. The quality of the evidence is lows. Ethnicity One meta-analysis and 2 cross-sectional studies reported the ethnic-specific prevalence rates of ARM. The data suggests that the prevalence of early ARM is higher in a white population compared with a black population. The data suggest that the ethnic-specific differences in the prevalence of AMD remain inconclusive. Refractive

  19. Anisotropic superconducting properties of single-crystalline FeSe0.5Te0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendele, M.; Weyeneth, S.; Puzniak, R.; Maisuradze, A.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.; Pomjakushin, V.; Luetkens, H.; Katrych, S.; Wisniewski, A.; Khasanov, R.; Keller, H.

    2010-06-01

    Iron-chalcogenide single crystals with the nominal composition FeSe0.5Te0.5 and a transition temperature of Tc≃14.6K were synthesized by the Bridgman method. The structural and anisotropic superconducting properties of those crystals were investigated by means of single crystal x-ray and neutron powder diffraction, superconducting quantum interference device and torque magnetometry, and muon-spin rotation (μSR). Room temperature neutron powder diffraction reveals that 95% of the crystal volume is of the same tetragonal structure as PbO. The structure refinement yields a stoichiometry of Fe1.045Se0.406Te0.594 . Additionally, a minor hexagonal Fe7Se8 impurity phase was identified. The magnetic penetration depth λ at zero temperature obtained by means of μSR was found to be λab(0)=491(8)nm in the ab plane and λc(0)=1320(14)nm along the c axis. The zero-temperature value of the superfluid density ρs(0)∝λ-2(0) obeys the empirical Uemura relation observed for various unconventional superconductors, including cuprates and iron pnictides. The temperature dependences of both λab and λc are well described by a two-gap s+s -wave model with the zero-temperature gap values of ΔS(0)=0.51(3)meV and ΔL(0)=2.61(9)meV for the small and the large gap, respectively. The magnetic penetration depth anisotropy parameter γλ(T)=λc(T)/λab(T) increases with decreasing temperature, in agreement with γλ(T) observed in the iron-pnictide superconductors.

  20. Evidence of superspin-glass behavior in Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Botez, Cristian E; Adair, Antony H; Tackett, Ronald J

    2015-02-25

    We have used dc-magnetization and ac-susceptibility to investigate the superspin dynamics in 9 nm average size Zn(0.5)Ni(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) magnetic particles at temperatures (T) between 3 and 300 K. Dc-magnetization M versus T data collected in a H = 50 Oe magnetic field using a field-cooled-zero-field-cooled protocol indicate that the onset of irreversibility occurs in the vicinity of 190 K. This is confirmed by M versus H|(T) hysteresis loops, as well as by frequency- and temperature-resolved ac-susceptibility data. We demonstrate that this magnetic event is not due to the blocking of individual superspins, but can be unequivocally ascribed to their collective freezing in a spin-glass-like fashion. Indeed, the relative variation (per frequency decade) of the in-phase susceptibility peak temperature is ∼0.032, critical dynamics analysis of this peak shift yields an exponent zν = 10.0 and a zero-field freezing temperature T(g) = 190 K, and, in a magnetic field, Tg(H) is excellently described by the de Almeida-Thouless line δT(g) = 1 - T(g)(H)/T(g) ∝ H(2/3). In addition, out-of-phase susceptibility versus temperature datasets collected at different frequencies collapse on a universal dynamic scaling curve. Finally, memory imprinting during a stop-and-wait magnetization protocol confirms the collective freezing nature of the state below 190 K.

  1. Design of Si0.5Ge0.5 based tunnel field effect transistor and its performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Amin, S. Intekhab; Anand, Sunny; Sarin, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the performance comparison of two heterojunction PIN TFETs having Si channel and Si0.5Ge0.5 source with high-k (SiGe DGTFET HK) and hetero-gate dielectric (SiGe DGTFET HG) respectively with those of two homojunction Si based PIN (DGTFET HK and DGTFET HG) TFETs is performed. Similarly, by employing the technique of pocketing at source junction in above four PIN TFETs, the performances of resultant four PNPN TFETs (SiGe PNPN DGTFET HK, SiGe PNPN DGTFET HG, PNPN DGTFET HK and PNPN DGTFET HG) are also compared with each other. Due to lower tunnel resistance of SiGe based heterojunction PIN and PNPN TFETs, the DC parameters such as ON current, ON-OFF current ratio, average subthreshold slope are improved significantly as compared to Si based PIN and PNPN TFETs respectively. The output characteristics of HG architectures in Si based homojunction PIN and PNPN TFETs is observed to be identical to with respective Si based HK PIN and PNPN TFET architectures. However, the output characteristics of HG architectures in SiGe based heterojunction PIN and PNPN TFETs degrade as compared to their respective SiGe based HK PIN and PNPN TFET architectures. In ON state, SiGe based HK and HG PIN and PNPN TFETs have lower gate capacitance (Cgg) as compared to their respective Si based HK and HG PIN and PNPN TFETs. Moreover, HG architecture suppresses gate to drain capacitance (Cgd) and ambipolar conduction. Transconductance (gm) and cut off frequency (fT) is also observed to be higher for SiGe based PIN and PNPN TFETs.

  2. Photoletter to the editor: Topical 0.5% brimonidine gel to camouflage redness of immature scars.

    PubMed

    Reinholz, Markus; Heppt, Markus; Tietze, Julia K; Ruzicka, Thomas; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Schauber, Jürgen

    2015-09-30

    Cutaneous scars develop as a result of a defective wound healing process. Scars are commonly visible as erythematous, sometimes disfiguring lesions which might be stigmatizing for the affected patient. Only a few therapies to improve the appearance of scars are available. Recently, brimonidine - a selective α2-receptor-agonist which causes vasoconstriction of small cutaneous vessels - was approved for the treatment of erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea. Topical brimonidine might also be helpful to improve redness of immature scars. Here we report on the effect of brimonidine 0.5% gel on a flat, erythematous scar in a 25-year-old female patient. Whitening of the scar could be observed immediately after application of brimonidine 0.5% gel and a good clinical result was observed within one hour. This effect lasted for up to three hours. We conclude that brimonidine 0.5% gel is a suitable topical therapy to reduce erythema in visible cutaneous scars. PMID:26512307

  3. SIRT6 minor allele genotype is associated with >5-year decrease in lifespan in an aged cohort.

    PubMed

    TenNapel, Mindi J; Lynch, Charles F; Burns, Trudy L; Wallace, Robert; Smith, Brian J; Button, Anna; Domann, Frederick E

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a natural process involving complex interplay between environment, metabolism, and genes. Sirtuin genes and their downstream targets have been associated with lifespan in numerous organisms from nematodes to humans. Several target proteins of the sirtuin genes are key sensors and/or effectors of oxidative stress pathways including FOXO3, SOD3, and AKT1. To examine the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at candidate genes in these pathways and human lifespan, we performed a molecular epidemiologic study of an elderly cohort (≥65 years old.). Using age at death as a continuous outcome variable and assuming a co-dominant genetic model within the framework of multi-variable linear regression analysis, the genotype-specific adjusted mean age at death was estimated for individual SNP genotypes while controlling for age-related risk factors including smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption and co-morbidity. Significant associations were detected between human lifespan and SNPs in genes SIRT3, SIRT5, SIRT6, FOXO3 and SOD3. Individuals with either the CC or CT genotype at rs107251 within SIRT6 displayed >5-year mean survival advantages compared to the TT genotype (5.5 and 5.9 years, respectively; q-value  = 0.012). Other SNPs revealed genotype-specific mean survival advantages ranging from 0.5 to 1.6 years. Gender also modified the effect of SNPs in SIRT3, SIRT5 and AKT1 on lifespan. Our novel findings highlight the impact of sirtuins and sirtuin-related genotypes on lifespan, the importance of evaluating gender and the advantage of using age as a continuous variable in analyses to report mean age at death. PMID:25541994

  4. Vitamin B12 Levels of Subjects Aged 0-24 Year(s) in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  5. Epitaxial La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 thin films: Structure, magnetism, and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Torija, Maria; Sharma, M; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Varela, M; Leighton, chris

    2008-01-01

    La1 xSrxCoO3 has received considerable attention in bulk form. This is due to interest in the fundamental magnetic properties spin-state transitions and magnetic phase separation as well as potential applications in ferroelectric memory and solid-oxide fuel cells. The structure and properties in thin film form are not well understood, and the influence of dimensional confinement on effects such as magnetic phase separation is unknown. Here, we report a comprehensive investigation of structure, magnetism, and transport in strained epitaxial La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 001 films deposited on SrTiO3 001 substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. The crystalline quality, phase purity, strain state, oxygen stoichiometry, morphology, and magnetic and electronic properties of the epilayers are all probed and are found to be particularly sensitive to the total sputtering gas pressure and the ratio of reactive to inert gas PO2 /PAr. The various structure-property relationships are discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the degree of oxygenation and oxygen-induced resputtering. The films are strained and tetragonally distorted due to the 1.9% lattice mismatch with SrTiO3. Significant strain relaxation occurs at thicknesses around 200 , resulting in a crossover from two-dimensional-like to three-dimensional growth. Polarized neutron reflectometry was combined with x-ray reflectometry to obtain chemical and magnetic depth profiles, which are compared with cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate a thin 10 layer at the film/substrate interface with significantly different structural properties to the bulk of the film, as well as a strongly graded magnetic and chemical profile at the film surface due to the significant roughness. The Curie temperature was found to decrease very slowly as the thickness is reduced down to 50 , at which point a rapid decrease occurs, almost coincident with a sharp decrease in saturation magnetization. At

  6. Initial oxidation kinetics and energetics of Cu 0.5Au 0.5 (0 0 1) film investigated by in situ ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Zhou, Guang-Wen; Eastman, Jeffrey A.; Yang, Judith C.

    2006-06-01

    The initial oxidation behavior of Cu 0.5Au 0.5 (0 0 1) thin film was investigated by in situ ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscopy to model nano-oxidation of alloys with one active component and one noble component. The formation of irregular-shaped octahedron Cu 2O islands with cube-on-cube crystallographic orientation to the substrate film was observed at all temperature studied. The energetics of Cu 2O nucleation for Cu and Cu 0.5Au 0.5 oxidation was compared. Cu 0.5Au 0.5 oxidation has lower nucleation activation energy due to the reduced mismatch strain between Cu 2O and Cu 0.5Au 0.5 films. On the other hand, the reaction kinetics for Cu 0.5Au 0.5 alloy oxidation is slower due to the higher diffusion activation energy of Cu.

  7. Impact of age on transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes: a comparison of patients aged ≤ 80 years versus patients > 80 years

    PubMed Central

    van der Kley, Frank; van Rosendael, Philippe J; Katsanos, Spyridon; Kamperidis, Vasileios; Marsan, Nina A; Karalis, Ioannis; de Weger, Arend; Palmen, Meindert; Bax, Jeroen J; Schalij, Martin J; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the procedural outcomes and the long-term survival of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and compare study results of patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old. Methods A total of 240 patients treated with TAVI were divided into two groups according to age ≤ 80 years (n = 105; 43.8%) and > 80 years (n = 135; 56.2%). The baseline characteristics and the procedural outcomes were compared between these two groups of patients. Results With the exception of peripheral artery disease and hypercholesterolemia, which were more frequently observed in the older age group, baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. Complication rates did not differ significantly between patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years. There were no differences in 30-day mortality rates between patients aged ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old (9.5% vs. 7.4%, respectively; P = 0.557). After a median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range: 16–42 months), 50 (47.6%) patients aged ≤ 80 years died compared to 57 (42%) deaths in the group of patients > 80 years old (P = 0.404). Conclusion The results of the present single center study showed that age did not significantly impact the outcomes of TAVI. PMID:26918010

  8. Giant Dielectric Behavior of BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3 Perovskite Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intatha, Uraiwan; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Tunkasiri, Tawee

    2009-12-01

    Single-phase cubic Ba(Fe,Nb)0.5O3 (BFN) powder was synthesized by solid-state reaction at 1443 K for 4 hour in air. X-ray diffraction indicated that the BFN oxide mixture calcined at 1200°C crystallizes to the pure cubic perovskite phase. BFN ceramics were produced from this powder by sintering at 1623-1673 K for 4 hrs in air. Samples prepared under these conditions achieved up to 94.7% of the theoretical density. The temperature dependence of their dielectric constant and loss tangent, measured at difference frequencies, shows an increase in the dielectric constant with temperature which is probably due to disorder on the B site ion of the perovskite. Non-Debye type of relaxation phenomena has been observed in the BFN ceramics as confirmed by Cole-Cole plots. The higher value of ɛ' at the lower frequency is explained on the basis of the Maxwell-Wagner (MW) polarization model.

  9. Giant Dielectric Behavior of BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3 Perovskite Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intatha, Uraiwan; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Tunkasiri, Tawee

    Single-phase cubic Ba(Fe,Nb)0.5O3 (BFN) powder was synthesized by solid-state reaction at 1443 K for 4 hour in air. X-ray diffraction indicated that the BFN oxide mixture calcined at 1200°C crystallizes to the pure cubic perovskite phase. BFN ceramics were produced from this powder by sintering at 1623-1673 K for 4 hrs in air. Samples prepared under these conditions achieved up to 94.7% of the theoretical density. The temperature dependence of their dielectric constant and loss tangent, measured at difference frequencies, shows an increase in the dielectric constant with temperature which is probably due to disorder on the B site ion of the perovskite. Non-Debye type of relaxation phenomena has been observed in the BFN ceramics as confirmed by Cole-Cole plots. The higher value of ɛ‧ at the lower frequency is explained on the basis of the Maxwell-Wagner (MW) polarization model.

  10. Empirical constraints of supergalactic winds at z≳ 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Jean-René; Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    2012-08-01

    Under the hypothesis that Mg II absorbers found near the minor axis of a disc galaxy originate in the cool phase of supergalactic winds, we carry out a study to constrain the properties of large-scale galactic outflows at redshift zgal ≳ 0.5 based on the observed relative motions of individual absorbing clouds with respect to the positions and orientations of the absorbing galaxies. We identify in the literature four highly inclined disc galaxies located within 50 kpc and with the minor axis oriented within 45° of a background quasi-stellar object (QSO) sightline. Deep Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxies are available for accurate characterizations of the optical morphologies of the galaxies. High-quality echelle spectra of the QSO members are also available in public archives for resolving the velocity field of individual absorption clumps. Three galaxies in our sample are located at ρ = 8-34 kpc and exhibit strong associated Mg II absorption feature with Wr(2796)0.8 Å. One galaxy, located at an impact parameters ρ = 48 kpc, dose not show an associated Mg II absorber to a 3σ limit of Wr(2796)=0.01 Å. Combining known morphological parameters of the galaxies such as the inclination and orientation angles of the star-forming discs, and resolved absorption profiles of the associated absorbers at ρ < 35 kpc away, we explore the allowed parameter space for the opening angle θ0 and the velocity field of large-scale galactic outflows as a function of z-height, v(z). We find that the observed absorption profiles of the Mg II doublets and their associated Fe II series are compatible with the absorbing gas being either accelerated or decelerated, depending on θ0, though accelerated outflows are a valid characterization only for a narrow range of θ0. Under an acceleration scenario, we compare the derived v(z) with predictions from Murray et al. and find that if the gas is being accelerated by the radiation and ram pressure

  11. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  12. Ten years of Nature Physics: Numerical models come of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, E.; Millis, A. J.

    2015-10-01

    When Nature Physics celebrated 20 years of high-temperature superconductors, numerical approaches were on the periphery. Since then, new ideas implemented in new algorithms are leading to new insights.

  13. Dental Age Estimation: A Test of the Reliability of Correctly Identifying a Subject Over 18 Years of Age Using the Gold Standard of Chronological Age as the Comparator.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Victoria S; Andiappan, Manoharan; McDonald, Fraser; Roberts, Graham

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to test the reliability of using the third molars to demarcate between child and adult status. A total of 2000 dental panoramic tomographs were used for assessment of the calculated age using the 8-stage system of tooth development and applied to all four third molars. The LL8 was also assessed using this 8-stage system. For each tooth development stage, the Normal distribution and percentile summary data were estimated. The calculated dental age compared with the chronological age was statistically significantly different (p < 0.001) for both females and males giving underestimates of the true age. Comparison of single tooth dental age and chronological age was only slightly different. The most important finding is that the assignment to above or below the 18-year threshold, in the age range 17 years to 19 years, could be wrong on up to 50% of occasions.

  14. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  15. Effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and iron deficiency anemia on child growth and body composition through age 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jiang, Hongyu; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Duggan, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol exposure has been associated with pre- and postnatal growth restriction, but little is known about the natural history of this restriction throughout childhood or the effects of prenatal alcohol on body composition. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure on longitudinal growth and body composition. DESIGN 85 heavy drinking pregnant women (≥ 2 drinks/day or ≥ 4 drinks/occasion) and 63 abstaining and light-drinking controls (< 1 drink/day, no binging) were recruited at initiation of prenatal care in an urban obstetrical clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, and prospectively interviewed during pregnancy about alcohol, smoking, drug use, and demographics. Among their children, length/height, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6.5 and 12 months and at 5 and 9 years. Percent body fat was estimated at age 9 years using bioelectric impedance analysis. RESULTS In multiple regression models with repeated measures (adjusted for confounders), heavy alcohol exposure was associated with reductions in weight (0.6 SD), length/height (0.5 SD), and head circumference (0.9 cm) from 6.5 months to 9 years that were largely determined at birth. These effects were exacerbated by iron deficiency in infancy but were not modified by iron deficiency or measures of food security at 5 years. An alcohol-related postnatal delay in weight gain was seen at 12 months. Effects on head circumference were greater at age 9 than at other age points. Although heavy alcohol exposure was not associated with changes in body composition, children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) had lower % body fat than heavy exposed nonsyndromal and control children. CONCLUSIONS Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is related to prenatal growth restriction that persists through age 9 years and an additional delay in weight gain during infancy. FAS and PFAS diagnoses are associated with leaner body composition in later childhood. PMID

  16. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  17. Optical anisotropy and dielectric parameters of (Ba0.5Sr0.5)Nb2O6 films on a Pt(111)/Si(001) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovtun, A. P.; Zinchenko, S. P.; Pavlenko, A. V.; Tolmachev, G. N.

    2016-06-01

    (Ba0.5Sr0.5)Nb2O6 films were synthesized on a Pt(111)/Si(001) substrate by RF gas-discharge sputtering in pure oxygen atmosphere. It was found that the films have a dominant crystallographic orientation in the [001] direction and natural unipolarity, which was revealed through analysis of dielectric and piezoelectric parameters. It was demonstrated that the optical parameters of film material in the Ba0.5Sr0.5, Nb2O6/Pt(111)/Si(001) heterostructure match those typical for a (Ba0.5Sr0.5)Nb2O6 single crystal.

  18. The stability of intelligence from age 11 to age 90 years: the Lothian birth cohort of 1921.

    PubMed

    Deary, Ian J; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M

    2013-12-01

    As a foundation for studies of human cognitive aging, it is important to know the stability of individual differences in cognitive ability across the life course. Few studies of cognitive ability have tested the same individuals in youth and old age. We examined the stability and concurrent and predictive validity of individual differences in the same intelligence test administered to the same individuals (the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921, N = 106) at ages 11 and 90 years. The correlation of Moray House Test scores between age 11 and age 90 was .54 (.67 when corrected for range restriction). This is a valuable foundation for estimating the extent to which cognitive-ability differences in very old age are accounted for by the lifelong stable trait and by the causes of cognitive change across the life course. Moray House Test scores showed strong concurrent and predictive validity with "gold standard" cognitive tests at ages 11 and 90.

  19. Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2008-01-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in…

  20. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  1. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  2. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging.

  3. Outcome of Silicone Ring Vertical Gastroplasty in Patients Aged 50 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    Kyzer; Ramadan; Avraham; Belavsky; Hopp; Chaimoff

    1996-08-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors studied the results Of silicone ring vertical gastroplasty (SRVG) in Patients aged 50 years and older. METHODS: The early and late Postoperative results in 28 patients aged.50 Years or older undergoing SRVG were reviewed retrospectively, The results were compared to those of 370 Patients Younger than 50 years operated during the same period. RESULTS: There was no Postoperative mortality among patients aged 50 years and older. There was a significantly higher incidence Of Pulmonary embolus and wound infection among patients aged 50 years and older (P < 0.05). The weight loss did not differ significantly between the two studied age groups. CONCLUSION: SRVG may performed on patients aged 50 years or older with acceptable complication rate and favorable postoperative results. PMID:10729875

  4. Theoretical study of elastic properties and phase stability of M0.5Al0.5N1-xOx (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin Rotert, Soo; Music, Denis; to Baben, Moritz; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2013-02-01

    The influence of oxygen content and transition metal valence electron concentration on the phase stability and elastic properties of cubic M0.5Al0.5N1-xOx (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr; x = 0 - 0.5) was studied using ab initio calculations. The negative value of enthalpy of mixing was observed for all phases indicating full miscibility of M0.5Al0.5N with the hypothetical M0.5Al0.5O. Bulk moduli are decreased as x in M0.5Al0.5N1-xOx is increased. This can be understood based on the electronic structure. As N is substituted by O, there are no noticeable changes in the chemical bonding nature. However, O is more electronegative than N, giving rise to an increase in the ionic character of the overall bonding. In spite of that, the M - O bond in M0.5Al0.5N1-xOx is longer than the corresponding M-N bond, which implies that this bond becomes weaker. Hence, we propose that the decrease of bulk moduli upon O incorporation into M0.5Al0.5N1-xOx is caused by weaker M-O bonds.

  5. Structural stability and depolarization of manganese-doped (Bi0.5Na0.5)1-xBaxTiO3 relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng-Fen; Tu, Chi-Shun; Chang, Ting-Lun; Chen, Pin-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Sao; Hugo Schmidt, V.; Anthoniappen, J.

    2014-10-01

    This work reveals that 0.5 mol. % manganese (Mn) doping in (Bi0.5Na0.5)1-xBaxTiO3 (x = 0 and 0.075) solid solutions can increase structural thermal stability, depolarization temperature (Td), piezoelectric coefficient (d33), and electromechanical coupling factor (kt). High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal coexistence of rhombohedral (R) R3c and tetragonal (T) P4bm phases in (Bi0.5Na0.5)0.925Ba0.075TiO3 (BN7.5BT) and 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped BN7.5BT (BN7.5BT-0.5Mn). (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 (BNT) and BN7.5BT show an R - R + T phase transition, which does not occur in 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped BNT (BNT-0.5Mn) and BN7.5BT-0.5Mn. Dielectric permittivity (ɛ') follows the Curie-Weiss equation, ɛ' = C/(T - To), above the Burns temperature (TB), below which polar nanoregions begin to develop. The direct piezoelectric coefficient (d33) and electromechanical coupling factor (kt) of BN7.5BT-0.5Mn reach 190 pC/N and 47%.

  6. "Older is always better": Age-related differences in vocabulary scores across 16 years.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Erel, Hadas; Goy, Huiwen; Schneider, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies of cognitive aging compare age groups at 1 time point. It is unclear from such studies whether age-related cognitive differences remain stable across time. We present a cross-sectional investigation of vocabulary scores of 2,000 younger and older adults collected across 16 years, using the same laboratory and protocol. We found a steady decrease with year of testing and an advantage for older adults. An additive relation between age group and year of testing implied that age-related differences in vocabulary are independent of changes over time, suggesting that younger and older adults are similarly affected by changes in word usage.

  7. Effect of forming gas annealing on the ferroelectric properties of Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 thin films with and without Pt electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyuk Park, Min; Joon Kim, Han; Jin Kim, Yu; Lee, Woongkyu; Kyeom Kim, Hyo; Seong Hwang, Cheol

    2013-03-01

    The effects of forming gas annealing (FGA) on the ferroelectric properties of Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 (HZO) films were examined. Although the H-incorporation during FGA degrades the ferroelectric properties of Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films, the degree of degradation was much lower compared with other ferroelectrics, such as Pb(Zr,Ti)O3. Pt worked as a catalyst for H-incorporation, and maximum 2Pr loss of ˜40% occurred. However, the insertion of a ˜20-nm-thick TiN layer between Pt and Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 decreased the degradation to ˜12%. Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 is more resistant to degradation by FGA compared with the conventional ferroelectrics, which is a highly promising result for next-generation ferroelectric memory.

  8. Topochemical fluorination of Sr3(M(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 (M = Ti, Mn, Fe), n = 2, Ruddlesden-Popper phases.

    PubMed

    Romero, Fabio Denis; Bingham, Paul A; Forder, Susan D; Hayward, Michael A

    2013-03-18

    Reaction of the appropriate Sr3(M(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 (M = Ti, Mn, Fe), n = 2, Ruddlesden-Popper oxide with CuF2 under flowing oxygen results in formation of the oxide-fluoride phases Sr3(Ti(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2, Sr3(Mn(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2, and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O(5.5)F(3.5) via a topochemical anion insertion/substitution process. Analysis indicates the titanium and manganese phases have Ti(4+), Ru(6+) and Mn(4+), Ru(6+) oxidation state combinations, respectively, while Mössbauer spectra indicate an Fe(3+), Ru(5.5+) combination for the iron phase. Thus, it can be seen that the soft fluorination conditions employed lead to formation of highly oxidized Ru(6+) centers in all three oxide-fluoride phases, while oxidation states of the other transition metal M cations remain unchanged. Fluorination of Sr3(Ti(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 to Sr3(Ti(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2 leads to suppression of magnetic order as the fluorinated material approaches metallic behavior. In contrast, fluorination of Sr3(Mn(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 lifts the magnetic frustration present in the oxide phases, resulting in observation of long-range antiferromagnetic order at low temperature in Sr3(Mn(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2 and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O(5.5)F(3.5). The influence of the topochemical fluorination on the magnetic behavior of the Sr3(M(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O(x)F(y) phases is discussed on the basis of changes to the ruthenium oxidation state and structural distortions.

  9. A randomised comparison of lidocaine 2% gel and proparacaine 0.5% eye drops in paediatric squint surgery.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R; Chandralekha; Batra, M; Ray, B R; Mohan, V K; Saxena, R

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a randomised trial comparing lidocaine 2% gel with proparacaine 0.5% eye drops in children having elective squint surgery. One hundred and forty children aged between 3 and 14 years were recruited. The requirement for intra-operative fentanyl and postoperative ibuprofen was significantly less in the lidocaine group compared with the proparacaine group (1 (1.7%) vs 12 (18.5%), p=0.002 and 16 (27.6%) 38 (58.5%), p=0.001, respectively). The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was significantly less in the lidocaine group compared with the proparacaine group (6 (10.3%) vs 16 (24.6%), p=0.04). There were no differences between the groups in terms of incidence and severity of the oculocardiac reflex. We conclude that, compared with proparacaine 0.5% eye drops, a single application of lidocaine 2% gel improves peri-operative analgesia and reduces the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in elective paediatric squint surgery.

  10. Intertrochanteric fractures in adults younger than 40 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hwang, L C; Lo, W H; Chen, W M; Lin, C F; Huang, C K; Chen, C M

    2001-01-01

    This study reviewed 66 intertrochanteric fractures in patients younger than 40 years old (average 33.0 years old; range 17-40 years old). In contrast to the usual population with intertrochanteric fractures, the factors male predominance (46/66), less pre-injury comorbidity (9/66), more outdoor high energy trauma (47/66), and more associated injuries (32/66) were evident. The distribution of associated injuries was wide. Some of them were life threatening. According to Boyd's classification, 20 were type I, 24 were type II, 13 were type III, and 9 were type IV. Twenty-nine were stable, and 37 were unstable. Stratified by the mechanism of injury, the difference in distribution between the subgroups was significant (p = 0.027, two-tail Fisher's exact test). Simple falls only caused Boyd type I and II fractures. Boyd type III or IV fractures were found more often after vehicular trauma or falls from a height. All the intertrochanteric fractures healed on average 70.5 days (range 31-213 days) after operation. The fractures resulting from vehicular trauma or fall from a height healed significantly more slowly (p = 0.02, univariant log-rank test). There were 6 intertrochanteric fracture-related complications. The mechanism of injury determines the character of intertrochanteric fractures in young adults. Given tougher bone stock, better healing ability, and less co-morbidity, proper management can lead to healing of all intertrochanteric fractures. The extent of functional recovery was also determined by the associated injuries.

  11. Comparative clinicopathological and outcome analysis of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged below 60 years and above 60 years

    PubMed Central

    AL-Qahtani, Khalid Hussain; Tunio, Mutahir A; Asiri, Mushabbab Al; Bayoumi, Yasser; Balbaid, Ali; Aljohani, Naji J; Fatani, Hanadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged above 60 years. Materials and methods Comparative analysis was performed in 252 patients aged 46–60 years (Group A) and 118 patients aged above 60 years (Group B), who had thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine-131, and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy between July 2000 and December 2012. Different clinicopathological features, treatment, complications, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were compared. Results Mean age of patients in Group A was 51.9 years (range: 46–60), and mean age of those in Group B was 68.6 years (range: 62–97). Group B patients had higher positive lymph nodes (43.2%), P=0.011. The frequency of extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, and lymphovascular space invasion was seen more in Group B than in Group A. Postsurgical complications (permanent hypoparathyroidism, bleeding, and wound infections) were also seen more in Group B (P=0.043, P=0.011, and P=0.021, respectively). Group B patients experienced more locoregional recurrences (11.0%, P=0.025); similarly, more distant metastases were observed in Group B (15.3%, P=0.003). The 10-year disease-free survival rates were 87.6% in Group A and 70.8% in Group B (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients aged above 60 years are more aggressive biologically and associated with a worse prognosis, and the morbidity is significantly high as compared to patients aged below 60 years. PMID:27621604

  12. Comparative clinicopathological and outcome analysis of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged below 60 years and above 60 years

    PubMed Central

    AL-Qahtani, Khalid Hussain; Tunio, Mutahir A; Asiri, Mushabbab Al; Bayoumi, Yasser; Balbaid, Ali; Aljohani, Naji J; Fatani, Hanadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged above 60 years. Materials and methods Comparative analysis was performed in 252 patients aged 46–60 years (Group A) and 118 patients aged above 60 years (Group B), who had thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine-131, and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy between July 2000 and December 2012. Different clinicopathological features, treatment, complications, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were compared. Results Mean age of patients in Group A was 51.9 years (range: 46–60), and mean age of those in Group B was 68.6 years (range: 62–97). Group B patients had higher positive lymph nodes (43.2%), P=0.011. The frequency of extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, and lymphovascular space invasion was seen more in Group B than in Group A. Postsurgical complications (permanent hypoparathyroidism, bleeding, and wound infections) were also seen more in Group B (P=0.043, P=0.011, and P=0.021, respectively). Group B patients experienced more locoregional recurrences (11.0%, P=0.025); similarly, more distant metastases were observed in Group B (15.3%, P=0.003). The 10-year disease-free survival rates were 87.6% in Group A and 70.8% in Group B (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients aged above 60 years are more aggressive biologically and associated with a worse prognosis, and the morbidity is significantly high as compared to patients aged below 60 years.

