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Sample records for 002d 002d 002d

  1. 40 CFR 180.284 - Zinc phosphide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., tops 0.2 Grape 0.01 Grass, rangeland, forage 0.1 Grass, rangeland, hay 0.1 Potato 0.05 Sugarcane, cane..., straw 0.05 (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with regional registrations. Tolerances..., tops 0.02 (d) Indirect or inadvertent residues....

  2. Effects of a Combined Therapy With D-002 (Beeswax Alcohols) Plus D-003 (Sugarcane Wax Acids) on Osteoarthritis Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Puente, Roberto Antonio; Illnait, José; Mas, Rosa María; Carbajal, Daisy María; Mendoza, Sarahí; Ceballos, Alfredo; Fernández, Julio César; Mesa, Meilis; Reyes, Pablo; Ruiz, Dalmer

    2016-06-01

    Context • Nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs effectively relieve osteoarthritis (OA) symptoms but also induce adverse effects (AEs) that limit their long-term use, which drives a search for safer treatments. D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols, and D-003, a mixture of sugarcane wax acids, have been effective in experimental and clinical studies for patients with OA. Objective • The study intended to investigate the effects on OA symptoms of a combined therapy using D-002 and D-003 (D-002/D-003), which were administered for 6 wk. Design • The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting • The study was conducted at the Surgical Medical Research Center in Havana, Cuba. Participants • Participants were patients with mild-to-moderate OA. Intervention • Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups-(1) a control group, which received a placebo; (2) the D-002 group (intervention group), which received 50 mg/d of D-002; (3) the D-003 group (intervention group), which received 10 mg/d of D-003; or (4) the D-002/D-003 group (intervention group), which received a combined therapy of 50 mg/d of D-002 plus 10 mg/d of D-003. The control group received tablets that were indistinguishable in appearance from the D-002 and D-003 tablets and had a similar composition, except that the active ingredients were replaced by lactose. The groups took the medications once per day for 6 wk. Outcome Measures • Symptoms were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Individual Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and a visual analogue scale (VAS). The primary outcome was the reduction in the total WOMAC score. The subscale scores on the WOMAC for pain, stiffness, and physical function, the VAS scores, and the use of rescue medications were secondary outcomes. Results • Of the 120 enrolled participants, 116 completed the study. The treatments with D-002, D-003, and D-002/D-003 reduced the mean total WOMAC scores significantly from baseline to

  3. The photometric variability of ζ Ori Aa observed by BRITE* **

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buysschaert, B.; Neiner, C.

    2016-12-01

    Using BRITE photometry, we investigated the photometric variability of the magnetic O-type supergiant ζOri Aa. We found two independent frequencies, leading to several higher harmonics and simple linear combinations. One frequency is related to the rotation period, f_{rot} = 0.15±0.02 d^{-1}. The derived rotation period from this frequency and its higher harmonics, P_{rot} = 6.65±0.28 d, is compatible with the literature value (P_{rot} = 6.83±0.08 d). Thanks to simultaneous CHIRON spectroscopy, we locate the origin of the second frequency, f_{env} = 0.10±0.02 d^{-1}, at the circumstellar environment. We propose mass-loss events as the underlying origin.

  4. Process Research and Development of Antibodies as Countermeasures for C. Botulinum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Concentrations of the components in the control media. Components Composition (mg/L) CaCl2 (anhyd.) 99.1 CuSO4 *5H2O 0.00125 FeSO4*7H2O 0.415...18.37 L-Threonine 83.3 L-Tryptophan 17.8 L-Tyrosine*2Na* 2H2O 63 L-Valine 81.9 Biotin 0.02 D-Ca Pantothenate 4 Choline Chloride 18 Folic Acid 4 i

  5. Statistical signature of active D-region HF heating in IRIS riometer data from 1994-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kero, A.; Enell, C.-F.; Ulich, Th.; Turunen, E.; Rietveld, M. T.; Honary, F. H.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we study the effect of artificial HF heating on cosmic radio noise absorption in the D-region ionosphere. The effect has earlier been studied theoretically in idealised cases and without experimental verification. Here we present a 3-dimensional modelling of the effect, taking into account the directivity patterns of the vertical beam of the EISCAT Heater at Tromsø, Norway, and the intersecting beam of the IRIS imaging riometer at Kilpisjärvi, Finland. The heater-induced enhancement of cosmic radio noise absorption at the IRIS frequency (38.2 MHz) is estimated to be between 0.02 dB and 0.05 dB in the most representative model cases. However, a statistical study of IRIS data from a selected set of heating experiments carried out during the years 1994-2004 shows that the median effect is between 0.002 dB and 0.004 dB, i.e. an order of magnitude less than theoretically predicted. This indicates that the actual HF heating effect at D-region altitudes is substantially overestimated by the present theory.

  6. Rotation period of Venus estimated from Venus Express VIRTIS images and Magellan altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, N. T.; Helbert, J.; Erard, S.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.

    2012-02-01

    The 1.02 μm wavelength thermal emission of the nightside of Venus is strongly anti-correlated to the elevation of the surface. The VIRTIS instrument on Venus Express has mapped this emission and therefore gives evidence for the orientation of Venus between 2006 and 2008. The Magellan mission provided a global altimetry data set recorded between 1990 and 1992. Comparison of these two data sets reveals a deviation in longitude indicating that the rotation of the planet is not fully described by the orientation model recommended by the IAU. This deviation is sufficiently large to affect estimates of surface emissivity from infrared imaging. A revised period of rotation of Venus of 243.023 ± 0.002 d aligns the two data sets. This period of rotation agrees with pre-Magellan estimates but is significantly different from the commonly accepted value of 243.0185 ± 0.0001 d estimated from Magellan radar images. It is possible that this discrepancy stems from a length of day variation with the value of 243.023 ± 0.002 d representing the average of the rotation period over 16 years.

  7. Digital test signal generation: An accurate SNR calibration approach for the DSN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez-Luaces, B. O.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of generating analog test signals with accurate signal to noise ratios (SNRs) is described. High accuracy will be obtained by simultaneous generation of digital noise and signal spectra at a given baseband or bandpass limited bandwidth. The digital synthesis will provide a test signal embedded in noise with the statistical properties of a stationary random process. Accuracy will only be dependent on test integration time with a limit imposed by the system quantization noise (expected to be 0.02 dB). Setability will be approximately 0.1 dB. The first digital SNR generator to provide baseband test signals is being built and will be available in early 1991.

  8. Annual Conference on HAN-Based Liquid Propellants. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    58 Chromium 7 - Copper 8 & 59 4 Teflon 05-026® 9 & 60 5 Teflon 05-002D 10 & 61 6 Nylon 05-037 11 & 62 7 Polyamide 05-036 12 & 63 9 17 - 4PH 13 & 64 13...620C--- • " 17 - 4PH 0 POLYAMIDE 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 DAYS OF TEST 319 Gas Analysis * Gas samples taken via syringe through rubber...0.010 12 17 - 4PH 30 - - ɘ.30 ɘ.010 13 Poco Graphite® 30 0.63 0.40 1.03 0.034 14 Everlube 620C® 30 - - ɘ.30 ɘ.010 15 Nibronze 30 2.8 2.31 5.11 0.170 16

  9. Yb³⁺-doped large core silica fiber for fiber laser prepared by glass phase-separation technology.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yingbo; Ma, Yunxiu; Yang, Yu; Liao, Lei; Wang, Yibo; Hu, Xiongwei; Peng, Jinggang; Li, Haiqing; Dai, Nengli; Li, Jinyan; Yang, Luyun

    2016-03-15

    We report on the preparation and optical characteristics of an Yb(3+)-doped large core silica fiber with the active core prepared from nanoporous silica rod by the glass phase-separation technology. The measurements show that the fiber has an Yb(3+) concentration of 9811 ppm by weight, a low background attenuation of 0.02 dB/m, and absorption from Yb(3+) about 5.5 dB/m at 976 nm. The laser performance presents a high slope efficiency of 72.8% for laser emission at 1071 nm and a low laser threshold of 3 W within only 2.3 m fiber length. It is suggested that the glass phase-separation technology shows great potential for realizing active fibers with larger core and complex fiber designs.

  10. Temperature dependence of light power propagation in bending plastic optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ning; Teng, Chuanxin; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Guanjun; Zhang, Minjuan; Wang, Zhibin

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of temperature variation on the light power propagation in bending plastic optical fiber (POF). The transmittance of bending POFs with curvature radius of 2-30 mm and turns of 1/4, 1/2, 1, and 2 are measured over temperature of 20-70 °C. The temperature dependent loss of the bending POF is obtained. It is found that the temperature dependent loss of the bending POF changes with curvature radius and turns. The temperature effect reaches the highest value of 0.011 dB/°C with 2 turns, and is less than 0.002 dB/°C with curvature radius greater than 25 mm.

  11. The Effects of Gravity on ZBLAN Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary; Smith, Guy; Tucker, Dennis S.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy metal fluoride glass fibers show promise in applications such as surgical lasers, spectroscopy and imaging fiber bundles. ZBLAN, which is within this class has been studied for a number of years. ZBLAN's theoretical attenuation coefficient is approximately 0.002 dB/km which is much better than that of fused silica at 0.2 dB/km. However, due to impurities and crystallites the attenuation coefficients achieved to date are considerably larger than those of fused silica. Impurities can be controlled with better processing techniques. Crystallization has been found to be a function of gravity. It is found that heating to the crystallization temperature in unit gravity results in crystallization while heating in reduced gravity does not. The exact mechanism for this phenomenon is not known but is speculated to be related to stress.

  12. A THz heterodyne instrument for biomedical imaging applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    An ultra-wide-dynamic-range heterodyne imaging system operating at 2.5 THz is described. The instrument employs room temperature Schottky barrier diode mixers and far infrared gas laser sources developed for NASA space applications. A dynamic range of over 100dB at fixed intermediate frequencies has been realized. Amplitude/phase tracking circuitry results in stability of 0.02 dB and +-2 degrees of phase. The system is being employed to characterize biological (human and animal derived tissues) and a variety of materials of interest to NASA. This talk will describe the instrument and some of the early imaging experiments on everything from mouse tail to aerogel.

  13. Thin-ribbon tapered coupler for dielectric waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, C.; Otoshi, T. Y.; Shimabukuro, F. I.

    1994-01-01

    A recent discovery shows that a high-dielectric constant, low-loss, solid material can be made into a ribbon-like waveguide structure to yield an attenuation constant of less than 0.02 dB/m for single-mode guidance of millimeter/submillimeter waves. One of the crucial components that must be invented in order to guarantee the low-loss utilization of this dielectric-waveguide guiding system is the excitation coupler. The traditional tapered-to-a-point coupler for a dielectric rod waveguide fails when the dielectric constant of the dielectric waveguide is large. This article presents a new way to design a low-loss coupler for a high- or low-dielectric constant dielectric waveguide for millimeter or submillimeter waves.

  14. The 11 year history of starspots on V1149 Ori = HD 37824

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Douglas S.; Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Barksdale, William S.

    1991-01-01

    All available radial-velocity measures, published and unpublished, yield an improved period and a new (assumed circular) solution. The period is 53.58 d +/- 0.02 d, and conjunction (K1 giant in front) was at 2 444 325.93 +/- 0.12 d. Eleven years of V-band photometry, published and unpublished, between 1978-1979 and 1989-1990 are analyzed. Eighteen data groups are fit with a two-spot light-curve-modeling technique. Six spots existing sometime during the 11 years are identified, and the 4-percent range of their rotation periods is used to estimate a differential rotation coefficient of k = 0.08 +/- 0.02. Observed lifetimes of those six spots are consistent with times calculated on the assumption that large spots are disrupted by the shear of differential rotation. The two best observed spots each lasted about five years.

  15. Quantum-limited operation of balanced mixer homodyne and heterodyne receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Susumu; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    1986-05-01

    In the GaAs semiconductor laser balanced mixer heterodyne receiver of Abbas and Chan (1983), the photocurrent fluctuation due to local oscillator wave intensity noise was suppressed, but the absolute quantum noise level calibration was not clarified. In this paper, the results of experimental calibration of the quantum noise level were obtained using two different methods: photocurrent spectral density measurement and photoelectron counting. The noise of a balanced mixer operation was confirmed to be truly quantum limited; the photocurrent fluctuation spectral density measured with a spectrum analyzer agreed with the quantum noise spectral density. The deviations from the absolute quantum noise level were within + or -0.02 dB. Complete suppression of local oscillator excess noise was demonstrated in the 0-1.5 GHz frequency region. Uses of balanced mixers for observing the squeezing phenomenon and quantum nondemolition measurement is mentioned.

  16. Physical optics analysis of a 4-reflector antenna, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, A. G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a rigorous analysis of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m antenna S-band (2.295-GHz) RF performance are presented. Previous estimation of 1.6 dB S-band gain improvement of the 70-m antenna over the 64-m antenna has been revised to 1.5 dB by this analysis. The S-band right circularly polarized (RCP) beam position offset relative to X-band (8.45-GHz) beam position is predicted to be 0.0045 deg. (0.04 beamwidth). The effective S-band gain loss resulting from non-coincidence with the X-band is predicted to be 0.02 dB. Therefore, this is no longer a concern for the 64-m to 70-m upgrade project.

  17. Reflective all-fiber magnetic field sensor based on microfiber and magnetic fluid.

    PubMed

    Luo, Longfeng; Pu, Shengli; Tang, Jiali; Zeng, Xianglong; Lahoubi, Mahieddine

    2015-07-13

    A kind of reflective all-fiber magnetic field sensor based on a non-adiabatically tapered microfiber with magnetic fluid is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The modal interference effect is caused by the abrupt tapers, which result in an approximately sinusoidal spectral response. The reflection spectra of the proposed sensor under different magnetic field strengths have been measured and theoretically analyzed. The maximum sensitivity of 174.4 pm/Oe is achieved at wavelength of around 1511 nm. Besides, an intensity tunability of -0.02 dB/Oe is also achieved. Comparing with the traditional sensors operating at transmission mode, the presented sensor in this work owns the advantages of smaller size and higher sensitivity and resolution due to the enhanced extinction ratio. The proposed structure is also promising for designing other tunable all-in-fiber photonic devices.

