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Sample records for 01llb k58 h21

  1. Avia pursuit airplane B.H. 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serryer, J

    1926-01-01

    Built by the 'Czecho-Slovakian' aircraft factory, AVIA, the B.H. 21, has a top speed of 250 MPH, and carries 120 kg of gasoline and 20 kg of oil, giving it a radius of action of 600-650 km. It is equipped with a Hispano-Suiza engine capable of 300 HP.

  2. Nqrs Data for C9H21CaCl2N3O6 [C9H21N3O6·CaCl2] (Subst. No. 1196)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C9H21CaCl2N3O6 [C9H21N3O6·CaCl2] (Subst. No. 1196)

  3. MD-2 as the target of a novel small molecule, L6H21, in the attenuation of LPS-induced inflammatory response and sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Shan, Xiaoou; Chen, Gaozhi; Jiang, Lili; Wang, Zhe; Fang, Qilu; Liu, Xing; Wang, Jingying; Zhang, Yali; Wu, Wencan; Liang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Myeloid differentiation 2 (MD-2) recognizes LPS, which is required for TLR4 activation, and represents an attractive therapeutic target for severe inflammatory disorders. We previously found that a chalcone derivative, L6H21, could inhibit LPS-induced overexpression of TNF-α and IL-6 in macrophages. Here, we performed a series of biochemical experiments to investigate whether L6H21 specifically targets MD-2 and inhibits the interaction and signalling transduction of LPS-TLR4/MD-2. Experimental Approach The binding affinity of L6H21 to MD-2 protein was analysed using computer docking, surface plasmon resonance analysis, elisa, fluorescence measurements and flow cytometric analysis. The effects of L6H21 on MAPK and NF-κB signalling were determined using EMSA, fluorescence staining, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. The anti-inflammatory effects of L6H21 were confirmed using elisa and RT-qPCR in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effects of L6H21 were also evaluated in septic C57BL/6 mice. Key Results Compound L6H21 inserted into the hydrophobic region of the MD-2 pocket, forming hydrogen bonds with Arg90 and Tyr102 in the MD-2 pocket. In vitro, L6H21 subsequently suppressed MAPK phosphorylation, NF-κB activation and cytokine expression in macrophages stimulated by LPS. In vivo, L6H21 pretreatment improved survival, prevented lung injury, decreased serum and hepatic cytokine levels in mice subjected to LPS. In addition, mice with MD-2 gene knockout were universally protected from the effects of LPS-induced septic shock. Conclusions and Implications Overall, this work demonstrated that the new chalcone derivative, L6H21, is a potential candidate for the treatment of sepsis. More importantly, the data confirmed that MD-2 is an important therapeutic target for inflammatory disorders. PMID:26076332

  4. Nqrs Data for C9H21IN3NaO3 [INa·3(C3H7NO)] (Subst. No. 1197)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C9H21IN3NaO3 [INa·3(C3H7NO)] (Subst. No. 1197)

  5. Characterization of a chromosomally integrated luxCDABE marker for investigation of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O91:H21 shedding in cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yingying; Mathew, Alan G.

    2011-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O91:H21 has been recognized as a potential life-threatening foodborne pathogen and is commonly involved in human infections in European countries. Fecal shedding of the organism by cattle is considered to be the ultimate source for contaminations. Studies examining STEC shedding patterns often include inoculation of strains carrying antibiotic resistance makers for identifiable recovery. However, indigenous intestinal microflora exhibiting similar antibiotic resistance patterns can confound such studies. Such was the case in a study by our group when attempting to characterize shedding patterns of O91:H21 in calves. A chromosomally integrated bioluminescence marker using a luxCDABE cassette from Photorhabdus luminescens was developed in O91:H21 to overcome such shortcomings of antibiotic resistance markers during animal challenge experiment. The marker was validated in various aspects and was shown to have no impact on metabolic reactions, isotype virulence gene patterns, cost to growth, and additionally demonstrated high in vitro stability. Together, the results indicated that a chromosomally integrated luxCDABE based marker may be a superior system for the study of STEC colonization and shedding in cattle.

  6. Sab, a Novel Autotransporter of Locus of Enterocyte Effacement-Negative Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli O113:H21, Contributes to Adherence and Biofilm Formation▿

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Sylvia; Paton, James C.; Paton, Adrienne W.