  13. Measuring years of inactivity, years in retirement, time to retirement, and age at retirement within the Markov model.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Gary R; Ciecka, James E

    2010-08-01

    Retirement-related concepts are treated as random variables within Markov process models that capture multiple labor force entries and exits. The expected number of years spent outside of the labor force, expected years in retirement, and expected age at retirement are computed-all of which are of immense policy interest but have been heretofore reported with less precisely measured proxies. Expected age at retirement varies directly with a person s age; but even younger people can expect to retire at ages substantially older than those commonly associated with retirement, such as age 60, 62, or 65. Between 1970 and 2003, men allocated most of their increase in life expectancy to increased time in retirement, but women allocated most of their increased life expectancy to labor force activity. Although people can exit and reenter the labor force at older ages, most 65-year-old men who are active in the labor force will not reenter after they eventually exit. At age 65, the probability that those who are inactive will reenter the labor force at some future time is .38for men and .27 for women. Life expectancy at exact ages is decomposed into the sum of the expected time spent active and inactive in the labor force, and also as the sum of the expected time to labor force separation and time in retirement.

  14. Screening for breast cancer and mortality reduction among women 40-49 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kopans, D B

    1994-07-01

    The recent withdrawal of screening support for women ages 40-49 years is not scientifically supported. The subgroup analyses that have been used severely compromise the statistical power of the trials. None of the trials has the statistical power to be able to provide clear proof of benefit for screening women ages 40-49 years because none of the trials involved sufficient numbers of women in these age groups. Despite having not been designed to evaluate women ages 40-49 years as a separate group, five of the eight randomized, controlled trials have demonstrated mortality reductions for these women that range from 22% to 49%. In addition, data from other nonrandomized trials show that there is no difference in survival for women ages 40-49 years than for women ages 50-59 years. The detection rate for small, early cancers, using modern mammography, is similar for women in both decades. There is no scientific reason to believe that there is a sudden change in detection or cure at age 50 years, or even at menopause. The available data suggest that women ages 40-49 years can benefit from screening, just as can women ages 50-59 years.

  15. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations

    PubMed Central

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. Methods The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. Results During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). Conclusion It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group. PMID:25993070

  16. Mammography Prevalence within 2 Two Years (Age 40+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For mammography, a woman 40 years of age or older must have reported having at least one mammography in her life. Furthermore, she should have had the most recent one within the last two years by the time of interview.

  17. Sex-Related and Age-Related Differences in Knee Strength of Basketball Players Ages 11-17 Years.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Patricia A.; Vardaxis, Vassilios G.

    2003-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players ages 11-13 and 15-17 years. DESIGN AND SETTING: This cross-sectional study occurred during the 2000 American Youth Basketball Tour National Tournament. We investigated whether sex- or age-related strength differences existed among study participants. SUBJECTS: Forty-one tournament participants (22 girls, 19 boys; 11-13 or 15-17 years old) who reported no history of knee sprain or surgery were recruited. MEASUREMENTS: We used a Cybex II dynamometer to obtain isokinetic concentric peak torques relative to body mass (Nm/kg) at 60 degrees /s for hamstrings and quadriceps bilaterally. From average peak torques, we determined ipsilateral hamstrings:quadriceps and homologous muscle-group ratios. RESULTS: Correlations between hamstrings and quadriceps strength measures ranged from 0.78 to 0.97. Players 15-17 years old had greater relative hamstrings and quadriceps strength than 11- to 13-year-old athletes. Age and sex interacted significantly for quadriceps strength. The quadriceps strength of 15- to 17-year-old girls did not differ from that of 11- to 13-year-old girls, whereas 15- to 17-year-old boys had stronger quadriceps than 11- to 13-year-old boys. Boys 15-17 years old had greater quadriceps strength than girls 15-17 years old. CONCLUSIONS: This study is unique in providing normative data for the hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players 11-13 and 15-17 years old. Age-related strength differences did not occur consistently between the sexes, as girls 11-13 and 15-17 years old had similar relative quadriceps strength.

  18. One-dimensional SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers and enhancement magnetic property.

    PubMed

    Song, Fuzhan; Shen, Xiangqian; Liu, Mingquan; Xiang, Jun

    2011-08-01

    SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers of diameters about 100 nm with mass ratio 1:1 have been prepared by the electrospinning and calcination process. The SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrites are formed after calcined at 700 degrees C for 2 hours. The composite ferrite nanofibers are fabricated from nanosized Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 and SrFe12O19 ferrite grains with a uniform phase distribution. The ferrite grain size increases from about 11 to 36 nm for Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe12O4 and 24 to 56 nm for SrFe12O19 with the calcination temperature increasing from 700 to 1100 degrees C. With the ferrite grain size increasing, the coercivity (Hc) and remanence (Mr) for the SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers initially increase, reaching a maximum value of 118.4 kA/m and 31.5 Am2/kg at the grain size about 40 nm (SrFe12O19) and 24 nm (Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4) respectively, and then show a reduction tendency with a further increase of the ferrite grain size. The specific saturation magnetization (Msh) of 63.2 Am2/kg for the SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers obtained at 900 degrees C for 2 hours locates between that for the single SrFe12O19 ferrite (48.5 Am2/kg) and the single Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 ferrite (69.3 Am2/kg). In particular, the Mr value 31.5 Am2/kg for the SrFe12O19/Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 composite ferrite nanofibers is much higher than that for the individual SrFe12O19 (25.9 Am2/kg) and Ni(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe2O4 ferrite (11.2 Am2/kg). These enhanced magnetic properties for the composite ferrite nanofibers can be attributed to the exchange-coupling interaction in the composite. PMID:22103109

  19. Impact of obesity on diastolic function in subjects < or = 16 years of age.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Joan Andree; Naylor, Louise Haleh; Jones, Timothy William; Davis, Elizabeth Ann; O'Driscoll, Gerry; Ramsay, James Michael; Green, Daniel John

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of obesity on diastolic function in children and adolescents. Echocardiographic measurements were compared in 28 obese subjects (14 males, 14 females) and 15 age- and gender-matched lean controls (8 males, 7 females). Two-dimensional ultrasound imaging, M-mode imaging, and pulse-wave conventional and tissue Doppler measurements were used to assess cardiac structure and function at rest. No differences were evident between lean and obese subjects in age (13.3 +/- 0.5 vs 12.4 +/- 0.4 years), height (163 +/- 4 vs 159 +/- 2 cm), or systolic blood pressure (119 +/- 3 vs 123 +/- 2 mm Hg). Body mass (54.6 +/- 4.0 vs 85.8 +/- 3.6 kg, p < 0.0001) and body mass index (20.5 +/- 0.7 vs 33.3 +/- 1.0 kg/m2, p < 0.00001) were significantly greater in the obese subjects, whereas measurements of wall thickness (interventricular septal wall 0.86 +/- 0.04 vs 0.89 +/- 0.02 cm, posterior wall 0.83 +/- 0.04 vs 0.91 +/- 0.02 cm) and fractional shortening (38.6 +/- 1.2% vs 38.8 +/- 1.2%) did not significantly differ. The E/E' ratio (6.86 +/- 0.20 vs 8.30 +/- 0.32, p < 0.01), E' (13.93 +/- 0.38 vs 12.29 +/- 0.44 cm/s, p < 0.05), the E'/A' ratio (2.49 +/- 0.17 vs 2.05 +/- 0.09, p < 0.05), and the deceleration time of early transmitral blood flow velocity (125.3 +/- 7.7 vs 154.5 +/- 6.8 ms, p < 0.01) were significantly different between the groups, suggesting reduced diastolic function in the obese subjects. In conclusion, these data suggest that indexes of diastolic function, including tissue Doppler measures, are significantly impaired in obese young subjects.

  20. Evolution of Superconductivity in BiS2-Based Superconductor LaO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroi, Takafumi; Kajitani, Joe; Omachi, Atsushi; Miura, Osuke; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu

    2015-02-01

    We have systematically investigated the crystal structure, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical resistivity of the BiS2-based superconductor LaO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2 (x = 0-0.7). With expanding lattice volume by Se substitution, bulk superconductivity was induced for x ≥ 0.2, and the highest Tc of 3.8 K was observed in x = 0.5 (LaO0.5F0.5BiSSe). Metallic conductivity was observed for x ≥ 0.3 in the resistivity measurement, whereas semiconducting-like behavior was observed for x ≤ 0.2. The induction of bulk superconductivity by the partial substitution of S by Se in the LaO0.5F0.5BiS2 superconductor should be positively linked to the enhancement of metallic conductivity.

  1. Structural, thermal and electrical conductivity characteristics of Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d (Ln: La, Nd and Sm) complex perovskites as anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jihoon; Azad, Abul K.; Schlegl, Harald; Kim, Byungjun; Baek, Seung-Wook; Kim, Keunsoo; Kang, Hyunil; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2015-03-01

    The Ti and Mn replaced complex perovskites, Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d (Ln: La, Nd and Sm), were reported as potential anode materials for high temperature-operating solid oxide fuel cells (HT-SOFCs). For the present research study, synthesis, crystallographic, thermal and electrical conductivity properties of Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d complex perovskites were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld method, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and electrical conductivity to apply these oxide materials for the HT-SOFC anode materials. XRD results showed that Ln0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d oxide systems synthesized as single phases did not react with 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) and 10 mol% Gd-doped cerium oxide (CGO91) up to 1500 °C and did not decompose under dry 3.9% hydrogen at 850 °C. The crystal structures of La0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d (LSTM), Nd0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d (NSTM) and Sm0.5Sr0.5Ti0.5Mn0.5O3±d (SSTM) showed orthorhombic symmetry with the space group Pbnm and SSTM showed a more distorted structure. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) proved weight gains in these three sample occurred under oxidizing conditions and weight loss under reducing conditions. Electrical conductivity values of NSTM were higher than those of LSTM and SSTM under oxidizing and reducing conditions.

  2. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  3. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  4. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  5. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  6. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  7. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  8. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  9. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  10. 29 CFR 570.33 - Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age... minors 14 and 15 years of age. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 28448, May 20, 2010. This subpart... revised text is set forth as follows: § 570.33 Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15...

  11. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  12. The efficacy of adding dexamethasone, midazolam, or epinephrine to 0.5% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    El-Baradey, Ghada F.; Elshmaa, Nagat S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to assess the effectiveness of adding either dexamethasone or midazolam in comparison with epinephrine addition to 0.5% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Settings and Design: This is a prospective randomized controlled observer-blinded study. Subjects and Methods: This study was carried out in Tanta University Hospital on 60 patients of both sexes; American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I and II, age range from 18 to 45 years undergo elective surgery to upper limb. All patients were anesthetized with ultrasound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block and randomly divided into three groups (each group 20 patients) Group E (epinephrine): 30 mL bupivacaine 0.5%with 1:200,000 epinephrine (5 μg/mL). Group D (dexamethasone): 30 mL bupivacaine 0.5% and dexamethasone 8 mg. Group M (midazolam): 30 ml bupivacaine 0.5% and midazolam 50 μg/kg. The primary outcome measures were onset and duration of sensory and motor block and time to first analgesic request. Statistical Analysis Used: The windows version of SPSS 11.0.1 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis. Data were presented in form of mean ± standard deviation multiple analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the three groups and Scheffe test was used after ANOVA. Power of significance P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Onset of sensory and motor block was significantly rapid (P < 0.05) in Groups D and M in comparison with Group E. Time of administration of rescue analgesic, duration of sensory and motor block showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in Group D in comparison with Group M which showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in comparison with Group E. Conclusions: In comparison with epinephrine and midazolam addition of dexamethasone to bupivacaine had rapid onset of block and longer time to first analgesic request with fewer side-effects. PMID:25538528

  13. Artificial layered perovskite oxides A(B{sub 0.5}B′{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} as potential solar energy conversion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hungru; Umezawa, Naoto

    2015-02-07

    Perovskite oxides with a d{sup 0} electronic configuration are promising photocatalysts and exhibit high electron mobilities. However, their band gaps are too large for efficient solar energy conversion. On the other hand, transition metal cations with partially filled d{sup n} electronic configurations give rise to visible light absorption. In this study, by using hybrid density functional theory calculations, it is demonstrated that the virtues of the two categories of materials can be combined in perovskite oxide A(B{sub 0.5}B′{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} with a layered B-site ordering along the [001] direction. The electronic structures of the four selected perovskite oxide compounds, La(Ti{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, La(Ti{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, Sr(Nb{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, and Sr(Nb{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} are calculated and discussed.

  14. Atomic disorder of Li0.5Ni0.5O thin films caused by Li doping: estimation from X-ray Debye–Waller factors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Anli; Sakata, Osami; Yamauchi, Ryosuke; Kumara, L. S. R.; Song, Chulho; Katsuya, Yoshio; Matsuda, Akifumi; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    Cubic type room-temperature (RT) epitaxial Li0.5Ni0.5O and NiO thin films with [111] orientation grown on ultra-smooth sapphire (0001) substrates were examined using synchrotron-based thin-film X-ray diffraction. The 11 and 22 rocking curves including six respective equivalent reflections of the Li0.5Ni0.5O and NiO thin films were recorded. The RT B 1 factor, which appears in the Debye–Waller factor, of a cubic Li0.5Ni0.5O thin film was estimated to be 1.8 (4) Å2 from its 11 and 22 reflections, even though the Debye model was originally derived on the basis of one cubic element. The corresponding Debye temperature is 281 (39) K. Furthermore, the B 2 factor in the pseudo-Debye–Waller factor is proposed. This parameter, which is evaluated using one reflection, was also determined for the Li0.5Ni0.5O thin film by treating Li0.5Ni0.5O and NiO as ideal NaCl crystal structures. A structural parameter for the atomic disorder is introduced and evaluated. This parameter includes the combined effects of thermal vibration, interstitial atoms and defects caused by Li doping using the two Debye–Waller factors. PMID:26664345

  15. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  16. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  17. Effect of annealing temperature on photoelectrochemical properties of nanocrystalline MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salunkhe, Manauti; Pawar, Nita; Patil, P. S.; Bhosale, P. N.

    2014-10-01

    Nanocrystalline MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thermoelectric thin films have been deposited on ultrasonically cleaned glass and FTO-coated glass substrates by Arrested Precipitation Technique. The change in properties of MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thin films were examined after annealing at the temperature 473 K for 3 h. The structural, morphological, compositional and electrical properties of thin films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, etc. Thermoelectric properties of the thin films have been evaluated by measurements of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in the temperature range 300-500 K. Our aim is to investigate the effect of annealing on behaviour of MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thin films along with photoelectrochemical properties.

  18. Polarized optical sensing and band-edge transitions in Ag(In0.5Al0.5)S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Ching-Hwa; Pan, Chia-Chi; Huang, Ying-Sheng

    2015-02-01

    The polarization dependence of band-edge excitonic transitions in Ag(In0.5Al0.5)S2 has been characterized using polarized thermoreflectance (PTR). The polarization-sensitive behavior of the E\\text{A}\\text{ex} and E\\text{B}\\text{ex} band-edge excitons was detected and characterized by angle-dependent PTR measurements from θ = 0 [E\\parallel < 11\\bar{1}> ] to 90° [E \\perp < 11\\bar{1}> ] with respect to the chalcopyrite crystal’s needle axis. The polarized photoconductivity of Ag(In0.5Al0.5)S2 has also been characterized using an array of white light-emitting diodes with the polarization angles ranging from 0 to 360°. The experimental results demonstrate that Ag(In0.5Al0.5)S2 is a suitable material for the fabrication of polarization-sensitive photodetectors applied in the visible region.

  19. Electron-phonon superconductivity in LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiSe{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Yanqing; Du, Yongping; Wan, Xiangang Wang, Bogen; Ding, Hang-Chen; Savrasov, Sergey Y.; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2014-06-21

    We report density functional calculations of the electronic structure, Fermi surface, phonon spectrum and electron–phonon coupling for the newly discovered superconductor LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiSe{sub 2}. It is confirmed that there is a strong Fermi surface nesting at (π,π,0), which results in unstable phonon branches. Combining the frozen phonon total energy calculations and an anharmonic oscillator model, we find that the quantum fluctuation prevents the appearance of static long–range order. The calculation shows that LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiSe{sub 2} is highly anisotropic, and same as its cousin LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiS{sub 2}, this compound is also a conventional electron-phonon coupling induced superconductor.

  20. Predictors and characteristics of successful aging among men: a 48-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Jerry F

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult predictors of favorable overall outcome included good peer social adjustment, an absence of troubled parental discipline, and an absence of immature defensive behaviors when angry. However, young adult factors were more predictive of outcomes in middle age than in early old age, as predictor effect sizes decreased between the first follow-up and the second follow-up 16 years later. Findings support the possibility of both favorable and unfavorable changes in the second half of life that may diminish the impact of some young adult characteristics and family environments on adjustment in early old age. PMID:23855185

  1. Maxwell-Wagner relaxation and magnetodielectric properties of Bi0.5La0.5MnO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turik, A. V.; Pavlenko, A. V.; Reznichenko, L. A.

    2016-08-01

    The complex permittivity ɛ = ɛ'- iɛ″ of manganite bismuth-lanthanum Bi0.5La0.5MnO3 ceramics has been measured at temperature T = 78 K in the frequency range f = 200-105 Hz and in the magnetic induction range B = 0-5 T. Dielectric relaxation and the pronounced magnetodielectric effect have been detected. The explanation based on the superposition of Maxwell-Wagner relaxation and the magnetoresistance effect has been proposed.

  2. Non-random cation distribution in hexagonal Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Kulshreshtha, S.K.; Jayakumar, O.D.; Sudarsan, V.

    2010-05-15

    Based on powder X-ray diffraction and {sup 31}P Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) investigations of mixed phosphate Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4}, prepared by co-precipitation method followed by annealing at 900 deg. C for 24 h, it is shown that Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4} phase crystallizes in hexagonal form with lattice parameter a=0.491(2) and c=1.106(4) nm. This hexagonal phase of Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4} is similar to that of pure GaPO{sub 4}. The {sup 31}P MAS NMR spectrum of the mixed phosphate sample consists of five peaks with systematic variation of their chemical shift values and is arising due to existence of P structural units having varying number of the Al{sup 3+}/Ga{sup 3+} cations as the next nearest neighbors in the solid solution. Based on the intensity analysis of the component NMR spectra of Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4}, it is inferred that the distribution of Al{sup 3+} and Ga{sup 3+} cations is non-random for the hexagonal Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4} sample although XRD patterns showed a well-defined solid solution formation. - Graphical abstract: {sup 31}P MAS NMR pattern of hexagonal Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4} solid solution.

  3. Diaphyseal femoral fractures below the age of six years: Results of plaster application and long term followup

    PubMed Central

    Catena, Nunzio; Sénès, Filippo M; Riganti, Simone; Boero, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Background: In children less than 6 years, the treatment of femoral shaft fracture is often non surgical, using closed reduction and casting. The literature reports many experience about this type of trauma but none of these has a long term followup. We present a retrospective study on a group of femoral diaphyseal fractures treated nonsurgically in children up to 6 years of age, with a minimum of 10 year followup. Materials and Methods: 48 cases (36 males/12 females) with femoral diaphyseal fractures treated between January 1988 and December 1998 were reviewed. Patients with fractures due to obstetrical trauma and pathologic fractures were excluded. The mean age of the patients was 3.3 ± 1.1 years (range 5 months-6 years). Right side was involved in 21 cases (44%), and left side in 27 cases (56%). In 34 cases (71%), closed reduction was performed and hip spica was applied with the hip and knee flexed to 45°. In 8 cases (17%), skeletal traction was applied to perform fracture reduction and the traction pin was embedded in plaster while in the remaining 6 cases (12%), the Delitala pressure apparatus was applied after casting. Results: All fractures healed in our study. There were no complications (infection or vascular nervous issues, axial deviations, consolidation delays, or pseudoarthrosis). In 13 cases (27%), followup examinations showed mean lengthening of 1.3 ± 0.75 (range 0.5-2.5 cm) of the fractured lower limb. All these patients were treated with skin traction before treatment and presented with 2.08 ± 0.28 cm mean initial femoral shortening. In 1 case (2%) with 2.5 cm lengthening, epiphysiodesis of the ipsilateral knee was performed. No patients showed prolonged difficulty with gait disorders. Conclusion: On the basis of our results conservative treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children can be considered less invasive and safe procedure. PMID:24600060

  4. Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in the First Year of Life and Behavioral Scores at 7 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Patrick; LeMasters, Grace; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana; Lockey, James E.; Villareal, Manuel; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey; Sucharew, Heidi; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing concern about the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on the developing brain. The impact of TRAP exposure on childhood behavior is not fully understood because of limited epidemiologic studies. Objective: We explored the association between early-life exposure to TRAP using a surrogate, elemental carbon attributed to traffic (ECAT), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at 7 years of age. Methods: From the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort we collected data on exposure to ECAT during infancy and behavioral scores at 7 years of age. Children enrolled in CCAAPS had at least one atopic parent and a birth residence either < 400 m or > 1,500 m from a major highway. Children were followed from infancy through 7 years of age. ECAT exposure during the first year of life was estimated based on measurements from 27 air sampling sites and land use regression modeling. Parents completed the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition, when the child was 7 years of age. ADHD-related symptoms were assessed using the Hyperactivity, Attention Problems, Aggression, Conduct Problems, and Atypicality subscales. Results: Exposure to the highest tertile of ECAT during the child’s first year of life was significantly associated with Hyperactivity T-scores in the “at risk” range at 7 years of age, after adjustment [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.7]. Stratification by maternal education revealed a stronger association in children whose mothers had higher education (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Conclusions: ECAT exposure during infancy was associated with higher Hyperactivity scores in children; this association was limited to children whose mothers had more than a high school education. PMID:23694812

  5. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C-S; Gordon, A C

    2016-09-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals. PMID:27269243

  6. Aging process on spectrally determined spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Cerutti, Catherine; Mpio, Ignace; Ducher, Michel

    2007-09-01

    The interindividual age-related decrease in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was reported in many cross-sectional studies. However, the long-term intraindividual decrease in BRS has never been confirmed by longitudinal studies. Data obtained from a 5-year prospective study designed to assess the 5-year stress effects on blood pressure (BP) provided the opportunity to assess longitudinal aging process on spectrally determined BRS (S-BRS) using the cross spectral analysis. This analysis was carried out in 205 men aged between 18 and 50 years who had 2 valid beat to beat BP recordings (Finapress) at a mean 5-year interval. At inclusion and at end of follow-up, S-BRS was significantly correlated with age (r=-0.50, P<0.001, r=-0.33, P<0.001 respectively). Interestingly, the slopes and the intercepts were not significantly different at a 5-year interval. This result is in favor of the good reproducibility of S-BRS. The attenuation with age of S-BRS was calculated at 3.6% a year. This decrease was slightly higher than the one obtained with the baseline data (2.3% per year). This longitudinal study provided, for the first time, an estimate of the slope of the age-related physiological S-BRS decrease in a mid-aged healthy male population. Our findings reinforce the interest of evaluating spontaneous BRS reported to predict hypertension and cardiovascular events in various populations.

  7. Thirty years of the United Nations and global ageing: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Hal; Lucas, Nina; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-10-01

    Over the past three decades, the United Nations (UN) has slowly devoted increasing attention to global ageing. Concern for individually based welfare or health-care programs for older people in developed countries has progressed to also consider the contributions of older people and implications of ageing for socioeconomic advancement in developing countries, including those in Asia Oceania. These shifts are evident in the International Plans of Action on Ageing from Vienna in 1982 to Madrid in 2002; recent 10-year reviews of the Madrid Plan; and current advocacy for inclusion of ageing in the influential UN Millennium Plan post-2015. Australia has demonstrated progressive policies and contributed to ageing developments by the UN, International Federation on Ageing the World Health Organization and the International Association of Gerontology. Key ideas driving further action are the importance of valuing people at all ages, addressing inequalities over the life-course and implementing human rights approaches to ageing.

  8. Continuity and Change in General Cognitive Ability from 1 to 7 years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Lon R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Yearly cognitive tests were administered to adoptive and nonadoptive siblings between one and seven years of age and identical and nonidentical twins between one and three years. Results indicated that genetic influences are a source of continuity and change in mental development, whereas shared and nonshared environmental effects contribute to…

  9. Bringing the Montessori Three-Year Multi-Age Group to the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of including the ninth grade within the 3-year multi-age group setting within a Montessori farm school. Notes how seventh, eighth, and ninth grades work together in one family cluster, allowing 15-year-olds to avoid the pecking order of the high school freshman year while developing personal leadership, confidence, and a…

  10. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

  11. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  12. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years after Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik Olsson, M.; Lundström, S.; Westerlund, J.; Giacobini, M. B.; Gillberg, C.; Fernell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated--34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with…

  13. Fully gapped superconductivity in In-doped topological crystalline insulator Pb0.5Sn0.5Te

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Guan; Gu, G. D.; Du, Zengyi; Fang, Delong; Yang, Huan; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J.; Wen, Hai -Hu

    2015-07-27

    In this study, superconductors derived from topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators by chemical doping have long been considered to be candidates as topological superconductors. Pb0.5Sn0.5Te is a topological crystalline insulator with mirror symmetry protected surface states on (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented surfaces. The superconductor (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te is produced by In doping in Pb0.5Sn0.5Te, and is thought to be a topological superconductor. Here we report scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the superconducting state as well as the superconducting energy gap in (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te on a (001)-oriented surface. The spectrum can be well fitted by an anisotropic s-wave gap function of Δ = 0.72 + 0.18cos4θ meV using Dynes model. The results show that the superconductor seems to be a fully gapped one without any in-gap states, in contradiction with the expectation of a topological superconductor.

  14. Effect of rare-earth (Er and Gd) substitution on the magnetic and multiferroic properties of DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mohit K; Basu, Tathamay; Mukherjee, K; Sampathkumaran, E V

    2016-10-26

    We report the results of our investigations on the influence of partial substitution of Er and Gd for Dy on the magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3, which is known to be a multiferroic system. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data, apart from confirming the occurrence of magnetic transitions at ~121 and 13 K in DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3, bring out that the lower transition temperature only is suppressed by rare-earth substitution. Multiferroic behavior is found to persist in Dy0.4Ln0.6Fe0.5Cr0.5O3 (Ln  =  Er and Gd). There is an evidence for magnetoelectric coupling in all these materials with qualitative differences in its behavior as the temperature is changed across these two transitions. Remnant electric polarization is observed for all the compounds. The most notable observation is that electric polarization is seen to get enhanced as a result of rare-earth substitution with respect to that in DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3. Interestingly, a similar trend is seen in the magnetocaloric effect, consistent with the existence of magnetoelectric coupling. The results thus provide evidence for the tuning of magnetoelectric coupling by rare-earth substitution in this family of oxides. PMID:27588356

  15. Spectroscopic and photoluminescence characterization of Dy(3+) in Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 phosphor.

    PubMed

    Vidyadharan, Viji; Sreeja, E; Jose, Saritha K; Joseph, Cyriac; Unnikrishnan, N V; Biju, P R

    2016-02-01

    The spectroscopic and photoluminescence characteristics of trivalent dysprosium (Dy(3+))-doped Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 phosphor materials synthesized via solid-state reaction method were studied. The X-ray diffraction profile confirmed the orthorhombic perovskite structure of the prepared samples. Judd-Ofelt analysis was carried out to obtain the intensity parameters and predicted radiative properties of Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3:2wt%Dy(3+). The photoluminescence spectrum of Dy(3+)-doped Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 showed three emission peaks at 481, 574 and 638 nm corresponding to (4)F9/2 →(6)H15/2, (4)F9/2 →(6)H13/2 and (4)F9/2 →(6)H11/2 transitions respectively. The variation of luminescence intensity with different excitation wavelengths and Dy(3+) concentrations is discussed. The decay profiles of (4)F9/2 excited levels of Dy(3+) ions show bi-exponential behaviour and also a decrease in average lifetime with increase in Dy(3+) concentration. Yellow to blue luminescence intensity ratio, CIE chromaticity co-ordinates and correlated color temperature were also calculated for different concentrations of Dy(3+)-doped Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 phosphor at different λex. PMID:26032295

  16. Transition metal redox and Mn disproportional reaction in LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes cycled with aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Zengqing; Hu, Jiangtao; Duan, Yandong; Yang, Wanli; Pan, Feng

    2016-07-01

    We performed soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS) and a quantitative analysis of the transition metal redox in the LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes upon electrochemical cycling. In order to circumvent the complication of the surface reactions with organic electrolyte at high potential, the LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes are cycled with aqueous electrolyte. The analysis of the transitional metal L-edge spectra allows a quantitative determination of the redox evolution of Mn and Fe during the electrochemical cycling. The sXAS analysis reveals the evolving Mn oxidation states in LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4. We found that electrochemically inactive Mn2+ is formed on the electrode surface during cycling. Additionally, the signal indicates about 20% concentration of Mn4+ at the charged state, providing a strong experimental evidence of the disproportional reaction of Mn3+ to Mn2+ and Mn4+ on the surface of the charged LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes.

