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Sample records for 0-atp-synthase aus acetobacterium

  1. Metabolic Trade-offs in Yeast are Caused by F1F0-ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Avlant; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Intermediary metabolism provides living cells with free energy and precursor metabolites required for synthesizing proteins, lipids, RNA and other cellular constituents, and it is highly conserved among living species. Only a fraction of cellular protein can, however, be allocated to enzymes of intermediary metabolism and consequently metabolic trade-offs may take place. One such trade-off, aerobic fermentation, occurs in both yeast (the Crabtree effect) and cancer cells (the Warburg effect) and has been a scientific challenge for decades. Here we show, using flux balance analysis combined with in vitro measured enzyme specific activities, that fermentation is more catalytically efficient than respiration, i.e. it produces more ATP per protein mass. And that the switch to fermentation at high growth rates therefore is a consequence of a high ATP production rate, provided by a limited pool of enzymes. The catalytic efficiency is also higher for cells grown on glucose compared to galactose and ethanol, which may explain the observed differences in their growth rates. The enzyme F1F0-ATP synthase (Complex V) was found to have flux control over respiration in the model, and since it is evolutionary conserved, we expect the trade-off to occur in organisms from all kingdoms of life. PMID:26928598

  2. Possible Involvement of F1F0-ATP synthase and Intracellular ATP in Keratinocyte Differentiation in normal skin and skin lesions

    PubMed Central

    Xiaoyun, Xie; Chaofei, Han; Weiqi, Zeng; Chen, Chen; Lixia, Lu; Queping, Liu; Cong, Peng; Shuang, Zhao; Juan, Su; Xiang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    The F1F0-ATP synthase, an enzyme complex, is mainly located on the mitochondrial inner membrane or sometimes cytomembrane to generate or hydrolyze ATP, play a role in cell proliferation. This study focused on the role of F1F0-ATP synthase in keratinocyte differentiation, and its relationship with intracellular and extracellular ATP (InATP and ExATP). The F1F0-ATP synthase β subunit (ATP5B) expression in various skin tissues and confluence-dependent HaCaT differentiation models was detected. ATP5B expression increased with keratinocyte and HaCaT cell differentiation in normal skin, some epidermis hyper-proliferative diseases, squamous cell carcinoma, and the HaCaT cell differentiation model. The impact of InATP and ExATP content on HaCaT differentiation was reflected by the expression of the differentiation marker involucrin. Inhibition of F1F0-ATP synthase blocked HaCaT cell differentiation, which was associated with a decrease of InATP content, but not with changes of ExATP. Our results revealed that F1F0-ATP synthase expression is associated with the process of keratinocyte differentiation which may possibly be related to InATP synthesis. PMID:28209970

  3. Interacting cytoplasmic loops of subunits a and c of Escherichia coli F1F0 ATP synthase gate H+ transport to the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Steed, P Ryan; Kraft, Kaitlin A; Fillingame, Robert H

    2014-11-25

    H(+)-transporting F1F0 ATP synthase catalyzes the synthesis of ATP via coupled rotary motors within F0 and F1. H(+) transport at the subunit a-c interface in transmembranous F0 drives rotation of a cylindrical c10 oligomer within the membrane, which is coupled to rotation of subunit γ within the α3β3 sector of F1 to mechanically drive ATP synthesis. F1F0 functions in a reversible manner, with ATP hydrolysis driving H(+) transport. ATP-driven H(+) transport in a select group of cysteine mutants in subunits a and c is inhibited after chelation of Ag(+) and/or Cd(+2) with the substituted sulfhydryl groups. The H(+) transport pathway mapped via these Ag(+)(Cd(+2))-sensitive Cys extends from the transmembrane helices (TMHs) of subunits a and c into cytoplasmic loops connecting the TMHs, suggesting these loop regions could be involved in gating H(+) release to the cytoplasm. Here, using select loop-region Cys from the single cytoplasmic loop of subunit c and multiple cytoplasmic loops of subunit a, we show that Cd(+2) directly inhibits passive H(+) transport mediated by F0 reconstituted in liposomes. Further, in extensions of previous studies, we show that the regions mediating passive H(+) transport can be cross-linked to each other. We conclude that the loop-regions in subunits a and c that are implicated in H(+) transport likely interact in a single structural domain, which then functions in gating H(+) release to the cytoplasm.

  4. Delta mu Na+ drives the synthesis of ATP via an delta mu Na(+)-translocating F1F0-ATP synthase in membrane vesicles of the archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1.

    PubMed Central

    Becher, B; Müller, V

    1994-01-01

    Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 couples the methyl transfer from methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin to 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (coenzyme M) with the generation of an electrochemical sodium ion gradient (delta mu Na+) and the reduction of the heterodisulfide of coenzyme M and 7-mercaptoheptanoylthreoninephosphate with the generation of an electrochemical proton gradient (delta muH+). Experiments with washed inverted vesicles were performed to investigate whether both ion gradients are used directly for the synthesis of ATP. delta mu Na+ and delta mu H+ were both able to drive the synthesis of ATP in the vesicular system. ATP synthesis driven by heterodisulfide reduction (delta mu H+) or an artificial delta pH was inhibited by the protonophore SF6847 but not by the sodium ionophore ETH157, whereas ETH157 but not SF6847 inhibited ATP synthesis driven by a chemical sodium ion gradient (delta pNa) as well as the methyl transfer reaction (delta mu Na+). Inhibition of the Na+/H+ antiporter led to a stimulation of ATP synthesis driven by the methyl transfer reaction (delta mu Na+), as well as by delta pNa. These experiments indicate that delta mu Na+ and delta mu H+ drive the synthesis of ATP via an Na(+)- and an H(+)-translocating ATP synthase, respectively. Inhibitor studies were performed to elucidate the nature of the ATP synthase(s) involved. delta pH-driven ATP synthesis was specifically inhibited by bafilomycin A1, whereas delta pNa-driven ATP synthesis was exclusively inhibited by 7-chloro-4-nitro-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, azide, and venturicidin. These results are evidence for the presence of an F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase in addition to the A(1)A(0)-ATP synthase in membranes of M. Mazei Gö1 and suggest that the F(1)F(0)-type enzyme is an Na+-translocating ATP synthase, whereas the A(1)A(0)-ATP synthase uses H+ as the coupling ion. PMID:8169202

  5. Interactions between beta D372 and gamma subunit N-terminus residues gamma K9 and gamma S12 are important to catalytic activity catalyzed by Escherichia coli F1F0-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Lowry, David S; Frasch, Wayne D

    2005-05-17

    Substitution of Escherichia coli F(1)F(0) ATP synthase residues betaD372 or gammaS12 with groups that are unable to form a hydrogen bond at this location decreased ATP synthase-dependent cell growth by 2 orders of magnitude, eliminated the ability of F(1)F(0) to catalyze ATPase-dependent proton pumping in inverted E. coli membranes, caused a 15-20% decrease in the coupling efficiency of the membranes as measured by the extent of succinate-dependent acridine orange fluorescence quenching, but increased soluble F(1)-ATPase activity by about 10%. Substitution of gammaK9 to eliminate the ability to form a salt bridge with betaD372 decreased soluble F(1)-ATPase activity and ATPase-driven proton pumping by 2-fold but had no effect on the proton gradient induced by addition of succinate. Mutations to eliminate the potential to form intersubunit hydrogen bonds and salt bridges between other less highly conserved residues on the gamma subunit N-terminus and the beta subunits had little effect on ATPase or ATP synthase activities. These results suggest that the betaD372-gammaK9 salt bridge contributes significantly to the rate-limiting step in ATP hydrolysis of soluble F(1) while the betaD372-gammaS12 hydrogen bond may serve as a component of an escapement mechanism for ATP synthesis in which alphabetagamma intersubunit interactions provide a means to make substrate binding a prerequisite of proton gradient-driven gamma subunit rotation.

  6. 2,3-Butanediol Metabolism in the Acetogen Acetobacterium woodii

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Verena; Oyrik, Olga; Trifunović, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii is able to reduce CO2 to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Only recently we demonstrated that degradation of 1,2-propanediol by A. woodii was not dependent on acetogenesis, but that it is disproportionated to propanol and propionate. Here, we analyzed the metabolism of A. woodii on another diol, 2,3-butanediol. Experiments with growing and resting cells, metabolite analysis and enzymatic measurements revealed that 2,3-butanediol is oxidized in an NAD+-dependent manner to acetate via the intermediates acetoin, acetaldehyde, and acetyl coenzyme A. Ethanol was not detected as an end product, either in growing cultures or in cell suspensions. Apparently, all reducing equivalents originating from the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol were funneled into the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to reduce CO2 to another acetate. Thus, the metabolism of 2,3-butanediol requires the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. PMID:25934628

  7. Ethylene Glycol Metabolism in the Acetogen Acetobacterium woodii

    PubMed Central

    Trifunović, Dragan; Schuchmann, Kai

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii is able to grow by the oxidation of diols, such as 1,2-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, or ethylene glycol. Recent analyses demonstrated fundamentally different ways for oxidation of 1,2-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol. Here, we analyzed the metabolism of ethylene glycol. Our data demonstrate that ethylene glycol is dehydrated to acetaldehyde, which is then disproportionated to ethanol and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). The latter is further converted to acetate, and this pathway is coupled to ATP formation by substrate-level phosphorylation. Apparently, the product ethanol is in part further oxidized and the reducing equivalents are recycled by reduction of CO2 to acetate in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Biochemical data as well as the results of protein synthesis analysis are consistent with the hypothesis that the propane diol dehydratase (PduCDE) and CoA-dependent propionaldehyde dehydrogenase (PduP) proteins, encoded by the pdu gene cluster, also catalyze ethylene glycol dehydration to acetaldehyde and its CoA-dependent oxidation to acetyl-CoA. Moreover, genes encoding bacterial microcompartments as part of the pdu gene cluster are also expressed during growth on ethylene glycol, arguing for a dual function of the Pdu microcompartment system. IMPORTANCE Acetogenic bacteria are characterized by their ability to use CO2 as a terminal electron acceptor by a specific pathway, the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, enabling in most acetogens chemolithoautotrophic growth with H2 and CO2. However, acetogens are very versatile and can use a wide variety of different substrates for growth. Here we report on the elucidation of the pathway for utilization of ethylene glycol by the model acetogen Acetobacterium woodii. This diol is degraded by dehydration to acetaldehyde followed by a disproportionation to acetate and ethanol. We present evidence that this pathway is catalyzed by the same enzyme system recently described for the

  8. Acetone production with metabolically engineered strains of Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeister, Sabrina; Gerdom, Marzena; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Linder, Sonja; Flüchter, Sebastian; Öztürk, Hatice; Blümke, Wilfried; May, Antje; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Bahl, Hubert; Dürre, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Expected depletion of oil and fossil resources urges the development of new alternative routes for the production of bulk chemicals and fuels beyond petroleum resources. In this study, the clostridial acetone pathway was used for the formation of acetone in the acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The acetone production operon (APO) containing the genes thlA (encoding thiolase A), ctfA/ctfB (encoding CoA transferase), and adc (encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase) from Clostridium acetobutylicum were cloned under the control of the thlA promoter into four vectors having different replicons for Gram-positives (pIP404, pBP1, pCB102, and pCD6). Stable replication was observed for all constructs. A. woodii [pJIR_actthlA] achieved the maximal acetone concentration under autotrophic conditions (15.2±3.4mM). Promoter sequences of the genes ackA from A. woodii and pta-ack from C. ljungdahlii were determined by primer extension (PEX) and cloned upstream of the APO. The highest acetone production in recombinant A. woodii cells was achieved using the promoters PthlA and Ppta-ack. Batch fermentations using A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] in a bioreactor revealed that acetate concentration had an effect on the acetone production, due to the high Km value of the CoA transferase. In order to establish consistent acetate concentration within the bioreactor and to increase biomass, a continuous fermentation process for A. woodii was developed. Thus, acetone productivity of the strain A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] was increased from 1.2mgL(-1)h(-1) in bottle fermentation to 26.4mgL(-1)h(-1) in continuous gas fermentation.

  9. F1F0-ATP synthases of alkaliphilic bacteria: lessons from their adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, David B.; Liu, Jun; Fujisawa, Makoto; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the ATP synthases of alkaliphilic bacteria and, in particular, those that successfully overcome the bioenergetic challenges of achieving robust H+-coupled ATP synthesis at external pH values > 10. At such pH values the protonmotive force, which is posited to provide the energetic driving force for ATP synthesis, is too low to account for the ATP synthesis observed. The protonmotive force is lowered at very high pH by the need to maintain a cytoplasmic pH well below the pH outside, which results in an energetically adverse pH gradient. Several anticipated solutions to this bioenergetic conundrum have been ruled out. Although the transmembrane sodium motive force is high under alkaline conditions, respiratory alkaliphilic bacteria do not use Na+-instead of H+-coupled ATP synthases. Nor do they offset the adverse pH gradient with a compensatory increase in the transmembrane electrical potential component of the protonmotive force. Moreover, studies of ATP synthase rotors indicate that alkaliphiles cannot fully resolve the energetic problem by using an ATP synthase with a large number of c-subunits in the synthase rotor ring. Increased attention now focuses on delocalized gradients near the membrane surface and H+ transfers to ATP synthases via membrane-associated microcircuits between the H+ pumping complexes and synthases. Microcircuits likely depend upon proximity of pumps and synthases, specific membrane properties and specific adaptations of the participating enzyme complexes. ATP synthesis in alkaliphiles depends upon alkaliphile-specific adaptations of the ATP synthase and there is also evidence for alkaliphile-specific adaptations of respiratory chain components. PMID:20193659

  10. Genome Sequence of the Acetogenic Bacterium Acetobacterium wieringae DSM 1911T

    PubMed Central

    Schiel-Bengelsdorf, Bettina; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Acetobacterium wieringae DSM 1911T, an anaerobic, autotrophic, acetogenic, d,l-lactate-utilizing bacterium. The genome consists of a chromosome (3.88 Mb) and 3,620 predicted protein-encoding genes. PMID:28007862

  11. Anaerobic biodegradation of methyl esters by Acetobacterium woodii and Eubacterium limosum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Shi; Suflita, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    The ability ofAcetobacterium woodii andEubacterium limosum to degrade methyl esters of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and isobutyrate was examined under growing and resting-cell conditions. Both bacteria hydrolyzed the esters to the corresponding carboxylates and methanol under either condition. Methanol was further oxidized to formate under growing but not resting conditions. Unlike the metabolism of phenylmethylethers, no H2 requirement was evident for ester biotransformation. The hydrolysis of methyl carboxylates is thermodynamically favorable under standard conditions and the mixotrophic metabolism of ester/CO2 allowed for bacterial growth. These results suggest that the degradation of methyl carboxylates may be a heretofore unrecognized nutritional option for acetogenic bacteria.

  12. AusEinetter, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AusEinetter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document comprises the two AusEinetter newsletters published in 1997. The first newletter describes the background and structure of Australia's Early Intervention Network for Mental Health in Young People (AusEinet) and discusses the necessity of early intervention for mental health issues in young people 5-25 years of age. The following…

  13. The Thylakoid Membrane Protein CGL160 Supports CF1CF0 ATP Synthase Accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Fristedt, Rikard; Martins, Nádia Figueira; Strenkert, Daniela; Clarke, Cornelia A.; Suchoszek, Monika; Thiele, Wolfram; Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2015-01-01

    The biogenesis of the major thylakoid protein complexes of the photosynthetic apparatus requires auxiliary proteins supporting individual assembly steps. Here, we identify a plant lineage specific gene, CGL160, whose homolog, atp1, co-occurs with ATP synthase subunits in an operon-like arrangement in many cyanobacteria. Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion mutants, which no longer accumulate the nucleus-encoded CGL160 protein, accumulate less than 25% of wild-type levels of the chloroplast ATP synthase. Severe cosmetic or growth phenotypes result under either short day or fluctuating light growth conditions, respectively, but this is ameliorated under long day constant light growth conditions where the growth, ATP synthase activity and photosynthetic electron transport of the mutants are less affected. Accumulation of other photosynthetic complexes is largely unaffected in cgl160 mutants, suggesting that CGL160 is a specific assembly or stability factor for the CF1CF0 complex. CGL160 is not found in the mature assembled complex but it does interact specifically with subunits of ATP synthase, predominantly those in the extrinsic CF1 sub-complex. We suggest therefore that it may facilitate the assembly of CF1 into the holocomplex. PMID:25835989

  14. A Na+-translocating Pyrophosphatase in the Acetogenic Bacterium Acetobacterium woodii*

    PubMed Central

    Biegel, Eva; Müller, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii employs a novel type of Na+-motive anaerobic respiration, caffeate respiration. However, this respiration is at the thermodynamic limit of energy conservation, and even worse, in the first step, caffeate is activated by caffeyl-CoA synthetase, which hydrolyzes ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate. Here, we have addressed whether or not the energy stored in the anhydride bond of pyrophosphate is conserved by A. woodii. Inverted membrane vesicles of A. woodii have a membrane-bound pyrophosphatase that catalyzes pyrophosphate hydrolysis at a rate of 70–120 milliunits/mg of protein. Pyrophosphatase activity was dependent on the divalent cation Mg2+. In addition, activity was strictly dependent on Na+ with a Km of 1.1 mm. Hydrolysis of pyrophosphate was accompanied by 22Na+ transport into the lumen of the inverted membrane vesicles. Inhibitor studies revealed that 22Na+ transport was primary and electrogenic. Next to the Na+-motive ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase (Fno or Rnf), the Na+-pyrophosphatase is the second primary Na+-translocating enzyme in A. woodii. PMID:21173152

  15. Continuous gas fermentation by Acetobacterium woodii in a submerged membrane reactor with full cell retention.

    PubMed

    Kantzow, Christina; Mayer, Alexander; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2015-10-20

    Acetogenic bacteria like Acetobacterium woodii represent an ancient group of anaerobic microorganisms which use hydrogen and carbon dioxide to produce acetate. Cell concentrations and space-time yields are usually low in gas fermentations. A standard stirred‑tank bioreactor with continuous gas supply was equipped with a customized submerged microfiltration unit. A. woodii showed similar growth behavior with an initial maximal growth rate of 1.2 d(-1) in continuous gas fermentations with full cell retention and varying dilution rates. A steady increase of cell mass concentrations was observed with the highest biomass formation at the highest dilution rate. By contrast the final acetate concentrations were lowest at the highest dilution rate. The highest final acetate space-time yield of 148 g l(-1) d(-1) was measured at the highest dilution rate (increase by factor 8 compared to a standard batch process or by factor 37 compared to published data). The highest reported cell concentration of A. woodii in gas fermentations of nearly 14 g l(-1) cell dry weight was achieved in the submerged membrane bioreactor with increased yeast extract concentrations in the feed medium. Product inhibition was observed when acetate concentrations exceeded 8-12 g l(-1) causing a steady decrease in cell mass specific acetate production rates.

  16. Transformation of tetrachloromethane to dichloromethane and carbon dioxide by Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed Central

    Egli, C; Tschan, T; Scholtz, R; Cook, A M; Leisinger, T

    1988-01-01

    Five anaerobic bacteria were tested for their abilities to transform tetrachloromethane so that information about enzymes involved in reductive dehalogenations of polychloromethanes could be obtained. Cultures of the sulfate reducer Desulfobacterium autotrophicum transformed some 80 microM tetrachloromethane to trichloromethane and a small amount of dichloromethane in 18 days under conditions of heterotrophic growth. The acetogens Acetobacterium woodii and Clostridium thermoaceticum in fructose-salts and glucose-salts media, respectively, degraded some 80 microM tetrachloromethane completely within 3 days. Trichloromethane accumulated as a transient intermediate, but the only chlorinated methanes recovered at the end of the incubation were 8 microM dichloromethane and traces of chloromethane. Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus and an autotrophic, nitrate-reducing bacterium were unable to transform tetrachloromethane. Reduction of chlorinated methanes was thus observed only in the organisms with the acetyl-coenzyme A pathway. Experiments with [14C]tetrachloromethane were done to determine the fate of this compound in the acetogen A. woodii. Radioactivity in an 11-day heterotrophic culture was largely (67%) recovered in CO2, acetate, pyruvate, and cell material. In experiments with cell suspensions to which [14C]tetrachloromethane was added, 14CO2 appeared within 20 s as the major transformation product. A. woodii thus catalyzes reductive dechlorinations and transforms tetrachloromethane to CO2 by a series of unknown reactions. PMID:3145712

  17. Effects of hydrogen partial pressure on autotrophic growth and product formation of Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Kantzow, Christina; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2016-08-01

    Low aqueous solubility of the gases for autotrophic fermentations (e.g., hydrogen gas) results in low productivities in bioreactors. A frequently suggested approach to overcome mass transfer limitation is to increase the solubility of the limiting gas in the reaction medium by increasing the partial pressure in the gas phase. An increased inlet hydrogen partial pressure of up to 2.1 bar (total pressure of 3.5 bar) was applied for the autotrophic conversion of hydrogen and carbon dioxide with Acetobacterium woodii in a batch-operated stirred-tank bioreactor with continuous gas supply. Compared to the autotrophic batch process with an inlet hydrogen partial pressure of 0.4 bar (total pressure of 1.0 bar) the final acetate concentration after 3.1 days was reduced to 50 % (29.2 g L(-1) compared to 59.3 g L(-1)), but the final formate concentration was increased by a factor of 18 (7.3 g L(-1) compared to 0.4 g L(-1)). Applying recombinant A. woodii strains overexpressing either genes for enzymes in the methyl branch of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway or the genes phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase at an inlet hydrogen partial pressure of 1.4 bar reduced the final formate concentration by up to 40 % and increased the final dry cell mass and acetate concentrations compared to the wild type strain. Solely the overexpression of the two genes for ATP regeneration at the end of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway resulted in an initial switch off of formate production at increased hydrogen partial pressure until the maximum of the hydrogen uptake rate was reached.

  18. Mechanism of anaerobic ether cleavage: conversion of 2-phenoxyethanol to phenol and acetaldehyde by Acetobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Giovanna; Mueller, Britta; Orlandi, Maximilian; Morelli, Carlo F; Manitto, Paolo; Schink, Bernhard

    2002-04-05

    2-Phenoxyethanol is converted into phenol and acetate by a strictly anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium, Acetobacterium strain LuPhet1. Acetate results from oxidation of acetaldehyde that is the early product of the biodegradation process (Frings, J., and Schink, B. (1994) Arch. Microbiol. 162, 199-204). Feeding experiments with resting cell suspensions and 2-phenoxyethanol bearing two deuterium atoms at either carbon of the glycolic moiety as substrate demonstrated that the carbonyl group of the acetate derives from the alcoholic function and the methyl group derives from the adjacent carbon. A concomitant migration of a deuterium atom from C-1 to C-2 was observed. These findings were confirmed by NMR analysis of the acetate obtained by fermentation of 2-phenoxy-[2-(13)C,1-(2)H(2)]ethanol, 2-phenoxy-[1-(13)C,1-(2)H(2)]ethanol, and 2-phenoxy-[1,2-(13)C(2),1-(2)H(2)]ethanol. During the course of the biotransformation process, the molecular integrity of the glycolic unit was completely retained, no loss of the migrating deuterium occurred by exchange with the medium, and the 1,2-deuterium shift was intramolecular. A diol dehydratase-like mechanism could explain the enzymatic cleavage of the ether bond of 2-phenoxyethanol, provided that an intramolecular H/OC(6)H(5) exchange is assumed, giving rise to the hemiacetal precursor of acetaldehyde. However, an alternative mechanism is proposed that is supported by the well recognized propensity of alpha-hydroxyradical and of its conjugate base (ketyl anion) to eliminate a beta-positioned leaving group.

  19. The Ether-Cleaving Methyltransferase System of the Strict Anaerobe Acetobacterium dehalogenans: Analysis and Expression of the Encoding Genes▿

    PubMed Central

    Schilhabel, Anke; Studenik, Sandra; Vödisch, Martin; Kreher, Sandra; Schlott, Bernhard; Pierik, Antonio Y.; Diekert, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic O-demethylases are inducible multicomponent enzymes which mediate the cleavage of the ether bond of phenyl methyl ethers and the transfer of the methyl group to tetrahydrofolate. The genes of all components (methyltransferases I and II, CP, and activating enzyme [AE]) of the vanillate- and veratrol-O-demethylases of Acetobacterium dehalogenans were sequenced and analyzed. In A. dehalogenans, the genes for methyltransferase I, CP, and methyltransferase II of both O-demethylases are clustered. The single-copy gene for AE is not included in the O-demethylase gene clusters. It was found that AE grouped with COG3894 proteins, the function of which was unknown so far. Genes encoding COG3894 proteins with 20 to 41% amino acid sequence identity with AE are present in numerous genomes of anaerobic microorganisms. Inspection of the domain structure and genetic context of these orthologs predicts that these are also reductive activases for corrinoid enzymes (RACEs), such as carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl coenzyme A synthases or anaerobic methyltransferases. The genes encoding the O-demethylase components were heterologously expressed with a C-terminal Strep-tag in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins methyltransferase I, CP, and AE were characterized. Gel shift experiments showed that the AE comigrated with the CP. The formation of other protein complexes with the O-demethylase components was not observed under the conditions used. The results point to a strong interaction of the AE with the CP. This is the first report on the functional heterologous expression of acetogenic phenyl methyl ether-cleaving O-demethylases. PMID:19011025

  20. Mitochondrial p53 mediates a transcription-independent regulation of cell respiration and interacts with the mitochondrial F₁F0-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Bergeaud, Marie; Mathieu, Lise; Guillaume, Arnaud; Moll, Ute M; Mignotte, Bernard; Le Floch, Nathalie; Vayssière, Jean-Luc; Rincheval, Vincent

    2013-09-01

    We and others previously reported that endogenous p53 can be located at mitochondria in the absence of stress, suggesting that p53 has a role in the normal physiology of this organelle. The aim of this study was to characterize in unstressed cells the intramitochondrial localization of p53 and identify new partners and functions of p53 in mitochondria. We find that the intramitochondrial pool of p53 is located in the intermembrane space and the matrix. Of note, unstressed HCT116 p53(+/+) cells simultaneously show increased O₂ consumption and decreased mitochondrial superoxide production compared with their p53-null counterpart. This data was confirmed by stable H1299 cell lines expressing low levels of p53 specifically targeted to the matrix. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified the oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein (OSCP), a subunit of the F₁F₀-ATP synthase complex, as a new partner of endogenous p53, specifically interacting with p53 localized in the matrix. Interestingly, this interaction seems implicated in mitochondrial p53 localization. Moreover, p53 localized in the matrix promotes the assembly of F₁F₀-ATP synthase. Taking into account that deregulations of mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species production are tightly linked to cancer development, we suggest that mitochondrial p53 may be an important regulator of normal mitochondrial and cellular physiology, potentially exerting tumor suppression activity inside mitochondria.

  1. Wasserundurchlässige Bauten aus Beton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmeyer, Gottfried C. O.

    Für die Dichtigkeit von Bauwerken oder Bauteilen ist außer der Verwendung geeigneter Abdichtungsstoffe auch eine günstige Konstruktion von Bedeutung. Sofern die Abdichtung nicht nach DIN 18195 "Bauwerksabdichtungen“ mit den dort genannten Stoffen erfolgt (z.B. Bitumen- oder Kunststoffdichtungsbahnen) oder Sonderabdichtungen zum Einsatz kommen, ist die Abdichtung mit Beton auszuführen, der einen hohen Wassereindringwiderstand aufweist. Dieser Beton wird auch als wasserundurchlässiger Beton (WU-Beton) bezeichnet. Maßgebend für das Bauen mit wasserundurchlässigem Beton sind die Normen DIN 1045-1 bis 1045-4 "Tragwerke aus Beton, Stahlbeton und Spannbeton“ [10.1, 10.2] und die Richtlinie "Wasserundurchlässige Bauwerke aus Beton (WU-Richtlinie)“ vom Deutschen Ausschuss für Stahlbeton DAfStb [10.19].

  2. 3D-Meshes aus medizinischen Volumendaten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelzer, Sascha; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Diese Arbeit beschreibt eine template-basierte Methode zur Erzeugung von adaptiven Hexaeder-Meshes aus Volumendaten, welche komplizierte konkave Strukturen aufweisen können. Es wird ein vollständiger Satz von Templates generiert der es erlaubt, die Ränder konkaver Regionen feiner zu zerlegen als angrenzende Bereiche und somit die Gesamtzahl an Hexaeder verringert. Der Algorithmus arbeitet mit beliebigen gelabelten Volumendaten und erzeugt ein adaptives, konformes, reines Hexaeder-Mesh.

  3. Vollautomatische Segmentierung der Prostata aus 3D-Ultraschallbildern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, Tobias; Simpfendörfer, Tobias; Baumhauer, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Diese Arbeit beschreibt ein modellbasiertes Verfahren zur Segmentierung der Prostata aus 3D-Ultraschalldaten. Kern der Methode ist ein statistisches Formmodell, das auf Beispieldaten der Prostata trainiert wird. Erster Schritt der Segmentierung ist ein evolutionärer Algorithmus, mit dem das Modell grob im zu segmentierenden Bild positioniert wird. Für die darauf folgende lokale Suche wurden mehrere Varianten des Algorithmus evaluiert, unter anderem Ausreißer-Unterdrückung, freie Deformation und Gewichtung der verwendeten Erscheinungsmodelle nach ihrer Zuverlässigkeit. Alle Varianten wurden auf 35 Ultraschallbildern getestet und mit manuellen Referenzsegmentierungen verglichen. Die beste Variante erreichte eine durchschnittliche Oberflächenabweichung von 1.1 mm.

  4. Validation of the Australian Propensity for Angry Driving Scale (Aus-PADS).

    PubMed

    Leal, Nerida L; Pachana, Nancy A

    2009-09-01

    The present study used a university sample to assess the test-retest reliability and validity of the Australian Propensity for Angry Driving Scale (Aus-PADS). The scale has stability over time, and convergent validity was established, as Aus-PADS scores correlated significantly with established anger and impulsivity measures. Discriminant validity was also established, as Aus-PADS scores did not correlate with Venturesomeness scores. The Aus-PADS has demonstrated criterion validity, as scores were correlated with behavioural measures, such as yelling at other drivers, gesturing at other drivers, and feeling angry but not doing anything. Aus-PADS scores reliably predicted the frequency of these behaviours over and above other study variables. No significant relationship between aggressive driving and crash involvement was observed. It was concluded that the Aus-PADS is a reliable and valid tool appropriate for use in Australian research, and that the potential relationship between aggressive driving and crash involvement warrants further investigation with a more representative (and diverse) driver sample.

  5. Segmentierung des Femurs aus MRT-Daten mit Shape-Based Level-Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekomien, Claudia; Busch, Martin; Teske, Wolfram; Winter, Susanne

    Inhalt dieser Arbeit ist die Segmentierung des Femurs aus MRT-Datensätzen mit einem Shape-based Level-Set-Ansatz. Der Algorithmus besteht aus zwei Phasen, der Modellerstellung und der Segmentierungsphase. In der Segmentierungsphase wurde ein kantenbasiertes und ein auf Intensitäten basierendes Optimierungskriterium mit einander kombiniert. Für eine lokale Verbesserung des Ergebnisses wurde zusätzlich ein Laplacian Level-Set-Verfahren angewendet. Der Femur konnte mit diesem Ansatz in drei verschiedenen MRT-Sequenzen und einem Fusionsdatensatz gut segmentiert werden.

  6. Reisen im freien Fall - Teil 2: Das Zwillingsparadoxon aus dem Blickwinkel der ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, Bernd; Weiß, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Nachdem wir uns mit den Prinzipien der ART und einigen Beispielen vertraut gemacht haben, kommen wir nun zur Berechnung des Zwillingsparadoxons aus Sicht des reisenden Zwillings. Dabei spielt das Äquivalenzprinzip eine große Rolle. Deshalb wird die Bewegungssituation noch einmal erläutert, diesmal aus Sicht von Katrin. Sie befindet sich in ihrem System S'in Ruhe. In ihrem System läuft die Zeit t'ab. Nach dem Start fühlt Katrin jedoch eine Kraft, die sie als Gravitationskraft interpretieren kann. Sie merkt es daran, dass sie in den Sitz gedrückt wird. Nach einiger Zeit werden die Triebwerke abgeschaltet, und das Raumschiff fliegt mit konstanter Geschwindigkeit weiter, Phase 2. Anschließend wird der Schub der Triebwerke solange umgekehrt, bis das Raumschiff irgendwo mit der Geschwindigkeit null am Umkehrpunkt U landet, Phase 3 (Abb. 15.1). Die Erde, auf der sich Michael befindet, bewegt sich mit x'(t') aus Sicht von Katrin im freien Fall von ihr weg, s. das Experiment mit dem steigenden Fahrstuhl in Abschn. 13.2.1.

  7. Assessing the long-term species composition predicted by PrognAus

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Markus O.

    2010-01-01

    Tree growth models are supposed to contain stand growth laws as so called “emergent properties” which derive from interactions of individual-tree growth and mortality functions. This study investigates whether the evolving tree species composition in a long term simulation by the distance-independent tree growth model PrognAus matches the species composition of the potential natural vegetation type which is expected to occur if one refrains from further management interventions and major disturbances, climate change, and changes in site conditions can be excluded. For this purpose the development of 6933 sample plots of the Austrian National Forest Inventory was predicted for 2500 years. The resulting species proportions, derived from volume per hectare of 15 tree species or species groups, were used to classify every sample plot according to potential natural forest types, following a classification scheme based on expert knowledge. These simulated potential natural vegetation types were compared with expert reconstructions of the sample plots of the Austrian National Forest Inventory. A total of 5789 plots were actually classified with the scheme; in 33% of the cases the classification on the basis of the PrognAus-simulations was identical with the classification by the Austrian National Forest Inventory. A predominantly correct classification was achieved for the subalpine Picea abies-type and the Fagus sylvatica-type although PrognAus showed a tendency to overestimate the proportion of F. sylvatica and P. abies. Weaknesses in the ability to simulate forest types dominated by Quercus spp., Acer spp., and Pinus sylvestris were identified. This shortcoming might be caused by the mortality model which allows a larger diameter at breast height for F. sylvatica or by the ingrowth model whose terms for the consideration of inter-specific competition may lead to a disadvantage of Quercus spp., P. sylvestris, and Abies alba. Moreover, the ingrowth model might be

  8. Establishing the Aus-ROC Australian and New Zealand out-of-hospital cardiac arrest Epistry

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Janet; Smith, Karen; Walker, Tony; Grantham, Hugh; Hein, Cindy; Thorrowgood, Melanie; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Tony; Dicker, Bridget; Swain, Andy; Bailey, Mark; Bosley, Emma; Pemberton, Katherine; Cameron, Peter; Nichol, Graham; Finn, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a global health problem with low survival. Regional variation in survival has heightened interest in combining cardiac arrest registries to understand and improve OHCA outcomes. While individual OHCA registries exist in Australian and New Zealand ambulance services, until recently these registries have not been combined. The aim of this protocol paper is to describe the rationale and methods of the Australian Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (Aus-ROC) OHCA epidemiological registry (Epistry). Methods and analysis The Aus-ROC Epistry is designed as a population-based cohort study. Data collection started in 2014. Six ambulance services in Australia (Ambulance Victoria, SA Ambulance Service, St John Ambulance Western Australia and Queensland Ambulance Service) and New Zealand (St John New Zealand and Wellington Free Ambulance) currently contribute data. All OHCA attended by ambulance, regardless of aetiology or patient age, are included in the Epistry. The catchment population is approximately 19.3 million persons, representing 63% of the Australian population and 100% of the New Zealand population. Data are collected using Utstein-style definitions. Information incorporated into the Epistry includes demographics, arrest features, ambulance response times, treatment and patient outcomes. The primary outcome is ‘survival to hospital discharge’, with ‘return of spontaneous circulation’ as a key secondary outcome. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was independently sought by each of the contributing registries. Overarching ethics for the Epistry was provided by Monash University HREC (Approval No. CF12/3938—2012001888). A population-based OHCA registry capturing the majority of Australia and New Zealand will allow risk-adjusted outcomes to be determined, to enable benchmarking across ambulance providers, facilitate the identification of system-wide strategies associated with survival from OHCA, and

  9. Central obesity as a precursor to the metabolic syndrome in the AusDiab study and Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Adrian J; Boyko, Edward J; Sicree, Richard A; Zimmet, Paul Z; Söderberg, Stefan; Alberti, K George M M; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Chitson, Pierrot; Shaw, Jonathan E

    2008-12-01

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies that central obesity precedes future metabolic change and does not occur concurrently with the appearance of the blood pressure, glucose, and lipid abnormalities that characterize the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been lacking. Longitudinal surveys were conducted in Mauritius in 1987, 1992, and 1998, and in Australia in 2000 and 2005 (AusDiab). This analysis included men and women (aged > or = 25 years) in three cohorts: AusDiab 2000-2005 (n = 5,039), Mauritius 1987-1992 (n = 2,849), and Mauritius 1987-1998 (n = 1,999). MetS components included waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting and 2-h postload plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) (representing insulin sensitivity). Linear regression was used to determine which baseline components predicted deterioration in other MetS components over 5 years in AusDiab and 5 and 11 years in Mauritius, adjusted for age, sex, and ethnic group. Baseline waist circumference predicted deterioration (P < 0.01) in four of the other six MetS variables tested in AusDiab, five of six in Mauritius 1987-1992, and four of six in Mauritius 1987-1998. In contrast, an increase in waist circumference between baseline and follow-up was only predicted by insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) at baseline, and only in one of the three cohorts. These results suggest that central obesity plays a central role in the development of the MetS and appears to precede the appearance of the other MetS components.

  10. Using NOAA/AVHRR based remote sensing data and PCR method for estimation of Aus rice yield in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Akhand, Kawsar; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix; Goldberg, Mitch

    2015-06-01

    Rice is a dominant food crop of Bangladesh accounting about 75 percent of agricultural land use for rice cultivation and currently Bangladesh is the world's fourth largest rice producing country. Rice provides about two-third of total calorie supply and about one-half of the agricultural GDP and one-sixth of the national income in Bangladesh. Aus is one of the main rice varieties in Bangladesh. Crop production, especially rice, the main food staple, is the most susceptible to climate change and variability. Any change in climate will, thus, increase uncertainty regarding rice production as climate is major cause year-to-year variability in rice productivity. This paper shows the application of remote sensing data for estimating Aus rice yield in Bangladesh using official statistics of rice yield with real time acquired satellite data from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor and Principal Component Regression (PCR) method was used to construct a model. The simulated result was compared with official agricultural statistics showing that the error of estimation of Aus rice yield was less than 10%. Remote sensing, therefore, is a valuable tool for estimating crop yields well in advance of harvest, and at a low cost.

  11. The electric dipole moments in the ground states of gold oxide, AuO, and gold sulfide, AuS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruohan; Yu, Yuanqin; Steimle, Timothy C.; Cheng, Lan

    2017-02-01

    The B2Σ- - X2Π3/2(0,0) bands of a cold molecular beam sample of gold monoxide, AuO, and gold monosulfide, AuS, have been recorded at high resolution both field free and in the presence of a static electric field. The observed electric field induced splittings and shifts were analyzed to produce permanent electric dipole moments, μ→ e l, of 2.94±0.06 D and 2.22±0.05 D for the X2Π3/2(v = 0) states of AuO and AuS, respectively. A molecular orbital correlation diagram is used to rationalize the trend in ground state μ→ e l values for AuX (X = F, Cl, O, and S) molecules. The experimentally determined μ→ e l are compared to those computed at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) level augmented with a perturbative inclusion of triple excitations (CCSD(T)) level of theory.

  12. Die Anfaenge der Melker Bibliothek - Neue Erkenntnisse zu Handschriften und Fragmenten aus der Zeit vor 1200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaßner, Christine; Haidinger, Alois

    1996-04-01

    Untersuchung der zeitnahen Eintragungen in diese Handschrift gelang es, die Tätigkeit von zumindest drei wichtigen, im 12. Jahrhundert in Melk identifizierbaren, namentlich nicht bekannten Schreibern chronologisch zuzuordnen. Erstmals wurden die nur fragmentarisch als Makulatur in den Bucheinbänden erhaltenen Handschriften in die Untersuchung einbezogen, so dass für die Wende vom 12. zum 13. Jahrhundert ein Bücherbestand von 68 Handschriften erschlossen werden konnte. Besonders hervorzuheben ist, dass in der Sonderausstellung von 1996 und im Begleitband erstmals eingehend die Bedeutung der ältesten Melker Handschrift, Cod. 412 aus dem frühen 9. Jahrhundert mit naturwissenschaftlichen Texten des Beda Venerabilis, als Vorlage für drei weitere Handschriften diente: Vatikan, Cod. Vat. lat. 643, abgeschrieben wahrscheinlich in Melk, davon abhängig Zwettl, Cod. 296, und Klosterneuburg, Cod. 685. Die Abschriften der Melker Beda-Handschrift sind inhaltlich fast identisch, allerdings um den im Mittelalter fälschlicherweise Beda Venerabilis zugeschriebenen Sternbilderkatalog erweitert.

  13. Site-directed mutagenesis around the CuA site of a polyphenol oxidase from Coreopsis grandiflora (cgAUS1).

    PubMed

    Kaintz, Cornelia; Mayer, Rupert L; Jirsa, Franz; Halbwirth, Heidi; Rompel, Annette

    2015-03-24

    Aurone synthase from Coreopsis grandiflora (cgAUS1), catalyzing conversion of butein to sulfuretin in a type-3 copper center, is a rare example of a polyphenol oxidase involved in anabolism. Site-directed mutagenesis around the CuA site of AUS1 was performed, and recombinant enzymes were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Replacement of the coordinating CuA histidines with alanine resulted in the presence of a single copper and loss of diphenolase activity. The thioether bridge-building cysteine and a phenylalanine over the CuA site, exchanged to alanine, have no influence on copper content but appear to play an important role in substrate binding.

  14. Design of Au/SPIO composite nanoparticle for facile and biocompatible surface functionalization via Au-S bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, Satoshi; Shibata, Yujin; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Mukai, Yohei; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Yamamoto, Takao A.

    2013-01-01

    Immobilization of Au nanoparticles on super-paramagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO) enables facile and biocompatible surface functionalization via Au-S bond. Au/SPIO composite nanoparticle is easily modified by thiol-modified polyethylene glycol (PEG-SH), and they are successfully applied on MR tumor imaging. However, its large hydrodynamic size ( 150 nm) still causes the accumulation to liver in vivo. In this study, we controlled the hydrodynamic size of Au/SPIO by testing different raw SPIOs and stabilizing polymers. As the best candidate, Au/Molday-ION which was synthesized from Molday-ION and polyvinyl alcohol comprised the hydrodynamic size of 56 nm. Moreover, PEGylated Au/Molday-ION showed excellent dispersibility in blood serum, with the hydrodynamic size of 65 nm. This surface functionalization strategy is effective for the constructions of magnetic nanocarriers for in vivo applications.

  15. Lithospheric reworking at the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition of Australia imaged using AusLAMP Magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Kate; Heinson, Graham; Thiel, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Seventy-four stations from the long-period Australia-wide AusLAMP (Australian Lithospheric Architecture Magnetotelluric Project) dataset were used to image the electrical resistivity beneath the Neoproterozoic Ikara-Flinders Ranges and adjacent Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Curnamona Province. Results from 3D inversions using ModEM software show a relatively resistive Ikara-Flinders Ranges, with two parallel arcuate conductors at 20 to 80 km depth in the Nackara Arc. There is a good correlation of diamondiferous kimberlites occurring over conductors, which we interpret as evidence for these conductors to be residing on large lithospheric structures that have been conduits for partial melt and volatile movement in the Jurassic. The Curnamona Province is remarkably conductive for a region that is thought to have a cratonic core, with Delamerian reworking only at its edges. The conductor covers most of the province at depths of 10-40 km, and its presence at lower crustal depths suggests that conductive sediments can not entirely explain it. Fluids associated with subduction may have pervasively modified the crust in the past, resulting in an enrichment of carbon, enhancing the conductivity. Additionally, we conclude that the notion of a single continuous arcuate Flinders Conductivity Anomaly is unlikely and that the anomalous response observed is instead a result of the combined response of three separate anomalies; the Curnamona Province Conductor and the two Nackara Arc Conductors.

  16. AusEinetter, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AusEinetter, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains issues eight and nine of the 1999 Australian Early Intervention Network for Mental Health in Young People newsletters for health professionals. The newsletters disseminate information about the national and local initiatives for intervention and prevention of mental health problems in young children and youth. The issues…

  17. AusEinetter, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AusEinetter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This publication contains the 1998 issues of the Australian Early Intervention Network for Mental Health in Young People newsletters for health professionals. The newsletters disseminate information about the national and local initiatives for intervention and prevention of mental health problems in young children and youth. Each issue also offers…

  18. The contributions of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure and other determinants to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in Australian adults: the AusD Study.

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael G; Lucas, Robyn M; Harrison, Simone L; van der Mei, Ingrid; Armstrong, Bruce K; Whiteman, David C; Kricker, Anne; Nowak, Madeleine; Brodie, Alison M; Sun, Jiandong

    2014-04-01

    The Quantitative Assessment of Solar UV [ultraviolet] Exposure for Vitamin D Synthesis in Australian Adults (AusD) Study aimed to better define the relationship between sun exposure and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. Cross-sectional data were collected between May 2009 and December 2010 from 1,002 participants aged 18-75 years in 4 Australian sites spanning 24° of latitude. Participants completed the following: 1) questionnaires on sun exposure, dietary vitamin D intake, and vitamin D supplementation; 2) 10 days of personal ultraviolet radiation dosimetry; 3) a sun exposure and physical activity diary; and 4) clinical measurements and blood collection for 25(OH)D determination. Our multiple regression model described 40% of the variance in 25(OH)D concentration; modifiable behavioral factors contributed 52% of the explained variance, and environmental and demographic or constitutional variables contributed 38% and 10%, respectively. The amount of skin exposed was the single strongest contributor to the explained variance (27%), followed by location (20%), season (17%), personal ultraviolet radiation exposure (8%), vitamin D supplementation (7%), body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) (4%), and physical activity (4%). Modifiable behavioral factors strongly influence serum 25(OH)D concentrations in Australian adults. In addition, latitude was a strong determinant of the relative contribution of different behavioral factors.

  19. Dr.Phil. et Med. Hermann Von Schrötter: Skizzen eines feldarztes aus Montenegro- observations of a military physician on his visit to Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Vujovic, Veselin

    2008-01-01

    This essay gives a review of a book by an Austrian physician Hermann von Schrötter Skizzen Eines Feldartes aus Montenegro (Observations of a Military Physician from Montenegro), Berlin - Wien 1913 on the occasion of its translation to Montenegrin and reprint in Cetinje, Montenegro in 2007. The book takes us back to the time of the preparations and attack on Scutari, which took place in 1912 and 1913. The Montenegrin army achieved their military goal, but with numerous casualties, whose exact number has never been determined. The author, Hermann von Schrötter, confirmed this in his observations in the book. When the Montenegrin Red Cross asked for help, the organizations of the following countries responded: Austria, Czechoslovakia, England, France, The Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Russia, Switzerland, and Sweden. Apart from them, physicians were sent by the Slavonic Voluntary Society from St. Petersburg, the Boards of the Red Cross from Dubrovnik and Split, the National Board from Zadar; seven physicians came from the Bay of Boka and three physicians with three nurses came from Bosnia. I wish to stress that in those times the Red Cross offered aid, as it does today, to all the people in need, regardless of their political beliefs. The relations between Montenegro and Austria were poor back then, yet the Mission of the Austrian Red Cross generously gave assistance and relief to the Montenegrin people!

  20. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 333: U-3auS Disposal Site Annual Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. K. Knapp

    2003-09-01

    The U-3auS Disposal Site Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 333 is a closed construction landfill located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. The closure of this site was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) dated June 27, 2001. Post-closure monitoring requirements are described in a letter from NNSA/NV to NDEP dated October 9, 2001, and were approved by the NDEP in a letter from NDEP to NNSA/NV dated November 5, 2001. Post-closure care consists of the following: Semiannual inspections of the unit using an inspection checklist; Photographic documentation of site conditions; Field note documentation; Performing minor site maintenance as necessary; and Preparation and submittal of an annual report. The annual report consists of copies of the inspection checklist, repair records (if any), photographs, and recommendations and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are provided in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are provided in Attachment C. Field note documentation is not formally required for this CAU, however in order to be consistent with other reports, it has been added to this report.

  1. Malignancy is associated with microcalcification and higher AP/T ratio in ultrasonography, but not with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in histopathology in patients with thyroid nodules evaluated as Bethesda Category III (AUS/FLUS) in cytology.

    PubMed

    Topaloglu, Oya; Baser, Husniye; Cuhaci, Fatma Neslihan; Sungu, Nuran; Yalcin, Abdussamed; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2016-10-01

    The predictors of malignancy are important for the decision of appropriate management in nodules with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS). Our aim was to determine the ultrasonographical, clinical, and biochemical predictors of malignancy in these patients. A total of 427 patients with cytologically Bethesda Category III (AUS/FLUS) thyroid nodules were included in this retrospective study. We divided the nodules into two subgroups according to the histopathology as benign and malignant, and compared the preoperative ultrasonographical, clinical, and biochemical findings. In overall, 427 patients with 449 AUS/FLUS nodules who had undergone surgery, the rate of malignancy was 23.4 % (105/449). When evaluated separately, the rate of malignancy was 25.8 % in nodules with AUS (82/318) and 17.6 % in nodules with FLUS (23/131) (p = 0.061). The vast majority of malignant specimens in histopathology consisted of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (n = 91, 86.7 %). Preoperative ultrasonographic features of 105 malignant nodules in histopathology were compared with the 344 benign nodules in histopathology. Anteroposterior/Transverse (AP/T) ratio was significantly higher in malignant group compared to benign group (p = 0.013). In multiple logistic analysis, we found that higher AP/T ratio and microcalcification were independently associated with malignancy (p < 0.05). The malignancy-associated cut-off value of AP/T ratio at maximum sensitivity and specificity was ≥0.81. We did not find any correlation between malignancy and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in histopathology in multivariate analysis (p > 0.05). In Bethesda Category III nodules with higher AP/T ratio and microcalcification, surgery might be considered as a first therapeutic option instead of repeat fine-needle aspiration biopsy or observation.

  2. Weichteile von Fossilien aus dem Erdaltertum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Klaus J.

    1982-06-01

    Phosphatisation of small, soft-bodied fossils in the Upper Cambrian of Sweden yielded rich faunal assemblages, mainly of arthropods, which have been isolated from the rock by etching techniques. The highly diverse fossils are uncompressed and constitute the best preserved material known from the Paleozoic era, exposing minute details such as fine bristles, pores of glands, and eyes. Agnostus clearly has biramous appendages and therefore, cannot be regarded as trilobite anymore. The Crustacea are the most widespread components of the phosphatised fauna. The representatives of a separate order of Ostracoda already have been studied in some detail. Other primordial crustaceans include nauplius stages and show a surprising diversity in specialisation. A similar occurrence in Upper Devonian from the Carnic Alps demonstrates that this mode of preservation is not restricted to a single environment, but also can be expected elsewhere.

  3. Lineare und verzweigte Blockcopolymere aus Polypeptiden und synthetischen Polymeren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukula, Hildegard

    2001-07-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von linearen und verzweigten amphiphilen Polypeptid-Blockcopolymeren. Die Frage nach dem Einfluss der Topologie und Konformation der Blockcopolymere auf die supramolekularen und kolloidalen Eigenschaften bildete einen wichtigen Aspekt bei den Untersuchungen. Die Blockcopolymere wurden nach einem mehrstufigen Reaktionsschema durch Kombination von anionischer und ringöffnender Polymerisation von Aminosäuren-N-Carboxyanhydriden (NCA) synthetisiert. Die Untersuchung der Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere hinsichtlich ihres Aggregationsverhaltens in fester Phase sowie in verdünnter wässriger Lösung erfolgte mittels Streumethoden (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) sowie abbildender Methoden (TEM). Durch Einsatz der Blockcopolymere als polymere Stabilisatoren in der Emulsionspolymerisation wurden Oberflächen funktionalisierte Latizes erhalten. Als Beispiel für eine pharmazeutische Anwendung wurden bioverträgliche Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere als Wirkstoff-Trägersysteme in der Krebstherapie eingesetzt. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers having amphiphilic character. The studies focused on the impact of the block copolymers' conformation and architecture on the supramolecular and colloidal properties. The polypeptide block copolymers were prepared in a multi-step process involving the anionic synthesis of (poly)amino-functional polymers (polystyrene and polybutadiene) which where used as macroinitiators for the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCA) of protected a-aminoacids. Supramolecular structures of the block copolymers in the solid state as well as in diluted aqueous solution were investigated using scattering (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) and microscopic (TEM) methods. Both linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers were used as polymeric stabilizers in the emulsion polymerization of styrene to yield polypeptide-decorated latexes. Biocompatible block copolymers were used as drug-delivery systems in lymphatic cancer therapy.

  4. Amor und der Abstand zur Sonne. Geschichten aus meinem Kosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf

    2001-10-01

    R. Kippenhahn hat in vielen Büchern die Astronomie populär gemacht. Ihn interessieren dabei immer auch die kuriosen Aspekte seiner Wissenschaft. Von ihnen erzählt er in den kleinen Geschichten dieses Buches.

  5. Ostracoden von Hawaii, insbesondere aus dem marinen Interstitial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, G.

    1991-03-01

    The present paper deals with ostracods collected by H. Kunz during October and November 1979 on the Hawaiian Islands (Big Island, Maui and Kauai). 26 species were found, nine species are described, two were already known to science, 15 remain in open nomenclature. Although some of the new species are represented only by a single specimen, the morphologic characters permit to distinguish them from other species of the genus. The ostracods of the Hawaiian Islands are very imperfectly known.

  6. Materials Data on KP2AuS7 (SG:15) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Zweiwegintegration durch zweisprachige Bildung? Ergebnisse aus der Staatlichen Europa-Schule Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Gabriela

    2012-06-01

    While there is no simple recipe of how to respond to the multitude of languages present in many European schools, this article presents a promising alternative to monolingual education. The focus is on Staatliche Europa-Schule Berlin (SESB), a two-way immersion (TWI) model that unites children whose mother tongue is German with children whose mother tongue is another locally spoken language in one class and teaches them together in two languages. Thus in this model, offered by 17 primary schools and 13 secondary schools in Berlin, pupils learn in two languages from and with each other. Based on a largely quantitative, quasi-experimental study with 603 students, evidence is provided that there are a number of peace-linguistic benefits that can promote two-way social integration, besides fostering personal and societal multilingualism. This suggests that TWI education as practised in Berlin could serve as an educational model for other multilingual parts of Europe.

  8. Drei neue gamma-Doradus-Sterne aus der ASAS-3 Datenbank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Klaus; Huemmerich, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    By analysis of data from the ASAS-3 archive, the stars HD 18011, NSV 16873 and NSV 3272 were identified as multiperiodic gamma Doradus variables. Essential information on these variables is presented, along with unwhitened frequency spectra and statistically significant frequencies, as derived with Period 04.

  9. More Effective Aid Policy? AusAID and the Global Development Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassity, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    A first glance at almost any policy document generated by a bilateral or multilateral donor agency reveals a familiar rhetoric of participation, partnership, community, good governance, growth and strong democracy as key ingredients for a successful development program. While some critics of this rhetoric argue that this is merely a recasting of…

  10. Political Participation of Non-Citzens in Germany and Western Europe. (Beitrage aus dem Fachbereich Padagogik).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Lutz R.

    This paper compares the present social, economic, and political rights labor immigrants enjoy within the European Community (EC). Its focus is the current debate about the municipal suffrage of permanent residents. The dual relevance of the topic is obvious. EC bodies like the Commission, Council of Ministers, Political Council, and European…

  11. Persönlichkeitsentwicklung als ziel der Bildung: Aus der Sicht eines Psychologen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Burger

    1990-06-01

    Personality, which is a term almost always used in a positive sense, does not exist from the moment of birth, but it develops under the influence of heredity and environment. Adolescence, which is seen as a transition from childhood to adulthood, raises difficulties in many modern industrialized countries as a result of the often arduous search for individual identity. In this context identity is seen as an interaction between heredity and environment. While developing his own personality, the young person has to maintain an integral existence vis-à-vis himself, society and life. Psychology defines the personality as the sum of numerous psychological characteristics, through which differences between people are revealed. The development of these characteristics is to be seen in the environment, maturation and actions of the individual. It can be subdivided into causes, conditions and processes. Finally the article discusses various aspects of the general question of education. The author concludes that the development of the personality should be an aim of education, but that this aim is presently unattainable because of a lack of clarity in the concept of education.

  12. Materials Data on Ag4AuS2 (SG:10) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-04-22

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. National Stocktake of Early Intervention Programs--July 1998. AusEkit Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cathy; Martin, Graham; Kosky, Robert; O'Hanlon, Anne

    This project consists of three interrelated streams which aim to: (1) develop and maintain a national network of mental health service providers, and an easily accessible clearinghouse of relevant information, to facilitate the development of innovative early intervention services across Australia; (2) address challenges in reorienting service…

  14. Materials Data on K3AuSe13 (SG:13) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-04

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Auranofin disrupts selenium metabolism in Clostridium difficile by forming a stable Au-Se adduct.

    PubMed

    Jackson-Rosario, Sarah; Cowart, Darin; Myers, Andrew; Tarrien, Rebecca; Levine, Rodney L; Scott, Robert A; Self, William Thomas

    2009-05-01

    Clostridium difficile is a nosocomial pathogen whose incidence and importance are on the rise. Previous work in our laboratory characterized the central role of selenoenzyme-dependent Stickland reactions in C. difficile metabolism. In this work we have identified, using mass spectrometry, a stable complex formed upon reaction of auranofin (a gold-containing drug) with selenide in vitro. X-ray absorption spectroscopy supports the structure that we proposed on the basis of mass-spectrometric data. Auranofin potently inhibits the growth of C. difficile but does not similarly affect other clostridia that do not utilize selenoproteins to obtain energy. Moreover, auranofin inhibits the incorporation of radioisotope selenium ((75)Se) in selenoproteins in both Escherichia coli, the prokaryotic model for selenoprotein synthesis, and C. difficile without impacting total protein synthesis. Auranofin blocks the uptake of selenium and results in the accumulation of the auranofin-selenide adduct in the culture medium. Addition of selenium in the form of selenite or L-selenocysteine to the growth medium significantly reduces the inhibitory action of auranofin on the growth of C. difficile. On the basis of these results, we propose that formation of this complex and the subsequent deficiency in available selenium for selenoprotein synthesis is the mechanism by which auranofin inhibits C. difficile growth. This study demonstrates that targeting selenium metabolism provides a new avenue for antimicrobial development against C. difficile and other selenium-dependent pathogens.

  16. Keplers Weg der Erforschung der wahren Planetenbahn. Ergebnisse aus der Durchsicht der handschriftlichen Manuskripte.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, V.

    The handwriting manuscripts with Kepler's preliminary studies for his Astronomia Nova (some 700 pages) represent the most important source material. By reconstructing his mathematical-geometrical considerations of planetary astronomy, especially his hypothesis vicaria and the introduction of an oval orbit, here modern mathematical formulas are used. A smaller part of the manuscripts deals with Kepler's - so to speak - "speculative" physics as actual cause of the planetary motion. The whole handwriting material together with a detailed commentary will be published in the next volume of the Munich Kepler Edition in 1998.

  17. Umweltrelevanz von natürlichen polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen aus Steinkohlen - eine Übersicht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achten, C.; Hofmann, T.

    2010-03-01

    Releases of PAHs from hard (bituminous) coals into the environment have not been widely recognized. In hard coals, some hundreds of mg/kg of EPA-PAH and some thousands of mg/kg total PAH concentrations can occur and the concentrations vary significantly depending on hard coal maturity and origin. Highest PAH concentrations are present in the maturity range of the so-called “oil-window” (high volatile bituminous coal rank), however there is no general correlation. Only coals from the same origin can be compared. Naphthalene and phenanthrene as well as their alkylated derivatives are the dominant single polyaromatic compounds in hard coals. The PAH distribution patterns change with increasing rank from the low molecular weight, mostly alkylated compounds with linkage to the original organic material to the predominantly higher molecular weight parent compounds. The former are characteristic for coals of petrogenic origin and the latter for those of pyrogenic origin. Currently, PAHs from coals and from crude oil and its products cannot be distinguished by use of common simple diagnostic parameters. In countries holding large coal basins and associated mining activity, coal particles can comprise 10-15 % of the sediment or soil. Until today, little has been known about desorption and bioavailability of native PAH from coals. Literature studies so far show slow and very slow desorption and hardly any or no effects on organisms. This shows that there is a lack of systematic studies using heterogeneous coals from different countries. Bioavailability of PAH from coal particles in soils and sediments has an impact on risk assessment and should be included in sediment and soil standards.

  18. A Blue Native-PAGE analysis of membrane protein complexes in Clostridium thermocellum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clostridium thermocellum is a Gram-positive thermophilic anaerobic bacterium with the unusual capacity to convert cellulosic biomass into ethanol and hydrogen. Identification and characterization of protein complexes in C. thermocellum are important toward understanding its metabolism and physiology. Results A two dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE procedure was developed to separate membrane protein complexes of C. thermocellum. Proteins spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass spectrometry. 24 proteins were identified representing 13 distinct protein complexes, including several putative intact complexes. Interestingly, subunits of both the F1-F0-ATP synthase and the V1-V0-ATP synthase were detected in the membrane sample, indicating C. thermocellum may use alternative mechanisms for ATP generation. Conclusion Two dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE was used to detect membrane protein complexes in C. thermocellum. More than a dozen putative protein complexes were identified, revealing the simultaneous expression of two sets of ATP synthase. The protocol developed in this work paves the way for further functional characterization of these protein complexes. PMID:21269440

  19. Welche Fragen konnen aus einer Gemeinsamen Interpretation der Befunde aus PISA and IGLU Fundiert Beantwortet Werden? (To Which Questions Does a Combined Interpretation of the Results Yielded by both PISA and IGLU Provide Well-Grounded Answers?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Wilfried; Lankes, Eva-Maria; Prenzel, Manfred; Schwippert, Knut; Walther, Gerd; Valtin, Renate; Voss, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the International Survey on Reading Abilities in Primary School (IGLU) and its data on achievement in reading, mathematics, and natural science. Compares this data to that collected by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Identifies achievement relevant correlations such as gender, migration background, socioeconomic…

  20. Lassen sich aus latenten Lernstrategien Ansprueche an systematisches "vocabulary building" ableiten? (Can Systematic Vocabulary Building Benefit from Latent Learning Strategies?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfes, Leonhard

    1980-01-01

    Reports on an experiment designed to reveal how the learner's passive foreign language vocabulary is built up, what role the context plays, what kinds of learning strategies are involved, and whether a false competence results from these strategies. (IFS/WGA)

  1. Grundwassergefährdungspotenzial von Additiven in Wärmeträgerflüssigkeiten aus Erdwärmesonden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, Dafina; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Morasch, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    The number of installed vertical borehole heat exchangers is continuing to grow continuously which increases the risk of a local groundwater contamination with heat exchanger fluids due to a system leakage. This study evaluates the groundwater pollution potential of organic additives applied in heat exchanger fluids. In the first step of the project a data survey was carried out to collect detailed information about the identity, frequency of use and concentrations of the applied additives. In total, 35 different additives were disclosed by producers and/or distributors of heat exchanger fluids. The additives were classified as corrosion inhibitors, alkalis, dyes, solvents, scentsflavours, defoamers, and surfactants. The groundwater pollution potential of the additives was assessed based on their frequency of usage in the declared fluids and on their environmental fate (mobility, persistence and aquatic toxicity). Based on our analysis, the corrosion inhibitors benzotriazole, tolyltriazole, 2-ethylhexanoate, benzoate and sebacate exhibit a potentially exhibit a significant risk for groundwater contamination.