  18. Learning in Modular Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-07

    0.90 (0.35) House 0.63 (0.23) 0.93 (0.33) Peppers 0.60 (0.21) 0.91 (0.33) Table 7.1: Alternating optimization tends to produce very coherent...Boat 4.57 4.65 4.62 ± 0.03dB Peppers 6.55 6.84 6.71 ± 0.1dB House 6.20 6.25 6.22 ± 0.02dB Table 7.2: Variance observed when using alternating...by the minimum cost paths ( cyan lines) between randomly sampled locations (orange Xs). 114 Chapter 8. Learning Through Planning Modules The goal of

  19. Sport-Related Concussion Induces Transient Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Dobson, John L; Yarbrough, Mary Beth; Perez, Jose; Evans, Kelsey; Buckley, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that concussions may disrupt autonomic cardiovascular control. This study investigated the initial effects of concussion on cardiovascular function using three autonomic reflex tests. Twenty three recreational athletes (12 females, 11 males) were divided into concussed (n = 12) and control (n = 11) groups. Concussed participants performed forced breathing, standing and Valsalva autonomic tests four times: 1) within 48 hours of injury, 2) 24 hours later, 3) 1 week after injury and 4) 2 weeks after injury. The controls performed the same tests on the same schedule. Differences in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) responses to the tests were continuously measured using finger photoplethysmography and were analyzed using repeated measures MANOVAs and ANOVAs. Within 48 hours of injury, the concussed group had significantly greater resting SBP (t21 = 2.44, P = 0.02, d = 1.03), HR (t21 = 2.33, P = 0.03, d = 1.01) and SBP responses to standing (t21 = 2.98, P = 0.01, d = 1.24), and 90% SBP normalization times (t21 = 2.64, P = 0.02, d = 1.10) after the Valsalva, but those group differences subsided 24 hours later. There was also a significant interaction with the HR responses to forced breathing (F3,60 = 4.13, P = 0.01, ηp(2) = 0.17), indicating the concussed responses declined relative to the control's over time. The results demonstrate that concussion disrupted autonomic cardiovascular control and that autonomic reflex tests are practical means by which to evaluate that dysfunction.

  20. Continuously tunable photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a high-contrast germanium-doped silica-on-silicon microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Shahoei, Hiva; Dumais, Patrick; Yao, Jianping

    2014-05-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a continuously tunable fractional Hilbert transformer (FHT) based on a high-contrast germanium-doped silica-on-silicon (SOS) microring resonator (MRR). The propagation loss of a high-contrast germanium-doped SOS waveguide can be very small (0.02 dB/cm) while the lossless bend radius can be less than 1 mm. These characteristics lead to the fabrication of an MRR with a high Q-factor and a large free-spectral range (FSR), which is needed to implement a Hilbert transformer (HT). The SOS MRR is strongly polarization dependent. By changing the polarization direction of the input signal, the phase shift introduced at the center of the resonance spectrum is changed. The tunable phase shift at the resonance wavelength can be used to implement a tunable FHT. A germanium-doped SOS MRR with a high-index contrast of 3.8% is fabricated. The use of the fabricated MRR for the implementation of a tunable FHT with tunable orders at 1, 0.85, 0.95, 1.05, and 1.13 for a Gaussian pulse with the temporal full width at half-maximum of 80 ps is experimentally demonstrated.

  1. Highly Compact Circulators in Square-Lattice Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Wang, Qiong; Lin, Mi; Wen, Guohua; Wang, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    We propose, demonstrate and investigate highly compact circulators with ultra-low insertion loss in square-lattice- square-rod-photonic-crystal waveguides. Only a single magneto- optical square rod is required to be inserted into the cross center of waveguides, making the structure very compact and ultra efficient. The square rods around the center defect rod are replaced by several right-angled-triangle rods, reducing the insertion loss further and promoting the isolations as well. By choosing a linear-dispersion region and considering the mode patterns in the square magneto-optical rod, the operating mechanism of the circulator is analyzed. By applying the finite-element method together with the Nelder-Mead optimization method, an extremely low insertion loss of 0.02 dB for the transmitted wave and ultra high isolation of 46 dB∼48 dB for the isolated port are obtained. The idea presented can be applied to build circulators in different wavebands, e.g., microwave or Tera-Hertz. PMID:25415417

  2. Refractive results after phacoemulsification and ECCE. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Dam-Johansen, M; Olsen, T

    1993-06-01

    The refractive results were evaluated in 79 patients undergoing cataract extraction by phacoemulsification using a 6-7 mm tunnel incision, and compared with a group of 77 patients undergoing planned extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) by the same surgeon. A mean increase in the keratometric cylinder of 0.05D and 0.52D was found in the phacoemulsification and the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively. This was significantly different from zero for the extracapsular cataract extraction group (p < 0.05) but not for the phacoemulsification group (p > 0.05). By vector analysis, the mean surgically induced astigmatism was 0.91D and 1.36D in the phacoemulsification and the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively (p < 0.01). The IOL power prediction error (spectacle plane) was found to be 0.17D (+/- 0.69 SD) in the phacoemulsification group and 0.02 D (+/- 0.79 SD) in the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively. We conclude that phacoemulsification improves the surgical control of the refractive outcome of cataract surgery.

  3. Particulate organics degradation and sludge minimization in aerobic, complete SRT bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tsikritzis, Lazaros

    2016-05-01

    The study evaluates the assumption that in activated sludge processes and under specific operating conditions, the considered unbiodegradable particulate organic fractions of influent (XU) organic solids and biomass decay residues (cell debris, XE) are degraded. The evaluation was performed by comparing sludge observed yield (Yobs) evolution in two full scale, complete solids retention time (SRT), aerobic bioreactors, to the predictions of two activated sludge models. The results showed that in steady state operating conditions of complete solids retention AS processes very low solids accumulation occur. In these conditions, solids accumulation is slightly affected by kinetic coefficients and significantly affected by XU and XE degradation rates. High endogenous residues degradation rate values of 0.05 d(-1) and 0.02 d(-1) were estimated for the two bioreactors, resulting in low solids accumulation, calculated at 1.6 tons and 3.59 tons per year respectively, of which 1.37 and 0.87 tons were non volatile suspended solids. Depending on WWTP operating conditions the endogenous residues degradation rate is the limiting factor of solids accumulation and consequently for particulate organics degradation.

  4. Purification of a diatom and its identification to Cylindrotheca closterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Song; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Zhu, Baohua; Pan, Kehou

    2015-04-01

    A diatom was purified with colony selection and continuous dilution methods. It was identified to Cylindrotheca closterium according to its morphological characteristics and rbcL and 18s rRNA gene sequences. The alga was not sensitive to ampicillin and neomycin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol which inhibited its growth at concentrations ranging from 50 to 150 μg mL-1. The purified alga was easy to culture and its specific growth rate was 0.207 ± 0.002 (d-1). It was resistant to pollution and could be harvested in an easy way. It was relatively high in lipid content (20.08% ± 0.67% of dry weight) and the combined amount of its 16:0 and 16:1 (n-7), the most suitable resource of biodiesel, was as high as 64% of the total fatty acids, while the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids reached 19.96%-20% of the total fatty acids. Thus the purified C. closterium can be cultured as a biodiesel producer or a nutrition supplement producer.

  5. Digital test signal generation: An accurate SNR calibration approach for the DSN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez-Luaces, Benito O.

    1993-01-01

    In support of the on-going automation of the Deep Space Network (DSN) a new method of generating analog test signals with accurate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is described. High accuracy is obtained by simultaneous generation of digital noise and signal spectra at the desired bandwidth (base-band or bandpass). The digital synthesis provides a test signal embedded in noise with the statistical properties of a stationary random process. Accuracy is dependent on test integration time and limited only by the system quantization noise (0.02 dB). The monitor and control as well as signal-processing programs reside in a personal computer (PC). Commands are transmitted to properly configure the specially designed high-speed digital hardware. The prototype can generate either two data channels modulated or not on a subcarrier, or one QPSK channel, or a residual carrier with one biphase data channel. The analog spectrum generated is on the DC to 10 MHz frequency range. These spectra may be up-converted to any desired frequency without loss on the characteristics of the SNR provided. Test results are presented.

  6. Feasibility and effectiveness of computer-based therapy in community treatment.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Adam C; Ryder, Deanna; Carise, Deni; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2010-10-01

    Computerized therapy approaches may expand the reach of evidence-based treatment; however, it is unclear how to integrate these therapies into community-based treatment. We conducted a two-phase pilot study to explore (a) whether clients' use of the Therapeutic Education System (TES), a Web-based community reinforcement approach (CRA) learning program, would benefit them in the absence of counselor support and (b) whether counselors and clients would use the TES in the absence of tangible research-based reinforcement. In Phase 1, clients in the TES condition (n = 14) demonstrated large improvements in knowledge, F(1, 20) = 8.90, p = .007, d = 1.05, and were significantly more likely to select CRA style coping responses, F (1, 20) = 11.95, p = .002, d = 1.16, relative to the treatment-as-usual group (n = 14). We also detected small, nonsignificant, between-group effects indicating TES decreased cocaine use during treatment. In Phase 2, counselors referred only around 10% of their caseload to the TES, and the modal number of completed modules in the absence of tangible reinforcement was three. Computer-based therapy approaches are viable in community-based treatment but must be integrated with incentive systems to ensure engagement.

  7. Characterization of low thermal conductivity PAN-based carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzman, Howard A.; Adams, P. M.; Le, T. D.; Hemminger, Carl S.

    1992-01-01

    The microstructure and surface chemistry of eight low thermal conductivity (LTC) PAN-based carbon fibers were determined and compared with PAN-based fibers heat treated to higher temperatures. Based on wide-angle x ray diffraction, the LTC PAN fibers all appear to have a similar turbostratic structure with large 002 d-spacings, small crystallite sizes, and moderate preferred orientation. Limited small-angle x ray scattering (SAXS) results indicate that, with the exception of LTC fibers made by BASF, the LTC fibers do not have well developed pores. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the texture of the two LTC PAN-based fibers studied (Amoco T350/23X and /25X) consists of multiple sets of parallel, wavy, bent layers that interweave with each other forming a complex three dimensional network oriented randomly around the fiber axis. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis finds correlations between heat treated temperatures and the surface composition chemistry of the carbon fiber samples.

  8. Long-term changes in ground water chemistry at a phytoremediation demonstration site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberts, S.M.; Jones, S.A.; Braun, C.L.; Harvey, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    A field-scale demonstration project was conducted to evaluate the capability of eastern cottonwood trees (Populus deltoides) to attenuate trichloroethene (TCE) contamination of ground water. By the middle of the sixth growing season, trees planted where depth to water was < 3 m delivered enough dissolved organic carbon to the underlying aquifer to lower dissolved oxygen concentrations, to create iron-reducing conditions along the plume centerline and sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions in localized areas, and to initiate in situ reductive dechlorination of TCE. Apparent biodegradation rate constants for TCE along the centerline of the plume beneath the phytoremediation system increased from 0.0002/d to 0.02/d during the first six growing seasons. The corresponding increase in natural attenuation capacity of the aquifer along the plume centerline, from 0.0004/m to 0.024/m, is associated with a potential decrease in plume-stabilization distance from 9680 to 160 m. Demonstration results provide insight into the amount of vegetation and time that may be needed to achieve cleanup objectives at the field scale.

  9. Submicrometer-wide amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO2 waveguides for microphotonic devices.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jonathan D B; Evans, Christopher C; Choy, Jennifer T; Reshef, Orad; Deotare, Parag B; Parsy, François; Phillips, Katherine C; Lončar, Marko; Mazur, Eric

    2012-10-08

    We demonstrate amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO(2) thin films and submicrometer-wide waveguides with promising optical properties for microphotonic devices. We deposit both amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO(2) using reactive sputtering and define waveguides using electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. For the amorphous TiO(2), we obtain propagation losses of 0.12 ± 0.02 dB/mm at 633 nm and 0.04 ± 0.01 dB/mm at 1550 nm in thin films and 2.6 ± 0.5 dB/mm at 633 nm and 0.4 ± 0.2 dB/mm at 1550 nm in waveguides. Using single-mode amorphous TiO(2) waveguides, we characterize microphotonic features including microbends and optical couplers. We show transmission of 780-nm light through microbends having radii down to 2 μm and variable signal splitting in microphotonic couplers with coupling lengths of 10 μm.

  10. Abundance, seasonal patterns and diet of the non-native jellyfish Blackfordia virginica in a Portuguese estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F.; Chainho, P.; Costa, J. L.; Domingos, I.; Angélico, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Blackfordia virginica, a non-indigenous hydrozoan introduced in many systems around the world, has been observed in the Mira estuary, southwest of Portugal, since 1984. Monthly sampling (January 2013-January 2014) at a fixed location with high abundance of the medusae confirmed the occurrence of a seasonal cycle associated with temperature and photoperiod. The beginning of the medusa cycle occurred in May immediately after the spring zooplankton bloom during April. Examination of the gut contents of B. virginica medusae revealed that copepods, the most abundant group in the zooplankton community, were highly predated. Barnacle nauplii, decapod crustacean larvae and anchovy eggs were also identified in the guts. The medusae showed positive selection for copepods, and negative selection for barnacle nauplii, decapod crustacean larvae and anchovy eggs. The mortality rate of copepods (used as a model prey group) induced by medusae predation was estimated and showed the potential impact of this species in the ecosystem, ranging between 2.34 d-1 and 0.02 d-1, with a minimum copepod half-life of 0.30 days.