  17. Epitaxial Strain-Induced Chemical Ordering in La0.5Sr0.5CoO3-delta Films on SrTiO3

    SciTech Connect

    W Donner; C Chen; M Liu; A Jacobson; Y Lee; M Gadre; D Morgan

    2011-12-31

    Fast ion conductors are at the foundation of a number of important technologies, ranging from fuel cells to batteries to gas separators. Recent results suggest that strained interfaces and thin films may offer new mechanisms for achieving enhanced ionic transport. In this work, we investigate strained 40-nm films of perovskite La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3-{delta}}, which is an important material for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes and oxygen separation membranes. We demonstrate that a strained thin film of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} on SrTiO{sub 3} can have dramatically different anion and cation thermodynamics and kinetics than bulk La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CaO{sub 3-{delta}}. We use synchrotron X-ray diffraction to show that La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} thin films form an ordered phase at 650 K. The ordered phase consists of La and Sr cations in planes parallel to the surface and is associated with coherent expansion in the c-direction of {approx}5%. This chemical ordering is not observed in the bulk material and is ascribed to the interplay between the epitaxial strain imposed by the substrate, changes in oxygen vacancy content and cation mobility, and the ordering of oxygen vacancies.

  18. Spectroscopic and photoluminescence characterization of Dy(3+) in Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 phosphor.

    PubMed

    Vidyadharan, Viji; Sreeja, E; Jose, Saritha K; Joseph, Cyriac; Unnikrishnan, N V; Biju, P R

    2016-02-01

    The spectroscopic and photoluminescence characteristics of trivalent dysprosium (Dy(3+))-doped Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 phosphor materials synthesized via solid-state reaction method were studied. The X-ray diffraction profile confirmed the orthorhombic perovskite structure of the prepared samples. Judd-Ofelt analysis was carried out to obtain the intensity parameters and predicted radiative properties of Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3:2wt%Dy(3+). The photoluminescence spectrum of Dy(3+)-doped Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 showed three emission peaks at 481, 574 and 638 nm corresponding to (4)F9/2 →(6)H15/2, (4)F9/2 →(6)H13/2 and (4)F9/2 →(6)H11/2 transitions respectively. The variation of luminescence intensity with different excitation wavelengths and Dy(3+) concentrations is discussed. The decay profiles of (4)F9/2 excited levels of Dy(3+) ions show bi-exponential behaviour and also a decrease in average lifetime with increase in Dy(3+) concentration. Yellow to blue luminescence intensity ratio, CIE chromaticity co-ordinates and correlated color temperature were also calculated for different concentrations of Dy(3+)-doped Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 phosphor at different λex.

  19. Effect of rare-earth (Er and Gd) substitution on the magnetic and multiferroic properties of DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mohit K.; Basu, Tathamay; Mukherjee, K.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    We report the results of our investigations on the influence of partial substitution of Er and Gd for Dy on the magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3, which is known to be a multiferroic system. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data, apart from confirming the occurrence of magnetic transitions at ~121 and 13 K in DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3, bring out that the lower transition temperature only is suppressed by rare-earth substitution. Multiferroic behavior is found to persist in Dy0.4Ln0.6Fe0.5Cr0.5O3 (Ln  =  Er and Gd). There is an evidence for magnetoelectric coupling in all these materials with qualitative differences in its behavior as the temperature is changed across these two transitions. Remnant electric polarization is observed for all the compounds. The most notable observation is that electric polarization is seen to get enhanced as a result of rare-earth substitution with respect to that in DyFe0.5Cr0.5O3. Interestingly, a similar trend is seen in the magnetocaloric effect, consistent with the existence of magnetoelectric coupling. The results thus provide evidence for the tuning of magnetoelectric coupling by rare-earth substitution in this family of oxides.

  20. The challenge of maintaining successful aging at 87 years old: the Octabaix study two-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Alburquerque, Jesus; Fernández-Quevedo, Manuel; Royo, Cristina; Pujol, Ramón

    2012-12-01

    Preserving physical and cognitive function is crucial to successful aging. The objective of this study is to determine how many 87-year-old community-dwelling subjects continued to age successfully, according to a definition using a quantitative approach, and to assess the predictive value of certain factors evaluated 2 years previously. A total of 162 participants were assessed. Sociodemographic variables, the Barthel Index (BI), the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MEC), the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), the Charlson Index, the Gait Rating Scale, social risk, quality of life, prevalent chronic diseases, and chronic drug prescription were collected. All subjects with scores over 90 points on the BI and above 23 points on the MEC were compared with the rest of the participants. A multiple regression analysis was performed. With the selected criteria, 90 (61.6%) community-dwelling subjects continued to age successfully. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following were significantly associated with continued successful aging: A higher level of studies (p<0.02, odds ratio [OR] 3.223, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.158-8.975), better MEC scores (p<0.01, OR 1.204, 95% CI 1.046-1.386) and Tinetti gait scale scores (p<0.01, OR 1.433, 95% CI 1.013-2.027), and fewer chronic drug prescriptions (p<0.001, OR 0.768, 95% CI 0.655-0.899). In conclusion, more than half of the individuals continued to age successfully. In subjects aged 87 years, the factors associated with continued successful aging were longer schooling, better cognition scores, lower risk of falls, and fewer chronic drug prescriptions at baseline evaluation.

  1. Structural and electrical properties of 1 − x(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}–x(Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sung-Gap Yeo, Jin-Ho; Jung, Hye-Rin

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We fabricated lead-free (Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} ceramics. • We studied the structural and electrical properties of 1 − x(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}–x(Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} ceramics. • The structural and electrical properties improved with increasing amount of (Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}. - Abstract: In this study, 1 − x(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}–x(Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} ceramics were fabricated using the conventional mixed oxide method. The effects of the addition of (Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} on the structural and electrical properties of the specimens were investigated for their application in piezoelectric devices. As the results of X-ray diffraction analysis show, all specimens display the typical polycrystalline perovskite structure without the presence of the second phase. Sintered densities increased with an increase in the amount of (Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} added and the specimen with 0.08 mol% of (Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} added showed the maximum value of 4.54 g/cm{sup 3}. Both average grain size and densification increased with an increase in the amount of (Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}. The electromechanical coupling factor, dielectric constant ϵ{sub r}, dielectric loss tan δ, d{sub 33} and Curie temperature of the 0.92(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}–0.08(Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} specimens doped with 0.08 mol% of (Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} were 0.31, 1338, 0.021, 138 and 445 °C, respectively.

  2. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion in Patients Aged <75 to ≥ 75 Years.

    PubMed

    Freixa, Xavier; Gafoor, Sameer; Regueiro, Ander; Cruz-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Shakir, Samera; Omran, Heyder; Berti, Sergio; Santoro, Gennaro; Kefer, Joelle; Landmesser, Ulf; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik; Sievert, Horst; Kanagaratnam, Prapa; Nietlispach, Fabian; Gloekler, Steffen; Aminian, Adel; Danna, Paolo; Rezzaghi, Marco; Stock, Friederike; Stolcova, Miroslava; Costa, Marco; Ibrahim, Reda; Schillinger, Wolfgang; Park, Jai-Wun; Meier, Bernhard; Tzikas, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is emerging as a promising alternative to oral anticoagulation. Because aged patients present a greater risk of not only cardioembolic events but also major bleeding, LAAO might represent a valid alternative as this would allow oral anticoagulation cessation while keeping cardioembolic protection. The objective of the study was to explore the safety and efficacy of LAAO in elderly patients. Data from the AMPLATZER Cardiac Plug multicenter registry were analyzed. The cohort was categorized in 2 groups (<75 vs ≥ 75 years). A total of 1,053 subjects were included in the registry. Of them, 219 were excluded because of combined procedures. As a result, 828 subjects were included (54.6% ≥ 75 years). Procedural success was high and similar in both groups (97.3%). Acute procedural major adverse events were not statistically different among groups (3.2% in <75 years vs 5.1%; p = 0.17) although stratified analysis showed a higher incidence of cardiac tamponade in elderly patients (0.5% vs 2.2%; p = 0.04). With a median follow-up of 16.8 months, no significant differences in stroke/TIA (1.9% vs 2.3%; p = 0.89) and major bleeding (1.7% vs 2.6%; p = 0.54) were observed. In conclusion, LAAO was associated with similar procedural success in patients aged <75 and ≥ 75 years although older patients had a higher incidence of cardiac tamponade. At follow-up, stroke and major bleeding rates were similar among groups. PMID:26552507

  3. Does age at first treatment episode make a difference in outcomes over 11 years?

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Weisner, Constance; Grella, Christine E; Hser, Yih-Ing; Moore, Charles; Mertens, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the associations between age at first substance use treatment entry and trajectory of outcomes over 11 years. We found significant differences in individual and treatment characteristics between adult intakes first treated during young adulthood (25 years or younger) and those first treated at an older age. Compared to their first treated older age counterparts matched on demographics and dependence type, those who entered first treatment during young adulthood had on average an earlier onset for substance use but a shorter duration between first substance use and first treatment entry; they also had worse alcohol and other drug outcomes 11 years post treatment entry. While subsequent substance use treatment and 12-step meeting attendance are important for both age groups in maintaining positive outcomes, relationships varied by age group. Findings underline the importance of different continuing care management strategies for those entering first treatment at different developmental stages. PMID:24462221

  4. Midlife muscle strength and human longevity up to age 100 years: a 44-year prospective study among a decedent cohort.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Taina; Masaki, Kamal; He, Qimei; Ross, G Webster; Willcox, Bradley J; White, Lon

    2012-06-01

    We studied prospectively the midlife handgrip strength, living habits, and parents' longevity as predictors of length of life up to becoming a centenarian. The participants were 2,239 men from the Honolulu Heart Program/Honolulu-Asia Aging Study who were born before the end of June 1909 and who took part in baseline physical assessment in 1965-1968, when they were 56-68 years old. Deaths were followed until the end of June 2009 for 44 years with complete ascertainment. Longevity was categorized as centenarian (≥100 years, n = 47), nonagenarian (90-99 years, n = 545), octogenarian (80-89 years, n = 847), and ≤79 years (n = 801, reference). The average survival after baseline was 20.8 years (SD = 9.62). Compared with people who died at the age of ≤79 years, centenarians belonged 2.5 times (odds ratio (OR) = 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-5.10) more often to the highest third of grip strength in midlife, were never smokers (OR = 5.75 95% CI = 3.06-10.80), had participated in physical activity outside work (OR = 1.13 per daily hour, 95% CI = 1.02-1.25), and had a long-lived mother (≥80 vs. ≤60 years, OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.06-5.01). Associations for nonagenarians and octogenarians were parallel, but weaker. Multivariate modeling showed that mother's longevity and offspring's grip strength operated through the same or overlapping pathway to longevity. High midlife grip strength and long-lived mother may indicate resilience to aging, which, combined with healthy lifestyle, increases the probability of extreme longevity.

  5. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and β-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health.

  6. Temperature Evolution of Physical Properties of BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 Lead-Free Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkafi, Z.; Abdelmoula, N.; Khemakhem, H.

    2016-11-01

    BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 lead-free ceramic was prepared by a solid-state reaction method. The structure of BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 has been characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, showing the coexistence of cubic (31.1%) and tetragonal (68.9%) phases at room temperature. Dielectric spectroscopy shows that BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 composition sintered at 1380°C exhibits a relaxor behavior with a weak diffuse phase transition obeying a Lorentz-type quadratic relationship. The ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition T C decreased from 420 K for BaTiO3 to 284 K for BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3. The dielectric loss of this ceramic was <0.09 over a wide temperature range (<400 K). The temperature behavior of the main piezoelectric parameters, such as the piezoelectric coefficient d 31 and the electromechanical coupling factor k p, was investigated. d 31 sets a maximum about 32.5 pC/N at temperature of 220 K. Nevertheless, k p undergoes more or less important changes between 120 K and 200 K. Over 200 K, k p degrades very rapidly due to the depoling effect deduced from the hysterisis measurements. Dielectric and structural properties of BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  7. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Fabrication and magnetic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibres by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jun; Shen, Xiang-Qian; Song, Fu-Zhan; Liu, Ming-Quan

    2009-11-01

    NiZn ferrite/polyvinylpyrrolidone composite fibres were prepared by sol-gel assisted electrospinning. Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibres with a pure cubic spinel structure were obtained subsequently by calcination of the composite fibres at high temperatures. This paper investigates the thermal decomposition process, structures and morphologies of the electrospun composite fibres and the calcined Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibres at different temperatures by thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The magnetic behaviour of the resultant nanofibres was studied by a vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that the grain sizes of the nanofibres increase significantly and the nanofibre morphology gradually transforms from a porous structure to a necklace-like nanostructure with the increase of calcination temperature. The Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibres obtained at 1000 °C for 2 h are characterized by a necklace-like morphology and diameters of 100-200 nm. The saturation magnetization of the random Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibres increases from 46.5 to 90.2 emu/g when the calcination temperature increases from 450 to 1000 °C. The coercivity reaches a maximum value of 11.0 kA/m at a calcination temperature of 600 °C. Due to the shape anisotropy, the aligned Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibres exhibit an obvious magnetic anisotropy and the ease magnetizing direction is parallel to the nanofibre axis.

  8. Temperature Evolution of Physical Properties of BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 Lead-Free Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkafi, Z.; Abdelmoula, N.; Khemakhem, H.

    2016-08-01

    BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 lead-free ceramic was prepared by a solid-state reaction method. The structure of BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 has been characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, showing the coexistence of cubic (31.1%) and tetragonal (68.9%) phases at room temperature. Dielectric spectroscopy shows that BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 composition sintered at 1380°C exhibits a relaxor behavior with a weak diffuse phase transition obeying a Lorentz-type quadratic relationship. The ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition T C decreased from 420 K for BaTiO3 to 284 K for BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3. The dielectric loss of this ceramic was <0.09 over a wide temperature range (<400 K). The temperature behavior of the main piezoelectric parameters, such as the piezoelectric coefficient d 31 and the electromechanical coupling factor k p, was investigated. d 31 sets a maximum about 32.5 pC/N at temperature of 220 K. Nevertheless, k p undergoes more or less important changes between 120 K and 200 K. Over 200 K, k p degrades very rapidly due to the depoling effect deduced from the hysterisis measurements. Dielectric and structural properties of BaTi0.9(Nb0.5Yb0.5)0.1O3 were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Structural, thermal and electrical conductivity characteristics of Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (Ln: La, Nd and Sm) complex perovskites as anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Jihoon; Azad, Abul K.; Schlegl, Harald; Kim, Byungjun; Baek, Seung-Wook; Kim, Keunsoo; Kang, Hyunil; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2015-03-15

    The Ti and Mn replaced complex perovskites, Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (Ln: La, Nd and Sm), were reported as potential anode materials for high temperature-operating solid oxide fuel cells (HT-SOFCs). For the present research study, synthesis, crystallographic, thermal and electrical conductivity properties of Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} complex perovskites were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld method, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and electrical conductivity to apply these oxide materials for the HT-SOFC anode materials. XRD results showed that Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} oxide systems synthesized as single phases did not react with 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) and 10 mol% Gd-doped cerium oxide (CGO91) up to 1500 °C and did not decompose under dry 3.9% hydrogen at 850 °C. The crystal structures of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (LSTM), Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (NSTM) and Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (SSTM) showed orthorhombic symmetry with the space group Pbnm and SSTM showed a more distorted structure. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) proved weight gains in these three sample occurred under oxidizing conditions and weight loss under reducing conditions. Electrical conductivity values of NSTM were higher than those of LSTM and SSTM under oxidizing and reducing conditions. - Graphical abstract: The B-site cations (Ti/Mn) are surrounded by regular octahedra of oxygen in Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d}(NSTM). These octahedra are linked together in a corner sharing three dimensional framework, while Nd/Sr ion occupies 12-coordinated A-site between these octahedra. The Ti/Mn–O{sub 6} octahedra are elongated along the c-axis. The crystal structure distortion was due to the smaller ionic radius of the A-site cations, which force the (Ti

  10. Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter STD on Facebook Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State ... gender, data show that sexually active adolescents and young adults are at increased risk for STDs when ...

  11. Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr3+ ions in Sr1.5Ca0.5SiO4 and Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 host matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidyadharan, Viji; Gopi, Subash; Remya, Mohan P.; Thomas, Vinoy; Joseph, Cyriac; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Biju, P. R.

    2016-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of Pr3+ doped Sr1.5Ca0.5SiO4 and Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 host matrices have been investigated using optical absorption and emission spectra. The oscillator strengths of observed bands of Pr3+ ions and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were calculated by including and excluding the hypersensitive 3H4 → 3P2 transition using standard and modified Judd-Ofelt (JO) theory. In both the host matrices the JO parameters follow the same trend as Ω6 > Ω2 > Ω4. The JO intensity parameters obtained by using the Modified JO theory was used to compute the radiative properties such as radiative transition probability (AR), branching ratio (βR) and radiative lifetime (τR) for the observed fluorescence bands. The photoluminescence spectrum of Pr3+ doped Sr1.5Ca0.5SiO4 upon 444 nm excitation shows three emission peaks at 489, 608 and 733 nm corresponding to the transitions 3P0 → 3H4, 3H6 and 3F4 respectively. But in the case of Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 host matrix we observed an emission peak at 611 nm corresponding to the 1D2 → 3H4 transition at λex = 336 nm. The experimental branching ratio (βexp) obtained from the fluorescence spectra was compared with the calculated values. The non radiative relaxation rate was calculated from the experimental (τexp) and predicted (τR) lifetimes. Stimulated emission cross section (σe), gain bandwidth (σe × Δλeff) and optical gain (σe × τR) for 0.5 wt% Pr3+ doped Sr1.5Ca0.5SiO4 and Sr0.5Ca0.5TiO3 phosphor samples were also calculated and their high value suggests its candidature as a good optical material.

  12. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

  13. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  14. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  15. Color Vision Deficiencies in Youths 12-17 Years of Age United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean

    The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…

  16. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  17. Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block With or Without Dexamethasone as an Adjuvant to 0.5% Levobupivacaine: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhupal, Jatinder Paul Singh; Kumar, Parmod; Gandhi, Gurjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Brachial plexus block is an excellent method for attaining optimal operating conditions by producing complete muscular relaxation, maintaining stable intraoperative haemodynamics and the associated sympathetic block. In addition, they provide extended postoperative analgesia with minimal side effects. Different adjuvants have been described in literature to hasten the onset and prolong the duration of block. The present study was conducted to study the effect of adding dexamethasone to levobupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Aim To observe the effect of dexamethasone on onset and duration of anaesthesia, when used as an adjuvant to levobupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Materials and Methods A total of 60 patients in the age group of 18-65 years belonging to ASA physical status I or II were included in the study. They are randomly allocated in two groups and each group included 30 patients. In group 1, patients received 30ml of 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine with 2ml of isotonic sodium chloride. In group 2 patients received 8mg (2ml) dexamethasone in addition to 30ml of 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine. Results The results showed that the onset of sensory and motor block were faster in group 2(p<0.05). The duration of sensory and motor block were significantly longer in group 2 (p<0.05). VAS score at 12 hours were significantly lower in group 2 (p<0.05). None of the patients had bradycardia, hypotension or any other side effects. Conclusion Dexamethasone added to levobupivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block reduces the time to onset of sensory and motor blockage and prolongs the duration of analgesia. PMID:27504384

  18. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  19. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  20. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening.

  1. Gait patterns in a community-dwelling population aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, V J A; van der Geest, J N; Hoogendam, Y Y; Hofman, A; Breteler, M M B; Ikram, M A

    2013-04-01

    Poor gait is an important risk factor for falls and associated with higher morbidity and mortality. It is well established that older age is associated with worse gait, but it remains unclear at what age this association is first seen. Moreover, previous studies focused mainly on normal walking, but gait also encompasses turning and tandem walking. In a large study of community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons we investigated the association of age with gait, focusing on normal walking, turning and tandem walking. In 1500 persons aged 50 years and over, we measured gait using an electronic walkway. Participants performed normal walks, turning and a tandem walk. With principal components analysis of 30 variables we summarized gait into five known gait factors: Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace and Base of Support; and uncovered two novel gait factors: Tandem and Turning. The strongest associations with age were found for Variability (difference in Z-score -0.29 per 10 years increase (95% confidence interval: -0.34; -0.24)), Phases (-0.31 per 10 years (-0.36; -0.27)) and Tandem (-0.25 per 10 years (-0.30; -0.20)). Additionally, these factors already showed association with the youngest age groups, from 55 to 60 years of age and older. Our study shows that Variability, Phases and Tandem have the strongest association with age and are the earliest to demonstrate a poorer gait pattern with higher age. Future research should further investigate how these gait factors relate with gait-related diseases in their earliest stages.

  2. A Gel-Polymer Sn-C/LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 Battery Using a Fluorine-Free Salt.

    PubMed

    Di Lecce, Daniele; Fasciani, Chiara; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-09-30

    Safety and environmental issues, because of the contemporary use of common liquid electrolytes, fluorinated salts, and LiCoO2-based cathodes in commercial Li-ion batteries, might be efficiently mitigated by employing alternative gel-polymer battery configurations and new electrode materials. Herein we study a lithium-ion polymer cell formed by combining a LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 olivine cathode, prepared by simple solvothermal pathway, a nanostructured Sn-C anode, and a LiBOB-containing PVdF-based gel electrolyte. The polymer electrolyte, here analyzed in terms of electrochemical stability by impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and voltammetry, reveals full compatibility for cell application. The LiBOB electrolyte salt and the electrochemically delithiaded Mn0.5Fe0.5PO4 have a higher thermal stability compared to conventional LiPF6 and Li0.5CoO2, as confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and by galvanostatic cycling at high temperature. LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 and Sn-C, showing in lithium half-cell a capacity of about 120 and 350 mAh g(-1), respectively, within the gelled electrolyte configuration are combined in a full Li-ion polymer battery delivering a stable capacity of about 110 mAh g(-1), with working voltage ranging from 2.8 to 3.6 V. PMID:26348604

  3. Temperature dependent structures and properties of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based lead free piezoelectric composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Sun, Lei; Geng, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Yuan, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Shan-Tao

    2016-07-01

    The thermal depolarization around 100 °C of the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based piezoelectric solid solutions leads to the disappearance of macroscopic ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties and remains a long-standing obstacle for their actual applications. In this communication, we report lead-free piezoelectric composites of 0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3:0.5ZnO (BNT-6BT:0.5ZnO, where 0.5 is the mole ratio of ZnO to BNT-6BT) with deferred thermal depolarization, which is experimentally confirmed by systematic temperature dependent dielectric, ferroelectric, piezoelectric measurements. Especially, based on temperature dependent X-ray diffraction measurements on unpoled and poled samples, thermal depolarization is confirmed to have no relationship with the structural phase transition, the possible mechanism for the deferred thermal depolarization is correlated with the ZnO-induced local electric field which can suppress the depolarization field. We believe our results may be helpful for understanding the origin of thermal depolarization in BNT-based piezoelectric materials, and thus provide an effective way to overcoming this obstacle.

  4. Temperature dependent structures and properties of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based lead free piezoelectric composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Sun, Lei; Geng, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Yuan, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Shan-Tao

    2016-07-01

    The thermal depolarization around 100 °C of the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based piezoelectric solid solutions leads to the disappearance of macroscopic ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties and remains a long-standing obstacle for their actual applications. In this communication, we report lead-free piezoelectric composites of 0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3:0.5ZnO (BNT-6BT:0.5ZnO, where 0.5 is the mole ratio of ZnO to BNT-6BT) with deferred thermal depolarization, which is experimentally confirmed by systematic temperature dependent dielectric, ferroelectric, piezoelectric measurements. Especially, based on temperature dependent X-ray diffraction measurements on unpoled and poled samples, thermal depolarization is confirmed to have no relationship with the structural phase transition, the possible mechanism for the deferred thermal depolarization is correlated with the ZnO-induced local electric field which can suppress the depolarization field. We believe our results may be helpful for understanding the origin of thermal depolarization in BNT-based piezoelectric materials, and thus provide an effective way to overcoming this obstacle. PMID:27334673

  5. A Gel-Polymer Sn-C/LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 Battery Using a Fluorine-Free Salt.

    PubMed

    Di Lecce, Daniele; Fasciani, Chiara; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-09-30

    Safety and environmental issues, because of the contemporary use of common liquid electrolytes, fluorinated salts, and LiCoO2-based cathodes in commercial Li-ion batteries, might be efficiently mitigated by employing alternative gel-polymer battery configurations and new electrode materials. Herein we study a lithium-ion polymer cell formed by combining a LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 olivine cathode, prepared by simple solvothermal pathway, a nanostructured Sn-C anode, and a LiBOB-containing PVdF-based gel electrolyte. The polymer electrolyte, here analyzed in terms of electrochemical stability by impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and voltammetry, reveals full compatibility for cell application. The LiBOB electrolyte salt and the electrochemically delithiaded Mn0.5Fe0.5PO4 have a higher thermal stability compared to conventional LiPF6 and Li0.5CoO2, as confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and by galvanostatic cycling at high temperature. LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 and Sn-C, showing in lithium half-cell a capacity of about 120 and 350 mAh g(-1), respectively, within the gelled electrolyte configuration are combined in a full Li-ion polymer battery delivering a stable capacity of about 110 mAh g(-1), with working voltage ranging from 2.8 to 3.6 V.

  6. Effects of aging in Masters swimmers: 40-year review and suggestions for optimal health benefits.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Robert T; Rahe, Richard H

    2010-04-07

    The Masters Swimming Program is over 40 years old and has achieved international status, with thousands of participants competing in five-year age categories between 18 and 99. Early studies of Masters swimmers by age groups found an increase in times for most events of about 1% per year, and later studies showed a significant correlation with the age-associated decline in maximal oxygen uptake. As larger sample sizes have become available, the age-related decline in performance among national champion Masters swimmers, both men and women, and for both short and longer swims, has been shown to be linear at about 0.6% per year up to age 70. Beyond age 70, the age-related decline accelerates exponentially for both men and women, with considerably more variability than in younger age groups. Several factors may be related to the accelerated performance decline beyond the of age 70, including accelerated physiological aging, chronic physical disabilities, acute illnesses requiring relatively lengthy recovery, effects of multiple medications, and social issues such as transportation problems, all of which can lead to increasing difficulty in maintaining a regular workout schedule. Masters Swimming is a "user-friendly" aerobic sport, imposing little excess strain, and thus is particularly suitable for the elderly. Masters coaches are gaining increasing experience with the over-70 age groups, tailoring workouts to accommodate their need for longer warm-up periods, longer rest periods between swimming sets, less overall distance, less emphasis on "breath control", and more time between workouts. With these accommodations, the motivation of elderly Masters swimmers to compete remains strong, and their ranks should continue to increase.

  7. Is prosthodontic treatment age-dependent in patients 60 years and older in Public Dental Services?

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, K; Vehkalahti, M M; Mäntylä, P

    2015-06-01

    Prosthodontic treatment is a common procedure for the elderly as tooth loss is a reality in old age. Dentists take care of increasingly older patients with physiological age manifesting as cognitive impairment, frailty or multiple chronic diseases or who have side effects of medicines. We evaluated how patients' age affects prosthodontic treatment choice and whether we could identify the age when a change in practice occurs. In addition, we determined how common the treatment method of fixed prostheses is among patients aged 60 years or over in Public Dental Services (PDS) and how common rehabilitation of dentition with new dentures is compared with repair of existing dentures. Our data cover all patients aged 60 years and older (n = 130,060) treated in Helsinki PDS in 2007-2012. Data were aggregated into seven groups: 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, 85-89, and 90 years and over. During the 6-year period, the mean annual number of the population was about 114,000 and the mean annual number of patients treated with prosthodontics 1700. Prosthodontic treatment choices (repair, removable prosthodontics, fixed prostheses, fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses) vary by age; the older the patient, the rarer fixed or fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses and removable prostheses and the more frequent repairs (P < 0.001). Denture repair was virtually the only treatment that patients over 90 years received. Based on our results, the age at which prosthodontic treatment practices in PDS change is around 70 years. Beyond this age, fixed prosthodontic treatment modalities are very rare and repairs are more common.

  8. Physical Inactivity Among Adults Aged 50 Years and Older - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kathleen B; Carlson, Susan A; Gunn, Janelle P; Galuska, Deborah A; O'Connor, Ann; Greenlund, Kurt J; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity can help delay, prevent, or manage many of the chronic diseases for which adults aged ≥50 years are at risk (1-3). These diseases can impact the length and quality of life, as well as the long-term ability to live independently.* All adults aged ≥50 years, with or without chronic disease, gain health benefits by avoiding inactivity (2,3). To examine the prevalence of inactivity by selected demographic characteristics and chronic disease status in mid-life and older adults, CDC analyzed data on adults aged ≥50 years from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Overall, 27.5% of adults aged ≥50 years reported no physical activity outside of work during the past month. Inactivity prevalence significantly increased with increasing age and was 25.4% among adults aged 50-64 years, 26.9% among those aged 65-74 years, and 35.3% among those aged ≥75 years. Inactivity prevalence was significantly higher among women than men, among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks than among non-Hispanic whites, and among adults who reported ever having one or more of seven selected chronic diseases than among those not reporting one. Inactivity prevalence significantly increased with decreasing levels of education and increasing body mass index. To help adults with and without chronic disease start or maintain an active lifestyle, communities can implement evidence-based strategies, such as creating or enhancing access to places for physical activity, designing communities and streets to encourage physical activity, and offering programs that address specific barriers to physical activity. PMID:27632143

  9. La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowders prepared by the hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Putjuso, Thanin; Maensiri, Santi; Hunpratub, Sitchai; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: LRTEM image of the single-phase La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} particles. It is seen from the figure that the product has a plate-like morphology with average particles sizes in the range of 100–300 nm. In addition, the SAED data taken from an individual particle (lower inset) shows the presence of sharp diffraction rings, which are indicative of polycrystalline La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} formation. The high-resolution TEM image (upper inset) shows for further confirmation of a crystalline structure of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} powder. This image shows a clearly resolved crystalline domain with uniform interplanar spacing of 0.276 nm. Highlights: ► La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowder is prepared in 2 M KOH solution by hydrothermal method. ► The solution is heat treated at 220 °C for 24 h in air. ► LRTEM reveals a plate-like morphology of particle with average size of 100–300 nm. ► HRTEM image shows a crystalline domain with interplanar spacing of 0.276 nm. -- Abstract: La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowders were prepared by the hydrothermal method. The influence of processing parameters, including KOH concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time on the obtained products were studied. The structure and morphology of the obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD results show that pure phase La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} nanopowders can be successfully synthesized with 2 M KOH concentration at a low temperature of 220 °C for 24 h. In addition, the product has a plate-like shape with particle sizes in the range of 25–100 nm as estimated by TEM.