  2. Direkte Kontakte zu Deutschland aus und in der Ferne (Direct Contact with Germany from and at a Distance).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicke, Rainer E.

    This guide is a summary of ideas for enhancing the teaching of German through direct contact with Germany or German people without traveling abroad. The following ideas are highlighted: (1) correspondence (pen pals) with students in Germany; (2) audiotape recordings as an alternative to letter writing; (3) the exchange of videotape recordings with…

  3. Lipopeptide als natürliche Adjuvantien für Impfstoffe aus Gram-negativen Bakterien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlecht, S.; Wiesmüller, K.-H.; Jung, G.; Bessler, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Bacterial cell wall components such as lipopolysaccharide, a variety of membrane proteins, murein, and lipoprotein can act as immunoadjuvants for bacterial vaccines, thus enhancing protection from bacterial infections. Synthetically prepared N-terminal parts of the lipoprotein from Enterobacteria carrying three fatty acid residues or lipopeptide analogs containing one to four aminoacids bound to S-glycerylcysteine act as potent immunoadjuvants in vivo in combination with or covalently linked to antiges. Here we demonstrate that the supplementation of Salmonella vaccines with these synthetic lipopeptides significantly enhances their vaccine efficiency in mice. Variations in the native lipopeptide structure regarding chain length and amino acid sequence of the peptide moiety, as well as modifications of the lipoamino acid, lead to reduction or even complete loss of the adjuvant activity. The immunoadjuvant properties of the lipopeptides as described here are mediated by an enhancement of the humoral immune response.

  4. Investitionen aus den BRIC-Staaten - Grund zur Sorge für Unternehmen, Beschäftigte und Kommunen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Martin; Henn, Sebastian

    2017-02-01

    Investments from BRIC countries - Brazil, Russia, India and China - are playing an increasingly important role in Germany. However, both the public and the potentially affected labour force often adopt sceptical, and sometimes even hostile attitudes towards investors from these countries. This article shows that apart from a few exceptions investors from the BRIC countries are generally better than their reputation precedes. An important conclusion drawn in this paper is that investors should not be received with stereotypes. Rather, it is necessary to perform deeper investigations into their strategies and the specific investment goals in each case. This is all the more necessary to ensure that investments from BRIC countries do not conflict with the domestic firms' interests or of their personnel. In fact, they can assist to increase the competitiveness of German firms, and as such not only prove beneficial for the workforce but also for Germany as a business destination.

  5. Human lactoferrin triggers a mitochondrial- and caspase-dependent regulated cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Zaldívar, M; Andrés, M T; Rego, A; Pereira, C S; Fierro, J F; Côrte-Real, M

    2016-02-01

    We have previously shown that the antifungal activity of human lactoferrin (hLf) against Candida albicans relies on its ability to induce cell death associated with apoptotic markers. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying hLf-induced apoptosis, we characterized this cell death process in the well-established Saccharomyces cerevisiae model. Our results indicate that hLf induces cell death in S. cerevisiae in a manner that requires energy and de novo protein synthesis. Cell death is associated with nuclear chromatin condensation, preservation of plasma membrane integrity, and is Yca1p metacaspase-dependent. Lactoferrin also caused mitochondrial dysfunction associated with ROS accumulation and release of cytochrome c. Pre-incubation with oligomycin, an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, increased resistance to hLf and, accordingly, mutants deficient in the F1F0-ATP synthase complex were more resistant to death induced by hLf. This indicates that mitochondrial energetic metabolism plays a key role in the killing effect of hLf, though a direct role of F1F0-ATP synthase cannot be precluded. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL or pre-incubation with N-acetyl cysteine reduced the intracellular level of ROS and increased resistance to hLf, confirming a ROS-mediated mitochondrial cell death process. Mitochondrial involvement was further reinforced by the higher resistance of cells lacking mitochondrial DNA, or other known yeast mitochondrial apoptosis regulators, such as, Aif1p, Cyc3p and Aac1/2/3p. This study provides new insights into a detailed understanding at the molecular level of hLf-induced apoptosis, which may allow the design of new strategies to overcome the emergence of resistance of clinically relevant fungi to conventional antifungals.

  6. How the nucleus and mitochondria communicate in energy production during stress: nuclear MtATP6, an early-stress responsive gene, regulates the mitochondrial F₁F₀-ATP synthase complex.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Ali Asghar; Ebrahimie, Eemaeil; Taghavi, Seyed Mohsen; Niazi, Ali; Babgohari, Mahbobeh Zamani; Deihimi, Tahereh; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Ramezani, Amin

    2013-07-01

    A small number of stress-responsive genes, such as those of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase complex, are encoded by both the nucleus and mitochondria. The regulatory mechanism of these joint products is mysterious. The expression of 6-kDa subunit (MtATP6), a relatively uncharacterized nucleus-encoded subunit of F0 part, was measured during salinity stress in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivated wheat genotypes, as well as in the wild wheat genotypes, Triticum and Aegilops using qRT-PCR. The MtATP6 expression was suddenly induced 3 h after NaCl treatment in all genotypes, indicating an early inducible stress-responsive behavior. Promoter analysis showed that the MtATP6 promoter includes cis-acting elements such as ABRE, MYC, MYB, GTLs, and W-boxes, suggesting a role for this gene in abscisic acid-mediated signaling, energy metabolism, and stress response. It seems that 6-kDa subunit, as an early response gene and nuclear regulatory factor, translocates to mitochondria and completes the F1F0-ATP synthase complex to enhance ATP production and maintain ion homeostasis under stress conditions. These communications between nucleus and mitochondria are required for inducing mitochondrial responses to stress pathways. Dual targeting of 6-kDa subunit may comprise as a mean of inter-organelle communication and save energy for the cell. Interestingly, MtATP6 showed higher and longer expression in the salt-tolerant wheat and the wild genotypes compared to the salt-sensitive genotype. Apparently, salt-sensitive genotypes have lower ATP production efficiency and weaker energy management than wild genotypes; a stress tolerance mechanism that has not been transferred to cultivated genotypes.

  7. The molecular motor F-ATP synthase is targeted by the tumoricidal protein HAMLET.

    PubMed

    Ho, James; Sielaff, Hendrik; Nadeem, Aftab; Svanborg, Catharina; Grüber, Gerhard

    2015-05-22

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) interacts with multiple tumor cell compartments, affecting cell morphology, metabolism, proteasome function, chromatin structure and viability. This study investigated if these diverse effects of HAMLET might be caused, in part, by a direct effect on the ATP synthase and a resulting reduction in cellular ATP levels. A dose-dependent reduction in cellular ATP levels was detected in A549 lung carcinoma cells, and by confocal microscopy, co-localization of HAMLET with the nucleotide-binding subunits α (non-catalytic) and β (catalytic) of the energy converting F1F0 ATP synthase was detected. As shown by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, HAMLET binds to the F1 domain of the F1F0 ATP synthase with a dissociation constant (KD) of 20.5μM. Increasing concentrations of the tumoricidal protein HAMLET added to the enzymatically active α3β3γ complex of the F-ATP synthase lowered its ATPase activity, demonstrating that HAMLET binding to the F-ATP synthase effects the catalysis of this molecular motor. Single-molecule analysis was applied to study HAMLET-α3β3γ complex interaction. Whereas the α3β3γ complex of the F-ATP synthase rotated in a counterclockwise direction with a mean rotational rate of 3.8±0.7s(-1), no rotation could be observed in the presence of bound HAMLET. Our findings suggest that direct effects of HAMLET on the F-ATP synthase may inhibit ATP-dependent cellular processes.

  8. Fine mapping of the chromosome 5B region carrying closely linked rust resistance genes Yr47 and Lr52 in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widely effective and linked rust resistance genes Yr47 and Lr52 were previously mapped in the short arm of chromosome 5B in two F3 populations (Aus28183/Aus27229 and Aus28187/Aus27229). The Aus28183/Aus27229 F3 population was advanced to generate an F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population t...

  9. Nature of plant stimulators in the production of Acetobacter xylinum ({open_quotes}Tea fungas{close_quotes}) biofilm used in skin therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Franco, V.C.; Lyra, I.N.; De Souza, A.M.; De Souza, S.

    1991-12-31

    Caffeine and related xanthines were identified as potent stimulators for the bacterial cellulose production in A. xylinum. These compounds are present in several plants whose infusions are useful as culture-medium supplements for this acetobacterium. The proposed target for these native purine-like inhibitory substances is the novel diguanyl nucleotide phosphodiesterase(s) that participates in the bacterial cellulogenic complex.

  10. Utopie: Eine Geschichte aus dem 15. Jahrhundert fur die Siebte Klasse, mit Ubungen (Utopia: A View of the 15th Century for the Seventh Class, with Exercises).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Michael

    This German language textbook is intended for classroom use. The theme of the text relates to the Renaissance, and the narrative is based on Sir Thomas More's "Utopia" (1516) and relates to the experiences of its central character Raphael among the inhabitants of the strange island. Each chapter touches lightly on some thought provoking…

  11. Studying at the Universities of the Armed Forces: Comparative Results from the 1999 Student Questionnaire (Studieren an den UniBw: Vergleichende Ergebnisse aus der Studentenbefragung 1999)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    distanziert kollegial UniBw Miinchen: Auf den ersten Blick scheint das allgemeine Kommunikationsgeschehen in M • nchen im Prinzip dem an der Hamburger UniBw...Hochschulforschung m )chten wir an dieser Stelle danken fMr das Oberlassen des Frageinstrumen- tariums, das dem ZHQ zur Nutzung fu-r die eigene...gerweise war schon im Grandungskonzept der UniBw diesem Moment einer m ~glichst nahen, en- gen und transparenten Kommunikation besondere Beachtung

  12. A review of the Australian-New Zealand sector of the Southern Ocean over the last 30 ka (Aus-INTIMATE project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, H. C.; Barrows, T. T.; Carter, L.; Chase, Z.; Cortese, G.; Dunbar, G. B.; Ellwood, M.; Hayward, B.; Howard, W.; Neil, H. L.; Noble, T. L.; Mackintosh, A.; Moss, P. T.; Moy, A. D.; White, D.; Williams, M. J. M.; Armand, L. K.

    2013-08-01

    The Australia/New Zealand region of the Southern Ocean is influenced by several of the major global water masses of the oceans and is the prime entry point for cold deep waters into the Pacific basin. During the last glacial there was increased sea-ice extent around Antarctica (as far north as 55°S), as well as increased iceberg presence inferred from ice-rafted debris. Evidence from microfossil assemblages suggests that sea surface temperatures (SST) were up to 7 °C cooler, consistent with recent estimates of cooling for New Zealand derived from glacier modelling and other terrestrial proxies. The Subtropical Front (STF), Subantarctic Front (SAF) and Polar Front (PF) had migrated north, except where the position of the fronts were controlled bathymetrically. Despite the potential for iron fertilisation by increased dust input into the ocean during the glacial, there is limited evidence for higher total biological productivity in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. The altered oceanic circulation during the glacial also decreased nutrients in the surface waters and affected the outgassing of CO2. This contributed to an increased storage of CO2 in the deep waters and lowering of the carbonate lysocline. During the deglaciation, sea-ice retreat and SST increased rapidly at ˜18 ka, roughly synchronous with the reinvigoration of deep water circulation in the Southern Ocean and the release of CO2 stored in the deep waters. The gradient in carbon isotopes (δ13Cbenthic) between Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) was greatest at the start of the deglaciation, suggesting that the AAIW ventilation preceded LCDW ventilation, or there was a significant change in air-sea fractionation of δ13C. There was a slight enrichment in δ18Oplanktic, decrease in SSTs and a reduction in intermediate and deep water circulation between ˜14 and 12.5 ka BP during the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR), coincident with glacier advances in the New Zealand Southern Alps and other terrestrial records of cooling. Following the ACR, there was a second, more minor, release of deep water CO2, most likely related to reinvigoration of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). From 10 ka onwards the modern intermediate and deep water circulation was established. Air temperatures and SSTs reached a maximum in the early Holocene, with the STF located at its most southerly position, and there was a widespread retreat of Antarctic ice sheets to their modern position. A decline to modern SST and air temperatures in the mid to late Holocene followed. While millennial cycles overprinted on the SST and δ18Oplanktic records, may be the result of subtle changes in the position and strength of the westerly winds during the Holocene.

  13. Nanoscale Polysulfides Reactors Achieved by Chemical Au-S Interaction: Improving the Performance of Li-S Batteries on the Electrode Level.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chao-Ying; Xiao, Pin; Li, Huan-Huan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Wu, Xing-Long; Xie, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2015-12-23

    In this work, the chemical interaction of cathode and lithium polysulfides (LiPSs), which is a more targeted approach for completely preventing the shuttle of LiPSs in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, has been established on the electrode level. Through simply posttreating the ordinary sulfur cathode in atmospheric environment just for several minutes, the Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) were well-decorated on/in the surface and pores of the electrode composed of commercial acetylene black (CB) and sulfur powder. The Au NPs can covalently stabilize the sulfur/LiPSs, which is advantageous for restricting the shuttle effect. Moreover, the LiPSs reservoirs of Au NPs with high conductivity can significantly control the deposition of the trapped LiPSs, contributing to the uniform distribution of sulfur species upon charging/discharging. The slight modification of the cathode with <3 wt % Au NPs has favorably prospered the cycle capacity and stability of Li-S batteries. Moreover, this cathode exhibited an excellent anti-self-discharge ability. The slight decoration for the ordinary electrode, which can be easily accessed in the industrial process, provides a facile strategy for improving the performance of commercial carbon-based Li-S batteries toward practical application.

  14. The Dark Side of Nursing Pryde Ingrid Teresa The Dark Side of Nursing AUS$30.99/£17.99 Balboa Press 9781452512396 1452512396 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2014-11-27

    NURSE INGRID Teresa Pryde dedicates her book 'to all nurses who have been (and currently are being) bullied'. She has written it for her therapeutic wellbeing after being 'totally demoralised' by the experience of bullying at work.

  15. Zur Kategorie der Modalitaet im Deutschen und Tschechischen aus konfrontativer Sicht (On the Category of Modality in German and Czech, Viewed in Comparison and Contrast)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grepl, Miroslav; Masarik, Zdenek

    1974-01-01

    Rejects a too-general classification of modality; would omit emotionality, affirmations and negations. Particles should not be indiscriminately classed as modals. Modality is divided into three aspects, which are then explained, with numerous comparative examples in Czech and German. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  16. Philippus Feselius - Biographical notes on the unknown medicus of Kepler's Tertius Interveniens. (German Title: Philippus Feselius - Biographische Notizen zum unbekannten Medicus aus Keplers Tertius Interveniens)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    Until now, Philipp Feselius has been perceived only indirectly as Kepler's antagonist. Not much is known about his life besides his work as Baden private physician and his book against astrology which was cited intensely in Kepler's «Tertius Interveniens». This paper traces the stations of his career as a physician, about his presumable provenance and education in Strasbourg, his academic career in Tübingen, Strasbourg, Rostock and Padua, the doctorate in Basel in 1592, up to his employment, in 1599, as a court physician in Sulzburg and later in Durlach. Further hand-written and printed traces of Feselius are presented, and his social environment is investigated so that his personality becomes clearer, and relations can be established between his education and his writing against astrology.

  17. 25 Jahre - Institut fuer Geodaesie, Teil 3: Aus dem Leben des Instituts (25 Years - Institute of Geodesy, Part 3: The Life of the Institute)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    seit 1995 Dezernatsleiter fOr digitale Kartographie am Landesvermessungsarnt Thiringen in Erfurt Dipl.-Ing. Chengzu Li * geboren 1946 in Chengdu, VR...UniversitUit Berlin, geleiteten Projekte Dl1, D2 und D6 des DFG-Sonderforschungsbereichs 69 waren Dl: die digitale Bildklassifizierung und -interpretation...Messkampagne bei der Einrichtung eines ganz SUid- amerika Oberdeckenden geodditischen Bezugssystems ( Sistema de Referencia Geocentrico para America del

  18. Werk und Leben Walter Christallers . Auszüge aus der Festrede anläßlich der Verleihung des Walter-Christaller-Preises 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hottes, Ruth

    1997-03-01

    Unter der Betreuung und Federführung von Robert Gradmann promovierte am Erlanger Geographischen Institut 1932 Walter Christaller mit seiner Dissertation `Die Zentralen Orte in Süddeutschland'. Diese mit summa cum laude bewertete Monographie sollte die vielleicht berühmteste geographische Doktorarbeit unseres Jahrhunderts werden. Sie hat in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten einen beispiellosen Siegeszug angetreten. Heute gilt sie für Geographie, Raumwirtschaftslehre, Stadtforschung und Standorttheorie als eine bahnbrechende Grundkonzeption, und sie ist von größter Bedeutung für Raumordnungspolitik und Planungspraxis."

  19. Lehrkrafte und Unterricht aus Schulersicht. Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung im Fach Mathematik (Teachers and Teaching from the Students' Perspective. Results of a Study Carried Out in Math Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditton, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of a survey among ninth graders, focusing on their perception of mathematics instruction and their mathematics teachers. Shows that their perception of teachers is related to the characteristics of the quality of instruction. Discusses including survey responses of students on school instruction in scholastic systems of quality…

  20. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient.

  1. The chloroplast atpA gene cluster in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Functional analysis of a polycistronic transcription unit.

    PubMed

    Drapier, D; Suzuki, H; Levy, H; Rimbault, B; Kindle, K L; Stern, D B; Wollman, F A

    1998-06-01

    Most chloroplast genes in vascular plants are organized into polycistronic transcription units, which generate a complex pattern of mono-, di-, and polycistronic transcripts. In contrast, most Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast transcripts characterized to date have been monocistronic. This paper describes the atpA gene cluster in the C. reinhardtii chloroplast genome, which includes the atpA, psbI, cemA, and atpH genes, encoding the alpha-subunit of the coupling-factor-1 (CF1) ATP synthase, a small photosystem II polypeptide, a chloroplast envelope membrane protein, and subunit III of the CF0 ATP synthase, respectively. We show that promoters precede the atpA, psbI, and atpH genes, but not the cemA gene, and that cemA mRNA is present only as part of di-, tri-, or tetracistronic transcripts. Deletions introduced into the gene cluster reveal, first, that CF1-alpha can be translated from di- or polycistronic transcripts, and, second, that substantial reductions in mRNA quantity have minimal effects on protein synthesis rates. We suggest that posttranscriptional mRNA processing is common in C. reinhardtii chloroplasts, permitting the expression of multiple genes from a single promoter.

  2. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    PubMed Central

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient. PMID:27321713

  3. Glutathione S-Transferase Omega 1 Activity Is Sufficient to Suppress Neurodegeneration in a Drosophila Model of Parkinson Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kiyoung; Kim, Song-Hee; Kim, Jaekwang; Kim, Heuijong; Yim, Jeongbin

    2012-01-01

    A loss-of-function mutation in the gene parkin causes a common neurodegenerative disease that may be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Glutathione S-transferase Omega (GSTO) is involved in cell defense mechanisms, but little is known about the role of GSTO in the progression of Parkinson disease. Here, we report that restoration of Drosophila GSTO1 (DmGSTO1), which is down-regulated in parkin mutants, alleviates some of the parkin pathogenic phenotypes and that the loss of DmGSTO1 function enhances parkin mutant phenotypes. We further identified the ATP synthase β subunit as a novel in vivo target of DmGSTO1. We found that glutathionylation of the ATP synthase β subunit is rescued by DmGSTO1 and that the expression of DmGSTO1 partially restores the activity and assembly of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase in parkin mutants. Our results suggest a novel mechanism for the protective role of DmGSTO1 in parkin mutants, through the regulation of ATP synthase activity, and provide insight into potential therapies for Parkinson disease neurodegeneration. PMID:22219196

  4. In vivo amelioration of endogenous antitumor autoantibodies via low-dose P4N through the LTA4H/activin A/BAFF pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ling; Tsai, Nu-Man; Hsieh, Cheng-Hao; Ho, Shu-Yi; Chang, Jung; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Ming-Hua; Chang, Chia-Ching; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Jackson, Tiffany L. B.; Mold, David E.; Huang, Ru Chih C.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer progression is associated with the development of antitumor autoantibodies in patients’ sera. Although passive treatment with antitumor antibodies has exhibited remarkable therapeutic efficacy, inhibitory effects on tumor progression by endogenous antitumor autoantibodies (EAAs) have been limited. In this study, we show that P4N, a derivative of the plant lignan nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), enhanced the production of EAAs and inhibited tumor growth at low noncytotoxic concentrations via its immunoregulatory activity. Intratumoral injection of P4N improved the quantity and quality of EAAs, and passive transfer of P4N-induced EAAs dramatically suppressed lung metastasis formation and prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with metastatic CT26 tumor cells. P4N-induced EAAs specifically recognized two surface antigens, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and F1F0 ATP synthase, on the plasma membrane of cancer cells. Additionally, P4N treatment led to B-cell proliferation, differentiation to plasma cells, and high titers of autoantibody production. By serial induction of autocrine and paracrine signals in monocytes, P4N increased B-cell proliferation and antibody production via the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H)/activin A/B-cell activating factor (BAFF) pathway. This mechanism provides a useful platform for studying and seeking a novel immunomodulator that can be applied in targeting therapy by improving the quantity and quality of the EAAs. PMID:27856749

  5. In vivo amelioration of endogenous antitumor autoantibodies via low-dose P4N through the LTA4H/activin A/BAFF pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ling; Tsai, Nu-Man; Hsieh, Cheng-Hao; Ho, Shu-Yi; Chang, Jung; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Ming-Hua; Chang, Chia-Ching; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Jackson, Tiffany L B; Mold, David E; Huang, Ru Chih C

    2016-11-29

    Cancer progression is associated with the development of antitumor autoantibodies in patients' sera. Although passive treatment with antitumor antibodies has exhibited remarkable therapeutic efficacy, inhibitory effects on tumor progression by endogenous antitumor autoantibodies (EAAs) have been limited. In this study, we show that P4N, a derivative of the plant lignan nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), enhanced the production of EAAs and inhibited tumor growth at low noncytotoxic concentrations via its immunoregulatory activity. Intratumoral injection of P4N improved the quantity and quality of EAAs, and passive transfer of P4N-induced EAAs dramatically suppressed lung metastasis formation and prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with metastatic CT26 tumor cells. P4N-induced EAAs specifically recognized two surface antigens, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and F1F0 ATP synthase, on the plasma membrane of cancer cells. Additionally, P4N treatment led to B-cell proliferation, differentiation to plasma cells, and high titers of autoantibody production. By serial induction of autocrine and paracrine signals in monocytes, P4N increased B-cell proliferation and antibody production via the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H)/activin A/B-cell activating factor (BAFF) pathway. This mechanism provides a useful platform for studying and seeking a novel immunomodulator that can be applied in targeting therapy by improving the quantity and quality of the EAAs.

  6. An analysis of the effects of Mn{sup 2+} on oxidative phosphorylation in liver, brain, and heart mitochondria using state 3 oxidation rate assays

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Thomas E.; Gerstner, Brent; Lester, Tobias; Wojtovich, Andrew P.; Malecki, Jon; Swarts, Steven G.; Brookes, Paul S.; Gavin, Claire E. Gunter, Karlene K.

    2010-11-15

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity is partially mediated by reduced ATP production. We have used oxidation rate assays-a measure of ATP production-under rapid phosphorylation conditions to explore sites of Mn{sup 2+} inhibition of ATP production in isolated liver, brain, and heart mitochondria. This approach has several advantages. First, the target tissue for Mn toxicity in the basal ganglia is energetically active and should be studied under rapid phosphorylation conditions. Second, Mn may inhibit metabolic steps which do not affect ATP production rate. This approach allows identification of inhibitions that decrease this rate. Third, mitochondria from different tissues contain different amounts of the components of the metabolic pathways potentially resulting in different patterns of ATP inhibition. Our results indicate that Mn{sup 2+} inhibits ATP production with very different patterns in liver, brain, and heart mitochondria. The primary Mn{sup 2+} inhibition site in liver and heart mitochondria, but not in brain mitochondria, is the F{sub 1}F{sub 0} ATP synthase. In mitochondria fueled by either succinate or glutamate + malate, ATP production is much more strongly inhibited in brain than in liver or heart mitochondria; moreover, Mn{sup 2+} inhibits two independent sites in brain mitochondria. The primary site of Mn-induced inhibition of ATP production in brain mitochondria when succinate is substrate is either fumarase or complex II, while the likely site of the primary inhibition when glutamate plus malate are the substrates is either the glutamate/aspartate exchanger or aspartate aminotransferase.

  7. Functional asymmetry of the F(0) motor in bacterial ATP synthases.

    PubMed

    Wiedenmann, Alexander; Dimroth, Peter; von Ballmoos, Christoph

    2009-04-01

    F(1)F(0) ATP synthases use the electrochemical potential of H(+) or Na(+) across biological membranes to synthesize ATP by a rotary mechanism. In bacteria, the enzymes can act in reverse as ATP-driven ion pumps creating the indispensable membrane potential. Here, we demonstrate that the F(0) parts of a Na(+)- and H(+)-dependent enzyme display major asymmetries with respect to their mode of operation, reflected by the requirement of approximately 100 times higher Na(+) or H(+) concentrations for the synthesis compared with the hydrolysis of ATP. A similar asymmetry is observed during ion transport through isolated F(0) parts, indicating different affinities for the binding sites in the a/c interface. Together with further data, we propose a model that provides a rationale for a differential usage of membrane potential and ion gradient during ATP synthesis as observed experimentally. The functional asymmetry might also reflect an important property of the ATP synthesis mechanism in vivo. In Escherichia coli, we observed respiratory chain-driven ATP production at pH 7-8, while P-site pH values < 6.5 were required for ATP synthesis in vitro. This discrepancy is discussed with respect to the hypothesis that during respiration lateral proton diffusion could lead to significant acidification at the membrane surface.

  8. Mechanisms of ATP release and signalling in the blood vessel wall

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Alexander W.; Billaud, Marie; Isakson, Brant E.

    2012-01-01

    The nucleotide adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) has classically been considered the cell's primary energy currency. Importantly, a novel role for ATP as an extracellular autocrine and/or paracrine signalling molecule has evolved over the past century and extensive work has been conducted to characterize the ATP-sensitive purinergic receptors expressed on almost all cell types in the body. Extracellular ATP elicits potent effects on vascular cells to regulate blood vessel tone but can also be involved in vascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis. While the effects of purinergic signalling in the vasculature have been well documented, the mechanism(s) mediating the regulated release of ATP from cells in the blood vessel wall and circulation are now a key target of investigation. The aim of this review is to examine the current proposed mechanisms of ATP release from vascular cells, with a special emphasis on the transporters and channels involved in ATP release from vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, circulating red blood cells, and perivascular sympathetic nerves, including vesicular exocytosis, plasma membrane F1/F0-ATP synthase, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, connexin hemichannels, and pannexin channels. PMID:22678409

  9. UCP2 regulates energy metabolism and differentiation potential of human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Khvorostov, Ivan; Hong, Jason S; Oktay, Yavuz; Vergnes, Laurent; Nuebel, Esther; Wahjudi, Paulin N; Setoguchi, Kiyoko; Wang, Geng; Do, Anna; Jung, Hea-Jin; McCaffery, J Michael; Kurland, Irwin J; Reue, Karen; Lee, Wai-Nang P; Koehler, Carla M; Teitell, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    It has been assumed, based largely on morphologic evidence, that human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) contain underdeveloped, bioenergetically inactive mitochondria. In contrast, differentiated cells harbour a branched mitochondrial network with oxidative phosphorylation as the main energy source. A role for mitochondria in hPSC bioenergetics and in cell differentiation therefore remains uncertain. Here, we show that hPSCs have functional respiratory complexes that are able to consume O2 at maximal capacity. Despite this, ATP generation in hPSCs is mainly by glycolysis and ATP is consumed by the F1F0 ATP synthase to partially maintain hPSC mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) plays a regulating role in hPSC energy metabolism by preventing mitochondrial glucose oxidation and facilitating glycolysis via a substrate shunting mechanism. With early differentiation, hPSC proliferation slows, energy metabolism decreases, and UCP2 is repressed, resulting in decreased glycolysis and maintained or increased mitochondrial glucose oxidation. Ectopic UCP2 expression perturbs this metabolic transition and impairs hPSC differentiation. Overall, hPSCs contain active mitochondria and require UCP2 repression for full differentiation potential. PMID:22085932

  10. Genome-Guided Analysis of Physiological Capacities of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans Provides Insights into Environmental Adaptations and Syntrophic Acetate Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Adnan; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Schnürer, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the genome-based analysis of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans strain Re1, a syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacterium (SAOB). Principal issues such as environmental adaptations, metabolic capacities, and energy conserving systems have been investigated and the potential consequences for syntrophic acetate oxidation discussed. Briefly, in pure culture, T. acetatoxydans grows with different organic compounds and produces acetate as the main product. In a syntrophic consortium with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, it can also reverse its metabolism and instead convert acetate to formate/H2 and CO2. It can only proceed if the product formed is continuously removed. This process generates a very small amount of energy that is scarcely enough for growth, which makes this particular syntrophy of special interest. As a crucial member of the biogas-producing community in ammonium-rich engineered AD processes, genomic features conferring ammonium resistance, bacterial defense, oxygen and temperature tolerance were found, as well as attributes related to biofilm formation and flocculation. It is likely that T. acetatoxydans can form an electrochemical gradient by putative electron-bifurcating Rnf complex and [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases, as observed in other acetogens. However, genomic deficiencies related to acetogenic metabolism and anaerobic respiration were discovered, such as the lack of formate dehydrogenase and F1F0 ATP synthase. This has potential consequences for the metabolic pathways used under SAO and non-SAO conditions. The two complete sets of bacteriophage genomes, which were found to be encoded in the genome, are also worthy of mention. PMID:25811859

  11. Aim-less translation: loss of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial translation initiation factor mIF3/Aim23 leads to unbalanced protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmenko, Anton; Derbikova, Ksenia; Salvatori, Roger; Tankov, Stoyan; Atkinson, Gemma C.; Tenson, Tanel; Ott, Martin; Kamenski, Piotr; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome almost exclusively encodes a handful of transmembrane constituents of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Coordinated expression of these genes ensures the correct stoichiometry of the system’s components. Translation initiation in mitochondria is assisted by two general initiation factors mIF2 and mIF3, orthologues of which in bacteria are indispensible for protein synthesis and viability. mIF3 was thought to be absent in Saccharomyces cerevisiae until we recently identified mitochondrial protein Aim23 as the missing orthologue. Here we show that, surprisingly, loss of mIF3/Aim23 in S. cerevisiae does not indiscriminately abrogate mitochondrial translation but rather causes an imbalance in protein production: the rate of synthesis of the Atp9 subunit of F1F0 ATP synthase (complex V) is increased, while expression of Cox1, Cox2 and Cox3 subunits of cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) is repressed. Our results provide one more example of deviation of mitochondrial translation from its bacterial origins. PMID:26728900

  12. JM-20, a novel benzodiazepine–dihydropyridine hybrid molecule, protects mitochondria and prevents ischemic insult-mediated neural cell death in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Figueredo, Yanier; Ramírez-Sánchez, Jeney; Delgado-Hernández, René; Porto-Verdecia, Marlene; Ochoa-Rodríguez, Estael; Verdecia-Reyes, Yamila; Marin-Prida, Javier; González-Durruthy, Michael; Uyemura, Sergio A; Rodrigues, Fernando P; Curti, Carlos; Souza, Diogo O; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L

    2014-03-05

    The ischemic stroke cascade is composed of several pathophysiological events, providing multiple targets for pharmacological intervention. JM-20 (3-ethoxycarbonyl-2-methyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-4,11-dihydro-1H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzodiazepine) is a novel hybrid molecule, in which a benzodiazepine portion is covalently linked to a dihydropyridine ring, forming a new chemical entity with potential multisite neuroprotective activity. In the present study, JM-20 prevented PC-12 cell death induced either by glutamate, hydrogen peroxide or KCN-mediated chemical hypoxia. This molecule also protected cerebellar granule neurons from glutamate or glutamate plus pentylenetetrazole-induced damage at very low micromolar concentrations. In rat liver mitochondria, JM-20, at low micromolar concentrations, prevented the Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition, as assessed by mitochondrial swelling, membrane potential dissipation and organelle release of the pro-apoptotic protein cytochrome c. JM-20 also inhibited the mitochondrial hydrolytic activity of F1F0-ATP synthase and Ca2+ influx. Therefore, JM-20 may be a multi-target neuroprotective agent, promoting reductions in neuronal excitotoxic injury and the protection of the mitochondria from Ca2+-induced impairment as well as the preservation of cellular energy balance.

  13. Programmed death-1 controls T cell survival by regulating oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tkachev, Victor; Goodell, Stefanie; Opipari, Anthony W; Hao, Ling-Yang; Franchi, Luigi; Glick, Gary D; Ferrara, James L M; Byersdorfer, Craig A

    2015-06-15

    The coinhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) maintains immune homeostasis by negatively regulating T cell function and survival. Blockade of PD-1 increases the severity of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but the interplay between PD-1 inhibition and T cell metabolism is not well studied. We found that both murine and human alloreactive T cells concomitantly upregulated PD-1 expression and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. This PD-1(Hi)ROS(Hi) phenotype was specific to alloreactive T cells and was not observed in syngeneic T cells during homeostatic proliferation. Blockade of PD-1 signaling decreased both mitochondrial H2O2 and total cellular ROS levels, and PD-1-driven increases in ROS were dependent upon the oxidation of fatty acids, because treatment with etomoxir nullified changes in ROS levels following PD-1 blockade. Downstream of PD-1, elevated ROS levels impaired T cell survival in a process reversed by antioxidants. Furthermore, PD-1-driven changes in ROS were fundamental to establishing a cell's susceptibility to subsequent metabolic inhibition, because blockade of PD-1 decreased the efficacy of later F1F0-ATP synthase modulation. These data indicate that PD-1 facilitates apoptosis in alloreactive T cells by increasing ROS in a process dependent upon the oxidation of fat. In addition, blockade of PD-1 undermines the potential for subsequent metabolic inhibition, an important consideration given the increasing use of anti-PD-1 therapies in the clinic.

  14. Mechanism of anaerobic degradation of triethanolamine by a homoacetogenic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Giovanna; Morelli, Carlo F; Cairoli, Paola; Müller, Britta; Schink, Bernhard

    2006-10-20

    Triethanolamine (TEA) is converted into acetate and ammonia by a strictly anaerobic, gram-positive Acetobacterium strain LuTria3. Fermentation experiments with resting cell suspensions and specifically deuterated substrates indicate that in the acetate molecule the carboxylate and the methyl groups correspond to the alcoholic function and to its adjacent methylene group, respectively, of the 2-hydroxyethyl unit of TEA. A 1,2 shift of a hydrogen (deuterium) atom from -CH2-O- to =N-CH2- without exchange with the medium was observed. This fact gives evidence that a radical mechanism occurs involving the enzyme and/or coenzyme molecule as a hydrogen carrier. Such a biodegradation appears analogous to the conversion of 2-phenoxyethanol into acetate mediated by another strain of the anaerobic homoacetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium.

  15. Mechanism of anaerobic degradation of triethanolamine by a homoacetogenic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Speranza, Giovanna . E-mail: giovanna.speranza@unimi.it; Morelli, Carlo F.; Cairoli, Paola; Mueller, Britta; Schink, Bernhard

    2006-10-20

    Triethanolamine (TEA) is converted into acetate and ammonia by a strictly anaerobic, gram-positive Acetobacterium strain LuTria3. Fermentation experiments with resting cell suspensions and specifically deuterated substrates indicate that in the acetate molecule the carboxylate and the methyl groups correspond to the alcoholic function and to its adjacent methylene group, respectively, of the 2-hydroxyethyl unit of TEA. A 1,2 shift of a hydrogen (deuterium) atom from -CH{sub 2} -O- to =N-CH{sub 2} - without exchange with the medium was observed. This fact gives evidence that a radical mechanism occurs involving the enzyme and/or coenzyme molecule as a hydrogen carrier. Such a biodegradation appears analogous to the conversion of 2-phenoxyethanol into acetate mediated by another strain of the anaerobic homoacetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium.

  16. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  17. Bildung in der Struktur Sozio-oekonomisher Entwicklung: Eine Analyse von Laengsschnittsdaten aus Afrika suedlich der Sahara (Education in the Structure of Socioeconomic Development: An Analysis of Longitudinal Data from Sub-Saharan Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmann, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    Examines development indicators from 1960 to 1984 for 38 sub-Saharan African countries to determine whether education is an independent factor in development. Concludes that development indicators are determined by factors including basic education; urbanization; pupil-teacher ratio; standard of living; economic growth; service sector; food…

  18. "Weil Man da Uber Seine Probleme Reden Kann . . ." Partielle Geschlechtertrennung aus der Sicht der Schulerinnen und Schuler ("Because There, You can Talk about Your Problems . . ." Partial Separation by Gender from the Perspective of Male and Female Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biskup, Claudia; Pfister, Gertrud; Robke, Cathrin

    1998-01-01

    Examines the results of interviews with elementary school children that gauged the attitudes towards and reasons for a partial separation by gender. Proposes an occassional separation of girls and boys for special pedogogical intervention. Discusses the findings. (CMK)

  19. "Onkle Karl" aus Milwaukee: Deutsch-amerikanische Einwandererkultur im Spiegel der Jugendliteratur vor hundert Jahren (Uncle Carl from Milwaukee: German-American Newcomer Culture Reflected in Children's Literature a Hundred Years Ago).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    Examines a late nineteenth-century Milwaukee (Wisconsin) publication for children and young people as a reflection of German-American middle-class culture of the time, showing how the spirit of the 1848 revolution and the experience of the American Civil War shaped German-American intellectuals and how the ideals of freedom and equality dominated…

  20. Einbeziehung des Elternhauses durch Lehrer: Art, Ausmass und Bedingungen der Elternpartizipation aus der Sicht von Gymnasiallehrern (The Inclusion of the Parental Home by Teachers: Mode, Extent, and Conditions of Parental Participation from the Perspective of High School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Elke

    2003-01-01

    Examines a survey among high school teachers that focuses on their attitudes, convictions, and assessment of external factors and conditions that effect the goal of parent cooperation in homework supervision. Concludes teachers are open minded. Offers clues to optimizing the cooperation between parents and teachers. (CAJ)

  1. Erziehung in einer biologisch determinierten Welt--Herausforderung fur die Theoriebildung einer Evolutionaren Padagogik aus Biologischer Perspektive (Education in a Biologically Determined World--A Challenge for a Theory of Evolutionary Pedagogics from a Biological Point of View).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voland, Eckart; Voland, Renate

    2002-01-01

    Designates four challenges for a theory of evolutionary pedagogics which result from the theoretical progress made in biological science: (1) subjectively perceived autonomy; (2) teachability; (3) preparation for future life; and (4) the reality norm dilemma. Argues that these confrontations are the theoretical challenges for the further…

  2. Von der Kulturkunde zur Landeskunde: Geschichte und Probleme eines Aspekts des Fremdsprachenunterrichts aus deutscher Sicht (From Culture to Country: History and Problems of an Aspect of Foreign Language Teaching from a German Point of View)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutschow, Harald

    1977-01-01

    Currently some skepticism exists concerning the value of area studies--especially the concept of "national traits." Also, the alleged motivational value may be offset by the sacrifice of language-learning time. German language teaching has followed the U.S. lead; American teachers might profit from German experience. (Text is in German.) (WGA)

  3. Wiederholungswochen bei integriertem Fernsehkurs Englisch. Dargestellt an Beispielen aus English for you 2 (Review Weeks in the Integrated Television Course in English. Presented through Examples from "English for You 2")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festag, Ewald

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the following: designing the review for the end of the school year using the example of "English for You 2," lessons 61 and 62; exercises in vocabulary review and orthography; and hints on written language practice and grammar review. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  4. Dreissig Jahre Volksrepublik Polen. Aus den Thesen des Zentralkomitees der Polnischen Vereinigten Arbeiterpartei (Thirty years of the People's Republic of Poland. From the Theses of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Offers an overview of the development of the teaching of Russian in the People's Republic of Poland since its introduction in 1945 and the support of the periodical "Jezyk Rosyjski" (Russian Language) in the attainment of the goals set by the Ministry of Popular Education of the People's Republic of Poland. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  5. Is the incidence of heart attack still decreasing in Australia? Developing reliable methods for monitoring trends in myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease (AUS-MOCHA): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nedkoff, Lee; Knuiman, Matthew; Hobbs, Michael S T; Hung, Joseph; Mathur, Sushma; Beilby, John; Reynolds, Anna; Briffa, Tom G; Lopez, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Accurate monitoring of acute coronary heart disease (CHD) is essential for understanding the effects of primary and secondary prevention and for planning of healthcare services. The ability to reliably monitor acute CHD has been affected by new diagnostic tests for myocardial infarction (MI) and changing clinical classifications and management of CHD. Our study will develop new and reliable methods for monitoring population trends in incidence, outcomes and health service usage for acute CHD and chest pain. Methods and analysis The study cohort of all CHD will be identified from the Western Australian Data Linkage System using state-wide data sets for emergency department presentation, hospitalisations and mortality data for 2002–2014. This core linked data set will be supplemented with data from hospital medical record reviews, pathology data and hospital pharmacy dispensing databases. The consistency over time of the coding of the different subgroups of CHD/chest pain (ST-elevation MI, non-ST elevation MI, unstable angina, stable angina, other CHD, non-CHD chest pain) in linked data will be assessed using these data sources, and an algorithm developed detailing groups in which temporal trends can be reliably measured. This algorithm will be used for measurement of trends in incidence and outcomes of acute CHD, and to develop further methods for monitoring acute CHD using unlinked and linked data with varying availability of hospitalisation history. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committees of the WA Department of Health (#2016/23) and The University of Western Australia (RA/4/1/7230). Findings will be disseminated via publication in peer-reviewed journals, and presentation at national and international conferences. There will also be a strong platform for dissemination of new monitoring methods via collaboration with the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare which will assist with promotion of these methods at state and national levels. PMID:27558904

  6. Residues in the Polar Loop of Subunit c in Escherichia coli ATP Synthase Function in Gating Proton Transport to the Cytoplasm*

    PubMed Central

    Steed, P. Ryan; Fillingame, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Rotary catalysis in F1F0 ATP synthase is powered by proton translocation through the membrane-embedded F0 sector. Proton binding and release occur in the middle of the membrane at Asp-61 on the second transmembrane helix (TMH) of subunit c, which folds in a hairpin-like structure with two TMHs. Previously, the aqueous accessibility of Cys substitutions in the transmembrane regions of subunit c was probed by testing the inhibitory effects of Ag+ or Cd2+ on function, which revealed extensive aqueous access in the region around Asp-61 and on the half of TMH2 extending to the cytoplasm. In the current study, we surveyed the Ag+ and Cd2+ sensitivity of Cys substitutions in the loop of the helical hairpin and used a variety of assays to categorize the mechanisms by which Ag+ or Cd2+ chelation with the Cys thiolates caused inhibition. We identified two distinct metal-sensitive regions in the cytoplasmic loop where function was inhibited by different mechanisms. Metal binding to Cys substitutions in the N-terminal half of the loop resulted in an uncoupling of F1 from F0 with release of F1 from the membrane. In contrast, substitutions in the C-terminal half of the loop retained membrane-bound F1 after metal treatment. In several of these cases, inhibition was shown to be due to blockage of passive H+ translocation through F0 as assayed with F0 reconstituted into liposomes. The results suggest that the C-terminal domain of the cytoplasmic loop may function in gating H+ translocation to the cytoplasm. PMID:24297166

  7. Photoreceptor phagosome processing defects and disturbed autophagy in retinal pigment epithelium of Cln3Δex1-6 mice modelling juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten disease)

    PubMed Central

    Wavre-Shapton, Silène T.; Calvi, Alessandra A.; Turmaine, Mark; Seabra, Miguel C.; Cutler, Daniel F.; Futter, Clare E.; Mitchison, Hannah M.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal degeneration and visual impairment are the first signs of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by CLN3 mutations, followed by inevitable progression to blindness. We investigated retinal degeneration in Cln3Δex1-6 null mice, revealing classic ‘fingerprint’ lysosomal storage in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), replicating the human disease. The lysosomes contain mitochondrial F0-ATP synthase subunit c along with undigested membranes, indicating a reduced degradative capacity. Mature autophagosomes and basal phagolysosomes, the terminal degradative compartments of autophagy and phagocytosis, are also increased in Cln3Δex1-6 RPE, reflecting disruption to these key pathways that underpin the daily phagocytic turnover of photoreceptor outer segments (POS) required for maintenance of vision. The accumulated autophagosomes have post-lysosome fusion morphology, with undigested internal contents visible, while accumulated phagosomes are frequently docked to cathepsin D-positive lysosomes, without mixing of phagosomal and lysosomal contents. This suggests lysosome-processing defects affect both autophagy and phagocytosis, supported by evidence that phagosomes induced in Cln3Δex1-6-derived mouse embryonic fibroblasts have visibly disorganized membranes, unprocessed internal vesicles and membrane contents, in addition to reduced LAMP1 membrane recruitment. We propose that defective lysosomes in Cln3Δex1-6 RPE have a reduced degradative capacity that impairs the final steps of the intimately connected autophagic and phagocytic pathways that are responsible for degradation of POS. A build-up of degradative organellar by-products and decreased recycling of cellular materials is likely to disrupt processes vital to maintenance of vision by the RPE. PMID:26450516

  8. Genome-Guided Analysis and Whole Transcriptome Profiling of the Mesophilic Syntrophic Acetate Oxidising Bacterium Syntrophaceticus schinkii

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Shahid; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Schnürer, Anna; Müller, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Syntrophaceticus schinkii is a mesophilic, anaerobic bacterium capable of oxidising acetate to CO2 and H2 in intimate association with a methanogenic partner, a syntrophic relationship which operates close to the energetic limits of microbial life. Syntrophaceticus schinkii has been identified as a key organism in engineered methane-producing processes relying on syntrophic acetate oxidation as the main methane-producing pathway. However, due to strict cultivation requirements and difficulties in reconstituting the thermodynamically unfavourable acetate oxidation, the physiology of this functional group is poorly understood. Genome-guided and whole transcriptome analyses performed in the present study provide new insights into habitat adaptation, syntrophic acetate oxidation and energy conservation. The working draft genome of Syntrophaceticus schinkii indicates limited metabolic capacities, with lack of organic nutrient uptake systems, chemotactic machineries, carbon catabolite repression and incomplete biosynthesis pathways. Ech hydrogenase, [FeFe] hydrogenases, [NiFe] hydrogenases, F1F0-ATP synthase and membrane-bound and cytoplasmic formate dehydrogenases were found clearly expressed, whereas Rnf and a predicted oxidoreductase/heterodisulphide reductase complex, both found encoded in the genome, were not expressed under syntrophic growth condition. A transporter sharing similarities to the high-affinity acetate transporters of aceticlastic methanogens was also found expressed, suggesting that Syntrophaceticus schinkii can potentially compete with methanogens for acetate. Acetate oxidation seems to proceed via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway as all genes involved in this pathway were highly expressed. This study shows that Syntrophaceticus schinkii is a highly specialised, habitat-adapted organism relying on syntrophic acetate oxidation rather than metabolic versatility. By expanding its complement of respiratory complexes, it might overcome limiting bioenergetic

  9. Regulation of necrotic cell death: p53, PARP1 and cyclophilin D-overlapping pathways of regulated necrosis?

    PubMed

    Ying, Yuan; Padanilam, Babu J

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to apoptosis and autophagy, necrotic cell death was considered to be a random, passive cell death without definable mediators. However, this dogma has been challenged by recent developments suggesting that necrotic cell death can also be a regulated process. Regulated necrosis includes multiple cell death modalities such as necroptosis, parthanatos, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP)-mediated necrosis. Several distinctive executive molecules, particularly residing on the mitochondrial inner and outer membrane, amalgamating to form the MPTP have been defined. The c-subunit of the F1F0ATP synthase on the inner membrane and Bax/Bak on the outer membrane are considered to be the long sought components that form the MPTP. Opening of the MPTP results in loss of mitochondrial inner membrane potential, disruption of ATP production, increased ROS production, organelle swelling, mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent necrosis. Cyclophilin D, along with adenine nucleotide translocator and the phosphate carrier are considered to be important regulators involved in the opening of MPTP. Increased production of ROS can further trigger other necrotic pathways mediated through molecules such as PARP1, leading to irreversible cell damage. This review examines the roles of PARP1 and cyclophilin D in necrotic cell death. The hierarchical role of p53 in regulation and integration of key components of signaling pathway to elicit MPTP-mediated necrosis and ferroptosis is explored. In the context of recent insights, the indistinct role of necroptosis signaling in tubular necrosis after ischemic kidney injury is scrutinized. We conclude by discussing the participation of p53, PARP1 and cyclophilin D and their overlapping pathways to elicit MPTP-mediated necrosis and ferroptosis in acute kidney injury.

  10. An exploration of how the thermodynamic efficiency of bioenergetic membrane systems varies with c-subunit stoichiometry of F₁F₀ ATP synthases.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Todd P

    2014-06-01

    Recently the F0 portion of the bovine mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase was shown to contain eight 'c' subunits (n = 8). This surprised many in the field, as previously, the only other mitochondrial F0 (for yeast) was shown to have ten 'c' subunits. The metabolic implications of 'c' subunit copy number explored in this paper lead to several surprising conclusions: (1) Aerobically respiring E. coli (n = 10) and animal mitochondria (n = 8) both have very high F1F0 thermodynamic efficiencies of ≈90% under typical conditions, whereas efficiency is only ≈65% for chloroplasts (n = 14). Reasons for this difference, including the importance of transmembrane potential (∆Ψ) as a rotational catalyst, as opposed to an energy source, are discussed. (2) Maximum theoretical P/O ratios in animal mitochondria (n = 8) are calculated to be 2.73 ATP/NADH and 1.64 ATP/FADH2, yielding 34.5 ATP/glucose (assuming NADH import via the malate/aspartate shuttle). The experimentally measured values of 2.44 (±0.15), 1.47 (±0.13), and 31.3 (±1.5), respectively, are only about 10% lower, suggesting very little energy depletion via transmembrane proton leakage. (3) Finally, the thermodynamic efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation is not lower than that of substrate level phosphorylation, as previously believed. The overall thermodynamic efficiencies of oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the citric acid cycle are ≈80% in all three processes.

  11. Investigation of Geotrichum candidum gene expression during the ripening of Reblochon-type cheese by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Castellote, Jessie; Fraud, Sébastien; Irlinger, Françoise; Swennen, Dominique; Fer, Frédéric; Bonnarme, Pascal; Monnet, Christophe

    2015-02-02

    Cheese ripening involves the activity of various bacteria, yeasts or molds, which contribute to the development of the typical color, flavor and texture of the final product. In situ measurements of gene expression are increasingly being used to improve our understanding of the microbial flora activity in cheeses. The objective of the present study was to investigate the physiology and metabolic activity of Geotrichum candidum during the ripening of Reblochon-type cheeses by quantifying mRNA transcripts at various ripening times. The expression of 80 genes involved in various functions could be quantified with a correct level of biological repeatability using a set of three stable reference genes. As ripening progresses, a decrease in expression was observed for genes involved in cell wall organization, translation, vesicular mediated transport, and in cytoskeleton constituents and ribosomal protein genes. There was also a decrease in the expression of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase and plasma membrane H(+) ATPase genes. Some genes involved in the catabolism of lactate, acetate and ethanol were expressed to a greater extent at the beginning of ripening. During the second part of ripening, there was an increased expression of genes involved in the transport and catabolism of amino acids, which could be attributed to a change in the energy source. There was also an increase in the expression of genes involved in autophagy and of genes possibly involved in lifespan determination. Quantification of mRNA transcripts may also be used to produce bioindicators relevant for cheesemaking, for example when considering genes encoding enzymes involved in the catabolism of amino acids.

  12. Glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are essential for purinergic receptor-mediated angiogenic responses in vasa vasorum endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lapel, Martin; Weston, Philip; Strassheim, Derek; Karoor, Vijaya; Burns, Nana; Lyubchenko, Taras; Paucek, Petr; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an energy-demanding process; however, the role of cellular energy pathways and their regulation by extracellular stimuli, especially extracellular nucleotides, remain largely unexplored. Using metabolic inhibitors of glycolysis (2-deoxyglucose) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) (oligomycin, rotenone, and FCCP), we demonstrate that glycolysis and OXPHOS are both essential for angiogenic responses of vasa vasorum endothelial cell (VVEC). Treatment with P2R agonists, ATP, and 2-methylthioadenosine diphosphate trisodium salt (MeSADP), but not P1 receptor agonist, adenosine, increased glycolytic activity in VVEC (measured by extracellular acidification rate and lactate production). Stimulation of glycolysis was accompanied by increased levels of phospho-phosphofructokinase B3, hexokinase (HK), and GLUT-1, but not lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, extracellular ATP and MeSADP, and to a lesser extent adenosine, increased basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates in VVEC. These effects were potentiated when the cells were cultured in 20 mM galactose and 5 mM glucose compared with 25 mM glucose. Treatment with P2R agonists decreased phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)-E1α and increased succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase IV, and β-subunit of F1F0 ATP synthase expression. In addition, P2R stimulation transiently elevated mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration, implying involvement of mitochondria in VVEC angiogenic activation. We also demonstrated a critical role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt pathways in lactate production, PDH-E1α phosphorylation, and the expression of HK, SDH, and GLUT-1 in ATP-stimulated VVEC. Together, our findings suggest that purinergic and metabolic regulation of VVEC energy pathways is essential for VV angiogenesis and may contribute to pathologic vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:27856430

  13. Altered Lipid Synthesis by Lack of Yeast Pah1 Phosphatidate Phosphatase Reduces Chronological Life Span.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeonhee; Han, Gil-Soo; Mileykovskaya, Eugenia; Garrett, Teresa A; Carman, George M

    2015-10-16

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pah1 phosphatidate phosphatase, which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate to yield diacylglycerol, plays a crucial role in the synthesis of the storage lipid triacylglycerol. This evolutionarily conserved enzyme also plays a negative regulatory role in controlling de novo membrane phospholipid synthesis through its consumption of phosphatidate. We found that the pah1Δ mutant was defective in the utilization of non-fermentable carbon sources but not in oxidative phosphorylation; the mutant did not exhibit major changes in oxygen consumption rate, mitochondrial membrane potential, F1F0-ATP synthase activity, or gross mitochondrial morphology. The pah1Δ mutant contained an almost normal complement of major mitochondrial phospholipids with some alterations in molecular species. Although oxidative phosphorylation was not compromised in the pah1Δ mutant, the cellular levels of ATP in quiescent cells were reduced by 2-fold, inversely correlating with a 4-fold increase in membrane phospholipids. In addition, the quiescent pah1Δ mutant cells had 3-fold higher levels of mitochondrial superoxide and cellular lipid hydroperoxides, had reduced activities of superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase, and were hypersensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, the pah1Δ mutant had a shortened chronological life span. In addition, the loss of Tsa1 thioredoxin peroxidase caused a synthetic growth defect with the pah1Δ mutation. The shortened chronological life span of the pah1Δ mutant along with its growth defect on non-fermentable carbon sources and hypersensitivity to hydrogen peroxide was suppressed by the loss of Dgk1 diacylglycerol kinase, indicating that the underpinning of pah1Δ mutant defects was the excess synthesis of membrane phospholipids.

  14. Comparative reaction engineering analysis of different acetogenic bacteria for gas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Groher, Anna; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2016-06-20

    The production of chemicals by syngas fermentation is a promising alternative to heterotrophic fermentation processes. The autotrophic process performances of the so far not well studied acetogens Acetobacterium fimetarium, Acetobacterium wieringae, Blautia hydrogenotrophica, Clostridium magnum, Eubacterium aggregans, Sporomusa acidovorans, Sporomusa ovata and Terrisporobacter mayombei were characterized. Acetobacterium woodii was used as reference strain. Standardized batch experiments with continuous supply of the gaseous substrates CO2 and H2 were performed in fully controlled stirred-tank bioreactors. A. wieringae and S. ovata showed by far the highest growth rates and maximum biomass concentrations among the acetogens under study. Aside from the reference strain A. woodii, highest volumetric (17.96gL(-1)d(-1)) as well as cell specific acetate formation rates (21.03gg(-1)d(-1)) were observed with S. ovata resulting in a final acetate concentration of 32.2gL(-1). Accumulation of formate with up to 4.8gL(-1) was observed with all acetogens. Ethanol was produced autotrophically with up to 0.42gL(-1) by four of the acetogenic bacteria under study (A. wieringae, C. magnum, S. acidovorans and S. ovata) and also by A. woodii. Butyrate was formed with up to 0.14gL(-1) by three of the acetogenic bacteria under study (C. magnum, B. hydrogenotrophica and E. aggregans). Due to its superior process performances S. ovata may be a promising host for redirecting carbon fluxes by applying metabolic engineering and tools of synthetic biology to produce non-natural chemicals from syngas.

  15. Microbiology and physiology of anaerobic fermentations of cellulose. Progress report, September 1982-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, H.D. Jr.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    Research progress for the period September 1982-March 1983 is reported. The cellulose enzyme system of the anaerobic thermophile Clostridium thermocellum is being studied. Mutants have been obtained from thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which produce higher amounts of ethanol than does the wild type. Clostridium thermoautotrophicum has been studied with respect to the pathway of acetate synthesis from CO/sub 2/. Progress has been achieved on properties of the NADP-dependent formate dehydrogenase and the CO dehydrogenase of Clostridium thermoaceticum. The CO dehydrogenase of Acetobacterium woodii has been isolated. Research has continued on the bioenergetics of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in sulfate reducing and methanogenic bacteria.

  16. Electricity generation from synthesis gas by microbial processes: CO fermentation and microbial fuel cell technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehee; Chang, In Seop

    2009-10-01

    A microbiological process was established to harvest electricity from the carbon monoxide (CO). A CO fermenter was enriched with CO as the sole carbon source. The DGGE/DNA sequencing results showed that Acetobacterium spp. were enriched from the anaerobic digester fluid. After the fermenter was operated under continuous mode, the products were then continuously fed to the microbial fuel cell (MFC) to generate electricity. Even though the conversion yield was quite low, this study proved that synthesis gas (syn-gas) can be converted to electricity with the aid of microbes that do not possess the drawbacks of metal catalysts of conventional methods.

  17. Tolerance and metabolic response of acetogenic bacteria toward oxygen.

    PubMed

    Karnholz, Arno; Küsel, Kirsten; Gössner, Anita; Schramm, Andreas; Drake, Harold L

    2002-02-01

    The acetogens Sporomusa silvacetica, Moorella thermoacetica, Clostridium magnum, Acetobacterium woodii, and Thermoanaerobacter kivui (i) grew in both semisolid and liquid cultivation media containing O(2) and (ii) consumed small amounts of O(2). Low concentrations of O(2) caused a lag phase in growth but did not alter the ability of these acetogens to synthesize acetate via the acetyl coenzyme A pathway. Cell extracts of S. silvacetica, M. thermoacetica, and C. magnum contained peroxidase and NADH oxidase activities; catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were not detected.

  18. The Current German Debate on the Role of Force: A ’New Nation and a New Statesman’.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    to the crisis area could require that the operation be conducted before 40"Lehre aus der Geiselnahme von elf Deutschen in Ruanda ," Süddeutsche...aus," Süddeutsche Zeitung, 26 February 1996. "Lehre aus der Geiselnahme von elf Deutschen in Ruanda ,"Süddeutsche Zeitung, 3 January 1996, p. 50. Lowe

  19. Culturable prokaryotic diversity of deep, gas hydrate sediments: first use of a continuous high-pressure, anaerobic, enrichment and isolation system for subseafloor sediments (DeepIsoBUG)

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, R John; Sellek, Gerard; Webster, Gordon; Martin, Derek; Anders, Erik; Weightman, Andrew J; Sass, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Deep subseafloor sediments may contain depressurization-sensitive, anaerobic, piezophilic prokaryotes. To test this we developed the DeepIsoBUG system, which when coupled with the HYACINTH pressure-retaining drilling and core storage system and the PRESS core cutting and processing system, enables deep sediments to be handled without depressurization (up to 25 MPa) and anaerobic prokaryotic enrichments and isolation to be conducted up to 100 MPa. Here, we describe the system and its first use with subsurface gas hydrate sediments from the Indian Continental Shelf, Cascadia Margin and Gulf of Mexico. Generally, highest cell concentrations in enrichments occurred close to in situ pressures (14 MPa) in a variety of media, although growth continued up to at least 80 MPa. Predominant sequences in enrichments were Carnobacterium, Clostridium, Marinilactibacillus and Pseudomonas, plus Acetobacterium and Bacteroidetes in Indian samples, largely independent of media and pressures. Related 16S rRNA gene sequences for all of these Bacteria have been detected in deep, subsurface environments, although isolated strains were piezotolerant, being able to grow at atmospheric pressure. Only the Clostridium and Acetobacterium were obligate anaerobes. No Archaea were enriched. It may be that these sediment samples were not deep enough (total depth 1126–1527 m) to obtain obligate piezophiles. PMID:19694787

  20. Magnitude of phonetic distinction predicts success at early word learning in native and non-native accents

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Paola; Best, Catherine T.; Kitamura, Christine; Mulak, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Although infants perceptually attune to native vowels and consonants well before 12 months, at 13–15 months, they have difficulty learning to associate novel words that differ by their initial consonant (e.g., BIN and DIN) to their visual referents. However, this difficulty may not apply to all minimal pair novel words. While Canadian English (CE) 15-month-olds failed to respond to a switch from the newly learned word DEET to the novel non-word DOOT, they did notice a switch from DEET to DIT (Curtin et al., 2009). Those authors argued that early word learners capitalize on large phonetic differences, seen in CE DEET–DIT, but not on smaller phonetic differences, as in CE DEET–DOOT. To assess this hypothesis, we tested Australian English (AusE) 15-month-olds, as AusE has a smaller magnitude of phonetic difference in both novel word pairs. Two groups of infants were trained on the novel word DEET and tested on the vowel switches in DIT and DOOT, produced by an AusE female speaker or the same CE female speaker as in Curtin et al. (2009). If the size of the phonetic distinction plays a more central role than native accent experience in early word learning, AusE children should more easily recognize both of the unfamiliar but larger CE vowel switches than the more familiar but smaller AusE ones. The results support our phonetic-magnitude hypothesis: AusE children taught and tested with the CE-accented novel words looked longer to both of the switch test trials (DIT, DOOT) than same test trials (DEET), while those who heard the AusE-accented tokens did not notice either switch. Implications of our findings for models of early word learning are discussed. PMID:25324793

  1. Pumpspeicherbecken im Karstgrundwasserleiter des Weißen Jura der Schwäbischen Alb. Erste Ergebnisse aus der geologischen und hydrogeologischen Erkundung für die Planfeststellung Pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in the Jurassic karst aquifer of the swabian alb, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, Christoph; Köhler, Hans Joachim; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Hennings, Sibylle; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-06-01

    Extensive geological and hydrogeological investigations have been undertaken for the planned pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in "Blautal" (Swabian Alb, Germany) in order to characterise the Jurassic karst aquifer in which the lower reservoir will be constructed. The preferred option for the plant setup is to integrate the lower reservoir into the groundwater without sealing. Therefore, in order to reliably predict the impact of the pumped storage plant operations on the surrounding drinking water wells and groundwater dependent ecosystems, a comprehensive database has been developed to assess the hydraulic conditions of the karst aquifer. A large scale geological site investigation was carried out to characterise the rock mass and extensive hydraulic tests were performed in many boreholes. The results of the hydraulic characterisation were then implemented in a three dimensional flow model. In this paper, the first results of the geological and hydrogeological investigations are presented and discussed.