  11. Bent channel design in buried Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide fabricated by field-assisted annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ruitu; Wang, Mu; Chen, Baojie; Liu, Ke; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Lin, Hai

    2011-04-01

    Bent waveguide structures (S-, U-, and F-bend) based on buried Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide channel fabricated by field-assisted annealing have been designed to achieve high-gain C-band integrated amplification. Using a simulated-bend method, the optimal radius for the curved structure is derived to be 0.90 cm with loss coefficient of 0.02 dB/cm, as the substrate size is schemed to be 4×3 cm2. In the wavelength range of 1520 to 1575 nm, obvious gain enhancement for the bent structure waveguides is anticipated, and for the F-bend waveguide, the internal gain at 1534-nm wavelength is derived to be 41.61 dB, which is much higher than the value of 26.22 and 13.81 dB in the U- and S-bend waveguides, respectively, and over three times higher than that of the straight one. The simulation results indicate that the bent structure design is beneficial in obtaining high signal gain in buried Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguides, which lays the foundation for further design and fabrication of integrated devices.

  12. High-quality silicon on silicon nitride integrated optical platform with an octave-spanning adiabatic interlayer coupler.

    PubMed

    Hosseinnia, Amir H; Atabaki, Amir H; Eftekhar, Ali A; Adibi, Ali

    2015-11-16

    Hybrid nanophotonic platforms based on three-dimensional integration of different photonic materials are emerging as promising ecosystems for the optoelectronic device fabrication. In order to benefit from key features of both silicon (Si) and silicon nitride (SiN) on a single chip, we have developed a wafer-scale hybrid photonic platform based on the integration of a thin crystalline Si layer on top of a thin SiN layer with an ultra-thin oxide buffer layer. A complete optical path in the hybrid platform is demonstrated by coupling light back and forth between nanophotonic devices in Si and SiN layers. Using an adiabatic tapered coupling method, a record-low interlayer coupling-loss of 0.02 dB is achieved at 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength window. We also demonstrate high-Q resonators on the hybrid material platform with intrinsic Q's as high as 3 × 10(6) for a 60 μm-radius microring resonator, which is (to the best of our knowledge) the highest Q observed for a micro-resonator on a hybrid Si/SiN platform.

  13. Internet-based preventive intervention for reducing eating disorder risk: A randomized controlled trial comparing guided with unguided self-help

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Safer, Debra L.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Cunning, Darby; Rizk, Marianne T.; Genkin, Brooke H.; Weisman, Hannah L.; Bailey, Jakki O.; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2014-01-01

    Student Bodies, an internet-based intervention, has successfully reduced weight/shape concerns and prevented eating disorders in a subset of college-age women at highest risk for an eating disorder. Student Bodies includes an online, guided discussion group; however, the clinical utility of this component is unclear. This study investigated whether the guided discussion group improves program efficacy in reducing weight/shape concerns in women at high risk for an eating disorder. Exploratory analyses examined whether baseline variables predicted who benefitted most. Women with high weight/shape concerns (N=151) were randomized to Student Bodies with a guided discussion group (n=74) or no discussion group (n=77). Regression analyses showed weight/shape concerns were reduced significantly more among guided discussion group than no discussion group participants (p = 0.002; d = 0.52); guided discussion group participants had 67% lower odds of having high-risk weight/shape concerns post-intervention (p = 0.02). There were no differences in binge eating at post-intervention between the two groups, and no moderators emerged as significant. Results suggest the guided discussion group improves the efficacy of Student Bodies in reducing weight/shape concerns in college students at high risk for an eating disorder. PMID:25461783

  14. The flow past a circular patch of vegetation with a low submergence depth and low solid volume fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkil, Gokhan

    2016-11-01

    The effect of the Solid Volume Fraction (SVF) on the flow structure within and past a circular array of surface-mounted cylinders that extends over 75% of the water depth, h is investigated using Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). This set up mimics the case of a submerged patch of rigid vegetation in a channel. The diameter of the cylinders in the array is d = 0.02D, where D is the diameter of the circular array. The channel Reynolds number is close to 20,000 and the Reynolds number defined with D is around 24,000. DES is conducted for SVF = 10% and 25%. It is found that as the SVF increases, fairly strong horseshoe vortex system forms around the upstream face of the vegetation patch, the strength of the separated shear layers on the sides of the vegetation patch increases and the length of the recirculation region behind the patch decreases. While an increase of the SVF results in a large increase of the turbulent kinetic energy in the wake, the opposite is observed within the porous vegetation patch.

  15. Evaluation of a seven-week web-based happiness training to improve psychological well-being, reduce stress, and enhance mindfulness and flourishing: a randomized controlled occupational health study.

    PubMed

    Feicht, T; Wittmann, M; Jose, G; Mock, A; von Hirschhausen, E; Esch, T

    2013-01-01

    Background. As distress in society increases, including work environments, individual capacities to compete with stress have to be strengthened. Objective. We examined the impact of a web-based happiness training on psychological and physiological parameters, by self-report and objective means, in an occupational health setting. Methods. Randomized controlled trial with 147 employees. Participants were divided into intervention (happiness training) and control groups (waiting list). The intervention consisted of a seven-week online training. Questionnaires were administered before, after, and four weeks after training. The following scales were included: VAS (happiness and satisfaction), WHO-5 Well-being Index, Stress Warning Signals, Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, Recovery Experience Questionnaire, and Flourishing Scale. Subgroup samples for saliva cortisol and alpha-amylase determinations were taken, indicating stress, and Attention Network Testing for effects on attention regulation. Results. Happiness (P = 0.000; d = 0.93), satisfaction (P = 0.000; d = 1.17), and quality of life (P = 0.000; d = 1.06) improved; perceived stress was reduced (P = 0.003; d = 0.64); mindfulness (P = 0.006; d = 0.62), flourishing (P = 0.002; d = 0.63), and recovery experience (P = 0.030; d = 0.42) also increased significantly. No significant differences in the Attention Network Tests and saliva results occurred (intergroup), except for one saliva value. Conclusions. The web-based training can be a useful tool for stabilizing health/psychological well-being and work/life balance.

  16. Measuring rates of biodegradation in a contaminated aquifer using field and laboratory methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Lovley, D.R.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Rates of biodegradation were measured in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer using a combination of field and laboratory methods. These methods are based on tracking concentration changes of substrates (both electron donors and acceptors) or final products of microbial metabolism over time. Ground water at the study site (Hanahan, South Carolina) is anoxic, and sulfate reduction it the predominant terminal electron accepting process. Laboratory studies conducted with sediment cored from the site showed that 14C-toluene was mineralized to 14CO2 with a first-order degradation rate constant (ktol) of- 0.01 d-1 under sulfate-reducing conditions. Under nitrate-amended, Fe(III)-amended, or nonamended (methanogenic) conditions, toluene was not significantly mineralized. 14C-Benzene was degraded at low but measurable rates (kbrn= 0.003 d-1) under sulfate-reducing conditions whereas degradation under methanogenic conditions was negligible. These results illustrate the extreme sensitivity of laboratory-measured biodegradation rates to terminal electron-accepting conditions, and show the necessity of carefully matching experimental conditions to in situ conditions. Concentration decreases of toluene along aquifer flowpaths, when the uncertainty of ground-water flow velocities was considered, indicated ktol values ranging from -0.0075 to -0.03 d-1. Concentration decreases of sulfate and concentration increase of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), when normalized for assumed stoichiometric oxidation of toluene coupled to sulfate reduction, yielded a kso4 range of -0.005 to -0.02 d-1, and a kDIC value range of +0.00075 to -0.003 d-1. Because both laboratory and field methods have numerous sources of uncertainty, a combination of these methods is the most appropriate procedure for evaluating biodegradation rate constants in contaminated ground-water systems.

  17. Gradients in microbial methanol uptake: productive coastal upwelling waters to oligotrophic gyres in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Joanna L; Sargeant, Stephanie; Nightingale, Philip D; Colin Murrell, J

    2013-03-01

    Methanol biogeochemistry and its importance as a carbon source in seawater is relatively unexplored. We report the first microbial methanol carbon assimilation rates (k) in productive coastal upwelling waters of up to 0.117±0.002 d(-1) (~10 nmol l(-1 )d(-1)). On average, coastal upwelling waters were 11 times greater than open ocean northern temperate (NT) waters, eight times greater than gyre waters and four times greater than equatorial upwelling (EU) waters; suggesting that all upwelling waters upon reaching the surface (≤20 m), contain a microbial population that uses a relatively high amount of carbon (0.3-10 nmol l(-1 )d(-1)), derived from methanol, to support their growth. In open ocean Atlantic regions, microbial uptake of methanol into biomass was significantly lower, ranging between 0.04-0.68 nmol l(-1 )d(-1). Microbes in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling used up to 57% of the total methanol for assimilation of the carbon into cells, compared with an average of 12% in the EU, and 1% in NT and gyre waters. Several methylotrophic bacterial species were identified from open ocean Atlantic waters using PCR amplification of mxaF encoding methanol dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in bacterial methanol oxidation. These included Methylophaga sp., Burkholderiales sp., Methylococcaceae sp., Ancylobacter aquaticus, Paracoccus denitrificans, Methylophilus methylotrophus, Methylobacterium oryzae, Hyphomicrobium sp. and Methylosulfonomonas methylovora. Statistically significant correlations for upwelling waters between methanol uptake into cells and both chlorophyll a concentrations and methanol oxidation rates suggest that remotely sensed chlorophyll a images, in these productive areas, could be used to derive total methanol biological loss rates, a useful tool for atmospheric and marine climatically active gas modellers, and air-sea exchange scientists.

  18. Evaluation of a Seven-Week Web-Based Happiness Training to Improve Psychological Well-Being, Reduce Stress, and Enhance Mindfulness and Flourishing: A Randomized Controlled Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Feicht, T.; Wittmann, M.; Jose, G.; Mock, A.; von Hirschhausen, E.; Esch, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. As distress in society increases, including work environments, individual capacities to compete with stress have to be strengthened. Objective. We examined the impact of a web-based happiness training on psychological and physiological parameters, by self-report and objective means, in an occupational health setting. Methods. Randomized controlled trial with 147 employees. Participants were divided into intervention (happiness training) and control groups (waiting list). The intervention consisted of a seven-week online training. Questionnaires were administered before, after, and four weeks after training. The following scales were included: VAS (happiness and satisfaction), WHO-5 Well-being Index, Stress Warning Signals, Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, Recovery Experience Questionnaire, and Flourishing Scale. Subgroup samples for saliva cortisol and alpha-amylase determinations were taken, indicating stress, and Attention Network Testing for effects on attention regulation. Results. Happiness (P = 0.000; d = 0.93), satisfaction (P = 0.000; d = 1.17), and quality of life (P = 0.000; d = 1.06) improved; perceived stress was reduced (P = 0.003; d = 0.64); mindfulness (P = 0.006; d = 0.62), flourishing (P = 0.002; d = 0.63), and recovery experience (P = 0.030; d = 0.42) also increased significantly. No significant differences in the Attention Network Tests and saliva results occurred (intergroup), except for one saliva value. Conclusions. The web-based training can be a useful tool for stabilizing health/psychological well-being and work/life balance. PMID:24489588

  19. Groundwater remediation by an in situ biobarrier: a bench scale feasibility test for methyl tert-butyl ether and other gasoline compounds.

    PubMed

    Saponaro, Sabrina; Negri, Marco; Sezenna, Elena; Bonomo, Luca; Sorlini, Claudia

    2009-08-15

    Most gasoline contains high percentages of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as an additive. The physico-chemical properties of this substance (high water solubility, low sorption in soil) result in high mobility and dissolved concentrations in soil. In situ permeable biological barriers (biobarriers, BBs) can remediate MTBE polluted groundwater by allowing pure cultures or microbial consortia to degrade MTBE when aerobic conditions are present, either by direct metabolism or cometabolism. Lab-scale batch and column tests were carried out to assess a selected microbial consortium in biodegrading MTBE and other gasoline compounds (benzene B, toluene T, ethylbenzene E, xylenes X) and to measure the parameters affecting the efficacy of a BB treatment of polluted groundwater. During the aerobic phase of the batch tests, the simultaneous biodegradation of MTBE, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), B, T, E and o-X was observed. The rapid biodegradation of BTEXs resulted in decreased oxygen availability, but MTBE degradation was nevertheless measured in the presence of BTEXs. Stationary concentrations of MTBE and TBA were measured when anoxic conditions occurred in the systems. Values for a first order kinetic removal process were obtained for MTBE (0.031+/-0.001 d(-1)), B (0.045+/-0.002 d(-1)) and T (0.080+/-0.004 d(-1)) in the inoculated column tests. The estimate of the BB design parameters suggested that inoculation could significantly modify (double) the longitudinal dispersivity value of the biomass support medium. No effect was observed in the retardation factors for MTBE, B and T.

  20. Evaluating the trophic transfer of cadmium, polonium, and methylmercury in an estuarine food chain.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Teresa; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2008-05-01

    We examined the transfer of Cd, methylmercury (MeHg), and Po in an estuarine food chain (from phytoplankton to zooplankton [Daphnia pulex] to killifish [Fundulus heteroclitus] and, finally, to juvenile striped bass [Morone saxatilis]) to better understand both the extent to which these elements may biomagnify and the underlying mechanisms governing this biomagnification. Among the phytoplankton examined (Cyclotella meneghiniana and Chlamdomonas reinhardtii), metal uptake was rapid, and volume concentration factors for all metals reached values between 10(4) and 10(5). The resulting assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of ingested metals in all animals were highest for MeHg, with values greater than 76%. The AEs of Cd were 21 to 33% in D. pulex, 1 to 16% in F. heteroclitus, and 38 to 56% in M. saxatilis. Polonium AEs were 69 to 87% in D. pulex, 25 to 41% in F. heteroclitus, and 9 to 21% in M. saxatilis. Loss rate constants (ke) of metals in D. pulex ranged from 0.04/d for MeHg to 0.39/d for Po; metal ke values for F. heteroclitus ranged from 0.01 to 0.02/d. Using a kinetic model, we showed that the trophic transfer factor, defined as the ratio of metal concentration in predatory animals to metal concentration in prey organisms, was greater than unity for all three metals in D. pulex feeding on phytoplankton, suggesting that these metals may be biomagnified at this trophic step. In killifish feeding on D. pulex, the trophic transfer factor was consistently greater than one for MeHg, consistently less than one for Cd, and from 0.1 to 1.4 for Po, suggesting that both MeHg and Po have the potential to biomagnify at this trophic step.