  10. A mixed iron-manganese based pyrophosphate cathode, Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7, for rechargeable sodium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Rana A; Park, Chan Sun; Raja, Arsalan A; Shin, Jaeho; Kahraman, Ramazan

    2016-02-01

    The development of secondary batteries based on abundant and cheap elements is vital. Among various alternatives to conventional lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are promising due to the abundant resources and low cost of sodium. While there are many challenges associated with the SIB system, cathode is an important factor in determining the electrochemical performance of this battery system. Accordingly, ongoing research in the field of SIBs is inclined towards the development of safe, cost effective cathode materials having improved performance. In particular, pyrophosphate cathodes have recently demonstrated decent electrochemical performance and thermal stability. Herein, we report the synthesis, electrochemical properties, and thermal behavior of a novel Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 cathode for SIBs. The material was synthesized through a solid state process. The structural analysis reveals that the mixed substitution of manganese and iron has resulted in a triclinic crystal structure (P1[combining macron] space group). Galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements indicate that Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 is electrochemically active with a reversible capacity of ∼80 mA h g(-1) at a C/20 rate with an average redox potential of 3.2 V. (vs. Na/Na(+)). It is noticed that 84% of initial capacity is preserved over 90 cycles showing promising cyclability. It is also noticed that the rate capability of Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 is better than Na2MnP2O7. Ex situ and CV analyses indicate that Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 undergoes a single phase reaction rather than a biphasic reaction due to different Na coordination environment and different Na site occupancy when compared to other pyrophosphate materials (Na2FeP2O7 and Na2MnP2O7). Thermogravimetric analysis (25-550 °C) confirms good thermal stability of Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 with only 2% weight loss. Owing to promising electrochemical properties and decent thermal stability, Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7, can be an attractive cathode for SIBs.

  11. Synthesis and electrochemical assessment of Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} ceramics and derived composite electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, Natércia C.T.; Rajesh, Surendran; Marques, Fernando M.B.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} prepared for the first time through solid state reaction. • High energy milling needed to assist the ceramic route. • Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} is oxide-ion conductor in air and n-type conductor at low pO{sub 2}. • Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} decomposes slightly when exposed to alkaline carbonates. • Composites based on Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} show standard electrical performance. - Abstract: Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} was prepared for the first time through high temperature (1600 °C for 5 h) solid state reaction, after high energy milling to enhance the mechano-chemical interaction of precursor oxides (CeO{sub 2} and Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Single phase formation was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. Impedance spectroscopy data obtained under wide temperature (300–800 °C) and oxygen partial pressure (0.21 to about 10{sup −25} atm) ranges indicates that this material exhibits predominant oxide-ion conductivity under oxidizing conditions while n-type electronic conductivity prevails at low oxygen partial pressure. The mixed oxide shows modest ionic conductivity (1.1 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 800 °C) with activation energy of 1.3 eV in the 600–800 °C temperature range. When combined with molten carbonates (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, 1:1 molar ratio) to produce composite electrolytes, Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} slightly decomposed. However, the composite electrical performance is still acceptable and closely matches the conductivity of similar materials (>0.1 S cm{sup −1} immediately above 500 °C)

  12. Robust NdBa0.5Sr0.5Co1.5Fe0.5O5+δ cathode material and its degradation prevention operating logic for intermediate temperature-solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Hee; Park, Ka-Young; Kim, Nam-In; Song, Sun-Ju; Hong, Ki-Ha; Ahn, Docheon; Azad, Abul K.; Hwang, Junyeon; Bhattacharjee, Satadeep; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Park, Jun-Young

    2016-11-01

    We report solutions (durable material and degradation prevention method) to minimize the performance degradation of cell components occurring in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation. Reliability testing is carried out with the Nisbnd Nd0.1Ce0.9O2-δ (NDC) anode-supported intermediate temperature-SOFCs. For the cathode materials, single perovskite structured Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) and double perovskite structured NdBa0.5Sr0.5Co1.5Fe0.5O5+δ (NBSCF) are prepared and evaluated under harsh SOFC operating conditions. The double perovskite NBSCF cathode shows excellent stability in harsh SOFC environments of high humidity and low flow rate of air. Furthermore, we propose the concurrent fuel and air starvation mode, in which the cell potential is temporarily reduced due to the formation of both fuel-starvation (in the anode) and air-depletion (in the cathode) concurrently under a constant load. This is carried out in order to minimize the performance decay of the stable NBSCF-cell through the periodic and extra reduction of aH2 O (and aO2) in the anode. The operating-induced degradation of SOFCs, which are ordinarily assumed to be unrecoverable, can be completely circumvented by the proposed periodical operation logic to prevent performance degradation (concurrent fuel-starvation and air-depletion mode).

  13. Influence of Mn/Fe ratio on the magnetic properties of the Mn2-xFexP0.5As0.5, 0.5≤x≤1 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzyński, M.; Valkov, V. I.; Golovchan, A. V.; Mitsiuk, V. I.; Sivachenko, A. P.; Surowiec, Z.; Tkachenka, T. M.

    2014-11-01

    The analysis of 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy results for cation and anion substituted Mn2-xFexP1-yAsy was done in order to find out the influence of the Mn/Fe ratio on the magnetic properties of solid solutions and to compare experimental hyperfine parameters with those calculated from firstprinciples.The correlation between third Mössbauer sextet in Mn2-xFexP0.5As0.5 spectrum at 77K and stabilization of the antiferromagnetic phase for x = 0.5-0.6 was found on the basis of comparison between the magnetic phase diagrams and the "hyperfine field - iron content" dependence. The observed qualitative difference for Mn2-xFexP0.5As0.5 and MnFeAsyP1-y "hyperfine field - concentration" diagrams was interpreted on the basis of different mechanisms of magnetic phase stabilization and the different configurations of tetrahedral anionic environment of iron ions for systems with cation and anion substitutions.

  14. Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes among Persons Aged 35 to 60 Years in Eastern Uganda: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mayega, Roy William; Guwatudde, David; Makumbi, Fredrick; Nakwagala, Frederick Nelson; Peterson, Stefan; Tomson, Goran; Ostenson, Claes-Goran

    2013-01-01

    Background Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) (i.e. diabetes and pre-diabetes) and its associated factors among people aged 35-60 years so as to clarify the relevance of targeted screening in rural Africa. Methods A population-based survey of 1,497 people (786 women and 711 men) aged 35-60 years was conducted in a predominantly rural Demographic Surveillance Site in eastern Uganda. Participants responded to a lifestyle questionnaire, following which their Body Mass Index (BMI) and Blood Pressure (BP) were measured. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was measured from capillary blood using On-Call® Plus (Acon) rapid glucose meters, following overnight fasting. AGR was defined as FPG ≥6.1mmol L-1 (World Health Organization (WHO) criteria or ≥5.6mmol L-1 (American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. Diabetes was defined as FPG >6.9mmol L-1, or being on diabetes treatment. Results The mean age of participants was 45 years for men and 44 for women. Prevalence of diabetes was 7.4% (95%CI 6.1-8.8), while prevalence of pre-diabetes was 8.6% (95%CI 7.3-10.2) using WHO criteria and 20.2% (95%CI 17.5-22.9) with ADA criteria. Using WHO cut-offs, the prevalence of AGR was 2 times higher among obese persons compared with normal BMI persons (Adjusted Prevalence Rate Ratio (APRR) 1.9, 95%CI 1.3-2.8). Occupation as a mechanic, achieving the WHO recommended physical activity threshold, and higher dietary diversity were associated with lower likelihood of AGR (APRR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9; APRR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.8; APRR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.9 respectively). The direct medical cost of detecting one person with AGR was two US dollars with ADA and three point seven dollars with WHO cut-offs. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of AGR among people aged 35-60 years in this setting. Screening for high risk persons and targeted health education to address obesity, insufficient physical activity and non-diverse diets are necessary. PMID:23967317

  15. Bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. Last year, we presented carpal bone segmentation algorithm. This year, research works on procedures after carpal bone segmentation including carpal bone identification, feature analysis and fuzzy system for bone age assessment is presented. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  16. Similarity of the CDC and WHO weight-for-length growth charts in predicting risk of obesity at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 weight-for-length (WFL) or BMI growth charts are now recommended as the new standard for children under 24 months. The objective of this study was to examine associations of ever being overweight during 1-24 months, based on the older Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and WHO cutpoints, with risk of obesity at age 5 years. From well-child visits to a Massachusetts multi-site group practice during 1980-2008, we studied 15,488 children with length/height and weight measurements at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and at 5 years. The main exposures were ever being overweight during 1-24 months using each of three cutpoints: CDC WFL ≥ 95th percentile, WHO WFL or BMI ≥ 97.7th percentile. The main outcome was obesity at 5 years (CDC BMI ≥ 95th percentile). We calculated multivariable odds ratios (ORs), adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and year. At 5 years, 10.8% of participants were obese. During 1-24 months, 21.3, 18.3, and 20.2% were ever overweight using CDC WFL, WHO WFL, and WHO BMI cutpoints, respectively. ORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) for associations of ever being overweight during 1-24 months with obesity at 5 years were 6.0 (5.4, 6.6), 6.3 (5.7, 7.0), and 6.0 (5.4, 6.7), respectively. Ever being overweight in the first 2 years of life is a strong predictor of obesity at 5 years. CDC WFL, WHO WFL, and WHO BMI cutpoints for overweight in early childhood provided similar estimates of later obesity risk.

  17. Aerobic and anaerobic power in relation to age and physical activity in 354 men aged 20-88 years.

    PubMed

    Kostka, T; Drygas, W; Jegier, A; Zaniewicz, D

    2009-03-01

    We examined simultaneously the influence of age as well as both current and historical habitual physical activity (PA) on aerobic (physical working capacity - PWC) and anaerobic (Pmax) power in 354 men aged 20.2-87.6 yrs. All the participants performed the graded aerobic exercise test and 8-second explosive power tests on a bicycle ergometer. Current leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and lifetime historical LTPA were assessed. The decline in Pmax/kg (10.3% per decade) was higher than in PWC/kg (7.5% per decade). Correlation coefficients for current LTPA and aerobic indices were higher than for current LTPA and anaerobic indices. In a multiple stepwise regression, current LTPA had the main effect on PWC/kg, whereas age had the main effect on Pmax/kg. Aerobic power was related to all measures of historical PA questionnaire, while anaerobic power - only to those historical measures which pertained to adolescence and younger years of adulthood. We conclude that the age-associated decline in anaerobic power is steeper than that of aerobic power. Habitual endurance-type LTPA increases aerobic but not anaerobic fitness throughout the adult lifespan. Anaerobic fitness indices are higher in young active vs sedentary men but this difference is not discernible as early as in the middle age.

  18. Association of relative age effects in sports with number of years in school.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the association of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, with a high school versus university background in Japanese professional soccer and baseball players. The number of athletes born in the first quarter (April-June) was larger than the number born in the fourth quarter (January-March) for both soccer and baseball; however, the magnitude of the relative age effect differed with years in school. The skew of birth dates was stronger among players who only graduated high school than those who graduated university or college. This phenomenon was confirmed in both baseball and soccer players. The findings suggest relative age effects in professional sports to be related to years of age and years in school. PMID:23033753

  19. Association of relative age effects in sports with number of years in school.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the association of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, with a high school versus university background in Japanese professional soccer and baseball players. The number of athletes born in the first quarter (April-June) was larger than the number born in the fourth quarter (January-March) for both soccer and baseball; however, the magnitude of the relative age effect differed with years in school. The skew of birth dates was stronger among players who only graduated high school than those who graduated university or college. This phenomenon was confirmed in both baseball and soccer players. The findings suggest relative age effects in professional sports to be related to years of age and years in school.

  20. Age-associated differences on structural brain MRI in nondemented individuals from 71 to 103 years.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zixuan; Wen, Wei; Jiang, Jiyang; Crawford, John D; Reppermund, Simone; Levitan, Charlene; Slavin, Melissa J; Kochan, Nicole A; Richmond, Robyn L; Brodaty, Henry; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-04-01

    Successful brain aging in the oldest old (≥90 years) is underexplored. This study examined cross-sectional brain morphological differences from 8th to 11th decades of life in nondemented individuals by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Two hundred seventy-seven nondemented community-dwelling participants (71-103 years) from Sydney Memory and Ageing Study and Sydney Centenarian Study comprised the sample, including a subsample of 160 cognitively high-functioning elders. Relationships between age and magnetic resonance imaging-derived measurements were studied using general linear models; and structural profiles of the ≥90 years were delineated. In full sample and the subsample, significant linear negative relationship of gray matter with age was found, with the greatest age effects in the medial temporal lobe and parietal and occipital cortices. This pattern was further confirmed by comparing directly the ≥90 years to the 71-89 years groups. Significant quadratic age effects on total white matter and white matter hyperintensities were observed. Our study demonstrated heterogeneous differences across brain regions between the oldest old and young old, with an emphasis on hippocampus, temporoposterior cortex, and white matter hyperintensities. PMID:26973107

  1. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals.

    PubMed

    Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.

  2. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Olsen, Jørn; Zhao, Naiqing; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality in children under five years has been widely studied, whereas mortality at 5–9 years has received little attention. Using unique data from national registers in three Nordic countries, we aimed to characterize mortality directionality in children aged 0 to 9 years. Methods and Findings The cohort study included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2008 (n = 2,433,758), Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,400,212), and a random sample of 89.3% of children born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,272,083). Children were followed from 0 to 9 years, and cumulative mortality and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport

  3. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  4. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

  5. Pap Smear Test Prevalence within Three Years (Age 18+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For Pap smear test, a woman 18 years of age or older must have reported having at least one Pap smear test in her life. Furthermore, she should have had one within the last three years by the time of interview.

  6. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  7. Investigation of Coulomb scattering on sSi/Si0.5Ge0.5/sSOI quantum-well p-MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Wen; Qiang, Liu; Chang, Liu; Yize, Wang; Bo, Zhang; Zhongying, Xue; Zengfeng, Di; Wenjie, Yu; Qingtai, Zhao

    2016-09-01

    sSi/Si0.5Ge0.5/sSOI quantum-well (QW) p-MOSFETs with HfO2/TiN gate stack were fabricated and characterized. According to the low temperature experimental results, carrier mobility of the strained Si0.5Ge0.5 QW p-MOSFET was mainly governed by phonon scattering from 300 to 150 K and Coulomb scattering below 150 K, respectively. Coulomb scattering was intensified by the accumulated inversion charges in the Si cap layer of this Si/SiGe heterostructure, which led to a degradation of carrier mobility in the SiGe channel, especially at low temperature. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61306126, 61306127, 61106015) and the CAS International Collaboration and Innovation Program on High Mobility Materials Engineering.

  8. Effects of capping on GaN quantum dots deposited on Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Korytov, M.; Benaissa, M.; Huault, T.; Neisius, T.

    2009-04-06

    The impact of the capping process on the structural and morphological properties of GaN quantum dots (QDs) grown on fully relaxed Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N templates was studied by transmission electron microscopy. A morphological transition between the surface QDs, which have a pyramidal shape, and the buried ones, which have a truncated pyramid shape, is evidenced. This shape evolution is accompanied by a volume change: buried QDs are bigger than surface ones. Furthermore a phase separation into Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N barriers was observed in the close vicinity of buried QDs. As a result, the buried QDs were found to be connected with the nearest neighbors by thin Ga-rich zones, whereas Al-rich zones are situated above the QDs.

  9. High electrostrictive strain induced by defect dipoles in acceptor-doped (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ye-Jing; Zhao, Yong-Jie; Zhao, Zhe; Zhao, Zhi-Hao; Zhou, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Wen

    2016-07-01

    Acceptor doping is an efficient method to improve ferroelectric material performance through the formation of defect dipoles. Here, a high electrostrictive strain of 0.16-0.19%, and large d33\\ast of  >300 pm V-1 are obtained in CuO-doped (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics. We analyzed the orientation relationship and the interaction between defect dipole polarization (P d) along <0 0 1> orientation and spontaneous polarization (P s) parallel to <1 1 0> in orthorhombic (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3. Thus, a ‘coupling effect’ mechanism was suggested to explain how the P d and P s can work together to contribute to the electrostrictive strains in this lead-free piezoelectric ceramic.

  10. Global and local structural variations near the antiferroelectric regime in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Thangavelu, Karthik; Rayaprol, S.; Siruguri, V.; Sastry, P. U.; Asthana, Saket

    2015-06-24

    Rietveld refinement of neutron and x-ray diffraction data of Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} shows R3c phase stabilization at room temperature. The intermediate antiferroelectric region between 180°C to 280°C exhibits phase coexistence i.e R3c + Pnma, along with decrease in octahedral tilt angle and increase in unit cell volume. The local structural changes observed from Raman scattering in the A-O, Ti-O and TiO{sub 6} phonon modes favor the global structural variation. A possible antiparallel cation displacement due to Pnma phase formation leads to the origin of antiferroelectric ordering in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}.

  11. Optimization of exchange bias in Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} Heusler alloy layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hirohata, Atsufumi; Izumida, Keisuke; Ishizawa, Satoshi; Nakayama, Tadachika; Sagar, James

    2014-05-07

    We have fabricated and investigated IrMn{sub 3}/Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} stacks to meet the criteria for future spintronic device applications which requires low-temperature crystallisation (<250 °C) and a large exchange bias H{sub ex} (>500 Oe). Such a system would form the pinned layer in spin-valve or tunnel junction applications. We have demonstrated that annealing at 300 °C which can achieve crystalline ordering in the Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} layer giving ∼80% of the predicted saturation magnetisation. We have also induced an exchange bias of ∼240 Oe at the interface. These values are close to the above criteria and confirm the potential of using antiferromagnet/Heusler-alloy stacks in current Si-based processes.

  12. Thermochromic effect at room temperature of Sm{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Boileau, A.; Capon, F.; Barrat, S.; Pierson, J. F.; Laffez, P.

    2012-06-01

    Sm{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} thermochromic thin films were synthesized using dc reactive magnetron co-sputtering and subsequent annealing in air. The film structure was studied by x-ray diffraction analysis. To validate the thermochromic potentiality of Sm{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3}, electrical resistivity and infrared transmittance spectra were recorded for temperatures ranging from 77 K to 420 K. The temperature dependence of the optical band gap was estimated in the near infrared range. Upon heating, the optical transmission decreases in the infrared domain showing a thermochromic effect over a wide wavelength range at room temperature.

  13. Electric field-induced tuning of magnetism in PbFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Rayaprol, S. E-mail: brangadi@gmail.com; Mukherjee, S.; Kaushik, S. D.; Matteppanavar, S.; Angadi, B. E-mail: brangadi@gmail.com

    2015-08-07

    We study the influence of electrical poling, carried out at room temperature, on the structure and magnetism of Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} by analyzing the differences observed in structural and magnetic properties before and after the electrical poling. The changes observed in magnetization of Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} before and after electrical poling exhibit considerably strong converse magnetoelectric effect at room temperature. In addition, the strengthening of Fe/Nb-O bond due to electrical poling is discussed on the basis of Raman spectral studies and analysis of neutron diffraction patterns. The potential tunability of magnetization with electrical poling can be an ideal tool for realization of application potential of this multiferroic material.

  14. Global and local structural variations near the antiferroelectric regime in Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangavelu, Karthik; Rayaprol, S.; Siruguri, V.; Sastry, P. U.; Asthana, Saket

    2015-06-01

    Rietveld refinement of neutron and x-ray diffraction data of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 shows R3c phase stabilization at room temperature. The intermediate antiferroelectric region between 180°C to 280°C exhibits phase coexistence i.e R3c + Pnma, along with decrease in octahedral tilt angle and increase in unit cell volume. The local structural changes observed from Raman scattering in the A-O, Ti-O and TiO6 phonon modes favor the global structural variation. A possible antiparallel cation displacement due to Pnma phase formation leads to the origin of antiferroelectric ordering in Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3.

  15. Static and dynamic magnetic characteristics of BaCo 0.5Mn 0.5Ti 1.0Fe 10O 19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choopani, Saeed; Keyhan, Neda; Ghasemi, Ali; Sharbathi, Ali; Maghsoudi, Iman; Eghbali, Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    The effect of Mn 2+Co 2+Ti 4+ substitution on microwave absorption has been studied for BaCo 0.5Mn 0.5Ti 1.0Fe 10O 19 ferrite-acrylic resin composites in frequency range from 12 to 20 GHz. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer, AC susceptometer and vector network analyzer were used to analyze the structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties. The results showed that the magnetoplumbite structures for all samples have been formed. Based on microwave measurement on reflectivity, BaCo 0.5Mn 0.5Ti 1.0Fe 10O 19 may be a good candidate for electromagnetic compatibility and other practical applications at high frequency.

  16. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    PubMed

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level.

  17. Increasing Negativity of Age Stereotypes across 200 Years: Evidence from a Database of 400 Million Words

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level. PMID:25675438

  18. Dielectric characterization of multiferroic magnetoelectric double-perovskite Y(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coy, L. E.; Fina, I.; Ventura, J.; Yate, L.; Langenberg, E.; Polo, M. C.; Ferrater, C.; Varela, M.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the functional properties of the Y(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O3 epitaxial thin films, growth by pulsed laser deposition, observing the clear features of their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic nature at cryogenic temperature. The characterization of temperature-dependent complex impedance spectroscopy has shown a dielectric anomaly around the ferromagnetic Curie temperature (≈100 K) indicative of coupling between magnetic and electric orders.

  19. Magnetostriction and anisotropy of twin-free single-crystals Tb0.5Dy0.5(Fe0.9Mn0.1)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinghua; Wu, Guangheng; Zhao, Xuegen; Jia, Kechang; Zhan, Wenshan

    1996-04-01

    A study of the effects of substituting a small amount of Mn for Fe in the Terfenol-D system is presented. The twin-free and <111>-oriented single-crystal rods of Tb0.5Dy0.5(Fe0.9Mn0.1)2 were prepared by Czochralski method. The magnetization, lattice constant, Curie temperature, and magnetostriction were examined. From the experimental results, it is possible to determine the effect of Mn substitution on magnetic anisotropy and magnetostriction. Because of Mn substituting for Fe, magnetic moment values of Tb0.5Dy0.5(Fe0.9Mn0.1)2 show two inflections and the easy magnetization directions also show changes from 1.5 to 300 K at an applied field of 1000 Oe. It strongly suggests that Mn substitution remarkably influences magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Tb0.5Dy0.5(Fe0.9Mn0.1)2. Its saturation magnetostrictions are 1.48×10-3 and 1.67×10-3, maximum d33 values are 1 and 1.5 under compressive stress of 0 and 12 MPa, respectively. These magnetostrictive properties are clearly better than those measured from the <112>-oriented twinned samples. This is the first time that the experimental data measured from the single-crystalline samples on the magnetic properties of Tb0.5Dy0.5(Fe0.9Mn0.1)2 are reported.

  20. Elective shoulder arthroplasty in patients older than ninety years of age.

    PubMed

    Churchill, R Sean

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the outcome of elective shoulder arthroplasty for glenohumeral osteoarthritis or rotator cuff arthropathy in patients aged older than 90 years. The study included 7 shoulders in 6 patients with an average age of 93 years 5 months, (range, 91 years 0 months to 97 years 4 months). Average follow-up was 2.2 years, (range, 1-4 years). Preoperative range of motion, Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, and Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) scores were obtained and compared with postoperative values at 3 and 6 months and yearly thereafter. Average forward elevation improved from 87 degrees to 137 degrees (P < .00001), and external rotation to the side improved from 0 degrees to 50 degrees (P < .0001). The SST scores improved from a preoperative average of 2.0 to 6.1 at 3 months (P < .0001), 6.9 at 6 months (P < .0001), 8.0 at 1 year (P < .00001), and 7.4 at 2 years (P < .0001). Significant improvements occurred in 6 of 8 SF-36 domains: Mental Health (P < .05), Vitality (P < .01), Role limitations due to emotional problems (P < .05), Social Function (P < .001), Role limitations due to physical health (P < .001), and Comfort (P < .00001). No patient had worse pain or function postoperatively. These data suggest that elective shoulder arthroplasty can be performed in patients 90 years of age and older, providing excellent pain relief, improved functional outcome, and enhanced general health status.

  1. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22233 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22233 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22233 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation...

  4. 17 CFR 270.0-5 - Procedure with respect to applications and other matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure with respect to applications and other matters. 270.0-5 Section 270.0-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.0-5...

  5. Phase diagram for Bi1-xCaxMnO3 (x < 0.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuhai; Tyson, Trevor; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Xu, Xiaonong

    2007-03-01

    The multiferroic BiMnO3 system, in which ferroelectronic and ferromagnetic orders can coexist, has attracted much research work in the past years for its potential technological applications. For the more general system Bi1-xCaxMnO3, the phase diagram for the Ca rich region (x > 0.4) has been established [1]. In order to understand the multiferroic behavior near the x=0 system, the hole-doped region (00.5) was investigated. We have completed the magnetic, transport, and structural phase diagram of Bi1-xCaxMnO3, by performing detailed structural (XRD and XAFS), magnetization (ZFC/FC) and electrical measurements on Bi1-xCaxMnO3 (00.5), showing the transition form the highly distorted monoclinic phase to the orthorhombic phase. This work is supported by NSF DMR-0512196. [1] H. Woo, T. A. Tyson, M. Croft, S. W. Cheong, and J. C. Woicik, Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 63, 134412/1 (2001).

  6. The hierarchical structure of cubic K0.5La0.5TiO3 layers and enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution after surface acidification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenli; Zhu, Guilian; Zhao, Wei; Lin, Tianquan; Xu, Fangfang; Huang, Fuqiang

    2015-11-14

    Transition-metal perovskite oxides possess rich functionalities in the fields of ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, superconductors, dielectrics, fuel cells and photocatalysis. Nano-facet control of the cubic ATiO3 (A: a divalent cation) phase, a typical perovskite oxide, may result in new properties or phenomena not observable in the bulk material. Herein, we first report a puzzle-like 3D hierarchical structure constructed with K0.5La0.5TiO3 nanosheets. Surprisingly, K0.5La0.5TiO3 has a cubic symmetry similar to a SrTiO3 perovskite. The unusual phase is synthesized by a simple one-pot hydrothermal strategy without using any structure-directing agent. After modest acidification, the assembled 3D hierarchical structure is etched into a core-shell nanostructure which consists of a crystalline K0.5La0.5TiO3 core and an amorphous TiO2 shell. The acid-treated sample exhibits remarkably enhanced photocatalytic H2 production, which is over 60 times higher than the pristine sample. PMID:26455735

  7. Synthesis, structure and electrochemical properties of LiNaCo0.5Fe0.5PO4F fluoride-phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, Stanislav S.; Kuzovchikov, Sergey M.; Khasanova, Nellie R.; Drozhzhin, Oleg A.; Filimonov, Dmitriy S.; Karakulina, Olesia M.; Hadermann, Joke; Abakumov, Artem M.; Antipov, Evgeny V.

    2016-10-01

    LiNaCo0.5Fe0.5PO4F fluoride-phosphate was synthesized via conventional solid-state and novel freeze-drying routes. The crystal structure was refined based on neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and validated by electron diffraction (ED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The alkali ions are ordered in LiNaCo0.5Fe0.5PO4F and the transition metals jointly occupy the same crystallographic sites. The oxidation state and oxygen coordination environment of the Fe atoms were verified by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Electrochemical tests of the LiNaCo0.5Fe0.5PO4F cathode material demonstrated a reversible activity of the Fe3+/Fe2+ redox couple at the electrode potential near 3.4 V and minor activity of the Co3+/Co2+ redox couple over 5 V vs Li/Li+. The material exhibited the discharge capacity of more than 82% (theo.) regarding Fe3+/Fe2+ in the 2.4÷4.6 V vs Li/Li+ potential range.

  8. Effect of Pr Addition on Properties of Sn-0.5Ag-0.7Cu-0.5Ga Lead-Free Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xujing, Nan; Songbai, Xue; Peizhuo, Zhai; Dongxue, Luo

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of Pr addition on the microstructure and properties of Sn-0.5Ag-0.7Cu-0.5Ga lead-free solder was investigated. It was found that the properties of Sn-0.5Ag-0.7Cu-0.5Ga- xPr solder, such as wettability and mechanical properties, could be obviously improved, and the optimal content of Pr was about 0.06 wt.%. The microstructure of Sn-0.5Ag-0.7Cu-0.5Ga-0.06Pr solder showed that the β-Sn matrix and intermetallic compound (IMC) grains were significantly refined, and refinement and homogenization of the microstructure achieved maximum efficiency, which played the role of fine grain strengthening and second phase strengthening. However, as the content of Pr exceeded 0.06 wt.%, some uneven distributed black phases of PrSn3 were found in the β-Sn matrix, which seriously worsened the microstructure and properties of the solders. As a surface-active element, the segregation of Pr at the molten solder interface could give rise to decreasing the interface tension. Consequently, adding a suitable amount of Pr could play a positive role in improving the properties of the solders.

  9. Effect of Pr Addition on Properties of Sn-0.5Ag-0.7Cu-0.5Ga Lead-Free Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xujing, Nan; Songbai, Xue; Peizhuo, Zhai; Dongxue, Luo

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of Pr addition on the microstructure and properties of Sn-0.5Ag-0.7Cu-0.5Ga lead-free solder was investigated. It was found that the properties of Sn-0.5Ag-0.7Cu-0.5Ga-xPr solder, such as wettability and mechanical properties, could be obviously improved, and the optimal content of Pr was about 0.06 wt.%. The microstructure of Sn-0.5Ag-0.7Cu-0.5Ga-0.06Pr solder showed that the β-Sn matrix and intermetallic compound (IMC) grains were significantly refined, and refinement and homogenization of the microstructure achieved maximum efficiency, which played the role of fine grain strengthening and second phase strengthening. However, as the content of Pr exceeded 0.06 wt.%, some uneven distributed black phases of PrSn3 were found in the β-Sn matrix, which seriously worsened the microstructure and properties of the solders. As a surface-active element, the segregation of Pr at the molten solder interface could give rise to decreasing the interface tension. Consequently, adding a suitable amount of Pr could play a positive role in improving the properties of the solders.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of thin Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 Heusler films with varying thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonsov, A.; Peters, B.; Yang, F. Y.; Büchner, B.; Wurmehl, S.