  2. Schule in der Transformation--Transformation der Schule? Was man aus Gesprachen mit ehemaligen Schulern uber die Schule "zwischen zwei Diktaturen" erfahren kann (Schools in Transitions--Transformation of the School? What Can Be Learnt from Former Students Who Experienced Schooling under Two Dictatorial Regimes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluchert, Gerhard; Leschinsky, Achim

    1998-01-01

    Addresses interviews that focused on former students' educations under two dictatorial regimes. All the interviewees took their school-leaving examinations between 1951 and 1954. Explains that the interviews are evaluated according to the preconditions, limits, and mechanisms of the school's influence on children and adolescents. (CMK)

  3. Mentalitat und Intergenerationalitat als Rahmenbedingungen "Lebenslangen Lernens". Konzeptionelle Konsequenzen aus Ergebnissen einer Biografieanalytischen Mehrgenerationenstudie in Ostdeutschland (Mentality and Intergenerationality as Framework Conditions of "Life-Long Learning": Conceptual Consequences To Be Drawn from Results of a Biography-Analytical Multi-Generational Study Carried out in East Germany).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alheit, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a comprehensive qualitative multigenerational study carried out in East Germany. Shows that social orientations and attitudes remained practically unchanged between the generation of grandparents and grandchildren. Argues that educational processes throughout a life-span can only be understood if mental deep structures and…

  4. Allgemeine Sprachfaehigkeit und Fremdsprachenerwerb. Zur Struktur von Leistungsdimensionen und linguistischer Kompetenz des Fremdsprachenlerners (General Language Ability and Foreign Language Acquisition. On the Structure of Performance Dimensions and the Linguistic Competence of the Foreign Language Learner). Diskussions beitraege aus dem Institute fuer Bildungsforschung, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Fritz; Vollmer, Helmut J.

    This study investigates the theoretical plausibility and empirical validity of the assumption that all performance in a foreign language can be traced back to a single factor, the general language ability factor. The theoretical background of this hypothesis is reviewed in detail. The concept of a unitary linguistic competence, interpreted as an…

  5. Metabolic labeling with stable isotope nitrogen (15N) to follow amino acid and protein turnover of three plastid proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The length of time that a protein remains available to perform its function is significantly influenced by its turnover rate. Knowing the turnover rate of proteins involved in different processes is important to determining how long a function might progress even when the stimulus has been removed and no further synthesis of the particular proteins occurs. In this article, we describe the use of 15N-metabolic labeling coupled to GC-MS to follow the turnover of free amino acids and LC-MS/MS to identify and LC-MS to follow the turnover of specific proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Results To achieve the metabolic labeling, the growth medium was formulated with standard Tris acetate phosphate medium (TAP) in which14NH4Cl was replaced with 15NH415NO3 and (14NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O was replaced with Na2MoO4.2H2O. This medium designated 15N-TAP allowed CC-125 algal cells to grow normally. Mass isotopic distribution revealed successful 15N incorporation into 13 amino acids with approximately 98% labeling efficiency. Tryptic digestion of the 55 kDa SDS-PAGE bands from 14N- and 15N-labeled crude algal protein extracts followed by LC-MS/MS resulted in the identification of 27 proteins. Of these, five displayed peptide sequence confidence levels greater than 95% and protein sequence coverage greater than 25%. These proteins were the RuBisCo large subunit, ATP synthase CF1 alpha and beta subunits, the mitochondrial protein (F1F0 ATP synthase) and the cytosolic protein (S-adenosyl homocysteine hydroxylase). These proteins were present in both labeled and unlabeled samples. Once the newly synthesized 15N-labeled free amino acids and proteins obtained maximum incorporation of the 15N-label, turnover rates were determined after transfer of cells into 14N-TAP medium. The t½ values were determined for the three plastid proteins (RuBisCo, ATP synthase CF1 alpha and beta) by following the reduction of the 15N-fractional abundance over time. Conclusion We describe a more

  6. Carvedilol exacerbate gentamicin-induced kidney mitochondrial alterations in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Félix, Luís; Oliveira, M M; Videira, Romeu; Maciel, Elisabete; Alves, Nuno D; Nunes, Fernando M; Alves, Anabela; Almeida, José M; Domingues, M Rosário M; Peixoto, Francisco P

    2017-02-01

    Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used to treat many types of bacterial infections. Although its properties, his clinical use is limited due to the occurrence of nephrotoxicity, which has been related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Carvedilol, an antihypertensive drug with strong antioxidant properties, has been tested in order to prevent gentamicin nephrotoxicity. This study aimed to test this hypothesis using a rat model of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Animals were treated subcutaneously with DMSO (control) (0.4%/kg/24h bw) for 11days; with carvedilol (2mg/kg/24h bw) for 11days; with gentamicin (60mg/kg/24h bw) for the last 8days and with carvedilol (2mg/kg/24h bw) for 11days and with gentamicin (60mg/kg/24h bw) for the last 8days. Estimations of urine creatinine, urine carboxylic acids, blood urea, serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate were carried out after the last administered dose of gentamicin. Mitochondria functionality was analyzed by monitoring its bioenergetics function and cardiolipin oxidized products were analyzed by ESI-MS. The kidneys were also examined for morphological changes. Gentamicin caused marked nephrotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction as evidenced by several mitochondrial parameters. Carvedilol did not induce significant changes while the co-treatment exacerbated the negative effect of gentamicin although maintaining ATP levels and membrane potential. Kidneys from gentamicin treated rats, with and without carvedilol, showed necrosis of tubular cells in renal cortex. Higher values on relative abundance of cardiolipin oxidation products identified as [M-2H](2-) ions, at m/z 771 were observed in the groups treated with gentamicin. The observed effects were associated to a possible interaction of carvedilol with F1F0-ATP synthase that merit further investigation. In conclusion, carvedilol may contribute to the exacerbation of renal dysfunction induced by gentamicin, at least in some physiological and

  7. Morphometric Analysis of Thyroid Follicular Cells with Atypia of Undetermined Significance

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Youngjin; Lee, Yoo Jin; Jung, Jiyoon; Lee, Youngseok; Won, Nam Hee; Chae, Yang Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) is a category that encompasses a heterogeneous group of thyroid aspiration cytology. It has been reclassified into two subgroups based on the cytomorphologic features: AUS with cytologic atypia and AUS with architectural atypia. The nuclear characteristics of AUS with cytologic atypia need to be clarified by comparing to those observed in Hashimoto thyroiditis and benign follicular lesions. Methods: We selected 84 cases of AUS with histologic follow-up, 24 cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis, and 26 cases of benign follicular lesions. We also subcategorized the AUS group according to the follow-up biopsy results into a papillary carcinoma group and a nodular hyperplasia group. The differences in morphometric parameters, including the nuclear areas and perimeters, were compared between these groups. Results: The AUS group had significantly smaller nuclear areas than the Hashimoto thyroiditis group, but the nuclear perimeters were not statistically different. The AUS group also had significantly smaller nuclear areas than the benign follicular lesion group; however, the AUS group had significantly longer nuclear perimeters. The nuclear areas in the papillary carcinoma group were significantly smaller than those in the nodular hyperplasia group; however, the nuclear perimeters were not statistically different. Conclusions: We found the AUS group to be a heterogeneous entity, including histologic follow-up diagnoses of papillary carcinoma and nodular hyperplasia. The AUS group showed significantly greater nuclear irregularities than the other two groups. Utilizing these features, nuclear morphometry could lead to improvements in the accuracy of the subjective diagnoses made with thyroid aspiration cytology. PMID:27292152

  8. Occurrence of ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity and its ion specificity in several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Verena; Gallegos, Rene; Jones, J Andrew; Barquera, Blanca; Malamy, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    A ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase was recently discovered as a redox-driven ion pump in the anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The enzyme is assumed to be encoded by the rnf genes. Since these genes are present in the genomes of many bacteria, we tested for ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity in cytoplasmic membranes from several different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that have annotated rnf genes. We found this activity in Clostridium tetanomorphum, Clostridium ljungdahlii, Bacteroides fragilis, and Vibrio cholerae but not in Escherichia coli and Rhodobacter capsulatus. As in A. woodii, the activity was Na+-dependent in C. tetanomorphum and B. fragilis but Na+-independent in C. ljungdahlii and V. cholerae. We deleted the rnf genes from B. fragilis and demonstrated that the mutant has greatly reduced ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity. This is the first genetic proof that the rnf genes indeed encode the reduced ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity. PMID:26793417

  9. An Ancient Pathway Combining Carbon Dioxide Fixation with the Generation and Utilization of a Sodium Ion Gradient for ATP Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Poehlein, Anja; Schmidt, Silke; Kaster, Anne-Kristin; Goenrich, Meike; Vollmers, John; Thürmer, Andrea; Bertsch, Johannes; Schuchmann, Kai; Voigt, Birgit; Hecker, Michael; Daniel, Rolf; Thauer, Rudolf K.; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Müller, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of acetate from carbon dioxide and molecular hydrogen is considered to be the first carbon assimilation pathway on earth. It combines carbon dioxide fixation into acetyl-CoA with the production of ATP via an energized cell membrane. How the pathway is coupled with the net synthesis of ATP has been an enigma. The anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii uses an ancient version of this pathway without cytochromes and quinones. It generates a sodium ion potential across the cell membrane by the sodium-motive ferredoxin:NAD oxidoreductase (Rnf). The genome sequence of A. woodii solves the enigma: it uncovers Rnf as the only ion-motive enzyme coupled to the pathway and unravels a metabolism designed to produce reduced ferredoxin and overcome energetic barriers by virtue of electron-bifurcating, soluble enzymes. PMID:22479398

  10. Interaction of Plutonium with Bacteria in the Repository Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J. B.; Francis, A. J.; Lucero, D. A.; Papenguth, H. W.

    2000-07-01

    Microorganisms in the nuclear waste repository environment may interact with plutonium through (1) sorption, (2) intracellular accumulation, and (3) transformation speciation. These interactions may retard or enhance the mobility of Pu by precipitation reactions, biocolloid formation, or production of more soluble species. Current and planned radioactive waste repository environments, such as deep subsurface halite and granite formations, are considered extreme relative to life processes in the near-surface terrestrial environment. There is a paucity of information on the biotransformation of radionuclides by microorganisms present in such extreme environments. In order to gain a better understanding of the interaction of plutonium with microorganisms present in the waste repository sites we investigated a pure culture (Halomonas sp.) and a mixed culture of bacteria (Haloarcula sinaiiensis, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Altermonas sp., and a {gamma}-proteobacterium) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and an Acetobacterium sp. from alkaline groundwater at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland.

  11. Carbon isotope effects associated with autotrophic acetogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelwicks, J.T.; Risatti, J.B.; Hayes, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The carbon kinetic isotope effects associated with synthesis of acetate from CO2 and H2 during autotrophic growth of Acetobacterium woodii at 30??C have been measured by isotopic analyses of CO2, methyl-carbon, and total acetate. Closed systems allowing construction of complete mass balances at varying stages of growth were utilized, and the effects of the partitioning of carbon between CO2 and HCO3- were taken into account. For the overall reaction, total carbonate ??? total acetate, isotope effects measured in replicate experiments ranged from -59.0 ?? 0.9% to - 57.2 ?? 2.3z%. Taking into account all measurements, the weighted mean and standard deviation are -58.6 ?? 0.7%. There is no evidence for intramolecular ordering in the acetate. The carbon isotopic composition of sedimentary acetate, otherwise expected to be near that of sedimentary organic carbon, is likely to be depleted in environments in which autotrophic acetogenesis is occurring. ?? 1989.

  12. Direct and reversible hydrogenation of CO2 to formate by a bacterial carbon dioxide reductase.

    PubMed

    Schuchmann, K; Müller, V

    2013-12-13

    Storage and transportation of hydrogen is a major obstacle for its use as a fuel. An increasingly considered alternative for the direct handling of hydrogen is to use carbon dioxide (CO2) as an intermediate storage material. However, CO2 is thermodynamically stable, and developed chemical catalysts often require high temperatures, pressures, and/or additives for high catalytic rates. Here, we present the discovery of a bacterial hydrogen-dependent carbon dioxide reductase from Acetobacterium woodii directly catalyzing the hydrogenation of CO2. We also demonstrate a whole-cell system able to produce formate as the sole end product from dihydrogen (H2) and CO2 as well as syngas. This discovery opens biotechnological alternatives for efficient CO2 hydrogenation either by using the isolated enzyme or by employing whole-cell catalysis.

  13. Molecular characterization of a dechlorinating community resulting from in situ biostimulation in a trichloroethene-contaminated deep, fractured basalt aquifer and comparison to a derivative laboratory culture.

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Tamzen W; Cummings, David E; Spring, Stefan; Petzke, Lynn M; Sorenson, Kent S

    2004-12-01

    Sodium lactate additions to a trichloroethene (TCE) residual source area in deep, fractured basalt at a U.S. Department of Energy site have resulted in the enrichment of the indigenous microbial community, the complete dechlorination of nearly all aqueous-phase TCE to ethene, and the continued depletion of the residual source since 1999. The bacterial and archaeal consortia in groundwater obtained from the residual source were assessed by using PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. A clone library of bacterial amplicons was predominated by those from members of the class Clostridia (57 of 93 clones), of which a phylotype most similar to that of the homoacetogen Acetobacterium sp. strain HAAP-1 was most abundant (32 of 93 clones). The remaining Bacteria consisted of phylotypes affiliated with Sphingobacteria, Bacteroides, Spirochaetes, Mollicutes, and Proteobacteria and candidate divisions OP11 and OP3. The two proteobacterial phylotypes were most similar to those of the known dechlorinators Trichlorobacter thiogenes and Sulfurospirillum multivorans. Although not represented by the bacterial clones generated with broad-specificity bacterial primers, a Dehalococcoides-like phylotype was identified with genus-specific primers. Only four distinct phylotypes were detected in the groundwater archaeal library, including predominantly a clone affiliated with the strictly acetoclastic methanogen Methanosaeta concilii (24 of 43 clones). A mixed culture that completely dechlorinates TCE to ethene was enriched from this groundwater, and both communities were characterized by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). According to T-RFLP, the laboratory enrichment community was less diverse overall than the groundwater community, with 22 unique phylotypes as opposed to 43 and a higher percentage of Clostridia, including the Acetobacterium population. Bioreactor archaeal structure was very similar to that of the groundwater community, suggesting that methane is

  14. The role of acetogens in microbially influenced corrosion of steel

    PubMed Central

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung Soo; Jack, Thomas R.; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of iron (Fe0) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been studied extensively. Through a mechanism, that is still poorly understood, electrons or hydrogen (H2) molecules are removed from the metal surface and used as electron donor for sulfate reduction. The resulting ferrous ions precipitate in part with the sulfide produced, forming characteristic black iron sulfide. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens can also contribute to MIC. Incubation of pipeline water samples, containing bicarbonate and some sulfate, in serum bottles with steel coupons and a headspace of 10% (vol/vol) CO2 and 90% N2, indicated formation of acetate and methane. Incubation of these samples in serum bottles, containing medium with coupons and bicarbonate but no sulfate, also indicated that formation of acetate preceded the formation of methane. Microbial community analyses of these enrichments indicated the presence of Acetobacterium, as well as of hydrogenotrophic and acetotrophic methanogens. The formation of acetate by homoacetogens, such as Acetobacterium woodii from H2 (or Fe0) and CO2, is potentially important, because acetate is a required carbon source for many SRB growing with H2 and sulfate. A consortium of the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and A. woodii was able to grow in defined medium with H2, CO2, and sulfate, because A. woodii provides the acetate, needed by D. vulgaris under these conditions. Likewise, general corrosion rates of metal coupons incubated with D. vulgaris in the presence of acetate or in the presence of A. woodii were higher than in the absence of acetate or A. woodii, respectively. An extended MIC model capturing these results is presented. PMID:24917861

  15. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P212121 and P1211 and diffracted to ∼1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3121. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P1211 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na6[TeW6O24] within the liquid–liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI). PMID:26057806

  16. New Partnerships and Education Policy in Asia and the Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassity, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Forming more effective partnerships with national governments in the Asia-Pacific region has been an important policy focus for the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) since 2006. AusAID is increasingly engaging in sector-wide approaches and working through partner government systems. This paper explores how new partnerships…

  17. Genetic variation and evolution of the Pit blast resistance locus in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance (R) gene Pit in rice, encodes a protein with nucleotide binding sites-leucine rich repeat domain (NBS-LRR), prevents infections by strains of M. oryzae in a gene for gene manner. Here, we analyzed the open reading frame (ORF) of Pit in 26 varieties including Aus (AUS), indica (IND), tempe...

  18. Natural variation of rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studying natural variation of rice resistance (R) genes in cultivated and wild rice relatives can predict resistance stability to rice blast fungus. In the present study, the protein coding regions of rice R gene Pi-d2 in 35 rice accessions of subgroups, aus (AUS), indica (IND), temperate japonica (...

  19. Homology modeling and dynamics study of aureusidin synthase--an important enzyme in aurone biosynthesis of snapdragon flower.

    PubMed

    Elumalai, Pavadai; Liu, Hsuan-Liang

    2011-08-01

    Aurones, a class of plant flavonoids, provide bright yellow color on some important ornamental flowers, such as cosmos, coreopsis, and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus). Recently, it has been elucidated that aureusidin synthase (AUS), a homolog of plant polyphenol oxidase (PPO), plays a key role in the yellow coloration of snapdragon flowers. In addition, it has been shown that AUS is a chalcone-specific PPO specialized for aurone biosynthesis. AUS gene has been successfully demonstrated as an attractive tool to engineer yellow flowers in blue flowers. Despite these biological studies, the structural basis for the specificity of substrate interactions of AUS remains elusive. In this study, we performed homology modeling of AUS using Grenache PPO and Sweet potato catechol oxidase (CO). An AUS-inhibitor was then developed from the initial homology model based on the CO and subsequently validated. We performed a thorough study between AUS and PTU inhibitor by means of interaction energy, which indicated the most important residues in the active site that are highly conserved. Analysis of the molecular dynamics simulations of the apo enzyme and ligand-bound complex showed that complex is relatively stable than apo and the active sites of both systems are flexible. The results from this study provide very helpful information to understand the structure-function relationships of AUS.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette

    2015-06-01

    Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P2(1)2(1)2(1) and P12(1)1 and diffracted to ∼ 1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3(1)21. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P12(1)1 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na6[TeW6O24] within the liquid-liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI).

  1. TÜV - Zertifizierungen in der Life Science Branche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaff, Peter; Gerbl-Rieger, Susanne; Kloth, Sabine; Schübel, Christian; Daxenberger, Andreas; Engler, Claus

    Life Sciences [1] (Lebenswissenschaften) sind ein globales Innovationsfeld mit Anwendungen der Bio- und Medizinwissenschaften, der Pharma-, Chemie-, Kosmetik- und Lebensmittelindustrie. Diese Branche zeichnet sich durch eine stark interdisziplinäre Ausrichtung aus, mit Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse und Einsatz von Ausgangsstoffen aus der modernen Biologie, Chemie und Humanmedizin sowie gezielter marktwirtschaftlich orientierter Arbeit.

  2. Identification of Action Units Related to Affective States in a Tutoring System for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrón-Rivera, Gustavo; Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Parra, Pilar Pozos; Huerta-Pacheco, N. Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Affect is an important element of the learning process both in the classroom and with educational technology. This paper presents analyses in relation to the identification of Action Units (AUs) related to affective states and their impact on learning with a tutoring system. To assess affect, a tool was devised to identify AUs on pictures of human…

  3. Artificial urinary sphincter for urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a historical cohort from 2004 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Augusto Cesar Soares; Rodrigues, Luíza de Oliveira; Azevedo, Daniela Castelo; Carvalho, Lélia Maria de Almeida; Fernandes, Mariana Ribeiro; Avelar, Sandra de Oliveira Sapori; Horta, Maria da Glória Cruvinel; Kelles, Silvana Márcia Bruschi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate a cohort of patients with prostate cancer and persistent urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. From January 2004 to December 2015, eighty-six individuals were identified to have received an AUS implant, provided by a private nonprofit HMO operating in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. On total, there were 91 AUS implants, with a median interval between radical prostatectomy and AUS implant of 3.6 years (IQR 1.9 to 5.5). The rate of AUS cumulative survival, after a median follow-up of 4.1 years (IQR 1.7-7.2 years), was 44% (n=40). The median survival of AUS implants was 2.9 years (IQR 0.5-7.9 years). Thirty-seven AUS implants (40.7%) resulted in grade III surgical complications. There were 5 deaths at 2.1, 4.7, 5.7, 5.7 and 6.5 years of follow-up, but none due to causes directly associated to the AUS implant. Persistent severe incontinence was documented in 14 (15.3%) additional patients. From the 51 AUS implants which resulted in grade III surgical complications or persistent severe incontinence, 24 (47.1%) underwent surgical revisions. Explantation of the sphincter or its components was observed in 6 cases (25.0%). Mechanical failure, described as fluid loss and/or inability to recycle the AUS device, was observed in 4 devices (16.7%). In conclusion, although AUS implants are recommended as the gold-standard treatment of severe urinary incontinence after prostatectomy, the observed high rates of malfunction and grade III adverse events are a matter of concern warranting further assessment on the safety and efficacy of these devices. PMID:28124538

  4. Artificial urinary sphincter for urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a historical cohort from 2004 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Santos, Augusto Cesar Soares Dos; Rodrigues, Luíza de Oliveira; Azevedo, Daniela Castelo; Carvalho, Lélia Maria de Almeida; Fernandes, Mariana Ribeiro; Avelar, Sandra de Oliveira Sapori; Horta, Maria Glória Cruvinel; Kelles, Silvana Márcia Bruschi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate a cohort of patients with prostate cancer and persistent urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. From January 2004 to December 2015, eighty-six individuals were identified to have received an AUS implant, provided by a private nonprofit HMO operating in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. On total, there were 91 AUS implants, with a median interval between radical prostatectomy and AUS implant of 3.6 years (IQR 1.9 to 5.5). The rate of AUS cumulative survival, after a median follow-up of 4.1 years (IQR 1.7-7.2 years), was 44% (n=40). The median survival of AUS implants was 2.9 years (IQR 0.5-7.9 years). Thirty-seven AUS implants (40.7%) resulted in grade III surgical complications. There were 5 deaths at 2.1, 4.7, 5.7, 5.7 and 6.5 years of follow-up, but none due to causes directly associated to the AUS implant. Persistent severe incontinence was documented in 14 (15.3%) additional patients. From the 51 AUS implants which resulted in grade III surgical complications or persistent severe incontinence, 24 (47.1%) underwent surgical revisions. Explantation of the sphincter or its components was observed in 6 cases (25.0%). Mechanical failure, described as fluid loss and/or inability to recycle the AUS device, was observed in 4 devices (16.7%). In conclusion, although AUS implants are recommended as the gold-standard treatment of severe urinary incontinence after prostatectomy, the observed high rates of malfunction and grade III adverse events are a matter of concern warranting further assessment on the safety and efficacy of these devices.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora

    SciTech Connect

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette

    2015-05-22

    Latent and active aurone synthase purified from petals of C. grandiflora (cgAUS1) were crystallized. The crystal quality of recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 was significantly improved by co-crystallization with the polyoxotungstate Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase-separation zone. Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to ∼1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3{sub 1}21. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI)

  6. The impact of androgen deprivation on artificial urinary sphincter outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, George C.; Linder, Brian J.; Rivera, Marcelino E.; Ziegelmann, Matthew J.; Rangel, Laureano J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) causes systemic tissue atrophy. It is unclear if this tissue atrophy adversely impacts artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) outcomes. We sought to evaluate the effect of ADT on adverse AUS outcomes. Methods We retrospectively identified 518 men undergoing primary AUS placement at our institution between 1998 and 2014. Rates of device explant for infection/erosion, mechanical failure, and urethral atrophy in men with >6 months of ADT use within 2 years prior to AUS placement were compared to ADT naive men. Results Fifty of the patients (50/518, 9.7%) had >6 months of ADT use within 2 years prior to AUS placement while 442 were ADT naive. Multivariable survival analysis of AUS events by competing risks failed to show any effect of ADT on device explantation for infection/erosion (HR 1.12, P=0.68), replacement for mechanical failure (HR 0.92, P=0.77), or urethral atrophy (HR 0.77, P=0.46). Conclusions This study did not show evidence supporting differences in adverse AUS outcomes between men with ADT use and ADT naive men. PMID:27785433

  7. Risk Factors for Erosion of Artificial Urinary Sphincters: A Multicenter Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Brant, William O.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Elliott, Sean P.; Powell, Christopher; Alsikafi, Nejd; McClung, Christopher; Myers, Jeremy B.; Voelzke, Bryan B.; Smith, Thomas G.; Broghammer, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the short- to medium-term outcomes after artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) placement from a large, multi-institutional, prospective, follow-up study. We hypothesize that along with radiation, patients with any history of a direct surgery to the urethra will have higher rates of eventual AUS explantation for erosion and/or infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective outcome analysis was performed on 386 patients treated with AUS placement from April 2009 to December 2012 at 8 institutions with at least 3 months of follow-up. Charts were analyzed for preoperative risk factors and postoperative complications requiring explantation. RESULTS Approximately 50% of patients were considered high risk. High risk was defined as patients having undergone radiation therapy, urethroplasty, multiple treatments for bladder neck contracture or urethral stricture, urethral stent placement, or a history of erosion or infection in a previous AUS. A total of 31 explantations (8.03%) were performed during the follow-up period. Overall explantation rates were higher in those with prior radiation and prior UroLume. Men with prior AUS infection or erosion also had a trend for higher rates of subsequent explantation. Men receiving 3.5-cm cuffs had significantly higher explantation rates than those receiving larger cuffs. CONCLUSION This outcomes study confirms that urethral risk factors, including radiation history, prior AUS erosion, and a history of urethral stent placement, increase the risk of AUS explantation in short-term follow-up. PMID:25109562

  8. Artificial urinary sphincter urethral erosions: Temporal patterns, management, and incidence of preventable erosions

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Deepak K.; Linder, Brian J.; Elliott, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) is the mainstay of surgical treatment for male stress urinary incontinence. Although urethral erosions are a known complication, their temporal distribution and optimal management have not been well characterized. We seek to evaluate the timing, etiologies, and management of urethral erosions in primary AUS implantations. Materials and Methods: 1802 male patients underwent AUS procedure at Mayo Clinic (Rochester) from 1983 to 2011, including 1082 primary placements. Of primary placements, 63 had a urethral erosion of their device requiring explanation and were included in our analysis. All cases of urethral erosion were confirmed at the time of explantation through cystoscopy and direct visualization. At our institution, explantation is typically performed without primary urethral repair. Results: There were 63 cases (5.8%) of urethral erosions of primary AUS devices during the study time frame. The median age at AUS implantation was 74 years (interquartile range [IQR] 68–77 years) and median time to explantation was 21 months (IQR 5–59 months). The temporal trend of AUS erosions demonstrates a peak in the 1st year, with a gradual tapering of cases thereafter, persisting beyond 10 years. Three of 36 (8.3%) patients with follow-up developed a urethral stricture. Overall, 32/63 patients (51%) underwent salvage AUS reimplantation at a median of 7.1 months (IQR 3.1–12.9 months). Conclusions: Urethral erosions tend to occur early (within 1–2 years), with gradual tapering over time. However, continued vigilance is needed after AUS placement to decrease late erosions. These data can be used for counseling and to help guide follow-up care of patients with AUS. PMID:28197026

  9. Ecological relevance of current water quality assessment unit designations in impaired rivers.

    PubMed

    Layhee, Megan; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Managers often nest sections of water bodies together into assessment units (AUs) to monitor and assess water quality criteria. Ideally, AUs represent an extent of waters with similar ecological, watershed, habitat and land-use conditions and no overlapping characteristics with other waters. In the United States, AUs are typically based on political or hydrologic boundaries rather than on ecologically relevant features, so it can be difficult to detect changes in impairment status. Our goals were to evaluate if current AU designation criteria of an impaired water body in southeastern Idaho, USA that, like many U.S. waters, has three-quarters of its mainstem length divided into two AUs. We focused our evaluation in southeastern Idaho's Portneuf River, an impaired river and three-quarters of the river is divided into two AUs. We described biological and environmental conditions at multiple reaches within each AU. We used these data to (1) test if variability at the reach-scale is greater within or among AUs and, (2) to evaluate alternate AU boundaries based on multivariate analyses of reach-scale data. We found that some biological conditions had greater variability within an AU than between AUs. Multivariate analyses identified alternative, 2- and 3-group, AUs that reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the current AU designations in the mainstem Portneuf River contain ecologically distinct sections of river and that the existing AU boundaries should be reconsidered in light of the ecological conditions measured at the reach scale. Variation in biological integrity within designated AUs may complicate water quality and biological assessments, influence management decisions or affect where monitoring or mitigation resources are directed.

  10. Ecological relevance of current water quality assessment unit designations in impaired rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Managers often nest sections of water bodies together into assessment units (AUs) to monitor and assess water quality criteria. Ideally, AUs represent an extent of waters with similar ecological, watershed, habitat and land-use conditions and no overlapping characteristics with other waters. In the United States, AUs are typically based on political or hydrologic boundaries rather than on ecologically relevant features, so it can be difficult to detect changes in impairment status. Our goals were to evaluate if current AU designation criteria of an impaired water body in southeastern Idaho, USA that, like many U.S. waters, has three-quarters of its mainstem length divided into two AUs. We focused our evaluation in southeastern Idaho's Portneuf River, an impaired river and three-quarters of the river is divided into two AUs. We described biological and environmental conditions at multiple reaches within each AU. We used these data to (1) test if variability at the reach-scale is greater within or among AUs and, (2) to evaluate alternate AU boundaries based on multivariate analyses of reach-scale data. We found that some biological conditions had greater variability within an AU than between AUs. Multivariate analyses identified alternative, 2- and 3-group, AUs that reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the current AU designations in the mainstem Portneuf River contain ecologically distinct sections of river and that the existing AU boundaries should be reconsidered in light of the ecological conditions measured at the reach scale. Variation in biological integrity within designated AUs may complicate water quality and biological assessments, influence management decisions or affect where monitoring or mitigation resources are directed.

  11. S-Sulfhydration of ATP synthase by hydrogen sulfide stimulates mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Módis, Katalin; Ju, YoungJun; Ahmad, Akbar; Untereiner, Ashley A; Altaany, Zaid; Wu, Lingyun; Szabo, Csaba; Wang, Rui

    2016-11-01

    Mammalian cells can utilize hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to support mitochondrial respiration. The aim of our study was to explore the potential role of S-sulfhydration (a H2S-induced posttranslational modification, also known as S-persulfidation) of the mitochondrial inner membrane protein ATP synthase (F1F0 ATP synthase/Complex V) in the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Using a biotin switch assay, we have detected S-sulfhydration of the α subunit (ATP5A1) of ATP synthase in response to exposure to H2S in vitro. The H2S generator compound NaHS induced S-sulfhydration of ATP5A1 in HepG2 and HEK293 cell lysates in a concentration-dependent manner (50-300μM). The activity of immunocaptured mitochondrial ATP synthase enzyme isolated from HepG2 and HEK293 cells was stimulated by NaHS at low concentrations (10-100nM). Site-directed mutagenesis of ATP5A1 in HEK293 cells demonstrated that cysteine residues at positions 244 and 294 are subject to S-sulfhydration. The double mutant ATP synthase protein (C244S/C294S) showed a significantly reduced enzyme activity compared to control and the single-cysteine-mutated recombinant proteins (C244S or C294S). To determine whether endogenous H2S plays a role in the basal S-sulfhydration of ATP synthase in vivo, we compared liver tissues harvested from wild-type mice and mice deficient in cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE, one of the three principal mammalian H2S-producing enzymes). Significantly reduced S-sulfhydration of ATP5A1 was observed in liver homogenates of CSE(-/-) mice, compared to wild-type mice, suggesting a physiological role for CSE-derived endogenous H2S production in the S-sulfhydration of ATP synthase. Various forms of critical illness (including burn injury) upregulate H2S-producing enzymes and stimulate H2S biosynthesis. In liver tissues collected from mice subjected to burn injury, we detected an increased S-sulfhydration of ATP5A1 at the early time points post-burn. At later time points (when systemic H2S

  12. 2. Photocopied 1972 from Ecole imperiale des ponts et chaussees, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied 1972 from Ecole imperiale des ponts et chaussees, Collection de Dessins Distribues aus eleves, (n.d. and no place), ORIGINAL FINK TRUSS BRIDGE, 1852. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Fairmont Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, Fairmont, Marion County, WV

  13. Aromen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzer, Uwe-Jens; Krammer, Gerhard

    Aromen sind Zubereitungen/Mischungen aus Aromastoffen und/oder Aromaextrakten. Weiterhin gibt es Rauch- und Reaktionsaromen. Alle Einzelbestandteile können auch als Aroma bezeichnet werden, z. B. der Aromastoff Vanillin.

  14. Cloning and functional expression in E. coli of a polyphenol oxidase transcript from Coreopsis grandiflora involved in aurone formation.

    PubMed

    Kaintz, Cornelia; Molitor, Christian; Thill, Jana; Kampatsikas, Ioannis; Michael, Claudia; Halbwirth, Heidi; Rompel, Annette

    2014-09-17

    Polyphenol oxidases are involved in aurone biosynthesis but the gene responsible for 4-deoxyaurone formation in Asteraceae was so far unknown. Three novel full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from Coreopsis grandiflora with sizes of 1.80kb (cgAUS1) and 1.85kb (cgAUS2a, 2b), encoding for proteins of 68-69kDa, respectively. cgAUS1 is preferably expressed in young petals indicating a specific role in pigment formation. The 58.9kDa AUS1 holoproenzyme, was recombinantly expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The enzyme shows only diphenolase activity, catalyzing the conversion of chalcones to aurones and was characterized by SDS-PAGE and shot-gun type nanoUHPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

  15. Blut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah-Derler, Brigitte; Wintermantel, Erich; Ha, Suk-Woo

    Das Blut zirkuliert in einem System von Blutgefässen und erfüllt dabei wesentliche Transportaufgaben im Organismus. Hauptfunktionen des Blutes sind die Stoffversorgung und -entsorgung der Zellen (Sauerstoff, CO2, Nährstoffe, Stoffwechselprodukte, etc.), der Transport von Hormonen und die Regulation der Körpertemperatur. Das Blut besteht zu 40-45% aus zellulären Bestandteilen und zu 55-60% aus dem Blutplasma (Abb. 7.1). Die Gesamtmenge beträgt beim erwachsenen Menschen etwa 5 bis 6 Liter, was 7-8% des Körpergewichtes entspricht. Aufgrund seiner zahlreichen Aufgaben wird das Blut als "fliessendes Organ“ bezeichnet. Das Blutplasma besteht zu rund 90 Vol.% aus Wasser und zu 10 Vol.% aus Elektrolyten, gelösten Gasen, Proteinen (Albumine, Globuline) und Stoffwechselprodukten. Die annähernd gleichbleibende Zusammensetzung dieser Blutbestandteile gewährleistet u. a. einen relativ konstanten osmotischen Druck und pH-Wert.

  16. Ein Kredit für Weihnachtsbaumkugeln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutsch, Sina

    Eine Mathematikerin aus dem DFG-Forschungszentrum Matheon arbeitet an Methoden zur dreidimensionalen Visualisierung. Sie hat die Geschäftsidee, Weihnachtsbaumkugeln mit bewegten Hologrammen herzustellen, die sich individuell gestalten lassen, und plant eine Existenzgründung. Aus einem öffentlichen Förderprogramm erhält sie ein günstiges Darlehen in Höhe von 50 000 Euro. Für die Startphase ihres Unternehmens benötigt sie jedoch den vierfachen Betrag.

  17. Britain, France and Germany: Priorities for the European Union’s Security and Defense Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Ronja Kempin and Marco Overhaus, Kein großer Sprung in der Entwicklung der ESVP: Lehren aus der Französischen EU- Ratspräsidentschaft (Berlin...128 Kempin and Overhaus, Kein großer Sprung in der Entwicklung der ESVP: Lehren aus der Französischen EU...Deutschlands" Deutschlands neue Außenpolitik, eds. Karl Kaiser and Joachim Krause, Vol. 3 Interessen und Strategien (Oldenbourg Verlag, 1996), 3–13

  18. Variability of oil and gas well productivities for continuous (unconventional) petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, oil and gas well productivities were estimated using decline-curve analysis for thousands of wells as part of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the United States. The estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) of these wells show great variability that was analyzed at three scales: within an assessment unit (AU), among AUs of similar reservoir type, and among groups of AUs with different reservoir types. Within a particular oil or gas AU (such as the Barnett Shale), EURs vary by about two orders of magnitude between the most productive wells and the least productive ones (excluding those that are dry and abandoned). The distributions of EURs are highly skewed, with most of the wells in the lower part of the range. Continuous AUs were divided into four categories based on reservoir type and major commodity (oil or gas): coalbed gas, shale gas, other low-permeability gas AUs (such as tight sands), and low-permeability oil AUs. Within each of these categories, there is great variability from AU to AU, as shown by plots of multiple EUR distributions. Comparing the means of each distribution within a category shows that the means themselves have a skewed distribution, with a range of approximately one to two orders of magnitude. A comparison of the three gas categories (coalbed gas, shale gas, and other low-permeability gas AUs) shows large overlap in the ranges of EUR distributions. Generally, coalbed gas AUs have lower EUR distributions, shale gas AUs have intermediate sizes, and the other low-permeability gas AUs have higher EUR distributions. The plot of EUR distributions for each category shows the range of variation among developed AUs in an appropriate context for viewing the historical development within a particular AU. The Barnett Shale is used as an example to demonstrate that dividing wells into groups by time allows one to see the changes in EUR distribution. Subdivision into groups

  19. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    DOE PAGES

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; ...

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominatedmore » community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).« less

  20. Analysis of microbial communities in the oil reservoir subjected to CO2-flooding by using functional genes as molecular biomarkers for microbial CO2 sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Feng; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Guang-Chao; Mbadinga, Serge M.; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in oil reservoirs is considered to be one of the feasible options for mitigating atmospheric CO2 building up and also for the in situ potential bioconversion of stored CO2 to methane. However, the information on these functional microbial communities and the impact of CO2 storage on them is hardly available. In this paper a comprehensive molecular survey was performed on microbial communities in production water samples from oil reservoirs experienced CO2-flooding by analysis of functional genes involved in the process, including cbbM, cbbL, fthfs, [FeFe]-hydrogenase, and mcrA. As a comparison, these functional genes in the production water samples from oil reservoir only experienced water-flooding in areas of the same oil bearing bed were also analyzed. It showed that these functional genes were all of rich diversity in these samples, and the functional microbial communities and their diversity were strongly affected by a long-term exposure to injected CO2. More interestingly, microorganisms affiliated with members of the genera Methanothemobacter, Acetobacterium, and Halothiobacillus as well as hydrogen producers in CO2 injected area either increased or remained unchanged in relative abundance compared to that in water-flooded area, which implied that these microorganisms could adapt to CO2 injection and, if so, demonstrated the potential for microbial fixation and conversion of CO2 into methane in subsurface oil reservoirs. PMID:25873911

  1. The Complete Genome Sequence of Clostridium aceticum: a Missing Link between Rnf- and Cytochrome-Containing Autotrophic Acetogens

    PubMed Central

    Poehlein, Anja; Cebulla, Martin; Ilg, Marcus M.; Bengelsdorf, Frank R.; Schiel-Bengelsdorf, Bettina; Whited, Gregg; Andreesen, Jan R.; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Daniel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium aceticum was the first isolated autotrophic acetogen, converting CO2 plus H2 or syngas to acetate. Its genome has now been completely sequenced and consists of a 4.2-Mbp chromosome and a small circular plasmid of 5.7 kbp. Sequence analysis revealed major differences from other autotrophic acetogens. C. aceticum contains an Rnf complex for energy conservation (via pumping protons or sodium ions). Such systems have also been found in C. ljungdahlii and Acetobacterium woodii. However, C. aceticum also contains a cytochrome, as does Moorella thermoacetica, which has been proposed to be involved in the generation of a proton gradient. Thus, C. aceticum seems to represent a link between Rnf- and cytochrome-containing autotrophic acetogens. In C. aceticum, however, the cytochrome is probably not involved in an electron transport chain that leads to proton translocation, as no genes for quinone biosynthesis are present in the genome. PMID:26350967

  2. Prokaryotic community structure in deep bedrock aquifers of the Austrian Central Alps.

    PubMed

    Larentis, Michael; Psenner, Roland; Alfreider, Albin

    2015-03-01

    The bacterial and archaeal diversity of deep groundwater systems was investigated based on 16S rRNA-SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism) fingerprints. The study site included five boreholes along the projected Brenner Base Tunnel in the central Alps of Tyrol, Austria. To obtain representative samples, packer-sealed fractures were sampled at specific depths between 105 and 780 m below surface. Sequence analysis of SSCP bands obtained from 13 samples showed that between 29 and 62 % of the phylotypes belonged to a variety of Proteobacteria including representatives of typical freshwater bacteria of the genera Acidovorax, Aquabacterium, and Sphingomonas. Bacteroidetes (especially Flavobacterium), Firmicutes (Acetobacterium), and candidate division OP3-related sequences were observed in the majority of the analysed groundwaters. On average, 14 % of the detected prokaryotic phylotypes were affiliated with Archaea, comprising the phyla Euryarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Most of the archaeal sequences showed low similarities to known cultivated species, with exception of two sequences having 98 % similarity to Methanosaeta sp. A considerable number of thaumarchaeal sequences belonged to two groups related to Nitrososphaera and Nitrosopumilus phylotypes. An environmental clustering of the groundwater samples, based on the bacterial and archaeal phylogeny, revealed a clear distribution pattern of the samples (sites and depths) reflecting the hydrochemical characteristics and underlying geologies.

  3. Molecular monitoring of culturable bacteria from deep-sea sediment of the Nankai Trough, Leg 190 Ocean Drilling Program.

    PubMed

    Toffin, Laurent; Webster, Gordon; Weightman, Andrew J; Fry, John C; Prieur, Daniel

    2004-06-01

    Culturable bacteria were detected in deep-sea sediment samples collected from the Nankai Trough site 1173 (Ocean Drilling Program, ODP, Leg 190) at 4.15 m below the seafloor with 4791 m of overlying water. In this deep ocean near surface sediment, mainly fermentative heterotrophs, autotrophic acetogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria were enriched by using two different non-selective enrichment culture media. Culturable bacterial population shifts within the deep marine sediment enrichments were monitored by using denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed a decrease in the number of 16S rRNA gene fragments from high to low carbon concentrations, and from low to high dilution of inoculum, suggesting that fast-growing bacteria were numerically dominant in enrichment culture samples. The dominant 16S rRNA fragments observed in DGGE gels were assigned to the Firmicutes, Proteobacteria (gamma and delta subgroups) and Spirochaeta phyla. Continual sub-culture and purification resulted in two isolates which were phylogenetically identified as members of the genera Acetobacterium and Marinilactibacillus. Our results, which combine enrichment culturing with DGGE analysis, indicated that enrichment cultures derived from inoculum dilution and media with various concentrations of carbon could facilitate the detection and isolation of a greater number of environmentally relevant bacterial species than when using traditional enrichment techniques alone.

  4. Diversity and abundance of bacteria in an underground oil-storage cavity

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Kodama, Yumiko; Kaku, Nobuo

    2002-01-01

    Background Microorganisms inhabiting subterranean oil fields have recently attracted much attention. Since intact groundwater can easily be obtained from the bottom of underground oil-storage cavities without contamination by surface water, studies on such oil-storage cavities are expected to provide valuable information to understand microbial ecology of subterranean oil fields. Results DNA was extracted from the groundwater obtained from an oil-storage cavity situated at Kuji in Iwate, Japan, and 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) fragments were amplified by PCR using combinations of universal and Bacteria-specific primers. The sequence analysis of 154 clones produced 31 different bacterial sequence types (a unique clone or group of clones with sequence similarity of > 98). Major sequence types were related to Desulfotomaculum, Acetobacterium, Desulfovibrio, Desulfobacula, Zoogloea and Thiomicrospira denitrificans. The abundance in the groundwater of bacterial populations represented by these major sequence types was assessed by quantitative competitive PCR using specific primers, showing that five rDNA types except for that related to Desulfobacula shared significant proportions (more than 1%) of the total bacterial rDNA. Conclusions Bacteria inhabiting the oil-storage cavity were unexpectedly diverse. A phylogenetic affiliation of cloned 16S rDNA sequences suggests that bacteria exhibiting different types of energy metabolism coexist in the cavity. PMID:12197947

  5. Respiratory chain supercomplexes of mitochondria and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Schägger, Hermann

    2002-09-10

    Respiratory chain complexes are fragments of larger structural and functional units, the respiratory chain supercomplexes or "respirasomes", which exist in bacterial and mitochondrial membranes. Supercomplexes of mitochondria and bacteria contain complexes III, IV, and complex I, with the notable exception of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which does not possess complex I. These supercomplexes often are stable to sonication but sensitive to most detergents except digitonin. In S. cerevisiae, a major component linking complexes III and IV together is cardiolipin.In Paracoccus denitrificans, complex I itself is rather detergent-sensitive and thus could not be obtained in detergent-solubilized form so far. However, it can be isolated as part of a supercomplex. Stabilization of complex I by binding to complex III was also found in human mitochondria. Further functional roles of the organization in a supercomplex are catalytic enhancement by reducing diffusion distances of substrates or, depending on the organism, channelling of the substrates quinone and cytochrome c. This makes redox reactions less dependent of midpoint potentials of substrates, and permits electron flow at low degree of substrate reduction.A dimeric state of ATP synthase seems to be specific for mitochondria. Exclusively, monomeric ATP synthase was found in Acetobacterium woodii, in P. denitrificans, and in spinach chloroplasts.

  6. A novel mode of lactate metabolism in strictly anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Weghoff, Marie Charlotte; Bertsch, Johannes; Müller, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Lactate is a common substrate for major groups of strictly anaerobic bacteria, but the biochemistry and bioenergetics of lactate oxidation is obscure. The high redox potential of the pyruvate/lactate pair of E0 ' = -190 mV excludes direct NAD(+) reduction (E0 ' = -320 mV). To identify the hitherto unknown electron acceptor, we have purified the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the strictly anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The LDH forms a stable complex with an electron-transferring flavoprotein (Etf) that exhibited NAD(+) reduction only when reduced ferredoxin (Fd(2-) ) was present. Biochemical analyses revealed that the LDH/Etf complex of A. woodii uses flavin-based electron confurcation to drive endergonic lactate oxidation with NAD(+) as oxidant at the expense of simultaneous exergonic electron flow from reduced ferredoxin (E0 ' ≈ -500 mV) to NAD(+) according to: lactate + Fd(2-)  + 2 NAD(+)  → pyruvate + Fd + 2 NADH. The reduced Fd(2-) is regenerated from NADH by a sequence of events that involves conversion of chemical (ATP) to electrochemical ( Δ μ ˜ Na + ) and finally redox energy (Fd(2-) from NADH) via reversed electron transport catalysed by the Rnf complex. Inspection of genomes revealed that this metabolic scenario for lactate oxidation may also apply to many other anaerobes.

  7. High-resolution structure and mechanism of an F/V-hybrid rotor ring in a Na+-coupled ATP synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthies, Doreen; Zhou, Wenchang; Klyszejko, Adriana L.; Anselmi, Claudio; Yildiz, Özkan; Brandt, Karsten; Müller, Volker; Faraldo-Gómez, José D.; Meier, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    All rotary ATPases catalyse the interconversion of ATP and ADP-Pi through a mechanism that is coupled to the transmembrane flow of H+ or Na+. Physiologically, however, F/A-type enzymes specialize in ATP synthesis driven by downhill ion diffusion, while eukaryotic V-type ATPases function as ion pumps. To begin to rationalize the molecular basis for this functional differentiation, we solved the crystal structure of the Na+-driven membrane rotor of the Acetobacterium woodii ATP synthase, at 2.1 Å resolution. Unlike known structures, this rotor ring is a 9:1 heteromer of F- and V-type c-subunits and therefore features a hybrid configuration of ion-binding sites along its circumference. Molecular and kinetic simulations are used to dissect the mechanisms of Na+ recognition and rotation of this c-ring, and to explain the functional implications of the V-type c-subunit. These structural and mechanistic insights indicate an evolutionary path between synthases and pumps involving adaptations in the rotor ring.

  8. Microbial reduction and precipitation of vanadium (V) in groundwater by immobilized mixed anaerobic culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baogang; Hao, Liting; Tian, Caixing; Yuan, Songhu; Feng, Chuanping; Ni, Jinren; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2015-09-01

    Vanadium is an important contaminant impacted by natural and industrial activities. Vanadium (V) reduction efficiency as high as 87.0% was achieved by employing immobilized mixed anaerobic sludge as inoculated seed within 12h operation, while V(IV) was the main reduction product which precipitated instantly. Increasing initial V(V) concentration resulted in the decrease of V(V) removal efficiency, while this index increased first and then decreased with the increase of initial COD concentration, pH and conductivity. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis indicated the decreased microbial diversity. V(V) reduction was realized through dissimilatory reduction process by significantly enhanced Lactococcus and Enterobacter with oxidation of lactic and acetic acids from fermentative microorganisms such as the enriched Paludibacter and the newly appeared Acetobacterium, Oscillibacter. This study is helpful to detect new functional species for V(V) reduction and constitutes a step ahead in developing in situ bioremediations of vanadium contamination.

  9. Properties of a trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-dechlorinating mixed culture with a Dehalococcoides as putative dechlorinating species.

    PubMed

    Ballerstedt, Hendrik; Hantke, Janina; Bunge, Michael; Werner, Birgit; Gerritse, Jan; Andreesen, Jan R; Lechner, Ute

    2004-02-01

    An anaerobic mixed culture enriched over 16 transfers (1/10) from Saale river sediment reductively dehalogenated 1,2,4- and 1,2,3-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TrCDD) to di- and monochlorinated congeners in the presence of pyruvate (or lactate) and fumarate as cosubstrates. Besides TrCDD, tetrachloroethene and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene were dechlorinated. Dioxin dehalogenation was sensitive to pasteurization, but was not remarkably influenced by inhibitors of methanogens, sulfate-reducing bacteria or Gram-positive bacteria. The rate of 1,3-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin formation increased with rising initial concentrations of 1,2,4-TrCDD (1-250 microM) from 0.05 to 5.4 micromol l(-1) day(-1). Two isolates, belonging to Sulfurospirillum and Trichococcus, did not show reductive dehalogenation. 16S rDNA-targeted methods further revealed the presence of Acetobacterium, Desulfitobacterium, Desulfuromonas and Dehalococcoides. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated the presence of Dehalococcoides in highest most probable number (MPN) dilutions that were positive for dioxin dechlorination.

  10. Energetics and Application of Heterotrophy in Acetogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Schuchmann, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Acetogenic bacteria are a diverse group of strictly anaerobic bacteria that utilize the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for CO2 fixation and energy conservation. These microorganisms play an important part in the global carbon cycle and are a key component of the anaerobic food web. Their most prominent metabolic feature is autotrophic growth with molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide as the substrates. However, most members also show an outstanding metabolic flexibility for utilizing a vast variety of different substrates. In contrast to autotrophic growth, which is hardly competitive, metabolic flexibility is seen as a key ability of acetogens to compete in ecosystems and might explain the almost-ubiquitous distribution of acetogenic bacteria in anoxic environments. This review covers the latest findings with respect to the heterotrophic metabolism of acetogenic bacteria, including utilization of carbohydrates, lactate, and different alcohols, especially in the model acetogen Acetobacterium woodii. Modularity of metabolism, a key concept of pathway design in synthetic biology, together with electron bifurcation, to overcome energetic barriers, appears to be the basis for the amazing substrate spectrum. At the same time, acetogens depend on only a relatively small number of enzymes to expand the substrate spectrum. We will discuss the energetic advantages of coupling CO2 reduction to fermentations that exploit otherwise-inaccessible substrates and the ecological advantages, as well as the biotechnological applications of the heterotrophic metabolism of acetogens. PMID:27208103

  11. Clostridium ljungdahlii represents a microbial production platform based on syngas

    PubMed Central

    Köpke, Michael; Held, Claudia; Hujer, Sandra; Liesegang, Heiko; Wiezer, Arnim; Wollherr, Antje; Ehrenreich, Armin; Liebl, Wolfgang; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Dürre, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium ljungdahlii is an anaerobic homoacetogen, able to ferment sugars, other organic compounds, or CO2/H2 and synthesis gas (CO/H2). The latter feature makes it an interesting microbe for the biotech industry, as important bulk chemicals and proteins can be produced at the expense of CO2, thus combining industrial needs with sustained reduction of CO and CO2 in the atmosphere. Sequencing the complete genome of C. ljungdahlii revealed that it comprises 4,630,065 bp and is one of the largest clostridial genomes known to date. Experimental data and in silico comparisons revealed a third mode of anaerobic homoacetogenic metabolism. Unlike other organisms such as Moorella thermoacetica or Acetobacterium woodii, neither cytochromes nor sodium ions are involved in energy generation. Instead, an Rnf system is present, by which proton translocation can be performed. An electroporation procedure has been developed to transform the organism with plasmids bearing heterologous genes for butanol production. Successful expression of these genes could be demonstrated, leading to formation of the biofuel. Thus, C. ljungdahlii can be used as a unique microbial production platform based on synthesis gas and carbon dioxide/hydrogen mixtures. PMID:20616070

  12. Energetics and Application of Heterotrophy in Acetogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Schuchmann, Kai; Müller, Volker

    2016-07-15

    Acetogenic bacteria are a diverse group of strictly anaerobic bacteria that utilize the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for CO2 fixation and energy conservation. These microorganisms play an important part in the global carbon cycle and are a key component of the anaerobic food web. Their most prominent metabolic feature is autotrophic growth with molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide as the substrates. However, most members also show an outstanding metabolic flexibility for utilizing a vast variety of different substrates. In contrast to autotrophic growth, which is hardly competitive, metabolic flexibility is seen as a key ability of acetogens to compete in ecosystems and might explain the almost-ubiquitous distribution of acetogenic bacteria in anoxic environments. This review covers the latest findings with respect to the heterotrophic metabolism of acetogenic bacteria, including utilization of carbohydrates, lactate, and different alcohols, especially in the model acetogen Acetobacterium woodii Modularity of metabolism, a key concept of pathway design in synthetic biology, together with electron bifurcation, to overcome energetic barriers, appears to be the basis for the amazing substrate spectrum. At the same time, acetogens depend on only a relatively small number of enzymes to expand the substrate spectrum. We will discuss the energetic advantages of coupling CO2 reduction to fermentations that exploit otherwise-inaccessible substrates and the ecological advantages, as well as the biotechnological applications of the heterotrophic metabolism of acetogens.

  13. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.; Battista, John R.

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).

  14. Characterization by culture and molecular analysis of the microbial diversity of a deep subsurface gas storage aquifer.

    PubMed

    Basso, Odile; Lascourreges, Jean-François; Le Borgne, François; Le Goff, Cyril; Magot, Michel

    2009-03-01

    The bacterial diversity of a subsurface water sample collected from a gas storage aquifer in an Upper Jurassic calcareous formation was investigated by culture of microorganisms and construction of a 16S rRNA gene library. Both culture and molecular techniques showed that members of the phyla Firmicutes and class delta-proteobacteria dominated the bacterial community. The presence of hydrogen-utilizing autotrophic bacteria including sulfate reducers (e.g. Desulfovibrio aespoeensis) and homoacetogens (e.g. Acetobacterium carbinolicum) suggested that CO(2) and H(2) are the main carbon and energy sources sustaining a nutrient-limited subsurface lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystem (SLiME). Gram-positive SRB belonging to the genus Desulfotomaculum, frequently observed in subsurface environments, represented 25% of the clone library and 4 distinct phylotypes. No Archaea were detected by both experimental approaches. Water samples were collected in an area of the rauracian geological formation located outside the maximum seasonal extension of underground gas storage. Considering the observed microbial diversity, there is no evidence of any influence on the microbial ecology of the aquifer in the surroundings of maximum extension reached by the gas bubble of the underground storage, which should have resulted from the introduction of exogenous carbon and energy sources in a nutrient-limited ecosystem.

  15. The role of homoacetogenic bacteria as efficient hydrogen scavengers in microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs).

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Prathap; Torres, César I; Kang, Dae-Wook; Rittmann, Bruce E; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the consumption of hydrogen gas at the anode of a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and characterized the significance of new interactions between anode respiring bacteria (ARB) and homo-acetogens. We demonstrated the significance of biofilm limitation for direct consumption of H(2) over acetate by ARB, using the deep biofilm model. Selective inhibition of the major competing hydrogen sink at the biofilm anode, methanogenesis, resulted in significant increase in electron recovery as electric current (∼10-12 A/m(2)). The presence of acetate at high concentration in the anode compartment and detection of formate, a known intermediate of the acetyl-CoA pathway, provide evidence towards the role of homoacetogenic bacteria. We also assessed the activity of homoacetogens with reverse transcription quantitative PCR targeting formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) transcripts, and observed a comparable decrease in the FTHFS transcript numbers with current density and acetate concentrations as we decreased the HRT below 4.5 h. The biofilm anode community was predominated by Deltaproteobacteria (70% of total readouts) along with a fraction of the homoacetogenic genus, Acetobacterium (4% of total readouts), established by pyrosequencing targeting the V6 region of the 16S rRNA. Homoacetogens seem to play a major role as syntrophic members of the biofilm anode community when electron recovery is high.

  16. Molecular and carbon isotopic characterization of an anaerobic stable enrichment culture containing Dehalobacterium sp. during dichloromethane fermentation.

    PubMed

    Trueba-Santiso, Alba; Parladé, Eloi; Rosell, Mònica; Lliros, Marc; Mortan, Siti Hatijah; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Gaju, Nuria; Martín-González, Lucía; Vicent, Teresa; Marco-Urrea, Ernest

    2017-03-01

    Biodegradation of dichloromethane (DCM) under reducing conditions is of major concern due to its widespread detection in contaminated groundwaters. Here, we report an anaerobic enrichment culture derived from a membrane bioreactor operating in an industrial wastewater treatment plant, capable of fermenting DCM and the brominated analogue dibromomethane (DBM). Comparative analysis of bacterial 16S rDNA-DGGE profiles from fresh liquid medium inoculated with single colonies picked from serial dilution-to-extinction agar vials showed that cultures degrading DCM contained a predominant band belonging to Dehalobacterium, however this band was absent in cultures unable to degrade DCM. Analysis of the microbial composition of the enrichment by bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon paired-end sequencing confirmed the presence of Dehalobacterium together with three additional phylotypes belonging to Acetobacterium, Desulfovibrio, and Wolinella, representing all four operational taxonomic units >99.9% of the retrieved sequences. The carbon isotopic fractionation (ε) determined for DCM degradation in this culture was -27±2‰. This value differs from the ε previously reported for the DCM-fermentative bacteria Dehalobacter (-15.5±1.5‰) but they are both significantly different from those reported for facultative methylotrophic organisms (ranging from -45 to -61‰). This significant difference in the ε allows differentiating between hydrolytic transformation of DCM via glutathione-dependent dehalogenases and fermentation pathway.

  17. Biomass-derived syngas fermentation into biofuels: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Munasinghe, Pradeep Chaminda; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2010-07-01

    The conversion of biomass-derived synthesis gas (or syngas in brief) into biofuels by microbial catalysts (such as Clostridium ljungdahlii, Clostridium autoethanogenum, Acetobacterium woodii, Clostridium carboxidivorans and Peptostreptococcus productus) has gained considerable attention as a promising alternative for biofuel production in the recent past. The utilization of the whole biomass, including lignin, irrespective of biomass quality, the elimination of complex pre-treatment steps and costly enzymes, a higher specificity of biocatalysts, an independence of the H(2):CO ratio for bioconversion, bioreactor operation at ambient conditions, and no issue of noble metal poisoning are among the major advantages of this process. Poor mass transfer properties of the gaseous substrates (mainly CO and H(2)) and low ethanol yield of biocatalysts are the biggest challenges preventing the commercialization of syngas fermentation technology. This paper critically reviews the existing literature in biomass-derived syngas fermentation into biofuels, specifically, different biocatalysts, factors affecting syngas fermentation, and mass transfer. The paper also outlines the major challenges of syngas fermentation, key performance index and technology road map, and discusses the further research needs.

  18. Influence of Acidic pH on Hydrogen and Acetate Production by an Electrosynthetic Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.