    2009-01-01

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains cause serious gastrointestinal disease, which can lead to potentially life-threatening systemic complications such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Although the production of Shiga toxin has been considered to be the main virulence trait of STEC for many years, the capacity to colonize the host intestinal epithelium is a crucial step in pathogenesis. In this study, we have characterized a novel megaplasmid-encoded outer membrane protein in locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-negative O113:H21 STEC strain 98NK2, termed Sab (for STEC autotransporter [AT] contributing to biofilm formation). The 4,296-bp sab gene encodes a 1,431-amino-acid protein with the features of members of the AT protein family. When expressed in E. coli JM109, Sab contributed to the diffuse adherence to human epithelial (HEp-2) cells and promoted biofilm formation on polystyrene surfaces. A 98NK2 sab deletion mutant was also defective in biofilm formation relative to its otherwise isogenic wild-type parent, and this was complemented by transformation with a sab-carrying plasmid. Interestingly, an unrelated O113:H21 STEC isolate that had a naturally occurring deletion in sab was similarly defective in biofilm formation. PCR analysis indicated that sab is present in LEE-negative STEC strains belonging to serotypes/groups O113:H21, O23, and O82:H8. These findings raise the possibility that Sab may contribute to colonization in a subset of LEE-negative STEC strains. PMID:19487483

  7. Sab, a novel autotransporter of locus of enterocyte effacement-negative shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O113:H21, contributes to adherence and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Herold, Sylvia; Paton, James C; Paton, Adrienne W

    2009-08-01

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains cause serious gastrointestinal disease, which can lead to potentially life-threatening systemic complications such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Although the production of Shiga toxin has been considered to be the main virulence trait of STEC for many years, the capacity to colonize the host intestinal epithelium is a crucial step in pathogenesis. In this study, we have characterized a novel megaplasmid-encoded outer membrane protein in locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-negative O113:H21 STEC strain 98NK2, termed Sab (for STEC autotransporter [AT] contributing to biofilm formation). The 4,296-bp sab gene encodes a 1,431-amino-acid protein with the features of members of the AT protein family. When expressed in E. coli JM109, Sab contributed to the diffuse adherence to human epithelial (HEp-2) cells and promoted biofilm formation on polystyrene surfaces. A 98NK2 sab deletion mutant was also defective in biofilm formation relative to its otherwise isogenic wild-type parent, and this was complemented by transformation with a sab-carrying plasmid. Interestingly, an unrelated O113:H21 STEC isolate that had a naturally occurring deletion in sab was similarly defective in biofilm formation. PCR analysis indicated that sab is present in LEE-negative STEC strains belonging to serotypes/groups O113:H21, O23, and O82:H8. These findings raise the possibility that Sab may contribute to colonization in a subset of LEE-negative STEC strains.

  8. A new alpha-globin variant with increased oxygen affinity in a Swiss family: Hb Frauenfeld [alpha 138(H21)Ser-->Phe, TCC>TTC (alpha 2)].

    PubMed

    Hochuli, Michel; Zurbriggen, Karin; Schmid, Marlis; Speer, Oliver; Rochat, Philippe; Frauchiger, Beat; Kleinert, Peter; Schmugge, Markus; Troxler, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    A new alpha-globin mutation [alpha 138(H21)Ser-->Phe] was found in a 55-year-old male proband with an erythrocytosis known since his youth. Cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed an additional peak eluting slightly before Hb A indicating the presence of a variant. The peak area of the variant was approximately one-third that of Hb A suggesting an alpha-globin variant. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the mutation at the protein level. The variant is also detectable with isoelectric focusing and reversed phase HPLC. DNA analysis revealed a heterozygous sequence mutation at codon 138 of the alpha2 gene. A C>T transition at the second nucleotide of the codon indicated a Ser-->Phe exchange. The variant showed increased oxygen affinity and was named Hb Frauenfeld.