    2015-02-01

    Type, degree, and evolution of structural order are important aspects for understanding and controlling the properties of highly spin-polarized Heusler compounds, in particular, with respect to the optimal film growth procedure. In this work, we compare the structural order and the local magnetic properties revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with the macroscopic properties of thin Co2FeAl 0.5Si 0.5 Heusler films with varying thickness. A detailed analysis of the measured NMR spectra presented in this paper enables us to find a very high degree of L 21 -type ordering up to 81% concomitantly with excess Fe of 8%-13% at the expense of Al and Si. We show that the formation of certain types of order depends not only on the thermodynamic phase diagrams as in bulk samples, but also that the kinetic control may contribute to the phase formation in thin films. It is an exciting finding that Co2FeAl 0.5Si 0.5 can form an almost ideal L 21 structure in films, though with a considerable amount of Fe-Al/Si off stoichiometry. Moreover, the very good quality of the films as demonstrated by our NMR study suggests that the technique of off-axis sputtering used to grow the films sets the stage for the optimized performance of Co2FeAl 0.5Si 0.5 in spintronic devices.

  11. Impacts of annealing temperature on charge trapping performance in Zr0.5Hf0.5O2 for nonvolatile memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. H.; Yan, X. B.; Li, Y. C.; Yang, T.; Jia, X. L.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y. Y.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, Zr0.5Hf0.5O2 films were fabricated on Si substrate and were annealed at different temperatures by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process. The charge trapping memory devices based on Zr0.5Hf0.5O2/SiO2/Si simple structure were investigated in detail. The memory device annealing at 690 °C shows the best property with a memory window of 5.6 V under ±12 V sweeping voltages in its capacitance-voltage curve and a better retention property. The high resolved transmission electron microscopy shows the generated SiO2 working as tunneling layer after RTA process, whose thickness increases with the rise of temperature. Combined with the TEM results, the photoluminescence spectrum and in situ angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy results further verify that oxygen vacancies and inter-diffusion layer also play a crucial role in charge trapping performance. This work provides direct insights for the charge trapping mechanisms based on high-k Zr0.5Hf0.5O2 films devices.

  12. Grain boundary defect compensation in Ti-doped BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaojun; Deng, Jianming; Liu, Saisai; Yan, Tianxiang; Peng, Biaolin; Jia, Wenhao; Mei, Zaoming; Su, Hongbo; Fang, Liang; Liu, Laijun

    2016-09-01

    Giant dielectric ceramics Ba(Nb0.5Fe0.5- x Ti x )O3 (BNFT) have been fabricated by a conventional solid-state reaction. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the crystal structure of these ceramics can be described by the cubic centrosymmetric with Pm- 3m space group. The real part ( ɛ') of dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss (tan δ) of the BNFT ceramics was measured in a frequency range from 40 Hz to 100 MHz at room temperature. The ( ɛ') of all these samples displays a high value (~6500) and a small frequency-dependence from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. We have established a link between conductivity activation energy and defect compensation at grain boundaries. The Ti4+-doped Ba(Nb0.5Fe0.5)O3 as a donor makes a great influence on the grain boundary behavior, which restricts the migration of oxygen vacancy and depresses dielectric loss factor for Ba(Nb0.5Fe0.5)O3 ceramics.

  13. Electronic structure of a new layered bismuth oxyselenide superconductor: LaO0.5F0.5BiSe2.

    PubMed

    Xia, M; Jiang, J; Niu, X H; Liu, J Z; Wen, C H P; Lu, H Y; Lou, X; Pu, Y J; Huang, Z C; Zhu, Xiyu; Wen, H H; Xie, B P; Shen, D W; Feng, D L

    2015-07-22

    LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) is a new layered superconductor discovered recently, which shows the superconducting transition temperature of 3.5 K. With angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we study the electronic structure of LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) comprehensively. Two electron-like bands are located around the X point of the Brillouin zone, and the outer pockets connect with each other and form large Fermi surface around Γ and M. These bands show negligible k(z) dispersion, indicating their two-dimensional nature. Based on the Luttinger theorem, the carrier concentration is about 0.53 e(-) per unit cell, close to its nominal value. Moreover, the photoemission data and the band structure calculations agree very well, and the renormalization factor is nearly 1.0, indicating the electron correlations in this material are rather weak. Our results suggest that LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) is a conventional BCS superconductor without strong electron correlations.

  14. Age inclusive services or separate old age and working age services? A historical analysis from the formative years of old age psychiatry c.1940-1989.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Claire

    2015-04-01

    The Equality Act 2010 made it unlawful to discriminate in the provision of services on the grounds of age. This legislation is open to interpretation, but it is affecting the way older people's services are defined and provided. Historical evidence indicates that, since the 1940s, apart from psychiatrists working in dedicated old age services, most were unenthusiastic about working with mentally unwell older people and unsupportive of those who chose to do so. A historical analysis might shed light on current dilemmas about 'all age' or 'old age' services and inform decision-making on future mental health services.

  15. Pial synangiosis in patients with moyamoya younger than 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Eric M; Lin, Ning; Manjila, Sunil; Scott, R Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2014-04-01

    Object Patients with moyamoya who are younger than 2 years of age represent a therapeutic challenge because of their frequent neurological instability and concomitant anesthetic risks. The authors report their experience with pial synangiosis revascularization in this population. Methods The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of all patients with moyamoya in a consecutive series of patients under 2 years of age, who underwent cerebral revascularization surgery using pial synangiosis at a single institution. Results During a 12-year period (1994-2005), 34 procedures (bilateral in 15 patients, unilateral in 4) were performed in 19 patients younger than 2 years (out of a total of 456 procedures in 240 patients). Eighteen of these patients presented with either stroke or transient ischemic attack. The average age of the 19 patients at first surgery was 1.4 years (range 6 months-1.9 years). Unanticipated staged operations occurred in 3 patients, due to persistent electroencephalographic changes during the initial surgery in 2 cases and due to brain swelling during the procedure requiring ventriculostomy in the other. There were 2 perioperative strokes; both patients had postoperative seizures but made clinical recoveries. The average follow-up was 7 years (range 1-14 years). Long term, at follow-up, 13 patients (68%) were clinically independent for their age, with 8 (42%) having no significant deficit. Late complications included subdural hygroma evacuation (1), additional revascularization procedures performed years later for frontal lobe ischemia (2), late infarction (1), and asymptomatic ischemic change on routine follow-up MRI studies (1). All patients who had both pre- and postoperative angiography demonstrated progression of disease. Conclusions Despite the challenges inherent to this population, the majority of children with moyamoya under the age of 2 years have a good long-term prognosis. The data from this study support the use of pial

  16. Age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function in a 24-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Laird, N; Dockery, D W; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B; Weiss, S T

    1995-03-15

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function measurements on 6,148 subjects aged 20-54 years at the initial visit. The subjects were grouped into four birth cohorts (before 1923, 1923-1934, 1935-1946, and after 1946) and four survey periods (1965-1972, 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990). In the age-cohort model, the decrement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) associated with a yearly increase in age was 28.3 +/- 3.7 ml/year for a man 176 cm tall and 16.0 +/- 1.9 ml/year for a woman 163 cm tall. The estimated acceleration of decline with aging was significant for both men (beta = -0.212; standard error = 0.079 ml) and women (beta = -0.346; standard error = 0.058 ml). Compared with that of the cohort born before 1923, the average level of FEV1 was estimated to increase by 156, 277, and 379 ml, respectively, for the three younger cohorts in men (p = 0.01) and by 133, 213, and 328 ml for the three younger cohorts in women (p < 0.01). In the age-period model, the estimated linear age effect on FEV1 was 36.2 +/- 4.2 ml/year for a man and 30.5 +/- 2.3 ml/year for a woman. The age quadratic term was significant for women, but not for men. Average FEV1 was estimated to be increased by 141, 169, and 250 ml, respectively, for the periods 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990 in men and by 131, 138, and 219 ml in women. These period effects were significant for both men and women. In summary, this study applied the two-factor models to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of aging on FEV1 and demonstrated significant period and cohort effects, which could be attributed in part to changes in air pollutants, respiratory infections, vaccinations, types of cigarettes, diet, and lifestyles over time.

  17. Eribulin Monotherapy in Patients Aged 70 Years and Older With Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Javier; Vahdat, Linda T.; Cardoso, Fatima; Twelves, Chris; Wanders, Jantien; Dutcus, Corina E.; Yang, Jay; Seegobin, Seth; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Following the demonstrated efficacy and safety of eribulin mesylate in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer, an exploratory analysis was performed to investigate the effect of age in these patients. Methods. Data were pooled from two single-arm phase II studies and one open-label randomized phase III study in which patients received eribulin mesylate at 1.4 mg/m2 as 2- to 5-minute intravenous infusions on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. The effect of age on median overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), and incidence of adverse events (AEs) was calculated for four age groups (<50 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, ≥70 years). Results. Overall, 827 patients were included in the analysis (<50 years, n = 253; 50–59 years, n = 289; 60–69 years, n = 206; ≥70 years, n = 79). Age had no significant impact on OS (11.8 months, 12.3 months, 11.7 months, and 12.5 months, respectively; p = .82), PFS (3.5 months, 2.9 months, 3.8 months, and 4.0 months, respectively; p = .42), ORR (12.7%, 12.5%, 6.3%, and 10.1%, respectively), or CBR (20.2%, 20.8%, 20.4%, and 21.5%, respectively). Although some AEs had higher incidence in either the youngest or the oldest subgroup, there was no overall effect of age on the incidence of AEs (including neuropathy, neutropenia, and leukopenia). Conclusion. Eribulin monotherapy in these selected older patients with good baseline performance status led to OS, PFS, ORR, CBR, and tolerability similar to those of younger patients with metastatic breast cancer. The benefits and risks of eribulin appear to be similar across age groups. PMID:24682463

  18. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single-Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Gary A; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H; Reitberg, Donald P; Guenin, Eric

    2016-07-01

    This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age-based doses of 100-400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo ) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz /F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz /F than CLo , an increase in terminal exponential half-life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation-related changes in CLo and Vz /F. PMID:26632082

  19. [Bolsa Família: food and nutrition insecurity of children under five years of age].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Flávia; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha; da Costa, Islandia Bezerra; Almeida, Claudia Choma Bettega; Matuda, Nívea da Silva

    2014-05-01

    This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of the population base conducted in the town of Colombo in the state of Paraná. The objectives were to identify the prevalence of food insecurity in families that are beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program and the factors related to this condition, and describe the nutritional status of children under five years of age. Analyses of association were performed using Fisher's exact test. The sample included 442 families, of which 168 have children under five years of age. The Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale was applied to evaluate food insecurity and the nutritional status of the 199 children evaluated was determined by the height-for-age, weight-for-age and body mass-for-age indices in accordance with the WHO reference values for 2006. The prevalence of food insecurity was 81.6%. Overweight and stunting among children coexisted. Food insecurity was found to be associated with the height-for-age index among children under two years of age. The per capita income and food deficits influenced the situation of food insecurity significantly.

  20. Five years later: language in school-age internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Glennen, Sharon; Bright, Betsy J

    2005-02-01

    This study followed a cohort of 46 school-age children adopted from Eastern Europe who were originally studied by Glennen and Masters up through age 2 or 3. Five years later, the children were 6 to 9 years of age. Data on their school-age abilities were collected through surveys of parents and teachers. Parents indicated that 17.4% of the children were receiving classroom accommodations or special education programs and 54.5% had one or more diagnoses. The most common diagnosis was attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), occurring in 25% of the children, primarily boys. Learning disability and speech language impairment were each noted in 11.4% of the children. Language and Social Skill profiles on the Children's Communication Checklist-2 and Social Skills Rating Scale (SSRS) indicated that structural and meaning-based language abilities were areas of strength. Measures of pragmatic use of language (i.e., Use of Context, Social Relations, Nonverbal Communication) were relative weaknesses. Behavior profiles on the SSRS indicated higher than average levels of hyperactivity. The profile of Language and Social Skills strengths and weaknesses was similar to patterns observed in children with ADD/ADHD. Age of adoption was not predictive of school-age outcomes on these measures, but the children's expressive vocabulary when they were 2 to 3 years of age predicted SSRS outcomes for Social Skills and Problem Behaviors.

  1. Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-07-12

    Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide.

  2. Reference values of whole-blood fatty acids by age and sex from European children aged 3–8 years

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, M; Schlenz, H; Foraita, R; Galli, C; Risé, P; Moreno, L A; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Vyncke, K; Eiben, G; Iacoviello, L; Ahrens, W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To establish reference values for fatty acids (FA) especially for n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC PUFA) in whole-blood samples from apparently healthy 3–8-year-old European children. The whole-blood FA composition was analysed and the age- and sex-specific distribution of FA was determined. Design and subjects: Blood samples for FA analysis were taken from 2661 children of the IDEFICS (identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort. Children with obesity (n=454) and other diseases that are known to alter the FA composition (n=450) were excluded leaving 1653 participants in the reference population. Measurements: The FA composition of whole blood was analysed from blood drops by a rapid, validated gas chromatographic method. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed an age-dependent increase of C18:2n-6 and a decrease of C18:1n-9 in a subsample of normal weight boys and girls. Other significant correlations with age were weak and only seen either in boys or in girls, whereas most of the FA did not show any age dependence. For age-dependent n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as for other FA that are correlated with age (16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9) percentiles analysed with the general additive model for location scale and shape are presented. A higher median in boys than in girls was observed for C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6. Conclusions: Given the reported associations between FA status and health-related outcome, the provision of FA reference ranges may be useful for the interpretation of the FA status of children in epidemiological and clinical studies. PMID:25219413

  3. Early end-tidal carbon monoxide levels and neurodevelopmental outcome at 3 years 6 months of age in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Blok, Cornelie A; Krediet, Tannette G; Kavelaars, Annemiek; Koopman-Esseboom, Corine; Vreman, Hendrik J; Van Bel, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Aim Increased end-tidal carbon monoxide (ETCOc) and cytokines in preterm infants are related to bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular haemorrhages. The aim was to study the predictive value of ETCOc and cytokine levels for long-term outcome. Methods This study comprised 105 very preterm infants (57 males, 48 females; gestational age range 25wk 5d–31wk 4d; birthweight 610–2100g) who were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit between 1 February and 31 December 2002. ETCOc, plasma tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukins (IL) 6 and 8, and malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation), were measured at days 1, 3, and 5 of life and related to outcome at 3 years 6 months of age (Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales). Results Of the 105 infants, 69 were eligible for follow-up (37 male; 32 female; bronchopulmonary dysplasia, n=12). ETCOc at 0 to 24 hours was higher in infants with adverse outcome (Griffiths developmental quotient <85, n=15) compared with favourable outcome (2.7 SD 0.7 vs 2.0 SD 0.5; p<0.05). MDA and cytokines did not differ between groups. Regression analysis with bootstrapping of independent variables (gestational age, birthweight, ETCOc, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia) showed that ETCOc was the only parameter that correlated with outcome. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of ETCOc for adverse outcome were 93% and 85% respectively. Interpretation Adverse neurodevelopmental outcome is associated with increased endogenous carbon monoxide. ETCOc less than 2.0ppm during the first day indicates a favourable outcome. PMID:21933176

  4. Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  5. Studies on structural and electrical properties of Li0.5-0.5xCoxFe2.5-0.5xO4 (0≤x≤0.6) spinel ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, V. S.; Bagade, A. A.; Rajpure, K. Y.

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, nanocrystalline Li0.5-0.5xCoxFe2.5-0.5xO4 (for x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) ferrite systems were synthesized by solution combustion method. The Rietveld analysis of X-ray result confirms the formation of a single phase spinel cubic crystal structure of the ferrite sample. The lattice constant of the material increases from 8.33 Å to 8.36 Å with increasing cobalt content in lithium ferrite. The cation distribution study reveals that the Co-Li ferrite is in the mixed spinel structure of the composition. The DC electrical resistivity result confirms the semiconducting nature and the Curie temperature decreases with increase in Co2+ content. The dielectric constant, loss tangent and dielectric loss decrease with frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies are observed, showing the usual dielectric dispersion due to space charge polarization. The impedance spectroscopy analysis of samples reveals the grain interior contribution in the conduction process. The AC conductivity as a function of frequency verifies that the small polarons are responsible for conduction process.

  6. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  7. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. Results In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the

  8. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. Results In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the

  9. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  10. Investigation of structural and temperature dependent electromagnetic properties of Co0.5Zn0.5CrxFe2-xO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. H. R.; Hossain, A. K. M. Akther

    2015-10-01

    Mixed ferrites with nominal chemical compositions Co0.5Zn0.5CrxFe2-xO4 ranging from x=0 to 0.5 in the steps of 0.1 have been prepared by the standard solid state reaction method. XRD patterns confirm single phase and formation of cubic spinel structure. The lattice constant (a0), average grain size (D) and bulk density (ρB) are decreased with increasing Cr content. The ρB decreases with Cr content due to lighter atomic weight. On the other hand, both D and ρB of each composition increase with increasing sintering temperature (Ts). All samples show reentrant spin glass transition at low temperature in zero field cooled magnetization. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and Néel temperature (TN) decrease with Cr substitution due to weakening the super-exchange interaction. The coercivity (Hc) increases with increasing Cr content for various Co0.5Zn0.5CrxFe2-xO4. It may be attributed to the effect of decreasing D. Frequency dependent initial permeability (μ‧i) decreases with increasing Cr content. The Ms and ρB play an important role in changing μ‧i. On the other hand, the μ‧i for each composition increases with increasing Ts. The highest relative quality factor (Q) is observed for various Co0.5Zn0.5CrxFe2-xO4 sintered at 1573 K. The DC electrical resistivity (ρDC) of these samples increases with increasing Cr content due to decreasing Fe3+ ions at B-site.

  11. Structural and Magnetic Properties Evolution of Li-Substituted Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 Ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuehang; Chen, Wen; Wu, Wenwei; Li, Hongjiao; Lin, Cuiwu

    2016-08-01

    Four types of Co-Ni based ferrites materials with the general formula Li x Co0.5Ni0.5-x Fe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x≤0.3) were successfully synthesized by thermal decomposition of oxalates in air. The effect of substitution of diamagnetic Li+ ions for partial Ni2+ ions in a spinel lattice on the crystalline structure and the magnetic properties of Co-Ni ferrites was studied. X-ray diffraction examination confirms that a high-crystallized Li x Co0.5Ni0.5-x Fe2O4 with cubic spinel structure is obtained when the precursor is calcined at 900°C in air for 3 h. The substitution of Li+ ions for partial Ni2+ ions does not change the spinel crystalline structure of MFe2O4, but crystallinity of Li x Co0.5Ni0.5-x Fe2O4 can be improved. The incorporation of Li+ ions in place of Ni2+ ions in Co-Ni ferrites decreases the average crystallite size and results in higher specific saturation magnetization as compared to un-substituted Co-Ni ferrites. In this study, Li0.1Co0.5Ni0.4Fe2O4, obtained at 900°C, exhibits the highest specific saturation magnetization of 88 emu/g ± 2 emu/g and magnetic moment (3.60 μ B ± 0.05 μ B).

  12. Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

    2012-08-01

    We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new data collected in 2009 and 2010. The age record is analyzed to explore the potential value of groundwater age monitoring for (1) providing additional constraints on the age distribution in mixed-age samples, and (2) identifying temporal changes in groundwater recharge. Motivation for this study is provided by a lack of knowledge of how groundwater recharge and discharge (stream baseflow) in mountain watersheds might respond to climate change, and a resulting need to better understand mountain aquifer residence times, storage, and recharge. Piston-flow ages for the springs generally range from 10 to 50 yr. The plausibility of different age mixing models is tested by comparing observed temporal variations in age with those simulated using simple numerical models, and by examining plots comparing the concentrations of different age tracers. We find that most spring waters are best characterized by a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (recharged after 1950). Identification of this mixing model would not have been possible without data from multiple age tracers and data from multiple years. Computed mean ages vary substantially (often by 3-7 yr) between sampling events for most springs, including those with ages of 20-50 yr. Mean age variations are likely controlled by variations in the magnitude of the new fraction, which is positively correlated with annual snowpack water content. Most springs show overall upward trends in mean age for the sampling period, consistent with decreasing recharge rates in response to diminishing snowpack. Groundwater age monitoring appears to be a potentially

  13. Clinical efficacy assessment in photodamaged skin of 0.5% and 1.0% idebenone.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, D H; Neudecker, B A; DiNardo, J C; Lewis, J A; Maibach, H I

    2005-09-01

    Idebenone is an antioxidant lower molecular weight analogue of coenzyme Q10. Previously, idebenone was shown to be a very effective antioxidant in its ability to protect against cell damage from oxidative stress in a variety of biochemical, cell biological, and in vivo methods, including its ability to suppress sunburn cell (SBC) formation in living skin. However, no clinical studies have been previously conducted to establish the efficacy of idebenone in a topical skincare formulation for the treatment of photodamaged skin. In this nonvehicle control study, 0.5% and 1.0% idebenone commercial formulations were evaluated in a clinical trial for topical safety and efficacy in photodamaged skin. Forty-one female subjects, aged 30-65, with moderate photodamaged skin were randomized to use a blind labelled (either 0.5% or 1.0% idebenone in otherwise identical lotion bases) skincare preparation twice daily for six weeks. Blinded expert grader assessments for skin roughness/dryness, fine lines/wrinkles, and global improvement in photodamage were performed at baseline, three weeks and six weeks. Electrical conductance readings for skin surface hydration and 35 mm digital photography were made at baseline after six weeks. Punch biopsies were taken from randomly selected subjects, baseline and after six weeks, and stained for certain antibodies (interleukin IL-6, interleukin IL-1b, matrixmetalloproteinase MMP-1, collagen I) using immunofluorescence microscopy. After six weeks' use of the 1.0% idebenone formula, a 26% reduction in skin roughness/dryness was observed, a 37% increase in skin hydration, a 29% reduction in fine lines/wrinkles, and a 33% improvement in overall global assessment of photodamaged skin. For the 0.5% idebenone formulation, a 23% reduction in skin roughness/dryness was observed, a 37% increase in skin hydration, a 27% reduction in fine lines/wrinkles, and a 30% improvement in overall global assessment of photodamaged skin. The immunofluorescence

  14. New Observations of Soft X-ray (0.5-5 keV) Solar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, A.; Woods, T. N.; Mason, J. P.; Jones, A. R.; Warren, H. P.

    2013-12-01

    The solar corona is the brightest source of X-rays in the solar system, and the X-ray emission is highly variable on many time scales. However, the actual solar soft X-ray (SXR) (0.5-5 keV) spectrum is not well known, particularly during solar quiet periods, as, with few exceptions, this energy range has not been systematically studied in many years. Previous observations include high-resolution but very narrow-band spectra from crystal spectrometers (e.g., Yohkoh/BCS), or integrated broadband irradiances from photometers (e.g., GOES/XRS, TIMED/XPS, etc.) that lack detailed spectral information. In recent years, broadband measurements with moderate energy resolution (~0.5-0.7 keV FWHM) were made by SphinX on CORONAS-Photon and SAX on MESSENGER, although they did not extend to energies below ~1 keV. We present observations of solar SXR emission obtained using new instrumentation flown on recent SDO/EVE calibration rocket underflights. The photon-counting spectrometer, a commercial Amptek X123 with a silicon drift detector and an 8 μm Be window, measures the solar disk-integrated SXR emission from ~0.5 to >10 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution and 1 s cadence. A novel imager, a pinhole X-ray camera using a cooled frame-transfer CCD (15 μm pixel pitch), Ti/Al/C filter, and 5000 line/mm Au transmission grating, images the full Sun in multiple spectral orders from ~0.1 to ~5 nm with ~10 arcsec/pixel and ~0.01 nm/pixel spatial and spectral detector scales, respectively, and 10 s cadence. These instruments are prototypes for future CubeSat missions currently being developed. We present new results of solar observations on 04 October 2013 (NASA sounding rocket 36.290). We compare with previous results from 23 June 2012 (NASA sounding rocket 36.286), during which solar activity was low and no signal was observed above ~4 keV. We compare our spectral and imaging measurements with spectra and broadband irradiances from other instruments, including SDO/EVE, GOES/XRS, TIMED

  15. Age differences in physique of adult males aged 30 to 86 years in Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2000-07-01

    In the Pacific Region, some adult populations have shown a steady rise in overweight and obesity across the 1970s and into the 1990s. While younger adults have been shown to have lower body mass index (BMI) than older ones in both the least and most modernised Samoan populations, among intermediately modernised Samoan populations, BMI has been found to be higher in younger adults than in older ones. A survey in the Cook Islands carried out in 1966 showed no age group differences in height, weight and BMI among adult males, but significantly higher mean weight and BMI among adult males aged 30 years and above. The present analysis gives mean height, weight, BMI and skinfolds of adult males above 30 years of age on Rarotonga in 1996, and examines whether the BMI-age group relationship now shows a similar transitional pattern to that observed on American Samoa. In addition, the 1996 values are compared with values obtained in 1986, to determine whether changes in physique have taken place across this time. In the 1996 volunteer sample of 142 male Cook Islanders, older adults are significantly shorter, lighter, with lower BMI than younger adults. Furthermore, the younger adults of the 1996 survey are significantly heavier, with greater BMI than the 1986 sample. This suggests that the adult male Rarotongan population is in an intermediate position with respect to lifestyle transition, the secular trend in body size and increasing prevalence of obesity, and that there has been a rapid increase in body fatness prevalence among younger adults. PMID:11027034

  16. Screening for developmental delay among children aged 1-4 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rachel; Kenny, Meghan; Bennett, Teresa; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Sherifali, Diana; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Existing guidelines on screening children less than 5 years of age for developmental delay vary. In this systematic review, we synthesized the literature on the effectiveness and harms of screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO for relevant articles published to June 16, 2015. We identified studies that included children aged 1-4 years who were not at high risk of developmental delay, screened in a primary care setting. Randomized trials and controlled cohort studies were considered for benefits (cognitive, academic and functional outcomes); no restrictions on study design were imposed for the review of harms. Results: Two studies were included. One used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II for screening and reported significantly more referrals to early intervention in the intervention groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.54, in the intervention group with office support and RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25, in the intervention group without office support). The time to referral was 70% shorter in the intervention group with office support (rate ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48) and 64% shorter in the intervention group without office support (rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.59), compared with the control group. The other study used the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument to screen children aged 15 months at enrolment for language delay. It reported no differences between groups in academic performance outcomes at age 8 years. Interpretation: The evidence on screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years is inconclusive. Further research with longer-term outcomes is needed to inform decisions about screening and screening intervals. PMID:27226967

  17. Dielectric relaxation and magnetodielectric response in DyMn{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, B.; Yang, J. Zuo, X. Z.; Zhu, X. B.; Dai, J. M.; Song, W. H.; Kan, X. C.; Zu, L.; Sun, Y. P.

    2015-09-28

    We investigate the structural, magnetic, and magnetodielectric properties of DyMn{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. The sample can be indexed with an orthorhombic phase with B site disordered space group Pbnm. The valence state of both Mn and Cr ions are suggested to be +3 based on the results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Two thermally excited dielectric relaxation at temperatures T{sub N2} < T< 300 K and large magnetodielectric effect (MDC = 20%–30%) due to the disordered arrangement of Mn{sup 3+}/Cr{sup 3+} ions associated with electron hopping between them are observed. The absence of any noticeable magnetoresistance effect (MR < 0.5%) demonstrates that the observed magnetodielectric effect is an intrinsic behavior. These results suggest that DyMn{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} is a magnetodielectric compound, whose dielectric properties are dependence of the applied magnetic field, which exhibits such effects near room temperature and holds great promise for future device applications.

  18. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  19. Infants of adolescent mothers. Maternal characteristics and developmental status at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Camp, B W; Burgess, D; Morgan, L; Malpiede, D

    1984-03-01

    The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered at 1 year of age to 54 healthy infants of adolescent mothers. Information was obtained regarding maternal cognitive and emotional maturity, child-rearing attitudes, attitudes toward the infant, and psychosocial status at one year. The average Bayley Mental Scale score was 113, and the average Bayley Motor Scale score was 105. There was a negative correlation between the Bayley Mental Scale score and maternal age and education. Bayley Motor Scale scores were predictable from a combination of maternal authoritarian attitudes, abuse potential, and infant's birth weight. Although high authoritarian attitudes in mothers have been associated with poor cognitive development at later ages, they may represent an important strength in adolescent mothers during the first year. PMID:6702768

  20. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  1. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single‐Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Gary A.; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H.; Reitberg, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age‐based doses of 100‐400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz/F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz/F than CLo, an increase in terminal exponential half‐life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation‐related changes in CLo and Vz/F. PMID:26632082

  2. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3M<0.08) was 18 years of age or older was 95.6%.