    2014-01-01

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (∼5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at −600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ∼5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ∼6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at −765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at −800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying −800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured). PMID:25333313

  19. A Bacterial Electron-bifurcating Hydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Schuchmann, Kai; Müller, Volker

    2012-01-01

    The Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO2 fixation with hydrogen as reductant is considered a candidate for the first life-sustaining pathway on earth because it combines carbon dioxide fixation with the synthesis of ATP via a chemiosmotic mechanism. The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii uses an ancient version of the pathway that has only one site to generate the electrochemical ion potential used to drive ATP synthesis, the ferredoxin-fueled, sodium-motive Rnf complex. However, hydrogen-based ferredoxin reduction is endergonic, and how the steep energy barrier is overcome has been an enigma for a long time. We have purified a multimeric [FeFe]-hydrogenase from A. woodii containing four subunits (HydABCD) which is predicted to have one [H]-cluster, three [2Fe2S]-, and six [4Fe4S]-clusters consistent with the experimental determination of 32 mol of Fe and 30 mol of acid-labile sulfur. The enzyme indeed catalyzed hydrogen-based ferredoxin reduction, but required NAD+ for this reaction. NAD+ was also reduced but only in the presence of ferredoxin. NAD+ and ferredoxin reduction both required flavin. Spectroscopic analyses revealed that NAD+ and ferredoxin reduction are strictly coupled and that they are reduced in a 1:1 stoichiometry. Apparently, the multimeric hydrogenase of A. woodii is a soluble energy-converting hydrogenase that uses electron bifurcation to drive the endergonic ferredoxin reduction by coupling it to the exergonic NAD+ reduction. PMID:22810230

  20. Anaerobic O-demethylation of phenylmethylethers

    SciTech Connect

    Frazer, A.C.; Young, L.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Anaerobic O-demethylation (AOD) of phenylmethylethers is a process of both basic and applied significance. The aryl-O-methyl ethers are abundant in natural products, particularly as components of lignin. They are present as methoxylated lignin monomers in anaerobic environments and can be completely degraded there by mixed microbial populations. AOD is an essential early step in this process, and it is also a key reaction in the utilization of the O-methyl substituent as a C-one substrate by acetogens. An understanding of the AOD reaction mechanism might suggest new ways in which chemicals could be derived from lignocellulosic materials. The biochemical mechanism for the anaerobic cleavage of the aryl-O-methyl ether bond is an intriguing, but relatively unexplored process. In contrast to aerobic O-demethylating enzymes, AOD appears to involve methyl group transfer. Thus, novel biochemical information on an important biotransformation reaction will be gained from the research proposed. Recently, we have shown that AOD activity is inducible and have developed an assay for detecting AOD activity in cell-free extracts of Acetobacterium woodii. AOD activity is stimulated in vitro by the addition of ATP (1mM) and pyruvate (30 mM), the K{sub M} for vanillate being 0.4 mM. In collaboration with protein purification experts, we proposed to purify the AOD enzyme and characterize the protein(s) and the enzymatic reaction involved. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Importance of tetrahydrofolate and ATP in the anaerobic O-demethylation reaction for phenylmethylethers

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.H.; Frazer, A.C. )

    1992-03-01

    DL-Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and ATP were necessary for the anaerobic O-demethylation of phenylmethylethers in cell extracts of the type strain (ATCC 29683) of the homoacetogen Acetobacterium woodii. The reactants for this enzymatic activity have not been previously demonstrated in any system, nor has the mediating enzyme been studied. An assay using reaction mixtures containing 1 mM THF, 2 mM ATP, and 2 mM hydroferulate (i.e., 4-hydroxy,3-methoxyphenylpropionate) was developed and was performed under stringent anaerobic conditions. Pyridine nucleotides and several other possible cofactors were tested but had no effect on the activity. After centrifugation of disrupted cells at 27,000 x g, the activity was found primarily in the supernatant, which had a specific activity of 14.2 {plus minus} 0.5 nmol/min/mg of protein. At saturating levels of each of the other two substrates, apparent K{sub m} values for the variable substrate were 0.65 mM hydroferulate, 0.27 mM ATP, and 0.17 mM THF. Activity was significantly decreased when extract was preincubated at 60C and was completely lost after preincubation in air for 30 min. Thus, the soluble anaerobic O-demethylating enzyme system of A. woodii is oxygen sensitive. The THF- and ATP-dependent activity measurable in the soluble fraction of cell extracts constituted about 34% of the activity seen with intact cells.

  2. Electrosynthesis of Organic Compounds from Carbon Dioxide Is Catalyzed by a Diversity of Acetogenic Microorganisms▿

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, Kelly P.; Hensley, Sarah A.; Franks, Ashley E.; Summers, Zarath M.; Ou, Jianhong; Woodard, Trevor L.; Snoeyenbos-West, Oona L.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, a process in which microorganisms use electrons derived from electrodes to reduce carbon dioxide to multicarbon, extracellular organic compounds, is a potential strategy for capturing electrical energy in carbon-carbon bonds of readily stored and easily distributed products, such as transportation fuels. To date, only one organism, the acetogen Sporomusa ovata, has been shown to be capable of electrosynthesis. The purpose of this study was to determine if a wider range of microorganisms is capable of this process. Several other acetogenic bacteria, including two other Sporomusa species, Clostridium ljungdahlii, Clostridium aceticum, and Moorella thermoacetica, consumed current with the production of organic acids. In general acetate was the primary product, but 2-oxobutyrate and formate also were formed, with 2-oxobutyrate being the predominant identified product of electrosynthesis by C. aceticum. S. sphaeroides, C. ljungdahlii, and M. thermoacetica had high (>80%) efficiencies of electrons consumed and recovered in identified products. The acetogen Acetobacterium woodii was unable to consume current. These results expand the known range of microorganisms capable of electrosynthesis, providing multiple options for the further optimization of this process. PMID:21378039

  3. Carbon isotope fractionation and the acetyl-CoA pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaser, Martin; Conrad, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Homoacetogenic bacteria can catalyze the reductive synthesis of acetate from CO2 via the acetyl-CoA pathway. Besides this unifying property homoacetogenic bacteria constitute a metabolically and phylogenetically diverse bacteriological group. Therefore their environmental role is difficult to address. It has been recognized that in methanogenic environments homoacetogenic bacteria contribute to the degradation of organic matter. The natural abundance of 13C may be used to understand the functional impact of homoacetogenic bacteria in the soil environment. To distinguish the acetyl-CoA pathway from other dominant processes, the isotopic composition of acetate and CO2 can be determined and the fractionation factors of the individual processes may be used to discriminate between the dominant pathways. To characterize the fractionation factor associated with the acetyl-CoA pathway the phylogenetic and metabolic diversity needs to be considered. Therefore the fractionation factor of substrate utilization and product formation of different homoacetogens (Acetobacterium woodii, Sporomusa ovata, Thermoanaerobacter kivui, Morella thermoautotrophica) has been studied under pure culture conditions in two defined minimal medium with H2/CO2 as sole source of carbon and energy. It became obvious that the cultivation conditions have a major impact on the obtained fractionation factors.

  4. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of microbial consortia from a biogenic gas field in Alaska's Cook Inlet basin.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Katherine S; Strąpoć, Dariusz; Huizinga, Brad; Lidstrom, Ulrika; Ashby, Matt; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2012-05-01

    Filter-collected production water samples from a methane-rich gas field in the Cook Inlet basin of Alaska were investigated using whole-cell rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rRNA tag pyrosequencing. Both techniques were consistent in determining the microbial community composition, including the archaeal or bacterial dominance of samples. The archaeal community is dominated by the obligate methylotrophic methanogen genus Methanolobus as well as the nutritional generalist methanogen genus Methanosarcina, which is capable of utilizing acetate, CO(2), and methyl-bearing compounds. The most-abundant bacterial groups are Firmicutes, notably of the Acetobacterium genus, and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides species (CFBs) affiliated with the order Bacteroidales. We observed spatial variation among samples in both the percentage of members of Archaea compared to that of members of Bacteria and the dominant members of the bacterial community, differences which could not be explained with the available geochemical data. Based upon the microbial community composition and the isotopic signature of methane associated with the Cook Inlet basin site, we propose a simplified reaction network beginning with the breakdown of coal macromolecules, followed by fermentation and methylotrophic and acetoclastic methane production.

  5. Microbial Community Succession During Lactate Amendment of Chromium Contaminated Groundwater Reveals a Predominance of Pelosinus spp.

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, Jennifer J; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Drake, Meghan M; Campbell, James H; Moberly, James G; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Podar, Mircea; Brown, Steven D; Hazen, Terry; Arkin, Adam; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Faybishenko, Boris A; Elias, Dwayne A

    2012-01-01

    Microbial community structure and metabolism in contaminated ecosystems are potentially controlled not only by the different populations within the community, but a myriad of dynamic physicochemical parameters as well. The goal of the current work was to determine the impact of organic acid enrichment, in this case lactate, on the succession of the native microbial community from a contaminated groundwater aquifer. Triplicate anaerobic, continuous-flow glass reactors were inoculated with Hanford 100-H groundwater and incubated for 95 days to obtain a stable, enriched community. The microbial community experienced a shift in the population dynamics over time to eventually form a community with far less diversity than the original. The final community was dominated by Pelosinus spp. and to a lesser degree, Acetobacterium spp. with small amounts of other bacteria and archaea including methanogens. The resultant diversity was far decreased from 63 genera within 12 phyla to 11 bacterial genera (from three phyla) and 2 archaeal genera (from one phylum). Isolation efforts were successful in attaining new species of Pelosinus and known members of Methanosarcina barkerii along with several sulfate- and Fe(III)- reducing consortia members. The continuous-flow reactors allowed for testing physiochemical factors with microbial community dynamics on a smaller, replicable, scale while also facilitating the isolation of several previously uncultured community members. These lab-scale simulations will presumably allow for a deeper understanding of the community metabolism with specific carbon amendments that can inform future in situ efforts.

  6. Model non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of heat transfer from a hot gold surface to an alkylthiolate self-assembled monolayer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Barnes, George L; Yan, Tianying; Hase, William L

    2010-05-07

    Model non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are presented of heat transfer from a hot Au {111} substrate to an alkylthiolate self-assembled monolayer (H-SAM) to assist in obtaining an atomic-level understanding of experiments by Wang et al. (Z. Wang, J. A. Carter, A. Lagutchev, Y. K. Koh, N.-H. Seong, D. G. Cahill, and D. D. Dlott, Science, 2007, 317, 787). Different models are considered to determine how they affect the heat transfer dynamics. They include temperature equilibrated (TE) and temperature gradient (TG) thermostat models for the Au(s) surface, and soft and stiff S/Au(s) models for bonding of the S-atoms to the Au(s) surface. A detailed analysis of the non-equilibrium heat transfer at the heterogeneous interface is presented. There is a short time temperature gradient within the top layers of the Au(s) surface. The S-atoms heat rapidly, much faster than do the C-atoms in the alkylthiolate chains. A high thermal conductivity in the H-SAM, perpendicular to the interface, results in nearly identical temperatures for the CH(2) and CH(3) groups versus time. Thermal-induced disorder is analyzed for the Au(s) substrate, the S/Au(s) interface and the H-SAM. Before heat transfer occurs from the hot Au(s) substrate to the H-SAM, there is disorder at the S/Au(s) interface and within the alkylthiolate chains arising from heat-induced disorder near the surface of hot Au(s). The short-time rapid heating of the S-atoms enhances this disorder. The increasing disorder of H-SAM chains with time results from both disorder at the Au/S interface and heat transfer to the H-SAM chains.

  7. An anti-ultrasonic-stripping effect in confined micro/nanoscale cavities and its applications for efficient multiscale metallic patterning.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Quan; Chen, Yiqin; Li, Zhiqin; Bi, Kaixi; Zhang, Guanhua; Duan, Huigao

    2016-12-01

    We report a method to reliably and efficiently fabricate high-fidelity metallic structures from a ten-nanometer to a millimeter scale based on an anti-ultrasonic-stripping (AUS) effect in confined micro/nanoscale cavities. With this AUS effect, metallic structures, which are surrounded by the pre-patterned closed templates, could be defined through selectively removing the evaporated metallic layer at the top and outside of the templates by ultrasonic-cavitation-induced stripping. Because only pre-patterned templates are required for exposure in this multiscale patterning process, this AUS-based process enables much smaller and more reliable plasmonic nanogaps due to the mitigated proximity effect and allows rapid fabrication of multiscale metallic structures which require both tiny and large structures. With unprecedented efficiency and resolution down to a ten-nanometer scale, various metallic structures were fabricated using this AUS-effect-based multiscale patterning process. This AUS effect paves the way for direct writing of metallic structures with a high resolution over a large area for practical applications in plasmonics and nanogap-based electronics.

  8. Methodik und Qualität statistischer Erhebungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Walter; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wiegert, Rolf

    Kapitel 8 wirft einen Blick hinter die Kulissen statistischer Arbeit und ihrer Methoden, insbesondere auch hinter die der amtlichen Statistik: Wie kommen die Myriaden von Zahlen zustande, die heute aus statistischen Quellenwerken aller Art und aus Datenbanken abgerufen werden können? Dabei wird deutlich, welche Schwierigkeiten bei Erhebungen, insbesondere bei Stichprobenerhebungen, zu überwinden sind, wie man Antwortverweigerer kooperativer stimmt, wie sich auch aus kleinen Stichproben auf intelligente Weise verlässliche Ergebnisse erzielen lassen und wie Großstichproben auf europäischer Ebene harmonisiert werden. Am Beispiel des Zensus 2011 wird gezeigt, wie sich eine Kombination von Stichproben und Registerauswertungen als Ersatz für eine Volkszählung nutzen lässt. Mitglieder der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft waren daran kooperativ beteiligt.

  9. Speaker and Accent Variation Are Handled Differently: Evidence in Native and Non-Native Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Terry, Josephine; Chládková, Kateřina; Escudero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Listeners are able to cope with between-speaker variability in speech that stems from anatomical sources (i.e. individual and sex differences in vocal tract size) and sociolinguistic sources (i.e. accents). We hypothesized that listeners adapt to these two types of variation differently because prior work indicates that adapting to speaker/sex variability may occur pre-lexically while adapting to accent variability may require learning from attention to explicit cues (i.e. feedback). In Experiment 1, we tested our hypothesis by training native Dutch listeners and Australian-English (AusE) listeners without any experience with Dutch or Flemish to discriminate between the Dutch vowels /I/ and /ε/ from a single speaker. We then tested their ability to classify /I/ and /ε/ vowels of a novel Dutch speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change only), or vowels of a novel Flemish speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change plus accent change). We found that both Dutch and AusE listeners could successfully categorize vowels if the change involved a speaker/sex change, but not if the change involved an accent change. When AusE listeners were given feedback on their categorization responses to the novel speaker in Experiment 2, they were able to successfully categorize vowels involving an accent change. These results suggest that adapting to accents may be a two-step process, whereby the first step involves adapting to speaker differences at a pre-lexical level, and the second step involves adapting to accent differences at a contextual level, where listeners have access to word meaning or are given feedback that allows them to appropriately adjust their perceptual category boundaries. PMID:27309889

  10. A Psychophysical Approach to Dimensional Integrality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    CATALO GnUMS |5 14523-74T3 T~-9 - 4. VTEIC(wMd eak.) S . TYPX or 409OAt" A MP~mo@ COVS460 A Psychophysical Approach to Dimensional / T Technical h...Program TS . ..... i " "’ S L , ~Ar’thaton- X6221 Unclassified ENSRIITON ATMWA Aipproved for pubkl Memoas; Distribution Unl•i•ied Approved for public...release: distribution urlimited It. SUPSMEM?AfV VOTE" S t’. -key o01 (3" an m -WW** aide .,041 ew ausE 4W multi-dimensional scaling complex visual

  11. Quantenwelt im Nanozylinder: Elektronische Eigenschaften von Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhrchen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strunk, Christoph

    2005-07-01

    Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhren sind einzelne oder mehrfach ineinander gesteckte molekulare Hohlzylinder. In ihnen bilden Kohlenstoffatome ein Graphit ähnliches Kristallgitter. Diese Fullerene zeichnen sich durch eine außerordentlich hohe Elastizität und Zugfestigkeit aus. In ihren elektronischen Eigenschaften verhalten sie sich entweder wie Halbleiter oder wie metallische Leiter. Aus halbleitenden Nanoröhren konnten bereits winzige Feldeffekttransistoren hergestellt werden, ein erster Schritt hin zu einer molekularen Elektronik. Die Grundlagenforscher interessiert vor allem das Verhalten metallischer Nanoröhren bei tiefen Temperaturen. An ihren elektronischen Systemen lassen sich zum Beispiel Quanteninterferenzphänomene oder Elektron-Elektron-Wechselwirkungen untersuchen.

  12. Aiding the environment: the Australian Development Agency's experience of implementing an environmental management system

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, Meg . E-mail: meg.keen@anu.edu.au; Sullivan, Marjorie

    2005-08-15

    Aid agencies, like commercial businesses, are increasingly concerned with incorporating sound environmental management into their operations. Different approaches are being used to integrate sustainability into development assistance to ensure that environmental impacts are assessed and managed. One approach being used by AusAID, the Australian aid agency, is to implement an environmental management system (EMS) across program and project areas. This paper examines how AusAID has adapted the EMS approach to suit aid agency operations, and some of the lessons from the Australian experience.

  13. Electrosynthesis of Commodity Chemicals by an Autotrophic Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Christopher W.; Ross, Daniel E.; Fichot, Erin B.; Norman, R. Sean

    2012-01-01

    A microbial community originating from brewery waste produced methane, acetate, and hydrogen when selected on a granular graphite cathode poised at −590 mV versus the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) with CO2 as the only carbon source. This is the first report on the simultaneous electrosynthesis of these commodity chemicals and the first description of electroacetogenesis by a microbial community. Deep sequencing of the active community 16S rRNA revealed a dynamic microbial community composed of an invariant Archaea population of Methanobacterium spp. and a shifting Bacteria population. Acetobacterium spp. were the most abundant Bacteria on the cathode when acetogenesis dominated. Methane was generally the dominant product with rates increasing from <1 to 7 mM day−1 (per cathode liquid volume) and was concomitantly produced with acetate and hydrogen. Acetogenesis increased to >4 mM day−1 (accumulated to 28.5 mM over 12 days), and methanogenesis ceased following the addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. Traces of hydrogen accumulated during initial selection and subsequently accelerated to >11 mM day−1 (versus 0.045 mM day−1 abiotic production). The hypothesis of electrosynthetic biocatalysis occurring at the microbe-electrode interface was supported by a catalytic wave (midpoint potential of −460 mV versus SHE) in cyclic voltammetry scans of the biocathode, the lack of redox active components in the medium, and the generation of comparatively high amounts of products (even after medium exchange). In addition, the volumetric production rates of these three commodity chemicals are marked improvements for electrosynthesis, advancing the process toward economic feasibility. PMID:23001672

  14. Characterization of an O-Demethylase of Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2

    PubMed Central

    Studenik, Sandra; Vogel, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Besides acetogenic bacteria, only Desulfitobacterium has been described to utilize and cleave phenyl methyl ethers under anoxic conditions; however, no ether-cleaving O-demethylases from the latter organisms have been identified and investigated so far. In this study, genes of an operon encoding O-demethylase components of Desulfitobacterium hafniense strain DCB-2 were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Methyltransferases I and II were characterized. Methyltransferase I mediated the ether cleavage and the transfer of the methyl group to the superreduced corrinoid of a corrinoid protein. Desulfitobacterium methyltransferase I had 66% identity (80% similarity) to that of the vanillate-demethylating methyltransferase I (OdmB) of Acetobacterium dehalogenans. The substrate spectrum was also similar to that of the latter enzyme; however, Desulfitobacterium methyltransferase I showed a higher level of activity for guaiacol and used methyl chloride as a substrate. Methyltransferase II catalyzed the transfer of the methyl group from the methylated corrinoid protein to tetrahydrofolate. It also showed a high identity (∼70%) to methyltransferases II of A. dehalogenans. The corrinoid protein was produced in E. coli as cofactor-free apoprotein that could be reconstituted with hydroxocobalamin or methylcobalamin to function in the methyltransferase I and II assays. Six COG3894 proteins, which were assumed to function as activating enzymes mediating the reduction of the corrinoid protein after an inadvertent oxidation of the corrinoid cofactor, were studied with respect to their abilities to reduce the recombinant reconstituted corrinoid protein. Of these six proteins, only one was found to catalyze the reduction of the corrinoid protein. PMID:22522902

  15. Bacterial Community Profiling of H2/CO2 or Formate-Utilizing Acetogens Enriched from Diverse Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, R.; Zhang, L.; Fu, B.; Liu, H.

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic gases are usually generated from either cellulosic agricultural waste combustion or industrial release and could be subsequently transformed into acetate, ethanol, and/or butyrate by homoacetogenic bacteria, which commonly possess reductive acetyl-CoA synthesis pathway. Homoacetogen-based syngas fermentation technology provides an alternative solution to link greenhouse gas emission control and cellulosic solid waste treatment with biofuels production. The objective of our current project is to hunt for homoacetogens with capabilities of highly efficiently converting syngases to chemical solvents. In this study, we evaluated homoacetogens population dynamics during enrichments and pinpointed dominant homoacetogens representing diverse ecosystems enriched by different substrates. We enriched homoacetogens from four different samples including waste activate sludge, freshwater sediment, anaerobic methanogenic sludge, and cow manure using H2/CO2 (4:1) or formate as substrate for homoacetogen enrichment. Along with the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) gene (fhs gene)-specific real time qPCR assay and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, 16S rRNA based 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing was applied to reveal the population dynamic and community structure during enrichment from different origins. Enrichment of homoacetogenic populations coincided with accumulations of short chain fatty acids such as acetate and butyrate. 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing revealed Firmicutes and Spirochaetes populations became dominant while the overall microbial diversity decreased after enrichment. The most abundant sequences among the four origins belonged to the following phyla: Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, accounting for 62.1%-99.1% of the total reads. The major putative homoacetogenic species enriched on H2/CO2 or formate belonged to Clostridium spp., Acetobacterium spp., Acetoanaerobium spp

  16. Rapid enrichment of (homo)acetogenic consortia from animal feces using a high mass-transfer gas-lift reactor fed with syngas.

    PubMed

    Park, Shinyoung; Yasin, Muhammad; Kim, Daehee; Park, Hee-Deung; Kang, Chang Min; Kim, Duk Jin; Chang, In Seop

    2013-09-01

    A gas-lift reactor having a high mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a = 80.28 h(-1)) for a relatively insoluble gas (carbon monoxide; CO) was used to enrich (homo)acetogens from animal feces. Samples of fecal matter from cow, rabbit, chicken, and goat were used as sources of inoculum for the enrichment of CO and H(2) utilizing microbial consortia. To confirm the successful enrichment, the Hungate roll tube technique was employed to count and then isolate putative CO utilizers. The results of this work showed that CO and H(2) utilizing consortia were established for each inoculum source after 8 days. The number of colony-forming units in cow, rabbit, chicken, and goat fecal samples were 3.83 × 10(9), 1.03 × 10(9), 8.3 × 10(8), and 3.25 × 10(8) cells/ml, respectively. Forty-two colonies from the animal fecal samples were screened for the ability to utilize CO/H(2). Ten of these 42 colonies were capable of utilizing CO/H(2). Five isolates from cow feces (samples 5, 6, 8, 16, and 22) were highly similar to previously unknown (homo)acetogen, while cow-7 has shown 99 % similarity with Acetobacterium sp. as acetogens. On the other hand, four isolates from chicken feces (samples 3, 8, 10, and 11) have also shown high CO/H(2) utilizing activity. Hence, it is expected that this research could be used as the basis for the rapid enrichment of (homo)acetogenic consortia from various environmental sources.

  17. Genome-guided analysis of physiological and morphological traits of the fermentative acetate oxidizer Thermacetogenium phaeum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thermacetogenium phaeum is a thermophilic strictly anaerobic bacterium oxidizing acetate to CO2 in syntrophic association with a methanogenic partner. It can also grow in pure culture, e.g., by fermentation of methanol to acetate. The key enzymes of homoacetate fermentation (Wood-Ljungdahl pathway) are used both in acetate oxidation and acetate formation. The obvious reversibility of this pathway in this organism is of specific interest since syntrophic acetate oxidation operates close to the energetic limitations of microbial life. Results The genome of Th. phaeum is organized on a single circular chromosome and has a total size of 2,939,057 bp. It comprises 3.215 open reading frames of which 75% could be assigned to a gene function. The G+C content is 53.88 mol%. Many CRISPR sequences were found, indicating heavy phage attack in the past. A complete gene set for a phage was found in the genome, and indications of phage action could also be observed in culture. The genome contained all genes required for CO2 reduction through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, including two formyl tetrahydrofolate ligases, three carbon monoxide dehydrogenases, one formate hydrogenlyase complex, three further formate dehydrogenases, and three further hydrogenases. The bacterium contains a menaquinone MQ-7. No indications of cytochromes or Rnf complexes could be found in the genome. Conclusions The information obtained from the genome sequence indicates that Th. phaeum differs basically from the three homoacetogenic bacteria sequenced so far, i.e., the sodium ion-dependent Acetobacterium woodii, the ethanol-producing Clostridium ljungdahlii, and the cytochrome-containing Moorella thermoacetica. The specific enzyme outfit of Th. phaeum obviously allows ATP formation both in acetate formation and acetate oxidation. PMID:23259483

  18. Comparison of electrochemical and microbiological characterization of microbial fuel cells equipped with SPEEK and Nafion membrane electrode assemblies.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kei; Owen, Rubaba; Mok, Joann; Mochihara, Hiroki; Hosokawa, Takuya; Kubota, Hiroko; Sakamoto, Hisatoshi; Matsuda, Atsunori; Tashiro, Yosuke; Futamata, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Microbial fuel cells equipped with SPEEK-MEA (SPEEK-MFC) and Nafion-MEA (Nafion-MFC) were constructed with organic waste as electron donor and lake sediment as inoculum and were then evaluated comprehensively by electrochemical and microbial analyses. The proton conductivity of SPEEK was several hundreds-fold lower than that of Nafion 117, whereas the oxygen mass and diffusion transfer coefficients of SPEEK were 10-fold lower than those of Nafion 117. It was difficult to predict which was better membrane for MFC based on the feature of membrane. Analyses of polarization curves indicated that the potential of electricity production was similar in both MFCs, as the SPEEK-MFC produced 50-80% of the practical current density generated by the Nafion-MFC. Chronopotentiometry analyses indicated that the Nafion-MEA kept the performance longer than the SPEEK-MEA for long period, whereas performance of both anodes improved on time. Multidimensional scaling analyses based on DGGE profiles revealed the anolytic and biofilm communities of the SPEEK-MFC had developed differently from those of the Nafion-MFC. Clone library analyses indicated that Geobacter spp. represented 6.3% of the biofilm bacterial community in the Nafion-MFC but not detected in the SPEEK-MFC. Interestingly, the clone closely related to Acetobacterium malicum strain HAAP-1, belonging to the homoacetogens, became dominant in both anolytic and biofilm communities of the SPEEK-MFC. It was suggested that the lower proton conductivity of SPEEK-MEA allowed the bacteria closely related to strain HAAP-1 to be dominant specifically in SPEEK-MFC. These results indicated that Nafion-MFC ranked with SPEEK-MFC and that MEAs had strong selective pressure for electricity-producing bacterial community.

  19. Isolation of acetogenic bacteria that induce biocorrosion by utilizing metallic iron as the sole electron donor.

    PubMed

    Kato, Souichiro; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion of iron occurring under anoxic conditions, which is termed microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) or biocorrosion, is mostly caused by microbial activities. Microbial activity that enhances corrosion via uptake of electrons from metallic iron [Fe(0)] has been regarded as one of the major causative factors. In addition to sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in marine environments, acetogenic bacteria in freshwater environments have recently been suggested to cause MIC under anoxic conditions. However, no microorganisms that perform acetogenesis-dependent MIC have been isolated or had their MIC-inducing mechanisms characterized. Here, we enriched and isolated acetogenic bacteria that induce iron corrosion by utilizing Fe(0) as the sole electron donor under freshwater, sulfate-free, and anoxic conditions. The enriched communities produced significantly larger amounts of Fe(II) than the abiotic controls and produced acetate coupled with Fe(0) oxidation prior to CH4 production. Microbial community analysis revealed that Sporomusa sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. dominated in the enrichments. Strain GT1, which is closely related to the acetogen Sporomusa sphaeroides, was eventually isolated from the enrichment. Strain GT1 grew acetogenetically with Fe(0) as the sole electron donor and enhanced iron corrosion, which is the first demonstration of MIC mediated by a pure culture of an acetogen. Other well-known acetogenic bacteria, including Sporomusa ovata and Acetobacterium spp., did not grow well on Fe(0). These results indicate that very few species of acetogens have specific mechanisms to efficiently utilize cathodic electrons derived from Fe(0) oxidation and induce iron corrosion.

  20. Microbial Community Succession during Lactate Amendment and Electron Acceptor Limitation Reveals a Predominance of Metal-Reducing Pelosinus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Jennifer J.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Podar, Mircea; Hurt, Richard A.; Campbell, James H.; Drake, Meghan M.; Moberly, James G.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brown, Steven D.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of the success of in situ bioremediation strategies is complex. By using controlled laboratory conditions, the influence of individual variables, such as U(VI), Cr(VI), and electron donors and acceptors on community structure, dynamics, and the metal-reducing potential can be studied. Triplicate anaerobic, continuous-flow reactors were inoculated with Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater from the Hanford, WA, 100-H area, amended with lactate, and incubated for 95 days to obtain stable, enriched communities. The reactors were kept anaerobic with N2 gas (9 ml/min) flushing the headspace and were fed a defined medium amended with 30 mM lactate and 0.05 mM sulfate with a 48-h generation time. The resultant diversity decreased from 63 genera within 12 phyla to 11 bacterial genera (from 3 phyla) and 2 archaeal genera (from 1 phylum). Final communities were dominated by Pelosinus spp. and to a lesser degree, Acetobacterium spp., with low levels of other organisms, including methanogens. Four new strains of Pelosinus were isolated, with 3 strains being capable of Cr(VI) reduction while one also reduced U(VI). Under limited sulfate, it appeared that the sulfate reducers, including Desulfovibrio spp., were outcompeted. These results suggest that during times of electron acceptor limitation in situ, organisms such as Pelosinus spp. may outcompete the more-well-studied organisms while maintaining overall metal reduction rates and extents. Finally, lab-scale simulations can test new strategies on a smaller scale while facilitating community member isolation, so that a deeper understanding of community metabolism can be revealed. PMID:22267668

  1. France’s New NATO Policy: Leveraging a Realignment of the Alliance?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Baden. 2. Jean-Pierre Maulny, “Frankreich und seine zukuenftige Stellung in der NATO—eine politische, keine militärische Debatte” [“France and its...see Ronja Kempin and Marco Overhaus, “ Kein grosser Sprung in der Entwicklung der ESVP: Lehren aus der französischen Ratpräsidentschaft” [“No great

  2. An Investigation of the Teacher Advancement Program and Student Performance in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Ginger Madonna

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the achievement gap between African-American and Caucasian students doubled in the state of Louisiana. Sixty-three percent of the public schools in an urban school district in southeastern Louisiana received an Academically Unacceptable Status (AUS) rating according to Louisiana accountability standards. In 2006, the Louisiana Board of…

  3. Unraveling the rich phenotypic and genetic diversity in rice for varietal improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) has two distinct varietal groups identified as the indica and japonica subspecies. With the advent of molecular markers the indica subspecies was divided into the indica and aus subpopulation groups and the japonica subspecies into the aromatic, tropical japon...

  4. Crystals: The Love Child Born from Art and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Noby

    2014-01-01

    Noby Leong is a PhD student in Chemistry at University of Adelaide working on the design of new drug delivery systems for medical applications. He's also a science communicator, part of the volunteer blogging community at RiAus and curator of his own blog "The Other Side of Science." In this article Noby shares the highs and lows that…

  5. Rapid, Robust, Optimal Pose Estimation from a Single Affine Image (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    the new method (0), and their reconstruction using full 3-d sensed data ( pentagram ). 3-d measurements. This method requires another sensor such as a...using (13). Since this method has access to the full 3-d data, its reconstructed image points ( pentagrams ) closely match the given image points (+). A

  6. FACSGen 2.0 animation software: generating three-dimensional FACS-valid facial expressions for emotion research.

    PubMed

    Krumhuber, Eva G; Tamarit, Lucas; Roesch, Etienne B; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we present FACSGen 2.0, new animation software for creating static and dynamic three-dimensional facial expressions on the basis of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). FACSGen permits total control over the action units (AUs), which can be animated at all levels of intensity and applied alone or in combination to an infinite number of faces. In two studies, we tested the validity of the software for the AU appearance defined in the FACS manual and the conveyed emotionality of FACSGen expressions. In Experiment 1, four FACS-certified coders evaluated the complete set of 35 single AUs and 54 AU combinations for AU presence or absence, appearance quality, intensity, and asymmetry. In Experiment 2, lay participants performed a recognition task on emotional expressions created with FACSGen software and rated the similarity of expressions displayed by human and FACSGen faces. Results showed good to excellent classification levels for all AUs by the four FACS coders, suggesting that the AUs are valid exemplars of FACS specifications. Lay participants' recognition rates for nine emotions were high, and comparisons of human and FACSGen expressions were very similar. The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the software in producing reliable and emotionally valid expressions, and suggest its application in numerous scientific areas, including perception, emotion, and clinical and neuroscience research.

  7. Interactions Between Monetary and Fiscal Policies in the Euro Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    185-210. "* Haucap, Justus, Uwe Pauly & Christian Wey, Collective Wage Setting When Wages Are Generally Binding: An Antitrust Perspective, Nr. 106 (2000...Generations Model, Nr. 8/1999. "* Henning, Andreas & Wolfgang Greiner, Organknappheit im Transplantationswesen - L6sungs- ansditze aus 6konomischer Sicht, Nr. 7

  8. Energetische Verwertung von Biomasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Etwa 0,1% der Solarenergie wandeln sich durch Photosynthese aus dem Kohlendioxid der Luft in Biomasse um. Die Biomassen sind als Festbrennstoff nutzbar oder zu gasförmigen Brennstoffen weiterverarbeitbar. Zwei Arten von Biomassen sind zu unterscheiden: Anfallende Biomasse

  9. Normung (Standardisierung)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostmann, Dirk

    Normung ist aus dem täglichen Leben nicht wegzudenken. In allen Bereichen des Lebens begegnet man Normen, die Aktivitäten reichen von Festlegungen für Kindersitze im Auto über Implantate zum Gelenkersatz bis zu Schraubengrößen oder Verfahren zur Optimierung von Unternehmen.

  10. Variants within the COMP and THBS2 genes are not associated with Achilles tendinopathy in a case-control study of South African and Australian populations.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Colleen J; Van Der Merwe, Lize; Cook, Jill; Handley, Christopher J; Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix, while thrombospondin-2 is a matricellular protein involved in cell-matrix interactions. Recent studies have shown that genetic variation is a significant risk factor for Achilles tendinopathy, and the genes encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and thrombospondin-2 (THBS2) were identified as good candidate genes for association with Achilles tendinopathy. This study aimed to test the association of sequence variants within these candidate genes with the risk of Achilles tendinopathy in participants from South Africa (SA) and Australia (AUS). Three-hundred and forty (133 SA; 207 AUS) control participants with no history of Achilles tendinopathy and 178 (94 SA; 84 AUS) participants clinically diagnosed with Achilles tendinopathy were genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms within the COMP and THBS2 genes in this case-control study. There was no difference in genotype distributions between control and tendinopathy groups for either the THBS2 variants rs9505888, rs6422747 and rs9283850, or the COMP variants rs730079 and rs28494505 in the SA and AUS populations. As the selection of COMP and THBS2 as candidate genes was hypothesis driven, based on biological function, the possibility that other variants within these genes are associated with Achilles tendinopathy cannot be excluded.

  11. Population structure of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) assessed on a global scale using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is a major pest of livestock in the United States and worldwide. To assess the genetic variability in geographically distant stable flies, samples were obtained from four biogeographical regions: Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, and Aus...

  12. Effect of microstructure on transformation-induced plasticity of silicon-containing low-alloy steel

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Yoshiyuki; Morioka, Kojiro

    1997-04-01

    Fe-0.6C-1.5Si-0.8Mn steel was studied to determine the effect of the microstructure on transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) of silicon-containing low-alloy steel. A remarkable increase in elongation through TRIP can develop in the steel subjected to the following heat treatments: (1) austemper combined with subcritical annealing (SA Aus-T): subcritical annealing at 993K followed by austempering at 673K and then light tempering (after austenitization at 1173K); (2) austemper coupled with interrupted quenching (IQ Aus-T): interrupted quenching at 533K followed by austempering at 673K and light tempering (after austenization at 1,173K). The SA Aus-T treatment produced the triple structures of carbide-free upper bainite, retained austenite ({gamma}R), and free ferrite. As a result of the IQ Aus-T treatment, the triple structures of carbide-free upper bainite, {gamma}R, and tempered martensite appeared. The results are described and microstructural factors in TRIP are discussed.

  13. Use of the Rice Diversity Panel 1 to map traits important for rice improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ‘Rice Diversity Panel 1’ (RDP1) is composed of 421 diverse Oryza sativa accessions from 79 countries, including indica and aus which belong to the Indica varietal group, and tropical japonica, temperate japonica, and aromatic (Group V) which comprise the Japonica varietal group. This panel was ...

  14. Registration of the "Rice Diversity Panel I' Genome-Wide Association Mapping Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rice Diversity Panel (RDP) is a collection of 409 O. sativa accessions (GSOR301001 through GSOR301422) representing the five subpopulations: aromatic (Group V) composed of 15 accessions; aus (59) and indica (90) which compose the Indica subspecies; tropical (104) and temperate (108) japonica whi...

  15. Rice Root Architectural Plasticity Traits and Genetic Regions for Adaptability to Variable Cultivation and Stress Conditions1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Nitika; Raman, K. Anitha; Torres, Rolando O.; Audebert, Alain; Dardou, Audrey; Kumar, Arvind; Henry, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Future rice (Oryza sativa) crops will likely experience a range of growth conditions, and root architectural plasticity will be an important characteristic to confer adaptability across variable environments. In this study, the relationship between root architectural plasticity and adaptability (i.e. yield stability) was evaluated in two traditional × improved rice populations (Aus 276 × MTU1010 and Kali Aus × MTU1010). Forty contrasting genotypes were grown in direct-seeded upland and transplanted lowland conditions with drought and drought + rewatered stress treatments in lysimeter and field studies and a low-phosphorus stress treatment in a Rhizoscope study. Relationships among root architectural plasticity for root dry weight, root length density, and percentage lateral roots with yield stability were identified. Selected genotypes that showed high yield stability also showed a high degree of root plasticity in response to both drought and low phosphorus. The two populations varied in the soil depth effect on root architectural plasticity traits, none of which resulted in reduced grain yield. Root architectural plasticity traits were related to 13 (Aus 276 population) and 21 (Kali Aus population) genetic loci, which were contributed by both the traditional donor parents and MTU1010. Three genomic loci were identified as hot spots with multiple root architectural plasticity traits in both populations, and one locus for both root architectural plasticity and grain yield was detected. These results suggest an important role of root architectural plasticity across future rice crop conditions and provide a starting point for marker-assisted selection for plasticity. PMID:27342311

  16. Curriculum Development for Teacher Education in the Southern Philippines: A Simultaneous Process of Professional Learning and Syllabus Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeegers, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on the process of curriculum development in 21 tertiary education institutions in the Southern Philippines. Assisting capacity-building of the teaching profession is an ongoing need in developing countries, but rarely does it extend to pre-service education. In this study of one aspect of a three year AusAid-funded education…

  17. Co-movement measure of information transmission on international equity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Rahahleh, Naseem; Bhatti, M. Ishaq

    2017-03-01

    Recently, Bhatti and Nguyen (2012) used EVT and various stochastic copulas to study the cross-country co-movements diversification and asset pricing allocation. Weiss (2013) observed that Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) models outperform various copula models. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature on multivariate models for capturing forward and backward return co-movement, spillover effects and volatility linkages. It reflects cross-country forward and backward co-movements more clearly among various coupled international stock markets relating to information transmission and price discovery for making investment decisions. Given the reality of fat-tail or skewed distribution of financial data, this paper proposes the use of VECM-DCC and VAR-DCC models which capture dynamic dependences between the Australian and other selected international financial stock markets. We observe that the return co-movement effects between Australian and Asian countries are bidirectional ((AUS ↔ Hong Kong), (AUS ↔ Japan)) with the exception of Taiwan (AUS → Taiwan). We also observe that the volatility spillover between the Australian and both the UK and the US markets are bidirectional with a larger volatility spillover from both toward the AUS market. Further, the UK market has a higher volatility spillover on the Australian market compared to the US market and the US market has a higher volatility spillover on the UK than that of the Australian market.

  18. Diorganostyrylzinndiorganophosphine und Ihre Tricarbonylnickelkomplexe (Diorganostyryltin Phosphines and its Tricarbonylnickel Complexes).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-03

    Umkristallisieren aus Pentan/Benzol/Toluol gereinigt werden konnen; IVb zeigt bereits ab 0°C Polym erisationserschei- nungen. Vb und VIb werden als heligelbe...einem Rar.ger Engeneering M6ssbauer Spectrometer benutzt wurde. in C 6 D 6c) die Ha lbwertsbreiten wurden als glei~h vorausgesetzt , um dos Si gnal als

  19. Unlocking the variation hidden in rice germplasm collections with genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) was domesticated from O. rufipogon (O. nivara). The O. sativa subspecies indica and japonica diverged in ancient times, and based on DNA markers, further subdivided into the five major subpopulations, aus, indica, aromatic, tropical japonica and temperate japoni...

  20. Learning to Lead: A Social Justice Perspective on Understanding Elementary Teacher Leadership in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Joanne; Scholes, Laura; Farrell, Ann; Davis, Julie; Cook, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Leadership in elementary education is currently recognized as a political imperative in Papua New Guinea (PNG), as the nation develops strategies towards equitable access to schooling. One recent initiative aimed at building educational leadership was an intensive Australian Leadership Award Fellowship (ALAF) program funded by AusAID, involving a…

  1. Lidarsensorik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geduld, Georg

    LIDAR: Light Detection And Ranging ist ein optisches Messverfahren zur Ortung und Messung der Entfernung von Objekten im Raum. Prinzipiell ähnelt das System dem Radar-Verfahren, wobei allerdings anstelle von Mikrowellen beim LIDAR Ultraviolett-, Infrarot- oder Strahlen aus dem Bereich des sichtbaren Lichts (daher LIDAR) verwendet werden (vgl. Bild 13-1).

  2. Die Evolution der Religiosität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voland, Eckart

    Ein konsequent darwinischer Blick auf den Menschen bedeutet, auch im Denken, Fühlen und Handeln biologische Anpassungsgeschichte zu suchen, denn auch die psychischen und mentalen Eigenheiten des Homo sapiens unterliegen der natürlichen Selektion. Lässt sich die religiöse Lebenspraxis von Menschen daher auch aus einer Fitnessperspektive betrachten?

  3. Biokompatible Polymere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Suk-Woo; Wintermantel, Erich; Maier, Gerhard

    Der klinische Einsatz von synthetischen Polymeren begann in den 60-er Jahren in Form von Einwegartikeln, wie beispielsweise Spritzen und Kathetern, vor allem aufgrund der Tatsache, dass Infektionen infolge nicht ausreichender Sterilität der wiederverwendbaren Artikel aus Glas und metallischen Werkstoffen durch den Einsatz von sterilen Einwegartikeln signifikant reduziert werden konnten [1]. Die Einführung der medizinischen Einwegartikel aus Polymeren erfolgte somit nicht nur aus ökonomischen, sondern auch aus hygienischen Gründen. Wegen der steigenden Anzahl synthetischer Polymere und dem zunehmenden Bedarf an ärztlicher Versorgung reicht die Anwendung von Polymeren in der Medizin von preisgünstigen Einwegartikeln, die nur kurzzeitig intrakorporal eingesetzt werden, bis hin zu Implantaten, welche über eine längere Zeit grossen Beanspruchungen im menschlichen Körper ausgesetzt sind. Die steigende Verbreitung von klinisch eingesetzten Polymeren ist auf ihre einfache und preisgünstige Verarbeitbarkeit in eine Vielzahl von Formen und Geometrien sowie auf ihr breites Eigenschaftsspektrum zurückzuführen. Polymere werden daher in fast allen medizinischen Bereichen eingesetzt.

  4. The CCTC Quick-Reacting General War Gaming System (QUICK). Volume IV. Sortie Generation Subsystem. Parts I and II. Program Maintenance Manual. Change 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-03

    index LNCHBASE Launch base index number ITYP Weapon group type index BLAT Launch base latitude BLONG Launch base longitude NHAP Number of sortie events...0 No \\Y s Terminate. Logical’ Follower’ Yes Yes No Wrice Error d Of 10 15 or Clause Be- C ause? ing ?roces s ad/ io Yes Processing es Yes Internal IF

  5. Removal of Radioactive Aerosols and Gases from Exhaust Air

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-07

    relatively small Yinvestment and operating costs. A disadvantage is the danger of explosion as the consequence of ozone formation. The processes of...Bakterien und Viron) aus Luft und ardereu Gasen Staub U (1963) 21 5] HASENCLEVER, D. Filter sur Luft- und Gasroinigung in ker-teohnisohen Anlagen Staub

  6. 77 FR 5291 - The Designation of Monir Chouka, also Known as Mounir Chouka, Also Known as Abu Adam, Also Known...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE The Designation of Monir Chouka, also Known as Mounir Chouka, Also Known as Abu Adam, Also Known as Abu Adam From Germany, also Known as Abu Adam aus Deutschland, as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of Executive Order...

  7. Report of Accomplishments under the Airport Improvement Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-30

    0) RUNLWAYMLhy>, FRIEDMAN MEMORIA :. ACCESLS WAY :fHppjV’EMO;:tr, * (COMMERCIAL, HAIILEY U.. 43t, 1% ISCELLAINiAUS SA!L: :v -YT;;:- FRIEDMAN MEMORIA ...f wr , A I- 7’A:. Nt,!, f "MY 6 %.*~ . . . . *, 4 %- M4 * TABLE AIRPORTS GRANT-IN-AID PR(Y 1 RAM PROJECTS PLACED UNDER GRANT AP~, Location andl

  8. 78 FR 60010 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... unable to read and/or speak the English language; (4) 49 CFR 391.21(a)--Using a driver who has not... Conductor and English language proficiency. L. If No, Which Element Failed: If FMCSA cannot verify one or... 1,709 violations in the Driver Fitness BASIC, 1,695 involve the English Language Proficiency...

  9. Incorporating Computer-Aided Software in the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Core Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnaizy, Raafat; Abdel-Jabbar, Nabil; Ibrahim, Taleb H.; Husseini, Ghaleb A.

    2014-01-01

    Introductions of computer-aided software and simulators are implemented during the sophomore-year of the chemical engineering (ChE) curriculum at the American University of Sharjah (AUS). Our faculty concurs that software integration within the curriculum is beneficial to our students, as evidenced by the positive feedback received from industry…

  10. Model Projects for Early Intervention in the Mental Health of Young People: Reorientation of Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Anne; Kosky, Robert; Martin, Graham; Dundas, Pauline; Davis, Cathy

    The Australian Early Intervention Network for Mental Health in Young People (AusEinet) was established to coordinate a national approach to early intervention for mental health in young people. The approach has three streams: (1) development and maintenance of a national early intervention network for mental health in young people; (2)…

  11. Rowing the Weaves of Community Participation: Good Practices in Early Childhood Development (ECD) Program in Rural Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdillah, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the rural community participation within the context of an integrated early childhood development program initiated by the government of Indonesia in partnership with UNICEF and AusAID in Central Lombok (2008-2010). Based on purposive interviews with relevant stakeholders, as well as an analysis of past documents, researchers'…

  12. Simulationsbasierte Multisensorsystemauslegung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denkena, B.; Möhring, H.-C.; Litwinski, K. M.

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt einen Aspekt der Entwicklung vernetzter Sensorsysteme: Die Multisensorsystemauslegung auf der Basis von FE-Simulationen. Es wird ein Konzept beschrieben, welches optimale Sensorkonfigurationen bestehend aus Sensoren verschiedener Bauart zur Überwachung verschiedenartiger Größen bestimmt. Darge-stellt sind die Ergebnisse der Anwendung an einem Element eines Werk-stückspannbaukastens.

  13. 32 CFR 571.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enlisted member. (3) United States Army. The Regular Army, Army of the United States (AUS), Army National Guard of the United States (ARNGUS), and the United States Army Reserve (USAR). (4) Regular Army (RA...) Delayed Entry Program (DEP). A program in which Soldiers may enlist and are assigned to a United...

  14. 32 CFR 571.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... enlisted member. (3) United States Army. The Regular Army, Army of the United States (AUS), Army National Guard of the United States (ARNGUS), and the United States Army Reserve (USAR). (4) Regular Army (RA...) Delayed Entry Program (DEP). A program in which Soldiers may enlist and are assigned to a United...

  15. Exploring MATESOL Student "Resistance" to Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Cindy L.

    2010-01-01

    Many teacher training programs, including MATESOL programs, encourage their trainees to be reflective practitioners. The MATESOL program at The American University of Sharjah (AUS) is no exception and offers the students many opportunities for reflection. This article discusses my experience with a recent cohort's reaction to being asked to…

  16. Genetic structural analysis for germplasm accessions in the USDA Rice World Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is grouped into five genetic structures including indica, aus, aromatic, temperate japonica, and tropical japonica. A core collection having 1,785 accessions from 114 countries has been developed that is representative of the USDA rice world collection which includes over 18,000 accessions. The...

  17. Improving Electrical Engineering Education at the American University of Sharjah through Continuous Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nashash, Hasan; Khaliq, Abdul; Qaddoumi, Nasser; Al-Assaf, Yousef; Assaleh, Khaled; Dhaouadi, Rached; El-Tarhuni, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    The electrical engineering (ELE) program at the American University of Sharjah (AUS) is designed to fulfill the ABET criteria. Several assessment tools are used to qualitatively and quantitatively measure the level of achievement of the program's educational objectives and outcomes. These tools include alumni, employer, and graduate advisor…

  18. First results of GPS time transfer to Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luck, J. M.; Woodger, J. R.; Wells, J. E.; Churchill, P. N.; Clements, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    A Global Positioning System time transfer unit built by NBS under contract to JPL was installed at Tidbinbilla Deep Space Communications Complex of the NASA Deep Space Network in June 1983. It has been used to estimate the relationship to UTC(USNO MC) of the Tidbinbilla frequency and time system TID(FTS) based on a hydrogen maser, and thence to estimate the performance of the Australian free-running time scale UTC(AUS). Data from the first three months has been analyzed three ways: by two-hop common view using JPL as intermediary; by long-arc interpolation of measurements against space vehicle clocks; and by long-arc interpolation of GPS-Time results. Residuals from a single quadratic fit through three months of UTC(USNO MC) - TID (FTS) results were white noise with standard error 15 ns, and a flying clock measurement gave 70 ns agreement. A straight line fit through results UTC(USNO MC) - UTC (AUS) gave 90 ns standard error and 120 bns agreement. It is proposed to use the GPS measurements to steer UTS(AUS) to UTC(BIH), and to rename the existing time scale TA(AUS).

  19. First Results of GPS Time Transfer to Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mck.luck, J.; Woodger, J. R.; Wells, J. E.; Churchill, P. N.; Clements, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    A global positioning system (GPS) time transfer unit was installed at Tidbinbilla Deep Space Communications Complex of the DSN in June 1983. It was used to estimate the relationship to UTC(USNO MC) of the Tidbinbilla frequency and time system TID(FTS) based on a hydrogen maser, and to estimate the performance of the Australian free-running time scale UTC(AUS). Data from the first 3 months were analyzed three ways: by two-hop common view using JPL as intermediary; by long-arc interpolation of measurements against space vehicle clocks; and by long arc interpolation of GPS-Time results. Residuals from a single quadratic fit through 3 months of UTC(USNO MC) -TID(FTS) results were white noise with standard error 15 ns, and a flying clock measurement gave 70 ns agreement. A straight line fit through results UTC(USNO MC) - UTC(AUS) gave 90 ns standard error and 120 ns agreement. It is proposed to use the GPS measurements to steer UTC(AUS) to UTC(BIH), and to rename the existing time scale TA(AUS).

  20. Rice Root Architectural Plasticity Traits and Genetic Regions for Adaptability to Variable Cultivation and Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Nitika; Raman, K Anitha; Torres, Rolando O; Audebert, Alain; Dardou, Audrey; Kumar, Arvind; Henry, Amelia

    2016-08-01

    Future rice (Oryza sativa) crops will likely experience a range of growth conditions, and root architectural plasticity will be an important characteristic to confer adaptability across variable environments. In this study, the relationship between root architectural plasticity and adaptability (i.e. yield stability) was evaluated in two traditional × improved rice populations (Aus 276 × MTU1010 and Kali Aus × MTU1010). Forty contrasting genotypes were grown in direct-seeded upland and transplanted lowland conditions with drought and drought + rewatered stress treatments in lysimeter and field studies and a low-phosphorus stress treatment in a Rhizoscope study. Relationships among root architectural plasticity for root dry weight, root length density, and percentage lateral roots with yield stability were identified. Selected genotypes that showed high yield stability also showed a high degree of root plasticity in response to both drought and low phosphorus. The two populations varied in the soil depth effect on root architectural plasticity traits, none of which resulted in reduced grain yield. Root architectural plasticity traits were related to 13 (Aus 276 population) and 21 (Kali Aus population) genetic loci, which were contributed by both the traditional donor parents and MTU1010. Three genomic loci were identified as hot spots with multiple root architectural plasticity traits in both populations, and one locus for both root architectural plasticity and grain yield was detected. These results suggest an important role of root architectural plasticity across future rice crop conditions and provide a starting point for marker-assisted selection for plasticity.

  1. Investigating the Impacts of Global Education Curriculum on the Values and Attitudes of Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeNobile, John; Kleeman, Grant; Zarkos, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Each year, World Vision and AusAID devote substantial resources to their educational programs. These initiatives include the production and dissemination of Global Education related instructional materials and the provision of professional learning for teachers. Given the substantial funds involved, it is important that we evaluate the…

  2. Differences between Children and Adults in the Recognition of Enjoyment Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Colle, Livia

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences between 8-year-olds (n = 80) and adults (n = 80) in recognition of felt versus faked enjoyment smiles by using a newly developed picture set that is based on the Facial Action Coding System. The authors tested the effect of different facial action units (AUs) on judgments of smile authenticity. Multiple…

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool Aged Children. Clinical Approaches to Early Intervention in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazell, Philip

    The need for guidelines for early intervention of children experiencing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) was identified by the Australian Early Intervention Network (AusEinet). This document attempts to guide appropriate practice in the care of children and adolescents with ADHD. The guidelines are designed to provide information…

  4. Computerunterstütztes Modellieren mit Musiknetzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, Ulla

    In der folgenden Ausführung geht es um eine Anwendung von Petri-Netzen im Bereich Musik. Ausgehend von der Implementierung einer speziellen Anwendung, dem Programmsystem ScoreSynth, wird das zugrundeliegende Konzept erläutert und anschließend an einem kleinen Beispiel veranschaulicht. Dieser Beitrag ist ein Auszug aus [Lev95b].

  5. Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    der Wirtschafispolitik 2, 2001, S.185-210. * Haucap, Justus, Uwe Pauly & Christian Wey, Collective Wage Setting When Wages Are Generally Binding: An...in an Overlapping Generations Model, Nr. 8/1999. " Henning, Andreas & Wolfgang Greiner, Organknappheit im Transplantationswesen - L6sungs- ansditze aus

  6. The Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steels and Copper Alloys Exposed to Natural Seawater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    significant changes of the corrosion potential (Ecw) or surface properties. Rotating cylinder experiments indicated that both E., and corrosion rates for...and inorganic chloride corrosion layer that contained alloying elements; a biof ilm; and crystalline, spherical phosphate-rich deposits. All copper...nichtrostendem Stahl und bacteria and diatoms that did not cause significant changes of the Titan entstehenden dfinnen Biofilme bestanden aus

  7. Geographic description of genetic diversity and genetic relationships in the USDA Rice World Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is structured into five genetic groups, indica, AUS, tropical japonica, temperate japonica and aromatic. Genetic characterization of a global rice collection could help better serve the global research community. Collecting worldwide rice germplasm started in ...

  8. Genetic structure associated with diversity and geographic distribution in the USDA rice world collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is structured into five genetic groups, indica, AUS, tropical japonica, temperate japonica and aromatic. Genetic characterization of a global rice collection could help better serve the global research community. Collecting worldwide rice germplasm started in ...

  9. Directed Molecular Evolution Improves the Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus DNA Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    VEEV IA/B challenge. Our results indicate that it is pos- sible to improve the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of alphavirus DNA vaccines using... alphaviruses that ause periodic epizootics in the Americas [1]. These New World lphaviruses cause diseases in humans characterized by fever, eadache...equine encephalitis virus, VEE, alphavirus , DNA vaccine, envelope glycoproteins, directed molecular evolution, efficacy, immunogenicity, laboratory

  10. Physik gestern und heute: Visualisierung mit der Schlierenmethode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Der Name des österreichischen Forschers Ernst Mach ist heute noch mit der Schallgeschwindigkeit verbunden. Diese Auszeichnung resultiert aus Machs Untersuchungen, wie sich Projektile mit Überschallgeschwindigkeit durch die Luft bewegen. Gerade in jüngster Zeit hat die Anwendung derartiger Methoden durch technische Modifikationen wieder einen Aufschwung erfahren.

  11. [Family Health Nursing - a challenge for education and training? Results of an European project].

    PubMed

    Galatsch, Michael; Moser-Siegmeth, Verena; Blotenberg, Britta; Große Schlarmann, Jörg; Schnepp, Wilfried; Team des Internationalen Family Health Nursing Projektes

    2014-08-01

    Hintergrund: Seit der WHO-Studie «Family Health Nursing» (FHN) hat sich das FHN-Konzept in Europa unterschiedlich etabliert und entwickelt. Aus diesem Grund werden im internationalen Projekt «Family Health Nursing in European Communities» ein einheitliches Ausbildungskonzept für die Family Health Nurse entwickelt. Ziel: Ziel war es, die unterschiedlichen Voraussetzungen in den beteiligten Ländern darzustellen und aktuelle Problemfelder auf Länder- und EU-Ebene zu verdeutlichen. Methode: Hierzu wurden ein Review über grundlegende und länderspezifische Informationen, eine Delphi-Studie, eine Kompetenz- und Anforderungsanalyse und eine Übersicht über vorhandene Aus- und Weiterbildungskonzepte mit FHN-ExpertInnen aus den Projektländern durchgeführt. Ergebnisse: Die Ergebnisse des Reviews spiegeln auch im internationalen Kontext deutliche Unterschiede im Grad der Implementierung des FHN-Konzeptes wieder. Neben unterschiedlichen konzeptionellen Ausrichtungen haben sich mit der Zeit verschiedene Berufsbezeichnungen etabliert. Die Ergebnisse der Delphi-Studie ergaben, dass die Bezeichnung «Family Nurse» (46,3 %) bevorzugt wird, als Hauptaufgaben werden Gesundheitsförderung und Präventionsarbeit betrachtet (85,8 %). Aus diesem Grund sehen die befragten ExpertInnen den Bedarf einer spezialisierten Ausbildung auf Bachelorniveau (81,5 %). Schlussfolgerung: Das Projekt verdeutlicht das Streben der Länder nach einer hochwertigen familialen Versorgung, die durch ein einheitliches FHN-Konzept nachhaltig unterstützt werden könnte.

  12. Virtual-system-coupled adaptive umbrella sampling to compute free-energy landscape for flexible molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Higo, Junichi; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Mashimo, Tadaaki; Kasahara, Kota; Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2015-07-30

    A novel enhanced conformational sampling method, virtual-system-coupled adaptive umbrella sampling (V-AUS), was proposed to compute 300-K free-energy landscape for flexible molecular docking, where a virtual degrees of freedom was introduced to control the sampling. This degree of freedom interacts with the biomolecular system. V-AUS was applied to complex formation of two disordered amyloid-β (Aβ30-35 ) peptides in a periodic box filled by an explicit solvent. An interpeptide distance was defined as the reaction coordinate, along which sampling was enhanced. A uniform conformational distribution was obtained covering a wide interpeptide distance ranging from the bound to unbound states. The 300-K free-energy landscape was characterized by thermodynamically stable basins of antiparallel and parallel β-sheet complexes and some other complex forms. Helices were frequently observed, when the two peptides contacted loosely or fluctuated freely without interpeptide contacts. We observed that V-AUS converged to uniform distribution more effectively than conventional AUS sampling did.

  13. [Book review] Wetlands for the future: contributions from INTECOL's V International Wetlands Confernce, edited by A. J. McComb and J. A. Davis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H.

    2001-01-01

    Review of: Wetlands for the Future: Contributions from INTECOL’s V International Wetlands Conference. Edited by A.J. McComb and J.A. Davis. 780 pp., 1998. Gleneagles Publishing, PO Box 41, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Adelaide, Australia. ISBN: 1 87553 04 5. AUS $90.00.