  1. Mindfulness Training in Primary Schools Decreases Negative Affect and Increases Meta-Cognition in Children

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Charlotte E.; Dorjee, Dusana

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7–9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7–9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting ‘liking’ practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p < 0.001). Self-report comparisons revealed that relative to controls, the training group showed significant decreases in negative affect at follow-up, with a large effect size (p = 0.010, d = 0.84). Teacher reports (but not parental ratings) of meta-cognition also showed significant improvements at follow-up with a large effect size (p = 0.002, d = 1.08). Additionally, significant negative correlations were found between changes in mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7–9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and (c) may significantly decrease negative affect and improve meta-cognition. PMID:26793145

  2. Robust photopolymers for MCM, board, and backplane optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay A.; Nahata, Ajay; Yardley, James T.

    1998-05-01

    A robust polymeric waveguide technology is proposed for affordable optoelectronic interconnects in massively parallel processing applications. We have developed high-performance organic polymeric materials that can be readily made into both multimode and single-mode optical waveguide structures of controlled numerical aperture and geometry. These materials are formed from highly-crosslinked acrylate monomers with specific linkages that determine properties such as flexibility, toughness, loss, and stability against yellowing. These monomers are intermiscible, providing for precise adjustment of the refractive index from 1.30 to 1.60. Waveguides are formed lithographically, with the liquid monomer mixture polymerizing upon illumination in the UV via either mask exposure or laser direct-writing. A wide range of rigid and flexible substrates can be used, including glass, quartz, oxidized silicon, glass-filled epoxy printed circuit board substrate, and flexible polyimide film. Our waveguides are low loss (0.02 dB/cm at 840 nm) as well as temperature resistant (over 65 years at 100 degree(s)C) and humidity resistant (no effect on unpackaged guides after 600 hours at 85 degree(s)C 85% RH), enabling use in a variety of demanding applications. We discuss the use of these materials on multi-chip modules, boards, and backplanes. Waveguiding structures measuring tens of inches in length can be produced on backplanes, and guides that are meters long can be laser-written on rolls of plastic. We also discuss the fabrication of symmetrically-clad flexible strips of waveguide arrays that are compatible with MT- type connectors.

  3. Metabolic decoupling in daily life in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Pfaltz, Monique C; Kolodyazhniy, Vitaliy; Blechert, Jens; Margraf, Jürgen; Grossman, Paul; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2015-09-01

    Various studies have assessed autonomic and respiratory underpinnings of panic attacks, yet the psychophysiological functioning of panic disorder (PD) patients has rarely been examined under naturalistic conditions at times when acute attacks were not reported. We hypothesized that emotional activation in daily life causes physiologically demonstrable deviations from efficient metabolic regulation in PD patients. Metabolic coupling was estimated as within-individual correlations between heart rate (HR) and indices of metabolic activity, i.e., physical activity (measured by 3-axial accelerometry, Acc), and minute ventilation (Vm, measured by calibrated inductive plethysmography, as proxy for oxygen consumption). A total of 565 daytime hours were recorded in 19 PD patients and 20 healthy controls (HC). Pairwise cross-correlations of minute-by-minute averages of these metabolic indices were calculated for each participant and then correlated with several indices of self-reported anxiety. Ambulatory HR was elevated in PD (p = .05, d = 0.67). Patients showed reduced HR-Acc (p < .006, d = 0.97) and HR-Vm coupling (p < .009, d = 0.91). Combining Vm and Acc to predict HR showed the strongest group separation (p < .002, d = 1.07). Discriminant analyses, based on the combination of Vm and Acc to predict HR, classified 77% of all participants correctly. In PD, HR-Acc coupling was inversely related to trait anxiety sensitivity, as well as tonic and phasic daytime anxiety. The novel method that was used demonstrates that anxiety in PD may reduce efficient long-term metabolic coupling. Metabolic decoupling may serve as physiological characteristic of PD and might aid diagnostics for PD and other anxiety disorders. This measure deserves further study in research on health consequences of anxiety and psychosocial stress.

  4. The yield and decay coefficients of exoelectrogenic bacteria in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erica L; Kim, Younggy

    2016-05-01

    In conventional wastewater treatment, waste sludge management and disposal contribute the major cost for wastewater treatment. Bioelectrochemical systems, as a potential alternative for future wastewater treatment and resources recovery, are expected to produce small amounts of waste sludge because exoelectrogenic bacteria grow on anaerobic respiration and form highly populated biofilms on bioanode surfaces. While waste sludge production is governed by the yield and decay coefficient, none of previous studies have quantified these kinetic constants for exoelectrogenic bacteria. For yield coefficient estimation, we modified McCarty's free energy-based model by using the bioanode potential for the free energy of the electron acceptor reaction. The estimated true yield coefficient ranged 0.1 to 0.3 g-VSS (volatile suspended solids) g-COD(-1) (chemical oxygen demand), which is similar to that of most anaerobic microorganisms. The yield coefficient was sensitively affected by the bioanode potential and pH while the substrate and bicarbonate concentrations had relatively minor effects on the yield coefficient. In lab-scale experiments using microbial electrolysis cells, the observed yield coefficient (including the effect of cell decay) was found to be 0.020 ± 0.008 g-VSS g-COD(-1), which is an order of magnitude smaller than the theoretical estimation. Based on the difference between the theoretical and experimental results, the decay coefficient was approximated to be 0.013 ± 0.002 d(-1). These findings indicate that bioelectrochemical systems have potential for future wastewater treatment with reduced waste sludge as well as for resources recovery. Also, the found kinetic information will allow accurate estimation of wastewater treatment performance in bioelectrochemical systems.

  5. Myopia Progression over Three Years of Soft Contact Lens Wear

    PubMed Central

    Blacker, Adam; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Bullimore, Mark. A.; Long, Bill; Dillehay, Sally M.; Bergenske, Peter; Donshik, Peter; Secor, Glenda; Yoakum, John; Chalmers, Robin L

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the effect of lens material alone on myopia progression in a multi-center non-randomized prospective study of daily wear hydrogel and continuous wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Methods Refractive error data from completing subjects was collected during a 3-year study of 54 subjects wearing low Dk/t hydrogel contact lenses for daily wear and 230 wearing silicone hydrogel contact lenses for up to 30 nights continuous wear. Univariate analysis of refractive error changes was first conducted on factors of lens type, age at baseline, and baseline refractive error. Multivariate analysis was then performed to control for potential confounders of age (categorical by decade and continuous), and baseline refractive error. Results Multivariate analysis showed that refractive error changes were significantly affected by lens type (F = 78.2, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.218) and subject age (F = 13.1.2, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.319), but not baseline refractive error (F = 2.56, p = 0.11, R2 = 0.009). The model’s overall R2 value is 0.376; the age-adjusted refractive error changes are +0.02 D for the silicone hydrogel contact lens wearers and 0.41 D for the hydrogel contact lenses for the 3-year follow-up period. Conclusions Subject age and lens type significantly influenced the degree of myopic progression, with younger subjects and low Dk/t hydrogel contact lens wearers increasing more during the study. The Lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel lens material may contribute to less myopia progression in adult contact lens wearers. PMID:19741563

  6. Plutonium and uranium determination in environmental samples: combined solvent extraction-liquid scintillation method.

    PubMed

    McDowell, W J; Farrar, D T; Billings, M R

    1974-12-01

    A method for the determination of uranium and plutonium by a combined high-resolution liquid scintillation-solvent extraction method is presented. Assuming a sample count equal to background count to be the detection limit, the lower detection limit for these and other alpha-emitting nuclides is 1.0 dpm with a Pyrex sample tube, 0.3 dpm with a quartz sample tube using present detector shielding or 0.02 d.p.m. with pulse-shape discrimination. Alpha-counting efficiency is 100%. With the counting data presented as an alpha-energy spectrum, an energy resolution of 0.2-0.3 MeV peak half-width and an energy identification to +/-0.1 MeV are possible. Thus, within these limits, identification and quantitative determination of a specific alpha-emitter, independent of chemical separation, are possible. The separation procedure allows greater than 98% recovery of uranium and plutonium from solution containing large amounts of iron and other interfering substances. In most cases uranium, even when present in 10(8)-fold molar ratio, may be quantitatively separated from plutonium without loss of the plutonium. Potential applications of this general analytical concept to other alpha-counting problems are noted. Special problems associated with the determination of plutonium in soil and water samples are discussed. Results of tests to determine the pulse-height and energy-resolution characteristics of several scintillators are presented. Construction of the high-resolution liquid scintillation detector is described.

  7. Understanding the general feature of microvariability in Kepler blazar W2R 1926+42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasada, Mahito; Mineshige, Shin; Yamada, Shinya; Negoro, Hitoshi

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the Kepler monitoring light curve of a blazar W2R 1926+42 to examine features of microvariability by means of the "shot analysis" technique. We select 195 intra-day, flare-like variations (shots) for the continuous light curve of Quarter 14 with a duration of 100 d. In the application of the shot analysis, an averaged profile of variations is assumed to converge with a universal profile which reflects a physical mechanism generating the microvariability in a blazar jet, although light-variation profiles of selected shots show a variety. A mean profile, which is obtained by aligning the peaks of the 195 shots, is composed of a spiky-shaped shot component at ± 0.1 d (with respect to the time of the peak), and two slow varying components ranging from -0.50 d to -0.15 d and from 0.10 d to 0.45 d of the peak time. The former spiky feature is well represented by an exponential rise of 0.043 ± 0.001 d and an exponential decay of 0.061 ± 0.002 d. These timescales are consistent with that corresponding to a break frequency of a power spectrum density calculated from the obtained light curve. After verification with the Monte Carlo method, the exponential shape, but not the observed asymmetry, of the shot component can be explained by noise variation. The asymmetry is difficult to explain through a geometrical effect (i.e., changes of the geometry of the emitting region), but is more likely to be caused by the production and dissipation of high-energy accelerated particles in the jet. Additionally, the durations of the detected shots show a systematic variation with a dispersion caused by a statistical randomness. A comparison with the variability of Cygnus X-1 is also briefly discussed.

  8. Kava in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Stough, Con; Bousman, Chad A; Wahid, Zahra T; Murray, Greg; Teschke, Rolf; Savage, Karen M; Dowell, Ashley; Ng, Chee; Schweitzer, Isaac

    2013-10-01

    Kava (Piper methysticum) is a plant-based medicine, which has been previously shown to reduce anxiety. To date, however, no placebo-controlled trial assessing kava in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been completed. A total of 75 participants with GAD and no comorbid mood disorder were enrolled in a 6-week double-blind trial of an aqueous extract of kava (120/240 mg of kavalactones per day depending on response) versus placebo. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and noradrenaline transporter polymorphisms were also analyzed as potential pharmacogenetic markers of response. Reduction in anxiety was measured using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) as the primary outcome. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed on 58 participants who met inclusion criteria after an initial 1 week placebo run-in phase. Results revealed a significant reduction in anxiety for the kava group compared with the placebo group with a moderate effect size (P = 0.046, Cohen d = 0.62). Among participants with moderate to severe Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-diagnosed GAD, this effect was larger (P = 0.02; d = 0.82). At conclusion of the controlled phase, 26% of the kava group were classified as remitted (HAMA ≤ 7) compared with 6% of the placebo group (P = 0.04). Within the kava group, GABA transporter polymorphisms rs2601126 (P = 0.021) and rs2697153 (P = 0.046) were associated with HAMA reduction. Kava was well tolerated, and aside from more headaches reported in the kava group (P = 0.05), no other significant differences between groups occurred for any other adverse effects, nor for liver function tests. Standardized kava may be a moderately effective short-term option for the treatment of GAD. Furthermore, specific GABA transporter polymorphisms appear to potentially modify anxiolytic response to kava.