  3. Effects of Age and Life Transitions on Alcohol and Drug Treatment Outcome Over Nine Years

    PubMed Central

    Satre, Derek D.; Chi, Felicia W.; Mertens, Jennifer R.; Weisner, Constance M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of age, common life transitions, treatment, and social support on outcomes 5–9 years after alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment intake. Method: Participants were patients from a large outpatient AOD treatment program in an integrated health plan. There were 1,951 participants interviewed at intake, of whom 1,646 (84%) completed one or more telephone follow-up interviews at 5, 7, and 9 years. Measures included AOD use based on the Addiction Severity Index; treatment; and changes in marital, employment, and health status in the years between each follow-up. We compared participants by age group (18–39, 40–54, and >55 years old at intake) and examined factors (time invariant and time varying) associated with outcomes at 5, 7, and 9 years by fitting mixed-effects logistic random intercept models. Results: Changes in marital, employment, and health status varied significantly by age. Factors associated with remission across Years 5–9 included being in the middle-aged versus younger group (p < .001); female gender (p < .001); not losing a partner to separation, divorce, or death (p < .001); not experiencing a decline in health (p = .021); having any close friends supportive of recovery (p < .001); and not having any close friends who encourage AOD use (p < .001). Additional predictors, including employment changes, varied by drug versus alcohol abstinence outcome measures. Conclusions: Negative life transitions vary by age and are associated with worse outcomes. Older age and social support are associated with long-term AOD remission and abstinence. Findings inform treatment strategies to enhance recovery across the life span. PMID:22456251

  4. Longitudinal study exploring factors associated with neck/shoulder pain at 52 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Hesselman Borg, Johanna; Westerståhl, Maria; Lundell, Sara; Madison, Guy; Aasa, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the ability of work-related measurements, body composition, physical activity, and fitness levels to predict neck/shoulder pain (upper body pain, UBP) at the age of 52 years. Another aim was to investigate the cross-sectional relationships between UBP, work-related factors, and individual factors at the age of 52 years. Methods We followed a randomly selected cohort of 429 adolescents that was recruited in 1974 (baseline), when they were 16 years old. The participants completed physical fitness tests, questions about sociodemographic and lifestyle factors at 16, 34, and 52 years of age, and questions about work-related factors and pain in the follow-ups. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between UBP and the other variables. Results Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that high body mass index and the work-related factors, low control, and low social support at the age of 34 years were related to UBP at the age of 52 years. For social support, there was an interaction between men and women where the relationship between low social support and the experience of pain was more evident for women. Among women, body mass index and social support remained significantly related in the multivariate analyses. For men, social support remained significantly related. Cross-sectional relationships at the age of 52 differed from the longitudinal in the sense that measures of joint flexibility and work posture were also significantly associated with UBP. Conclusion The fact that the cross-sectional differed from the longitudinal relationships strengthens the importance of performing longitudinal studies when studying factors that might influence the initiation of pain. UBP preventative measures might need to include both lifestyle (such as dietary habits and physical activity to ensure that the individuals are not becoming overweight) and work-related factors such as social support. PMID:27307762

  5. Noise increment detection in children 1 to 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Berg, K M; Boswell, A E

    2000-05-01

    Studies using burst comparison procedures to examine age-related changes in intensity discrimination have reported that the ability to discriminate differences in intensity does not reach maturity until late childhood. In the present study, developmental changes in intensity discrimination were examined in 1- to 3-year-old children, using an increment detection paradigm. Children and adults detected increments in a continuous standard presented at three levels ranging from 35 to 55 dB SPL. Adults were also tested at lower levels of the standard in order to permit age comparisons at equivalent sensation levels. Standard stimuli were two-octave bands of noise centered at either 400 or 4000 Hz, and increments were 200 msec in duration. Discrimination performance improved significantly with both age and level of the standard. For all age groups, performance was significantly better for high- than for low-frequency stimuli, but frequency-dependent differences in increment thresholds did not vary reliably with age. Age differences were largest at low levels of the standard. At the highest level (approximately 30 dB nHL), children's difference limens for both low- and high-frequency noise bands were adultlike by 3 years of age. These results suggest that the developmental time course of increment detection is more rapid than that previously reported in burst comparison studies.

  6. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  7. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between...

  8. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. Link to an amendment published at 75... concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between 14 and 16...

  9. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between...

  10. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between...

  11. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between...

  12. Little Ice Age Summer Temperatures on Pindos Mountains, Greece, From a 750 Year Long Pinus Nigra Tree-Ring Chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutavas, A.; Dimitrakopoulos, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    We present a 750-year long tree-ring chronology from black pines (Pinus nigra) in Valia Kalda National Park, Pindos Mountains, Greece. The chronology shows a strong climate signal which consists of significant negative correlation (R=-0.5) with summer temperature (Jun-Jul-Aug-Sep), and positive correlation with summer precipitation. We exploit these relationships to reconstruct summer climate from ~1250 CE to present. In particular we investigate the character of the Little Ice Age (LIA) on mountainous Greece. We find evidence for cooler/wetter summers during the 18th and 19th centuries, but warmer/drier summers during the 14th through 17th centuries, during some of the coldest periods of the LIA in Northern Europe including the Maunder Minimum. This counter-intuitive pattern suggests the LIA had distinct signatures in the Easter Mediterranean, diverging from those of Northern Europe. The temperature pattern reconstructed here is remarkably similar to a recent reconstruction of summer temperatures from maximum latewood density (MXD) of Pinus heldreichii on Mount Olympus, just 150 km east of our site. However, because of the ambivalence of the climate signal with respect to temperature vs. precipitation in both of these reconstructions, there remains uncertainty as to whether the LIA was primarily warm, or dry, or some combination. We advocate for further reconstructions of LIA climate in the Balkan Peninsula and Eastern Mediterranean to explore relationships with Northern Europe and elucidate the broader climatic pattern and dynamical connections.

  13. Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged 10-19 years - United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Stephanie J; Hamilton, Brady E; Mathews, T J

    2013-11-22

    Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged <20 years have been the subject of long-standing concern among the public, the public health community, and policy makers. Teenagers who give birth are much more likely than older women to deliver a low birthweight or preterm infant, and their babies are at higher risk for dying in infancy. The annual public costs associated with births among teenage girls are an estimated $10.9 billion. According to the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), an estimated 77% of births to teenagers aged 15-19 years were unintended.

  14. Optical Properties of Ferroelectric Epitaxial K0.5Na0.5NbO3 Films in Visible to Ultraviolet Range

    PubMed Central

    Pacherova, O.; Kocourek, T.; Jelinek, M.; Dejneka, A.; Tyunina, M.

    2016-01-01

    The complex index of refraction in the spectral range of 0.74 to 4.5 eV is studied by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in ferroelectric K0.5Na0.5NbO3 films. The 20-nm-thick cube-on-cube-type epitaxial films are grown on SrTiO3(001) and DyScO3(011) single-crystal substrates. The films are transparent and exhibit a significant difference between refractive indices Δn = 0.5 at photon energies below 3 eV. The energies of optical transitions are in the range of 3.15–4.30 eV and differ by 0.2–0.3 eV in these films. The observed behavior is discussed in terms of lattice strain and strain-induced ferroelectric polarization in epitaxial perovskite oxide films. PMID:27074042

  15. Optical Properties of Ferroelectric Epitaxial K0.5Na0.5NbO3 Films in Visible to Ultraviolet Range.

    PubMed

    Chernova, E; Pacherova, O; Kocourek, T; Jelinek, M; Dejneka, A; Tyunina, M

    2016-01-01

    The complex index of refraction in the spectral range of 0.74 to 4.5 eV is studied by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in ferroelectric K0.5Na0.5NbO3 films. The 20-nm-thick cube-on-cube-type epitaxial films are grown on SrTiO3(001) and DyScO3(011) single-crystal substrates. The films are transparent and exhibit a significant difference between refractive indices Δn = 0.5 at photon energies below 3 eV. The energies of optical transitions are in the range of 3.15-4.30 eV and differ by 0.2-0.3 eV in these films. The observed behavior is discussed in terms of lattice strain and strain-induced ferroelectric polarization in epitaxial perovskite oxide films. PMID:27074042

  16. Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Mn-Doped Na0.5K0.5NbO3 Single Crystals Grown by Flux Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Yumi; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi

    2008-06-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric Mn-doped Na0.5K0.5NbO3 (NKN) single crystals have been fabricated by self flux method using KF-NaF eutectic composition. The color of the obtained crystals was different depending on the doped Mn-chemicals. The large-sized single crystals with crystal face of orthorhombic (110) were obtained by optimized heat-treatment condition of the holding time at 1050 and 950 °C of 5 h and the cooling rate of 0.25 °C/min, and their piezoelectric properties were successfully measured by a resonance-antiresonance method. The piezoelectric strain constant (d33) of 0.5 mol % Mn-doped NKN single crystal was 161 pC/N, and the longitudinal electro-mechanical coupling factor (k33) showed 0.64.

  17. Dielectric, Ferroelectric, and Piezoelectric Properties of Mn-Doped K0.5Na0.5NbO3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Juarez, Rigoberto; Gomez-Vidales, Virginia; Cruz, M. P.; Villafuerte-Castrejon, M. E.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, study of manganese-doped potassium-sodium niobate ceramics was performed. It was found that, with increasing Mn2+ content from 1 mol.% to 1.5 mol.%, the Q m changed from 60 to near 500 with no appreciable detriment in piezoelectric properties. These properties first increased with 0.5 mol.%, and remained almost constant with 1 mol.% of manganese. Maximum values for d 33, d 31, and k p were 120 pC N-1, 33 pC N-1, and 36%, respectively. Thus, manganese-doped K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramics represent an option for high-power applications.

  18. Influences of phase transition and microstructure on dielectric properties of Bi0.5Na0.5Zr1-xTixO3 ceramics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Bismuth sodium zirconate titanate ceramics with the formula Bi0.5Na0.5Zr1-xTixO3 [BNZT], where x = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6, were prepared by a conventional solid-state sintering method. Phase identification was investigated using an X-ray diffraction technique. All compositions exhibited complete solubility of Ti4+ at the Zr4+ site. Both a decrease of unit cell size and phase transition from an orthorhombic Zr-rich composition to a rhombohedral crystal structure in a Ti-rich composition were observed as a result of Ti4+ substitution. These changes caused dielectric properties of BNZT ceramics to enhance. Microstructural observation carried out employing SEM showed that average grain size decreased when addition of Ti increased. Grain size difference of BNZT above 0.4 mole fraction of Ti4+ displayed a significant increase of dielectric constant at room temperature. PMID:22221960

  19. GWPs and GTPs for forest bioenergy and products with global coverage at 0.5° x 0.5° spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbrets, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; Bright, Ryan; Van Zelm, Rosalie; Van Der Velde, Marijn; Strømman, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The effects on climate of various greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be aggregated in common units through a variety of emission metrics. The Global Warming Potential (GWP), introduced by the IPCC in 1990, is based on the integrated radiative forcing of a pulse emission divided by an equivalent integration for the reference gas, usually CO2, at an arbitrary time horizon (TH). The Global Temperature change Potential (GTP) is the ratio between the temperature response to a GHG emission pulse at a certain point in time and the temperature response for a reference gas. Other metrics like the integrated GTP (iGTP), TEMP, and metrics embedding economic considerations or a dynamic, target-specific TH are used in the literature. Recent studies developed impulse response functions and emission metrics for CO2 emissions from biomass combustion or oxidation for applications in bioenergy and harvested wood products (HWP) analyses. As the resulting metrics depend on the resource turnover time and hence on site specific characteristics like the type of biomass species, local climate, site productivity and other factors, these metrics are today available only for a limited number of cases and selected locations. In this work, we provide spatially-explicit GWPs and GTPs for bioenergy and HWP sourced from renewable forests with a global coverage of forest areas at a resolution of 0.5 degrees x 0.5 degrees. The Global Forest Model (G4M) developed at IIASA is used to provide the mean annual increments (MAI), rotation periods and above ground carbon of the forests of the globe. G4M uses a dynamic Net Primary Production (NPP) model to simulate how growth rates are affected by changes in temperature, precipitation, radiation, and CO2 concentrations. NPP post harvest dynamics are then modeled using tree-specific functions combined with the grid-specific MAI. Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is exogenously modeled with the YASSO model. NPP and Rh are then combined in a Net Ecosystem

  20. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  1. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  2. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: An 8-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  3. Effect of Annealing on Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of Sb-Doped Mg2Si0.5Sn0.5 Solid Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ji-Wei; Song, Minghui; Takeguchi, Masaki; Tsujii, Naohito; Isoda, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    A 0.33 mol.% Sb-doped Mg2Si0.5Sn0.5 solid solution was synthesized by combining a liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing process. The effect of annealing (1068 K, 250 h) on microstructure and thermoelectric properties of the solid solution was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, and thermoelectric measurements. The successful synthesis of the solid solution with an antifluorite structure was confirmed by XRD. The as-prepared sample contained Si, Sn, and MgO inclusions tens of nanometers in size. After annealing, Si and Sn inclusions disappeared, while the MgO nanoparticles remained almost unchanged; the charge carrier concentration and electrical conductivity decreased and the lattice thermal conductivity increased. As a result, the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT ˜ 0.34 at 394 K for the as-prepared sample deteriorated to ˜0.24 at 388 K after the annealing. The results suggest the presence of a high density of point defects, such as Mg interstitials in the as-prepared sample. The density of these Mg interstitials was reduced by the annealing, thereby affecting the charge carrier concentration and electrical conductivity. The increase in the lattice thermal conductivity upon annealing is attributed to the disappearance of point defects, grain boundaries (grain growth) and Si and Sn inclusions, which all act as phonon scattering centers. Thus, point defects and nanoinclusions might be important for optimizing the thermoelectric properties of a material. This work provides new insights into the effect of annealing on the microstructure and its relationship with the thermoelectric properties of Sb-doped Mg2Si0.5Sn0.5 solid solutions. It also provides hints for developing Mg2Si0.5Sn0.5-based materials with superior thermoelectric properties.

  4. Coexistence of interacting ferromagnetic clusters and small antiferromagnetic clusters in La0.5Ba0.5CoO3.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devendra; Banerjee, A

    2013-05-29

    We report detailed dc magnetization and linear and nonlinear ac susceptibility measurements on the hole doped disordered cobaltite La0.5Ba0.5CoO3. Our results show that the magnetically ordered state of the system consists of coexisting non-ferromagnetic phases along with percolating ferromagnetic clusters. The percolating ferromagnetic clusters possibly start a magnetic ordering at the Curie temperature of 201.5(5) K. The non-ferromagnetic phases mainly consist of antiferromagnetic clusters with size smaller than the ferromagnetic clusters. Below the Curie temperature the system exhibits an irreversibility in the field cooled and zero field cooled magnetization and a frequency dependence in the peak of ac susceptibility. These dynamical features indicate the possible coexistence of spin-glass phase along with ferromagnetic clusters similar to La(1-x)Sr(x)CoO3 (x ≥ 0.18), but the absence of field divergence in the third harmonic of ac susceptibility and zero field cooled memory clearly rule out any such possibility. We argue that the spin-glass phase in La(1-x)Sr(x)CoO3 (x ≥ 0.18) is associated with the presence of incommensurate antiferromagnetic ordering in non-ferromagnetic phases, which is absent in La0.5Ba0.5CoO3. Our analysis shows that the observed dynamical features in La0.5Ba0.5CoO3 may be due to progressive thermal blocking of ferromagnetic clusters, which is further confirmed by Wohlfarth's model of superparamagnetism. The frequency dependence of the peak of ac susceptibility obeys the Vogel-Fulcher law with τ0 ≈ 10(-9) s. This together with the existence of an AT-line in H-T space indicates the presence of significant inter-cluster interaction among these ferromagnetic clusters.

  5. Diabetes death rates among youths aged ≤ 19 years--United States, 1968-2009.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Although diabetes mellitus most often is diagnosed in adulthood, it remains one of the most common serious chronic diseases of childhood. Youths with diabetes are at risk for diabetes-related mortality because of acute complications that can result from the condition, including diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia. In the United States in 2010, an estimated 215,000 persons aged ≤ 19 years had diagnosed diabetes. Medical care for diabetes has improved considerably in recent decades, leading to improved survival rates. However, recent trends in diabetes death rates among youths aged <10 years and 10-19 years in the United States have not been reported. To assess these trends, CDC analyzed data from the National Vital Statistics System for deaths in the United States with diabetes listed as the underlying cause during 1968-2009. This report highlights the results of that analysis, which found that diabetes-related mortality decreased 61%, from an annual rate of 2.69 per million for the period 1968-1969 to a rate of 1.05 per million in 2008-2009. The percentage decrease was greater among youths aged <10 years (78%) than among youths aged 10-19 years (52%). These findings demonstrate improvements in diabetes mortality among youths but also indicate a need for continued improvement in diabetes diagnosis and care. PMID:23114253

  6. Screening for refractive errors at age 1 year: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R M; Traynar, M J; Walker, C; Wilson, J M

    1979-01-01

    Cycloplegic refraction of 1-year-old children is technically possible and is acceptable to mothers as a method for screening children for visual defects. The range of refractions found in a sample of 186 1-year-old children is reported. Prediction of which children are significantly at risk for squint and/or amblyopia is possible on the basis of refractions at age 1 year according to the criteria selected for an 'abnormal' refraction. Bilateral hypermetropia and/or astigmatism or anisometropia at age 1 year was significantly (P less than 1 in 10 000) associated with a child eventually being found to have squint or amblyopia. Both the age of screening and criteria of abnormality will probably need modification. +2.50 or more D hypermetropia in any one meridian of either eye at age 1 year was even more significantly (P = 0.000 000 05%) associated with squint and/or amblyopia. The possibility that meridional hypermetropia could be the basic defect in squint and amblyopia is discussed. PMID:435441

  7. Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Levels Are Higher in Children (2–5 Years of Age) than in Infants and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.; Sjödin, Andreas; Harden, Fiona; Hobson, Peter; Jones, Richard; Edenfield, Emily; Mueller, Jochen F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many products and have been detected in human samples worldwide. Limited data show that concentrations are elevated in young children. Objectives We investigated the association between PBDEs and age with an emphasis on young children from Australia in 2006–2007. Methods We collected human blood serum samples (n = 2,420), which we stratified by age and sex and pooled for analysis of PBDEs. Results The sum of BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 concentrations (∑4PBDE) increased from 0–0.5 years (mean ± SD, 14 ± 3.4 ng/g lipid) to peak at 2.6–3 years (51 ± 36 ng/g lipid; p < 0.001) and then decreased until 31–45 years (9.9 ± 1.6 ng/g lipid). We observed no further significant decrease among ages 31–45, 45–60 (p = 0.964), or > 60 years (p = 0.894). The mean ∑4PBDE concentration in cord blood (24 ± 14 ng/g lipid) did not differ significantly from that in adult serum at ages 15–30 (p = 0.198) or 31–45 years (p = 0.140). We found no temporal trend when we compared the present results with Australian PBDE data from 2002–2005. PBDE concentrations were higher in males than in females; however, this difference reached statistical significance only for BDE-153 (p = 0.05). Conclusions The observed peak concentration at 2.6–3 years of age is later than the period when breast-feeding is typically ceased. This suggests that in addition to the exposure via human milk, young children have higher exposure to these chemicals and/or a lower capacity to eliminate them. PMID:19750114

  8. Effect of grain size on charge and spin correlations in Bi0.5Ca0.5MnO3 manganite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ade, Ramesh; Singh, Rajender

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report the electron spin resonance (ESR) and magnetization (M) studies to understand the effect of grain size (GS) on the charge ordering and spin correlations in Bi0.5Ca0.5MnO3 manganite synthesized by sol-gel method. The suppression of charge ordering (CO), long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, shifting of ferromagnetic (FM)-cluster glass (CG) transition towards higher temperatures and evolution of different magnetic correlations with decrease in GS are discussed in view of the changes in surface to volume ratio of nano-grains.

  9. Fabrication of highly spin-polarized Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} thin-films

    SciTech Connect

    Vahidi, M.; Zhang, S. K.; Yu, L.; Huang, M.; Newman, N.; Gifford, J. A.; Chen, T. Y.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Yu, Z. G.; Youngbull, C.

    2014-04-01

    Ferromagnetic Heusler Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} epitaxial thin-films have been fabricated in the L2{sub 1} structure with saturation magnetizations over 1200 emu/cm{sup 3}. Andreev reflection measurements show that the spin polarization is as high as 80% in samples sputtered on unheated MgO (100) substrates and annealed at high temperatures. However, the spin polarization is considerably smaller in samples deposited on heated substrates.

  10. Characterization of (Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)) TiO3 Thin Films for Ku-Band Phase Shifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl H.; VanKeuls, Fredrick W.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Miranda, Felix A.; Warner, Joseph D.; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Ramesh, Rammamoorthy

    1999-01-01

    The microstructural properties of (Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)TiO3) (BSTO) thin films (300, 700, and 1400 nm thick) deposited on LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates were characterized using high-resolution x-ray diffractometry. Film crystallinity was the parameter that most directly influenced tunability, and we observed that a) the crystalline quality was highest in the thinnest film and progressively degraded with increasing film thickness; and b) strain at the film/substrate interface was completely relieved via dislocation formation. Paraelectric films such as BSTO offer an attractive means of incorporating low-cost phase shifter circuitry into beam-steerable reflectarray antennas.

  11. Photoluminescence and electrical properties of Eu-doped (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 ferroelectric single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiwu; Zhao, Xiangyong; Deng, Hao; Chen, Chao; Lin, Di; Li, Xiaobing; Yan, Jun; Luo, Haosu

    2014-02-01

    Eu3+-doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (Eu:NBT) single crystals were grown by a top-seeded solution growth method. Photoluminescence emission and excitation spectra of Eu:NBT were investigated. The two transitions in 7F0 → 5D0 excitation spectra reveal that Eu3+ ions were incorporated into two adjacent crystallographic sites in NBT, i.e., Bi3+ and Na+ sites. The former has a symmetrical surrounding, while the later has a disordered environment, which was confirmed by decay curve measurements. The dielectric dispersion behavior was depressed and the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were improved after Eu doping.

  12. Direct band-gap measurement on epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} Heusler-alloy films

    SciTech Connect

    Alhuwaymel, Tariq F.; Carpenter, Robert; Yu, Chris Nga Tung; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Lazarov, Vlado K.; Abdullah, Ranjdar M.; El-Gomati, Mohamed; Hirohata, Atsufumi

    2015-05-07

    In this study, a newly developed band-gap measurement technique has been used to characterise epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} (CFAS) films. The CFAS films were deposited on MgO(001) substrate by ultra high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The band-gap for the as deposited films was found to be ∼110 meV when measured at room temperature. This simple technique provides a macroscopic analysis of the half-metallic properties of a thin film. This allows for simple optimisation of growth and annealing conditions.

  13. Chemical potential fluctuations in topological insulator (Bi0.5Sb0.5)2Te3-films visualized by photocurrent spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastl, Christoph; Seifert, Paul; He, Xiaoyue; Wu, Kehui; Li, Yongqing; Holleitner, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the photocurrent properties of the topological insulator (Bi0.5Sb0.5)2Te3 on SrTiO3-substrates. We find reproducible, submicron photocurrent patterns generated by long-range chemical potential fluctuations, occurring predominantly at the topological insulator/substrate interface. We fabricate nano-plowed constrictions which comprise single potential fluctuations. Hereby, we can quantify the magnitude of the disorder potential to be in the meV range. The results further suggest a dominating photo-thermoelectric current generated in the surface states in such nanoscale constrictions.

  14. Evolution of structure in Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 single crystals with BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wenwei; Luo, Chengtao; Zhang, Qinhui; Ren, Yang; Li, Jiefang; Luo, Haosu; Viehland, D.

    2014-10-01

    The structural, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-x mol. %BaTiO3 (NBT-x%BT) crystals have been investigated. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of NBT-x%BT were enhanced near x = 5-7. High resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction studies revealed the presence of a phase boundary between monoclinic (Cc) and tetragonal (P4bm) phases near x = 5-7, where the dielectric and piezoelectric properties were enhanced.

  15. Dielectric, Electromechanical and Ferroelectric Properties of (Na0.5Bi0.5)(NdxTi1-2xNbx)O3 Relaxor Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahboob, S.; Prasad, G.; Kumar, G. S.

    Polycrystalline (Na0.5Bi0.5)(NdxTi1-2xNbx)O3 ceramics with perovskite structure were prepared through the solid state sintering route. The prepared samples were studied for their dielectric, electromechanical and ferroelectric properties. Dielectric measurements showed relaxor behavior. From electromechanical studies, a relatively high electro-mechanical coupling factor, kt (in the range 0.69-0.73) depending upon composition was observed. Among the samples studied, x = 0.0125 exhibited a higher value of remanant polarization (~ 0.50 μC/cm2 at coercive field (Ec = 6.30 kV/cm)).

  16. Effect of heat treatment on structural and Mössbauer spectroscopic properties of coprecipitated Mn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Ch.; Tirupanyam, B. V.; Meena, S. S.; Babu, Ch. Seshu; Sastry, D. L.

    2015-06-01

    Results obtained in a systamatic study by X-ray diffraction and Mösssbauer spectroscopy on the structural and magnetic properties on Mn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles heat treated at 200 °C, 500 °C and 800 °C are reported. Average crystallite sizes are estimated to be in the range (2.6nm - 12.8nm). It is observed that crystallite sizes increase with increase in sintering temperature and random variation in lattice parameter was observed. At relatively low sintering temperatures the samples exhibit superparamagnetism and complete ferrite phase was observed at higher heat treatment.

  17. Far-infrared conductivity measurements of pair breaking in superconducting Nb 0.5 Ti 0.5 N thin films induced by an external magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xiaoxiang; Hwang, J; Martin, C; Tanner, D B; Carr, G L

    2010-12-17

    We report the complex optical conductivity of a superconducting thin film of Nb 0.5 Ti 0.5 N in an external magnetic field. The field was applied parallel to the film surface and the conductivity extracted from far-infrared transmission and reflection measurements. The real part shows the superconducting gap, which we observe to be suppressed by the applied magnetic field. We compare our results with the pair-breaking theory of Abrikosov and Gor'kov and confirm directly the theory's validity for the optical conductivity.

  18. Collective dipole behavior and unusual morphotropic phase boundary in ferroelectric Pb(Zr(0.5)Ti(0.5))O3 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiujun; Naumov, Ivan I; Fu, Huaxiang

    2013-02-13

    Dipole collective behavior and phase transition in ferroelectric (FE) Pb(Zr(0.5)Ti(0.5))O(3) nanowires, caused by modulated electric fields, are reported. Our result also leads to the finding of a rather outstanding electromechanical d(31) response in a 8.4 nm diameter PZT wire, which may potentially outperform bulk PMN-PT and PZN-PT. Moreover, we further demonstrate the existence of a new type of morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) that bridges two dissimilar structure phases of different order parameters. Microscopic insights for understanding the collective behavior and the structural phase within the new MPB are provided. PMID:23256599

  19. Study of the intergranular coupling of Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2-yMgyCu3O10-δ (y = 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5) superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurram, A. A.; Khan, Nawazish A.

    2006-06-01

    The intergranular properties of Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2-yMgyCu3O10-δ superconductor have been studied by resistivity and AC magnetic susceptibility measurements. Magnesium substitution has been found to improve the interplane coupling in the unit cell of Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2-yMgyCu3O10-δ, which in turn would enhance the intergranular coupling. The main objective of the present studies was to observe any possible role played by Mg doping in developing and enhancing the intergranular coupling and flux pinning properties of this compound. Any improvement to the intergrain coupling may be promoted by a change in the oxygen content in the final compound. Since the loss and/or intake of oxygen occurs at Ta>=350 °C, the post-annealing experiments were carried out at 500 °C for 3 h in air, nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres. It was observed from these studies that the oxygen contents decreased in all the samples after post-annealing in air, nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres. The most prominent effects in terms of enhanced superconductivity in the intergranular regions are observed in Mg-doped samples after post-annealing in air. The Mg-doped samples have shown enhanced granular connectivity, since the intergranular coupling peak observed in χ'' in AC susceptibility measurements is shifted to higher temperatures with the increase of Mg concentration. The enhanced intergranular coupling and flux pinning in magnesium-substituted samples is also observed in AC susceptibility measurements in external magnetic fields. The enhancement of intergranular coupling increases the transport critical current density of the samples.

  20. Soft tissue thickness values for black and coloured South African children aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Briers, N; Briers, T M; Becker, P J; Steyn, M

    2015-07-01

    In children, craniofacial changes due to facial growth complicate facial approximations and require specific knowledge of soft tissue thicknesses (STT). The lack of South African juvenile STT standards of particular age groups, sex and ancestry is problematic. According to forensic artists in the South African Police Service the use of African-American values to reconstruct faces of Black South African children yields poor results. In order to perform a facial approximation that presents a true reflection of the child in question, information regarding differences in facial soft tissue at different ages, sexes and ancestry groups is needed. The aims of this study were to provide data on STT of South African Black and Coloured children and to assess differences in STT with respect to age, sex and ancestry. STT was measured using cephalograms of South African children (n=388), aged 6-13 years. After digitizing the images, STT measurements were taken at ten mid-facial landmarks from each image using the iTEM measuring program. STT comparisons between groups per age, sex and ancestry were statistically analyzed. The results showed that STT differences at lower face landmarks are more pronounced in age groups per ancestry as opposed to differences per age and sex. Generally, an increase in STT was seen between 6-10 year old groups and 11-13 year old groups, regardless of ancestry and sex, at the midphiltrum, labiale inferius, pogonion, and beneath chin landmarks. This research created a reference dataset for STT of South African children of Black and Coloured ancestry per age and sex that will be useful for facial reconstruction/approximation of juvenile remains.