  14. On Sources of the Word Length Effect in Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagl, Benjamin; Hawelka, Stefan; Wimmer, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how letter length, phoneme length, and consonant clusters contribute to the word length effect in 2nd- and 4th-grade children. They read words from three different conditions: In one condition, letter length increased but phoneme length did not due to multiletter graphemes (H"aus"-B"auch"-S"chach"). In…

  15. Phylogenetically Novel LuxI/LuxR-Type Quorum Sensing Systems Isolated Using a Metagenomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nasuno, Eri; Fujita, Masaki J.; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Kamagata, Yoichi; Hanada, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research has been done to understand bacterial cell-to-cell signaling systems, but there is still a large gap in our current knowledge because the majority of microorganisms in natural environments do not have cultivated representatives. Metagenomics is one approach to identify novel quorum sensing (QS) systems from uncultured bacteria in environmental samples. In this study, fosmid metagenomic libraries were constructed from a forest soil and an activated sludge from a coke plant, and the target genes were detected using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based Escherichia coli biosensor strain whose fluorescence was screened by spectrophotometry. DNA sequence analysis revealed two pairs of new LuxI family N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthases and LuxR family transcriptional regulators (clones N16 and N52, designated AubI/AubR and AusI/AusR, respectively). AubI and AusI each produced an identical AHL, N-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL), as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences suggested that AusI/AusR was from an uncultured member of the Betaproteobacteria and AubI/AubR was very deeply branched from previously described LuxI/LuxR homologues in isolates of the Proteobacteria. The phylogenetic position of AubI/AubR indicates that they represent a QS system not acquired recently from the Proteobacteria by horizontal gene transfer but share a more ancient ancestry. We demonstrated that metagenomic screening is useful to provide further insight into the phylogenetic diversity of bacterial QS systems by describing two new LuxI/LuxR-type QS systems from uncultured bacteria. PMID:22983963

  16. Population dynamics and tuberculosis: a cross sectional study of an overlooked disease in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Bishri, Jamal; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Adnan, Mubarki; Tariq, Malik; Abdullah, Harthi; Abdulgoni, Thubaiti; Bander, Guraibi; Altalhi, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Hintergrund: Internationale Reisen, Migration und Bevölkerungsbewegungen erleichtern die Ausbreitung der Tuberkulose (TBC).Ziel: Untersuchung des Einflusses von wenig untersuchten ausländischen Arbeitern auf die lokale Inzidenz der TBC in Saudi-Arabien.Patienten und Methoden: Diese Querschnittsstudie wurde im Chest Disease Hospital, Taif, Saudi-Arabien durchgeführt. Einbezogen wurden alle bestätigten Fälle von TBC, die im Zeitraum von Juni 2009 bis Mai 2010 in die Klinik eingewiesen wurden. Einschlusskriterien waren diagnostizierte Fälle von TBC (Lungen- und allgemeiner TBC) bei Patienten im Alter zwischen 14 und 65 Jahren. HIV-Patienten und Patienten mit koexistenten Krebserkrankungen wurden ausgeschlossen. Alter, Geschlecht und die ethnische Zugehörigkeit jedes Patienten wurden erfasst. Die Patienten wurden in zwei Gruppen aufgeteilt: Gruppe A bestand aus Einwohnern von Taif und Gruppe B aus Patienten, die aus anderen Regionen des Landes überwiesen wurden.Ergebnisse: Von den 686 untersuchten Fällen waren 370 (54%) saudische Staatsangehörige (Gruppe A = 80, Gruppe B = 290) und 316 (46%) der Patienten stammten aus anderen Ländern. Die Zahl der Männer übertraf die der Frauen und die meisten Patienten waren 20–29 Jahre alt. Die Zahl der Fälle aus den Gebieten in der Nähe der Pilgerstätten, d.h. Makah (233) und Dschidda (275), übertraf die in Taif (110).Schlussfolgerung: Diese Studie zeigt eine erhöhte Prävalenz der TBC-Fälle in Gebieten in der Nähe der Pilgerstätten (Gruppe B). Der höhere Anteil von TBC-Patienten nicht-saudischer Nationalität in Gruppe B ist am ehesten durch die größere Zahl von schlecht untersuchten illegalen Einwanderern in der Region zu erklären.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey 2013 assessment of undiscovered resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations of the U.S. Williston Basin Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2014-01-01

    The Upper Devonian Three Forks and Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Bakken Formations comprise a major United States continuous oil resource. Current exploitation of oil is from horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Member of the Bakken and upper Three Forks, with ongoing exploration of the lower Three Forks, and the Upper, Lower, and Pronghorn Members of the Bakken Formation. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated a mean of 3.65 billion bbl of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil resource within the Bakken Formation. The USGS recently reassessed the Bakken Formation, which included an assessment of the underlying Three Forks Formation. The Pronghorn Member of the Bakken Formation, where present, was included as part of the Three Forks assessment due to probable fluid communication between reservoirs. For the Bakken Formation, five continuous and one conventional assessment units (AUs) were defined. These AUs are modified from the 2008 AU boundaries to incorporate expanded geologic and production information. The Three Forks Formation was defined with one continuous and one conventional AU. Within the continuous AUs, optimal regions of hydrocarbon recovery, or “sweet spots,” were delineated and estimated ultimate recoveries were calculated for each continuous AU. Resulting undiscovered, technically recoverable resource estimates were 3.65 billion bbl for the five Bakken continuous oil AUs and 3.73 billion bbl for the Three Forks Continuous Oil AU, generating a total mean resource estimate of 7.38 billion bbl. The two conventional AUs are hypothetical and represent a negligible component of the total estimated resource (8 million barrels of oil).

  18. Evaluation of thyroid nodules classified as Bethesda category III on FNAC

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shiwani; Naik, Leena P; Kothari, Kanchan S; Fernandes, Gwendolyn C; Agnihotri, Mona A; Gokhale, Jagruti C

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Bethesda (BSRTC) category III has been ascribed a malignancy rate of 5–15%, however, the probability of malignancy remains variable. Aim: To evaluate category III with respect to its rate and risk of malignancy and substratify it. Settings and Design: Atypia of undetermined significance/Follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) percentage, cytohistological correlation, and risk of malignancy were analyzed and substratification was done. Material and Methods: Category III cases over a 2-year period were analyzed retrospectively. Statistical Analysis: Two-tailed Fisher exact test, with a level of significance set at 0.05, was performed for data analysis. Results: Of 1169 thyroid fine needle aspirations (FNAs), 76 (6.5%) were category III. A total of 48 patients had follow up; 24 patients underwent surgery, 12 repeat FNA, and 12 were clinically followed. Repeat FNA cytology was unsatisfactory in 8.3%, benign in 66.7%, AUS in 8.3%, and follicular neoplasm in 16.7%. Of the 24 operated, 8 (33.3%) were malignant (follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma), 5 (20.8%) were follicular adenomas, and 11 (45.8%) were non-neoplastic. Among all AUS/FLUS nodules with follow-up, malignancy was confirmed in 16.7% (8/48) whereas with nodules triaged to surgery only, the malignancy rate was 33.3% (8/24). Substratification into categories of “cannot exclude PTC” and “favor benign” helped detect malignancy better, as 85.7% cases in the first subcategory (P < 0.001) and none (P < 0.02) in the last proved malignant. Conclusion: Though the rate of Category III in our study is in accordance to BSRTC, the risk of malignancy in AUS/FLUS nodules is higher. Substratification of AUS/FLUS may help better patient management. PMID:28182068

  19. Systematics and phylogenetics of Indo-Pacific Luciolinae fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) and the description of new genera.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Lesly A; Lambkin, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    presented for the males and females. Certain females are characterised by the nature of their bursa plates. Australoluciola gen. nov. is proposed for ten species from Australia and New Guinea, seven transferred from Luciola and three new, with species keyed from males, all of which have an entire light organ in ventrite 7. Aus. anthracina (Olivier), Aus. aspera (Olivier), Aus. australis (F.), Aus. flavicollis (MacLeay), Aus. foveicollis (Olivier), Aus. nigra (Olivier) and Aus. orapallida (Ballantyne) are transferred from Luciola with males assigned to Aus. aspera(Olivier), and a lectotype designated for Luciola foveicollis Olivier; Aus. baduria sp. nov., Aus. fuscamagna sp. nov.,Aus. fuscaparva sp. nov., Aus. japenensis sp. nov. and Aus. pharusaurea sp. nov. are described. Females of Aus. australis and Aus. flavicollis have two pairs of wide bursa plates.  The bent-winged fireflies of New Guinea and Australia are removed from Pteroptyx Olivier and assigned to Medeopteryx gen. nov. and Trisinuata gen. nov. Medeopteryx gen. nov. is erected for 17 species including two new; all have ventrite 7 with an entire light organ, trisinuate posterior margin and short posterolateral projections; the following 14 species in which males have deflexed elytral apices are transferred from Pteroptyx Olivier: M. amilae (Satô), M. antennata (Olivier), M. corusca (Ballantyne), M. cribellata (Olivier), M. effulgens (Ballantyne), M. elucens (Ballantyne), M. flagrans (Ballantyne), M. fulminea (Ballantyne), M. hanedai (Ballantyne), M. platygaster (Lea), M. similisantennata(Ballantyne), M. sublustris (Ballantyne), M. tarsalis (Olivier), and M. torricelliensis (Ballantyne). M. clipeata sp. nov. is described. Two species without deflexed elytral apices include M. pupilla (Olivier) which is transferred from Luciola, and M. similispupillae sp. nov. A Lectotype is designated for Luciola pupilla (Olivier). Females of M. corusca(Ballantyne), M. cribellata (Olivier), M. effulgens (Ballantyne), and M

  20. Regenerative Energieträger im Aufwind: Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Harald

    2006-05-01

    2005 kam 4,6 % des deutschen Primär-Energieverbrauchs aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen, bei der Stromproduktion lag ihr Anteil bei 10,2 %. Wesentliche Ursache ist der Boom bei der Windkraft, die vor allem durch Offshore-Windparks auf See weiter ausbaubar ist. Die Wasserkraft lieferte in Deutschland traditionell einen großen Beitrag zur Stromerzeugung, doch ihr Ausbaupotenzial ist gering. Die Photovoltaik, die solar- und die geothermische Stromerzeugung spielen derzeit noch eine kleine Rolle. Den deutschen Bedarf an Wärmeenergie deckten 2004 die erneuerbaren Energien zu 5,4 %, vor allem aus Biomasse. Die solarthermische Wärmeerzeugung hat sich gegenüber 2000 mehr als verdoppelt. Im Straßenverkehr spielen biogene Kraftstoffe mit 5,4 % noch eine untergeordnete Rolle. Bis 2050 könnte in Deutschland der Anteil regenerativer Energien am Primär-Energieverbrauch die Fünfzigprozentmarke überschreiten.

  1. Deep genetic divergence in giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827) across a wide distributional range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, M. V.; Heras, S.; Maltagliati, F.; Roldán, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The giant red shrimp, Aristaeomorpha foliacea, is a commercially important species in the Mediterranean Sea (MED), Mozambique Channel (MOZ), and north western Australia (AUS). 685 bp of the mitochondrial COI gene was sequenced in 317 individuals from six Mediterranean and two Indian Ocean localities. Genetic diversity estimates of Indian Ocean samples were higher than those of MED counterparts. AMOVA, phylogenetic tree, haplotype network and Bayesian assignment analyses detected three haplogroups, corresponding to MED, MOZ and AUS, separated by three and 38 mutational steps, respectively. Within MED shallow genetic divergence between populations was dependent on local oceanographical characteristics. Mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests provided a consistent indication of past population expansion in each region considered. Our results provide the first evidence of genetic structure in A. foliacea and suggest a scenario of allopatric speciation within the Indian Ocean that, however needs deeper examination.

  2. Gestaltung transparenter Geschäftsprozesse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Lars; Crespo, Isabel; Fleischmann, Jürgen

    Ein Geschäftsprozess beschreibt eine sich regelmäßig wiederholende Folge von Arbeitsschritten oder Tätigkeiten, um ein definiertes Ergebnis zu erzielen. Geschäftsprozesse besitzen daher immer ein definiertes Ziel, einen Auslöser und ein Ergebnis. In der Regel verlaufen Geschäftsprozesse abteilungs- und bereichsübergreifend. Zur Abbildung von Geschäftsprozessen sind daher Mitarbeiter aus verschiedenen Abteilungen/Bereichen einzubinden. Ein typisches Beispiel für einen Geschäftsprozess in produzierenden Unternehmen ist der Auftragsabwicklungsprozess. Der Kunde löst mit seinem Auftrag den Prozess aus, der als Ergebnis die Auslieferung eines Produktes zur Folge hat. Je nach Art des Geschäftsprozesses und Größe eines Unternehmens sind unterschiedlich viele Mitarbeiter an einem Prozess beteiligt.

  3. Osteognathostomata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultze, Hans-Peter

    Noch häufig, vor allem im englischen Sprachraum, wird für die fischartigen Wirbeltiere mit Knochenskelett, also die Actinopterygii und Sarcopterygii, der Begriff "Osteichthyes" (Knochenfische) verwendet. Da sich jedoch aus einem Subtaxon der Sarcopterygier die Tet rapoda entwickelten (S. 322), würde diese Gruppierung ein paraphyletisches Taxon darstellen. Hier wird daher dem Vorschlag W. Hennigs (1983) gefolgt und die Schwestergruppe der Chondrichthyes Osteognathostomata genannt: Sie enthält alle weiteren kiefertragenden Wirbeltiere mit Knochenskelett (Name!) (Abb. 201). Die Sarcopterygii umfassen demnach verschiedene fossile Gruppen, die rezenten Reliktgruppen der Dipnoi (Lungenfische) und Actinistia (Hohlstachler) sowie die Tetrapoda und ihre Stammgruppenvertreter. (Neuerdings wird in der Literatur aus denselben Gründen einer konsequent phylogenetischen Systematisierung wieder die Gruppierung Osteichthyes, aber unter Einschluss der Tetrapoda, verwendet!).

  4. Statistik in Naturwissenschaft und Technik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilrich, Peter-Theodor

    Mit dem Aufschwung von Naturwissenschaft und Technik zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts entstand die mathematische Statistik, angeregt aus der Geodäsie (wie die Methode der kleinsten Quadrate) und der Anthropologie (wie die statistische Analyse mehrdimensionaler Beobachtungen und ihrer stochastischen Abhängigkeiten). Im Gegensatz zu den Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, in denen Daten vorwiegend aus Beobachtungsstudien gewonnen werden, stehen in den Naturwissenschaften Experimente im Vordergrund. Daher gehört die statistische Versuchsplanung zu den insbesondere in Naturwissenschaft und Technik angewendeten statistischen Methoden, aber auch die Extremwertstatistik und Lebensdaueranalysen sowie die Methoden der räumlichen Statistik (insbesondere in der Umweltforschung). Im 20. Jahrhundert wurden Stichprobenpläne und Regelkarten (Kontrollkarten) zur Prozessregelung als Hilfsmittel der statistischen Qualitätssicherung entwickelt. Diese Methodenbündel, mit denen sich der Ausschuss Statistik in Naturwissenschaft und Technik immer wieder befasst, werden im Folgenden vorgestellt.

  5. Permanent magnetism, magnetic anisotropy, and hysteresis of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Crespo, P; Litrán, R; Rojas, T C; Multigner, M; de la Fuente, J M; Sánchez-López, J C; García, M A; Hernando, A; Penadés, S; Fernández, A

    2004-08-20

    We report on the experimental observation of magnetic hysteresis up to room temperature in thiol-capped Au nanoparticles with 1.4 nm size. The coercive field ranges from 860 Oe at 5 K to 250 Oe at 300 K. It is estimated that the Au atoms exhibit a magnetic moment of mu=0.036mu(B). However, Au nanoparticles with similar size but stabilized by means of a surfactant, i.e., weak interaction between protective molecules and Au surface atoms, are diamagnetic, as bulk Au samples are. The apparent ferromagnetism is consequently associated with 5d localized holes generated through Au-S bonds. These holes give rise to localized magnetic moments that are frozen in due to the combination of the high spin-orbit coupling (1.5 eV) of gold and the symmetry reduction associated with two types of bonding: Au-Au and Au-S.

  6. Unfälle mit Kleintransportern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschirschwitz, Christian

    Auf einer außerörtlichen Bundesstraße geriet ein mit vier Personen besetzter Pkw Toyota Corolla aus letztlich nicht vollständig geklärten Gründen ins Schleudern. Nachdem sich das Fahrzeug beträchtlich entgegen dem Uhrzeigersinn ausgedreht hatte, prallte ein entgegenkommender Kleintransporter VW T4 frontal an die rechte Flanke des Toyota. Der Transporter wurde gedreht, ausgehoben und durch einen Pkw Ford Escort unterfahren. Alle Fahrzeuge kamen in Kollisionsortnähe zum Endstand. Die vier Toyota-Insassen wurden getötet. Aus den anderen Fahrzeugen wurden sechs Personen überwiegend schwer verletzt. Unbeteiligte Zeugen waren nicht vorhanden.

  7. Joint Patch and Multi-label Learning for Facial Action Unit Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kaili; Chu, Wen-Sheng; De la Torre, Fernando; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Zhang, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    The face is one of the most powerful channel of nonverbal communication. The most commonly used taxonomy to describe facial behaviour is the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). FACS segments the visible effects of facial muscle activation into 30+ action units (AUs). AUs, which may occur alone and in thousands of combinations, can describe nearly all-possible facial expressions. Most existing methods for automatic AU detection treat the problem using one-vs-all classifiers and fail to exploit dependencies among AU and facial features. We introduce joint-patch and multi-label learning (JPML) to address these issues. JPML leverages group sparsity by selecting a sparse subset of facial patches while learning a multi-label classifier. In four of five comparisons on three diverse datasets, CK+, GFT, and BP4D, JPML produced the highest average F1 scores in comparison with state-of-the art. PMID:27382243

  8. Synthese von analogen Filtern auf einer rekonfigurierbaren Hardware-Architektur mittels eines Genetischen Algorithmus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendelenburg, S.; Becker, J.; Henrici, F.; Manoli, Y.

    2008-05-01

    Rekonfigurierbare Analog-Arrays (FPAAs) sind der Versuch, die Vorteile der aus der digitalen Welt bekannten FPGAs (Flexibilität, Entwurfsgeschwindigkeit) auch für analoge Anwendungen verfügbar zu machen. Aufgrund der Vielfalt der analogen Schaltungstechnik ist die Abbildung von vorgegebenen Schaltungskonzepten auf eine FPAA-Architektur nicht immer einfach lösbar. Diese Arbeit stellt einen neuen Ansatz für die Synthese von Filtern auf einer FPAA-Architektur für zeitkontinuierliche Analogfilter mittels eines Genetischen Algorithmus (GA) vor. Anhand eines Matlab-Modells des FPAA, das eine gute übereinstimmung mit Simulationen des FPAA auf Transistorebene aufweist, wurde gezeigt, dass eine große Vielzahl verschiedener Filterstrukturen auf dieser Architektur dargestellt werden kann. Daraufhin wurde ein Genetischer Algorithmus entwickelt, der es erlaubt, aus einer gegebenen Filterspezifikation Konfigurationsdatensätze zu synthetisieren, die den gewünschten Filter auf die FPAA-Architektur abbilden.

  9. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas, Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins Province, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Hanna, Laramie

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey?s (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins Province in Wyoming and northeastern Colorado. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined three TPSs and seven assessment units (AUs) within them; undiscovered resources for three of the seven AUs were quantitatively assessed.

  10. Gewebe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah-Derler, Brigitte; Wintermantel, Erich; Ha, Suk-Woo

    Als Gewebe wird ein durch spezifische Leistungen gekennzeichneter Verband gleichartig differenzierter Zellen bezeichnet. Gewebe entstehen aus jungen, noch nicht differenzierten Zellen, die sich ihrer künftigen Funktion entsprechend umwandeln. Gewebe aus differenzierten Zellen wird als Dauergewebe bezeichnet. Verschiedene Gewebe haben allerdings eine mehr oder weniger starke Potenz, sich neu aufzubauen. Beim Menschen unterscheidet man diesbezüglich zwischen labilem Gewebe, bei dem die Bildung und der Aufbau der Zellen rasch erfolgt, stabilem Gewebe, bei dem der Zellumsatz sehr langsam geschieht und permanentem Gewebe, bei dem absterbende Zellen nicht mehr ersetzt werden können (Tabelle 8.1). Es gibt vier Grundtypen von Geweben: Epithelgewebe, Binde- und Stützgewebe, Muskelgewebe und Nervengewebe. Im Körper treten in der Regel verschiedene Gewebe funktionell zusammen (z. B. Muskeln und Sehnen des Bindegewebes).

  11. Bitratenreduktion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Alexander

    Zur Bitratenreduktion eingesetzte Kodierungsverfahren haben die Aufgabe, die Datenmenge zur Übertragung oder Speicherung von digitalen Signalen mit möglichst geringem Qualitätsverlust zu verkleinern. Sie werden entweder aus ökonomischen Gründen wie der Kostenersparnis durch geringere erforderliche Übertragungskapazitäten, oder aus technischen Gründen wie einem in der Größe beschränkten Speicherplatz oder eingeschränkten Übertragungskapazitäten eingesetzt. Kodierungsverfahren finden Anwendung in den unterschiedlichsten Bereichen wie Filmtheatern, Rundfunk und Telekommunikation, auf Datenträgern wie der DVD, im Internet bei der Distribution, beim Live-Streaming, in Tauschbörsen sowie auf portablen Mediaplayern wie MiniDisc- und MP3-Playern.

  12. International Civil Aviation Organization Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection: Helicopter Noise Measurement Repeatability Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Individual Sit@ Averages 91 -T 901 664 LEFT SIDEUNE CENTER RIGHT SIDELIA 0 UK I + FRG1 I US 2-1 EPNL-TAKEOFF Ind~vdual Site Averages J J 58 90 64 LEF 0IEN ETR...SIDELINE 0 UIJK + FRG1 I C 2-1 x J 2 V AUS PNLTm -TAKEOFF Individual Site Averages 921 90 - m V4 V --- 4 E~ 1, j 88/ I- (L 866- 85 54 LEFT SIDELINE...73 - 72 71 70 , LEFT SIDEUNE CENTER RIGHT SIDEUNE 0 FRG1 + FRG2 O US 2-1 A US 2-2 x STNA V AUS IL ALm-APPROACH Individual Site Averages 85 - 84

  13. Musik einpacken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Andreas

    Wer schon einmal Nudeln selbst gemacht hat, der weiß: Frische Pasta kann ganz schön pappen. Das ist ein Problem für die Nudelindustrie, denn es ist nicht leicht, mit unregelmäßigen und klebrigen Nudel-Klumpen 500-Gramm-Beutel genau zu füllen. Einige Hersteller verwenden daher "Teilmengenwaagen". Die besitzen bis zu hundert kleineWaagschalen, die über ein Förderband mit jeweils ungefähr 50 Gramm Nudel-Klumpen befüllt werden. Dann kommt Mathematik ins Spiel: Ein Computer wählt die zehn Waagschalen aus, deren Inhalt zusammen die 500 Gramm genau erreicht, und leert sie in einen Beutel aus.

  14. Fische und Fischerzeugnisse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehlenschläger, Jörg

    Fische und Fischerzeugnisse lassen sich gemäß den "Leitsätzen für Fische, Krebs- und Weichtiere und Erzeugnisse daraus" des Deutschen Lebensmittelbuches einteilen. Tiefgefrorene Fische werden von den "Leitsätzen für tiefgefrorene Fische, Krebs- und Weichtiere und Erzeugnisse daraus" und Salate mit Fleisch von Fischen, Krebs- und/oder Weichtieren durch Abschnitt II.B. der "Leitsätze für Feinkostsalate" abgedeckt. Zu nennen sind: Frischfische, Getrocknete Fische, Räucherfische, Gesalzene Fische, Erzeugnisse aus gesalzenen Fischen, Anchosen, Marinaden, Bratfischwaren, Kochfischwaren, Fischerzeugnisse in Gelee, Pasteurisierte Fischerzeugnisse, Fischdauerkonserven, Erzeugnisse aus Surimi, Krebstiere und Krebstiererzeugnisse, Weichtiere und Weichtiererzeugnisse und tiefgekühlte Fischereierzeugnisse.

  15. [Implementation of medical specialists brigades in the areas of Universal Health coverage: the Peruvian Ministry of Health experience, 2009-2010].

    PubMed

    Barzola-Cordero, Violeta; Llamosas, Ena; Echegaray, Ciro; Cuzco, María; Peralta, Felipe

    2011-06-01

    Peru has a high degree of inequity reflected in the distribution of morbidity and mortality, consistent with the inaccessibility to health care and human resource gap, especially in remote areas of the capital. The Peruvian Ministry of Health, recognizing the right of all people to quality health care, initiated the Universal Health Insurance (AUS), and in this context, increased access to specialized care in pilot AUS areas by brigades of specialist doctors. This article offers an approach to this strategy presents the management and implementation processes, a quantitative analysis with indicators of output / efficiency, and provides a qualitative look from the perspective of the members of the brigades. Its main findings reflect the lack of effective and efficient management, translated in the absence of: production goals, work plans, working partnerships with local stakeholders, monitoring and effective supervision, recurrent shortages of human and technological resources, and high costs.

  16. Analyse unterschiedlicher Modellierungsvarianten des "Direct Power Injection" Verfahrens für die EMV Charakterisierung integrierter Schaltungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stürmer, U.; Ritzmann, S.; Jovic, O.; Wilkening, W.

    2009-05-01

    Dieser Beitrag analysiert zwei Ansätze zur Modellierung eines Teststandes zur Charakterisierung von integrierten Schaltungen mittels Direct Power Injection (DPI) auf einem Wafer. Die erste Variante ist zur Analyse bereits vorliegender integrierter Schaltungen nutzbar. Sie benötigt gemessene S-Parameterdaten, mit denen die an einem realen Messobjekt anliegenden Störspannungen frequenzabhängig bestimmt werden können. Die zweite Variante ist bereits anwendbar, bevor Silizium gefertigt worden ist. Sie modelliert einen Netzwerkanalysatorkanal der aus einer Signalquelle, einem Leistungsmesser und einem Verstärker mit nachgeschaltetem Richtkoppler und Entkoppelnetzwerken besteht. Zunächst werden die oben genannten verschiedenen Varianten der DPI-Streckenmodellierung dargestellt. Sie werden miteinander und anhand von Messdaten einer einfachen Teststruktur verglichen. Die Teststruktur besteht aus einem MOS-Transistor mit Arbeitswiderstand. Der Beitrag diskutiert Vor- und Nachteile der Varianten einschließlich Modellierungsaufwand und Simulationsgeschwindigkeit.

  17. Estimating the recreational-use value for hiking in Bellenden Ker National Park, Australia.

    PubMed

    Nillesen, Eleonora; Wesseler, Justus; Cook, Averil

    2005-08-01

    The recreational-use value of hiking in the Bellenden Ker National Park, Australia has been estimated using a zonal travel cost model. Multiple destination visitors have been accounted for by converting visitors' own ordinal ranking of the various sites visited to numerical weights, using an expected-value approach. The value of hiking and camping in this national park was found to be dollar AUS 250,825 per year, or dollar AUS 144,45 per visitor per year, which is similar to findings from other studies valuing recreational benefits. The management of the park can use these estimates when considering the introduction of a system of user pays fees. In addition, they might be important when decisions need to be made about the allocation of resources for maintenance or upgrade of tracks and facilities.

  18. Bewegungsapparat: Postcraniales Skelett und Muskulatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Martin S.

    Der Bewegungsapparat bestimmt die Form des Wirbeltierkörpers. So lässt sich z. B. aus der Gestalt eines Fisches auf seine bevorzugt e Schwimmweise schließen (S. 61). Bei den aquatisch en Schädeltieren dominiert die Fortbewegung mit axialem Antrieb; bei den meisten Tetrapoda findet sich eine Kombination aus axialem Antrieb und Bewegung durch Gliedmaßen. Selbst beim höchst spezialisierten Gang, der bipeden Bewegung des Menschen, sind Torsionsbewegungen des Rumpfes noch maßgeblich und bestimmen auch die Grundform des menschlichen Körpers (z. B. die Taille). Obwohl die verschiedenen Antriebsmechanismen eine funktionelle Einheit bilden, werden im Folgenden das Axialskelett sowie der Schulter- und Beckengürtel mit den zugehörigen Extremitäten getrennt besprochen.

  19. Radial Pulse Character Relationship to Systolic Blood Pressure and Trauma Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    RADIAL PULSE CHARACTER RELATIONSHIPS TO SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE AND TRAUMA OUTCOMES John McManus, MD, MCR, Andrey L. Yershov, MD, PhD, David Ludwig...pable pulse characteristics in the radial artery would es- timate systolic blood pressure (SBP) and predict outcome in trauma patients. Methods. Data...setting is problematic. The ability to obtain a blood pressure (BP) measurement in an aus- tere environment is often limited by time constraints

  20. West German NATO Policy: The Next Five Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    national pride and patriotism, leading the West German public opinion expert Elisabeth Noelle - Neumann to term them a "wounded nation.Ř The situation...only confirmed such trends. See Elisabeth Noelle - Neumann , "When the Feeling of Threat Dwindles: Defense Policy Faced with the Growing Problem of A...34Akzeptanzprobleme der NATO-Strategie," Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, b 8/89, February 17, 1989. Noelle - Neumann , Elisabeth and Renate Koecher, Die

  1. Slings in iatrogenic male incontinence: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Fabrizio; Schenone, M.; Giberti, C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The increasing number of prostatectomies entails an increasing number of patients suffering from iatrogenic incontinence despite improved surgical techniques. The severity of this problem often requires invasive treatments such as periurethral injection of bulking agents, artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation, and sub-urethral sling positioning. The artificial urethral sphincter has represented, until today, the gold standard but, in the recent years, sling systems have been investigated as minimally invasive alternative options. Today, three different sling procedures are commonly performed: bone-anchored, readjustable, and trans-obturator slings systems. The aim of this review is to critically report the current status of sling systems in the treatment of iatrogenic male incontinence. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched and all articles between 1974 and 2009 were evaluated. Results: With regard to bone-anchored, readjustable, and trans-obturator slings systems, cure rates ranged between 58.0% and 86.0%, 55.5% and 73.0%, and 40.0% and 63.0%, respectively, while major complication rates ranged between 0 and 14.5%, 10.0 and 22.2%, and 0 and 10.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Suburethral slings are the only alternative techniques which can be favorably compared with the AUS, showing more advantages with respect to AUS implantations which are mainly represented by a quick and less invasive approach, low morbidity, and low costs. In spite of the difficulty in identifying the most effective sling procedure, overall, sling systems can be recommended for patients with persistent mild or moderate incontinence. However, the indication can also be extended to patients with severe incontinence, after appropriate counseling, allowing AUS implantation in the event of sling failure. PMID:20877609

  2. Molecular Beam Optical Study of Gold Sulfide and Gold Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruohan; Yu, Yuanqin; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Gold-sulfur and gold-oxygen bonds are key components to numerous established and emerging technologies that have applications as far ranging as medical imaging, catalysis, electronics, and material science. A major theoretical challenge for describing this bonding is correctly accounting for the large relativistic and electron correlation effects. Such effects are best studied in diatomic, AuX, molecules. Recently, the observed AuS electronic state energy ordering was measured and compared to a simple molecular orbital diagram prediction. Here we more thoroughly investigate the nature of the electronic states of both AuS and AuO from the analysis of high-resolution (FWHM\\cong35MHz) optical Zeeman spectroscopy of the (0,0){B}2Σ--{X}2Π3/2 bands. The determined fine and hyperfine parameters for the {B}2Σ- state of AuO differ from those extracted from the analysis of a hot, Doppler-limited, spectrum. It is demonstrated that the nature of the {B}2Σ- states of AuO and AuS are radically different. The magnetic tuning of AuO and AuS indicates that the {B}2Σ- states are heavily contaminated. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.1265885. D. L. Kokkin, R. Zhang, T. C. Steimle, I. A. Wyse, B. W. Pearlman and T. D. Varberg, J. Phys. Chem. A., 119(48), 4412, 2015. L. C. O'Brien, B. A. Borchert, A. Farquhar, S. Shaji, J. J. O'Brien and R. W. Field, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 252(2), 136, 2008

  3. Physik gestern und heute Von der Metallstange zum Hochenergielaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Im Mai 1752 wurde in Marly bei Paris auf Anregung des amerikanischen Forschers und Politikers Benjamin Franklin erstmals die elektrische Natur des Blitzes nachgewiesen. Damals beschrieb Franklin auch eine technische Vorrichtung, die als Schutz von Gebäuden vor Blitzschlägen dienen sollte: den Blitzableiter. Diese aus heutiger Sicht scheinbar triviale Vorrichtung wurde aber keineswegs unmittelbar akzeptiert. Und bis heute ist die Forschung zum Schutz von Einrichtungen vor Blitzschlägen nicht abgeschlossen.

  4. Worldwide Report Epidemiology No. 336.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    MALAYSIA Tourists Bring Malaria From Indonesia (THE STAR, 6 Sep 83) 6 German Measles Hit University (John Pillai; NEW STRAITS TIMES, 9 Sep 83...Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Intensified (SURABAYA POST, 30 Aug 83) 34 MALAYSIA Newcastle Disease Strikes Sandakan (NEW STRAITS TIMES, 12 Sep 83...p 10 MALAYSIA [Text] PENANG, Mon. — An Aus- tralian tourist has died of malaria and many more tourists are believed to be bringing the disease

  5. Physikgeschichte Das Rätsel bleibt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2002-05-01

    Die jüngst erfolgte Veröffentlichung von Dokumenten aus dem Privatarchiv der Familie Bohr [1] über den geheimnisumwitterten Besuch von Werner Heisenberg in Kopenhagen im September 1941 hat in den deutschen Medien große Resonanz gefunden [2]. Tatsächlich verraten uns die jetzt veröffentlichten Dokumente sehr viel mehr über die Zeit ihres Entstehens als über den Besuch selbst.

  6. Changing the Enzyme Reaction Rate in Magnetic Nanosuspensions by a Non-Heating Magnetic Field**

    PubMed Central

    Klyachko, Natalia L.; Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Pothayee, Nikorn; Efremova, Maria V.; Gulin, Dmitry A.; Pothayee, Nipon; Kuznetsov, Artem A.; Majouga, Alexander G.; Riffle, Judy S.; Golovin, Yuri I.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    Desaktiviert und deformiert werden Enzyme, die auf magnetischen Nanopartikeln (MNPs) immobilisiert sind, beim Anlegen von magnetischen Feldern. Diese Veränderungen resultieren aus der erneuten Ausrichtung der MNPs im AC-Magnetfeld, die mit den MNP verknüpfte Polymerketten unter Belastung setzt. Für immobilisierte Enzymmoleküle auf einem MNP-Aggregat ergeben sich dadurch Deformationen und irreversible (oder lange anhaltende) Konformationsän-derungen. PMID:23081706

  7. Heat Illness: A Handbook for Medical Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-03

    should be done early. The oliguric patient with a casts, piggmenturia or red celis a i a urine [Na] greater thanl 30 1iieq/l (btefore diulletics) has a...Heat Illnesses 1. Miliaxia RubrgýJ~tiarja Profunda aind AnhidrotIc Heat Exhaustion Mliliaria rubra is a subacute pruritic, inflameid papuloveslc-ular...epidermis, which takes 7 to 10 days. Miiliaza that becomes generplized and prolonged (miltaria profunda ) can c~ause an uncomnmon but disab~ling dit

  8. 25 Jahre - Institut fuer Geodaesie, Teil 2: Forschungsarbeiten und Veroeffentlichungen (25 Years - Institute of Geodesy, Part 2: Research Areas and Publications)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Festpunktfeld Ruanda - 1992 - SIRGAS ( Sistema de refer6ncia geocdntrico para Amdrica del Sur) - 1995 - Festpunktfeld Per6 - 1996 Die DOENAV-Kampagne...Forschungsschwerpunkte Mit dem Sistema di Referdncia Geoc6ntrico para a Amd~rica do Sul (SIRGAS) wurde 1995 in einer Gerneinschaftsaktion aller... digitaler Form gespei- chert werden. Aus demn dabei anfallenden redundanten Datensatz erhalt man im Wege einer Ausgleichung den H6henunterschied

  9. Buffer or Highway: Cyclical Patterns of Security Development in East Central Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    i, Cultura I elat i-"nJs wth Euo’,:’e,<, 191>-1933, 19P4, 32-33. The ueiulsicnl ,Ir iliegality was pe’uliau t_0 Wilson, buJt Impr,3tan bec,3ause ,:,of...Of *western politica 1989- The Wiest. The fareign tnternalt Economic, political, 19:192And domestic- Political military, and social1992:.policy

  10. Future Options for Swedish Security Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Baltic part of this system, this thesis needs a model . A general model breaks down the complexity of the problem. The basis for the analysis is a...financial aim. The most apparent expression of the impulse to further integration is the European Monetary Union (EMU), which is set to have a...used the phrase "stability has been reinforced by the basic model for security policy: nonalignment and cooperation within NATO’s new structure" in

  11. Cyber Warfare: An Evolution in Warfare not Just War Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-05

    cyber warfare is greatly debated. While some argue that Just War Theory is irrelevant to cyber warfare , a careful analysis demonstrates that it is a...useful tool for considering the morality of cyber warfare . This paper examines the application of Just War Theory to cyber warfare and contends that...Just War Theory is a useful tool for considering the morality of cyber warfare .

  12. Persistence Differences between the Three Mile Island Residents and a Control Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Lazarus and his associates during the 1960’s demonstrated the important role of the appraisal process. One such study had subjects view a stressful film ...During ’ this film gruesome woodshop accidents were depicted -- such as a worker being killed by a wooden plank being driven through his body, or a...used. For one group the film was presented as staged; for another it was presented as an authentic depiction of events -- to increase safety awareness

  13. Leistungsverzeichnis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bölke, Klaus-Peter

    Grundvoraussetzung eines jeden Dienstleistungsauftrages ist eine Ausschreibung, die öffentlich oder auch beschränkt erfolgen kann. Hierfür sind vom Auftraggeber entsprechende Ausschreibungstexte herauszugeben. Diese Ausschreibungstexte müssen sich aus den Vorbemerkungen, die die allgemeinen Erläuterungen zum Leistungsumfang, den Leistungen des Auftraggebers, den Anforderungen zur personellen, gerätetechnischen und fachlichen Kompetenz eines Auftragnehmers sowie den Anforderungen zur Durchführung der zu leistenden Arbeit und den allgemeinen Vertragsbedingungen beinhalten,

  14. Experimental Validation of a Differential Variational Inequality-Based Approach for Handling Friction and Contact in Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    Friction and Contact in Vehicle/Granular-Terrain Interaction Daniel Melanza,b, Paramsothy Jayakumara, Dan Negrutb aU.S. Army Tank Automotive Research...Handling Friction and Contact in Vehicle 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel Melanz; Paramsothy...and non-homogeneity. There are multiple formulations of DEM, classified based on how the contact and impact are handled when two bodies collide. This

  15. Traits and QTLs for development of dry direct-seeded rainfed rice varieties

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Nitika; Torres, Rolando O.; Sta Cruz, Ma. Teresa; Maturan, Paul Cornelio; Jain, Rajinder; Kumar, Arvind; Henry, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    The development of rice varieties for dry direct-seeded conditions can be accelerated by selecting suitable traits. In the present investigation, traits hypothesized to be important for direct-seeded conditions in rainfed systems, including seedling emergence, early vegetative vigour, nutrient uptake, nodal root number, and root hair length and density, were characterized to study the genetic control of these traits and their relationship with grain yield under seedling- and reproductive-stage drought stress. Two BC2F4 mapping populations derived from crosses of Aus276, a drought-tolerant aus variety, with MTU1010 and IR64, high-yielding indica mega-varieties, were developed and studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that showed large and consistent effects. A total of 26 QTLs associated with 23 traits and 20 QTLs associated with 13 traits were mapped in the Aus276/3*IR64 and Aus276/3*MTU1010 populations, respectively. qGY6.1, qGY10.1, qGY1.1, and qEVV9.1 were found to be effective in both populations under a wide range of conditions. QTLs for several seedling-stage traits co-located with QTLs for grain yield, including early vegetative vigour and root hair length. On chromosome 5, several QTLs for nutrient uptake co-located with QTLs for root hair density and nematode gall rating. Six lines were selected from both populations based on grain yield and the presence of QTLs, and these lines typically showed improved seedling-stage traits (nodal root number, dry shoot weight, and root hair length and density). The co-located QTLs identified here can be used in research aimed at increasing the yield and adaptability of rainfed rice to direct-seeded conditions. PMID:25336682

  16. Microbiological characterization of imported and domestic boneless beef trim used for ground beef.

    PubMed

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Guerini, Michael N; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Arthur, Terrance M; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2007-02-01

    The United States imports lean boneless beef trim from Australia (AUS), New Zealand (NZL), and Uruguay (URY) to meet demand for ground beef production. The reported incidence of and etiological agents responsible for foodborne diseases differ between these countries and the United States. Our objective was to determine whether current U.S. microbiological profiling adequately addresses the potential differences between foreign and domestic beef trim. We compared the hygienic status of imported and domestic (USA) beef trim by enumeration of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. We also compared the prevalence of pathogens between imported and domestic samples by screening for the presence of Salmonella, Campylobacter spp., Listeria spp., and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). A total of 1,186 samples (487 USA, 220 AUS, 223 NZL, and 256 URY) of boneless beef trim were analyzed. Results of enumeration revealed significant differences between samples from all countries, with the lowest pathogen numbers in samples from AUS and the highest in samples from URY. Six Salmonella isolates (1 NZL, 1 URY, and 4 USA), 79 L. monocytogenes isolates (4 AUS, 5 NZL, 53 URY, and 17 USA), and 7 Campylobacter isolates (1 NZL, 1 URY, 5 USA) were found among the trim samples tested. Non-O157 STEC prevalence was 10% in NZL samples and about 30% in all of the other samples; 99 STEC strains were isolated. Serotyping of these isolates revealed that serotypes associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome were not different in prevalence between imported and domestic beef trim. Although it may be tempting to do so, these data cannot be used to compare the microbiological quality of beef trim between the countries examined. However, these results indicate that the current pathogen monitoring procedures in the United States are adequate for evaluation of imported beef trim.

  17. Zwergsatelliten und Sternriesen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baade, Dietrich; Kuschnig, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    Leuchtkräftige Sterne sind schwierig: Fär Fotometrie mit großen Teleskopen sind sie zu hell, und ihre geringe Zahl macht konventionelle Lösungen unwirtschaftlich, besonders im Weltraum, wo die äußerste Präzision gegeben wäre. Mit einer Mini-Armada von Nanosatelliten haben Ingenieure und Astronomen aus Kanada, Österreich und Polen nun die Lösung gefunden - auch schon für viele wissenschaftliche Fragen.

  18. Abgasgesetzgebung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Torsten; Kreh, Andreas; Hinner, Bernd

    Vorreiter im Bestreben, die von den Kraftfahrzeugen verursachten Schadstoffemissionen gesetzlich zu begrenzen, war der US-Bundesstaat Kalifornien. Anlass dazu war nicht zuletzt, dass in der Großstadt Los Angeles aufgrund der geografischen Lage die Abgase nicht vom Wind weggetragen wurden, sondern wie eine Dunstglocke über der Stadt liegen blieben. Die dadurch hervorgerufene Smogbildung wirkte sich negativ auf die Gesundheit der Bevölkerung aus und führte auch zu massiven Sichtbehinderungen.

  19. Abgas-Messtechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelka, Rainer; Driedger, Günter; Lehle, Walter

    Vorreiter im Bestreben, die von den Kraftfahrzeugen verursachten Schadstoffemissionen gesetzlich zu begrenzen, war der US-Bundesstaat Kalifornien. Anlass dazu war nicht zuletzt, dass in der Großstadt Los Angeles aufgrund der geografischen Lage die Abgase nicht vom Wind weggetragen wurden, sondern wie eine Dunstglocke über der Stadt liegen blieben. Die dadurch hervorgerufene Smogbildung wirkte sich negativ auf die Gesundheit der Bevölkerung aus und führte auch zu massiven Sichtbehinderungen.

  20. Determination of LCt50s in Anesthetized Rats Exposed to Aerosolized Nerve Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    kg ketamine. Following anesthesia, rats were intubated with a glass endotracheal tube (ET) and placed in a glove box. The ET was connected to a...using an aerosolization technique, directly into the intubated airway of anes- thetized rats using a small animal ventilator (Harvard Model 683...and the endotracheal tube. Agent off-gassing from the lung into the expira- tion air outflow was trapped in 10% NaOH (or char- coal) prior to the

  1. Wirkstoffe, Medikamente und Mathematische Bildverarbeitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Günter J.; Lorenz, Dirk A.; Maaß, Peter; Preckel, Hartwig; Trede, Dennis

    Die Entwicklung neuer Medikamente ist langwierig und teuer. Der erste Schritt ist hierbei die Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffkandidaten, die für die Behandlung bislang schwer therapierbarer Krankheiten geeignet sind. Hierfür stehen der Pharma- und Biotechnologieindustrie riesige Substanzbibliotheken zur Verfügung. In diesen Bibliotheken werden die unterschiedlichsten Substanzen gesammelt, die entweder synthetisch hergestellt oder aus Pilzen, Bakterienkulturen und anderen Lebewesen gewonnen werden können.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Superhard Materials of Crystalline Carbon Nitride

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    J 2 2 FEB 19% F49620-95-1-0384 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SUPERHARD MATERIALS OF CRYSTALLINE CARBON NITRIDE Final Technical Report...and Letters 3, 1597-1602 (1996). F49620-95-1-0384 4. Y. W. Chung, "Synthesis and properties of crystalline carbon nitride composite superhard ...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final Technical Report 1 Aus 97 to 31 Jul 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Preparation and Characterization of Superhard Materials

  3. Independent Research and Independent Exploratory Development Annual Report Fiscal Year 1975

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    period CMOS lest wafers revealis significant vanes- involving five separate CMOS wafer batches. tions between batches end even between waters A...usefulness of this method, experimental features such as wave- Semiconductor Surface length dependence, illumination from front orStates back, ambient light...AND CLEAVED EDG EDGE OF r~ DIAMETER POLISH4ED WArER (a) (b) Figure 1. (a) Scanned photovoltage response of the polished front face of a piece of

  4. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Monterey Formation, San Joaquin Basin Province, California, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Lillis, Paul G.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2015-10-06

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean volumes of 21 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 27 billion cubic feet of gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids in two assessment units (AUs) that may contain continuous oil resources. Mean volumes of oil for the individual assessment units are 14 MMBO in the Monterey Buttonwillow AU and 7 MMBO in the Monterey Maricopa AU.

  5. Changes in and Efficacies of Indications for Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Cytogenomic Abnormalities: 13 Years of Experience in a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jinlai; Matarese, Chelsea; Crivello, Julianna; Wilcox, Katherine; Wang, Dongmei; DiAdamo, Autumn; Xu, Fang; Li, Peining

    2015-01-01

    Background Because the future application of cell-free fetal DNA screening is expected to dramatically improve the diagnostic yield and reduce unnecessary invasive procedures, it is time to summarize the indications of invasive prenatal diagnosis. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the changes and efficacies of indications of invasive procedures for detecting cytogenomic abnormalities from 2000 to 2012. Material/Methods From our regional obstetric unit, 7818 invasive procedures were referred by indications of advance maternal age (AMA), abnormal ultrasound findings (aUS), abnormal maternal serum screening (aMSS), and family history (FH). Chromosome, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analyses were performed on chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniotic fluid (AF) specimens at the Yale Cytogenetics Laboratory. The abnormal findings from single or combined indications were compared to evaluate the diagnostic yield. Results The annual caseload declined by 57.2% but the diagnostic yield increased from 7.2% to 13.4%. Chromosomal and genomic abnormalities were detected in 752 cases (9.6%, 752/7818) and 12 cases (4%, 12/303), respectively. Significantly decreased AMA referrals and increased aUS and aMSS referrals were noted. The top 3 indications by diagnostic yield were AMA/aUS (51.4% for CVS, 24.2% for AF), aUS (34.7% for CVS, 14.5% for AF), and AMA/aMSS (17.8% for CVS, 9.9% for AF). Conclusions Over a period of 13 years, the indication of aMSS and aUS were increasing while AMA was decreasing for prenatal diagnosis of cytogenomic abnormalities, and there was a continuous trend of reduced invasive procedures. Prenatal evaluation using AMA/aUS was the most effective in detecting chromosomal abnormalities, but better indications for genomic abnormalities are needed. PMID:26143093

  6. Covariance and Uncertainty Realism in Space Surveillance and Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-27

    space weather into the future. 6. Algorithmic uncertainty or numerical uncertainty comes from numerical errors and numerical ap- proximations in a...Using the last 81-day average F10.7 vs. the central 81-day average • Using observed or adjusted space weather parameter values • Using undocumented...models assume that the correction is uniform in azimuth. Local weather , such as fronts and storms, along the line of sight can vary significantly

  7. Feature Extraction for Bearing Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) - A Survey (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    typically consists of core functions, such as, anomaly detection, fault diagnosis , prognosis, and decision-making. Sensors in the sensing module of a...used the three models for model-based bearing fault diagnosis , not explicitly feature extraction purpose. Recent direction for model-based feature...is another widely used frequency domain technique for bearing fault diagnosis . Envelope analysis consists of two steps: band-pass filtering and

  8. An Interactive System of Computer Generated Graphic Displays for Motivating Meaningful Learning of Matrix Operations and Concepts of Matrix Algebra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    autonomous discovery learning, where the learner identifies and selects the information to be learned(l:7). Figure I shows how the two continua form a...using computer generatcd graphics; and a fortuitous consequence of selecting matrix operations was that the operations form a family of concepts that...blinking prompts, and some animation. Although an extensive organon exists about the visual aspects of information display, this study relied solely on

  9. Rapid Diagnosis of Arbovirus and Arenavirus Infections by Immunofluorescence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    addition to Banzi virus in the blood of viremic mice, other viruses were tested with a view to correlate in an amplifying cell culture system the result of... Virus identification. Two viruses , F-41451 and Aus-CF 122, partially identified at the originating laboratories, were submitted to YARU for final...two ampules of the corresponding virus stocks and 6 x 0.5 ml of hyperimmune mouse serum were included In the shipment. The viruses and cells used and

  10. Aircraft Structural Fatigue. Proceedings of a Symposium held in Melbourne on 19-20 October, 1976.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-01

    Between Ferstat, Q. Perth and Darwin . CSiR Div. of Aero. Rep. SM!35, 1949 12. Hooke, F. H. Load Frequency Measurements on a Linc-n Aircraft. CSIR Div. of...Aeronautical Research Laboratories, Aus- tralia, 1967 28. Cartwright , D. I., and Methods of Determining Stress Intensity Factors. Rooke, D. P. RAE TR 73031...Stress Intensity Factors. Cartwright , D. J. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1976. 33. Chan, S. K., On the Finite Element Method in Linear

  11. Impact of Strategic Culture on U.S. Policies for East Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    call for creating a Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (ZOPFAN) at the 1971 Special Ministerial Meeting in Kuala Lumpur was finally agreed to as a...US Relations: Real or Otherwise?” in Asian Defence and Diplomacy Vol. 9, No. 2, ( Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia, Feb 2003), 37. 58 Ibid., 36. 59 Chandran...This reduced dependence on a great power’s military umbrella has increased the importance of trade, educational, technology, tourism , religious

  12. Autonomes Fahren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammel, Sören

    Die Fähigkeit, die Umgebung eines Fahrzeugs wahrzunehmen, das Fahrzeug dabei stabil auf der Straße zu halten und zugleich der aktuellen Verkehrssituation angemessene Fahrmanöver auszuführen, ist nach wie vor ein herausragendes Leistungsmerkmal menschlicher Fahrer. Aus Gründen des Fahrkomforts, der Effzienz und der Verkehrssicherheit arbeiten jedoch Forschungsgruppen weltweit an autonomen technischen Systemen, welche diese Fähigkeiten nachbilden (siehe z. B. [1], [3], [6], [7], [2]).

  13. Provisional Reference Dose for the Aromatic Fraction of Jet Fuel: Insight into Complex Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group UF uncertainty factor UV ultraviolet light wt% weight percent vi PROVISIONAL REFERENCE DOSE FOR THE AROMATIC...week) included. RBC = red blood cell. UF = total uncertainty factor , including modifying factors when applied. aU.S. EPA (2004). bThis unpublished...approach applied uncertainty factors to NOAELs or LOAELs from the critical 11 studies. The TPHCWG primarily accepted default values of 10 for

  14. The active participation of German-speaking countries in conferences of the Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE) between 2005 and 2013: a reflection of the development of medical education research?

    PubMed

    Raes, Patricia; Bauer, Daniel; Schöppe, Franziska; Fischer, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Zielsetzung: International gewinnt medizinische Ausbildungsforschung an Bedeutung. Seit Anfang der 2000er ist auch in deutschsprachigen Ländern (D-A-CH) ein steigendes Interesse zu beobachten. In einer kontinuierlichen Steigerung der Publikationszahlen deutscher Autoren in internationalen Fachzeitschriften zum Thema „medizinische Ausbildung“ schlug sich das bisher jedoch nicht nieder. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht, ob sich jene Entwicklungen aus der aktiven Teilnahme deutschsprachiger Forscher an den Konferenzen der AMEE ablesen lassen.Methoden: Die Tagungsbände der AMEE-Kongresse von 2005-2013 der Kategorien „Postervorträge“, „Short Communications“, „Research Papers“ und „Plenarvorträge“ wurden auf Beteiligung aus D-A-CH hin untersucht. Im Anschluss wurden die Abstracts einer inhaltlichen Analyse unterzogen und nach Studiendesign, Methodik, Untersuchungsgegenstand und Forschungsthema kategorisiert. Ergebnisse: Von 9446 analysierten Abstracts weisen 549 Beiträge mindestens einen Erst-/Co- oder Letztautor aus D-A-CH auf. Die absolute Zahl der Beiträge pro Kongress schwankt zwischen 44 im Jahr 2010 und 77 im Jahr 2013. Der prozentuale Anteil schwankt zwischen 10,0% in 2005 und 4,1% im Jahr 2010. Seit 2010 stieg die Beteiligung jedoch kontinuierlich an. Die Arbeiten sind zumeist deskriptiver Art (62,7%). Studien zu grundlegenden Fragen des Lehrens und Lernens (clarification studies) sind eher selten (4,0%). Angewandt wurden meist quantitative Methoden (51,9%), um Fragestellungen zu Themen wie Lehr- und Lernmethoden (33,0%), Evaluation und Assessment (22,4%) oder Curriculumsentwicklung (14,4%) zu untersuchen. Untersuchungsgegenstand sind meist Studierende (52,5%).Schlussfolgerung: Die Beitragszahlen aus D-A-CH weisen zu Beginn und am Ende des Untersuchungszeitraums ein Maximum auf. Ein kontinuierlicher Anstieg der aktiven Beteiligung seit 2005 ist nicht zu beobachten. Dieser Umstand spiegelt nicht das steigende Interesse an der

  15. Introspective Multistrategy Learning: Constructing a Learning Strategy under Reasoning Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    yet have, of what he might have.  Jean Paul Sartre (1939) The effort to construct the theory and implementation presented in this document has been...WURFSCHEIBE, mit DISCUS, Vorgesichten besternt, starred with premonitions, wirf dich throw yourself aus dir hinaus. out of yourself.  Paul Celan (1970), p...1995). A CBR knowledge representation for practical ethics. In J.-P. Haton , M. Keane, & M. Manago (Eds.), Advances in case-based reasoning (pp. 181-197

  16. A Clostridium Group IV Species Dominates and Suppresses a Mixed Culture Fermentation by Tolerance to Medium Chain Fatty Acids Products

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Stephen J.; De Groof, Vicky; Khor, Way Cern; Roume, Hugo; Props, Ruben; Coma, Marta; Rabaey, Korneel

    2017-01-01

    A microbial community is engaged in a complex economy of cooperation and competition for carbon and energy. In engineered systems such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation, these relationships are exploited for conversion of a broad range of substrates into products, such as biogas, ethanol, and carboxylic acids. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), for example, hexanoic acid, are valuable, energy dense microbial fermentation products, however, MCFA tend to exhibit microbial toxicity to a broad range of microorganisms at low concentrations. Here, we operated continuous mixed population MCFA fermentations on biorefinery thin stillage to investigate the community response associated with the production and toxicity of MCFA. In this study, an uncultured species from the Clostridium group IV (related to Clostridium sp. BS-1) became enriched in two independent reactors that produced hexanoic acid (up to 8.1 g L−1), octanoic acid (up to 3.2 g L−1), and trace concentrations of decanoic acid. Decanoic acid is reported here for the first time as a possible product of a Clostridium group IV species. Other significant species in the community, Lactobacillus spp. and Acetobacterium sp., generate intermediates in MCFA production, and their collapse in relative abundance resulted in an overall production decrease. A strong correlation was present between the community composition and both the hexanoic acid concentration (p = 0.026) and total volatile fatty acid concentration (p = 0.003). MCFA suppressed species related to Clostridium sp. CPB-6 and Lactobacillus spp. to a greater extent than others. The proportion of the species related to Clostridium sp. BS-1 over Clostridium sp. CPB-6 had a strong correlation with the concentration of octanoic acid (p = 0.003). The dominance of this species and the increase in MCFA resulted in an overall toxic effect on the mixed community, most significantly on the Lactobacillus spp., which resulted in a decrease in total

  17. Revisiting the S-Au(111) interaction: Static or Dynamic?

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Friend, C M

    2004-08-17

    The chemical inertness typically observed for Au does not imply a general inability to form stable bonds with non-metals but is rather a consequence of high reaction barriers. The Au-S interaction is probably the most intensively studied interaction of Au surfaces with non-metals as, for example, it plays an important role in Au ore formation, and controls the structure and dynamics of thiol-based self-assembled-monolayers (SAMs). In recent years a quite complex picture of the interaction of sulfur with Au(111) surfaces emerged, and a variety of S-induced surface structures was reported under different conditions. The majority of these structures were interpreted in terms of a static Au surface, where the positions of the Au atoms remain essentially unperturbed. Here we demonstrate that the Au(111) surface exhibits a very dynamic character upon interaction with adsorbed sulfur: low sulfur coverages modify the surface stress of the Au surface leading to lateral expansion of the surface layer; large-scale surface restructuring and incorporation of Au atoms into a growing two-dimensional AuS phase were observed with increasing sulfur coverage. These results provide new insight into the Au-S surface chemistry, and reveal the dynamic character of the Au(111) surface.

  18. Chapter 48: Geology and petroleum potential of the Eurasia Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.E.; Pitman, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Eurasia Basin petroleum province comprises the younger, eastern half of the Arctic Ocean, including the Cenozoic Eurasia Basin and the outboard part of the continental margin of northern Europe. For the USGS petroleum assessment (CARA), it was divided into four assessment units (AUs): the Lena Prodelta AU, consisting of the deep-marine part of the Lena Delta; the Nansen Basin Margin AU, comprising the passive margin sequence of the Eurasian plate; and the Amundsen Basin and Nansen Basin AUs which encompass the abyssal plains north and south of the Gakkel Ridge spreading centre, respectively. The primary petroleum system thought to be present is sourced in c. 50-44 Ma (Early to Middle Eocene) condensed pelagic deposits that could be widespread in the province. Mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable petroleum resources include <1 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and about 1.4 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of nonassociated gas in Lena Prodelta AU, and <0.4 BBO and 3.4 TCF nonassociated gas in the Nansen Basin Margin AU. The Nansen Basin and Amundsen Basin AUs were not quantitatively assessed because they have less than 10% probability of containing at least one accumulation of 50 MMBOE (million barrels of oil equivalent). ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  19. Design und Analyse elektrisch kleiner Antennen für den Einsatz in UHF RFID Transpondern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschmann, R.; Camp, M.; Eul, H.

    2006-09-01

    RFID Systeme werden seit Anfang der neunziger Jahre mit stetig zunehmender Verbreitung im Bereich der automatischen Produktidentifikation, der Diebstahlsicherung (EAS, Electronic Article Surveillance) und für automatische Zutrittskontrollsysteme eingesetzt. Objekte werden hierzu mit einem Transponder ausgestattet, der aus einer Antenne und einem Chip auf einem Trägermaterial besteht. Von großem Interesse ist die Entwicklung und Optimierung von passiven Transpondern für den Einsatz in UHF RFID Systemen. Diese Transponder beziehen die Energie zum Betrieb des Chips aus dem elektromagnetischen Feld einer Schreib-Leseeinheit. Hierfür ist neben der Anpassung der Eingangsimpedanz der Antenne an die Chipimpedanz auch eine möglichst hohe Bandbreite der Antennen wünschenswert, um die Funktion des Transponders bei Schwankungen der Chipimpedanz und variablen Umgebungsparametern zu gewährleisten. Der aus Platzgründen notwendige Einsatz elektrisch kleiner Antennen bedingt eine möglichst optimale Ausnutzung der zur Verfügung stehenden Fläche auf dem Trägermaterial zur Aufnahme der Antenne. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt ein Verfahren zur Analyse und Synthese neuartiger Antennendesigns auf der Basis parametrisierter meandrierter, spiralförmiger und logarithmisch periodischer Dipole.

  20. Isomorphism and solid solutions among Ag- and Au-selenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palyanova, Galina A.; Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Kokh, Konstantin A.; Bakakin, Vladimir V.

    2016-09-01

    Au-Ag selenides were synthesized by heating stoichiometric mixtures of elementary substances of initial compositions Ag2-xAuxSe with a step of x=0.25 (0≤x≤2) to 1050 °C and annealing at 500 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and X-ray powder diffraction methods have been applied to study synthesized samples. Results of studies of synthesized products revealed the existence of three solid solutions with limited isomorphism Ag↔Au: naumannite Ag2Se - Ag1.94Au0.06Se, fischesserite Ag3AuSe2 - Ag3.2Au0.8Se2 and gold selenide AuSe - Au0.94Ag0.06Se. Solid solutions and AgAuSe phases were added to the phase diagram of Ag-Au-Se system. Crystal-chemical interpretation of Ag-Au isomorphism in selenides was made on the basis of structural features of fischesserite, naumannite, and AuSe.

  1. Evolutionary origins of the emergent ST796 clone of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Buultjens, Andrew H.; Lam, Margaret M.C.; Ballard, Susan; Monk, Ian R.; Mahony, Andrew A.; Grabsch, Elizabeth A.; Grayson, M. Lindsay; Pang, Stanley; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Robinson, J. Owen; Seemann, Torsten; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    From early 2012, a novel clone of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (assigned the multi locus sequence type ST796) was simultaneously isolated from geographically separate hospitals in south eastern Australia and New Zealand. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of Ef_aus0233, a representative ST796 E. faecium isolate. We used PacBio single molecule real-time sequencing to establish a high quality, fully assembled genome comprising a circular chromosome of 2,888,087 bp and five plasmids. Comparison of Ef_aus0233 to other E. faecium genomes shows Ef_aus0233 is a member of the epidemic hospital-adapted lineage and has evolved from an ST555-like ancestral progenitor by the accumulation or modification of five mosaic plasmids and five putative prophage, acquisition of two cryptic genomic islands, accrued chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and a 80 kb region of recombination, also gaining Tn1549 and Tn916, transposons conferring resistance to vancomycin and tetracycline respectively. The genomic dissection of this new clone presented here underscores the propensity of the hospital E. faecium lineage to change, presumably in response to the specific conditions of hospital and healthcare environments. PMID:28149688

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of population-based screening of hepatocellular carcinoma: Comparing ultrasonography with two-stage screening

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ming-Jeng; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chen, Chi-Ling; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Lin, Yu-Min; Liao, Chao-Sheng; Chang, Hung-Chuen; Lin, Yueh-Shih; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the cost-effectiveness of two population-based hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening programs, two-stage biomarker-ultrasound method and mass screening using abdominal ultrasonography (AUS). METHODS: In this study, we applied a Markov decision model with a societal perspective and a lifetime horizon for the general population-based cohorts in an area with high HCC incidence, such as Taiwan. The accuracy of biomarkers and ultrasonography was estimated from published meta-analyses. The costs of surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment were based on a combination of published literature, Medicare payments, and medical expenditure at the National Taiwan University Hospital. The main outcome measure was cost per life-year gained with a 3% annual discount rate. RESULTS: The results show that the mass screening using AUS was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of USD39825 per life-year gained, whereas two-stage screening was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of USD49733 per life-year gained, as compared with no screening. Screening programs with an initial screening age of 50 years old and biennial screening interval were the most cost-effective. These findings were sensitive to the costs of screening tools and the specificity of biomarker screening. CONCLUSION: Mass screening using AUS is more cost effective than two-stage biomarker-ultrasound screening. The most optimal strategy is an initial screening age at 50 years old with a 2-year inter-screening interval. PMID:27022228

  3. Extremophile microbiomes in acidic and hypersaline river sediments of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shipeng; Peiffer, Stefan; Lazar, Cassandre Sara; Oldham, Carolyn; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Näb, Olga; Lillicrap, Adam; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Küsel, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the microbial community compositions in two sediment samples from the acidic (pH ∼3) and hypersaline (>4.5% NaCl) surface waters, which are widespread in Western Australia. In West Dalyup River, large amounts of NaCl, Fe(II) and sulfate are brought by the groundwater into the surface run-off. The presence of K-jarosite and schwertmannite minerals in the river sediments suggested the occurrence of microbial Fe(II) oxidation because chemical oxidation is greatly reduced at low pH. 16S rRNA gene diversity analyses revealed that sequences affiliated with an uncultured archaeal lineage named Aplasma, which has the genomic potential for Fe(II) oxidation, were dominant in both sediment samples. The acidophilic heterotrophs Acidiphilium and Acidocella were identified as the dominant bacterial groups. Acidiphilium strain AusYE3-1 obtained from the river sediment tolerated up to 6% NaCl at pH 3 under oxic conditions and cells of strain AusYE3-1 reduced the effects of high salt content by forming filamentous structure clumping as aggregates. Neither growth nor Fe(III) reduction by strain AusYE3-1 was observed in anoxic salt-containing medium. The detection of Aplasma group as potential Fe(II) oxidizers and the inhibited Fe(III)-reducing capacity of Acidiphilium contributes to our understanding of the microbial ecology of acidic hypersaline environments.