  9. Complement C3 Is the Strongest Predictor of Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity in Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Salvatore; Russo, Emilio; Nicolosi, Kassandra; Gallucci, Antonio; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Bruno, Caterina; Naty, Saverio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Olivieri, Ignazio; Grembiale, Rosa Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the correlation between inflammatory measures and whole-body insulin sensitivity in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients. Methods For the present study, 40 nondiabetic PsA patients were recruited. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI), insulinogenic index (IGI) and oral disposition index (ODI) were calculated from dynamic values of glucose and insulin obtained during OGTT. Results In our study population, mean ISI was 3.5 ± 2.5, median IGI was 1.2 (0.7–1.8), mean ODI 4.5 ± 4.5. In univariate correlation analysis, ISI correlated inversely with systolic blood pressure (sBP) (R = -0.52, p = 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (dBP) (R = -0.45, p = 0.004) and complement C3 (R = -0.43, p = 0.006) and ODI correlated inversely with sBP (R = -0.38, p = 0.02), dBP (R = -0.35, p = 0.03) and complement C3 (R = -0.37, p = 0.02). No significant correlations were found between analyzed variables and IGI. In a stepwise multiple regression, only complement C3 entered in the regression equation and accounted for approximately 50% of the variance of ISI. Using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve we identified the best cut-off for complement C3 of 1.32 g/L that yielded a sensitivity of 56% and a specificity of 96% for classification of insulin resistant patients. Conclusions In conclusion, our data suggest that serum complement C3 could represent a useful marker of whole-body insulin sensitivity in PsA patients. PMID:27656896

  10. 18F-FDG PET in the Evaluation of Acuity of Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Rondina, Matthew T.; Lam, Uyen T.; Pendleton, Robert C.; Kraiss, Larry W.; Wanner, Nathan; Zimmerman, Guy A.; Hoffman, John M.; Hanrahan, Christopher; Boucher, Kenneth; Christian, Paul E.; Butterfield, Regan I.; Morton, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose 18F-FDG PET has been used for vascular disease, but its role in deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains prospectively unexplored. Patients and Methods Whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed in patients 1 to 10 weeks after onset of symptomatic DVT (n = 12) and in control subjects without DVT (n = 24). The metabolic activity (SUVmax) of thrombosed and contralateral nonthrombosed vein segments was determined. The sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG PET/CT for the diagnosis of DVT were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. In 2 patients with DVT, changes in the metabolic activity of thrombosed vein segments in serial 18F-FDG PET scans. Results The metabolic activity in thrombosed veins [SUVmax, 2.41 (0.75)] was visually appreciable and significantly higher than in nonthrombosed veins in either the contralateral extremity of patients with DVT [SUVmax, 1.09 (0.25), P = 0.007] or control subjects [1.21 (0.22), P < 001]. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for SUVmax was 0.9773 (P < 001), indicating excellent accuracy. An SUVmax threshold of greater than 1.645 was 87.5% sensitive and 100% specific for DVT. Metabolic activity in thrombosed veins correlated significantly with time from DVT symptom onset (decrease in SUVmax of 0.02/d, P < 0.05). Best-fit-line analyses suggested that approximately 84 to 91 days after acute DVT, the maximum metabolic activity of thrombosed veins would return to normal levels. Conclusions 18F-FDG PET/CT is accurate for detecting acute symptomatic, proximal DVT. Metabolic activity in thrombosed veins decreases with time, suggesting that 18F-FDG PET may be helpful in assessing the age of the clot. PMID:23154470

  11. Hard X-Ray Emission from Sh 2-104: A NuSTAR Search for Gamma-Ray Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Mori, K.; Aliu, E.; Paredes, J. M.; Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hong, J. S.; Rahoui, F.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2016-07-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of Sh 2-104, a compact H ii region containing several young massive stellar clusters (YMSCs). We have detected distinct hard X-ray sources coincident with localized VERITAS TeV emission recently resolved from the giant gamma-ray complex MGRO J2019+37 in the Cygnus region. Fainter, diffuse X-rays coincident with the eastern YMSC in Sh2-104 likely result from the colliding winds of a component star. Just outside the radio shell of Sh 2-104 lies 3XMM J201744.7+365045 and a nearby nebula, NuSTAR J201744.3+364812, whose properties are most consistent with extragalactic objects. The combined XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum of 3XMM J201744.7+365045 is well-fit to an absorbed power-law model with {N}{{H}}=(3.1+/- 1.0)× {10}22 cm-2 and a photon index {{Γ }}=2.1+/- 0.1. Based on possible long-term flux variation and the lack of detected pulsations (≤43% modulation), this object is likely a background active galactic nucleus rather than a Galactic pulsar. The spectrum of the NuSTAR nebula shows evidence of an emission line at E = 5.6 keV, suggesting an optically obscured galaxy cluster at z = 0.19 ± 0.02 (d = 800 Mpc) and L X = 1.2 × 1044 erg s-1. Follow-up Chandra observations of Sh 2-104 will help identify the nature of the X-ray sources and their relation to MGRO J2019+37. We also show that the putative VERITAS excess south of Sh 2-104, is most likely associated with the newly discovered Fermi pulsar PSR J2017+3625 and not the H ii region.

  12. Does a Non-Circular Chainring Improve Performance in the Bicycle Motocross Cycling Start Sprint?

    PubMed Central

    Mateo-March, Manuel; Fernández-Peña, Eneko; Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Maximising power output during the initial acceleration phase of a bicycle motocross (BMX) race increases the chance to lead the group for the rest of the race. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of non-circular chainrings (Q-ring) on performance during the initial acceleration phase of a BMX race. Sixteen male cyclists (Spanish National BMX team) performed two counterbalanced and randomized initial sprints (3.95s), using Q- ring vs. circular chainring, on a BMX track. The sample was divided into two different groups according to their performance (Elite; n = 8 vs. Cadet; n = 8). Elite group covered a greater distance using Q-ring (+0.26 m, p = 0.02; D = 0.23), whilst the improvement for the Cadet (+0.04 m) was not significant (p = 0.87; D = -0.02). Also, there was no significant difference in power output for the Elite group, while the Cadet group revealed larger peak power with the circular chainring. Neither lactate level, nor heart rate showed significant differences due to the different chainring used. The non-circular chainring improved the initial acceleration capacity only in the Elite riders. Key Points This work provides novel results demonstrating very significant improvements in the sprint performance of BMX cycling discipline using a non-circular chainring system. This study seeks a practical application from scientific analysis All data are obtained in a real context of high competition using a sample comprised by the National Spanish Team. Some variables influencing performance as subjects’ physical fitness are discussed. Technical equipment approved by International Cycling Union is studied to check its potentially beneficial influence on performance. PMID:24570612

  13. Thinner Cortex in Collegiate Football Players With, but not Without, a Self-Reported History of Concussion.

    PubMed

    Meier, Timothy B; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bergamino, Maurizio; Ling, Josef M; Mayer, Andrew R

    2016-02-15

    Emerging evidence suggests that a history of sports-related concussions can lead to long-term neuroanatomical changes. The extent to which similar changes are present in young athletes is undetermined at this time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that collegiate football athletes with (n = 25) and without (n = 24) a self-reported history of concussion would have cortical thickness differences and altered white matter integrity relative to healthy controls (n = 27) in fronto-temporal regions that appear particularly susceptible to traumatic brain injury. Freesurfer software was used to estimate cortical thickness, fractional anisotropy was calculated in a priori white matter tracts, and behavior was assessed using a concussion behavioral battery. Groups did not differ in self-reported symptoms (p > 0.10) or cognitive performance (p > 0.10). Healthy controls reported significantly higher happiness levels than both football groups (all p < 0.01). Contrary to our hypothesis, no differences in fractional anisotropy were observed between our groups (p > 0.10). However, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the left anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex, and medial superior frontal cortex relative to healthy controls (p = 0.02, d = -0.69). Further, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the right central sulcus and precentral gyrus relative to football athletes without a history of concussion (p = 0.03, d = -0.71). No differences were observed between football athletes without a history of concussion and healthy controls. These results suggest that previous concussions, but not necessarily football exposure, may be associated with cortical thickness differences in collegiate football athletes.

  14. Accommodative and vergence responses to conflicting blur and disparity stimuli during development

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Shrikant R.; Candy, T. Rowan

    2014-01-01

    Accommodative and vergence responses of the typically developing visual system are generated using a combination of cues, including retinal blur and disparity. The developmental importance of blur and disparity cues in generating these motor responses was assessed by placing the two cues in conflict with each other. Cue-conflicts were induced by placing either −2 D lenses or 2 MA base-out prisms before both eyes of 140 subjects (2.0 months to 40.8 years) while they watched a cartoon movie binocularly at 80 cm. The frequency and amplitude of accommodation to lenses and vergence to prisms increased with age (both p < 0.001), with the vergence response (mean ± 1 SEM = 1.38 ± 0.05 MA) being slightly larger than the accommodative response (1.18 ± 0.04 D) at all ages (p = 0.007). The amplitude of these responses decreased with an increase in conflict stimuli (1 to 3 D or MA) (both p < 0.01). The coupled vergence response to −2 D lenses (0.31 ± 0.06 MA) and coupled accommodative response to 2 MA base-out prisms (0.21 ± 0.02 D) were significantly smaller than (both p < 0.001) and poorly correlated with the open-loop vergence (r = 0.12; p = 0.44) and open-loop accommodation (r = −0.08; p = 0.69), respectively. The typically developing visual system compensates for transiently induced conflicts between blur and disparity stimuli, without exhibiting a strong preference for either cue. The accuracy of this compensation decreases with an increase in amplitude of cue-conflict. PMID:20053067

  15. Biogeochemical factors influencing net mercury methylation in contaminated freshwater sediments from the St. Lawrence River in Cornwall, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Avramescu, Mary-Luyza; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Hintelmann, Holger; Ridal, Jeff; Fortin, Danielle; Lean, David R S

    2011-02-01

    The activity of various anaerobic microbes, including sulfate reducers (SRB), iron reducers (FeRP) and methanogens (MPA) has been linked to mercury methylation in aquatic systems, although the relative importance of each microbial group in the overall process is poorly understood in natural sediments. The present study focused on the biogeochemical factors (i.e. the relative importance of various groups of anaerobic microbes (FeRP, SRB, and MPA) that affect net monomethylmercury (MMHg) formation in contaminated sediments of the St. Lawrence River (SRL) near Cornwall (Zone 1), Ontario, Canada. Methylation and demethylation potentials were measured separately by using isotope-enriched mercury species ((200)Hg(2+) and MM(199)Hg(+)) in sediment microcosms treated with specific microbial inhibitors. Sediments were sampled and incubated in the dark at room temperature in an anaerobic chamber for 96h. The potential methylation rate constants (K(m)) and demethylation rates (K(d)) were found to differ significantly between microcosms. The MPA-inhibited microcosm had the highest potential methylation rate constant (0.016d(-1)), whereas the two SRB-inhibited microcosms had comparable potential methylation rate constants (0.003d(-1) and 0.002d(-1), respectively). The inhibition of methanogens stimulated net methylation by inhibiting demethylationand by stimulating methylation along with SRB activity. The inhibition of both methanogens and SRB was found to enhance the iron reduction rates but did not completely stop MMHg production. The strong positive correlation between K(m) and Sulfate Reduction Rates (SRR) and between K(d) and Methane Production Rates (MPR) supports the involvement of SRB in Hg methylation and MPA in MMHg demethylation in the sediments. In contrast, the strong negative correlation between K(d) and Iron Reduction Rates (FeRR) shows that the increase in FeRR corresponds to a decrease in demethylation, indicating that iron reduction may influence net

  16. The relative contribution of physical fitness to the technical execution score in youth rhythmic gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Donti, Olyvia; Kritikou, Maria; Donti, Anastasia; Theodorakou, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the association between physical fitness and a technical execution score in rhythmic gymnasts varying in the performance level. Forty-six young rhythmic gymnasts (age: 9.9 ±1.3 years) were divided into two groups (qualifiers, n=24 and non-qualifiers, n=22) based on the results of the National Championships. Gymnasts underwent a series of physical fitness tests and technical execution was evaluated in a routine without apparatus. There were significant differences between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in the technical execution score (p=0.01, d=1.0), shoulder flexion (p=0.01, d=0.8), straight leg raise (p=0.004, d=0.9), sideways leg extension (p=0.002, d=0.9) and body fat (p=.021, d=0.7), but no differences were found in muscular endurance and jumping performance. The technical execution score for the non-qualifiers was significantly correlated with shoulder extension (r=0.423, p<0.05), sideways leg extension (r=0.687, p<0.01), push ups (r=0.437, p<0.05) and body fat (r=0.642, p<0.01), while there was only one significant correlation with sideways leg extension (r=0.467, p<0.05) for the qualifiers. Multiple regression analysis revealed that sideways leg extension, body fat, and push ups accounted for a large part (62.9%) of the variance in the technical execution score for the non-qualifiers, while for the qualifiers, only 37.3% of the variance in the technical execution score was accounted for by sideways leg extension and spine flexibility. In conclusion, flexibility and body composition can effectively discriminate between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in youth rhythmic gymnastics. At the lower level of performance (non-qualifiers), physical fitness seems to have a greater effect on the technical execution score. PMID:28149377

  17. Mindfulness Training in Primary Schools Decreases Negative Affect and Increases Meta-Cognition in Children.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Charlotte E; Dorjee, Dusana

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7-9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7-9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting 'liking' practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p < 0.001). Self-report comparisons revealed that relative to controls, the training group showed significant decreases in negative affect at follow-up, with a large effect size (p = 0.010, d = 0.84). Teacher reports (but not parental ratings) of meta-cognition also showed significant improvements at follow-up with a large effect size (p = 0.002, d = 1.08). Additionally, significant negative correlations were found between changes in mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7-9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and

  18. Long-term far-transfer effects of working memory training in children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bigorra, Aitana; Garolera, Maite; Guijarro, Silvina; Hervás, Amaia

    2016-08-01

    ADHD affects working memory (WM) and other executive functions (EFs) and thereby negatively impacts school performance, clinical symptoms and functional impairment. The main aim of this study was to analyse the efficacy of computerized WM training (CWMT) on EF rating scales. A secondary objective was to assess its efficacy on performance-based measures of EF (PBMEF), learning, clinical symptoms and functional impairment. 66 children with combined-type ADHD between 7 and 12 years of age from the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit (Spain) were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial. The participants were randomized (1:1) to an experimental group (EG) (CWMT) (n = 36) or a control group (CG) (placebo training). Assessments were conducted at baseline (T0), 1-2 weeks (T1), and 6 months post-intervention (T2) with the administration of EF rating scales, PBMEF, measures of academic achievement, and questionnaires regarding clinical symptoms and functional impairment. Participants, parents, teachers and professionals who performed the cognitive assessments were blinded. Adjusted multiple linear regression analysis showed significant improvements in EF scales-parent version, from T1 to T2, on the metacognition index [p = 0.03, d' = -0.78 (95 % CI -1.28 to -0.27)] and on WM (also significant at T2-T0) and plan/organize subscales. Significant improvements were also noted in EF scales-teacher version, from T0 to T1 and T2, on the metacognitive index [p = 0.05, d' = -0.37 (95 % CI -0.86 to 0.12) T1-T0, p = 0.02, d' = -0.81 (95 % CI -1.31 to -0.30) T2-T0] and on the initiate, WM, monitor and shift subscales. There were also significant improvements in PBMEF, ADHD symptoms, and functional impairment. CWMT had a significant impact on ADHD deficits by achieving long-term far-transfer effects.