  1. Prevalence of myopia and refractive changes in students from 3 to 17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, H; Hirai, H

    1999-10-01

    We investigated changes in the prevalence of myopia and mean changes in refractive errors in Japanese students from 3 to 17 years old from 1984 to 1996. Mass ophthalmologic surveys were performed annually during the course of the study. The age-specific frequency distribution of refractive errors remained similar for 6-year-old students (defined in this study as students in the first grade of primary school) during the 13-year period, but the distribution became gradually skewed toward myopia for 12-year-old students (defined in this study as students in the first grade of junior high school). Comparisons between 1984 and 1996 examinations showed a considerable increase in the incidence of myopia among those 7 years of age or older, and changes in mean refractive errors also demonstrated a greater shift toward myopia, especially in students older than 10 years, for whom the changes were statistically significant. In this 13-year period, the prevalence of myopia increased from 49.3% to 65.6% in 17-year-old students. In addition to the annual mass ophthalmologic examinations, we also performed a longitudinal 6-year study of 346 students who entered junior high school in 1989, 1990, or 1991. Among these students, the prevalence of myopia increased from 43.5% at 12 years of age to 66.0% at 17 years of age. These 346 students were divided into the following eight groups according to their refractive error (spherical power [D]) at 12 years of age: +1 D, 0 D, -1 D, -2 D, -3 D, -4 D, -5 D, and -6 D. Mean progressions of myopia in these students were as follows: for the +1 D group, -0.14 D/year; for the 0 D group, -0.25 D/year; for the -1 D group, -0.37 D/year; for the -2 D group, -0.40 D/year; for the -3 D group, -0.29 D/year; for the -4 D group, -0.25 D/year; for the -5 D group, -0.14 D/year; and for the -6 D group, -0.22 D/year. Boys and girls demonstrated a statistically significant difference in mean changes in refractive errors at the 6-year follow-up examination: the

  2. Electrical Characterization Induced by Structural Modulation in (Ca0.28Ba0.72)2.5-0.5 x (Na0.5K0.5) x Nb5O15 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bian; Wei, Lingling; Wang, Zhongming; Kang, Shoucheng; Chao, Xiaolian; Yang, Zupei

    2016-01-01

    (Ca0.28Ba0.72)2.5-0.5 x (Na0.5K0.5) x Nb5O15 ceramics (CBNKN, 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) with `unfilled' tungsten bronze structure were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. Effects of alkalis-introducing concentration in A-sites on the microstructure, dielectric and ferroelectric properties were investigated in detail. Pure tungsten bronze structure could be obtained in all compositions according to the x-ray diffraction patterns. Raman spectroscopy results showed that co-introducing Na+ and K+ in A sites to decrease the structural vacancy could enhance the dielectric and ferroelectric properties, which was attributed to the stronger interaction inside NbO6 octahedron and large distortion degree of NbO6 polar unit. Traditional temperature dependence of dielectric characteristics and well-saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed for all CBNKN ceramics. The better comprehensive dielectric and ferroelectric properties were obtained at x = 0.2 due to the bigger distortion degree of NbO6 polar unit and the highest densification. Whereas higher alkalis-introducing concentration would deteriorate the physical and electrical properties due to the poor sintering behavior. In addition, the frequency dependence of ɛ around transition temperature ( T c) and the temperature dependence of ferroelectric properties were discussed to further clarify the relationship between composition and performance.

  3. Effect of La-substitution on structural, dielectric and electrical properties of (Bi0.5Pb0.5) (Fe0.5Zr0.25Ti0.25)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Niranjan; Pattanayak, Samita; Choudhary, R. N. P.; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-09-01

    As lead zirconium titanate and bismuth ferrite (BFO), members of perovskite family, have high dielectric constant and ferroelectric/ferromagnetic phase transition temperature, they are used for many potential applications including random access memory, sensors. The present work describes the modifications in the ferroelectric behaviour of PZT doped BFO due to substitution of few molar percent of La on Fe-site. A thorough comparative investigation of the frequency and temperature response of dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, electric modulus, complex impedance and ferroelectric properties of Bi0.5Pb0.5 [Fe(0.5- x) La x (Zr0.25Ti0.25)] O3, where x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 (hence forth called as BFPZLTO) compounds were studied in a wide frequency range 10 kHz to 1 MHz at temperature range 25-400 °C using ac impedance spectroscopy and electric modulus analysis. The structural analysis of compound revealed the tetragonal phase with space group P4 mm at room temperature. Cole-Cole plots are used for interpretation of relaxation mechanism in the materials. The materials especially the compound with x = 0.3 found more suitable to be used in transducers, RAMs, flip-flop memories, etc., for electronics applications.

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Cardiovascular Stability in Active Men Aged 45 to 65 Years.

    PubMed

    Kasch, F W; Wallace, J P; Van Camp, S P; Verity, L

    1988-01-01

    In brief: Cross-sectional studies of physical performance generally show a linear decline in maximum aerobic power (V O2 max) with increasing age (about 1% to 2% per year). In the study described in this article, 15 men were serially followed for 20 years. They performed exercises consisting of walking, running, swimming, and cycling for an average of 3.6 days per week and requiring an energy expenditure of 2,104 kcal per week. Over the 20 years, directly measured V O2 max declined 12% (from 44.4 to 38.9 ml· kg(-1)· min(-1), or 0.27 ml· kg(-1)· min(-1) per year). Essentially no differences were seen in resting heart rate or arterial blood pressure. The authors conclude that physical training forestalls the decline in V O2 max until at least age 65. PMID:27427109

  5. Fetal exposure to propoxur and abnormal child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ostrea, Enrique M.; Reyes, Alexis; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Pacifico, Rochelle; Benitez, Bernadette; Ramos, Essie; Bernardo, Rommel C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa; Janisse, James J.; Ager, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids, on child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. Patients and Methods Mothers were prospectively recruited during mid-pregnancy in Bulacan, Philippines where multiple pesticides including propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon and transfluthrin are used. To detect prenatal exposure to these pesticides, maternal hair and blood, infant’s hair, cord blood, and meconium were analyzed for the pesticides by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Infants were examined at 2 years of age with 95.1% follow up rate and their neurodevelopment outcome was assessed by the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale (N=754). Results Meconium analysis was the most sensitive method to detect fetal exposure to pesticides and exposure was highest for propoxur (21.3%) and the grouped pyrethroids (2.5% - bioallethrin, transfluthrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin). Path analysis modeling was performed to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids on the child’s neurodevelopment at 24 months of age while controlling for confounders. Only singletons and those with complete data for the path analysis were included (N=696). Using a path analysis model, there was a significant negative (β= −0.14, p<0.001) relationship between prenatal pesticide exposure to propoxur and motor development at 2 years of age after controlling for confounders, e.g., infant gender, socioeconomic status, maternal intelligence, home stimulation (HOME), postnatal exposure to propoxur and blood lead level at 2 years of age. Conclusion At 2 years of age, prenatal exposure to propoxur was associated with poorer motor development in children. PMID:22155319

  6. Effect of Yttrium on the Fracture Strength of the Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyelim; Kaplan, Wayne D.; Choe, Heeman

    2016-07-01

    This is a preliminary investigation on the mechanical properties of Pb-free Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joints containing 0.02 wt.% to 0.1 wt.% Y under a range of thermal aging and reflow conditions. Despite the significantly thicker intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder joint, the 0.1 wt.% Y-doped joint exhibited a higher fracture strength than its baseline Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu counterpart under most aging and reflow conditions. This may be associated with the formation of Y-Cu IMCs formed at the interface between the solder and the Cu substrate, because the Y-Cu IMCs have recently been referred to as relatively `ductile' IMCs.

  7. Twenty-year dynamics of hypertension in Iranian adults: age, period, and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Baikpour, Masoud; Rafei, Ali; Fayaz, Mohammad; Heshmat, Ramin; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension is a well-known health problem all over the world. Many studies have assessed its prevalence and associated risk factors, but all were cross-sectional and did not evaluate the trend of hypertension through all three different temporal dimensions including age, period, and cohort. So, we aimed to assess the 20-year dynamics of hypertension via the age-period-cohort model. Data from 74,155 subjects aged 25-60 years gathered through five national health surveys (1990-91, 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011) were used in this study. The age-period-cohort effect on hypertension was analyzed using the intrinsic estimator model. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age for both genders except for males in 2003 and 2011 periods with drops of 3.5% for ages 55-60 and 8.1% for ages 50-60, respectively. As for the period effect, the prevalence of hypertension was almost constant in all age groups for both genders from 1990-1999. The cohort-based prevalence of hypertension showed a declining trend in all cohorts for females except for 2011 in birth cohort of 1950-1955 which remains stationary. The trend of prevalence for males also follows a decreasing trend except for periods of 2003, 2007, and 2011; birth cohorts of 1945-1949, 1975-1980, and 1950-1960 increase by 3.5%, 1.9%, and 8.1%, respectively. The age effect on the prevalence of hypertension showed an almost monotonic increasing trend. The period effect increased the total prevalence of hypertension from 1992 to 1997. The cohort effect also showed a monotonic decrease in hypertension prevalence except for a few discrepancies. PMID:26481410

  8. Use of cessation methods among smokers aged 16-24 years--United States, 2003.

    PubMed

    2006-12-22

    Smoking cessation among adolescent smokers is relatively rare, with approximately 15.6% of smokers aged 12-19 years quitting smoking in a 4-year period (approximately 4% per year). Rates for failed quitting attempts among younger smokers are higher than those for adults (43%), with approximately 58% of high-school smokers having tried to quit at least once for 1 day or longer in the preceding year. To track the history of quitting behavior among smokers aged 16-24 years, Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, New York) initiated the 2-year longitudinal National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey (NYSCS) in 2003. This report summarizes key findings from the survey regarding lifetime use of smoking-cessation methods. The findings indicated that smokers aged 16-24 years who had tried to quit were more likely to use unassisted quitting methods than assisted quitting methods; none of the unassisted methods are recommended by the Public Health Service (PHS) clinical guidelines for treatment of tobacco use and dependence, whereas most of the assisted methods are recommended for adults and have been determined to be effective. Many youths aged 16-24 years are trying to quit smoking but often underestimate the rapid progression to tobacco dependence; therefore, PHS clinical practice guidelines for treating tobacco use and dependence recommend that certain clinical interventions proven to be effective among adults be used in youth-based approaches to cessation. In addition, other components of comprehensive tobacco-control programs also increase smoking cessation and should be implemented at CDC-recommended levels to lower tobacco use among youths and adults.

  9. Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

    2009-10-01

    Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention.

  10. Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

    2009-10-01

    Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention. PMID:19748044

  11. Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group. PMID:21989500

  12. Crystal structure analysis of lead free Ba{sub 1-x}La{sub x}[Ti{sub 0.5}(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}){sub 0.5}]{sub 1-x/4}O{sub 3} Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Piyush Kumar; Rani, Jyoti; Yadav, K. L.

    2012-06-05

    Single phase Ba{sub 1-x}La{sub x}[Ti{sub 0.5}(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}){sub 0.5}]{sub 1-x/4}O{sub 3} [referred as BT-LFN]; x=0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 ceramics have been synthesized by solid - state reaction process and were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique. The microstructure of the ceramics was examined by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM).

  13. Pressure-induced phase transition in La1–xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2

    DOE PAGES

    Fang, Y.; Yazici, D.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-09-15

    Electrical resistivity measurements on La1–xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8) have been performed under applied pressures up to 2.6 GPa from 2 K to room temperature. The superconducting transition temperature Tc of each sample significantly increases at a Sm-concentration dependent pressure Pt, indicating a pressure-induced phase transition from a low-Tc to a high-Tc phase. At ambient pressure, Tc increases dramatically from 2.8 K at x = 0.1 to 5.4 K at x = 0.8; however, the Tc values at P > Pt decrease slightly with x and Pt shifts to higher pressures with Sm substitution. In the normal state,more » semiconducting-like behavior is suppressed and metallic conduction is induced with increasing pressure in all of the samples. Furthermore, these results suggest that the pressure dependence of Tc for the BiS2-based superconductors is related to the lattice parameters at ambient pressure and enable us to estimate the evolution of Tc for SmO0.5F0.5BiS2 under pressure.« less

  14. Inductive crystallization effect of atomic-layer-deposited Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films for ferroelectric application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xun; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qing-Qing; Wang, Lu-Hao; Zhou, Peng; Lu, Hong-Liang; Wang, Peng-Fei; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, David Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric Hf x Zr1-x O2 thin films are considered promising candidates for future lead-free CMOS-compatible ferroelectric memory application. The inductive crystallization behaviors and the ferroelectric performance of Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition were investigated. Inductive crystallization can be induced by the film growth condition and appropriate top electrode selection. In this work, a Ni/Hf0.5Zr0.5O2/Ru/Si stack annealed at 550°C for 30 s in N2 ambient after the Ni top electrode has been deposited was manufactured, and it shows the best ferroelectric hysteresis loop in the dielectric thickness of 25 nm, with a remanent polarization value of 6 μC/cm(2) and a coercive field strength of 2.4 MV/cm measured at 10 kHz. Endurance, retention, and domain switching current characteristics were evaluated well for potential application in the field of ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) and nonvolatile ferroelectric memories (FeRAM).

  15. Epitaxial Ferroelectric Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)TiO3 Thin Films for Room-Temperature High-Frequency Tunable Element Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. L.; Feng, H. H.; Zhang, Z.; Brazdeikis, A.; Miranda, F. A.; VanKeuls, F. W.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Huang, Z. J.; Liou, Y.; Chu, W. K.; Chu, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    Perovskite Ba(0.5)SR(0.5)TiO3 thin films have been synthesized on (001) LaAl03 substrates by pulsed laser ablation. Extensive X-ray diffraction, rocking curve, and pole-figure studies suggest that the films are c-axis oriented and exhibit good in-plane relationship of <100>(sub BSTO)//<100>(sub LAO). Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry studies indicate that the epitaxial films have excellent crystalline quality with an ion beam minimum yield chi(sub min) Of only 2.6 %. The dielectric property measurements by the interdigital technique at 1 MHz show room temperature values of the relative dielectric constant, epsilon(sub r), and loss tangent, tan(sub delta), of 1430 and 0.007 with no bias, and 960 and 0.001 with 35 V bias, respectively. The obtained data suggest that the as-grown Ba(0.5)SR(0.5)TiO3 films can be used for development of room-temperature high-frequency tunable elements.

  16. Crystal structure of (Li{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} by neutron powder diffraction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Idemoto, Yasushi |; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Loong, C.K.; Koura, Nobuyuki; Kohara, Shinji

    1997-08-01

    The crystal structure of (Li{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was determined by neutron powder diffraction. A final weighted R-factor of 4.54% was obtained for the refinement of 2,373 reflections by the Rietveld method from a sample synthesized using {sup 7}Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (99.9% pure). Slight distortion of the CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} units in the monoclinic cell was observed; the O(1)-C-O(2) angle and C-O(3) length are larger than those for the other C-O bonds and O-C-O angles. These local-structure characteristics can be explained by the difference in the ionic size of Li{sup +} and K{sup +}, and the different electrostatic interactions between the cations and CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} units. (Li{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} is important as a material for molten carbonate fuel cells.

  17. Octahedral distortion induced magnetic anomalies in LaMn{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Manna, Kaustuv Elizabeth, Suja; Anil Kumar, P. S.; Bhadram, Venkata Srinu; Narayana, Chandrabhas

    2014-07-28

    Single crystals of LaMn{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} belonging to the ferromagnetic-insulator and distorted perovskite class were grown using a four-mirror optical float zone furnace. The as-grown crystal crystallizes into an orthorhombic Pbnm structure. The spatially resolved 2D Raman scan reveals a strain-induced distribution of transition metal (TM)–oxygen (O) octahedral deformation in the as-grown crystal. A rigorous annealing process releases the strain, thereby generating homogeneous octahedral distortion. The octahedra tilt by reducing the bond angle TM-O-TM, resulting in a decline of the exchange energy in the annealed crystal. The critical behavior is investigated from the bulk magnetization. It is found that the ground state magnetic behavior assigned to the strain-free LaMn{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} crystal is of the 3D Heisenberg kind. Strain induces mean field-like interaction in some sites, and consequently, the critical exponents deviate from the 3D Heisenberg class in the as-grown crystal. The temperature-dependent Raman scattering study reveals strong spin-phonon coupling and the existence of two magnetic ground states in the same crystal.

  18. Observation of selective surface element substitution in FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductor thin film exposed to ambient air by synchrotron radiation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nian; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Jia-Li; Lei, Tao; Wang, Jia-Ou; Qian, Hai-Jie; Wu, Rui; Yan, Lei; Guo, Hai-Zhong; Ibrahim, Kurash

    2016-09-01

    A systematic investigation of oxidation on a superconductive FeTe0.5Se0.5 thin film, which was grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3 (001) by pulsed laser deposition, has been carried out. The sample was exposed to ambient air for one month for oxidation. Macroscopically, the exposed specimen lost its superconductivity due to oxidation. The specimen was subjected to in situ synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements following cycles of annealing and argon ion etching treatments to unravel what happened in the electronic structure and composition after exposure to air. By the spectroscopic measurements, we found that the as-grown FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductive thin film experienced an element selective substitution reaction. The oxidation preferentially proceeds through pumping out the Te and forming Fe–O bonds by O substitution of Te. In addition, our results certify that in situ vacuum annealing and low-energy argon ion etching methods combined with spectroscopy are suitable for depth element and valence analysis of layered structure superconductor materials. Project supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 1G2009312311750101) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11375228, 11204303, and U1332105).

  19. La0 . 5 - xNa0 . 5 + xFe2As2: electron and hole doping in the spacing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiaqiang; Nandi, S.; Sales, B.; Mandrus, D.

    2015-03-01

    The electron-hole asymmetry in the phase diagram of iron-based superconductors is well illustrated in doped BaFe2As2 by comparing hole-doped Ba1-xKxFe2As2 and electron doped BaFe2-xCoxAs2, mainly due to the availability of high quality single crystals which enable systematic studies using various probes. In Ba1-xKxFe2As2, K-doping takes place at the spacing layer while FeAs layers remain intact. In contrast, Co substitution in BaFe2-xCoxAs2 disturbs the contiguity of the [FeAs4] tetrahedra and interferes with superconductivity in the FeAs layers. This effect coming from substitution at different crystallographic sites has been suggested to contribute to the electron-hole asymmetry. In this talk, I will present the magnetic and structural transitions of La0 . 5 - xNa0 . 5 + xFe2As2. Our results show that La0 . 5 - xNa0 . 5 + xFe2As2, or even compounds with other rare earth and alkali ions in the spacing layer, provides a new material platform for the study of iron-based superconductors. The material could be tuned from electron-doped to hole-doped by varying the ratio between the alkali metal and rare earth ions.

  20. Poling-Written Ferroelectricity in Bulk Multiferroic Double-Perovskite BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, Davide; Mezzadri, Francesco; Gilioli, Edmondo; Solzi, Massimo; Calestani, Gianluca; Bolzoni, Fulvio; Cabassi, Riccardo

    2016-06-20

    We present a comprehensive study of the electrical properties of bulk polycrystalline BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3, a double perovskite synthesized in high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 shows an antiferromagnetic character with TN = 288 K overlapped with an intrinsic antiferroelectricity due to the Bi(3+) stereochemical effect. Beyond this, the observation of a semiconductor-insulator transition at TP ≈ 140 K allows one to define three distinct temperature ranges with completely different electrical properties. For T > TN, electric transport follows an ordinary thermally activated Arrhenius behavior; the system behaves as a paramagnetic semiconductor. At intermediate temperatures (TP < T < TN), electric transport is best described by Mott's variable range hopping model with lowered dimensionality D = 1, stabilized by the magnetic ordering process and driven by the inhomogeneity of the sample on the B site of the perovskite. Finally, for T < TP, the material becomes a dielectric insulator, showing very unusual poling-induced soft ferroelectricity with high saturation polarization, similar to the parent compound BiFeO3. Under external electric poling, the system irreversibly evolves from antiferroelectric to polar arrangement. PMID:27247990

  1. Observation of selective surface element substitution in FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductor thin film exposed to ambient air by synchrotron radiation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nian; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Jia-Li; Lei, Tao; Wang, Jia-Ou; Qian, Hai-Jie; Wu, Rui; Yan, Lei; Guo, Hai-Zhong; Ibrahim, Kurash

    2016-09-01

    A systematic investigation of oxidation on a superconductive FeTe0.5Se0.5 thin film, which was grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3 (001) by pulsed laser deposition, has been carried out. The sample was exposed to ambient air for one month for oxidation. Macroscopically, the exposed specimen lost its superconductivity due to oxidation. The specimen was subjected to in situ synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements following cycles of annealing and argon ion etching treatments to unravel what happened in the electronic structure and composition after exposure to air. By the spectroscopic measurements, we found that the as-grown FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductive thin film experienced an element selective substitution reaction. The oxidation preferentially proceeds through pumping out the Te and forming Fe-O bonds by O substitution of Te. In addition, our results certify that in situ vacuum annealing and low-energy argon ion etching methods combined with spectroscopy are suitable for depth element and valence analysis of layered structure superconductor materials. Project supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 1G2009312311750101) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11375228, 11204303, and U1332105).

  2. Structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of (Pb1-xCax)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 solid solution ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puri, Maalti; Bahel, Shalini; Raevski, I. P.; Narang, Sukhleen Bindra

    2016-06-01

    Ceramic samples of (Pb1-xCax)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 with x=0.0, 0.20, 0.40, 0.45, 0.50, 0.55, 0.60 and 1.0 were fabricated by columbite precursor method. All the synthesized samples have a perovskite structure and unit cell volume decreases with increasing Ca content. The substitution of Ca for Pb has been found to have a pronounced effect on structural, dielectric and magnetic properties. Saturated magnetic loops were observed at room temperature for compositions with x≥0.40. The observed maximal magnetization at room temperature is rather small and varies non-monotonically with increasing Ca contents. It is supposed that room-temperature magnetic properties of (Pb1-xCax)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 ceramics might be due to the presence of ferromagnetic impurity, presumably PbFe12O19 and/or CaFe12O19.

  3. Multiferroicity and magnetoelectric coupling enhanced large magnetocaloric effect in DyFe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, L. H.; Yang, J.; Dai, J. M.; Song, W. H.; Zhang, R. R.; Sun, Y. P.

    2014-01-20

    DyFe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} has been synthesized using a sol-gel method. It exhibits ferroelectricity at the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature T{sub N1}∼261 K. Large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) (11.3 J/kg K at 4.5 T) enhanced by magnetoelectric coupling due to magnetic field and temperature induced magnetic transition was observed. Temperature-dependent Raman study shows an anomalous behavior near T{sub N1} in the phonon modes related to the vibration of Dy atoms and stretching of CrO{sub 6}/FeO{sub 6} octahedra, suggesting the ferroelectricity in DyFe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} is associated with the spin-phonon coupling with respect to both Dy and Cr/Fe ions. These results suggest routes to obtain high-temperature multiferroicity and large MCE for practical applications.

  4. Aurivillius-Popper mixed superconductors in BiO--CuO--(Sr/sub 0. 5/, Ca/sub 0. 5/)O system

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuhara, M.; Bhalla, A.S.; Mulay, L.N.; Newnham, R.E.

    1989-03-01

    We report the effect of inhomogeneities on the electric resistivity and ac magnetic susceptibility in Aurivillius-like bismuth mixed phase oxides of the BiO--Cuo--(Sr/sub 0.5/, Ca/sub 0.5/)O system and propose a crystal structure of the major phase having highest T/sub c/. Nominal Aurivillius compositions with molar ratios of BiO/(Sr/sub 0.5/, Ca/sub 0.5/)O = 1/2 are superconductors with T/sub c/ ranging from 83 to 107 K, and are accompanied by a large expansion during sintering due to the formation of Kirkendall voids. T/sub c/ increases with decreasing of the c lattice parameter. An oxide BiSrCaCu/sub 2/O/sub x/ (n = 2) shows a maximum T/sub c/ value of 107 K and an onset of superconductivity at a much higher temperature. It seems that the structure of Bi/sub 2/Sr/sub 2/CaCu/sub 2/O/sub x/ consists of an Aurivillius-like phase having two perovskite layers and a Popper mixed phase. The ac magnetic susceptibility showed an overall decrease in susceptibility with time up to 220 days. This appears to be related to the relief of intralattice strain.

  5. Peak effect in optimally doped p-type single-crystal Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 studied by ac magnetization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J.; Gutierrez, J.; Li, J.; Yuan, J.; Wang, H.-B.; Yamaura, K.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.; Moshchalkov, V. V.

    2013-10-01

    We have used the ac magnetic susceptibility to investigate the vortex state in an optimally doped p-type Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 single crystal under various ac and dc fields. A peak effect is observed in the temperature dependence of the in-phase ac susceptibility, indicating an order-disorder transition on the vortex phase diagram. The peak effect displays an anomalous history effect compared with other type-II superconductors, which we ascribe to the strong pinning existing in the material. We observe the development of a small dissipation peak at the temperature Tp2 slightly below the peak effect region. Similar to the peak effect boundary, Tp2 delimits a region in the H-T phase diagram which is independent on the ac field amplitude. We argue that this small peak may arise from the softening of the vortex lattice, leading to a collective pinning of the whole vortex lattice. This effect assists and further enhances the peak effect occurring in the Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 superconductor.

  6. Large electrostrain and high optical temperature sensitivity in BaTiO3-(Na0.5Ho0.5)TiO3 multifunctional ferroelectric ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Chai, Xiaona; Wang, Xusheng; Xu, Chao-Nan; Gu, Yihao; Zhao, Haifeng; Yao, Xi

    2016-08-01

    Ferroelectric (1 -x)BaTiO3-x(Na0.5Ho0.5)TiO3 ceramics with ferroelectric and up-conversion luminescent multifunctions were designed and fabricated by a solid state reaction process. Their structure, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, up-conversion photoluminescence and relative optical temperature sensing properties were investigated systematically. Crystal structure analysis and Rietveld refinements based on the powder X-ray diffraction data show that the ceramics crystallized in the tetragonal perovskite space group P4mm at room temperature. Enhanced electrical properties and strong green up-conversion luminescence with thermally coupled green emission bands centered at 523 and 553 nm were observed. For a typical sample x equals 0.05, a large electrostrain of 0.279% was obtained under a 70 kV cm(-1) electric field that is comparable to that of the PZT4. Meanwhile, the excellent optical temperature sensitivity (0.0063 K(-1) at 480 K) is higher than that of Er-doped BaTiO3 nanocrystal materials. The results suggest that the BaTiO3-(Na0.5Ho0.5)TiO3 material should be an attractive material for piezoelectric actuator and temperature sensing device applications. PMID:27244098

  7. The Phase Transition Behaviors of Li1xMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 During Lithium Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, K.; Yoon, W; Zaghib, K; Chung, K; Yang, X

    2009-01-01

    How the structural changes take place in LiMnyFe1-yPO4-type cathode materials during lithium extraction/insertion is an important issue, especially on if they go through the single-phase reaction (i.e., solid solution reaction) or the two-phase reaction regions. Here we report the studies on the phase transition behaviors of a carbon coated Li1-xMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 (Csingle bondLi1-xMn0.5Fe0.5PO4, 0.0 less-than-or-equals, slant x less-than-or-equals, slant 1.0) sample during the first charge using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The combination of in situ XAS and XRD results clearly identify two two-phase coexistence regions at two voltage plateaus of 3.6 (Fe2+/Fe3+) and 4.2 V (Mn2+/Mn3+) and a narrow intermediate region which proceeds via single-phase reaction in between two two-phase regions. In addition, simultaneous redox reactions of Fe2+/Fe3+ and Mn2+/Mn3+ in the narrow single-phase region are reported and discussed for the first time.

  8. Synthesis, Structure, and Electrochemical Performance of High Capacity Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2 Cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Ruther, Rose E; Zhou, Hui; Dhital, Chetan; Saravanan, Kuppan; Kercher, Andrew K.; Chen, Guoying; Huq, Ashfia; Delnick, Frank M.; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-09-08

    Orthorhombic Li2NiO2, Li2CuO2, and solid solutions thereof have been studied as potential cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to their high theoretical capacity and relatively low cost. While neither endmember shows good cycling stability, the intermediate composition, Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2, yields reasonably high reversible capacities. A new synthetic approach and detailed characterization of this phase and the parent Li2CuO2 are presented. The cycle life of Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2 is shown to depend critically on the voltage window. The formation of Cu1+ at low voltage and oxygen evolution at high voltage limit the electrochemical reversibility. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), in situ Raman spectroscopy,more » and gas evolution measurements are used to follow the chemical and structural changes that occur as a function of cell voltage.« less

  9. 59Co nuclear magnetic resonance study of the local distribution of atoms in the Heusler compound Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurmehl, Sabine; Kohlhepp, Jürgen T.; Swagten, Henk J. M.; Koopmans, Bert

    2012-02-01

    In this work, the spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is used to probe the local structure of Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 bulk samples. The 59Co NMR spectrum of the Heusler compound Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 consists of four main resonance lines with an underlying sub-structure. The splitting into the main resonance lines is explained by contributions of the B2 type structure. The sub-lines are attributed to a random distribution of Al and Si. By comparing the experimental results with an appropriate multinomial distribution, the fraction of the Al/Si intermixing and the ratio between the contributing structure types is assigned. The main structural contribution of as-cast bulk samples is of B2 type with 38% of L21 contributions. The L21 contribution can be enhanced to 59% by an appropriate annealing process. However, B2 contributions are still present after annealing. Additional foreign phases such as fcc-Co and Co-Al, with relative contributions of less than one percent, are also found in both as-cast and annealed samples. Resonance lines related to slight amounts of the ternary, parental Heusler compounds Co2FeAl and Co2FeSi are also observed.

  10. Enhanced photocatalytic activity over Cd0.5Zn0.5S with stacking fault structure combined with Cu2+ modified carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Beini; Lu, Yonghong; Wu, Pingxiao; Huang, Zhujian; Zhu, Yajie; Dang, Zhi; Zhu, Nengwu; Lu, Guining; Huang, Junyi

    2016-03-01

    For enhanced photocatalytic performance of visible light responsive CdZnS, a series of Cd0.5Zn0.5S solid solutions were fabricated by different methods. It was found that the semiconductor obtained through the precipitation-hydrothermal method (CZS-PH) exhibited the highest photocatalytic hydrogen production rate of 2154 μmol h-1 g-1. The enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production of CZS-PH was probably due to stacking fault formation as well as narrow bandgap, a large surface area and a small crystallite size. Based on this, carbon nanotubes modified with Cu2+ (CNTs (Cu)) were used as a cocatalyst for CZS-PH. The addition of CNTs (Cu) enhanced notably the absorption of the composites for visible light. The highest photocatalytic hydrogen production rate of the Cd0.5Zn0.5S-CNTs (Cu) composite was 2995 μmol h-1 g-1 with 1.0 wt.% of CNTs (Cu). The improvement of the photocatalytic activity by loading of CNTs (Cu) was not due to alteration of bandgap energy or surface area, and was probably attributed to suppression of the electron-hole recombination by the CNTs, with Cu2+ anchored in the interface optimizing the photogenerated electron transfer pathway between the semiconductor and CNTs. We report here the successful combination of homojunction and heterojunction in CdZnS semiconductor, which resulted in promotion of charge separation and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  11. Enhancement of transition temperature in Fe{sub x}Se{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} film via iron vacancies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, J. C.; Yeoh, W. K. E-mail: zxshi@seu.edu.cn; Cui, X. Y.; Ringer, S. P.; Kim, J. H.; Shi, D. Q.; Wang, X. L.; Dou, S. X.; Shi, Z. X. E-mail: zxshi@seu.edu.cn

    2014-06-30

    The effects of iron deficiency in Fe{sub x}Se{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} thin films (0.8 ≤ x ≤ 1) on superconductivity and electronic properties have been studied. A significant enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub C}) up to 21 K was observed in the most Fe deficient film (x = 0.8). Based on the observed and simulated structural variation results, there is a high possibility that Fe vacancies can be formed in the Fe{sub x}Se{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} films. The enhancement of T{sub C} shows a strong relationship with the lattice strain effect induced by Fe vacancies. Importantly, the presence of Fe vacancies alters the charge carrier population by introducing electron charge carriers, with the Fe deficient film showing more metallic behavior than the defect-free film. Our study provides a means to enhance the superconductivity and tune the charge carriers via Fe vacancy, with no reliance on chemical doping.