  4. Incontinence after radical prostatectomy: Anything new in its management?

    PubMed Central

    Caremel, Romain; Corcos, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: With the increasing number of radical prostatectomies (RP) performed, male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has become common. The artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) is the gold standard to treat SUI post-RP, but new devices have recently been developed. We review the recent studies on the treatment of SUI post-RP; we also describe the surgical techniques, mechanisms of action and results of these new procedures. Methods: We conducted a literature review search in the PubMed/Medline and Embase databases. Our search was restricted to recent articles. We included studies even if the urinary incontinence was due to sphincter deficiency after RP in non-neurologic patients. Results: We found 8 cohort studies for the surgical procedure: 3 studies concerning slings, 1 involving balloons adjustable implant, and 4 involving new devices. The only randomized controlled trial (RCT) was a pharmacologic clinical trial comparing duloxetine to placebo. The social continence rates were analyzed for 6 studies and were up to 66%. Conclusion: New minimally invasive surgical procedures have emerged as the main alternative to AUS, with social continence rates up to 60% despite just 1 RCT studying the pharmacologic approach. There is an urgent need for well-designed clinical trials to clarify the role of new surgical alternatives in the management of SUI post-RP. New technologies should continue to be evaluated and compared with the AUS, which remains the gold standard. PMID:25024791

  5. Disparate SPF testing methodologies generate similar SPFs.

    PubMed

    Garzarella, Katherine; Caswell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory agencies throughout the world have developed exclusive methodologies for assessing and classifying sunscreen product efficacy in their respective markets. Three prevalent methods, the Food and Drug Administration-Final Monograph (FDA-FM) method, the Australia/New Zealand (Aus/NZ) method, and the COLIPA International (International) method, contain procedural and statistical dissimilarities with undefined significance. The objective of our clinical trials was to evaluate the influence of these disparities on sun protection factor (SPF) values. Our clinical trials evaluated the SPF of 59 test materials, using two or all three of the aforementioned methods in simultaneous trials, providing two or three SPF values for each formulation. A total of 135 trials were conducted. The consequent mean SPF values generated per trial were used to compare methods in a correlation and variance analysis. The correlation coefficients for each method pair, International vs. FDA-FM, Aus/NZ vs. FDA-FM, and International vs. Aus/NZ, were each ≥0.94. The difference in least square mean SPF for each method pair was 0.12, 0.62, and 0.81, respectively. Our juxtaposition of the mean SPFs produced by these methods clearly illustrate that any disparities between average SPF values produced by these methods are not clinically or statistically significant and that using one method should be sufficient for SPF labeling in all three respective markets.

  6. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.10 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Both conventional oil and gas resources and continuous (unconventional) gas resources are present in the UticaLower Paleozoic TPS. Conventional oil and gas resources in the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS were assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2002 in the following assessment units (AU): (1) the Lower Paleozoic Carbonates in Thrust Belt AU, (2) the Knox Unconformity AU, (3) the Black River-Trenton Hydrothermal Dolomite AU, and (4) the Lockport Dolomite AU. The total estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources for these four AUs, at a mean value, was about 46 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and about 3 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG), respectively. In contrast, continuous (unconventional) gas resources in the TPS were assessed by the USGS in 2002 in four AUs associated with the “Clinton” sandstone, Medina sandstone, Medina Group sandstones, Tuscarora Sandstone, and sandstones in the Queenston Shale. The total estimated undiscovered gas for these four AUs, at a mean value, was about 26.8 TCFG. A hypothetical Utica Shale AU for oil(?) and continuous gas is identified in this report. In 2012, the Utica Shale was recognized by the USGS as a continuous AU and was assessed by Kirschbaum and others (2012).

  7. A synthetic Earth Gravity Model Designed Specifically for Testing Regional Gravimetric Geoid Determination Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, I.; Kuhn, M.; Claessens, S. J.; Featherstone, W. E.; Holmes, S. A.; Vaníček, P.

    2006-04-01

    A synthetic [simulated] Earth gravity model (SEGM) of the geoid, gravity and topography has been constructed over Australia specifically for validating regional gravimetric geoid determination theories, techniques and computer software. This regional high-resolution (1-arc-min by 1-arc-min) Australian SEGM (AusSEGM) is a combined source and effect model. The long-wavelength effect part (up to and including spherical harmonic degree and order 360) is taken from an assumed errorless EGM96 global geopotential model. Using forward modelling via numerical Newtonian integration, the short-wavelength source part is computed from a high-resolution (3-arc-sec by 3-arc-sec) synthetic digital elevation model (SDEM), which is a fractal surface based on the GLOBE v1 DEM. All topographic masses are modelled with a constant mass-density of 2,670 kg/m3. Based on these input data, gravity values on the synthetic topography (on a grid and at arbitrarily distributed discrete points) and consistent geoidal heights at regular 1-arc-min geographical grid nodes have been computed. The precision of the synthetic gravity and geoid data (after a first iteration) is estimated to be better than 30 μ Gal and 3 mm, respectively, which reduces to 1 μ Gal and 1 mm after a second iteration. The second iteration accounts for the changes in the geoid due to the superposed synthetic topographic mass distribution. The first iteration of AusSEGM is compared with Australian gravity and GPS-levelling data to verify that it gives a realistic representation of the Earth’s gravity field. As a by-product of this comparison, AusSEGM gives further evidence of the north south-trending error in the Australian Height Datum. The freely available AusSEGM-derived gravity and SDEM data, included as Electronic Supplementary Material (ESM) with this paper, can be used to compute a geoid model that, if correct, will agree to in 3 mm with the AusSEGM geoidal heights, thus offering independent verification of theories

  8. Atomic structure of a peptide coated gold nanocluster identified using theoretical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Li, Xu; Gao, Liang; Zhai, Jiao; Liu, Ru; Gao, Xueyun; Wang, Dongqi; Zhao, Lina

    2016-06-02

    Peptide coated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) have a precise molecular formula and atomic structure, which are critical for their unique applications in targeting specific proteins either for protein analysis or drug design. To date, a study of the crystal structure of peptide coated AuNCs is absent primarily due to the difficulty of obtaining their crystalline phases in an experiment. Here we study a typical peptide coated AuNC (Au24Peptide8, Peptide = H2N-CCYKKKKQAGDV-COOH, Anal. Chem., 2015, 87, 2546) to figure out its atomic structure and electronic structure using a theoretical method for the first time. In this work, we identify the explicit configuration of the essential structure of Au24Peptide8, Au24(Cys-Cys)8, using density functional theory (DFT) computations and optical spectroscopic experiments, where Cys denotes cysteine without H bonded to S. As the first multidentate ligand binding AuNC, Au24(Cys-Cys)8 is characterized as a distorted Au13 core with Oh symmetry covered by two Au(Cys-Cys) and three Au3(Cys-Cys)2 staple motifs in its atomic structure. The most stable configuration of Au24(Cys-Cys)8 is confirmed by comparing its UV-vis absorption spectrum from time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) calculations with optical absorption measurements, and these results are consistent with each other. Furthermore, we carry out frontier molecular orbital (FMO) calculations to elucidate that the electronic structure of Au24(Cys-Cys)8 is different from that of Au24(SR)20 as they have a different Au/S ratio, where SR represents alkylthiolate. Importantly, the different ligand coatings, Cys-Cys and SR, in Au24(Cys-Cys)8 and Au24(SR)20 cause the different Au/S ratios in the coated Au24. The reason is that the Au/S ratio is crucial in determining the size of the Au core of the ligand protected AuNC, and the size of the Au core corresponds to a specific electronic structure. By the adjustment of ligand coatings from alkylthiolate to peptide, the Au/S ratio

  9. Do different medical curricula influence self-assessed clinical thinking of students?

    PubMed

    Gehlhar, Kirsten; Klimke-Jung, Kathrin; Stosch, Christoph; Fischer, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Das klinische Denken ist eine zentrale Grundlage des ärztlichen Handelns und sollte durch das Studium in den humanmedizinischen Studiengängen gefördert werden. Welche Lehr- und Lernformen hierzu vor allem beitragen, ist bis heute allerdings noch nicht abschließend gezeigt. Zur Messung der wissensunabhängigen Komponente des klinischen Denkens wurde das Diagnostic Thinking Inventory (DTI) entwickelt. Die vorliegende Pilotstudie untersucht, ob dieses Instrument dazu geeignet ist, Unterschiede im klinischen Denken von Studierenden in unterschiedlichen Ausbildungsabschnitten dreier medizinischer Curricula aufzuzeigen. Methodik: Das Diagnostic Thinking Inventory (DTI) umfasst 41 Items in zwei Subskalen („Flexibilität des Denkens“ und „Strukturierung des Wissens“). Jedes Item enthält eine Aussage oder Feststellung über das klinische Denken in Form eines Stammes und darunter jeweils eine 6-Punkt-Skala an deren beiden Enden gegensätzliche Aussagen stehen. Zwischen diesen beiden Extremen sollen die Probanden ihr eigenes klinisches Denken einordnen. Die deutsche Übersetzung des DTI wurde von 247 freiwilligen Studierenden aus drei Fakultäten und verschiedenen klinischen Semestern ausgefüllt. In einem quasi experimentellen Design waren 219 Teilnehmer aus Regel- und Modellstudiengängen in Nordrheinwestfalen beteiligt, genauer aus dem 5., 6. und 8. Semester des Modellstudiengangs der Universität Witten/Herdecke (UW/H), aus dem Modell- (7. und 9. Semester) und Regelstudiengang (7. Semester) der Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) und aus dem Modellstudiengang (9. Semester) der Universität zu Köln (UzK). Die gewonnenen Daten wurden quantitativ ausgewertet.Ergebnisse: Die Reliabilität des Gesamt-Fragebogens war gut (Cronbachs alpha zwischen 0,71 und 0,83); die Reliabilität der Subskalen lag zwischen 0,49 und 0,75. Die unterschiedlichen Gruppen wurden mittels Mann-Whitney Test miteinander verglichen. Dabei wurden signifikante Unterschiede sowohl

  10. Atomic structure of a peptide coated gold nanocluster identified using theoretical and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Xu; Gao, Liang; Zhai, Jiao; Liu, Ru; Gao, Xueyun; Wang, Dongqi; Zhao, Lina

    2016-06-01

    Peptide coated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) have a precise molecular formula and atomic structure, which are critical for their unique applications in targeting specific proteins either for protein analysis or drug design. To date, a study of the crystal structure of peptide coated AuNCs is absent primarily due to the difficulty of obtaining their crystalline phases in an experiment. Here we study a typical peptide coated AuNC (Au24Peptide8, Peptide = H2N-CCYKKKKQAGDV-COOH, Anal. Chem., 2015, 87, 2546) to figure out its atomic structure and electronic structure using a theoretical method for the first time. In this work, we identify the explicit configuration of the essential structure of Au24Peptide8, Au24(Cys-Cys)8, using density functional theory (DFT) computations and optical spectroscopic experiments, where Cys denotes cysteine without H bonded to S. As the first multidentate ligand binding AuNC, Au24(Cys-Cys)8 is characterized as a distorted Au13 core with Oh symmetry covered by two Au(Cys-Cys) and three Au3(Cys-Cys)2 staple motifs in its atomic structure. The most stable configuration of Au24(Cys-Cys)8 is confirmed by comparing its UV-vis absorption spectrum from time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) calculations with optical absorption measurements, and these results are consistent with each other. Furthermore, we carry out frontier molecular orbital (FMO) calculations to elucidate that the electronic structure of Au24(Cys-Cys)8 is different from that of Au24(SR)20 as they have a different Au/S ratio, where SR represents alkylthiolate. Importantly, the different ligand coatings, Cys-Cys and SR, in Au24(Cys-Cys)8 and Au24(SR)20 cause the different Au/S ratios in the coated Au24. The reason is that the Au/S ratio is crucial in determining the size of the Au core of the ligand protected AuNC, and the size of the Au core corresponds to a specific electronic structure. By the adjustment of ligand coatings from alkylthiolate to peptide, the Au/S ratio

  11. Aurone synthase is a catechol oxidase with hydroxylase activity and provides insights into the mechanism of plant polyphenol oxidases.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette

    2016-03-29

    Tyrosinases and catechol oxidases belong to the family of polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Tyrosinases catalyze theo-hydroxylation and oxidation of phenolic compounds, whereas catechol oxidases were so far defined to lack the hydroxylation activity and catalyze solely the oxidation of o-diphenolic compounds. Aurone synthase from Coreopsis grandiflora (AUS1) is a specialized plant PPO involved in the anabolic pathway of aurones. We present, to our knowledge, the first crystal structures of a latent plant PPO, its mature active and inactive form, caused by a sulfation of a copper binding histidine. Analysis of the latent proenzyme's interface between the shielding C-terminal domain and the main core provides insights into its activation mechanisms. As AUS1 did not accept common tyrosinase substrates (tyrosine and tyramine), the enzyme is classified as a catechol oxidase. However, AUS1 showed hydroxylase activity toward its natural substrate (isoliquiritigenin), revealing that the hydroxylase activity is not correlated with the acceptance of common tyrosinase substrates. Therefore, we propose that the hydroxylase reaction is a general functionality of PPOs. Molecular dynamics simulations of docked substrate-enzyme complexes were performed, and a key residue was identified that influences the plant PPO's acceptance or rejection of tyramine. Based on the evidenced hydroxylase activity and the interactions of specific residues with the substrates during the molecular dynamics simulations, a novel catalytic reaction mechanism for plant PPOs is proposed. The presented results strongly suggest that the physiological role of plant catechol oxidases were previously underestimated, as they might hydroxylate their--so far unknown--natural substrates in vivo.

  12. Impact of Reclassification on Thyroid Nodules with Architectural Atypia: From Non-Invasive Encapsulated Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas to Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Min Ji; Song, Dong Eun; Jung, Chan Kwon; Kim, Won Gu; Kwon, Hyemi; Lee, Yu-Mi; Sung, Tae-Yon; Yoon, Jong Ho; Chung, Ki-Wook; Hong, Suck Joon; Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2016-01-01

    Background The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC), especially the encapsulated non-invasive subtype, is a controversial entity. Recent study suggested using ‘non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)’ for these indolent carcinomas. We evaluated the impact of reclassification from non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (EFVPTCs) to NIFTPs in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia. Methods We reviewed 1301 thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens obtained from March 2012 to February 2013. Nodules were classified into atypia of undetermined significance with architectural atypia (AUS-A, 984, 76%) or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN, 317, 24%). Among them, diagnostic surgery was performed in 384 nodules (30%). Results In total, 160 nodules (42%) presented final malignant diagnoses including 39 non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (10%). The malignancy rate was estimated to be 7–35% in AUS-A nodules and 28–49% in FN/SFN nodules. After reclassification, the malignancy rate was much decreased and estimated to be 5–24% in AUS-A nodules, and 23–39% in FN/SFN nodules. Thyroid nodules with final malignant diagnoses were significantly more likely to have a FN/SFN CNB diagnosis, malignant US features and concomitant nuclear atypia in CNB specimens. However, these factors could not differentiate NIFTPs from other malignancies. Conclusions After reclassification of non-invasive EFVPTCs to NIFTPs, the malignancy rate of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in CNB specimens was decreased. However, there were no preoperative factors differentiating other malignancies from NIFTPs. The presence of malignant US features or concomitant nuclear atypia might help clinicians deciding diagnostic surgery but, these features also might indicate NIFTPs. PMID:27936121

  13. Linking mantle dynamics, plate tectonics and surface processes in the active plate boundary zones of eastern New Guinea (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, S.; Moucha, R.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Hoke, G. D.; Bermudez, M. A.; Webb, L. E.; Braun, J.; Rowley, D. B.; Insel, N.; Abers, G. A.; Wallace, L. M.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Eastern New Guinea lies within the rapidly obliquely converging Australian (AUS)- Pacific (PAC) plate boundary zone and is characterized by transient plate boundaries, rapidly rotating microplates and a globally significant geoid high. As the AUS plate moved northward in the Cenozoic, its leading edge has been a zone of subduction and arc accretion. The variety of tectonic settings in this region permits assessment of the complex interplay among mantle dynamics, plate tectonics, and surface processes. Importantly, the timescale of tectonic events (e.g., subduction, (U)HP exhumation, seafloor spreading) are within the valid bounds of mantle convection models. A record of changes in bathymetry and topography are preserved in high standing mountain belts, exhumed extensional gneiss domes and core complexes, uplifted coral terraces, and marine sedimentary basins. Global seismic tomography models indicate accumulation of subducted slabs beneath eastern New Guinea at the bottom of the upper mantle (i.e., <660km depth). Some of the deeply subducted material may indeed be buoyant subducted AUS continental margin (to depths of ~250-300 km), as well as subducted continental material that has reached the point of no return (i.e., > 250-300 km). Preliminary global-scale backward advected mantle convection models, driven by density inferred from joint seismic-geodynamic tomography models, exhibit large-scale flow associated with these subducted slab remnants and predict the timing and magnitude (up to 1500 m) of dynamic topography change (both subsidence and uplift) since the Oligocene. In this talk we will explore the effects of large-scale background mantle flow and plate tectonics on the evolution of topography and bathymetry in eastern New Guinea, and discuss possible mechanisms to explain basin subsidence and surface uplift in the region.

  14. Opportunities for Integrated Ecological Analysis across Inland Australia with Standardised Data from Ausplots Rangelands

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Greg R.; Sparrow, Ben; Tokmakoff, Andrew; Smyth, Anita; Leitch, Emrys; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Australian rangelands ecosystems cover 81% of the continent but are understudied and continental-scale research has been limited in part by a lack of precise data that are standardised between jurisdictions. We present a new dataset from AusPlots Rangelands that enables integrative rangelands analysis due to its geographic scope and standardised methodology. The method provides data on vegetation and soils, enabling comparison of a suite of metrics including fractional vegetation cover, basal area, and species richness, diversity, and composition. Cover estimates are robust and repeatable, allowing comparisons among environments and detection of modest change. The 442 field plots presented here span a rainfall gradient of 129–1437 mm Mean annual precipitation with varying seasonality. Vegetation measurements include vouchered vascular plant species, growth form, basal area, height, cover and substrate type from 1010 point intercepts as well as systematically recorded absences, which are useful for predictive modelling and validation of remote sensing applications. Leaf and soil samples are sampled for downstream chemical and genomic analysis. We overview the sampling of vegetation parameters and environments, applying the data to the question of how species abundance distributions (SADs) vary over climatic gradients, a key question for the influence of environmental change on ecosystem processes. We found linear relationships between SAD shape and rainfall within grassland and shrubland communities, indicating more uneven abundance in deserts and suggesting relative abundance may shift as a consequence of climate change, resulting in altered diversity and ecosystem function. The standardised data of AusPlots enables such analyses at large spatial scales, and the testing of predictions through time with longitudinal sampling. In future, the AusPlots field program will be directed towards improving coverage of space, under-represented environments, vegetation types

  15. Spontaneous gradual accumulation of hexagonally-aligned nano-silica on gold nanoparticles embedded in stabilized zirconia: a pathway from catalytic to NH3-sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plashnitsa, Vladimir V.; Elumalai, Perumal; Fujio, Yuki; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Miura, Norio

    2011-05-01

    The present study highlights the influence of nano-impurities on the catalytic/sensing performance of nano-structured Au sensing-electrodes (SEs) housed in a quartz reactor and operated at high temperature over a long period of time. The planar sensor, made from a nano-structured Au-SE on a polished-polycrystalline (pp) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate exhibited initially negligible electromotive force (emf) response to each of the examined gases (CO, CH4, C3H8, C3H6, NOx and NH3; 400 ppm each) at 700 °C in the presence of 5 vol.% oxygen and 5 vol.% water vapor. Such a poor emf response was attributed to the excellent gas-phase oxidation/reduction ability of Au nanoparticles embedded in the YSZ substrate at high temperature. The response of the planar sensor made up of nano-structured Au-SE was monitored for about 75 days at 700 °C. As a result of this long-term monitoring, we detected the appearance of highly sensitive and selective NH3 gas-sensing properties after 45-75 days of sensor operation. Detailed observation of the morphology and composition of the as-fabricated nano-structured Au-SE after 75 days operation at 700 °C revealed the gradual accumulation of hexagonally-aligned SiO2 nano-impurities on the surface of the Au nanoparticles. The NH3 sensing mechanism of the YSZ-based sensor using the spontaneously-formed composite (nano-Au + nano-SiO2)-SE is therefore proposed to be based on a strong acid-base interaction between gaseous NH3 and SiO2 nano-impurities, followed by spillover of adsorbed NH3 towards the nano-Au/pp-YSZ interface.

  16. Maternal folate and other vitamin supplementation during pregnancy and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Milne, Elizabeth; Royle, Jill A; Miller, Margaret; Bower, Carol; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Bailey, Helen D; van Bockxmeer, Frank; Attia, John; Scott, Rodney J; Norris, Murray D; Haber, Michelle; Thompson, Judith R; Fritschi, Lin; Marshall, Glenn M; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2010-06-01

    The Australian Study of Causes of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children (Aus-ALL) was designed to test the hypothesis, raised by a previous Western Australian study, that maternal folic acid supplementation during pregnancy might reduce the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Aus-ALL was a national, population-based, multicenter case-control study that prospectively recruited 416 cases and 1,361 controls between 2003 and 2007. Detailed information was collected about maternal use of folic acid and other vitamin supplements before and during the index pregnancy. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for matching factors and potential confounders. A meta-analysis with the results of previous studies of folic acid supplementation was also conducted. We found weak evidence of a protective effect of maternal folate supplementation before pregnancy against risk of childhood ALL, but no evidence for a protective effect of its use during pregnancy. A meta-analysis including this and 2 other studies, but not the study that raised the hypothesis, also found little evidence that folate supplementation during pregnancy protects against ALL: the summary odds ratios (ORs) for folate supplementation were 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-1.48] with reference to no folate supplementation and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.86-1.20) with reference to no vitamin supplementation. For vitamin supplementation in general, the summary OR from a meta-analysis of 5 studies-including Aus-ALL-was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73-0.94). Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy may protect against childhood ALL, but this effect is unlikely to be large or, if real, specifically due to folate.

  17. Dysphagia and swallowing-related quality of life in Friedreich ataxia.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Adam P; Brown, Sophie E; Folker, Joanne E; Corben, Louise A; Delatycki, Martin B

    2014-02-01

    Dysphagia in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and its impact on quality of life is not adequately understood. The objective of this study was to characterise dysphagia in FRDA and to determine the impact of swallowing dysfunction on activities, participation, and sense of well-being. Thirty-six individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of FRDA were assessed via a clinical bedside examination (CBE), the Royal Brisbane Hospital outcome measure for swallowing, an oral-motor examination and the Australian therapy outcome measures for speech and swallowing (AusTOMS). Data on swallowing function, diet modification and swallowing strategies were collated. Thirty-three (91.67 %) participants exhibited clinical signs of dysphagia according to the CBE, and all participants received ratings indicating swallowing difficulties on at least one other measure. Dysphagia in FRDA is characterised by oral and pharyngeal stage impairment relating to incoordination, weakness and spasticity. A significant positive correlation was found between the severity of impairment, activity, participation and distress/well-being on the AusTOMS, suggesting that swallowing function decreases with overall reductions in quality of life. A significant correlation was found between activity on the AusTOMS and disease duration (r = -0.283, p = 0.012). No significant correlations were found between dysphagia severity and GAA repeat length, age of onset or disease severity. Participants employing diet modification and swallowing strategies demonstrated higher dysphagia severity, activity limitations and participation restrictions. These data advocate a holistic approach to dysphagia management in FRDA. Early detection of swallowing impairment and consideration of the potential impact dysphagia has on quality of life should be key aspects in disease management.

  18. Diagnostic value of BRAFV600E-mutation analysis in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xingyun; Jiang, Xiaoxia; Xu, Xin; Wang, Weibin; Teng, Xiaodong; Shao, Anwen; Teng, Lisong

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a reliable method for preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules; however, about 10%–40% nodules are classified as indeterminate. The BRAFV600E mutation is the most promising marker for thyroid FNA. This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the diagnostic value of BRAFV600E analysis in thyroid FNA, especially the indeterminate cases. Systematic searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Ovid, Elsevier, and the Cochrane Library databases for relevant studies prior to June 2015, and a total of 88 studies were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. Compared with FNA cytology, the synergism of BRAFV600E testing increased the diagnostic sensitivity from 81.4% to 87.4% and decreased the false-negative rate from 8% to 5.2%. In the indeterminate group, the mutation rate of BRAFV600E was 23% and varied in different subcategories (43.2% in suspicious for malignant cells [SMC], 13.77% in atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance [AUS/FLUS], and 4.43% in follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm [FN/SFN]). The sensitivity of BRAFV600E analysis was higher in SMC than that in AUS/FLUS and FN/SFN cases (59.4% vs 40.1% vs 19.5% respectively), while specificity was opposite (86.1% vs 99.5% vs 99.7% respectively). The areas under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve also confirmed the diagnostic value of BRAFV600E testing in SMC and AUS/FLUS rather than FN/SFN cases. Therefore, BRAFV600E analysis can improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNA, especially indeterminate cases classified as SMC, and select malignancy to guide the extent of surgery. PMID:27175084

  19. Vom Urknall zum Durchknall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unzicker, Alexander

    Lautstarker Applaus erhob sich im Salon III/IV des Marriott-Hotels von Crystal City im amerikanischen Bundesstaat Virginia. In dem überfüllten Konferenzraum starrten alle wie gebannt auf die Leinwand, wo nicht mehr zu sehen war als ein nüchternes Diagramm aus zahlreichen Punkten und einer geschwungenen Kurve. Nureine eigenartige Personengruppe konnte sich davon zu Emotionen hinreißen lassen - Physiker auf der Jahrestagung der Astronomischen Gesellschaft, die ihren Begeisterungssturm noch minutenlang fortsetzten. Was war geschehen? Die im Diagramm aufgetragenen Daten bestätigten mit einer nie da gewesenen Genauigkeit ein fundamentales Naturgesetz zur Wärmeabstrahlung von heißen Körpern. 1900 von Max Planck entdeckt, leuchtete es nun in geradezu mathematischer Reinheit auf. Noch sensationeller war der Ursprung der Daten - Mikrowellensignale verschiedener Frequenzen, die nicht aus einem irdischen Labor stammten, sondern von einem heißen Urzustand des Universums! Ein Feuerball aus Wasserstoff und Helium, noch ohne jegliche Strukturen, die irgendwann Leben ermöglichen sollten, ließ damals seinem Licht freien Lauf. Mehr als zehn Milliarden Jahre war es bis zu den Detektoren des vom Menschen gebauten Satelliten COBE unterwegs, der wenige Tage zuvor die Daten übertragen hatte. Wenn ich das alles wie einen Film in meiner Vorstellung ablaufen lasse, bekomme ich immer eine Gänsehaut, als würde ich die inzwischen extrem abgekühlte Strahlung tatsächlich spüren. Ihre Gleichverteilung im Raum macht uns auch deutlich, dass wir uns nicht einbilden dürfen, an einem besonderen Ort im Universum zu leben - intelligente Aliens könnten sich seitdem überall entwickelt haben! Sollten sie - was nicht wahrscheinlich ist - uns wirklich von Zeit zu Zeit über die Schulter schauen, dann hätten sie an jenem Nachmittag des 13. Januar 1990, als der Vortrag stattfand, bestimmt anerkennend mit ihrem großen Kopf genickt.

  20. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  1. Importance and benefits of the doctoral thesis for medical graduates.

    PubMed

    Giesler, Marianne; Boeker, Martin; Fabry, Götz; Biller, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Die Mehrheit der medizinischen AbsolventInnen in Deutschland promoviert, obwohl der Titel nicht zur ärztlichen Berufsausübung notwendig ist. Zur Frage, welchen individuellen Nutzen die Doktorarbeit aus Sicht der Promovenden hat, ist bislang nur wenig bekannt. Sie ist daher Gegenstand dieser Untersuchung.Methode: Analysiert wurden Daten aus Absolventenstudien der Abschlussjahrgänge 2007/2008 (N=514) und 2010/2011 (N=598) der Medizinischen Fakultäten Baden-Württembergs.Ergebnisse: 53% der Befragten haben 1,5 Jahre nach Studienabschluss ihre Promotion abgeschlossen. Die stärkste Zustimmung zu Beweggründen, eine Doktorarbeit anzufertigen, erfahren die Motive „Promotion ist üblich“ (85%) und „Verbesserung der Berufschancen“ (75%). Dem Motiv, eine akademische Karriere anzustreben, stimmten 36% zu. Weniger als 10% der Befragten setzen ihre Promotionsarbeit als Strategie bei der Stellensuche ein. Der Anteil der AbsolventInnen, die in der Krankenversorgung arbeiten ist unter den Promovierten praktisch genauso groß wie unter den Nicht-Promovierten. Diejenigen, die für die Promotion stärker wissenschaftliche Motive angeben, sind auch aktuell stärker an einer akademischen Karriere interessiert und sehen für sich mehr Möglichkeiten wissenschaftlich zu arbeiten. Als impliziter Nutzen zeigte sich, dass die promovierten AbsolventInnen ihre wissenschaftlichen Kompetenzen signifikant höher einschätzen, als ihre nicht promovierten KollegInnen.Diskussion: Obwohl die meisten MedizinerInnen eine Promotion nicht in erster Linie aus originärem Forschungsinteresse anstreben, erweitern sie dadurch dennoch ihre wissenschaftlichen Kompetenzen. Einen offensichtlicheren Nutzen hat die Promotion für diejenigen, die eine wissenschaftliche Karriere anstreben.

  2. Thyroid Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology Results.

    PubMed

    Manning, Amy M; Yang, Huaitao; Falciglia, Mercedes; Mark, Jonathan R; Steward, David L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate changes in distribution of reported thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytopathology results since implementation of the Bethesda classification and revised 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for selecting nodules for biopsy. Study Design Retrospective review. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Evaluation of ultrasound (US)-guided thyroid FNA by a single surgeon using 2015 ATA nodule selection criteria and Bethesda reporting on 211 thyroid nodules in a 1-year period (2015). Comparison is made to an earlier sample wherein any nodule >1 cm underwent US FNA with cytology reported prior to Bethesda consensus (2006). Results The current cohort involved mostly women (79%); nodules ranged from 1 to 7 cm (mean ± SEM, 2.4 ± 0.07 cm). Mean ± SEM age was 53.5 ± 1.1 years. Bethesda reporting yielded 6% nondiagnostic, 57% benign, 3% malignant, and 34% indeterminate (27% atypia of undetermined significance [AUS]/follicular lesion of undetermined significance [FLUS], 4% follicular neoplasm [FN]/Hürthle neoplasm [HN], and 2% suspicious for malignancy [SFM]). The malignancy rate in indeterminate nodules was 26% (18% AUS/FLUS, 33% FN/HN, and 80% SFM). Age, sex, or nodule size did not correlate with indeterminate cytology. The comparator sample of 447 nodules had significantly different distribution, with 7% nondiagnostic, 80% benign, 5% malignant, and 8% indeterminate ( P < .00001). Conclusion We observed a significantly increased proportion of indeterminate cytology and corresponding decrease in benign nodules compared with an earlier sample, predominately from an increase in AUS/FLUS. Multiple factors are likely involved, including selection of sonographically suspicious nodules for biopsy based upon 2015 ATA guidelines coupled with cytopathological interpretation by a new generation of cytopathologists trained in the era of Bethesda reporting; further study is required to make a definitive conclusion.

  3. Increase in medical knowledge during the final year of undergraduate medical education in Germany.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Tobias; Vogel, Daniela; Schiekirka, Sarah; Keijsers, Carolina; Ten Cate, Olle; Harendza, Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Zielsetzung: In Deutschland besteht das letzte Jahr des Studiums der Humanmedizin ("Praktisches Jahr", PJ) aus drei Tertialen von je 16 Wochen, von denen eines in der Inneren Medizin und eines in der Chirurgie abzuleisten ist. Die Fachrichtung des dritten Tertials von 16 Wochen kann von den Studierenden frei gewählt werden. Während des Praktischen Jahres findet keine gezielte Vorbereitung auf den schriftlichen Teil des Staatsexamens statt. Es ist unklar, inwieweit die Studierenden während des Praktischen Jahres auch neue Wissensinhalte erlernen. Ziel dieser Studie war es, zu Beginn und am Ende des Praktischen Jahres Wissensinhalte zu überprüfen. Methodik: Zehn Absolventen des Medizinstudiums in Deutschland und den Niederlanden trafen eine Auswahl aus 300 vorselektierten Fragen der US-amerikanischen Abschlussprüfung (USMLE), die zehn verschiedenen Fachrichtungen zugeordnet waren. Die ausgewählten 150 Fragen wurden im Rahmen zweier Tests PJ-Studierenden aus Göttingen und Hamburg vorgelegt: einmal zu Beginn (n=77 Studierende) und einmal am Ende des Praktischen Jahres (n=79). Ergebnisse: Die interne Konsistenz der beiden Tests (Cronbach’s α) betrug 0,75 (Prätest) bzw. 0,68 (Posttest). Der Anteil richtig beantworteter Fragen betrug im Prätest 63,9±6,9 und im Posttest 69,4±5,7 (p<0,001; Effektstärke als Cohen’s d: 0,87). Individuelle Studierende schnitten bei denjenigen Fragen besonders gut ab, die sich auf Inhalte ihres Wahlfachs bezogen.Schlussfolgerung: Der in dieser Studie verwendete Wissenstest eignet sich als externes Instrument zur Messung des Wissenszuwachses von Studierenden im Praktischen Jahr. Zudem kann der Prätest genutzt werden, um Studierende bei der Planung ihres Lernverhaltens während des Praktischen Jahres zu unterstützen.

  4. Aurone synthase is a catechol oxidase with hydroxylase activity and provides insights into the mechanism of plant polyphenol oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinases and catechol oxidases belong to the family of polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Tyrosinases catalyze the o-hydroxylation and oxidation of phenolic compounds, whereas catechol oxidases were so far defined to lack the hydroxylation activity and catalyze solely the oxidation of o-diphenolic compounds. Aurone synthase from Coreopsis grandiflora (AUS1) is a specialized plant PPO involved in the anabolic pathway of aurones. We present, to our knowledge, the first crystal structures of a latent plant PPO, its mature active and inactive form, caused by a sulfation of a copper binding histidine. Analysis of the latent proenzyme’s interface between the shielding C-terminal domain and the main core provides insights into its activation mechanisms. As AUS1 did not accept common tyrosinase substrates (tyrosine and tyramine), the enzyme is classified as a catechol oxidase. However, AUS1 showed hydroxylase activity toward its natural substrate (isoliquiritigenin), revealing that the hydroxylase activity is not correlated with the acceptance of common tyrosinase substrates. Therefore, we propose that the hydroxylase reaction is a general functionality of PPOs. Molecular dynamics simulations of docked substrate–enzyme complexes were performed, and a key residue was identified that influences the plant PPO’s acceptance or rejection of tyramine. Based on the evidenced hydroxylase activity and the interactions of specific residues with the substrates during the molecular dynamics simulations, a novel catalytic reaction mechanism for plant PPOs is proposed. The presented results strongly suggest that the physiological role of plant catechol oxidases were previously underestimated, as they might hydroxylate their—so far unknown—natural substrates in vivo. PMID:26976571

  5. Internal spatiotemporal population dynamics of infection with three Wolbachia strains in the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Ijichi, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Natsuko; Matsumoto, Rena; Shimada, Masakazu; Ishikawa, Hajime; Fukatsu, Takema

    2002-08-01

    The adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis, is infected with three distinct lineages of endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Wolbachia, which were designated wBruCon, wBruOri, and wBruAus. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying the infection with these three organisms, the spatiotemporal infection dynamics of the three Wolbachia strains was investigated in detail by using a quantitative PCR technique. During the development of C. chinensis, the wBruCon, wBruOri, and wBruAus infection levels consistently increased but the growth patterns were different. The levels of infection plateaued at the pupal stage at approximately 3 x 10(8), 2 x 10(8), and 5 x 10(7) wsp copy equivalents per insect for wBruCon, wBruOri, and wBruAus, respectively. At the whole-insect level, the population densities of the three Wolbachia types did not show remarkable differences between adult males and females. At the tissue level, however, the total densities and relative levels of the three Wolbachia types varied significantly when different tissues and organs were compared and when the same tissues derived from males and females were compared. The histological data obtained by in situ hybridization and electron microscopy were concordant with the results of quantitative PCR analyses. Based on the histological data and the peculiar Wolbachia composition commonly found in nurse tissues and oocytes, we suggest that the Wolbachia strains are vertically transmitted to oocytes not directly, but by way of nurse tissue. On the basis of our results, we discuss interactions among the three coinfecting Wolbachia types, reproductive strategies of Wolbachia, and factors involved in the different cytoplasmic incompatibility phenotypes.

  6. Pocket ultrasound device as a complement to physical examination for ascites evaluation and guided paracentesis.

    PubMed

    Keil-Ríos, Daniel; Terrazas-Solís, Hiram; González-Garay, Alejandro; Sánchez-Ávila, Juan Francisco; García-Juárez, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    The pocket ultrasound device (PUD) is a new tool that may be of use in the early detection of ascites. Abdominal ultrasound-guided paracentesis has been reported to decrease the rate of complications due to the procedure, but must be performed in a healthcare setting; this new tool may be a useful on an ambulatory basis. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of the PUD in the diagnosis of ascites and the safety of guided paracentesis. We conducted a retrospective study that included adult patients suspected of having ascites and in whom an evaluation was performed with the PUD to identify it. Concordance with abdominal ultrasound (AUS) was determined with the Kappa coefficient. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and likelihood ratios (LR) were determined and compared with physical examination, AUS, computed tomography and procurement of fluid by paracentesis. Complications resulting from the guided paracentesis were analyzed. 89 participants were included and 40 underwent a paracentesis. The PUD for ascites detection had 95.8 % Se, 81.8 % Sp, 5.27 +LR and 0.05 -LR. It had a concordance with AUS of 0.781 (p < 0.001). Technical problems during the guided paracentesis were present in only two participants (5 %) and three patients (7.5 %) developed minor complications that required no further intervention. There were no severe complications or deaths. This study suggests that the PUD is a reliable tool for ascites detection as a complement to physical examination and appears to be a safe method to perform guided paracentesis.

  7. A modified form of conjugate gradient method for unconstrained optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, Nur Hamizah Abdul; Rivaie, Mohd.; Mamat, Mustafa

    2016-06-01

    Conjugate gradient (CG) methods have been recognized as an interesting technique to solve optimization problems, due to the numerical efficiency, simplicity and low memory requirements. In this paper, we propose a new CG method based on the study of Rivaie et al. [7] (Comparative study of conjugate gradient coefficient for unconstrained Optimization, Aus. J. Bas. Appl. Sci. 5(2011) 947-951). Then, we show that our method satisfies sufficient descent condition and converges globally with exact line search. Numerical results show that our proposed method is efficient for given standard test problems, compare to other existing CG methods.

  8. Reference Manual for the Ada Programming Language. Proposed Standard Document

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    be given in their pre.ence. Example of conflicting names in two packbges: procedure R is use TRAFFIC, WATERCOLORS ; -- subtypes used to resolve the...conflicting type name COLOR subtype TCOLOR is TRAFFIC.COLOR; subtype WCOLOR is WATERCOLORS.COLOR; SIGNAL T_COLOR; PAINT W COLOR; begin SIGNAL = GREEN...that of TF AFFIC PAINT = GREEN; - - that of W ,TERCOLORS end R; A Use C0auses 8.4 8-8 Ada Reference Manual Example of name identification with a use

  9. Recursive Optimization of Digital Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-14

    Circuit Implementation of f(x, y, z) = xyi ’ + zz ................... 3-6 3.2. Karnaugh Map for xy’z + xyz + cy’ = zy + zz .............. .... 3-7 3.3. A...use of non-deterministic search processes such as the use of genetic algorithms (47). Genetic algorithms are an adaptive search process that has...September, 1984). 47. Goldberg, D.E. Genetic Algorithms in Search and Machine Learning. Reading, MA: Addison-Welsey, 1989. 48. Gore, Rajeev P. and Kotagiri

  10. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  11. Expressed Reasons of Primiparous Military Dependents For and For Not Attending Classes for Expectant Parents in Relation to Certain Socio-Economic Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    that a greater proportion of primipar as, than those denoted by verbal reasons for ee•attdamince, might net have felt a soed for the material...claseseto’ art shows in Table IS. Tho major*,y or " per cook of Ike primipars Could - think of aa toe ’Malt Odomt jui0aUs *at thei ressaw fw atthadiag...esbibft. was suggested by IS per cost of the priuaipswsS. Ton per centad .1 s primipares =ad* suggestions related to the owanlAsMs sa" 34 gwasmb ad 60

  12. Optionsbewertung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenmakers, John

    Seitdem es auf dieser Welt Geld gibt, wird damit gerechnet. Mathematik und Geld sind von daher eng miteinander verknüpft. Dabei sind die Anforderungen an die Rechenkünste gestiegen: Das Einmaleins reicht längst nicht mehr aus, schon gar nicht, wenn es um die Bewertung von Portfolios und komplizierten Finanzkonstrukten (Derivaten) geht. Mathematiker helfen der Finanzindustrie und arbeiten eng mit Banken und Versicherungen zusammen. Sie entwickeln Modelle und Programme, mit denen sich mittels mathematischer Verfahren Risiken und Absicherungsstrategien kompliziert strukturierter Finanzprodukte besser einschätzen lassen.

  13. Computer-Supplemented Structural Drill Practice Versus Computer-Supplemented Semantic Drill Practice by Beginning College German Students: A Comparative Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Mittagessen (schmecken) im Restaurant. Now 82 B. Das Auto (bauen) ein Einfamilienhaus. Mein Vater (kosten) viel Geld . C. Peter (dauern) Anna die Kirche. Das...Firma VergntlgenHerbst Prtiffung Studentin Geld VerkehrHerr Sache S~1den Geschichte WaschmaschineKind Salz Wein Glas WeileMann Seife Zeit Min.te...95 I B. Das Auto (bauen) in aus% Man Vater (kosten) viol 1I. Sentence no. 1 :Dos Auto hat viol Geld aekostot. Sentence no. 2 :Mein Vater hat ein Haus

  14. Biomaterials Research in West Germany: An Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    nclId* Area Code) :2c : . S. % . Larry E. Sh ffer (44-1) 409-4340 11 DO FORM 1473, B vAR 83 APRd otior) may be used ,rt~ l e*aused SJCR TY CLASSI ICA...have been formed within universities, facilities, planning and coordination of . and Individuals are able to carry out research within and under the...network formed following general topic areas: wound in a wound appears to act as a scaffold healing and tissue repair, drug deli- for the healing of

  15. Fracture Characteristics of Structural Steels and Weldments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    constrctionTECHNICAL REPORT`M.170 engineringNovember 1975 research laboratory FRACTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURAL STEELS AND WELDMENTS by J...microscope structure steel steel weldments 2 0. AUS51RA.Y’ Ztiu is~~g e ".C f ,e owl mod Idwisf~yb 6405 ". b mbef This5 tepof I p)wnh~t tlie tiIodings...CLALUVICA1IOli Of UAE(.0’ LINCLASSTFI~n SECURITY CLASSIFICATION Of THIS PAQE(1h.M Data EntWOO4 The hydrogen-enibrittled, high-strength steels exhibited

  16. Neutron Scattering Collimation Wheel Instrument for Imaging Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Every, E.; Deyhim, A.

    2016-09-01

    The design of a state-of-the-art selector wheel instrument to support the area of neutron imaging research (neutron radiography/ tomography) is discussed. The selector wheel is installed on the DINGO Radiography instrument at the Bragg Institute HB2 beamline at ANSTO in Sidney Aus. The selector wheel consists of a single axis drum filled with a wax/steel shielding mixture and six square cutouts for neutron optics and a larger solid shielding sector to act as a shutter. This paper focuses on the details of design and shielding of the selector wheel.

  17. Validation of the Extend Suite of MOD09 and SMAC Processed Reflectance Products for Australian Terrestrial Supersites: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broomhall, M. A.; Chedzey, H. C.; McAtee, B.; Fearns, P.; Lynch, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Australian Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) brings together ecosystem scientists allowing them to collect, contribute, store, integrate data and collaborate across numerous disciplines. The TERN AusCover Facility comprises a national expert network that provides remote sensing data such as satellite-derive biophysical products, advanced remote sensing products and ground-validation information free and online to the research community. TERN and AusCover have collected in situ data for a number of 5 km x 5 km supersites from nearly every state and territory in Australia. These data include spectrophotometer data, sun photometer and ozonometer data, airborne and terrestrial LIDAR data and airborne hyperspectral data. As part of the AusCover facility and in conjunction with Landgate, Western Australia, Curtin University has modified the atmospheric correction and surface reflectance processing scheme from Landgate to process 12 extra MODIS bands to surface reflectance, thus providing 19 bands. This processing scheme uses the Simple Method for Atmospheric Correction (SMAC) to produce reflectance data. Until recently, only the first 7 MODIS bands were available with the MODIS institutional algorithm for surface reflectance, MOD09, but this has altered to now also provide 9 extra bands. MOD09 is based around 6S to produce reflectance data. This case study makes use of hyperspectral airborne data captured over the Credo TERN supersite to compare the surface reflectance products from MOD09 and the SMAC-based 19-band reflectance process. This work required validating the airborne data against a set in situ reflectance measurements of large calibration targets. The validated airborne data were resampled spatially and spectrally to MODIS bands and both the airborne and MODIS data were mapped to the same spatial grid. Direct pixel comparisons have been made between the airborne data and the two algorithms, and between the algorithms themselves. The algorithms

  18. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 16. Aviation Technician.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-31

    10 Orthopedics 11 Otolaryngology 12 Medical Laboratory 13 Pediatrics 14 Psychiatry 15 Public Health 16 Radiology 17 General Surgery-Wards vIV ENTER...7AD-AO85 692 TECHNONRCS INC OAKYON VA P/6 S/9 SYSTEM APPRiOACH TO NAVY MEDICAL . EDUCATION AND TRAINING. APPEN-4TC(U) AUS 74 N0001%-9-C-0246...TYPE oF REPORT a PERIOD COVERED A System Approach to Navy Medical / Education ahd Training FINAL REPORT 6. PERFORMING OR*. REPORT MUM8911R 17. AUTHOR

  19. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften¬Jahrgang 1990 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 90¬"Gott hat die Natur einfältig gemacht, sie aber suchen viel Künste"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Horst

    Der Aufsatz demonstriert anhand ausgiebig kommentierter zeitgenössischer Zeugnisse Goethes Reaktion auf die Arbeiten Fraunhofers, insbesondere auf die Entdeckung der dunklen Linien im Sonnenspektrum. Den Fehlurteilen Goethes werden dabei die Urteile zeitgenössischer Physiker wie Chladni und J.F.W. Herschel gegenübergestellt. Bislang noch ungedruckte Dokumente aus dem Weimarer Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv belegen, daß sich Goethe nicht nur literarisch mit Fraunhofer beschäftigte, sondern daß er auch dessen Versuche mit Hilfe des Jenaer Universitätsmechanikers Körner getreulich zu wiederholen suchte.

  20. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften> " Jahrgang 1990 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 90 " "Gott hat die Natur einfältig gemacht, sie aber suchen viel Künste"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Horst

    Der Aufsatz demonstriert anhand ausgiebig kommentierter zeitgenössischer Zeugnisse Goethes Reaktion auf die Arbeiten Fraunhofers, insbesondere auf die Entdeckung der dunklen Linien im Sonnenspektrum. Den Fehlurteilen Goethes werden dabei die Urteile zeitgenössischer Physiker wie Chladni und J.F.W. Herschel gegenübergestellt. Bislang noch ungedruckte Dokumente aus dem Weimarer Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv belegen, daß sich Goethe nicht nur literarisch mit Fraunhofer beschäftigte, sondern daß er auch dessen Versuche mit Hilfe des Jenaer Universitätsmechanikers Körner getreulich zu wiederholen suchte.

  1. The CSM testbed matrix processors internal logic and dataflow descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regelbrugge, Marc E.; Wright, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    This report constitutes the final report for subtask 1 of Task 5 of NASA Contract NAS1-18444, Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Research. This report contains a detailed description of the coded workings of selected CSM Testbed matrix processors (i.e., TOPO, K, INV, SSOL) and of the arithmetic utility processor AUS. These processors and the current sparse matrix data structures are studied and documented. Items examined include: details of the data structures, interdependence of data structures, data-blocking logic in the data structures, processor data flow and architecture, and processor algorithmic logic flow.

  2. Carl Friedrich Gauss - General Theory of Terrestrial Magnetism - a revised translation of the German text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassmeier, K.-H.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    2014-02-01

    This is a translation of the Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus published by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1839 in the Resultate aus den Beobachtungen des Magnetischen Vereins im Jahre 1838. The current translation is based on an earlier translation by Elizabeth Juliana Sabine published in 1841. This earlier translation has been revised, corrected, and extended. Numerous biographical comments on the scientists named in the original text have been added as well as further information on the observational material used by Carl Friedrich Gauss. An attempt is made to provide a readable text to a wider scientific community, a text laying the foundation of today's understanding of planetary magnetic fields.

  3. Doktor Johannes Häringshauser - Was seine Bücher über ihn erzählen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feola, Vittoria

    2009-06-01

    Die Bibliothek des Dr. Johannes Häringshauser (1603-1642) weist ihren Besitzer als Arzt und Gelehrten mit großem geistigen Horizont aus. Hervorzuheben ist sein Interesse für Astronomie und Astrologie. Neben Werken, die unmittelbar mit seinen Studien in Wien und Padua und den Erfordernissen eines Arztes in Zusammenhang zu bringen sind (Klassiker der Heilkunde genauso wie aktuelle medizinische Publikationen), wird in seiner Büchersammlung eine reiche Palette an Themen abgedeckt: Theologie, Philosophie, Philologie, Politik, Geschichte und Länderkunde.

  4. Integrated Feasibility Experiment for Bio-Security: IFE-Bio, A TIDES Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    al High High Ebola hemorrhagic feve r - Ugan da U nf ilte red O utbr eak C holer a D engue Fe ve r Eb ola I nfras tructure… N atu ral...W orkspa ce E bola D ra fts Re ports D isease R e: Ebola hemo rrha gi... Location U NK U NK Ebola Ebola Ebola Ebola...M ini stry ide ntif ies Eb ola virus as t he c ause of the outbreak. KA MP ALA : The dreade d Eb ola virus that struck over 300 peopl e i n

  5. PCR und Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, Regina; Busch, Ulrich

    Die vielfältigen Anwendungsmöglichkeiten der Polymerasekettenreaktion (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) machen sie zu einer der wichtigsten und am häufigsten eingesetzten Methoden in der molekularbiologischen Forschung und Diagnostik. Für diese Technologie wurde der Erfinder der Methode, Kary Mullis, 1993 mit dem Nobelpreis ausgezeichnet. Die PCR erlaubt einen hochsensitiven und spezifischen in-vitro-Nachweis von Desoxyribonukleinsäuren (DNA), da im Zuge der Reaktion Sequenzabschnitte gezielt vermehrt werden. Innerhalb weniger Stunden können aus einem einzigen Zielmolekül 1012 identische Moleküle entstehen [1].

  6. Minutes of the Conference on the International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue (10th) Held in Melbourne, Australia on May 1967

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-02-01

    blades of a jet engine have to be tested in fatigue The test is a comparing test, it doesn’t simulate the service conditions. It is done as a routine...transition between "a" and "c". These very different aspects of fracture point to that Miner-Palmgrens hypothesis doesn’t have any base in metallurgy. The test...Figure Blechwerkstoff: Al Mg Si 1 (W 3355.7) - sheet material: 6061-T6 N =8 x 105 - endurance N = 8 x 105 cycles PU 50% aus je 4, -I Versuchen

  7. Simulation of Critical Materials Resource Strategies. Volume 1. Introduction through Appendix C.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-13

    LT ?v-. 0 -ANAIL, NICKEL 26. 14 SOUTH AFR IU. FLULF’AR .AM, 24. 65 MEXICO FLL’,F:"R A:ID 22. 30 LU S NICKEL 17. :34 AUSTRAL I A NI CKEL 13. 6...AFRICA 15 THAILAND 16 MEXICO 17 GREECE 18 NETHERLANDS 19 FRG 2(0 YUGOSLAVIA 0 21 LJi,:,R 22 DOM. REPUB. 2.-: GUATAMALA 7" INDONESIA 25 UK * 26 KENYA 0...PRC LAND S. E. ASIA./AUS’T./NEW ZEALAND REPUBLIC OF [IOREA/ JAPON AIR S. E. ASIA/AUST/NEW ZEALAND N. E. AS:IA/0~:’-REA./JAPAN) SEA PERSEIAN ULF! INDIAN

  8. Air Weather Service Support to the United States Army Tet and the Decade After

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    Alpine Friendship 77...........................129-30 Tactical Weather System............................134 TSgt Henderson, M -561 Gama Goat, and M ...SWPT OWANEATION DEUM OF n*AWMT~N OF THE AltFR AUS " .weahe WIN Groupnnta U.S ryUUAy .. m .. m Army Cewad W Europe Pbife ed Cu6bon (CONARC) (USAREUR) I...Units In U.S. Ins 64u In Ane In "l Gummy Jopus Csrthbeon Frace Korea Italy Howell Army CoAma Ciurna a&= - -am m m m mAr Foroo Coammrd Chueie 00.00000

  9. National Dam Safety Program. Garnerville Dam (Inventory Number N.Y. 744), Hudson River Basin, Rockland County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    aUS 80 E O-BRIEN DAC51-79-C-0001 UNCLASSIFIED NL 2 flfflfllflfflfllflf I */fllflfIflIfIflf EEEEEEEEEEllllE E-EEEIIEEEEEE .-0. SECURITY CLASIFICATION ...which constitute an immediate hazard to ’ human life or property. DD PO" 147J3 EDfIlOH Of I OIOV 65 IS OtiSOLETIEAn~ SEC C m~S CTOF GHS E (Whoen Dot...of Engineers, Washington, D.C., 20314. The purpose of a Phase I Investigation is to identify expeditiously those dams which may pose hazards to human

  10. Werkzeugverschleißdetektion beim Fräsen mittels Infrarotmesstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittner, Walter

    Heute ist es praxisüblich, bei der spanenden Bearbeitung mittels definierter Schneide die Werkzeuge aus Gründen der Qualitätssicherung vorzeitig, im Allgemeinen nach Ermessen des Maschinenbedieners, zu wechseln. Dadurch entstehen zwangsläufig höhere Werkzeugkosten als notwendig, die dann an den Verbraucher weitergegeben werden. Wird jedoch ein rechtzeitiger Werkzeugwechsel verpasst, so entstehen insbesondere bei Hochleistungsbearbeitungsprozessen hohe Ausschussraten. Daher sollte die Entscheidung zum Werkzeugwechsel nicht mehr dem Maschinenbediener allein überlassen werden [1, 2].

  11. Zum Glück gibt es Garantie!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrmann, Volker

    Die numerische Lösung von Gleichungssystemen ist eine zentrale Aufgabe bei der Untersuchung fast jeden wissenschaftlichen Problems. Die Beschreibung physikalischer, chemischer oder biologischer Prozesse erfolgt im Wesentlichen immer durch Systeme von Gleichungen. Diese können aus Differentialgleichungen oder auch algebraischen Gleichungen bestehen. Lösungsverfahren dieser Systeme führen jedoch meist auf das Lösen von sehr großen linearen Gleichungssystemen. Daher ist es notwendig Methoden zu entwickeln um diese linearen Gleichungssysteme effizient zu lösen.

  12. Grundlagenuntersuchungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrenhoff, Hubertus

    Die Analyse und Optimierung der tribologischen Systeme hinsichtlich des Reibungs- und Verschleißverhaltens (Kap. 2) erfordert eine aussagekräftige Mess- und Prüftechnik. Die tribologische Prüftechnik kann nach [Czic82] in Prüfmethoden, -systeme und Analysemethoden eingeteilt werden. Die tribologische Prüftechnik kennzeichnet sich durch einen hohen technischen Stand aus, die unmittelbare Übertragbarkeit der Messergebnisse auf andere Prüfsysteme und auf reale Bauteile und Konstruktionen ist jedoch unsicher. Die Ergebnisse der Prüfungen sollten daher auf den untersuchten Verschleißfall bezogen werden.

  13. Kreuzungsassistenz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mages, Mark; Hopstock, Matthias; Klanner, Felix

    Eine der Hauptunfallursachen insbesondere im innerstädtischen Straßenverkehr ist das Fehlverhalten von Verkehrsteilnehmern im Bereich von Kreuzungen und Einmündungen. So ereigneten sich im Jahr 2006 etwa 43 % aller Unfälle mit schwerem Sachschaden, 36 % aller Unfälle mit Personenschaden und 18 % aller Unfälle mit Todesfolge bei den kreuzungsrelevanten Unfalltypen Abbiegen (Unfalltyp 2 gemäß [12]) bzw. Einbiegen/Kreuzen (Unfalltyp 3) [20]. Daher steht die Kreuzung derzeit aus verkehrs- und sicherheitstechnischer Sicht im Fokus der Forschung.

  14. Speech Generation from Semantic Nets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    Speech Generation from Semantic Nets Page 2 (inPUt and output) is monitored bY a "discourse module" ( Deutsch , 1975) to maintain an accurate...in the Phrase, HEURISTIC RULES Hornby describes three basic positions for adverbs in the c1ause1 "front" position, "mid" position, and "end...34 position, Front position adverbs occur before the subject: •YesterdaY he went home, from there he took a taxi," The interrogative adverbs (e,g, how, when

  15. A Preliminary Assessment of Observer Expectations in Target Detection Tasks,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    REPR Approved for Public elease 4 D98413 Commonwe9*h of Australia 84 O ~14 S I" DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE MATERIALS RESEARCH LABORATORIES REPOr MRL-R-893 A...used. Field data were gathered in an Australian Army exercise (Exercise "Flashing Sabre", held in W1 the Cobar region of New South Wales, April-May 1982...2 .18 3 .42 4 .22 .33 O 5 .30 .30 .25 6 .21 .21 .20 .32 .38 .21 .18 I N 7 .32 .45 .24 G 8 .25 .37 .28 9 .29 .37 .31 .43 .23 .48 10 .19 .23 .20 .25

  16. Report of the Hydrographic Service Royal Australian Navy for the Year Ended 30th June 1989. Issue Number 25

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-30

    role and reerted to t;.nv’al Sul vice duties. HMAS PALUMA and her sister ships MERMAID . SHEPPARTON and BENALA wrill replieuv Ihis apahil\\ during the...North, QLD; (Scale 1:25 000 / 1:50 000). HMAS PALUMA. November 1989 May 1990: HMAS MERMAID . March to May 1990. Surveys of the Inner Great Barrier Reef... Mermaid Strait, and also provides coverage of Nickol Bay for future development and surveys. Aus 334 Ledge Point to Cape Naturaliste (published 30-9-88

  17. The Deep Ocean Sound Channel in Areas Around Australia,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Series, Southern Pacific Ocean. Tasman and Coral Seas , Australia to Northern New Zealand and Fiji, Int. 602 (Aus 4602)", with small corrections. 29...3780 1.46 34.71 7.90 1520.0 TABLE 7 PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF A STATION IN THE TASMAN SEA , OFF TASMANIA, (JUNE 1975) Tasmanian Cruise Station D OP7507...0P7803 (Southern Indian Ocean), 0P7704 (Coral Sea ) and 0P7505 (Around Tasmania) have been used to determine the acoustical properties predicted for the

  18. Einsteins Spuren in den Archiven der Wissenschaft: Physikgeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Werner

    2005-07-01

    Die Erwähnungen und Zitierungen von Einsteins Arbeiten dokumentieren lediglich den quantifizierbaren Anteil von Einsteins Beitrag zur Physik. Gleichwohl belegen sie die außergewöhnliche Resonanz und Langzeitwirkung seiner Arbeiten. Die Häufigkeit der Zitierungen entspricht nicht der allgemeinen Einschätzung ihrer Bedeutung. Insbesondere die Pionierarbeiten werden inzwischen als bekannt vorausgesetzt und nicht mehr explizit zitiert. Interessanterweise ist seine nach 1945 meist zitierte Arbeit nicht eine der Pionierarbeiten zur Quantenphysik oder Relativitätstheorie, sondern jene aus dem Jahr 1935 zum berühmten Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradoxon.

  19. Level-Set-Segmentierung von Rattenhirn MRTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiben, Björn; Kunz, Dietmar; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Palm, Christoph

    In dieser Arbeit wird die Segmentierung von Gehirngewebe aus Kopfaufnahmen von Ratten mittels Level-Set-Methoden vorgeschlagen. Dazu wird ein zweidimensionaler, kontrastbasierter Ansatz zu einem dreidimensionalen, lokal an die Bildintensität adaptierten Segmentierer erweitert. Es wird gezeigt, dass mit diesem echten 3D-Ansatz die lokalen Bildstrukturen besser berücksichtigt werden können. Insbesondere Magnet-Resonanz-Tomographien (MRTs) mit globalen Helligkeitsgradienten, beispielsweise bedingt durch Oberfiächenspulen, können auf diese Weise zuverlässiger und ohne weitere Vorverarbeitungsschritte segmentiert werden. Die Leistungsfähigkeit des Algorithmus wird experimentell an Hand dreier Rattenhirn-MRTs demonstriert.