  19. Comorbid Anxiety and Social Avoidance in Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression: Response to Adding Risperidone to Stimulant and Parent Training; Mediation of Disruptive Symptom Response

    PubMed Central

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Farmer, Cristan A.; Findling, Robert L.; Bukstein, Oscar; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Brown, Nicole V.; Li, Xiaobai; Rundberg-Rivera, E. Victoria; Bangalore, Srihari; Buchan-Page, Kristin; Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Rice, Robert; McNamara, Nora K.; Aman, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: In the four-site Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study, addition of risperidone to stimulant and parent training moderately improved parent-rated disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) symptoms. This secondary study explores outcomes other than DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as measured by the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R (CASI-4R). Methods: A total of 168 children ages 6–12 with severe aggression (physical harm), DBD, and ADHD were randomized to parent training plus stimulant plus placebo (basic treatment) or parent training plus stimulant plus risperidone (augmented treatment) for 9 weeks. All received only parent training plus stimulant for the first 3 weeks, then those with room for improvement received a second drug (placebo or risperidone) for 6 weeks. CASI-4R category item means at baseline and week 9 were entered into linear mixed-effects models for repeated measures to evaluate group differences in changes. Mediation of the primary DBD outcome was explored. Results: Parent ratings were nonsignificant with small/negligible effects, but teacher ratings (n=46 with complete data) showed significant augmented treatment advantage for symptoms of anxiety (p=0.013, d=0.71), schizophrenia spectrum (p=0.017, d=0.45), and impairment in these domains (p=0.02, d=0.26), all remaining significant after false discovery rate correction for multiple tests. Improvement in teacher-rated anxiety significantly (p=0.001) mediated the effect of risperidone augmentation on the primary outcome, the Disruptive-total of the parent-rated Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form. Conclusions: Addition of risperidone to parent training plus stimulant improves not only parent-rated DBD as previously reported, but also teacher-rated anxiety–social avoidance. Improvement in anxiety mediates improvement in DBD, suggesting anxiety-driven fight-or-flight disruptive behavior with aggression, with implications for potential treatment strategies. Clinicians should attend to possible anxiety in children presenting with aggression and DBD. Clinical Trial Registry: Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study). NCT00796302. clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:25885010

  20. Hard X-Ray Emission from SH 2-104: A NuSTAR Search for Gamma-Ray Counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Mori, K.; Aliu, E.; Paredes, J. M.; Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2016-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of Sh 2-104, a compact H II region containing several young massive stellar clusters (YMSCs). We have detected distinct hard X-ray sources coincident with localized VERITAS TeV emission recently resolved from the giant gamma-ray complex MGRO J2019+37 in the Cygnus region. Fainter, diffuse X-rays coincident with the eastern YMSC in Sh2-104 likely result from the colliding winds of a component star. Just outside the radio shell of Sh 2-104 lies 3XMM J201744.7+365045 and a nearby nebula, NuSTAR J201744.3+364812, whose properties are most consistent with extragalactic objects. The combined XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum of 3XMM J201744.7+365045 is well-fit to an absorbed power-law model with N(sub H) = (3.1 +/- 1.0) x 10(exp 22) cm(exp -2) and a photon index gamma = 2.1 +/- 0.1. Based on possible long-term flux variation and the lack of detected pulsations (less than or equal to 43% modulation), this object is likely a background active galactic nucleus rather than a Galactic pulsar. The spectrum of the NuSTAR nebula shows evidence of an emission line at E = 5.6 keV, suggesting an optically obscured galaxy cluster at z = 0.19 +/- 0.02 (d = 800 Mpc) and L(sub X) = 1.2 x 10(exp 44) erg s(exp -1). Follow-up Chandra observations of Sh 2-104 will help identify the nature of the X-ray sources and their relation to MGRO J2019+37. We also show that the putative VERITAS excess south of Sh 2-104, is most likely associated with the newly discovered Fermi pulsar PSR J2017+3625 and not the H II region.

  1. Effect of sire on mu- and m-calpain activity and rate of tenderization as indicated by myofibril fragmentation indices of steaks from Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Pringle, T D; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Coleman, S W

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of sire on mu- and m-calpain activities, to evaluate the relationships of activities of these enzymes to other traits related to beef palatability, and to assess the influence of sire on the rate of tenderization (as measured by myofibril fragmentation index [MFI]) in Brahman longissimus muscle. Brahman calves (n = 87), sired by nine bulls, were born, weaned, fed, and slaughtered in central Florida. Traits evaluated were mu- and m-calpain activities and MFI after 1, 7, 14, and 21 d of aging. Other traits were analyzed to determine their associations with mu- and m-calpain activity and MFI, including calpastatin activity, percentage of raw and cooked lipids, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values after 7, 14, and 21 d of aging, and sensory panel rating of tenderness, juiciness, and connective tissue amount after 14 d of aging. Data were analyzed using a model with sire, sex, year, and slaughter group (calves of the same sex slaughtered on the same date) as fixed effects, and adjusted to a constant adjusted 12th-rib fat thickness. Sire affected mu-calpain activity (P < 0.04), calpastatin activity (P < 0.01), d-14 MFI (P < 0.02), d-7 WBSF (P < 0.05), d-14 WBSF (P < 0.04), and sensory panel juiciness score (P < 0.01), but not (P < 0.75) m-calpain activity. Measures of tenderness and palatability were generally moderately to strongly correlated (both simple and residual correlations) with calpastatin and m-calpain activity. Myofibril fragmentation index residuals (adjusted for all model components except sire) after all aging periods were fitted using nonlinear regression to the exponential curve (MFI(i) = kappa0 + kappa1 exp[kappa2 t(i)] + epsilon(i), where t(i) represents aging in days, k0 is ultimate MFI after aging, kappa1 is the difference between initial and ultimate MFI, kappa2 is the rate of increase in MFI, and epsilon(i) is the error term associated with the ith observation, assumed to be independent and identically distributed normally). Sires had different estimates and combinations of estimates, which were used to plot MFI change with time. These curves visually differed for sires and suggested that postmortem tenderization extent and rate differ as well. Use of a combination of these estimated parameters in a selection/carcass sorting program represents an alternative consideration for tenderization improvement programs.

  2. Bathymetry and Composition of Titan's Hydrocarbon Seas from the Cassini RADAR Altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Hayes, Alex; Poggiali, Valerio; Lunine, Jonathan; Seu, Roberto; Hofgartner, Jason; Le Gall, Alice; Lorenz, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    The Cassini RADAR's altimetry mode has been successfully used for probing the depth and composition of Titan's hydrocarbons seas. In May 2013, during the spacecraft's T91 flyby of Titan, the instrument demonstrated its capabilities as a radar sounder, presenting a unique opportunity to constraint the depth and composition of Titan's second largest sea, Ligeia Mare. Later, observations of Kraken Mare and Punga Mare were planned and executed in August 2014 (T104) and January 2015 (T108), respectively. While most of the seafloor was not detected at Kraken, suggesting the sea was either too deep or too absorptive in these areas to observe a return from the seafloor, shallow areas near Moray Sinus did show subsurface reflections. At Punga Mare, a clear detection of the subsurface was observed with a maximum depth of 120 m along the radar altimetry transect. Herein we present a re-analysis of altimetry data acquired over Ligeia Mare and, earlier in the Cassini mission (in December 2008 during T49), over the southern Ontario Lacus. Depths measurements and liquid composition are obtained using a novel technique which makes use of radar simulations and Monte Carlo-based inversions. Simulation is based on a two-layer model, where the surface is represented by a specular reflection and the seafloor is modeled using a facet-based synthetic surface, including thermal noise, speckle effects, analog to digital conversion (ADC), block adaptive quantization (BAQ), and allows for possible receiver saturation. This new analysis provides an update to the Ku-band attenuation (the Cassini RADAR operates at a wavelength of 2 cm) and results in a new estimate for loss tangent and composition. We found a value of specific attenuation of the liquid equal to 0.14±0.02 dB/m and 0.2±0.1 dB/m, which is equivalent to a loss tangent of 4.4±0.9x10^-5 and 7±3x10^-5 for Ligeia Mare and Ontario Lacus, respectively. Assuming that Titan's liquid bodies are composed by a ternary mixture of methane, ethane, and nitrogen, these values of loss tangent are consistent with a composition of 69% of methane (CH4), 14% of ethane (C2H6) and 17% nitrogen (N2) for Ligeia Mare and 47% of methane (CH4), 40% of ethane (C2H6) and 13% nitrogen (N2) for Ontario Lacus.

  3. Effects of strengthening and stretching exercise programmes on kinematics and kinetics of running in older adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Reginaldo K; Stefanyshyn, Darren J; Stirling, Lisa; Ferber, Reed

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening and stretching exercises on running kinematics and kinetics in older runners. One hundred and five runners (55-75 years) were randomly assigned to either a strengthening (n = 36), flexibility (n = 34) or control (n = 35) group. Running kinematics and kinetics were obtained using an eight-camera system and an instrumented treadmill before and after the eight-week exercise protocol. Measures of strength and flexibility were also obtained using a dynamometer and inclinometer/goniometer. A time effect was observed for the excursion angles of the ankle sagittal (P = 0.004, d = 0.17) and thorax/pelvis transverse (P < 0.001, d = 0.20) plane. Similarly, a time effect was observed for knee transverse plane impulse (P = 0.013, d = 0.26) and ground reaction force propulsion (P = 0.042, d = -0.15). A time effect for hip adduction (P = 0.006, d = 0.69), ankle dorsiflexion (P = 0.002, d = 0.47) and hip internal rotation (P = 0.048, d = 0.30) flexibility, and hip extensor (P = 0.001, d = -0.48) and ankle plantar flexor (P = 0.01, d = 0.39) strength were also observed. However, these changes were irrespective of exercise group. The results of the present study indicate that an eight-week stretching or strengthening protocol, compared to controls, was not effective in altering age-related running biomechanics despite changes in ankle and trunk kinematics, knee kinetics and ground reaction forces along with alterations in muscle strength and flexibility were observed over time.

  4. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Uwe; Constantinescu, Mihai A.; Woermann, Ulrich; Schmitz, Felix; Schnabel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. Objective: This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. Methodology: A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the “Conventional Instruction” (CI) study group or to the “Video-based Instruction” (VI) study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a) of the preparation and (b) of the procedure as well as (c) the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire. Results: The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (t=-78, p<0.44) or in the quality (t=-99, p<0.34). With respect to performance, it was possible to demonstrate a strong treatment effect. In the practical (t=-3.33, p<0.002, d=0.943) and in the total score (t=-2.65, p<0.011, d=0.751), the group with video-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4%) of students stated video

  5. A Dosimetric Comparison between Conventional Fractionated and Hypofractionated Image-guided Radiation Therapies for Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Li, Gao-Feng; Hou, Xiu-Yu; Gao, Hong; Xu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background: Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is the preferred method for curative treatment of localized prostate cancer, which could improve disease outcome and reduce normal tissue toxicity reaction. IGRT using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in combination with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) potentially allows smaller treatment margins and dose escalation to the prostate. The aim of this study was to compare the difference of dosimetric diffusion in conventional IGRT using 7-field, step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and hypofractionated IGRT using VMAT for patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods: We studied 24 patients who received 78 Gy in 39 daily fractions or 70 Gy in 28 daily fractions to their prostate with/without the seminal vesicles using IMRT (n = 12) or VMAT (n = 12) for prostate cancer between November 2013 and October 2015. Image guidance was performed using kilovoltage CBCT scans equipped on the linear accelerator. Offline planning was performed using the daily treatment images registered with simulation computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 212 IMRT plans in conventional cohort and 292 VMAT plans in hypofractionated cohort were enrolled in the study. Dose distributions were recalculated on CBCT images registered with the planning CT scanner. Results: Compared with 7-field, step-and-shoot IMRT, VMAT plans resulted in improved planning target volume (PTV) D95% (7663.17 ± 69.57 cGy vs. 7789.17 ± 131.76 cGy, P < 0.001). VMAT reduced the rectal D25 (P < 0.001), D35 (P < 0.001), and D50 (P < 0.001), bladder V50 (P < 0.001), D25 (P = 0.002), D35 (P = 0.028), and D50 (P = 0.029). However, VMAT did not statistically significantly reduce the rectal V50, compared with 7-field, step-and-shoot IMRT (25.02 ± 5.54% vs. 27.43 ± 8.79%, P = 0.087). Conclusions: To deliver the hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer, VMAT significantly increased PTV D95% dose and decreased the dose of radiation

  6. HD 144548: A young triply eclipsing system in the Upper Scorpius OB association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, R.; Deeg, H. J.; Hoyer, S.; Lodieu, N.; Palle, E.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R.