  12. A study on the wake-up effect of ferroelectric Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films by pulse-switching measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Joon; Park, Min Hyuk; Kim, Yu Jin; Lee, Young Hwan; Moon, Taehwan; Kim, Keum Do; Hyun, Seung Dam; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-21

    The appearance of ferroelectric (FE) and anti-ferroelectric (AFE) properties in HfO2-based thin films is highly intriguing in terms of both the scientific context and practical application in various electronic and energy-related devices. Interestingly, these materials showed a "wake-up effect", which refers to the increase in remanent polarization with increasing electric field cycling number before the occurrence of the fatigue effect. In this work, the wake-up effect from Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 was carefully examined by the pulse-switching experiment. In the pristine state, the Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 film mostly showed FE-like behavior with a small contribution from AFE-like distortion, which could be ascribed to the involvement of the AFE phase. The field cycling of only 100 cycles almost completely transformed the AFE phase into the FE phase by depinning the pinned domains. The influence of field cycling on the interfacial layer was also examined through the pulse-switching experiments. PMID:26511062

  13. A study on the wake-up effect of ferroelectric Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films by pulse-switching measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han Joon; Park, Min Hyuk; Kim, Yu Jin; Lee, Young Hwan; Moon, Taehwan; Kim, Keum Do; Hyun, Seung Dam; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of ferroelectric (FE) and anti-ferroelectric (AFE) properties in HfO2-based thin films is highly intriguing in terms of both the scientific context and practical application in various electronic and energy-related devices. Interestingly, these materials showed a ``wake-up effect'', which refers to the increase in remanent polarization with increasing electric field cycling number before the occurrence of the fatigue effect. In this work, the wake-up effect from Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 was carefully examined by the pulse-switching experiment. In the pristine state, the Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 film mostly showed FE-like behavior with a small contribution from AFE-like distortion, which could be ascribed to the involvement of the AFE phase. The field cycling of only 100 cycles almost completely transformed the AFE phase into the FE phase by depinning the pinned domains. The influence of field cycling on the interfacial layer was also examined through the pulse-switching experiments.

  14. Phase characteristics of 0.92Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.08BiAlO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei; Mao, Chaoliang; Liu, Zhen; Dong, Xianlin; Cao, Fei; Wang, Genshui

    2015-03-01

    The phase characteristics of 0.92Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.08BiAlO3 lead-free ceramics were investigated systematically. The loss tangent of poled sample shows a broad peak when heating to about 80 °C, i.e., depolarization temperature Td. The polarization-electric field hysteresis loops at different temperature exhibit the feature of ferroelectric (FE)- antiferroelectric (AFE) phase transition and the co-existence of FE and AFE phase. The pyroelectric coefficients curve confirms its diffusion behaviors. The initial hysteresis loop and switching current curves under Td indicate the co-existence of FE and AFE phase. The domain morphology of transmission electron microscopy supports the co-existence of FE and AFE phase. Our work not only exhibit that the FE and AFE phase characteristics of 0.92Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.08BiAlO3 ceramics but also they may be helpful for further investigation on lead-free ceramics.

  15. Relative Stability of FE and AFE States in (Na0,5Bi0,5) TiO3-based Solid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, V. L.; Ishchuk, V. M.; Gusakova, L. G.; Kisel, N. G.; Kuzenko, D. V.; Spiridonov, N. A.

    2015-03-01

    Changes of the relative stability of antiferroelectric (AFE) and ferroelectric (FE) phases in the [(Na0.5Bi0.5)0.80 Ba0.20](Ti1-yBy) O3 system of solid solutions with the B-site ion substitutions have been studied. Ions of zirconium and tin along some ions complexes such as (InNb), (FeNb) and several others were used for substitutions. The increase in the substituent ion content leads to nearly linear variation of the crystal cell size along with changes of the relative stability of the AFE and FE phases according to the tolerance factor variation. Substituent ions with ionic radii larger than the ionic radius of original ion evoke a decrease of the FE-AFE phase transition temperature. The substituent ions with smaller ionic radii have the opposite effect. Our results demonstrate that the size of the substituent ion causes a predominant influence on the relative stability of the FE and AFE states in (Na0.5Bi0.5) TiO3-based solid solutions. Our studies also indicate the way to raise the FE-AFE phase transition temperature.

  16. Superparamagnetic behavior of heat treated Mg0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Ch.; Singh, S. B.; Tirupanyam, B. V.; Meena, S. S.; Yusuf, S. M.; Prasad, S. A. V.; Krishna, K. S. Rama; Sastry, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    Nanoparticles of Mg0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopic results of Mg0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 annealed at 200 °C, 500 °C and 800 °C are reported. It was observed that the crystallite size increases and the lattice parameter decreases with increase in annealing temperature. The observed decrease in lattice strain supports the increase in crystallite size. The Mössbauer spectra of the samples annealed at 200 °C and 500 °C exhibits superparamagnetic doublets whereas the Mössbauer spectrum of the sample annealed at 800 °C exhibits paramagnetic doublet along with weak sextet of hyperfine interaction. The values of isomer shift resemble the presence of high spin iron ions. The studied ferrite nanoparticles are suitable for biomedical applications. The results are incorporated employing core-shell model and cation redistribution.

  17. Superparamagnetic state by linear and non-linear AC magnetic susceptibility in Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrites nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Suneetha, T; Kundu, S; Kashyap, Subhash C; Gupta, H C; Nath, T K

    2013-01-01

    The Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles has been synthesized using citrate-gel-precursor method. The direct mixing of nitrates and acetates yields homogeneous nanoparticles. Phase formation and crystal structure of the synthesized powder were examined through the X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the sample confirm the spinel structure. The average particle size was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The average particle size is found to be about 13 nm. Superparamagnetic-like nature of the nanoparticles of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 has been revealed through various dc and linear and non-linear ac magnetization measurements. However, the nanoparticles do not behave like ideal non-interacting superparamagnets. The magnetic particle size is found to be about 8 nm with saturation magnetization about 18.1 emu/g. The blocking temperature (T(B)) of the nanoparticle assembly is found to be about 150 K as observed from dc and ac magnetization measurements. The frequency dependence of the blocking temperature (T(B)) is found to follow Vogel-Fulcher law. The associated characteristic time tau0 is found to be 10(-5) s. This value is different from that generally found for non-interacting superparamagnetic (SPM) systems (tau0 = 10(-9)-10(-10) s).

  18. Theoretical study of magnetic properties and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism of the ordered Fe{sub 0.5}Pd{sub 0.5} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Galanakis, I.; Ostanin, S.; Alouani, M.; Dreysse, H.; Wills, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed theoretical study of magnetic and structural properties of Fe{sub 0.5}Pd{sub 0.5} ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct) alloy, using both the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), is presented. The total energy surface as a function of the lattice parameters a and c shows a long valley where stable structures may exist. Our calculation using the GGA predicts a magnetic phase transition from perpendicular to parallel magnetization as a function of the lattice parameter, whereas LSDA favors always the [001] magnetization axis for all values of the lattice parameters. The spin and orbital magnetic moments and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra are calculated for the easy [001] and the hard [100] magnetization axis and for three sets of experimental lattice parameters, and are compared to the available experimental results on these films. A supercell calculation for a 4 monolayer Fe{sub 0.5}Pd{sub 0.5} thin film produced similar results. While the spin magnetic moments are in fair agreement with experiment, the orbital magnetic moments are considerably underestimated. To improve the agreement with experiment we included an atomic orbital polarization term; however, the computed orbital moments scarcely changed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  19. Structural, Dielectric, and Electrical Properties of Bi1- x Pb x Fe1- x (Zr0.5Ti0.5) x O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Niranjan; Pattanayak, Samita; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Polycrystalline samples of Bi1- x Pb x Fe1- x (Zr0.5Ti0.5) x O3 (BPFZTO) with x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 were prepared by high-temperature solid-state reaction. Preliminary structural analysis of calcined powders of the materials by use of x-ray powder diffraction confirmed formation of single-phase systems with the tetragonal structure. Room-temperature scanning electron micrographs of the samples revealed uniform distribution of grains of low porosity and different dimensions on the surface of the samples. The frequency-temperature dependence of dielectric and electric properties was studied by use of dielectric and complex impedance spectroscopy over a wide range of frequency (1 kHz to 1 MHz) at different temperatures (25-500°C). The dielectric constant of BiFeO3 (BFO) was enhanced by substitution with Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 (PZT) whereas the dielectric loss of the BPFZTO compounds decreased with increasing PZT content. A significant contribution of both grains and grain boundaries to the electrical response of the materials was observed. The frequency-dependence of the ac conductivity of BPFZTO followed Jonscher's power law. Negative temperature coefficient of resistance behavior was observed for all the BPFZTO samples. Conductivity by thermally excited charge carriers and oxygen vacancies in the materials was believed to be of the Arrhenius-type.

  20. Location of trivalent lanthanide dopant energy levels in (Lu{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Retot, H.; Viana, B.; Bessiere, A.; Galtayries, A.

    2011-06-15

    The location of Ln{sup 3+} dopant energy levels relative to bands in (Lu{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied. A several-steps analysis of XPS measurements on heavy lanthanides sesquioxides Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) and on Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} reference materials were used to locate Ln{sup 3+} dopant ground state relative to the top of the valence band in (Lu{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 3} within an error bar of {+-}0.4 eV. The agreement between XPS data and model was found improved relative to previous studies. When compared to XPS analysis, prediction based on optical absorption shows a slight underestimation attributed to the lack of precision in Ce{sup 4+} charge transfer band measurement.

  1. (Tl0.5Pb0.5)(Sr1-xBax)2(Ca1-yGdy)Cu2Oz 1212 Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritzner, G.; Sudra, H.; Eder, M.

    2006-06-01

    Thallium-free precursors for bulk superconductors with the overall composition (Tl0.5Pb0.5)(Sr1-xBax)2(Ca1-yGdy)Cu2Oz (x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, y = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) were prepared via wet chemical gel techniques. The respective amounts of Tl2O3, PbO and Gd2O3 were co-milled to the precursor and the mixture was subjected to a heat treatment first at 850 °C followed by sintering at 925 °C in order to optimize the superconducting properties of the bulk material. X-ray diffraction showed that samples with x and y equal to or smaller than 0.2 were nearly phase-pure. While changes in the x value had little effect on the properties of the materials, a Gd stoichiometry of 0.2 yielded the best results in this series. Critical temperatures around 100 K were obtained for samples with the composition (Tl0.5Pb0.5)(Sr1-xBax)2Ca0.8Gd0.2)Cu2Oz.

  2. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of Nonpharmacological Interventions for Old-Old Subjects with a Clinical Dementia Rating of 0.5: The Kurihara Project

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Nakamura, Kei; Hamanosono, Ryo; Takahashi, Yumi; Kasai, Mari; Sato, Yuko; Suto, Teiko; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Meguro, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence as to the benefits of nonpharmacological interventions for the boundary state between normal aging and dementia [mild cognitive impairment or a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of 0.5] remains weak due to a lack of positive controls. Aims To directly compare the effects of cognitive interventions (CI), physical activities (PA) and a group reminiscence approach (GRA), we conducted a pilot study on the basis of a cluster randomized controlled trial design. Method A total of 127 participants aged >74 years with a CDR of 0.5 were cluster randomized into three groups for CI, PA and GRA. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of weekly group sessions and home assignments. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test part A (TMT-A), word fluency (WF), 6-meter walk time and Quality of Life (QOL) Face Scale scores were evaluated as primary outcomes. Results Methodology-related benefits of CI and PA were found for MMSE scores and walk time, respectively. TMT-A, WF and QOL Face Scale scores improved irrespective of the methodologies used. Conclusions Our findings suggest that CI and PA may be beneficial to cognitive and physical abilities, respectively. Executive functions and QOL may improve irrespective of the intervention methodologies used. PMID:26195978

  3. Longitudinal posturography and rotational testing in children 3-9 years of age: Normative data

    PubMed Central

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L.; Mandel, Ellen M.; Sparto, Patrick J; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Fall, Patricia A.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To obtain normative longitudinal vestibulo-ocular and balance test data in children from ages 3 to 9 with normal middle-ear status. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort Setting Tertiary care pediatric hospital Subjects and Methods Three-year-old children were entered and tested yearly. Subjects underwent earth vertical axis rotation testing using sinusoidal and constant velocity stimuli and performed the Sensory Organization Test. Results One hundred forty-eight children were entered and usable data were collected on 127 children. A linear increase in the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as children aged was found, without a change in the phase of the response. An age-related linear increase in Equilibrium Scores, indicating reduced postural sway, was also observed. Conclusion These normative data can be used in the evaluation of dizziness and balance disorders in children. PMID:20416461

  4. Developing and Instituting a Parenting Course for Parents of Children Ages 3 through 14 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innes, Ruth S.

    A licensed counselor working in a privately owned mental health facility implemented a practicum study designed to improve the parenting skills and quality of family communication in families with children between 3 and 14 years of age. Practicum goals were to: (1) give parents information that would improve their parenting skills; and (2)…

  5. The Five to Seven Year Shift: The Age of Reason and Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J., Ed.; Haith, Marshall M.

    This book reviews the contemporary state of knowledge on developmental transitions between 5 and 7 years. Contributions are: (1) "Interpreting Developmental Transitions" (Arnold Sameroff; Marshall Haith); (2) "The Child's Entry into the 'Age of Reason'" (Sheldon White); (3) "Is There a Neural Basis for Cognitive Transitions in School-Age…

  6. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  7. The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the…

  8. Rejuvenating immunity: “anti-aging drug today” eight years later

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 year ended with celebration: Everolimus, a rapamycin analog, was shown to improve immunity in old humans, heralding ‘a turning point’ in research and new era in human quest for immortality. Yet, this turning point was predicted a decade ago. But what will cause human death, when aging will be abolished? PMID:25844603

  9. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  10. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  11. Correlates of Depressive Disorders in the Quebec General Population 6 to 14 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Lise; Valla, Jean-Pierre; Smolla, Nicole; Piche, Genevieve; Berthiaume, Claude; St.-Georges, Marie

    2007-01-01

    There are relatively few community-based epidemiological studies in which correlates of depressive disorders were identified through multivariate analyses in children and adolescents aged 6-14 years. Moreover, several family characteristics (e.g., parent-child relationship) have never been explored in this regard. The purpose of this study was…

  12. Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight Among School Children Aged 8-18 Years in Rajkot, Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Chudasama, Rajesh K; Eshwar, Tkm; Eshwar, Subhasini T; Thakkar, Dhara

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1496 school children aged 8-18 years (79.1% boys) participated in this study. Prevalence of obesity and overweight was estimated by using three different growth standards. Revised IAP 2015 growth standards detected more obese and overweight children than WHO 2007 and IOTF standards. PMID:27395837

  13. Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

  14. Plasticity, Person-Context Relations, and Cognitive Training in the Aged Years: A Developmental Contextual Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    Developmental contextualism focuses on changes in fused relations between developing people and their changing contexts. Research on cognitive training in the aged years provides evidence about plasticity throughout life because it alters developmental trajectories through revised person-context relations. The studies in the current issue support…

  15. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  16. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  17. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  18. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  19. The Conception of Risk in Minority Young Adolescents Aged 12-14 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…

  20. Students' Perspective (Age Wise, Gender Wise and Year Wise) of Parameters Affecting the Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…

  1. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  2. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  3. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

  4. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  5. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  6. Bone mineral density and lifestyle among female students aged 16-24 years.

    PubMed

    Elgán, C; Dykes, A K; Samsioe, G

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate bone mineral density and bone turnover among female students aged 16-24 years in relation to lifestyle factors, such as dietary habits and physical activity, as well as physiological factors, such as age, body weight, and menstrual pattern. Female college and university students (n = 218) were given a validated questionnaire with 34 questions concerning diet, recreational physical activity, alcohol, smoking, menstrual pattern, weight gain and loss. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed using a heel bone scanner (DEXA). Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were measured in urine samples. The data were analyzed by linear regression and multiple regression analysis. The mean BMD was 0.568 g/cm2. Multiple regression showed that hormonal age was a better predictor of high BMD and low bone mineral turnover than chronological age. The best model predicting high BMD was composed of physical activity, regular menstruation, hormonal age and body weight. Smoking, alcohol consumption and current calcium intake did not contribute to the model. A negative association between BMD and DPD was found, indicating an enhanced bone remodeling. A correlation was found between DPD and hormonal age, chronological age, sugar intake and time with irregular menses. In multiple regression analysis, hormonal age, high sugar intake and weight loss were the factors best predicting DPD. BMD was positively influenced by a healthy lifestyle, including a physically active life and healthy dietary habits without dieting. Our study shows that hormonal age is a stronger BMD predictor than chronological age. Menstrual disturbances might be an indication of a risk for low BMD and might therefore be a reason for measuring BMD among young females.

  7. US health spending trends by age and gender: selected years 2002-10.

    PubMed

    Lassman, David; Hartman, Micah; Washington, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly; Catlin, Aaron

    2014-05-01

    This article presents estimates of personal health care spending by age and gender in selected years during the period 2002-10 and an analysis of the variation in spending among children, working-age adults, and the elderly. Our research found that in this period, aggregate spending on children's health care increased at the slowest rate. However, per capita spending for children grew more rapidly than that for working-age adults and the elderly. Per capita spending for the elderly remained about five times higher than spending for children. Overall, females spent more per capita than males, but the gap had decreased by 2010. The implementation of Medicare Part D, the effects of the recent recession, and the aging of the baby boomers affected the spending trends and distributions during the period of this study.

  8. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    PubMed Central

    Shenkin, S; Starr, J; Pattie, A; Rush, M; Whalley, L; Deary, I; PHARAOH, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.
METHODS—Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932.Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were traced on 449of these children.
RESULTS—Mean score on Moray House Test increased from 30.6 at a birth weight of <2500 g to 44.7 at 4001-4500 g, after correcting for gestational age, maternal age, parity, social class, and legitimacy of birth. Multiple regression showed that 15.6% of the variance in Moray House Test score is contributed by a combination of social class (6.6%), birth weight (3.8%), child's exact age (2.4%), maternal parity (2.0%), and illegitimacy (1.5%). Structural equation modelling confirmed the independent contribution from each of these variables in predicting cognitive ability. A model in which birth weight acted as a mediator of social class had poor fit statistics.
CONCLUSION—In this 1921 birth cohort, social class and birth weight have independent effects on cognitive function at age 11. Future research will relate these childhood data to health and cognition in old age.

 PMID:11517097

  9. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice.

  10. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort

  11. Development and characterization of high-efficiency Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P/GaAs/Ge dual- and triple-junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Karam, N.H.; King, R.R.; Cavicchi, B.T.

    1999-10-01

    This paper describes recent progress in the characterization, analysis, and development of high-efficiency, radiation-resistant Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P/GaAs/Ge dual-junction (DJ) and triple-junction (TJ) solar cells. DJ cells have rapidly transitioned from the laboratory to full-scale (325 kW/year) production at Spectrolab. Performance data for over 470,000 large-area (26.94 cm{sup 2}), thin (140 {micro}m) DJ solar cells grown on low-cost, high-strength Ge substrates are shown. Advances in next-generation triple-junction Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P/GaAs/Ge cells with an active Ge component cell are discussed, giving efficiencies up to 26.7% (21.65-cm{sup 2} area), AM0, at 28 C. Final-to-final power ratios P/P{sub 0} of 0.83 were measured for these n-on-p DJ and TJ cells after irradiation with 10{sup 15} 1-MeV electrons/cm{sup 2}. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements are applied to double heterostructures grown with semiconductor layers and interfaces relevant to these multifunction solar cells, to characterize surface and bulk recombination and guide further device improvements. Dual-and triple-junction Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P/GaAs/Ge cells are compared to competing space photovoltaic technologies, and found to offer 60--75% more end-of-life power than high-efficiency Si cells at a nominal array temperature of 60 C.

  12. Free Thyroxine Levels After Very Preterm Birth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Scratch, Shannon E.; Hunt, Rodney W.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Ahmadzai, Zohra M.; Doyle, Lex W.; Inder, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preterm infants commonly have transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity after birth, which has been associated with deficits in general intellectual functioning, memory, attention, and academic achievement. However, research has predominantly focused on thyroxine levels in the first 2 weeks of life and outcomes are limited to the preschool period. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between free thyroxine (fT4) levels over the first 6 weeks after very preterm (VPT) birth with cognitive functioning and brain development at age 7 years. METHODS: A total of 83 infants born VPT (<30 weeks’ gestation) had fT4 concentrations measured postnatally and 2- and 6-week area under the curve (AUC) summary measures were calculated. Follow-up at age 7 years included a neuropsychological assessment and brain MRI. Univariable and multivariable regression modeling was used where AUC for fT4 was the main predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome at age 7 years. RESULTS: Multivariable modeling revealed that higher, not lower, postnatal fT4 levels (2-week AUC) were associated with poorer cognitive performances at age 7 years on tasks of verbal learning (P = .02), verbal memory (P = .03), and simple reaction time (P < .001). A similar pattern of results was found when the 6-week AUC was examined. No significant associations between postnatal fT4 levels and brain volumes at age 7 years were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Results are contradictory to previous observations and suggest that after adjustment for confounders, higher postnatal fT4 levels in VPT infants, rather than lower levels, may be a marker of adverse neuropsychological development in childhood. PMID:24685955

  13. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years.

    PubMed

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hoefer, Imo E; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-04-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavorable risk factor burden. PMID:25624341

  14. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  15. Emergency surgical admissions in patients aged more than 80 years: a study over four decades.

    PubMed Central

    Menon, K. V.; Young, F. M.; Galland, R. B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The proportion of older patients in the community is rising. The aim of this study was to determine the trend in emergency surgical admissions in patients over 80 years of age in 1997 compared with the previous three decades. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were obtained on all patients over 80 years of age admitted as general surgical emergencies in 1997 to the Royal Berkshire and Battle Hospitals, Reading, UK. Reasons for admission, management, mortality and duration of hospital stay were recorded and compared with results from 1966, 1976 and 1989. RESULTS: During 1997, 4807 patients over the age of 80 years were admitted as emergencies to all specialities. Of these, 447 (9.3%) were surgical. This compares with 122 in 1966, 248 in 1976 and 339 in 1989. Emergency surgical workload in patients over 80 years of age had increased from 6.2% in 1966 to 12% in 1997. A random sample of 261 patients was analysed. In-patient mortality was 13.8% in 1997 compared with 21.8% for 1976 and 22.4% for 1989. Median length of stay was 8 days (range, 0-41 days) for 1997 and 1989 compared with 14 days in 1976. Twenty-four patients either needed admission to other specialities or need not have been admitted as emergencies at all and were classified as inappropriate admissions to the general surgical ward. CONCLUSIONS: The trend of increased number of patients over the age of 80 years being admitted as emergencies to general surgery continues through four decades. There has been a decrease in mortality and length of stay since 1966, but no decrease in length of stay in 1997 compared with 1989. Avoiding inappropriate admissions would result in a significant improvement in bed utilisation for elective surgery and help to reduce waiting lists. PMID:11103155

  16. 2MASS J20261584-2943124: AN UNRESOLVED L0.5 + T6 SPECTRAL BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Gelino, Christopher R.; Burgasser, Adam J.

    2010-07-15

    We identify the L dwarf 2MASS J20261584-2943124 as an unresolved spectral binary, based on low-resolution, near-infrared spectroscopy from IRTF/SpeX. The data reveal a peculiar absorption feature at 1.6 {mu}m, previously noted in the spectra of other very low-mass spectral binaries, which likely arises from overlapping FeH and CH{sub 4} absorption bands in the blended light of an L dwarf/T dwarf pair. Spectral template matching analysis indicates component types of L0.5 and T6, with relative brightness {Delta}H = 4.2 {+-} 0.6. Laser guide star adaptive optics imaging observations with Keck/NIRC2 fail to resolve the source, indicating a maximum separation at the observing epoch of 0.''25, or a projected separation of 9 AU assuming a distance of 36 {+-} 5 pc. With an age that is likely to be relatively older ({approx}>5 Gyr) based on the system's large V{sub tan} and mass ratio arguments, the relative motion of the potentially 'massive' (0.06-0.08 M{sub sun}) components of 2MASS J2026-2943 may be detectable through radial velocity variations, like its earlier-type counterpart 2MASS J03202839-0446358 (M8+T5), providing dynamical mass measurements that span the hydrogen burning limit.

  17. Ethylene production by ODHE in catalytically modified Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ) membrane reactors.

    PubMed

    Lobera, M Pilar; Escolástico, Sonia; Garcia-Fayos, Julio; Serra, José M

    2012-08-01

    Process intensification by the integration of membranes and high-temperature reactors offers several advantages with regard to conventional process schemes, that is, energy saving, safe operation, reduced plant/unit size, and higher process performance, for example, higher productivity, catalytic activity, selectivity, or stability. We present the study of oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane at 850 °C on a catalytic membrane reactor based on a mixed ionic-electronic conducting membrane. The surface of the membrane made of Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ) has been activated by using different porous catalytic layers based on perovskites. The layer was deposited by screen printing, and the porosity and thickness was studied for the catalyst composition. The different catalyst formulations are based on partial substitution of A- and B-site atoms of doped strontium ferrite/cobaltites (A(0.6)Sr(0.4)Co(0.5)Fe(0.5)O(3-δ) and Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)BO(3-δ)) and were synthesized by an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-citrate complexation route. The use of a disk-shaped membrane in the reactor enabled the direct contact of gaseous oxygen and hydrocarbons to be avoided, and thus, the ethylene content increased. High ethylene yields (up to ≈81 %) were obtained by using a catalytic coating based on Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ), which included macropores produced by the addition of graphite platelets into the screen-printing ink. The promising catalytic results obtained with this catalytically modified membrane reactor are attributed to the combination of 1) the high activity, as a result of the high temperature and oxygen species diffusing through the membrane; 2) the control of oxygen dosing and the low concentration of molecules in the gas phase; and 3) suitable fluid dynamics, which enables appropriate feed contact with the membrane and the rapid removal of products.

  18. Ethylene production by ODHE in catalytically modified Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ) membrane reactors.

    PubMed

    Lobera, M Pilar; Escolástico, Sonia; Garcia-Fayos, Julio; Serra, José M

    2012-08-01

    Process intensification by the integration of membranes and high-temperature reactors offers several advantages with regard to conventional process schemes, that is, energy saving, safe operation, reduced plant/unit size, and higher process performance, for example, higher productivity, catalytic activity, selectivity, or stability. We present the study of oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane at 850 °C on a catalytic membrane reactor based on a mixed ionic-electronic conducting membrane. The surface of the membrane made of Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ) has been activated by using different porous catalytic layers based on perovskites. The layer was deposited by screen printing, and the porosity and thickness was studied for the catalyst composition. The different catalyst formulations are based on partial substitution of A- and B-site atoms of doped strontium ferrite/cobaltites (A(0.6)Sr(0.4)Co(0.5)Fe(0.5)O(3-δ) and Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)BO(3-δ)) and were synthesized by an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-citrate complexation route. The use of a disk-shaped membrane in the reactor enabled the direct contact of gaseous oxygen and hydrocarbons to be avoided, and thus, the ethylene content increased. High ethylene yields (up to ≈81 %) were obtained by using a catalytic coating based on Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ), which included macropores produced by the addition of graphite platelets into the screen-printing ink. The promising catalytic results obtained with this catalytically modified membrane reactor are attributed to the combination of 1) the high activity, as a result of the high temperature and oxygen species diffusing through the membrane; 2) the control of oxygen dosing and the low concentration of molecules in the gas phase; and 3) suitable fluid dynamics, which enables appropriate feed contact with the membrane and the rapid removal of products. PMID:22791570

  19. High Piezoelectric Response in (Li0.5Sm0.5)2+-Modified 0.93Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 Near the Nonergodic-Ergodic Relaxor Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiwen; Li, Qinglin; Zhou, Changrong; Zeng, Weidong; Xiao, Jianrong; Ma, Jiafeng; Yuan, Changlai; Chen, Guohua; Rao, Guanghui; Li, Xuqiong

    2016-06-01

    The (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3 system is a promising Pb-free piezoelectric material to substitute for environmentally undesirable Pb-based ferroelectrics. However, understanding the origin of its high piezoelectric response is a fundamental issue that has remained unclear for decades. Here, complex ions (Li0.5Sm0.5)2+ were introduced to dictate the stability of the electrically-induced ferroelectric state in 0.93(Bi0.5Na0.5)1- x (Li0.5Sm0.5) x TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 relaxor ceramics. The applied electric field induces a phase transition from a non-ergodic state to a ferroelectric state as well as the realignment of ferroelectric domains. The non-ergodic relaxor state with x = 0-0.02 is accompanied by relatively high piezoelectric activity and the strongest piezoelectricity is observed near the crossover from the nonergodic to the ergodic state. The stable␣ferroelectric state cannot survive after the removal of the application electric field for the high doping level due to the enhancement of the random field, which is responsible for the rapid decrease of piezoelectric properties for x > 0.02 compositions.

  20. 47 CFR 0.5 - General description of Commission organization and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...), 303(r) and 5(c)(i), Communications Act of 1934, as amended; 47 CFR 0.61 and 0.283) Editorial Note: For... and operations. 0.5 Section 0.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Engineering and Technology. (3) Office of General Counsel. (4) Office of Strategic Planning and...