  20. Schichtübergreifende Früherkennung von Verbindungsausfällen in drahtlosen Mesh-Netzwerken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Timo

    Drahtlose Mesh-Netzwerke (WMNs) bilden aufgrund ihrer Selbstorganisation ein flexibles Kommunikationssystem. Bei der Erkennung einzelner Verbindungsausfälle, die bei der Integration mobiler Teilnehmer unvermeidbar sind, ist bei aktuellen Routingprotokollen die Kommunikation jedoch für mehrere Sekunden unterbrochen. In dieser Arbeit wird gezeigt, wie durch Nutzung von Informationen aus der MAC-Schicht ein Ausfall frühzeitig erkannt und dadurch die Anzahl der Paketverluste von mehreren Hundert auf maximal vier reduziert werden kann. Hierdurch wird die Zuverlässigkeit und Verfügbarkeit von WMNs erhöht und ihr Einsatz für Echtzeit-Anwendungen ermöglicht.

  1. Sandsturm kontra Wassersturm: Physik im Alltag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Sandstürme ereignen sich oft, Wasserstürme hingegen so gut wie nie. Eine Abschätzung zeigt, dass man beim Herauslösen eines Wassertropfens beispielsweise aus dem Meer eine sehr große Kraft benötigt und sehr viel Arbeit verrichten muss. Das scheint die Erklärung zu sein. Führt man eine entsprechende Energiebetrachtung durch, so könnte es durchaus Wasserstürme geben. Diese Überlegung ist zwar mathematisch richtig, aber unvollständig.

  2. Regulation of PKCdelta Apoptotic Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells by Tyrosine Phosphorylation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    T, Garcia- Bermejo ML, Bernabo JL, Caamano J, Ohba M , Kuroki T, Li L, Yuspa SH, Kazanietz MG. Involvement of protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta) in...ntibodies t o m ap phos phorylation sites. The f ollowing T yr s ite- specific ant ibodies w ere us ed: ant i-Tyr52, a nti-Tyr155 a nti-Tyr311 ( kind g ifts...fferent MOI, a nd f ound t hat at a n M OI of 3 pf u/cell, bot h A dVs c ause significant overexpression (Fig. 3). We infected LNCaP cells with AdVs

  3. Challenges to Autonomous Navigation in Complex Urban Terrain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-23

    a, Robert E. Karlsen a, Chip DiBerardino b, Edward Mottern b, & N. Joseph Kott, III a aU.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development & Engineering...Gray; Robert Karlsen; Chip DiBerardino; Edward Mottern; N. Joseph Kott, III 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...There are a variety of sensors that a UGV can use to provide information about its environment, including active systems such as RADAR, LIDAR and

  4. The type locality of Pan troglodytes vellerosus (Gray, 1862), and implications for the nomenclature of West African chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Oates, John F; Groves, Colin P; Jenkins, Paulina D

    2009-01-01

    We show that, in 1862, Richard Burton collected the type specimen of Pan troglodytes vellerosus not on Mount Cameroon, as has been generally assumed, but in Gabon. Therefore, P. t. vellerosus is not the correct name for the chimpanzee population of western Cameroon and southern Nigeria, if that population is taxonomically distinct. As First Reviser, we choose the name Pan troglodytes ellioti for this population of chimpanzees, based on Anthropopithecus ellioti named by Matschie [Matschie P (1914) Neue Affen aus Mittelafrika. Sitzungsber Ges Naturforsch Freunde Berlin 1914:323-342] from a specimen in the Humboldt Museum, Berlin, collected in Bascho (=Basho), Cameroon, and given to the museum in 1905.

  5. Normal incidence X-ray standing wave analysis of thin gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satterley, Christopher J.; Lovelock, Kevin R. J.; Thom, Ian; Dhanak, Vinod R.; Buck, Manfred; Jones, Robert G.

    2006-11-01

    Normal incidence X-ray standing wave (NIXSW) analysis has been successfully performed on epitaxial gold films on mica substrates using reflection from the (1 1 1) planes parallel to the surface. We show that NIXSW can be used to monitor the decrease in order within the gold film caused by annealing, and the position of sulfur within a monolayer of methyl thiolate (CH 3S-) on the surface. The Au-S layer spacing was found to be 2.54 ± 0.05 Å, in close agreement with previous work on a single crystal system.

  6. Difference Schemes for Equations of Schrodinger Type.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    the numerical solution of the equation aa = Aus , (1.1) with A w a + il and a_ 0, and its extension to higher dimensions: Alualu, (1.2) where A, at...definition allows the numerical solution to grow with the number of time steps taken. For equations the solutions of which are known to be nonincreasing in...Application, of the Spl’t.step Fourier method to the numerical solution of nonlinear and variable coefficient wave equation , SIAM Review, 15 (1973), pp. 423

  7. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.

    2006-01-01

    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  8. XAFS study on structural order in highly monodispersed thiol-stabilized Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Liu, W.; Yang, L.; Huang, T.; Jiang, Y.; Yao, T.; Wei, S.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the influence of thiol on nanoparticle size and structure is essential for the fundamental and applied researches. Here, using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, we investigate the structural order of Au nanoparticles (NPs) in the protection of thiol ligands with different contents. We found that besides protecting Au NPs against aggregation and growth, thiolates can effectively eliminate the dangling bonds of unsaturated Au atoms, and thus increase the structural order. This work enriches our knowledge of Au-S interface interaction and guides the way towards preparing size-controllable nanoparticles with specific physical/chemical properties.

  9. A Flight Dynamic Simulation Program in Air-Path Axes Using ACSL (Advanced Continuous Simulation Language).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    NO-A±?3 649 A FLIGHT DYNANIC SINULRTION PROGRAM IN AIR-PRTH AXES 11𔃼 USING ACSL (ADVANCED.. (U) AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABS MELBOURNE (AUSTRALIA) P W...Aeronajutical Restvarch Laboratrmes, ....,. i P.O. Box 4331,M lo re Vic:toria. 3001, Aus trali ."-" Melbourne.-a ’ 𔃾’ -- .-,, : _" • , (C) CMMONWALTH F...of time dependent results . e Tne DERIVATIVE section contains tne aitnd1- of the six degrees look- of freedom flight model. Tr imm inrg o f tnte a ir

  10. Internal Medicine in World War 2. Volume 1. Activities of Medical Consultants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-01-01

    Medical School, and Visiting Physician, ,Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Md. Formerly Colonel, MC, AUS. LLOYD .J. TnwOMSON, M.I). D)irector, Child ...has instead, a1 problin child on its hands. These individuals are especially hard to handle as ineml)ers of coin- bat units and, in desperation, unit...studi~ies were (’speciailly helpful inl Colniiterict ing tilie French porn t of view thlit 1)iiillary dysen tery was uincommo10n ill NorthI Africa

  11. Detection of interstellar pick-up hydrogen in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Geiss, J.; Balsiger, H.; Fisk, L. A.; Galvin, A. B.; Ipavich, F. M.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Von Steiger, R.; Wilken, B.

    1993-01-01

    Interstellar hydrogen ionized primarily by the solar wind has been detected by the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer instrument on the Ulysses spacecraft at a distance of 4.8 AUs from the sun. This 'pick-up' hydrogen is identified by its distinct velocity distribution function, which drops abruptly at twice the local solar wind speed. From the measured fluxes of pick-up protons and singly charged helium, the number densities of neutral hydrogen and helium in the distant regions of the solar system are estimated to be 0.077 +/- 0.015 and 0.013 +/- 0.003 per cu cm, respectively.

  12. ATLAS Mission Planner’s Guide for the ATLAS Launch Vehicle Family. Revision 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    can extend of the current Atla family, and enhanced capabili. geostWzinay saellite lifoimes. Supensyiwhrotous tics of todayrs liquid apoge engine (LAE...countdown repovwtwhrics- Al- FMwg erection of tic A~us and nnwwd~t~ of though paid operawins and slctedw wsLsiva re- ,,ovnd umbuteal ines subsyswm and stw...Omwd for modificatun of Space bu U family of laufnch whila Latrich Corop~x 3E (SLC-3E) at VAMl Wo tic Aila U )FACIULrYW AlINS H family.1. This seaia

  13. Whole-Body Vibration Assessment of the M9161A1 Truck Trailer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    nd safety exposure Limit 21 8AIaRL summary of analysis per ISO-2631* guideline on RUN-o0 Driver I whole-body vibration ( WBV ) I I 19-AUG-93 8:21:57 1...safety exposure Limit 23 usAaaL summary of analysis per ISO-2631* guideline on RUI-02 Driver I whole-body vibration ( WBV )I ** i~ii19-AUS-93 5:21 58 1... exposure timlt 32 USMIL summary of analysis per 0so-2631* guideline on !RU-07 Passenger whole-body vibration ( WBV ) 19-AUG-93 M::01UM 1: Vehicle

  14. Anbindung des SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystems an das zentrale Identitätsmanagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Ralf; Pretz, Edwin

    Wir berichten über Konzepte und Implementierungen zur Datenprovisionierung aus den Personenverwaltungssystemen der Technischen Universität München (TUM) über das zentrale Metadirectory am Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (LRZ) in das SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystem der Universitätsbibliothek der TUM (TUB). Es werden drei Implementierungsvarianten diskutiert, angefangen von der Generierung und Übertragung einfacher CSV-Dateien über ein OpenLDAP-basiertes Konzept als Backend für die SISIS-Datenbank bis zur endgültigen Implementierung mit dem OCLC IDM Connector.

  15. Microbial Life in an Underground Gas Storage Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombach, Petra; van Almsick, Tobias; Richnow, Hans H.; Zenner, Matthias; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    While underground gas storage is technically well established for decades, the presence and activity of microorganisms in underground gas reservoirs have still hardly been explored today. Microbial life in underground gas reservoirs is controlled by moderate to high temperatures, elevated pressures, the availability of essential inorganic nutrients, and the availability of appropriate chemical energy sources. Microbial activity may affect the geochemical conditions and the gas composition in an underground reservoir by selective removal of anorganic and organic components from the stored gas and the formation water as well as by generation of metabolic products. From an economic point of view, microbial activities can lead to a loss of stored gas accompanied by a pressure decline in the reservoir, damage of technical equipment by biocorrosion, clogging processes through precipitates and biomass accumulation, and reservoir souring due to a deterioration of the gas quality. We present here results from molecular and cultivation-based methods to characterize microbial communities inhabiting a porous rock gas storage reservoir located in Southern Germany. Four reservoir water samples were obtained from three different geological horizons characterized by an ambient reservoir temperature of about 45 °C and an ambient reservoir pressure of about 92 bar at the time of sampling. A complementary water sample was taken at a water production well completed in a respective horizon but located outside the gas storage reservoir. Microbial community analysis by Illumina Sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse microbial communities of high compositional heterogeneity. In three out of four samples originating from the reservoir, the majority of bacterial sequences affiliated with members of the genera Eubacterium, Acetobacterium and Sporobacterium within Clostridiales, known for their fermenting capabilities. In

  16. Intrinsic Electronic Transport through Alkanedithiol Self-Assembled Monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Takhee; Wang, Wenyong; Reed, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic transport through an alkanedithiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is investigated using a nanometer scale device. Temperature-independent current-voltage characteristics are observed, indicating tunneling is the main conduction mechanism. The measured current-voltage characteristics are analyzed with a metal-insulator-metal tunneling model. The inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) study on the octanedithiol device clearly shows the vibrational signatures of molecules. The pronounced IETS peaks correspond to vibrational modes perpendicular to the junction interface, which include the stretching modes of Au-S (at 33 mV) and C-C (at 133 mV), and wagging mode of CH2 (at 158 mV). Intrinsic linewidths are determined as 1.69 (upper limit), 3.73± 0.98, and 13.5± 2.4 meV for Au-S, C-C streching modes, and CH2 wagging mode, respectively. The observed peak intensities and peak widths are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  17. Physiographic and land cover attributes of the Puget Lowland and the active streamflow gaging network, Puget Sound Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher; Sevier, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Geospatial information for the active streamflow gaging network in the Puget Sound Basin was compiled to support regional monitoring of stormwater effects to small streams. The compilation includes drainage area boundaries and physiographic and land use attributes that affect hydrologic processes. Three types of boundaries were used to tabulate attributes: Puget Sound Watershed Characterization analysis units (AU); the drainage area of active streamflow gages; and the catchments of Regional Stream Monitoring Program (RSMP) sites. The active streamflow gaging network generally includes sites that represent the ranges of attributes for lowland AUs, although there are few sites with low elevations (less than 60 meters), low precipitation (less than 1 meter year), or high stream density (greater than 5 kilometers per square kilometers). The active streamflow gaging network can serve to provide streamflow information in some AUs and RSMP sites, particularly where the streamflow gage measures streamflow generated from a part of the AU or that drains to the RSMP site, and that part of the AU or RSMP site is a significant fraction of the drainage area of the streamgage. The maximum fraction of each AU or RSMP catchment upstream of a streamflow gage and the maximum fraction of any one gaged basin in an AU or RSMP along with corresponding codes are provided in the attribute tables.

  18. Using artificial neural network and satellite data to predict rice yield in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhand, Kawsar; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix; Goldberg, Mitch

    2015-09-01

    Rice production in Bangladesh is a crucial part of the national economy and providing about 70 percent of an average citizen's total calorie intake. The demand for rice is constantly rising as the new populations are added in every year in Bangladesh. Due to the increase in population, the cultivation land decreases. In addition, Bangladesh is faced with production constraints such as drought, flooding, salinity, lack of irrigation facilities and lack of modern technology. To maintain self sufficiency in rice, Bangladesh will have to continue to expand rice production by increasing yield at a rate that is at least equal to the population growth until the demand of rice has stabilized. Accurate rice yield prediction is one of the most important challenges in managing supply and demand of rice as well as decision making processes. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to construct a model to predict Aus rice yield in Bangladesh. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-based remote sensing satellite data vegetation health (VH) indices (Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI) are used as input variables and official statistics of Aus rice yield is used as target variable for ANN prediction model. The result obtained with ANN method is encouraging and the error of prediction is less than 10%. Therefore, prediction can play an important role in planning and storing of sufficient rice to face in any future uncertainty.

  19. Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, John D.

    1998-01-15

    In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

  20. Semantische Content Management Systeme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gams, Erich; Mitterdorfer, Daniel

    Content Management Systeme (CMS) sind in vielen Organisationen bereits seit längerer Zeit fester Bestandteil zur Verwaltung und kollaborativen Bearbeitung von Text- und Multimedia-Inhalten. Im Zuge der rasch ansteigenden Fülle an Informationen und somit auch Wissen wird die Überschaubarkeit der Datenbestände jedoch massiv eingeschränkt. Diese und zusätzliche Anforderungen, wie automatisch Datenquellen aus dem World Wide Web (WWW) zu extrahieren, lassen traditionelle CMS immer mehr an ihre Grenzen stoßen. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert die neuen Herausforderungen an traditionelle CMS und bietet Lösungsvorschläge, wie CMS kombiniert mit semantischen Technologien diesen Herausforderungen begegnen können. Die Autoren stellen eine generische Systemarchitektur für Content Management Systeme vor, die einerseits Inhalte für das Semantic Web generieren, andererseits Content aus dem Web 2.0 syndizieren können und bei der Aufbereitung des Content den User mittels semantischer Technologien wie Reasoning oder Informationsextraktion unterstützen. Dabei wird auf Erfahrungen bei der prototypischen Implementierung von semantischer Technologie in ein bestehendes CMS System zurückgegriffen.

  1. The fourth crystallographic closest packing unveiled in the gold nanocluster crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Zibao; Chen, Jishi; Wang, Juan; Wang, Chengming; Li, Man-Bo; Yao, Chuanhao; Zhuang, Shengli; Xu, An; Li, Lingling; Wu, Zhikun

    2017-03-01

    Metal nanoclusters have recently attracted extensive interest not only for fundamental scientific research, but also for practical applications. For fundamental scientific research, it is of major importance to explore the internal structure and crystallographic arrangement. Herein, we synthesize a gold nanocluster whose composition is determined to be Au60S6(SCH2Ph)36 by using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray crystallography (SCXC). SCXC also reveals that Au60S6(SCH2Ph)36 consists of a fcc-like Au20 kernel protected by a pair of giant Au20S3(SCH2Ph)18 staple motifs, which contain 6 tetrahedral-coordinate μ4-S atoms not previously reported in the Au-S interface. Importantly, the fourth crystallographic closest-packed pattern, termed 6H left-handed helical (6HLH) arrangement, which results in the distinct loss of solid photoluminescence of amorphous Au60S6(SCH2Ph)36, is found in the crystals of Au60S6(SCH2Ph)36. The solvent-polarity-dependent solution photoluminescence is also demonstrated. Overall, this work provides important insights about the structure, Au-S bonding and solid photoluminescence of gold nanoclusters.

  2. Undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the U.S. Gulf Coast Jurassic Norphlet and Smackover Formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Ofori N.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed assessments of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Jurassic Norphlet and Smackover formations of the onshore coastal plain and State waters of the U.S. Gulf Coast. The Norphlet Formation consists of sandstones and interbedded shales and siltstones deposited during a marine transgression. Along its northeast margin, deposition of the Norphlet was in alluvial fans, fluvial systems, and dune and clastic sabkha environments. Mudstones of the underlying Smackover Formation act as source rocks for Norphlet reservoirs. The Norphlet was divided into the following three assessment units (AUs): the Norphlet Salt Basins and Updip AU, the Norphlet Mobile Bay Deep Gas AU, and the Norphlet South Texas Gas AU. The lower part of the Smackover consists primarily of dark carbonate mudstone and argillaceous limestone deposited in low-energy environments, and is one of the Gulf of Mexico Basin’s major source rocks. The upper part of the Smackover is comprised primarily of grain-supported carbonates deposited in high-energy environments. The Smackover was divided into the following four AUs: the Smackover Updip and Peripheral Fault Zone AU, the Smackover Salt Basin AU, the Smackover South Texas AU, and the Smackover Downdip Continuous Gas AU. Although the Norphlet and Smackover formations have been the focus of extensive exploration and production, they probably still contain significant undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  3. Yield Loss Caused by Pratylenchus thornei on Wheat in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Julie M.; Davies, Kerrie A.; Hancock, Trevor W.; Fisher, John M.

    1999-01-01

    A two-year field trial with 130 plots was conducted at Tanunda, South Australia. Ten cereal cultivars differing in susceptibility to Pratylenchus thornei, two poor host crops (non-leguminous), and a bare fallow treatment were used to manipulate the numbers of nematodes in the plots in the first year. Initial and final densities were determined for each plot and varied from 0 to 9,400 nematodes/200 g oven-dried soil at the beginning of the second year. A highly susceptible wheat cultivar, Warigal, and two wheat lines known to have some resistance to P. thornei, GS50A and AUS4930, were planted in the second year. High densities of P. thornei caused more extensive lesions and severe cortical degradation in roots of Warigal than in GS50A or AUS4930. There was a significant linear relationship between initial density of P. thornei and Warigal grain yield (t/ha), with the estimated regression equation Y = 1.86 - 0.0000557x, where Y is the grain yield in t/ha and x is the number of P. thornei/200 g oven-dried soil. High initial densities (9,000 P. thornei/200 g oven-dried soil) caused up to 27% yield loss of this commercial Australian wheat. In contrast, the yield of the two resistant lines was not affected by initial density, suggesting that both were tolerant as well as resistant in the field. PMID:19270909

  4. Spontaneous facial expression in a small group can be automatically measured: An initial demonstration

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Manual measurement of facial expression is labor intensive and difficult to standardize. Automated measurement seeks to address the need for valid, efficient, and reproducible measurement. Recent systems have shown promise in posed behavior and in structured contexts. Can automated measurement perform in more natural, less constrained settings? In the present study, previously unacquainted young adults sat around a circular table for 30 min of conversation. Video was selected for manual and automatic coding of Facial Action Coding System action units (AUs), examining, in particular, AU 6 (cheek raise) and AU 12 (lip corner pull), which together signal enjoyment. Moderate out-of-plane head motion and occlusion, which are challenging for automatic processing, were both common, as participants turned toward and away from each other or consumed drinks. Concurrent validity for both AUs was high. This is the first study to find that automated measurement of facial action in relatively unconstrained contexts can achieve results comparable with those of manual coding. Video demos of our software may be downloaded from http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:21139175

  5. Self-reported ability assessment in rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Draper, Nick; Dickson, Tabitha; Blackwell, Gavin; Fryer, Simon; Priestley, Sefton; Winter, David; Ellis, Greg

    2011-05-01

    Level of ability within rock climbing is generally expressed in terms of a "best ascent", rated using various grading systems within the sport. The most common method of obtaining this information is via self-report. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of self-reported climbing grades. Twenty-nine competitive rock climbers (17 males, 12 females) were first asked to report their current (defined as within the last 12 months) best on-sight lead ascent grade (Aus/NZ). The participants then climbed a specifically designed indoor route, under on-sight conditions (one attempt, no route practice or preview), to obtain an assessed grade. The route increased in difficulty, and was such that the distance achieved by the climber corresponded to a particular grade. The mean (±standard deviation) self-reported and assessed grade was 22.6 ± 3.4 and 22.0 ± 3.0 (Aus/NZ) respectively. Despite slight over- and underestimations in males and females respectively, there was no statistically significant difference between self-reported and assessed on-sight climbing grades. The results of this study suggest that self-reported climbing grades provide a valid and accurate reflection of climbing ability.

  6. A system for telephone and secure email consultations, with automatic billing.

    PubMed

    Rutland, Jonathan; Marie, Catherine; Rutland, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    Doctors have traditionally provided medical advice during face-to-face consultations. A new remote consultation service has been developed based on an interactive voice response system and Internet-based technologies. If the doctor is unavailable, a return call can be requested at a mutually convenient time. The patient's credit card is billed automatically. All that is required of the doctor and patient is access to any telephone. A dial-in dictation and transcription facility allows documentation. The service was launched in late 2003. After six months, there were approximately 55 doctors registered in five Australian states and approximately 500 patients registered. Two hundred and fifty consultations were selected randomly for analysis. Of these, 84% were conducted by telephone and 16% by email. The mean fees charged were AUS$17.11 for telephone and AUS$12.93 for email consultations. The mean duration of telephone consultations was 4.3 min. Call duration ranged from a few seconds to 20.5 min.

  7. The Relationship Between Soil Air Filled Porosity and Soil Methane Oxidation is Almost Identical in Both Dry and Wet Temperate Eucalypt Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fest, B. J.; Wardlaw, T.; Hinko-Najera, N.; Arndt, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the temporal variation in soil methane (CH4) exchange in temperate evergreen eucalypt forests in south-eastern Australia we measured soil CH4 exchange in high temporal resolution (every 2 hours or less) over two consecutive years (Wombat State Forest, Victoria, AUS) and over one year (Warra, Tasmania, AUS) in two temperate Eucalyptus obliqua (L. Her) forests with contrasting annual precipitation (Wombat State Forest = 870 mm yr-1, Warra = 1700 mm yr-1). Both forests were continuous CH4 sinks with the Victorian site having a sink strength of -1.79 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1 and the Tasmanian site having a sink strength of -3.83 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1. Our results show that CH4 uptake was strongly controlled by soil moisture at both sites and explained up to 90% of the temporal variability in CH4 uptake. Furthermore, when soil moisture was expressed as soil air filled porosity (AFP) we were able to predict the CH4 uptake of one site by the linear regression between AFP and CH4 uptake from the other site. Soil temperature only had an apparent control over seasonal variation in CH4 uptake during periods when soil moisture and soil temperature were closely correlated. The fluctuation of the generally low soil nitrogen levels did not influence soil CH4 uptake at either site.

  8. Herstellung eines federelastischen Spangutes geringer Dichte als Matrix für Schüttdämmstoffe, für plattenförmige Dämmstoffe und leichte Spanplatten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tröger, Johannes; Groß, Lucia

    Klimaschutz und die ständig steigenden Energiekosten erfordern eine kontinuierliche Verbesserung der Dämmstoffe. Eine Alternative zur relativ kostenaufwändigen Wärmedämmung durch Platten bzw. Matten auf Basis von mineralischen Stoffen, ist der Einsatz von schütt-bzw. einblasbaren Dämmstoffpartikeln. Späne aus Holz und andere Dämmstoffe aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen waren schon vor dem ersten Weltkrieg die gebräuchlichsten Dämmstoffe überhaupt. Seit etwa fünfzehn Jahren werden u.a. für den Holzhausbau im zunehmenden Maße auch Fräs-, Säge und Hobelspäne für Wärmedämmzwecke eingesetzt [1], [2], [3]. Hervorzuheben ist der ökologische Aspekt dieser Dämmstoffe durch die Bindung von CO2 und den sinkenden Heizenergiebedarf. Die bisherige Philosophie bei der Gewinnung von Dämmstoffspänen beruhte darauf, anfallendes Spangut stofflich weiter zu nutzen. Die Recyclingspäne sollten dabei sowohl die Setzungssicherheit als auch eine möglichst gute Wärmedämmung gewährleisten.

  9. High intraspecific variability of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in Chile.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Ebi, Dennis; Paredes, Rodolfo; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Urriola, Nicole; Roa, Juan Carlos; Manterola, Carlos; Cortes, Sandra; Romig, Thomas; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2017-04-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto is the major cause of cystic echinococcosis in most human and animal cases in the world and the most widespread species within the E. granulosus sensu lato complex. E. granulosus s.s. remains endemic in South America together with other species of the Echinococcus genus, especially in some areas in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Peru. Except for a single human case caused by E. canadensis (G6) described in the literature, only E. granulosus s.s. has been found in the Chilean territory. In the current study 1609bp of the cox1 gene from 69 Chilean isolates of E. granulosus s.s. from humans and animals were analysed. In total, 26 cox1 haplotypes were found, including the widespread haplotype EG01 (22 isolates) and also EGp1 (5), EgRUS7 (1), EgAus02 (1) and EgAus03 (2). Twenty-one different haplotype not previously described were identified from 38 Chilean isolates designated EgCL1-EgCL21. Previous work had described low variability of E. granulosus s.s. in South America, based on isolates from Peru. Results obtained in this work challenge the previously described idea of the low diversity of the parasite in South America, and warrant future investigation on the origin and spread of the parasite in the continent after the Spanish arrival.

  10. Smart Cu(II)-aptamer complexes based gold nanoplatform for tumor micro-environment triggered programmable intracellular prodrug release, photodynamic treatment and aggregation induced photothermal therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Da; Zheng, Aixian; Li, Juan; Wu, Ming; Wu, Lingjie; Wei, Zuwu; Liao, Naishun; Zhang, Xiaolong; Cai, Zhixiong; Yang, Huanghao; Liu, Gang; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng

    2017-01-01

    This study describes smart Cu(II)-aptamer complexes based gold nanoplatform for tumor micro-environment triggered programmable prodrug release, in demand photodynamic therapy and aggregation induced photothermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. The nanoplatform is consist of monodispersed gold nanoparticle (GNP) that is binding to HCC cell specific targeting aptamers (TLS11a) through Au-S bond; the aptamer is labeled with Ce6 at the 5'end and coordinated with Cu(II) through (GA)10 repeating bases to load AQ4N at the 3' end. In normal physiological conditions, the fluorescence and ROS generation ability of Ce6 are quenched by GNPs via RET; but in cancerous cells, the fluorescence and the ROS generation of Ce6 could be recovered by cleavage of Au-S bond through high level of intracellular GSH for real-time imaging and in demand PDT. Meanwhile, the prodrug AQ4N release could be triggered by acid-cleavage of coordination bonds, then accompanied by a release of Cu(II) that would induce the electrostatic aggregation of GNPs for photo-thermal ablation; furthermore, the significantly enhanced chemotherapy efficiency could be achieved by PDT produced hypoxia to convert AQ4N into AQ4. In summary, here described nanoplatform with tumor cell specific responsive properties and programmable PDT/PTT/chemotherapy functions, might be an interesting synergistic strategy for HCC treatment. PMID:28042325

  11. The role of fine-needle aspiration in the thyroid nodules of elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Maurizio; Straccia, Patrizia; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Fadda, Guido

    2016-01-01

    We assess the role of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology(FNAC) in our series of elderly patients. The growing subset of people aged older than 70 years has shown an increased incidence of thyroid diseases which need to be studied in order to reduce the percentage of surgical treatments in patients with higher likelihood of co-morbidities and associated life risk. We compared Follicular/Indeterminate Neoplasms(FN) and suspicious of malignancy(SM) with pediatric and adult cohorts. We discussed the role of immunocytochemistry-ICC to refine diagnoses. Four hundred and eighty out of 3539FNACs(13.5%) in elderly patients, were surgical followed-up. They included: 35Inadequate, 188benign(BL), 164FN/AUS, 49SM and 44positive for malignancy (PM). All PM and 95.7%BL were histological confirmed. The malignant rate was 24.3% mostly diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinomas. An ICC panel (HBME-1 and Galectin-3) was carried out on liquid based cytology (LBC) and performed on FN/AUS, SM and PM. We found concordant positive ICC in 69.3%malignancies and concordant negative ICC in 97.6%benign follicular adenomas. Among FNs, 42.9%malignant histologic cases had concordant positivity whilst 97.4%benign histology had negative panel. Thyroid FNAC shows high feasibility in elderly patients. ICC helps in reducing the number of useless thyroidectomies and providing a more adequate clinical and/or surgical selection in elderly patients. PMID:26919251

  12. Gold nanoparticles with different capping systems: an electronic and structural XAS analysis.

    PubMed

    López-Cartes, C; Rojas, T C; Litrán, R; Martínez-Martínez, D; de la Fuente, J M; Penadés, S; Fernández, A

    2005-05-12

    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared with three different capping systems: a tetralkylammonium salt, an alkanethiol, and a thiol-derivatized neoglycoconjugate. Also gold NPs supported on a porous TiO(2) substrate have been investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to determine the electronic behavior of the different capped/supported systems regarding the electron/hole density of d states. Surface and size effects, as well as the role of the microstructure, have been also studied through an exhaustive analysis of the EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) data. Very small gold NPs functionalized with thiol-derivatized molecules show an increase in d-hole density at the gold site due to Au-S charge transfer. This effect is overcoming size effects (which lead to a slightly increase of the d-electron density) for high S:Au atomic ratios and core-shell microstructures where an atomically abrupt Au-S interface likely does not exist. It has been also shown that thiol functionalization of very small gold NPs is introducing a strong distortion as compared to fcc order. To the contrary, electron transfer from reduced support oxides to gold NPs can produce a higher increase in d-electron density at the gold site, as compared to naked gold clusters.

  13. ATP-binding cassette transporters and sterol O-acyltransferases interact at membrane microdomains to modulate sterol uptake and esterification.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sonia; Balderes, Dina; Kim, Christine; Guo, Zhongmin A; Wilcox, Lisa; Area-Gomez, Estela; Snider, Jamie; Wolinski, Heimo; Stagljar, Igor; Granato, Juliana T; Ruggles, Kelly V; DeGiorgis, Joseph A; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Schon, Eric A; Sturley, Stephen L

    2015-11-01

    A key component of eukaryotic lipid homeostasis is the esterification of sterols with fatty acids by sterol O-acyltransferases (SOATs). The esterification reactions are allosterically activated by their sterol substrates, the majority of which accumulate at the plasma membrane. We demonstrate that in yeast, sterol transport from the plasma membrane to the site of esterification is associated with the physical interaction of the major SOAT, acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)-related enzyme (Are)2p, with 2 plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters: Aus1p and Pdr11p. Are2p, Aus1p, and Pdr11p, unlike the minor acyltransferase, Are1p, colocalize to sterol and sphingolipid-enriched, detergent-resistant microdomains (DRMs). Deletion of either ABC transporter results in Are2p relocalization to detergent-soluble membrane domains and a significant decrease (53-36%) in esterification of exogenous sterol. Similarly, in murine tissues, the SOAT1/Acat1 enzyme and activity localize to DRMs. This subcellular localization is diminished upon deletion of murine ABC transporters, such as Abcg1, which itself is DRM associated. We propose that the close proximity of sterol esterification and transport proteins to each other combined with their residence in lipid-enriched membrane microdomains facilitates rapid, high-capacity sterol transport and esterification, obviating any requirement for soluble intermediary proteins.

  14. Influence of the S-Au Bond Strength on the Magnetic Behavior of S-Capped Au Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, María J. Rodríguez; Rivas, José; López-Quintela, M. Arturo; Mosquera, Antonio Mouriño; Torneiro, Mercedes

    Recently, large permanent atomic magnetic moments have been found in Au nanoparticles capped with thiols. It is assumed that the formation of localized Au-S bonds at the particle surface induces the damping of the surface plasmon resonance and the appearance of a ferromagnetic-like behavior. In this work we will show for the first time that thioethers can also induce both phenomena, i.e., the damping of the plasmon band and the appearance of permanent magnetic moments. Furthermore, we have studied the influence of the Au-S bond strength on both phenomena using two different synthesized thioether ligands. It will be shown that, although both ligands can induce a complete damping of the plasmon band, only with one of the ligands (the one corresponding to the stronger S-Au bond) the appearance of a ferromagnetic-like order is observed. This is an indication of the extreme sensitivity of the magnetism on the strength of the charge transfer at the S-Au bond.

  15. Interaction of Lyapunov vectors in the formulation of the nonlinear extension of the Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Palatella, Luigi; Trevisan, Anna

    2015-04-01

    When applied to strongly nonlinear chaotic dynamics the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is prone to divergence due to the difficulty of correctly forecasting the forecast error probability density function. In operational forecasting applications ensemble Kalman filters circumvent this problem with empirical procedures such as covariance inflation. This paper presents an extension of the EKF that includes nonlinear terms in the evolution of the forecast error estimate. This is achieved starting from a particular square-root implementation of the EKF with assimilation confined in the unstable subspace (EKF-AUS), that is, the span of the Lyapunov vectors with non-negative exponents. When the error evolution is nonlinear, the space where it is confined is no more restricted to the unstable and neutral subspace causing filter divergence. The algorithm presented here, denominated EKF-AUS-NL, includes the nonlinear terms in the error dynamics: These result from the nonlinear interaction among the leading Lyapunov vectors and account for all directions where the error growth may take place. Numerical results show that with the nonlinear terms included, filter divergence can be avoided. We test the algorithm on the Lorenz96 model, showing very promising results.

  16. Molecular Diagnosis Using Residual Liquid-Based Cytology Materials for Patients with Nondiagnostic or Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Eszlinger, Markus; Paschke, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background Molecular analysis for common somatic mutations in thyroid cancer can improve diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the nondiagnostic or indeterminate category of thyroid nodules. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of molecular diagnosis from residual liquid-based cytology (LBC) material after cytological diagnosis. Methods This prospective study enrolled 53 patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed as nondiagnostic, atypia of undetermined significance (AUS), or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS) after FNAC. DNAs and RNAs were isolated from residual LBC materials. BRAFV600E and RAS point mutations, PAX8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), RET/PTC1, and RET/PTC3 rearrangements were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. Results All DNAs from 53 residual LBC samples could be analysed and point mutations were detected in 10 samples (19%). In 17 AUS nodules, seven samples (41%) had point mutations including BRAF (n=4), NRAS (n=2), and KRAS (n=1). In 20 FLUS nodules, three samples (15%) had NRAS point mutations. RNA from only one FLUS nodule could be analysed for rearrangements and there was no abnormality. Conclusion Molecular analysis for BRAF and RAS mutations was feasible in residual LBC materials and might be useful for diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules. PMID:27834083

  17. Sulfur-induced mobilization of Au surface atoms on Au(1 1 1) studied by real-time STM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biener, Monika M.; Biener, Juergen; Friend, Cynthia M.

    2007-04-01

    The interaction of sulfur with gold surfaces has attracted considerable interest due to numerous technological applications such as the formation of self-assembled monolayers and as a chemical sensor. Here, we report on the interaction of sulfur with Au(1 1 1) at two different temperatures (300 K and 420 K) studied by real-time scanning tunnelling microscopy, low energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. In the low coverage regime (<0.1 ML), S adsorption lifts the herringbone reconstruction of the clean Au(1 1 1) surface indicating a lateral expansion of the surface layer. An ordered (√3 × √3) R30° sulfur adlayer develops as the coverage reaches ˜0.3 ML. At higher S coverages (>0.3 ML) gold surface atoms are removed from regular terrace sites and incorporated into a growing gold sulfide phase. At 300 K this process leads to the formation of a rough pit and mound surface morphology. This gold sulfide exhibits short-range order and an incommensurate, long-range ordered AuS phase develops upon annealing at 450-525 K. In contrast, formation of an ordered AuS phase via rapid step-retraction rather than etch pit formation is observed during S-interaction with Au(1 1 1) surfaces at 420 K. Our results shed new light on the S-Au(1 1 1) interaction.

  18. Nonverbal Social Withdrawal in Depression: Evidence from manual and automatic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Jeffrey M.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Mahoor, Mohammad H.; Mavadati, S. Mohammad; Hammal, Zakia; Rosenwald, Dean P.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between nonverbal behavior and severity of depression was investigated by following depressed participants over the course of treatment and video recording a series of clinical interviews. Facial expressions and head pose were analyzed from video using manual and automatic systems. Both systems were highly consistent for FACS action units (AUs) and showed similar effects for change over time in depression severity. When symptom severity was high, participants made fewer affiliative facial expressions (AUs 12 and 15) and more non-affiliative facial expressions (AU 14). Participants also exhibited diminished head motion (i.e., amplitude and velocity) when symptom severity was high. These results are consistent with the Social Withdrawal hypothesis: that depressed individuals use nonverbal behavior to maintain or increase interpersonal distance. As individuals recover, they send more signals indicating a willingness to affiliate. The finding that automatic facial expression analysis was both consistent with manual coding and revealed the same pattern of findings suggests that automatic facial expression analysis may be ready to relieve the burden of manual coding in behavioral and clinical science. PMID:25378765

  19. Chapter 19: Geology and petroleum potential of the east Barents Sea Basins and Admiralty Arch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Pitman, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Barents Basins and Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Provinces as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. These two provinces are located NE of Scandinavia and the northwestern Russian Federation, on the Barents Sea Shelf between Novaya Zemlya to the east and the Barents Platform to the west. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined in the East Barents Basins for this study - Kolguyev Terrace Assessment Unit (AU), South Barents Basin and Ludlov Saddle AU, and North Barents Basin AU. A fourth, defined as Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch AU, is coincident with the Novaya Zemlya basins and Admiralty Arch Province. These AUs, all lying north of the Arctic Circle, were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources resulting in total estimated mean volumes of approximately 7.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 318 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and 1.4 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  20. Adapting the Propensity for Angry Driving Scale for use in Australian research.

    PubMed

    Leal, Nerida L; Pachana, Nancy A

    2008-11-01

    Road rage is a topic that receives consistent attention in both the road safety literature and media. Before Australian research can address the underlying factors associated with road rage, there is a need for a valid instrument appropriate for use in this context. The present program of research consisted of two studies. Study 1 used a university sample to adjust the scoring technique and response options of a 19-item American measure of the propensity for angry driving with acceptable reliability and validity. In Study 2, Factor Analysis confirmed a one-factor solution and resulted in a 15-item scale, the Australian Propensity for Angry Driving Scale (Aus-PADS), with a coefficient alpha of .82 (N=433). The Aus-PADS may be used in future research to broaden the Australian road rage literature and to improve our understanding of the underlying processes associated with road rage in order to prevent the problem. Future research should also confirm the factor structure and generate normative data with a more representative sample.

  1. Missbrauchspotential von Verzeichnisdienst-Metadaten in LDAP-basierten System- und Benutzerverwaltungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluta, Daniel

    Metadaten stellen Zusatzinformationen über elektronisch gespeicherte Kerninformationen zur Verfügung. Sie ergänzen die eigentliche Hauptinformation um nützliche Details. In vielen Bereichen werden Metadaten gespeichert und stehen zur Auswertung zur Verfügung. Alle IT-nahen Systeme, angefangen im Konsumerbereich (z.B. digitale Kameras) bis hin zu unternehmenskritischen Applikationen führen im Hintergrund Metadaten - parallel zu den eigentlichen Hauptdaten. Metadaten im Allgemeinen sind per se als neutral, d.h. weder positiv noch negativ, zu bewerten. So wirken sich diese häufig positiv auf das Finden und Sortieren von digitalen Dokumenten aus. Negativ treten Metadaten eigentlich immer nur dann in Erscheinung, sobald diese ursprünglich zusätzlichen und nützlichen (und daher im Gegensatz zu den Hauptdaten nicht besonders beachteten bzw. geschützten) Informationen entgegen ihrer Bestimmung, zweckentfremdet werden. Auch Verzeichnisdienste verfügen über solche nützlichen Metadaten zu den jeweils in ihnen gespeicherten Inhalten. Ob, und wenn ja wie weit diese nützlichen Inhalte auch ein Risiko darstellen können wird im Rahmen dieses Artikels anhand eines konkreten Szenarios aus dem Umfeld des Systemmanagements gezeigt.

  2. Datenintegration und Deduplizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiholder, Jens; Schmid, Joachim

    In Unternehmen liegen viele Daten heutzutage immer seltener vollständig an einem einzigen physikalischen Ort vor, sondern sind weltweit verteilt. Dies liegt zum einen an der immer besser gewordenen Infrastruktur, die eine solche Verteilung auf einfache Art und Weise ermöglicht, und zum anderen an der Tatsache, dass viele Unternehmen weltweit tätig sind. So fallen Daten weltweit an, werden aber jeweils lokal - vor Ort - gespeichert. Daher müssen oft mehrere Datenquellen genutzt werden, um einen aktuellen, vollständigen und genauen Überblick über die vorhandenen Daten zu gewinnen. Datenintegration hilft, indem sie Daten aus mehreren Quellen zusammenführt und einheitlich darstellt. Diese integrierten Daten können genutzt werden, um sich einen Überblick über das Unternehmen zu verschaffen, z.B. wenn Unternehmen fusionieren und nur noch eine Kundendatenbank bestehen bleiben soll, oder wenn zu einem Kunden die Daten aus den verschiedenen Fachabteilungen zusammengeführt werden sollen. Anhand eines solchen Beispiels, der Integration von Kundendaten zu Kfz- und Lebensversicherungen erläutern wir im Folgenden einzelne Techniken.

  3. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF CREEP-RESISTANT FERRITIC STEEL WELDMENTS THROUGH THERMO-MECHANICAL TREATMENT AND ALLOY DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Babu, Prof. Sudarsanam Suresh; Shassere, Benjamin; Yu, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    Two different approaches have been proposed for improvement of cross-weld creep properties of the high temperature ferrous structural materials for fossil-fired energy applications. The traditional creep strength-enhanced ferritic (CSEF) steel weldments suffer from Type IV failures which occur at the fine-grained heat affected zone (FGHAZ). In order to minimize the premature failure at FGHAZ in the existing CSEF steels, such as modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic-martensitic steels (Grade 91), a thermo-mechanical treatment consisting of aus-forging/rolling and subsequent aus-aging is proposed which promotes the formation of stable MX carbonitrides prior to martensitic transformation. Such MX remains undissolved during welding process, even in FGHAZ, which successfully improves the cross-weld creep properties. Another approach is to develop a new fully ferrtic, creep-resistant FeCrAl alloy which is essentially free from Type IV failure issues. Fe-30Cr-3Al base alloys with minor alloying additions were developed which achieved a combination of good oxidation/corrosion resistance and improved tensile and creep performance comparable or superior to Grade 92 steel.

  4. Two separate gene clusters encode the biosynthetic pathway for the meroterpenoids, austinol and dehydroaustinol in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hsien-Chun; Entwistle, Ruth; Guo, Chun-Jun; Ahuja, Manmeet; Szewczyk, Edyta; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Oakley, Berl R.; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Meroterpenoids are a class of fungal natural products that are produced from polyketide and terpenoid precursors. An understanding of meroterpenoid biosynthesis at the genetic level should facilitate engineering of second-generation molecules and increasing production of first-generation compounds. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has previously been found to produce two meroterpenoids, austinol and dehydroaustinol. Using targeted deletions that we created, we have determined that, surprisingly, two separate gene clusters are required for meroterpenoid biosynthesis. One is a cluster of four genes including a polyketide synthase gene, ausA. The second is a cluster of ten additional genes including a prenyltransferase gene, ausN, located on a separate chromosome. Chemical analysis of mutant extracts enabled us to isolate 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid and ten additional meroterpenoids that are either intermediates or shunt products from the biosynthetic pathway. Six of them were identified as novel meroterpenoids in this study. Our data, in aggregate, allow us to propose a complete biosynthetic pathway for the A. nidulans meroterpenoids. PMID:22329759

  5. An electrochemical DNA sensor without electrode pre-modification.

    PubMed

    Hong, Nian; Cheng, Lin; Wei, BingGuo; Chen, ChaDan; He, Ling Ling; Kong, DeRong; Ceng, JinXiang; Cui, Han-Feng; Fan, Hao

    2017-05-15

    We present a non-modification electrochemical DNA sensing strategy, which used Potential-Assisted Au-S Deposition and a clamp-like DNA probe. The dual-hairpin probe DNA was tagged with a methylene blue (MB) at the 3' terminal and a thiol at the 5' terminal., Without being hybridized with target DNA, the loop of probe prevented the thiol from reaching the bare gold electrode surface with an applied potential., After hybridization with the target DNA, the probe' s loop-stem structure opened through two distinct and sequential events, which led to the formation of a triplex DNA structure. Then the thiol easily contacted with electrode and resulted in potential-assisted Au-S self-assembly. Electrochemical signals of MB were measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and used for target quantitative detection. This strategy offered a detection limit down to 2.3pM. and an inherently high specificity for detecting even single mismatch.

  6. Realistic facial expression of virtual human based on color, sweat, and tears effects.

    PubMed

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  7. Lymph node metastasis after endoscopic submucosal dissection of a differentiated gastric cancer confined to the mucosa with an ulcer smaller than 30 mm.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Eiji; Tochitani, Shinako; Nakaji, So; Hirata, Nobuto; Kusanagi, Hiroshi; Narita, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In the expanded indications for endoscopic resection, Japanese guidelines for gastric cancer include differentiated cancers confined to the mucosa with an ulcer <30 mm. We describe a patient with lymph node metastasis after curative endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for a tumor of this indication. The patient was a 70-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C. He underwent ESD for early gastric cancer in May 2010. Pathology revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, 22 × 17 mm in size, that was confined to the mucosa with an ulcer. The horizontal and vertical margins were negative for the tumor. We diagnosed thiscase as curative resection of expanded indication and followed this patient with endoscopy, abdominal ultrasonography (AUS) or enhanced computed tomography (CT) approximately every 6 months. After 17 months, lymph node metastasis was detected with AUS and CT and diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in August 2011. Distal gastrectomy with D2 dissection was carried out in December 2011. Although it is low, the possibility of recurrence should be borne in mind after endoscopic treatment of early gastric cancer, despite its inclusion in the expanded indications for endoscopic resection.

  8. Theory in practice instead of theory versus practice--curricular design for task-based learning within a competency oriented curriculum.

    PubMed

    Rotthoff, Thomas; Schneider, Matthias; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Windolf, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Medizinstudierende sollen bereits während ihres Studiums ärztliches Denken und Handeln intensiv trainieren und ihre klinische Expertise in theoretischer und praktischer Hinsicht entwickeln. Methodik: Ausgehend von den Erkenntnissen der Lehr- und Lernforschung wurde ein Curriculum für die klinisch-praktische Ausbildung im Modellstudiengang Düsseldorf entwickelt, welches auf das arbeitsplatzbezogene Lehren, Lernen und Prüfen fokussiert. Ergebnisse: Das Curriculum basiert für Studierende im 3, 4 und 5. Studienjahr wesentlich auf dem Lernen an Behandlungsanlässen von Patienten in multidisziplinären Bereichen der ambulanten und stationären Versorgung. Für dieses Lehrformat wurden 123 Behandlungsanlässe definiert und deren Verknüpfbarkeit mit Krankheitsbildern aus den verschiedenen Fachdisziplinen geprüft. Ausgehend vom Behandlungsanlass eines konkreten Falles, erarbeiten sich die Studierenden das zugrundeliegende Krankheitsbild sowie das differentialdiagnostische und therapeutische Vorgehen und vertiefen dabei das notwendige Wissen in den Grundlagenfächern. Zur Lernunterstützung wurden Studienbücher von den Kliniken erstellt. Das Lernen ist eingebunden in kompetenzorientiertes und arbeitsplatzbezogenes Lernen und Prüfen mit einer intensiven Kontaktzeit zwischen Studierenden und Ärzten.Schlussfolgerung: Das Konzept ermöglicht die Integration von Theorie in die Praxis sowie die Integration von Wissen aus den Grundlagen-, klinisch-theoretischen und klinischen Fächern in das ärztliche Denken und Handeln.

  9. Do medical students like communication? Validation of the German CSAS (Communication Skills Attitude Scale).

    PubMed

    Busch, Anne-Kathrin; Rockenbauch, Katrin; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Die Lehre ärztlicher Gesprächskompetenz schließt die Vermittlung förderlicher Einstellungen ein. Mittels der Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) werden Einstellungen Medizinstudierender zum Erwerb von kommunikativer Kompetenz erfasst. Ziel der vorliegenden Erhebung ist die Entwicklung einer deutschsprachigen CSAS-Fassung (CSAS-G), um die Einstellungen in einer deutschsprachigen Kohorte zu messen. Ergänzend untersuchten wir den Einfluss demographischer Merkmale auf die Einstellungswerte.Methodik: Wir erstellten die CSAS-G und befragten in unserer Untersuchung 529 Studienteilnehmer aus drei verschiedenen Studienjahren. Wir führten eine explorative wie konfirmatorische Faktorenanalyse durch und verglichen anschließend die Einstellungswerte nach Studienjahr. Ebenso wurde eine multiple Regressionsanalyse berechnet.Ergebnisse: Die konfirmatorische Faktorenanalyse bestätigte das zweifaktorielle System aus der explorativen Faktorenanalyse. Die Studierenden gaben wenig Zustimmung zu negativen Einstellungen und mäßige Zustimmung zu positiven Einstellungen an. Die Einstellungswerte differieren signifikant nach Geschlechtszugehörigkeit.Schlussfolgerung: Die CSAS-G eignet sich zur Einschätzung von Einstellungsausprägungen zu Kommunikationskompetenz in deutschsprachigen Kohorten. Die Medizinstudierenden unserer Studie zeigten grundlegend eine positive Einstellung. Weiterführende Untersuchungen sind erforderlich, um die Einstellungen deutschsprachiger Medizinstudierender zu kommunikativer Kompetenz zu erfassen und zu verstehen.

  10. Effects of magnitude, depth, and time on cellular seismology forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Steven Wolf

    This study finds that, in most cases analyzed to date, past seismicity tends to delineate zones where future earthquakes are likely to occur. Network seismicity catalogs for the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ), Australia (AUS), California (CA), and Alaska (AK) are analyzed using modified versions of the Cellular Seismology (CS) method of Kafka (2002, 2007). The percentage of later occurring earthquakes located near earlier occurring earthquakes typically exceeds the expected percentage for randomly distributed later occurring earthquakes, and the specific percentage is influenced by several variables, including magnitude, depth, time, and tectonic setting. At 33% map area coverage, hit percents are typically 85-95% in the NMSZ, 50-60% in AUS, 75-85% in CA, and 75-85% in AK. Statistical significance testing is performed on trials analyzing the same variables so that the overall regions can be compared, although some tests are inconclusive due to the small number of earthquake sample sizes. These results offer useful insights into understanding the capabilities and limits of CS studies, which can provide guidance for improving the seismicity-based components of seismic hazard assessments.

  11. Changing epidemiology of meticillin-resistant S. aureus in Queensland, Australia, 2000-2006: use of passive surveillance of susceptibility phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, G R; Fong, J; Paterson, D L; McLaws, M-L

    2008-12-01

    The epidemiology of meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection has changed remarkably in recent years with the appearance of new MRSA strains causing infections in the community. These strains have now begun to cause healthcare-associated infections. The ability to track such changes is necessary to guide clinical and public health action. Here we report passive surveillance of all public laboratory susceptibility data in Queensland to track changes in MRSA phenotypes corresponding to the major epidemic strains from 2000 to 2006. The inpatient rate of MRSA isolation from pus, tissue and fluid (PTF) and blood culture (BC) specimens declined by 26% and 35%, respectively. The rate of isolation of the AUS-2/3-like phenotype (corresponding to ST239-MRSA-III) decreased from 651 to 242 isolates per million accrued patient days in inpatient PTF and BC, whereas that for non-multiresistant MRSA (nmMRSA, corresponding to community MRSA strains) increased from 71 to 315. The overall outpatient rate of MRSA isolation from PTF and BC increased by 224% and 31%, respectively. The rate of AUS-2/3-like isolates in outpatient PTF decreased from 131 to 60 per million outpatient occasions of service while the nmMRSA rate increased from 52 to 490. Surveillance of phenotypes derived from routine susceptibility data is a useful tool for tracking changes in the epidemiology of MRSA over large geographical regions.

  12. Improved Understanding of the Photosynthetic Response of Seven Rice Genotypes with Different Drought Sensitivity using Light and CO2 Response Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, B.; Basu, S.; Bereznyakov, D.; Pereira, A.; Naithani, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought across different agro-climatic regions of the world has the capacity to drastically impact the yield potential of rice. Consequently, there is growing interest in developing drought tolerant rice varieties with high yield. We parameterized two photosynthesis models based on light and CO2 response curves for seven different rice genotypes with different drought survival mechanisms: sensitive (Nipponbar, TEJ), resistance (Bengal, TRJ), avoidance by osmotic adjustment (Kaybonnet, TRJ; IRAT177, TRJ; N22, Aus; Vandana, Aus; and O Glabberrima, 316603). All rice genotypes were grown in greenhouse conditions (24 °C ± 3°C air temperature and ~ 600 μmol m-2 s-1 light intensity) with light/dark cycles of 10/14 h in water filled trays simulating flooded conditions. Measurements were conducted on fully grown plants (35 - 60 days old) under simulated flooded and drought conditions. Preliminary results have shown that the drought sensitive genotype, Nipponbare has the lowest photosynthetic carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) and a similar electron transport rate (Jmax) compared to the drought resistant genotype IRAT 177. Mitochondrial respiration (Rd) of all the genotypes were similar while quantum yield of the drought sensitive genotype was greater than that of the drought resistant genotypes. While both drought tolerant and drought sensitive rice genotypes have the same photosynthetic yield, from an irrigation perspective the former would require less 'drop per grain'. This has enormous economic and management implications on account of dwindling water resources across the world due to drought.

  13. How reliable is the ReaxFF Potential for Describing the Structure of Alkanethiols on Gold? A Molecular Dynamics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasumathi, V.; Cordeiro, Maria Natalia D. S.

    2014-03-01

    The structures of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of short (methyl) and long (hexyl) chain alkyl thiols on the clean gold (111) surface were modelled using for the Au-S interactions either the reactive ReaxFF potential or the well known non-reactive Morse potential, while for the Au-Au interactions either the ReaxFF potential or an embedded-atom method (EAM). Analysis of the MD trajectories of possible SAM structures suggests that disordering of interfacial Au atoms is definitely driven by the gold-sulphur interactions. Our MD results reveal a novel structure where two methanethiol molecules are bound to a gold adatom that has been lifted from the surface at 300 K, and the same kind of RS-Au-SR motif was also observed for hexanethiol at 600 K but not at 300 K. What is more, the above motif is only observed for the reactive ReaxFF potential. Moreover, these results are in clear agreement with recent experiments and more costly first principles-based MD simulations. These findings strongly support the use of reactive potentials such as ReaxFF for gathering an accurate description of Au-S interactions in inexpensive classical MD simulations.

  14. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  15. Is German Medical Education Research on the rise? An analysis of publications from the years 2004 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Ackel-Eisnach, Kristina; Raes, Patricia; Hönikl, Lisa; Bauer, Daniel; Wagener, Stefan; Möltner, Andreas; Jünger, Jana; Fischer, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Ausgangspunkt des vorliegenden Artikels ist die Feststellung, dass es aus Deutschland im Vergleich zu den angloamerikanischen Ländern oder den Niederlanden vor 2004 kaum internationale Publikationen im Bereich der medizinischen Ausbildungsforschung gab. In den letzten Jahren wurde jedoch eine steigende Bedeutung der medizinischen Ausbildungsforschung im deutschen Raum deutlich. Zielsetzung dieses Beitrags ist es zu prüfen, inwieweit sich in internationalen, englischsprachigen Fachzeitschriften im Themenfeld „Medizinische Ausbildungsforschung“ seit 2004 eine solche Entwicklung durch eine gesteigerte Publikationsaktivität belegen lässt. Methodik: Im Rahmen einer Literaturauswertung und Inhaltsanalyse wurden Artikel deutscher Autoren aus den Jahren 2004 bis 2013 in sechs internationalen englischsprachigen Fachzeitschriften der medizinischen Ausbildungsforschung analysiert. Um einen Überblick über die deutschen Forschungsaktivitäten in diesem Bereich zu bekommen, wurden alle Projekt- und Originalarbeiten deutscher Erst- und Letztautoren identifiziert und einer tiefergehenden inhaltlichen Analyse unterzogen. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden 10.055 Artikel untersucht. Die Auswertung zeigt, dass zwischen 2004 und 2013 179 Artikel – hiervon 145 Projekt- und Originalarbeiten – deutscher Autoren in den betrachteten Zeitschriften publiziert wurden. Es zeigen sich Schwankungen im Zeitverlauf. Bei den Projekt- und Originalarbeiten handelt sich vor allem um Querschnitt- (27,8%) und randomisierte Kontrollstudien (25,6%) zum Thema „Lehr- und Lernmethoden“ (43,6%). Schlussfolgerung: Seit 2009 zeigt sich ein deutlicher Anstieg der Publikationszahlen deutscher Ausbildungsforscher in internationalen Fachzeitschriften im Vergleich zu den Jahren 2004-2008.

  16. Face ethnicity and measurement reliability affect face recognition performance in developmental prosopagnosia: evidence from the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Australian.

    PubMed

    McKone, Elinor; Hall, Ashleigh; Pidcock, Madeleine; Palermo, Romina; Wilkinson, Ross B; Rivolta, Davide; Yovel, Galit; Davis, Joshua M; O'Connor, Kirsty B

    2011-03-01

    The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT, Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006) provides a validated format for testing novel face learning and has been a crucial instrument in the diagnosis of developmental prosopagnosia. Yet, some individuals who report everyday face recognition symptoms consistent with prosopagnosia, and are impaired on famous face tasks, perform normally on the CFMT. Possible reasons include measurement error, CFMT assessment of memory only at short delays, and a face set whose ethnicity is matched to only some Caucasian groups. We develop the "CFMT-Australian" (CFMT-Aus), which complements the CFMT-original by using ethnicity better matched to a different European subpopulation. Results confirm reliability (.88) and validity (convergent, divergent using cars, inversion effects). We show that face ethnicity within a race has subtle but clear effects on face processing even in normal participants (includes cross-over interaction for face ethnicity by perceiver country of origin in distinctiveness ratings). We show that CFMT-Aus clarifies diagnosis of prosopagnosia in 6 previously ambiguous cases. In 3 cases, this appears due to the better ethnic match to prosopagnosics. We also show that face memory at short (<3-min), 20-min, and 24-hr delays taps overlapping processes in normal participants. There is some suggestion that a form of prosopagnosia may exist that is long delay only and/or reflects failure to benefit from face repetition.

  17. [Rare anatomical variation of absence of the sciatic nerve: completely substituted by the tibial and common fibular nerve].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paulo; Melo, Catarina; Bernardes, António

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Existem várias publicações referindo variantes anatómicas do nervo ciático, algumas associadas a síndromes clínicos (como sendo a síndrome do músculo piriforme). Neste contexto, pretendemos apresentar uma variante anatómica rara do nervo ciático.Casos clínicos: Dois cadáveres leucodérmicos, masculinos, com 74 e 78 anos, falecidos de morte natural, sem patologia do membro inferior. Em ambos os casos, observou-se ausência do nervo ciático direito, tendo os nervos tibial e fibular comum origem e trajecto independentes, desde a sua origem nas raízes lombo-sagradas até à região poplítea. O nervo ciático contralateral apresentava a anatomia habitual.Discussão: Analisando a literatura, na Medline, realçamos que apresentamos dois casos raros de ausência do nervo ciático, com origem e trajecto independentes dos nervos tibial e fibular comum. Esta variante poderá ter implicações clínicas, nomeadamente ser um factor de risco para o insucesso de bloqueios anestésicos poplíteos e para a síndrome do músculo piriforme.