    2015-12-01

    The star HD 144548 (=HIP 78977; TYP 6212-1273-1) has been known as a detached eclipsing binary and a bona-fide member of the Upper Scorpius OB association. Continuous photometry from the K2 mission on Campaign Two has revealed the presence of additional eclipses due to the presence of a third star in the system. These are explained by a system composed of the two previously known members of the eclipsing system (Ba and Bb) with a period of 1.63 d, orbiting around an F7-F8V star with a period of 33.945 ± 0.002 d in an eccentric orbit (eA = 0.2652 ± 0.0003). The timing of the eclipses of Ba and Bb reveals the same 33.9 d periodicity, which we interpret as the combination of a light time effect combined with dynamical perturbations on the close system. Here we combine radial velocities and analytical approximations for the timing of the eclipses to derive masses and radii for the three components of the system. We obtain a mass of 1.44 ± 0.04 M⊙ and radius of 2.41 ± 0.03 R⊙ for the A component, and almost identical masses and radii of about 0.96 M⊙ and 1.33 R⊙ for each of the two components of the close binary. HD 144548 is the first triply eclipsing system for which radial velocities of all components could be measured. Partially based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF, the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association, and the William Herschel Telescope (programme DDT58 - PI Lodieu) operated by the Isaac Newton Group on the island of La Palma at the Spanish Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC. This paper includes data collected by the Kepler mission. Funding for the Kepler mission is provided by the NASA Science Mission directorate.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Mesozooplankton biomass and grazing responses to Cyclone Opal, a subtropical mesoscale eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Michael R.; Decima, Moira; Simmons, Melinda P.; Hannides, Cecelia C. S.; Daniels, Emy

    2008-05-01

    As part of E-Flux III cruise studies in March 2005, plankton net collections were made to assess the effects of a cyclonic cold-core eddy (Cyclone Opal) on the biomass and grazing of mesozooplankton. Mesozooplankton biomass in the central region of Cyclone Opal, an area of uplifted nutricline and a subsurface diatom bloom, averaged 0.80±0.24 and 1.51±0.59 g DW m -2, for day and night tows, respectively. These biomass estimates were about 80% higher than control (OUT) stations, with increases more or less proportionately distributed among size classes from 0.2 to >5 mm. Though elevated relative to surrounding waters south of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawai'i lee), total biomass and size distribution in Cyclone Opal were almost exactly the same as contemporary measurements made at Stn. ALOHA, 100 km north of the islands, by the HOT (Hawaii Ocean Time-series) Program. Mesozooplankton biomass and community composition at the OUT stations were also similar to ALOHA values from 1994 to 1996, preceding a recent decadal increase. These comparisons may therefore provide insight into production characteristics or biomass gradients associated with decadal changes at Stn. ALOHA. Gut fluorescence estimates were higher in Opal than in ambient waters, translating to grazing impacts of 0.11±0.02 d -1 (IN) versus 0.03±0.01 d -1 (OUT). Over the depth-integrated euphotic zone, mesozooplankton accounted for 30% of the combined grazing losses of phytoplankton to micro- and meso-herbivores in Opal, as compared to 13% at control stations. Estimates of active export flux by migrating zooplankton averaged 0.81 mmol C m -2 d -1 in Cyclone Opal and 0.37 mmol C m -2 d -1 at OUT stations, 53% and 24%, respectively, of the carbon export measured by passive sediment traps. Migrants also exported 0.18 mmol N m -2 d -1 (117% of trap N flux) in Cyclone Opal compared to 0.08 mmol N m -2 d -1 (51% of trap flux) at control stations. Overall, the food-web importance of mesozooplankton increased in Cyclone Opal both in absolute and relative terms. Diel migrants provided evidence for enhanced export flux in the eddy that was missed by sediment trap and 234Th techniques, and migrant-mediated flux was the major export term in the observed bloom-perturbation response and N mass balance of the eddy.

  8. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study.

    PubMed

    Weber, Uwe; Constantinescu, Mihai A; Woermann, Ulrich; Schmitz, Felix; Schnabel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Für die Unterrichtsgestaltung zur Einführung der chirurgischen Händedesinfektion stehen unterschiedliche Lernmethoden zur Verfügung. Diese Lernmethoden sollen dabei helfen, das Unterrichtsthema zu strukturieren und zu bewältigen. Der Einsatz eines Videofilms ist, durch die realen Darstellungsmöglichkeiten der praktischen Demonstration, eine Alternative zum konventionellen Unterricht. Ziel: Mit der vorliegenden Studie wird vergleichend untersucht, welche Vermittlungsform effektiver für das Erlernen und Anwenden der chirurgischen Händedesinfektion von Medizinstudenten im 1. Studienjahr ist: videobasierte Instruktion oder konventioneller Unterricht.Methodik: Insgesamt wurden 50 Medizinstudierende im 1. Studienjahr per Zufall entweder der Lerngruppe „konventionelle Instruktion“ (KI) oder der Lerngruppe „videobasierte Instruktion“ (VI) zugeordnet. Die konventionelle Instruktion erfolgte durch einen erfahrenen Nurse Preceptors/Nurse Educators für den Operationssaal, der die vorzubereitenden Massnahmen sowie die eigentliche Prozedur im Rahmen einer zweiminütigen Lektion vermittelte. Die zweite Gruppe sah eine Videosequenz von 2 Minuten mit identischen Inhalten. Beide Gruppen demonstrierten ihr akkumuliertes Wissen im Anschluss praktisch an einer einzelnen praktischen Prüfungsstation. Die Güte (a) der Vorbereitung und (b) der Prozedur wurde ebenso wie (c) die Qualität des Ergebnisses von 6 geblendeten Experten anhand einer Checkliste beurteilt. Die Akzeptanz der jeweiligen Vermittlungsform wurde mittels eines Fragebogens erfragt.Ergebnisse: Die Gruppenleistungen unterschieden sich weder in der Vorbereitung (t=-78, p<0.44) noch in der Qualität (t=-99, p<0.34). In Hinblick auf die Performanz konnte ein starker Treatment-Effekt nachgewiesen werden. In der Durchführung (t=-3.33, p<0.002, d=0.943) sowie im Total Score (t=-2.65, p<0.011, d=0.751) erzielte die Gruppe mit videobasierter Instruktion ein signifikant besseres Ergebnis. Auf die Frage

  9. A Ka-Band Wide-Bandgap Solid-State Power Amplifier: Architecture Performance Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, L.; Khan, P.; Silva, A.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by recent advances in wide-bandgap (WBG) gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor technology, there is considerable interest in developing efficient solidstate power amplifiers (SSPAs) as an alternative to the traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) for space applications. This article documents the results of a study to investigate power-combining technology and SSPA architectures that can enable a 120-W, 40 percent power-added efficiency (PAE) SSPA. Results of the study indicate that architectures based on at least three power combiner designs are likely to enable the target SSPA. The proposed architectures can power combine 16 to 32 individual monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) with >80 percent combining efficiency. This corresponds to MMIC requirements of 5- to 10-W output power and >48 percent PAE. For the three proposed architectures [1], detailed analysis and design of the power combiner are presented. The first architecture studied is based on a 16-way septum combiner that offers low loss and high isolation over the design band of 31 to 36 GHz. Analysis of a 2-way prototype septum combiner had an input match >25 dB, output match >30 dB, insertion loss <0.02 dB, and isolation >30 dB over the design band. A 16-way design, based on cascading this combiner in a binary fashion, is documented. The second architecture is based on a 24-way waveguide radial combiner. A prototype 24-way radial base was analyzed to have an input match >30 dB (under equal excitation of all input ports). The match of the mode transducer that forms the output of a radial combiner was found to be >27 dB. The functional bandwidth of the radial base and mode transducer, which together will form a radial combiner/divider, exceeded the design band. The third architecture employs a 32-way, parallel-plate radial combiner. Simulation results indicated an input match >24 dB, output match >22 dB, insertion loss <0.23 dB, and adjacent port isolation >20 dB over the design band. All three architectures utilize a low-loss MMIC amplifier module based on commercial MMIC packaging and a custom microstrip-to-rectangular-waveguide transition. The insertion loss of the module is expected to be 0.45 dB over the design band.

  10. Comparative evaluation of chloroethene dechlorination to ethene by Dehalococcoides-like microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Cupples, Alison M; Spormann, Alfred M; McCarty, Perry L

    2004-09-15

    Reductive dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) was examined in four cultures containing Dehalococcoides-like microorganisms. Dechlorination and growth kinetics were compared using a Monod growth-rate model for multiple electron acceptor usage with competition. Included were the Victoria mixed culture containing Dehalococcoides species strain VS (from Victoria, TX), the mixed culture KB-1/VC (from southern Ontario), the Pinellas mixed culture (from Pinellas, FL), and D. ethenogenes strain 195. All cultures, with the exception of D. ethenogenes strain 195, grew with VC as catabolic electron acceptor. A dilution method was developed that allows a valid comparison to be made of dehalogenating kinetics between different mixed cultures. Using this procedure, maximum growth rates on VC were found to be similar for strain VS and KB-1/VC (0.42-0.49 +/- 0.02 d(-1)) but slower for the Pinellas culture (0.28 +/- 0.01 d(-1)). The 16S rRNA gene sequences were determined to ensure that no cross contamination between cultures had occurred. Following enrichment of the VC dechlorinating microorganisms on VC, the cultures were amended with DCE, TCE, or PCE. The three mixed cultures failed to dechlorinate PCE or did so very slowly. However, the dilution technique indicated that all experienced growth on TCE and DCE as well as on VC. Maximum growth rates on DCE alone were quite similar (0.43-0.46 d(-1)), while the Pinellas culture grew faster on TCE alone (0.49 d(-1)) than did the other two mixed cultures (0.33-0.35 d(-1)). Half-velocity and inhibition constants for growth on TCE were also determined for the three mixed cultures; both constants were found to be essentially equal and the same for the different cultures, varying between only 8.6 and 10.5 microM. The ability of the strain VS, KB-1/VC, and Pinellas cultures to utilize TCE rapidly with conversion to ethene is quite different from that of any other reported microorganism. It was separately confirmed with more traditional cell-counting techniques that strain VS coupled TCE, as well as DCE and VC, utilization with growth. This is the first report of an organism obtaining energy for growth through every step in the reduction of TCE to ethene. Also, as suggested by the dilution technique, the dehalogenating organisms in the KB-1/VC and Pinellas cultures appear to obtain growth from TCE utilization as well. Such ability to grow while dehalogenating TCE to ethene will be an important advantage for their use in bioaugmentation.

  11. Profil épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH au cours d'une campagne de sensibilisation à Yaoundé au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Viche, Lade; Noubom, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer le profil épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH/SIDA au cours d'une campagne de sensibilisation à Yaoundé au Cameroun. Méthodes Après avoir obtenu le consentement éclairé des participants, le dépistage de l'infection par le VIH a été effectué selon l'algorithme de dépistage en série de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS). En outre, un questionnaire socio-comportemental a été proposé à chaque participant. Résultats Au total, 911 personnes ont été dépistées. La prévalence de l'infection par le VIH était de 2.6%. Elle était 3 fois plus élevée parmi les femmes (RC = 3.22, IC (1.26 - 8.18). Les prévalences les plus élevées ont été observées chez les personnes de plus de 45 ans (p = 0.01), les personnes sans emploi (p < 0.001) et les veufs/veuves (p = 0.02). Plus de 80% des participants trouvaient le test de dépistage nécessaire et 76,2% l'avaient déjà effectué au moins une fois auparavant. Il s'agissait principalement de femmes (p = 0.02), d'étudiants (p < 0.001) et des personnes âgées de 25 à 34 ans (p < 0.001). Les personnes séropositives avaient moins tendance à retirer leur résultat (p = 0.01). Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de dépistage de l'infection par le VIH en ciblant davantage des groupes particuliers tels que les élèves, les personnes âgées et les veufs/veuves, tout en recherchant les facteurs pouvant favoriser la propagation de l'infection dans ces groupes. PMID:24255725

  12. INFLUENCE OF INJURY ON DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL IN RUNNERS

    PubMed Central

    Klusendorf, Anna; Kernozek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Injury has been linked with altered postural control in active populations. The association between running injury and dynamic postural control has not been examined. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine dynamic postural control in injured and uninjured runners using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Time to Stabilization (TTS) of ground reaction forces following a single-leg landing, and postural stability indices reflecting the fluctuations in GRFs during single-leg landing and stabilization tasks (forward and lateral hop). It was hypothesized that dynamic postural control differences would exist between runners with a history of injury that interrupted training for ≥7 days (INJ) when compared to runners without injury (CON). Design Case-control study Methods Twenty-two INJ (14 F, 8 M; 23.7 ± 2.1 y; 22.3 ± 2.8 kg/m2; 29.5 ± 16.3 mi/wk) currently running > 50% pre-injury mileage without pain were compared with twenty-two matched CON (14F, 8M; 22.7 ± 1.2 y; 22.7 ± 2.7 kg/m2; 31.2 ± 19.6 mi/wk). INJ group was stratified by site of injury into two groups (Hip/Thigh/Knee and Lower Leg/Ankle/Foot) for secondary analysis. Leg length-normalized anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial reach distances on the SEBT, medial/lateral and anterior/posterior ground reaction force TTS, directional postural stability indices, and a composite dynamic postural stability index (DPSI), were assessed using mixed model ANOVA (α=0.05) and effect sizes (d). Results No group X direction interaction or group differences were observed for the SEBT (p=0.51, 0.71) or TTS (p=0.83, 0.72) measures. A group X direction interaction was found for postural stability indices during the forward landing task (p<0.01). Both Hip/Thigh/Knee and Lower leg/Ankle/Foot INJ groups demonstrated a greater vertical postural stability index (VPSI) (p=0.01 for both, d=0.80, 0.95) and DPSI (p=0.01, 0.02, d=0.75, 0.93) when compared to CON suggesting impaired balance control. A group X direction interaction was also found for postural stability indices during the lateral landing task (p=0.03). Only the Hip/Thigh/Knee INJ runners displayed a greater VPSI (p=0.01, d=0.91) and DPSI (p=0.017, d=0.89) when compared to CON. Conclusions When compared to CON, INJ runners demonstrated impaired dynamic control of vertical forces when performing the single leg landing and stabilization tasks. Clinicians should consider addressing dynamic control of vertical loads through functional tasks during the rehabilitation of running injury. Level of Evidence Level 3 PMID:27274423

  13. Effect of Hydrophobicity on Splash Erosion by a Single Drop Impact: From Model Soil to Real Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sujung; Doerr, Stefan H.; Douglas, Peter; Bryant, Robert; Hamlett, Christopher A. E.; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I.; Shirtcliffe, Neil J.

    2013-04-01

    sand particles had significantly less mobility than glass beads (angle of repose: beads: 21.3 ± 0.7 °, sands: 37.3 ± 0.9 °, p < 0.001, dF = 17), and that sands took longer to flow through a funnel (beads: 1.88 ± 0.02 s, sands: 2.05 ± 0.13 s, p = 0.002, dF = 9). This lower mobility of sands may well be an important factor in the smaller amount of overall splash detachment for sands than beads. Secondly, the water repellency of hydophobized sands, measured by water contact angle (CA) and the Molarity of Ethanol Droplet test (MED), was greater than for identically hydrophobized glass beads (beads: CA 119.6 ± 5.1 °, MED 33%; sands: CA 137.0 ± 2.0 °, MED 36%). This is probably due to the enhancing effect of surface roughness on hydrophobicity. This amplified hydrophobicity can help to explain the enhanced contrast in splash behaviour between hydrophobic and hydrophilic sands. The results show that the enhanced splash detachment observed for hydrophobic model materials in our previous study occurs to an even greater degree in real sands. The findings also suggest that surface roughness and amplified hydrophobicity in real sands need to be considered when translating findings from model materials to real soils. Finally, the results of this study confirm that particle hydrophobicity leads to a greater susceptibility of sands to splash erosion in the initial stage of rain or irrigation events. References: Ahn S, et al. 2012. ESPL. DOI: 10.1002/esp.3364; Fox DM, et al. 2007. Hydro. Proc. 21: 2377-2384; Terry JP and Shakesby RA. 1993. ESPL 18: 519-25 Acknowledgement: This study has been funded by UK EPSRC (EP/H000747/1 and EP/H000704/1).

  14. The Hades RV Programme With Harps-N@TNG GJ 3998: An Early M-Dwarf Hosting a System of Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affer, Laura; Micela, Giuseppina; Damasso, Mario; Perger, Manuel; Ribas, Ignasi; Suárez Mascareño, Alejandro; González Hernández, Jonay Isai; Rebolo, Rafael; Poretti, Ennio; Maldonado, Jesus; Leto, Giuseppe; Pagano, Isabella; Scandariato, Gaetano; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Bonomo, Aldo Stefano; Malavolta, Luca; Morales, Juan Carlos; Rosich, Albert; Bignamini, Andrea; Gratton, Raffaele; Velasco, Sergio; Cenadelli, Davide; Claudi, Riccardo; Cosentino, Rosario; Desidera, Silvano; Giacobbe, Paolo; Herrero, Enrique; Lafarga, Marina; Lanza, Antonino Francesco; Molinari, Emilio; Piotto, Giampaolo

    2016-07-01

    Many efforts to detect Earth-like planets around low-mass stars are presently devoted in almost every extra-solar planetsearch. M dwarfs are considered ideal targets for Doppler radial velocity searches because their low masses and luminosities makelow-mass planets orbiting in their habitable zones more easily detectable than those around higher mass stars. Nonetheless, thestatistics of frequency of low-mass planets hosted by low mass stars remains poorly constrained.Our M-dwarf radial velocity monitoring with HARPS-N within the GAPS (Global architectures of Planetary Systems) - ICE(Institut de Ciències de l'Espai CSIC-IEEC) - IAC (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias) projectcan provide a major contributionto the widening of the current statistics through the in-depth analysis of accurate radial velocity observations in a narrow range ofspectral sub-types (79 stars, between dM0 to dM3). Spectral accuracy will enable us to reach the precision needed to detect smallplanets with a few earth masses. Our survey will bring a contribute to the surveys devoted to the search for planets around M-dwarfs, mainly focused on the M-dwarf population of the northern emisphere, for which we will provide an estimate of the planet occurrence.We present here a long duration radial velocity monitoring of theM1 dwarf star GJ 3998 with HARPS-N to identify periodicsignals in the data. Almost simultaneous photometric observations were carried out within the APACHE and EXORAP programs tocharacterize the stellar activity and to distinguish from the periodic signals those due to activity and to the presence of planetarycompanions. We run an MCMC simulation and use Bayesian model selection to determine the number of planets in this system, toestimate their orbital parameters and minimum masses and for a proper treatment of the activity noise.The radial velocities have a dispersion in excess of their internal errors due to at least four superimposed signals, with periodsof 30.7, 13.7, 42.5 and 2.65 days. Our data are well described by a 2-planet Keplerian (13.7 d and 2.65 d) and 2 sinusoidal functions(stellar activity, 30.7 d and 42.5 d) fit. The analysis of spectral indices based on Ca II H & K and Hα lines demonstrates that theperiods of 30.7 and 42.5 days are due to chromospheric inhomogeneities modulated by stellar rotation and differential rotation. Thisresult is supported by photometry and is consistent with the results on differential rotation of M stars obtained with Kepler. Theshorter periods of 13.74 ± 0.02 d and 2.6498 ± 0.0008 d are well explained with the presence of two planets, with minimum massesof 6.26 ± 0.79M ⊕ and 2.47 ± 0.27 M ⊕ and distances of 0.089 AU and 0.029 AU from the host, respectively.

  15. HADES RV program with HARPS-N at the TNG GJ 3998: An early M-dwarf hosting a system of super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affer, L.; Micela, G.; Damasso, M.; Perger, M.; Ribas, I.; Suárez Mascareño, A.; González Hernández, J. I.; Rebolo, R.; Poretti, E.; Maldonado, J.; Leto, G.; Pagano, I.; Scandariato, G.; Zanmar Sanchez, R.; Sozzetti, A.; Bonomo, A. S.; Malavolta, L.; Morales, J. C.; Rosich, A.; Bignamini, A.; Gratton, R.; Velasco, S.; Cenadelli, D.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Desidera, S.; Giacobbe, P.; Herrero, E.; Lafarga, M.; Lanza, A. F.; Molinari, E.; Piotto, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Many efforts are currently made to detect Earth-like planets around low-mass stars in almost every extra-solar planet search. M dwarfs are considered ideal targets for Doppler radial velocity searches because their low masses and luminosities make low-mass planets orbiting in these stars' habitable zones more easily detectable than those around higher mass stars. Nonetheless, the frequency statistics of low-mass planets hosted by low-mass stars remains poorly constrained. Aims: Our M-dwarf radial velocity monitoring with HARPS-N within the collaboration between the Global architectures of Planetary Systems (GAPS) project, the Institut de Ciències de l'Espai/CSIC-IEEC (ICE) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) can provide a major contribution to the widening of the current statistics through the in-depth analysis of accurate radial velocity observations in a narrow range of spectral sub-types (79 stars, between dM0 to dM3). Spectral accuracy will enable us to reach the precision needed to detect small planets with a few Earth masses. Our survey will contribute to the surveys devoted to the search for planets around M-dwarfs, mainly focused on the M-dwarf population of the northern emisphere, for which we will provide an estimate of the planet occurrence. Methods: We present here a long-duration radial velocity monitoring of the M1 dwarf star GJ 3998 with HARPS-N to identify periodic signals in the data. Almost simultaneous photometric observations were carried out within the APACHE and EXORAP programs to characterize the stellar activity and to distinguish those due to activity and to the presence of planetary companions from the periodic signals. We ran a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation and used a Bayesian model selection to determine the number of planets in this system, to estimate their orbital parameters and minimum mass, and to properly treat the activity noise. Results: The radial velocities have a dispersion in excess of their internal errors due to at least four superimposed signals with periods of 30.7, 13.7, 42.5, and 2.65 days. Our data are well described by a two-planet Keplerian (13.7 d and 2.65 d) and a fit with two sinusoidal functions (stellar activity, 30.7 d and 42.5 d). The analysis of spectral indexes based on Ca II H & K and Hα lines demonstrates that the periods of 30.7 and 42.5 days are due to chromospheric inhomogeneities modulated by stellar rotation and differential rotation. This result is supported by photometry and is consistent with the results on differential rotation of M stars obtained with Kepler. The shorter periods of 13.74 ± 0.02 d and 2.6498 ± 0.0008 d are well explained with the presence of two planets, with masses of at least 6.26-0.76+0.79 M⊕ and 2.47 ± 0.27 M⊕ and distances of 0.089 AU and 0.029 AU from the host, respectively. Based on: observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), operated on the island of La Palma by the INAF - Fundación Galileo Galilei at the Roche de Los Muchachos Observatory of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC); photometric observations made with the APACHE array located at the Astronomical Observatory of the Aosta Valley; photometric observations made with the robotic telescope APT2 (within the EXORAP program) located at Serra La Nave on Mt. Etna. http://www.oact.inaf.it/exoit/EXO-IT/Projects/Entries/2011/12/27_GAPS.html

  16. Effects of ewe size and nutrition on fetal mammary gland development and lactational performance of offspring at their first lactation.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, D S; Kenyon, P R; Blair, H T; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Jenkinson, C M C; Peterson, S W; Mackenzie, D D S

    2009-12-01

    Many environmental factors applied postnatally are known to affect milk production of the dam, but to date, the effects of different fetal environments on subsequent first lactational performance of the offspring have not been reported. Four hundred fifty heavy (H; 60.8 kg +/- 0.18) and 450 light (L; 42.5 kg +/- 0.17) dams were randomly allocated to ad libitum (A) or maintenance (M) nutritional regimens from d 21 until d 140 of pregnancy, under pastoral grazing conditions (HA, n = 151; HM, n = 153; LA, n = 155; LM, n = 153). At d 100 of pregnancy, a sub-group of twin-bearing dams was killed and fetal mammary glands collected. From 1 wk before lambing, all remaining dams were fed ad libitum until weaning. After weaning, female progeny were managed and fed under pastoral conditions as 1 group. At 2 yr of age, 72 twin-rearing ewe offspring were milked once a week for 7 wk. Fetuses from M-dams had heavier mammary glands (P = 0.03) compared with A-fetuses. Fetuses from H-dams had greater (P = 0.0008) mammary duct area compared with L-fetuses. At 2 yr of age, M-offspring had greater milk yields at d 7 (P = 0.02) and d 28 (P = 0.09) of lactation and tended to have greater accumulated milk yields (P = 0.11) compared with A-offspring. Ewes born to M-dams showed greater lactose percentage at d 14 (P = 0.002), d 21 (P = 0.06), and d 28 (P = 0.07) of lactation and greater (P = 0.049) accumulated lactose yields and CP (P = 0.06) yields compared with A-offspring. Ewes born to H-dams displayed greater milk yields at d 14 (P = 0.08) and d 21 (P = 0.02) and had greater accumulated milk yield (P = 0.08) and lactose yield (P = 0.04) compared with L-offspring. Lambs born to M-offspring were heavier at birth (P = 0.02) and grew faster until weaning (P = 0.02), matching the milk yield and composition data, compared with their ad libitum counterparts. Birth weight was not affected (P > 0.10) by grand dam size; however, lambs born to H-offspring grew faster from birth until d 49 of age (P

  17. The surprising magnetic topology of τ Sco: fossil remnant or dynamo output?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, J.-F.; Howarth, I. D.; Jardine, M. M.; Petit, P.; Catala, C.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bouret, J.-C.; Alecian, E.; Barnes, J. R.; Forveille, T.; Paletou, F.; Manset, N.

    2006-08-01

    We report the discovery of a medium-strength (~0.5 kG) magnetic field on the young, massive star τ Sco (B0.2V), which becomes the third-hottest magnetic star known. Circularly polarized Zeeman signatures are clearly detected in observations collected mostly with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter, recently installed on the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope; temporal variability is also clearly established in the polarimetry, and can be unambiguously attributed to rotational modulation with a period close to 41 d. Archival ultraviolet (UV) spectra confirm that this modulation repeats over time-scales of decades, and refine the rotation period to 41.033 +/- 0.002 d. Despite the slow rotation rate of τ Sco, we none the less succeed in reconstructing the large-scale structure of its magnetic topology. We find that the magnetic structure is unusually complex for a hot star, with significant power in spherical-harmonic modes of degree up to 5. The surface topology is dominated by a potential field, although a moderate toroidal component is probably present. We fail to detect intrinsic temporal variability of the magnetic structure over the 1.5-yr period of our spectropolarimetric observations (in agreement with the stable temporal variations of the UV spectra), and infer that any differential surface rotation must be very small. The topology of the extended magnetic field that we derive from the photospheric magnetic maps is also more complex than a global dipole, and features in particular a significantly warped torus of closed magnetic loops encircling the star (tilted at about 90° to the rotation axis), with additional, smaller, networks of closed-field lines. This topology appears to be consistent with the exceptional X-ray properties of τ Sco and also provides a natural explanation of the variability observed in wind-formed UV lines. Although we cannot completely rule out the possibility that the field is produced through dynamo processes of an exotic kind, we

  18. Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and toluene biodegradation, Knox Street fire pits, Fort Bragg, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, S.L.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    ground-water toluene concentration data, a maximum rate constant for anaerobic biodegradation of toluene in the saturated zone was estimated to be as low as 0.002 d-1 or as high as 0.026 d-1. Based on analyses of ground-water/vapor samples, toluene was the prin- cipal TEX compound identified in ground water discharging to Beaver Creek. Observed decreases in ground-water/vapor toluene concentrations during the study period may reflect a decrease in source inputs, an increase in dilution caused by higher ground-water flow, and(or) removal by biological or other physical processes. Rate constants of toluene anaerobic biodegradation determined by laboratory measurements illustrate a typical acclimation response of micro-organisms to hydrocarbon contamination in sediments collected from the site. Toluene biodegradation rate constants derived from laboratory microcosm studies ranged from 0.001 to 0.027 d-1, which is similar to the range of 0.002 to 0.026 d-1 for toluene biodegradation rate constants derived from ground-water analytical data. The close agreement of toluene biodegradation rate constants reported using both approaches offer strong evidence that toluene can be degraded at environmentally significant rates at the study site.