  18. Multimetallic complexes and functionalized gold nanoparticles based on a combination of d- and f-elements.

    PubMed

    Sung, Simon; Holmes, Holly; Wainwright, Luke; Toscani, Anita; Stasiuk, Graeme J; White, Andrew J P; Bell, Jimmy D; Wilton-Ely, James D E T

    2014-02-17

    The new DO3A-derived dithiocarbamate ligand, DO3A-(t)Bu-CS2K, is formed by treatment of the ammonium salt [DO3A-(t)Bu]HBr with K2CO3 and carbon disulfide. DO3A-(t)Bu-CS2K reacts with the ruthenium complexes cis-[RuCl2(dppm)2] and [Ru(CH═CHC6H4Me-4)Cl(CO)(BTD)(PPh3)2] (BTD = 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) to yield [Ru(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)(dppm)2](+) and [Ru(CH═CHC6H4Me-4)(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)(CO)(PPh3)2], respectively. Similarly, the group 10 metal complexes [Pd(C,N-C6H4CH2NMe2)Cl]2 and [PtCl2(PPh3)2] form the dithiocarbamate compounds, [Pd(C,N-C6H4CH2NMe2)(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)] and [Pt(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)(PPh3)2](+), under the same conditions. The linear gold complexes [Au(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)(PR3)] are formed by reaction of [AuCl(PR3)] (R = Ph, Cy) with DO3A-(t)Bu-CS2K. However, on reaction with [AuCl(tht)] (tht = tetrahydrothiophene), the homoleptic digold complex [Au(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)]2 is formed. Further homoleptic examples, [M(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)2] (M = Ni, Cu) and [Co(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)3], are formed from treatment of NiCl2·6H2O, Cu(OAc)2, or Co(OAc)2, respectively, with DO3A-(t)Bu-CS2K. The molecular structure of [Ni(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)2] was determined crystallographically. The tert-butyl ester protecting groups of [M(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)2] (M = Ni, Cu) and [Co(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)3] are cleaved by trifluoroacetic acid to afford the carboxylic acid products, [M(S2C-DO3A)2] (M = Ni, Cu) and [Co(S2C-DO3A)3]. Complexation with Gd(III) salts yields trimetallic [M(S2C-DO3A-Gd)2] (M = Ni, Cu) and tetrametallic [Co(S2C-DO3A-Gd)3], with r(1) values of 11.5 (Co) and 11.0 (Cu) mM(-1) s(-1) per Gd center. DO3A-(t)Bu-CS2K can also be used to prepare gold nanoparticles, Au@S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu, by displacement of the surface units from citrate-stabilized nanoparticles. This material can be transformed into the carboxylic acid derivative Au@S2C-DO3A by treatment with trifluoroacetic acid. Complexation with Gd(OTf)3 or GdCl3 affords Au@S2C-DO3A-Gd with an r(1) value of 4.7 mM(-1) s(-1) per chelate and 1500 mM(-1) s(-1) per

  19. Edelgase als Tracer für Wechselwirkungen von Krusten- und Mantelfluiden mit diamantführenden Gesteinen des östlichen Baltischen Schildes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas

    2001-11-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden anhand der Edelgaszusammensetzung von Kimberliten und Lamproiten sowie ihrer gesteinsbildenden Minerale die Wechselwirkungen dieser Gesteine mit Fluiden diskutiert. Die untersuchten Proben stammen vom östlichen Baltischen Schild, vom Kola-Kraton (Poria Guba und Kandalaksha) und vom karelischen Kraton (Kostamuksha). Edelgasanalysen nach thermischer oder mechanischer Gasextraktion von 23 Gesamtgesteinsproben und 15 Mineralseparaten ergeben folgendes Bild: Helium- und Neon-Isotopendaten der Fluideinschlüsse von Lamproiten aus Kostamuksha lassen auf den Einfluss einer fluiden Phase krustaler Herkunft schliessen. Diese Wechselwirkungen fanden wahrscheinlich schon während des Magmenaufstiegs statt, denn spätere Einflüsse krustaler Fluide auf die Lamproite und ihr Nebengestein (Quarzit) sind gering, wie anhand der C/36Ar-Zusammensetzung gezeigt wird. Auch sind die mit verschiedenen Datierungsmethoden (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ar) an Mineralseparaten und teilweise an Gesamtgestein ermittelten Alter konsistent und machen eine metamorphe Überprägung unwahrscheinlich. Aufgrund der Verteilung der primordialen Edelgasisotope zwischen Fluideinschlüssen und Gesteinsmatrix ist ein langsamer Magmenaufstieg anzunehmen, was die Möglichkeit der Kontamination mit einem krustalen Fluid während des Magmenaufstiegs erhöht. Die Gasextraktion aus Mineralseparaten erfolgte thermisch, wodurch eine Freisetzung der Gase ausschließlich aus Fluideinschlüssen nicht möglich ist. Hierbei zeigen Amphibol und Klinopyroxen, separiert aus Kostamuksha-Lamproiten, in ihrer Neon-Isotopenzusammensetzung im Vergleich zur krustalen Zusammensetzung (Kennedy et al., 1990) ein leicht erhöhtes Verhältnis von 20Ne/22Ne, was ein Hinweis auf Mantel-Neon sein könnte. Kalifeldspäte, Quarz und Karbonate enthalten dagegen nur Neon krustaler Zusammensetzung. Phlogopite haben sehr kleine Verhältnisse von 20Ne/22Ne und 21Ne/22Ne, zurückzuführen auf in-situ-Produktion von 22Ne

  20. Training of leadership skills in medical education.

    PubMed

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Krohn, Alexandra C; Angstwurm, Matthias; Fischer, Martin R

    2013-01-01

    Hintergrund: Eine effektive Zusammenarbeit in Teams ist eine wichtige Voraussetzung für qualitativ hochwertige Versorgung im Gesundheitswesen. In diesem Zusammenhang spielen auch Führungskompetenzen von Ärztinnen und Ärzten im klinischen Alltag eine wichtige Rolle. Bisher wurde die Entwicklung von Führungskompetenzen in medizinischen Curricula in der Aus- und Weiterbildung von Ärztinnen und Ärzten jedoch kaum systematisch abgebildet. Die Entwicklung adäquater und effektiver Trainingsmethoden für die Vermittlung von Führungskompetenzen ist daher wünschenswert. Ziel: Das Review soll vorliegende Ergebnisse der Literatur zu Trainings von Führungskompetenzen in der Medizin zusammenfassen und integrieren, um zukünftige Forschung und Trainingsentwicklung anzuregen. Methode: Die Datenbanken PubMED, ERIC, PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX und dem Academic search complete durch EBSCOhost wurden auf Deutsch und Englisch nach Trainings von Führungskompetenzen in der Medizin durchsucht. Relevante Artikel wurden identifiziert und die Studienergebnisse hinsichtlich des zugrundeliegenden Führungsverständnisses, der Zielgruppe und Teilnehmeranzahl, der zeitlichen Ressourcen, sowie der Inhalte und Methoden des Trainings, des Evaluationsdesigns und der berichteten Trainingseffekte zusammengefasst. Ergebnisse: Auf acht Studien trafen alle Einschluss- und kein Ausschlusskriterium zu. Die Trainings selbst sowie die thematisierten Führungskompetenzen differenzieren jedoch stark voneinander. Die Trainingsdesigns beinhalten im Schwerpunkt die theoretische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema Führung sowie die Diskussion von Fallstudien aus der Praxis. Die Dauer der Trainings reicht von mehrstündigen bis hin zu mehrjährigen Veranstaltungen. Die selbst eingeschätzte Reaktion der Teilnehmer auf alle Trainings war positiv; es fand jedoch bisher keine systematische Überprüfung des Trainingserfolgs in Bezug auf konkrete Verhaltensänderungen der Teilnehmer statt

  1. Examination of commercially available copper oxide wire particles in combination with albendazole for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H; Smyth, E; Acharya, M

    2016-01-15

    Control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) remains a critical issue due to the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance. The objective of the experiment was to determine the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) from three commercial sources and a combination of COWP and albendazole to control GIN and/or Haemonchus contortus in lambs. Naturally infected Katahdin lambs in early June 2014 and 2015 were randomly assigned to receive no COWP (CON; n=9 and 12) or 2g COWP in a gel capsule as Copasure(®) (COP; n=4 and 17; Animax Ltd.), copper oxide-wire form (AUS; n=7 in 2014 only; Pharmplex), Ultracruz™ (ULT; n=8 and 15; Santa Cruz Animal Health™), no COWP and albendazole (CON+alb; n=10 in 2015 only; 15mg/kg BW; Valbazen(®); Zoetis Animal Health), or COWP+alb (n=7 and 11; in 2014, lambs were administered alb on day 3). Lambs grazed grass pastures as a group and were supplemented with 227g/lamb daily of a commercial grain mix (15% crude protein) and the same amount of alfalfa pellets. Feces were collected on days 0 (day of COWP treatment), 7, and 14 for determination of fecal egg counts (FEC). Pooled (2014) or pooled treatment group feces were cultured on days 0, 7, and 14 (2015 only) to determine GIN genera. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in a mixed model, and FEC were log transformed. The predominant GIN on day 0 was H. contortus (87%) in 2014, and there was a mixed population in 2015. The mean FEC was reduced by day 7 in AUS and ULT lambs (treatment×day, P=0.001), and all of the COWP products were similar. By day 14, the AUS FEC were lower than the CON and COP groups. When examining the combination of COWP and synthetic anthelmintic, the FEC of COWP+alb were reduced to nearly 0eggs/g (back-transformed) and lower than the other groups (treatment×day, P=0.001). The percentage of H. contortus in cultured feces was reduced to a greater extent in the COWP than CON or CON+alb groups of lambs. In a mixed GIN population, the COWP products appeared to

  2. Introduction of the HAM-Nat examination--applicants and students admitted to the Medical Faculty in 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Werwick, Katrin; Winkler-Stuck, Kirstin; Hampe, Wolfgang; Albrecht, Peggy; Robra, Bernt-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Hintergrund/Zielsetzung: Die Medizinische Fakultät Magdeburg hat zum Wintersemester 2012/13 einen Wissenstest zur Auswahl ihrer Studienbewerber eingeführt. Das Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für medizinische Studiengänge - Naturwissenschaftsteil (HAM-Nat) umfasst einen Multiple Choice-Test mit Fragen zu medizinisch relevanten Aspekten der Fächer Biologie, Physik, Chemie und Mathematik, der speziell für die Auswahl von Medizinbewerbern entwickelt wurde. Es wird untersucht, wie der HAM-Nat die Studierendenauswahl beeinflusst, aus welchen Gründen sich Studierende im Rahmen des Bewerbungsverfahrens für die Teilnahme am Test entscheiden und welche Erwartungen sie an das Studium haben.Methodik: Die Auswahlverfahren der Hochschule 2011 (ohne HAM-Nat) und 2012-2014 (mit HAM-Nat) werden verglichen. Aufbauend auf den Ergebnissen explorativer Interviews wurden erstmalig Studienanfänger des Wintersemesters 2013/2014 zur Wahl von Studienfach und Studienort sowie zu ihren Erwartungen an das Studium schriftlich befragt. Ergebnisse: Das um den HAM-Nat-Test erweiterte Auswahlverfahren wurde problemlos eingeführt. Der HAM-Nat hatte einen großen Einfluss auf die Auswahlentscheidung. Rund 65% der Zugelassenen hätten bei ausschließlicher Berücksichtigung der Abiturnote keinen Studienplatz erhalten. Männliche Bewerber zeigten im Durchschnitt bessere HAM-Nat-Ergebnisse als weibliche. Den Fragebogen beantworteten 147 von 191 Studienanfängern(77%). Für Studienbewerber aus Sachsen-Anhalt sind Hauptgründe für die Wahl der Landeshauptstadt die regionale Nähe, das vorhandene soziale Umfeld, die guten Studienbedingungen und der Wohlfühlcharakter am Studienort. Für die Mehrzahl der Bewerber, insbesondere für Bewerber aus anderen Bundesländern, standen dagegen die relativ guten Zulassungschancen in Magdeburg im Vordergrund. Schlussfolgerung: Die Medizinische Fakultät Magdeburg sieht im HAM-Nat ein geeignetes Instrument, um Bewerber mit hervorragenden naturwissenschaftlichen

  3. Molecular alligator clips: a theoretical study of adsorption of S, Se and S H on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankefors, S.; Grigoriev, A.; Wendin, G.

    2003-08-01

    For the binding of thiols to Au, the Au-S interaction is decisive for the geometry, bonding strength and transmissivity of the metal-molecule interface. Using ab initio methods we investigate the adsorption of sulfur (S) on the Au(111) surface for different coverages between 0.25 and 1.0 monolayers (ML). Corresponding geometries with adsorbed Se are included to establish possible differences between S- and Se-based metal-molecule interfaces. We furthermore investigate hydrogenation of sulfur-covered Au(111) surfaces to establish the energetics and resulting geometry of adsorption of S-H groups on clean Au(111), using it as a simple model system. For the relatively low coverage of 0.25 ML the S and Se atoms are found to prefer the in-hollow sites, with Se displaying a substantially stronger bond. Increasing the coverage leads to depletion of available free charge in the gold surface, which weakens the bonds to the S (Se). Due to the more extensive hybridization, Se is more insensitive to the exact geometry, and the stacking fault position only costs 0.04 eV. At even higher coverage (0.75 ML) the adsorbed atoms hybridize internally and form triatomic molecules situated on top of the Au surface atoms. In S (Se) rich environments this turns out to be the most stable configuration investigated, while in S (Se) poor conditions the surface will adsorb all available S (Se). Forcing the system to adsorb atoms beyond this coverage increases the total energy. For all physically realizable coverages the Au-Se bond is found to be geq0.25 eV stronger than the corresponding Au-S bond. The Se bond also displays a higher degree of metallicity and should be expected to make a better head group for thiols, for example; this is relevant for both bonding and conductivity. Turning to the hydrogenated S systems we find that surfaces with a high coverage of S only weakly bind H at low partial hydrogenation, while H adsorption in systems with medium and low S concentrations is found to be

  4. Relationship between world-ranking and Olympic performance of swimmers.

    PubMed

    Trewin, Cassie B; Hopkins, William G; Pyne, David B

    2004-04-01

    Coaches believe world-ranking lists are a reliable tool for predicting international swimming performance. To examine the relationship between world-ranking and Olympic performance, we modelled world-ranking time and best time from the 2000 Olympic Games for 407 top-50 world-ranked swimmers. Analysis of log-transformed times yielded within-athlete and between-athlete coefficients of variation (CV) and percent changes in performance from world-rankings to Olympics. Variations and performance progressions were compared across sex, stroke, distance, nation and medal status. The within-athlete coefficient of variation of performance for all swimmers was 0.8% (95% confidence limits: 0.7 to 0.9%). Females were slightly less consistent, although not substantially different to males (ratio of female/male within-athlete CV: 1.1; 95% confidence limits: 1.0 to 1.2) and had a wider range of talent (ratio of female/male between-athlete CV: 1.2; 95% confidence limits: 1.1 to 1.4). Swimmers from Australia (AUS) were more consistent than those from the United States (USA) and other nations (OTHER) (ratio of within-athlete CV, USA/AUS: 1.5; 95% confidence limits: 1.0 to 2.2; OTHER/ AUS: 1.6; 95% confidence limits: 1.2 to 2.1). Most Olympic medallists (87%) had a top-10 world-ranking. Overall performance time at the Olympics was slower than world-ranking time by 0.3% (95% confidence limits: 0.2 to 0.4%), medallists improved by 0.6% (95% confidence limits: 0.4 to 0.9%) and non-medallists swam 0.6% slower (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 0.7%). We conclude that a top-10 ranked swimmer who can improve performance time by 0.6%, equivalent to 0.13 s in the men's 50-m freestyle, will substantially increase their chance of an Olympic medal (the difference between first and fourth place).

  5. Finding the right doctoral thesis - an innovative research fair for medical students.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Julius; Grabbert, Markus; Pander, Tanja; Gradel, Maximilian; Köhler, Lisa-Maria; Fischer, Martin R; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Einleitung: Die Forschung in der Medizin, wie sie auch im Rahmen des CanMEDS Modell beschrieben wird, genießt einen hohen Stellenwert. Viele Medizinstudierende in Deutschland beginnen schon während des Studiums mit der Arbeit an einem Promotionsprojekt. Eine große Anzahl dieser Projekte wird allerdings oft unvollendet abgebrochen, wodurch unnötig Ressourcen verschwendet werden. Ein Hauptgrund hierfür ist ein Mangel an Informationen über studentische Forschungsprojekte. Projektbeschreibung: Um diesem Mangel entgegenzuwirken, haben wir an der LMU München die jährlich stattfindende Veranstaltung DoktaMed ins Leben gerufen. Die Kombination von medizinischem Fachkongress und Forschungsmesse mit Vorträgen, Poster-Präsentationen und Workshops sowie einer großen Ausstellung der verschiedenen Arbeitsgruppen und Institute der LMU zieht jedes Jahr mehr als 500 Besucher an. Organisiert wird die DoktaMed als Peer-to-Peer-Veranstaltung von einem Team aus etwa 40 Studierenden.Ergebnisse: Eine Bedarfsanalyse vor der Einführung der DoktaMed identifizierte ein Informationsdefizit als eine wichtige Ursache für die hohe Rate abgebrochener Doktorarbeiten. In den jährlichen Evaluationen durch die Besucher der DoktaMed wird die Veranstaltung durchschnittlich mit der Note 2,1 auf einer sechsstufigen Likert-Skala bewertet (n=558, SD=1,06, 1=sehr gut, 6=sehr schlecht). Die Studierenden empfinden ihren Besuch auf der DoktaMed als sinnvoll investierte Zeit und fühlen sich anschließend besser zum Thema Doktorarbeit informiert. Diskussion: Insgesamt sind die Studierenden mit der Veranstaltung zufrieden und fühlen sich besser auf die Doktorarbeitssuche vorbereitet. Dennoch besuchen viele Studierende die Messe aus unterschiedlichen Gründen nicht. Eine Möglichkeit zur weiteren Verbesserung besteht darin, zusätzlich zu den experimentellen Arbeiten, auf die sich die DoktaMed momentan konzentriert, ein breiteres Angebot an klinischen Projekten zu pr

  6. Roles of vacuum tunnelling and contact mechanics in single-molecule thermopower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Yokota, Kazumichi; Morikawa, Takanori; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2017-03-01

    Molecular junction is a chemically-defined nanostructure whose discrete electronic states are expected to render enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit suitable for energy-harvesting applications. Here, we report on geometrical dependence of thermoelectricity in metal-molecule-metal structures. We performed simultaneous measurements of the electrical conductance and thermovoltage of aromatic molecules having different anchoring groups at room temperature in vacuum. We elucidated the mutual contributions of vacuum tunnelling on thermoelectricity in the short molecular bridges. We also found stretching-induced thermoelectric voltage enhancement in thiol-linked single-molecule bridges along with absence of the pulling effects in diamine counterparts, thereby suggested that the electromechanical effect would be a rather universal phenomenon in Au-S anchored molecular junctions that undergo substantial metal-molecule contact elongation upon stretching. The present results provide a novel concept for molecular design to achieve high thermopower with single-molecule junctions.

  7. Uncommon and Emissive {[Au2(C3H6NS2)2][Au(C3H6NS2)2]2(PF6)2} Mixed Au(+) and Au(3+) Pseudotetranuclear Crystalline Compound: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Langaro, Ana P; Souza, Ana K R; Morassuti, Claudio Y; Lima, Sandro M; Casagrande, Gleison A; Deflon, Victor M; Nunes, Luiz A O; Da Cunha Andrade, Luis H

    2016-11-23

    An uncommon emissive pseudotetranuclear compound, {[Au2(C3H6NS2)2][Au(C3H6NS2)2]2(PF6)2}, was synthesized and characterized in terms of its structure and optical properties. The synthesis produced a crystalline compound composed of four gold atoms with two different oxidation states (Au(+) and Au(3+)) in the same crystalline structure. The title complex belonged to a triclinic crystalline system involving the centrosymmetric P1̅ space group. X-ray diffractometry and vibrational spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, and SERS) were used for structural characterization of the new crystal. The vibrational spectroscopy techniques supported the X-ray diffraction results and confirmed the presence of bonds including Au-Au and Au-S. Optical characterization performed using UV-vis spectroscopy showed that under ultraviolet excitation, the emissive crystalline complex presented characteristic broad luminescent bands centered at 420 and 670 nm.

  8. Cost Effectiveness Study of Wastewater Management Systems for Selected U.S. Coast Guard Vessels. Volume 2. Effectiveness Assessment of Candidate Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    34tig (a) No q.al pPas am r~qued fmr te W1.1 stIbICtm, (b) Fe differeat cat4gone4 of "jwctat pain am r4e.ued In, the WIG sIontnm aof dtv aus few pars tao...CIA. __________ IF 04EAS-WGT-SUM NOT EQUAL IOC DISPLAY *MEASURES CO MCI TOTAL 1004 __ OTSPLAY ’RUN ANPOPUG 000164 GD TO 10J. TEST- V-Cl A...AE ______ AD 3RN- TO PG-C R. SOUP-CTA TO 14-PTAGEo.E-S WRT -LINE F-LINEI- ATER POSITIONING 0 LINES . _____ ____WRITE P-IN FROM DETAIL FE OIICdGILNS

  9. CASME II: An Improved Spontaneous Micro-Expression Database and the Baseline Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wen-Jing; Li, Xiaobai; Wang, Su-Jing; Zhao, Guoying; Liu, Yong-Jin; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Fu, Xiaolan

    2014-01-01

    A robust automatic micro-expression recognition system would have broad applications in national safety, police interrogation, and clinical diagnosis. Developing such a system requires high quality databases with sufficient training samples which are currently not available. We reviewed the previously developed micro-expression databases and built an improved one (CASME II), with higher temporal resolution (200 fps) and spatial resolution (about 280×340 pixels on facial area). We elicited participants' facial expressions in a well-controlled laboratory environment and proper illumination (such as removing light flickering). Among nearly 3000 facial movements, 247 micro-expressions were selected for the database with action units (AUs) and emotions labeled. For baseline evaluation, LBP-TOP and SVM were employed respectively for feature extraction and classifier with the leave-one-subject-out cross-validation method. The best performance is 63.41% for 5-class classification. PMID:24475068

  10. Zusatz- und Weiterqualifikation nach dem Studium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domnick, Ivonne

    Ist der Bachelor geschafft, stellt sich die Frage nach einer Weiterqualifizierung. Neben einem Einstieg ins Berufsleben kann auch ein Masterstudium eventuell weitere entscheidende Bonuspunkte für den Lebenslauf bringen. Mit Zusatzqualifikationen aus fachfremden Bereichen wie Betriebswirtschaft oder Marketing ist es für Naturwissenschaftler leichter, den Einstieg ins Berufsleben zu schaffen. Viele Arbeitgeber sehen gerade bei Naturwissenschaftlern eine Promotion gerne. Hier sollte genau abgewogen werden, ob sie innerhalb einer bestimmten Zeitspanne zu schaffen ist. Auch nach einem Einstieg in den Job lässt sich der Doktortitel unter Umständen noch nachholen. Ebenso ist eine Weiterbildung neben dem Beruf in Teilzeit oder in einem Fernkurs möglich. Zusätzlich gibt es viele mehrwöchige oder mehrmonatige Kurse privater Anbieter, in denen man BWL-Grundkenntnisse erwerben kann.

  11. Determining the amount of dust in the habitable zone: a Keck Nuller survey of 26 nearby main sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennesson, B.

    2010-10-01

    Because of contrast limitations at high angular resolution, direct observations of debris disks have so far been restricted to the outer (> 10AU) parts of nearby solar systems. The Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) was specifically designed to push this limit, and constrain exo-zodiacal emission originating from the "rocky planet forming region", i.e. from ∼0.1 AU to a few AUs. The characterization of exo-zodiacal light at these spatial scales is very revealing as it reflects the host system's specific distribution of planets, dust sources and sinks. Strong exo-zodi emission in the habitable zone is also important to identify, as it can be a hindrance to direct imaging of Earth-like exoplanets. We discuss here the results of a Keck Nuller exo-zodi program targeting 26 nearby main sequence stars, most of which with no previously known infrared excess.

  12. Nova Mus 2008 = QY Mus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2008-10-01

    Nova Mus 2008 = QY Mus was discovered by William Liller, Vina del Mar, Chile, on 2008 September 28.998 UT at magnitude 8.6 (Tech Pan film + orange filter). The position is RA = 13h 16m 36.44s , Dec = -67d 36m 47.8s (from P. Nelson). This object was announced as a nova in IAU Circular 8990 (Daniel W.E. Green, editor). The nova classification was determined using low-resolution spectra by W. Liller indicating the presence of broad H-alpha lines at least 2300 angstroms wide. Several observers confirmed the nova and provided photometry. The position above was provided by Peter Nelson (Ellinbank, Vic., Aus.), and is averaged from four separate exposures (rms error approx. 0.4 arcseconds). The GCVS team have formally designated Nova Mus 2008 as QY MUS. Observations should be reported to the AAVSO International Database as QY MUS.

  13. "Das Konkrete ist das Abstrakte, an das man sich schließlich gewöhnt hat." (Laurent Schwartz) Über den Ablauf des mathematischen Verstehens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowsky, Martin

    Die im Titel genannte Aussage findet sich in den Lebenserinnerungen von Laurent Schwartz (1915-2002), einem der fruchtbarsten Mathematiker, Mitglied der Gruppe Bourbaki. Im Original lautet die Aussage: "un objet concret est un objet abstrait auquel on a fini par s'habituer." Schwartz erläutert sie am Beispiel des Integrals über {e^{-1/2{x^2}}} , das den Wert Wurzel aus 2π hat und in dem sich also die Zahlen e und π verknüpfen. Was Schwartz aber vor allem ausdrücken will, ist dies: Das mathematische Verständnisd geht langsam vor sich und es bedarf der Anstrengung. "Es ist eine Frage der Zeit und der Energie", sagt Schwartz, und gerade dies mache es so schwer, die höhere Mathematik unter das Volk zu bringen. Das Lernen und Lehren von Mathematik laufe eben mühevoll und langsam ab.

  14. Fort Carson/Butts AAF, Colorado Limited Surface Observations Climatic Summary (LISOCS). Parts A - F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-19

    SUMARIZED BY THE STANDARD 3-HOUR TIME GROUPS BY MONTH, MONTHLY AND ANNUALLY (ALL YEARS COMBINED). E D FINITIOS : C THUNDERSTORMS: ALL REPORTED THUNDERSTORMS...AUS TEC011CLA-1, ~ . FL 4414 US CO ~DEC 1987 OhcFI!HcPY AD-,A186 -781 OPERATING -LOCATION A D EE USAFETACS Air Weaither Service (MAC) - "LIMITED...SLEET PRECIP HAZE SNOW SAND 10 085 IDRIZZLE VISION Z3-05 I I 06-08 .6 10.7 11.3 7.7 .3 8.0 698 119-11 I.1 12.6 12.6 81 .3 .1 8.4 741 li--14 I8.6 d .8

  15. Input-form data for the U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the Mississippian Barnett Shale of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, Kristen R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-07-15

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released an updated assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable shale gas and shale oil resources of the Mississippian Barnett Shale in north-central Texas (Marra and others, 2015). The Barnett Shale was assessed using the standard continuous (unconventional) methodology established by the USGS for two assessment units (AUs): (1) Barnett Continuous Gas AU, and (2) Barnett Mixed Continuous Gas and Oil AU. A third assessment unit, the Western Barnett Continuous Oil AU, was also defined but was not quantitatively assessed because of limited data within the extent of the AU. The purpose of this report is to provide supplemental documentation of the quantitative input parameters applied in the Barnett Shale assessment.

  16. Using the rear projection of the Socibot Desktop robot for creation of applications with facial expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gîlcă, G.; Bîzdoacă, N. G.; Diaconu, I.

    2016-08-01

    This article aims to implement some practical applications using the Socibot Desktop social robot. We mean to realize three applications: creating a speech sequence using the Kiosk menu of the browser interface, creating a program in the Virtual Robot browser interface and making a new guise to be loaded into the robot's memory in order to be projected onto it face. The first application is actually created in the Compose submenu that contains 5 file categories: audio, eyes, face, head, mood, this being helpful in the creation of the projected sequence. The second application is more complex, the completed program containing: audio files, speeches (can be created in over 20 languages), head movements, the robot's facial parameters function of each action units (AUs) of the facial muscles, its expressions and its line of sight. Last application aims to change the robot's appearance with the guise created by us. The guise was created in Adobe Photoshop and then loaded into the robot's memory.

  17. Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Wind River Basin Province which encompasses about 4.7 million acres in central Wyoming. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined three TPSs: (1) Phosphoria TPS, (2) Cretaceous-Tertiary TPS, and (3) Waltman TPS. Within these systems, 12 Assessment Units (AU) were defined and undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated within 10 of the 12 AUs.

  18. Stochastic Frontier approach and Data Envelopment Analysis to Total Factor Productivity and efficiency measurement of Bangladeshi rice.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Kamrul; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Baten, Md Azizul; Mustafa, Adli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply the Translog Stochastic Frontier production model (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate efficiencies over time and the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth rate for Bangladeshi rice crops (Aus, Aman and Boro) throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 1989-2008. Results indicate that technical efficiency was observed as higher for Boro among the three types of rice, but the overall technical efficiency of rice production was found around 50%. Although positive changes exist in TFP for the sample analyzed, the average growth rate of TFP for rice production was estimated at almost the same levels for both Translog SFA with half normal distribution and DEA. Estimated TFP from SFA is forecasted with ARIMA (2, 0, 0) model. ARIMA (1, 0, 0) model is used to forecast TFP of Aman from DEA estimation.

  19. Effects of Phase Noise and Thermal Noise upon Coherent PSK Demodulation and Their Impact on Phase Noise Specifications for Terminals of the Phase II DSCS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-01

    TDMA With PLL Noise Bandwidth of 100 Hz. Operation With Possible Phase 11 DS (S Noise Contributors and With Soft Decision (3-biti, Rate 1 2, Constraint...vith a fixed s )lh, lQ :t 11’ , it is tossilil t () ’ause the cairrier referen ce total phase error \\:i’lnt(c it) int’.cr S , ds e crease, or renain...Mod.F17 JF Lof-E(701) LOSF(’TH) LOSS(TOr) LOS1THi T/f CFF ) crp) (DB) (DB 71377k>6 >6 15rI . 7f-3 A.877PP >6 >6 300 P. 9A704 S. f7 ORd >6 >6 S,),3. 791

  20. SARCOPTERYGII, Fleischflosser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultze, Hans-Peter

    Unter den rezenten und fossilen Fischen sind die Sarcopterygier durch fleischige Loben an den paarigen Flossen charakterisiert. Fossil gehen sie bis in das Obere Silur (vor 420 Mio. Jahren) zurück. Einige Gruppen (†Onychodontida, †Porolepiformes, †Elpistostegalia) waren auf das Devon beschränkt, andere verschwanden gegen Ende des Paläozoikums (†Rhizodontida, †Osteolepiformes). Nur wenige Arten der Dipnoi (Lungenfische) und Actinistia (Hohlstachler) haben überlebt; aus einer ausgestorbenen Teilgruppe evolvierten die erfolgreichen Tetrapoda. Im Devon waren die Sarcopterygier weltweit verbreitet; ihre rezenten fischartigen Formen sind dagegen auf die Südkontinente bzw. den Indischen Ozean beschränkt. Ursprünglich waren alle Formen marin. Mehrmals unabhängig wurde von ihnen das Süßwasser und innerhalb der Tetrapoden vor allem das Land erobert.

  1. Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

  2. Concave Rhombic Dodecahedral Au Nanocatalyst with Multiple High-Index Facets for CO2 Reduction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Yang, Ki Dong; Yoon, Sang Moon; Ahn, Hyo-Yong; Lee, Yoon Young; Chang, Hyejin; Jeong, Dae Hong; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Kim, Mi Young; Nam, Ki Tae

    2015-08-25

    A concave rhombic dodecahedron (RD) gold nanoparticle was synthesized by adding 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) during growth from seeds. This shape is enclosed by stabilized facets of various high-indexes, such as (331), (221), and (553). Because it is driven thermodynamically and stabilized by 4-ATP ligands, the concave RD maintains its structure over a few months, even after rigorous electrochemical reactions. We discussed the mechanism of the shape evolution controlled by 4-ATP and found that both the binding energy of Au-S and the aromatic geometry of 4-ATP are major determinants of Au atom deposition during growth. As a possible application, we demonstrated that the concave RD exhibits superior electrocatalytic performance for the selective conversion of CO2 to CO in aqueous solution.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources, onshore Claiborne Group, United Statespart of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, P.C.; Ewing, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    The middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources using established U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology. This work was conducted as part of a 2007 assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, including the United States onshore and state waters (Dubiel et al., 2007). The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-CretaceousTertiary composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich, downdip, shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources, including the Jurassic Smackover Formation and the Haynesville and Bossier shales, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall (?) formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is currently ongoing. Primary reservoir sandstones in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data, including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AUs) with three distinctive structural and depositional settings. The three structural and depositional settings are (1) stable shelf, (2) expanded fault zone, and (3) slope and basin floor; the seven AUs are (1) lower Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (2) lower Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, (3) lower Claiborne slope and basin-floor gas, (4) lower Claiborne Cane River, (5) upper Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (6) upper Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, and (7) upper Claiborne slope and basin

  4. Entwicklung und Formulierung der Unternehmensstrategie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Isabel; Bergmann, Lars; Lacker, Thomas

    Ursprünglich stammt der Begriff "Strategie“ aus dem Altgriechischen: "strategos“ bedeutete "Heer“, "Heeresmacht“ und damit auch "konzentrierte Kraft“; das Wort "agein“ bedeutete "tun, machen, treiben“. Ein Stratege war also eine Person, die ein Heer führte und damit Kraft, Macht und Stärke konzentrierte und einsetzen konnte. Strategie bezeichnete dementsprechend die Maßnahmen, die in dieser Funktion entwickelt wurden. Daher ist es leicht verständlich, dass der Begriff Strategie bis in die Mitte des letzten Jahrhunderts in erster Linie militärisch verstanden wurde. Anschließend wurde der Begriff in weiteren Bereichen, wie beispielsweise der Unternehmensführung, verwendet. Im betriebswirtschaftlichen Sinne bedeutet der Begriff Strategie die langfristig geplante Verhaltensweise eines Unternehmens zur Erreichung seiner Ziele.

  5. Lastannahmen, Einwirkungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Winfried

    Sowohl die auf ein Tragwerk anzusetzenden Einwirkungen als auch die Widerstandswerte der verwendeten Baustoffe sind Streuungen unterworfen; aus diesem Grund kann der "Versagensfall“ im Allgemeinen nicht mit absoluter Sicherheit ausgeschlossen werden. Es werden daher rechnerische Versagenswahrscheinlichkeiten definiert, die für alle Tragwerke gleichermaßen erreicht werden sollen um so ein möglichst einheitliches Sicherheitsniveau zu erzielen. Dabei wäre es in wirtschaftlicher Hinsicht unsinnig, die "Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit“ z.B. für Anforderungen an das Erscheinungsbild oder an die Funktion eines Tragwerks ähnlich gering festzulegen wie z.B. für Anforderungen an die Sicherheit von Personen oder an die Sicherheit des Tragwerks.

  6. Statistische Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fließbach, Torsten

    In der Statistischen Physik befassen wir uns mit Systemen aus sehr vielen Teilchen. Beispiele hierfür sind die Atome eines Gases oder einer Flüssigkeit, die Phononen eines Festkörpers oder die Photonen in einem Plasma. Die Gesetze für die Bewegung einzelner Teilchen sind durch die Mechanik oder die Quantenmechanik gegeben. Aufgrund der großen Zahl der Teilchen (zum Beispiel N = 6 • 1023 für ein Mol eines Gases) sind die Bewegungsgleichungen jedoch nicht auswertbar. Das Ergebnis einer solchen Auswertung, also etwa die Bahnen von 6•1023 Teilchen, wäre auch uninteressant und irrelevant. Die Behandlung dieser Systeme erfolgt daher statistisch, das heißt auf der Grundlage von Annahmen über dieWahrscheinlichkeit verschiedener Bahnen oder Zustände.

  7. Die Sonne, Stern unserer Erde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.; Ehlers, A.

    Dieses reich bebilderte Buch gibt eine Einführung in die Physik der Sonne und ihre Bedeutung für die Erde. Gestützt auf neueste Forschungsergebnisse aus Radioteleskop- und Satellitenbeobachtungen beschreibt der Autor die gewaltigen atomenergetischen Prozesse der Sonne, ihren geheimnisvollen Neutrinofluß, ihre seismischen Aktivitäten, Magnetfelder und Sonnenflecke, Korona, Sonnenausbrüche und Protuberanzen, den Sonnenwind, und die außerordentlich wichtige und vielfältige Bedeutung des Sonnenlichts, das Leben auf der Erde entstehen läßt und es auch gefährdet. Gut verständlich und in ansprechender Sprache geschrieben ist es ein wunderbares Buch für den Leser populärwissenschaftlicher Literatur, ein wertvolles Geschenk für Studenten der Astronomie und verwandter Disziplinen sowie Amateurastronomen.

  8. Coronellis Cosmos in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaßner, Gottfried; Pärr, Nora

    2009-06-01

    Die Melker Stiftsbibliothek besitzt ein Globenpaar des berühmten venezianischen Globenbauers Vincenzo Coronelli (1650-1718), einen Erdglobus von 1688 und einen Himmelsglobus von 1693. Wie und wann die beiden Globen nach Melk gekommen sind, ist nicht bekannt. Dass sie zur ursprünglichen Ausstattung der 1735 fertig gestellten Barockbibliothek gehörten, wird aber aus der zentralen Stellung deutlich, die dem Globus (Erdglobus und Armillarphäre) in dem von Paul Troger 1732 gemalten Deckenfresko zukommt. Mehrfach begegnet das Motiv des Globus als Attribut der Weisheit bzw. Philosophie, der Geographie bzw. Geometrie und der Astronomie in den beiden Hauptsälen wie auch in der Deckenmalerei von Johann Bergl in der Oberen Bibliothek (1768) und in der Kuppel des Gartenpavillons (1764).

  9. Einleitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rill, Georg; Schaeffer, Thomas

    Mit immer leistungsfähigeren Digitalrechnern war und ist es möglich, dynamische Modelle bestehend aus mehreren Körpern zu berechnen. Die mathematischen Grundlagen der Mehrkörperdynamik haben Newton, Euler, d'Alembert, Lagrange und Hamilton geschaffen. Die ersten Mehrkörperprogramme wurden zwischen 1970 und 1980 entwickelt, (Kre79). Bei den Mehrkörpersystemen (MKS) wurden zunächst nur starre Körper verwendet. Elastische Körper waren der der Finite ElementMethode (FEM) vorbehalten. Kommerzielle Programme zur Simulation vonMehrkörpersystemen wie z. B. MSC.ADAMS, RecurDyn oder Simpack bieten heute die Möglichkeit, neben starren Körpern auch deformierbare Körper einzusetzen. Einen guten Einblick in den augenblicklichen Stand derMehrkörperdynamik bietet die Arbeit von Schiehlen, (Sch06).

  10. Regionalstatistik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppmann, Helmut; Fürnrohr, Michael

    Viele Aufgaben in Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft erfordern nicht nur globale, sondern auch regionale Lösungen. Die Regionalstatistik ist deshalb unentbehrlich für viele Planungs- und Entscheidungsprozesse. Ihren Ausbau und ihre Nutzung zu fördern, hat sich der Ausschuss für Regionalstatistik der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft zum Ziel gesetzt. Dieses Kapitel stellt zunächst einige Grundlagen der Regionalstatistik und die Aufgaben des Ausschusses dar. Es folgen das umfangreiche regionalstatistische Datenangebot der Statistischen Ämter des Bundes und der Länder und seine Nutzung. Ein ergänzender Abschnitt ist der Arbeit des Instituts für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung gewidmet. Das Kapitel schließt mit einem Ausblick auf die Weiterentwicklung des regionalstatistischen Datenangebotes aus Sicht der amtlichen Statistik.

  11. Kommunikationsanforderungen an verteilte Echtzeitsysteme in der Fertigungsautomatisierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, Roman; Trsek, Henning

    Kommunikationssysteme der Automatisierung müssen hohe zeitliche Anforderungen erfüllen, damit die entsprechenden industriellen Anwendungen realisiert werden können. Im Gegensatz zum IT-Bereich sind diese Anforderungen jedoch häufig nicht genau bekannt, was insbesondere beim Einsatz von drahtlosen Technologien Probleme bereiten kann1. In dieser Arbeit werden Verkehrsmuster einer realen Anlage aus dem Bereich der Fertigungsautomatisierung bestimmt. Die Zwischenankunfts- und Latenzzeiten einzelner Sensorund Aktorsignale ermöglichen Rückschlüsse auf zeitliche Anforderungen und Charakteristiken der untersuchten Anwendung. Im Anschluss werden die erzielten Erkenntnisse hinsichtlich ausgewählter Kommunikationsanforderungen analysiert und aktuell gültige Anforderungen von realen Automatisierungsanlagen abgeleitet. Weiterhin werden sie zukünftig zur Entwicklung realitätsnaher Simulationsmodelle genutzt.

  12. Approximation dreidimensionaler Oberflächenmodelle der Lippen-Kiefer-Gaumen-Region durch aktive Polygonnetze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichert, Frank; Ewerlin, Christoph; Büttner, Christian; Shamaa, Ali; Landes, Constantin; Linder, Roland; Wagner, Mathias

    In dieser Arbeit wird ein Verfahren zur Rekonstruktion eines dreidimensionalen Oberflächenmodells aus Serienschnitten vorgestellt, die sich von Lippen-Kiefer-Gaumenspalten (kurz LKG) ableiten und insbesondere die in der chirurgischen Behandlung relevanten medizinischen Strukturen berücksichtigen. Die Intention ist, ein aktives Polygonnetz (deformierbares Oberflächennetz) zur Rekonstruktion der Struktur zu verwenden. Initial wird ein Netzprototyp als grobe Approximation der Struktur erstellt und dann mithilfe eines Gradient Vector Flow (GVF)-Kraftfeldes deformiert. Inhärenter Aspekt der Deformation ist die Beachtung eines resultierenden überschneidungsfreien Oberflächennetzes. Die rekonstruierte Oberfläche eignet sich aufgrund ausgezeichneter Eigenschaften als Eingabe für eine Kräftesimulation mittels Finite-Elemente-Methoden.

  13. MediMax Elektronik-Marktkette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Die Elektronikkette MediMax setzt auf Server Based Computing mit Windows Server 2003® und Thin Clients. Mit über 100 Filialen ist MediMax die erfolgreiche Fachmarktlinie der ElectronicPartner-Verbundgruppe in Deutschland. Die Zugehörigkeit zum Mutterverbund garantiert den Franchisenehmern der Elektronikkette eine schnelle Warenversorgung und günstige Einkaufskonditionen. Über 50.000 Artikel zahlreicher namhafter Markenhersteller und unterschiedlicher Preisklassen sind ständig abrufbar. Darüber hinaus profitieren die Filialen von einer zentralen Organisation und Betreuung ihrer IT. Von Düsseldorf aus administriert ein internes Supportteam die Arbeitsplätze aller Standorte und stellt außerdem die Warenwirtschaftslösung zur Verfügung. Dank der Umstellung auf eine moderne Server Based Computing-Umgebung sind Wartung und Support künftig so effizient wie nie zuvor.

  14. Roles of vacuum tunnelling and contact mechanics in single-molecule thermopower

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Yokota, Kazumichi; Morikawa, Takanori; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2017-01-01

    Molecular junction is a chemically-defined nanostructure whose discrete electronic states are expected to render enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit suitable for energy-harvesting applications. Here, we report on geometrical dependence of thermoelectricity in metal-molecule-metal structures. We performed simultaneous measurements of the electrical conductance and thermovoltage of aromatic molecules having different anchoring groups at room temperature in vacuum. We elucidated the mutual contributions of vacuum tunnelling on thermoelectricity in the short molecular bridges. We also found stretching-induced thermoelectric voltage enhancement in thiol-linked single-molecule bridges along with absence of the pulling effects in diamine counterparts, thereby suggested that the electromechanical effect would be a rather universal phenomenon in Au-S anchored molecular junctions that undergo substantial metal-molecule contact elongation upon stretching. The present results provide a novel concept for molecular design to achieve high thermopower with single-molecule junctions. PMID:28281684

  15. Schlüsselkomponenten für Roboter in der Produktion Roboterhaut und Sicherheitskonzept für die Mensch-Roboter Kooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denkena, B.; Hesse, P.; Friederichs, J.; Wedler, A.

    Vorgestellt wird der Aufbau einer aktiven Sensor-Matrix zur Abstands- und Kontaktdetektion in der Robotik. Diese besteht aus einem Sensornetzwerk zur Fusion und Überlagerung differenter physikalischer Wirkprinzipien. Die Sicherheit der I2C-Bus Kommunikation, der Aufbau der Roboterhaut, Ergebnisse der Abstandsdetektion mit Infrarot-, und Ultraschallsensorik werden dargestellt. Ferner wurden Temperatur-, und Beschleunigungssensoren auf die Oberfläche der Roboterhaut aufgebracht um Informationen über die Umgebung sicher an ein übergeordnetes Leitsystem zu übertragen. Eine unterlagerte sichere Roboterhaut mit Kontaktdetektion zeigt als einfache Schlüsselkomponente ein analoges Ausschaltverhalten für geringe Latenzzeiten. Als Schluss wird auf den Einsatz an einem Industrieroboter in der Produktion ohne trennende Schutzeinrichtungen (OTS) eingegangen.

  16. Roles of vacuum tunnelling and contact mechanics in single-molecule thermopower.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Yokota, Kazumichi; Morikawa, Takanori; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2017-03-10

    Molecular junction is a chemically-defined nanostructure whose discrete electronic states are expected to render enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit suitable for energy-harvesting applications. Here, we report on geometrical dependence of thermoelectricity in metal-molecule-metal structures. We performed simultaneous measurements of the electrical conductance and thermovoltage of aromatic molecules having different anchoring groups at room temperature in vacuum. We elucidated the mutual contributions of vacuum tunnelling on thermoelectricity in the short molecular bridges. We also found stretching-induced thermoelectric voltage enhancement in thiol-linked single-molecule bridges along with absence of the pulling effects in diamine counterparts, thereby suggested that the electromechanical effect would be a rather universal phenomenon in Au-S anchored molecular junctions that undergo substantial metal-molecule contact elongation upon stretching. The present results provide a novel concept for molecular design to achieve high thermopower with single-molecule junctions.

  17. Catalog of databases and reports

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, M.D.

    1997-04-01

    This catalog provides information about the many reports and materials made available by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Global Change Research Program (GCRP) and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The catalog is divided into nine sections plus the author and title indexes: Section A--US Department of Energy Global Change Research Program Research Plans and Summaries; Section B--US Department of Energy Global Change Research Program Technical Reports; Section C--US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Reports; Section D--Other US Department of Energy Reports; Section E--CDIAC Reports; Section F--CDIAC Numeric Data and Computer Model Distribution; Section G--Other Databases Distributed by CDIAC; Section H--US Department of Agriculture Reports on Response of Vegetation to Carbon Dioxide; and Section I--Other Publications.

  18. Conditioned inhibition of autonomic Pavlovian conditioning in humans.

    PubMed

    Neumann, D L; Lipp, O V; Siddle, D A

    1997-10-10

    The present study aimed to demonstrate conditioned inhibition of Pavlovian conditioning of autonomic responses in humans. Subjects (N = 21) were presented initially with four geometric shapes (A, B, C and D). An electric shock served as the unconditioned stimulus (US) during acquisition. Conditional stimuli lasted for 8 s and US onset coincided with CS offset. Subjects were trained with A-US, C-US, and AC-US pairings and AB alone and B alone presentations. The subsequent summation test consisted of C-US pairings and CB alone and CD alone presentations. Conditioning was evident in self-reported US expectancy and first and second interval electrodermal responses. Evidence for conditioned inhibition during the summation test was found in US expectancy and second interval electrodermal responses.

  19. Bauaufsichtliche Regelungen für Bauwerksabdichtungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Christian

    Bauaufsichtliche Regelungen beziehen sich auf alle baulichen Anlagen im öffentlichen und privaten Bereich, die in den Anwendungsbereich der Bauordnungen der Länder (LBO) [6.1] §1 fallen. Die LBO basieren auf der Musterbauordnung (MBO) [6.2], sie können länderspezifische Abweichungen enthalten. Die Bauordnungen dienen der Einhaltung der aus öffentlich rechtlicher Sicht als notwendig angesehenen Schutzziele für die Planung und Errichtung baulicher Anlagen in Deutschland. Danach sind bauliche Anlagen so anzuordnen, zu errichten, zu ändern und instand zu halten, dass die öffentliche Sicherheit und Ordnung, der Schutz von Leben, Gesundheit und die natürlichen Lebensgrundlagen nicht gefährdet werden (MBO §3(1)). Bauaufsichtliche Regelungen sind als öffentlich rechtliche Regelungen verbindlich. Sie sind immer einzuhalten und dürfen nicht durch privatrechtliche Vertragsgestaltungen abgeändert oder ausgesetzt werden.

  20. On the production of radium isotopes from uranium caused by irradiation with fast and decelerated neutrons⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, O.; Strassmann, F.

    2016-10-01

    Received November 8, 1938; published November 18, 1938The article is a translation of the German original published as Hahn, O., Strassmann, F. Über die Entstehung von Radiumisotopen aus Uran durch Bestrahlen mit schnellen und verlangsamten Neutronen. Naturwissenschaften 46: 755-756, 1938.The current translation is by Georg Steinhauser, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institut für Radioökologie und Strahlenschutz, Hannover, Germany; steinhauser@irs.uni-hannover.de. An attempt has been made to preserve Hahn's and Strassmann's writing style as much as possible. However, scientific German often uses the passive voice which is not always translated properly to English. Also the typically long German sentences sometimes had to be shortened for better English style. The references were converted to EPJH style, and the footnotes are numbered consecutively.

  1. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600)

    PubMed Central

    Buchheit, Martin; Hammond, Kristal; Bourdon, Pitre C.; Simpson, Ben M.; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.; Schmidt, Walter F.; Gore, Christopher J.; Aughey, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS) and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL) native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1) was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h-1 (D>14.4 km·h-1) and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1) were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohen’s d +1.0, 90%CL ± 0.8) and D>14.4 km·h-1 (+0.5 ± 0.8) in AUS. D>14.4 km.h-1 was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 ± 0.8). Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 km·h-1 increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL ± 6.7); conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match ± 6.2). In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in ‘fitness’ do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity. Key points When playing at high-altitude, players may alter their activities during matches in relation to their transient maximal physical capacities, possibly to maintain a ‘tolerable’ relative exercise intensity. While there is no doubt that running performance per se in not the main determinant of match outcomes (Carling, 2013), fitness levels influence relative match intensity (Buchheit et al., 2012, Mendez-Villanueva et al., 2013), which in-turn may impact on decision making and skill performance (Rampinini et al., 2008). In the context of

  2. Retrospective Revaluation: The Phenomenon and Its Theoretical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ralph R.; Witnauer, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective revaluation refers to an increase (or decrease) in responding to conditioned stimulus (CS X) as a result of decreasing (or increasing) the associative strength of another CS (A) with respect to the unconditioned stimulus (i.e., A-US) that was previously trained in compound with the target CS (e.g., AX−US or just AX). We discuss the conditions under which retrospective revaluation phenomena are most apt to be observed and their implications for various models of learning that are able to account for retrospective revaluation (e.g., Dickinson and Burke, 1996; Miller and Matzel, 1988; Van Hamme and Wasserman, 1994). Although retroactive revaluation is relatively parameter specific, it is seen to be a reliable phenomenon observed across many tasks and species. As it is not anticipated by many conventional models of learning (e.g., Rescorla and Wagner, 1972), it serves as a critical benchmark for evaluating traditional and newer models. PMID:26342855

  3. Salinity tolerance loci revealed in rice using high-throughput non-invasive phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tamimi, Nadia; Brien, Chris; Oakey, Helena; Berger, Bettina; Saade, Stephanie; Ho, Yung Shwen; Schmöckel, Sandra M.; Tester, Mark; Negrão, Sónia

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput phenotyping produces multiple measurements over time, which require new methods of analyses that are flexible in their quantification of plant growth and transpiration, yet are computationally economic. Here we develop such analyses and apply this to a rice population genotyped with a 700k SNP high-density array. Two rice diversity panels, indica and aus, containing a total of 553 genotypes, are phenotyped in waterlogged conditions. Using cubic smoothing splines to estimate plant growth and transpiration, we identify four time intervals that characterize the early responses of rice to salinity. Relative growth rate, transpiration rate and transpiration use efficiency (TUE) are analysed using a new association model that takes into account the interaction between treatment (control and salt) and genetic marker. This model allows the identification of previously undetected loci affecting TUE on chromosome 11, providing insights into the early responses of rice to salinity, in particular into the effects of salinity on plant growth and transpiration. PMID:27853175

  4. Influence of α-amylase template concentration on systematic entrapment of highly stable and monodispersed colloidal gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, A. Nitthin; Ananth, A. Nimrodh; Jose, Sujin P.; Umapathy, S.; Mathavan, T.

    2016-01-01

    Nano gold / α-amylase colloidal dispersions of profound stability were made using simple procedure with a conventional reducing agent. The surface plasmon resonance of the gold nanocrystals was used to quantify the extent of the dispersion stability and functionalization. It is found that the reduced gold nanoparticles were trapped into the protein network without denaturation the structure of α-amylase protein. This kind of entrapment of particles into the protein network prevents clustering of individual gold nanoparticles (6.42 nm ± 0.92 nm) by acting as a natural spacer. Systematic entrapment was facilitated by the affinity of gold to the sulfur moieties (Au-S) in the protein structure.

  5. Evaluation der zentralen TUM-Lernplattform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Elvira; Baume, Matthias; Graf, Stephan; Gergintchev, Ivan

    Die Notwendigkeit der Qualitätssicherung und -kontrolle für innovative universitäre Lehr-/Lernszenarien ist in der Praxis unbestritten. Die Wirksamkeit der Einführung der zentralen Lernplattform CLIX Campus der imc AG an der TUM wurde mittels quantitativer und qualitativer Evaluation überprüft. Als statistische Bewertungsgrundlage wurde der Erreichungsgrad bestimmter Projektziele herangezogen. Aufbauend auf den theoretischen Grundlagen der Evaluation von Bildungsangeboten gibt diese Studie Aufschluss über die Ergebnisse der Datenerhebungen sowie die Einschätzung der Plattform aus Nutzersicht und belegt die wesentliche Bedeutung der durchgängigen IT-Infrastruktur und speziell der einheitlichen Verfügbarkeit der eLearning Angebote.

  6. SPICES: Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems - From Planetary Disks To Nearby Super Earths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccaletti, Anthony; Schneider, Jean; Traub, Wes; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Stam, Daphne; Gratton, Raffaele; Trauger, John; Cahoy, Kerri; Snik, Frans; Baudoz, Pierre; Galicher, Raphael; Reess, Jean-Michel; Mawet, Demitri; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Patience, Jenny; Kuchner, Marc; Wyatt, Mark; Pantin, Eric; Maire, Anne-Lise; Verinaud, Christophe; Ronayette, Samuel; Dubreuil, Didier; Belikov, Russ; Marley, M.; Stapelfeldt, K.

    2012-01-01

    SPICES (Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems) is a five-year M-class mission proposed to ESA Cosmic Vision. Its purpose is to image and characterize long-period extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks in the visible (450-900 nm) at a spectral resolution of about 40 using both spectroscopy and polarimetry. By 2020/2022, present and near-term instruments will have found several tens of planets that SPICES will be able to observe and study in detail. Equipped with a 1.5 m telescope, SPICES can preferentially access exoplanets located at several AUs (0.5-10 AU) from nearby stars (less than 25 pc) with masses ranging from a few Jupiter masses to Super Earths (approximately 2 Earth radii, approximately 10 mass compared to Earth) as well as circumstellar disks as faint as a few times the zodiacal light in the Solar System.

  7. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the Southwestern Wyoming Province, Wyoming, Colorado and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Southwestern Wyoming Province of southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah (fig. 1). The USGS Southwestern Wyoming Province for this assessment included the Green River Basin, Moxa arch, Hoback Basin, Sandy Bend arch, Rock Springs uplift, Great Divide Basin, Wamsutter arch, Washakie Basin, Cherokee ridge, and the Sand Wash Basin. The assessment of the Southwestern Wyoming Province is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy, petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap types, formation, and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 9 total petroleum systems (TPS) and 23 assessment units (AU) within these TPSs, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered oil and gas resources within 21 of the 23 AUs.

  8. Ab Initio Calculations of Spin-Orbit Coupling for Heavy-Metal Containing Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lan

    2016-06-01

    The perturbative treatment of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on top of scalar-relativistic calculations is a cost-effective alternative to rigorous fully relativistic calculations. In this work the applicability of the perturbative scheme in the framework of spin-free exact two-component theory is demonstrated with calculations of SO splittings and SOC contributions to molecular properties in small heavy-metal containing radicals, including AuO, AuS, and ThO^+. The equation of motion coupled cluster techniques have been used to accurately account for the electron-correlation effects in these radicals, and basis-set effects are carefully analyzed. The computed results are compared with experimental measurements for SO splittings and dipole moments when available.

  9. Darwin, Engels und die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen und kulturellen Evolution des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichholf, Josef H.

    Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen und die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet und vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit und der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.

  10. Engineering Fungal Nonreducing Polyketide Synthase by Heterologous Expression and Domain Swapping

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Hsu-Hua; Chang, Shu-Lin; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Oakley, Berl R.; Wu, Tung-Kung; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2013-02-15

    Heterologous expression of the A. niger NR-PKS gene, e_gw1_19.204 and the adjacent stand-alone R domain gene, est_GWPlus_C_190476 in A. nidulans demonstrated that they belong to a single gene named dtbA. The DtbA protein produces two polyketides, 2,4-dihydroxy-3,5,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde 1 and 2-ethyl-4,6-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde 2. Generation of DtbA+R-TE chimeric PKSs by swapping the DtbA R domain with the AusA (austinol biosynthesis) or ANID_06448 TE domain enabled the production of two metabolites with carboxylic acids replacing the corresponding aldehydes.

  11. Mono- and bi-functional arenethiols as surfactants for gold nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Floriana; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Battocchio, Chiara; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Tapfer, Leander; Russo, Maria Vittoria; Polzonetti, Giovanni; Giannini, Cinzia

    2011-12-01

    Stable gold nanoparticles stabilized by different mono and bi-functional arenethiols, namely, benzylthiol and 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol, have been prepared by using a modified Brust's two-phase synthesis. The size, shape, and crystalline structure of the gold nanoparticles have been determined by high-resolution electron microscopy and full-pattern X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Nanocrystals diameters have been tuned in the range 2 ÷ 9 nm by a proper variation of Au/S molar ratio. The chemical composition of gold nanoparticles and their interaction with thiols have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In particular, the formation of networks has been observed with interconnected gold nanoparticles containing 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol as ligand.

  12. Tensoren und Felder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirschmid, Hans J.

    Das Lehrbuch soll Studierende mit Grundkenntnissen der Differential- und Integralrechnung in die klassische Feldtheorie mit modernen mathematischen Methoden einführen. Dementsprechend ist die Tensoranalysis das mathematische Thema, das Prinzip der Relativität das physikalische. Aus didaktischen Erwägungen gliedert sich der Text in zwei Teile. Um den Leser mit den Objekten vertraut zu machen, wird zunächst der affine und euklidische Raum zugrundegelegt, um verallgemeinernd zur Geometrie auf Mannigfaltigkeiten und Riemannschen Räumen überleiten zu können. Im Anschluß an die mathematische Theorie wird in die spezielle und allgemeine Relativitätstheorie eingeführt, wobei die Geometrie der Raum-Zeit, die Grundgesetze der Elektrodynamik und der Gravitation sowie Folgerungen zur Sprache kommen.

  13. Personnel Readiness Indicator Model (PRIM) Documentation User Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    PFMOSPOL34. RUSE 3f..PFISMOP03S. aUSE 36.PFI SMOEX36. &USE 39.PFJOBASVAL39. USE 9C.,PFA s N 0. U SE -.. PFE IPOLJ3. a - .----- ------- ASSIGN TEMPORARY...FILES.PARAM4ETER,PFPARAPET17. aASG A PFNUMBPEOP2I. ! ASG:A PFJO A SVAL4C.iASG,A PFEXCPEOP42ti/i5oco a ASG,A PFUNFIhLEOS1,/U/SCOO aaG PFNETOUT2 Cl G:T PFE ...ILCOUT= PFE XPEOGRA󈧯. KEY:1,9,. A aENO aSORTS FILEI IPF I14FILLGR539 F ILtOUTZPFUNF ILLGP53. EY=10 19 S A iSOPI #ES FILEIN:PF ASSIGNGR63. F

  14. Active AU Based Patch Weighting for Facial Expression Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Weicheng; Shen, Linlin; Yang, Meng; Lai, Zhihui

    2017-01-01

    Facial expression has many applications in human-computer interaction. Although feature extraction and selection have been well studied, the specificity of each expression variation is not fully explored in state-of-the-art works. In this work, the problem of multiclass expression recognition is converted into triplet-wise expression recognition. For each expression triplet, a new feature optimization model based on action unit (AU) weighting and patch weight optimization is proposed to represent the specificity of the expression triplet. The sparse representation-based approach is then proposed to detect the active AUs of the testing sample for better generalization. The algorithm achieved competitive accuracies of 89.67% and 94.09% for the Jaffe and Cohn–Kanade (CK+) databases, respectively. Better cross-database performance has also been observed. PMID:28146094

  15. The Formation and Binding of Gold Nanoparticles onto Wool Fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, James H.; Burridge, Kerstin A.; Kelly, Fern M.

    2009-07-23

    This paper presents the novel use of nanosize gold with different plasmon resonance colours, as stable colourfast colourants on wool fibres for use in high quality fabrics and textiles. The gold nanoparticles are synthesised by the controlled reduction of Au{sup 3+} in the AuCl{sub 4}{sup -} complex to Au{sup 0} onto the surface of the wool where they attach to the S in the cystine amino acids in wool keratin proteins. Scanning electronmicroscopy shows the nanoparticles are present on the cuticles of the fibre surface and are concentrated at the edges of these cuticles. EDS analysis shows a strong correlation of Au with S and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests Au-S bond formation. Hence the nanogold colourants are chemically bound to the wool fibre surface and do not fade as traditional organic dyes do. A range of coloured fibres have been produced.

  16. A comparative DFT study of interactions of Au and small gold clusters Aun (n = 2-4) with CH3S and CH2 radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaško, Martin; Rajský, Tomáš; Urban, Miroslav

    2017-03-01

    We compare DFT binding energies (BEs) of Au and small gold clusters interacting with CH3S and CH2 ligands (Aun-L complexes, n = 1-4). The spin state and the binding mechanism in Aun-L varies with the participation of singly occupied non-bonding orbitals or doubly occupied lone-pair orbitals of a ligand and on the number of atoms (even or odd) of Aun. The highest BE, 354 kJ/mol, exhibits the Au3-CH2 complex with the covalent bond in which participate two singly occupied orbitals of the triplet state of CH2. With CH3S the highest BE (277 kJ/mol) is calculated for Au3-SCH3 with the single Au-S bond.

  17. Die Struktur von schlankem Materialfluss mit Lean Production Kanban und Innovationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Wolf-Michael

    In der Literatur wird Materialfluss überwiegend in Spezialdisziplinen betrachtet, etwa der Steuerungslogik, der Logistiktechnik oder dem Supply Chain Management. Ein charakterisierendes Merkmal des Materialflusses ist jedoch, dass er sich aus vielfältigen Einzelbausteinen zusammensetzt, die alle harmonisch abgestimmt sein müssen. Die maximal erreichbare Effizienz wird nicht durch Höchstleistungen in dem einen oder anderen Spezialthema bestimmt, sondern durch das schwächste Glied im gesamten komplexen Netzwerk. Den Schnittstellen zwischen den betroffenen Fachbereichen in einem Unternehmen kommt hier eine ganz besondere Bedeutung zu: Erst ein harmonischer Einklang ermöglicht hohe Effektivität. Dies setzt umfassendes Verständnis für interdisziplinäre Notwendigkeiten, ein hohes Maß an Abstimmung mit den operativen Prozessen und letztlich einen einvernehmlichen Umgang und den Respekt vor den Problemstellungen des Anderen voraus.

  18. Map of assessed tight-gas resources in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R. H.; ,

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a digital map of tight-gas resource assessments in the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas resources within tight-gas assessment units (AUs). This is the second digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hard-copy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, including an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and published map file (.pmf). In addition, the publication access table contains hyperlinks to current USGS tight-gas assessment publications and web pages.

  19. Map of assessed coalbed-gas resources in the United States, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a digital map of coalbed-gas resource assessments in the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas resources within coalbed-gas assessment units (AUs). This is the third digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, including an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and published map file (.pmf). In addition, the publication access table contains hyperlinks to current USGS coalbed-gas assessment publications and web pages.

  20. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers. In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness. While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. PMID:22769050