  9. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of Three Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O91:H21 Isolates, Two from Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Patients and One of Porcine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Morales, Christina Q.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents three genomes of O91:H21 isolates, two from hemolytic uremic syndrome patients and one of porcine origin. Genome analyses reveal that one of the human isolates contains both Shiga toxin-encoding genes (stx1 and stx2), and all three isolates contain putative adhesin (iha and eaeH) and antibiotic resistance (ampC) genes. PMID:25301649

  10. Nqrs Data for C9H21CaCl2N3O6 [CaCl2·3(C3H7NO2)] (Subst. No. 1195)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C9H21CaCl2N3O6 [CaCl2·3(C3H7NO2)] (Subst. No. 1195)

  11. Apoptotic effect of novel Schiff Based CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex is mediated via activation of the mitochondrial pathway in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Looi, Chung Yeng; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Salga, Muhammad Saleh; Karimian, Hamed; Shams, Keivan; Zahedifard, Maryam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-01-01

    The development of metal-based agents has had a tremendous role in the present progress in cancer chemotherapy. One well-known example of metal-based agents is Schiff based metal complexes, which hold great promise for cancer therapy. Based on the potential of Schiff based complexes for the induction of apoptosis, this study aimed to examine the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of a CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex on HT-29 cells. The complex exerted a potent suppressive effect on HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 2.57 ± 0.39 after 72 h of treatment. The collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the elevated release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol indicate the involvement of the intrinsic pathway in the induction of apoptosis. The role of the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway was further proved by the significant activation of the initiator caspase-9 and the executioner caspases-3 and -7. In addition, the activation of caspase-8, which is associated with the suppression of NF-κB translocation to the nucleus, also revealed the involvement of the extrinsic pathway in the induced apoptosis. The results suggest that the CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex is able to induce the apoptosis of colon cancer cells and is a potential candidate for future cancer studies. PMID:25764970

  12. Materials Data on H21OsC9NO7 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Systemic effects of Subtilase cytotoxin produced by Escherichia coli O113:H21.

    PubMed

    Seyahian, E Abril; Oltra, Gisela; Ochoa, Federico; Melendi, Santiago; Hermes, Ricardo; Paton, James C; Paton, Adrienne W; Lago, Nestor; Castro Parodi, Mauricio; Damiano, Alicia; Ibarra, Cristina; Zotta, Elsa

    2017-03-01

    Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is a member of the AB5 cytotoxin family and is produced by certain strains of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli. The toxin is known to be lethal to mice, but the pathological mechanisms that contribute to Uremic Hemolytic Syndrome (HUS) are poorly understood. In this study we show that intraperitoneal injection of a sublethal dose of SubAB in rats triggers a systemic response, with ascitic fluid accumulation, heart hypertrophy and damage to the liver, colon and kidney. SubAB treated rats presented microalbuminuria 20 days post inoculation. At this time we found disruption of the glomerular filtration barrier and alteration of the protein reabsorption mechanisms of the proximal tubule. In the kidney, SubAB also triggered an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (Wuyts et al., 1996). These findings indicate that apart from direct cytotoxic effects on renal tissues, SubAB causes significant damage to the other organs, with potential consequences for HUS pathogenesis.

  14. Materials Data on B12H21C4S2I (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-04

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. SPECIAL SESSION: (H21) on Global Precipitation Mission for Hydrology and Hydrometeorology. Sampling-Error Considerations for GPM-Era Rainfall Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The proposed Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) builds on the success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), offering a constellation of microwave-sensor-equipped smaller satellites in addition to a larger, multiply-instrumented "mother" satellite that will include an improved precipitation radar system to which the precipitation estimates of the smaller satellites can be tuned. Coverage by the satellites will be nearly global rather than being confined as TRMM was to lower latitudes. It is hoped that the satellite constellation can provide observations at most places on the earth at least once every three hours, though practical considerations may force some compromises. The GPM system offers the possibility of providing precipitation maps with much better time resolution than the monthly averages around which TRMM was planned, and therefore opens up new possibilities for hydrology and data assimilation into models. In this talk, methods that were developed for estimating sampling error in the rainfall averages that TRMM is providing will be used to estimate sampling error levels for GPM-era configurations. Possible impacts on GPM products of compromises in the sampling frequency will be discussed.

  16. The Regulation of Expression of the Stx2d Toxins in Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli O91:H21 Strain B2F1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    DH5α and its transposon mutants……….……...…….………...87 Figure 21. Genetic arrangement of the carnitine operon of Escherichia coli K...12 strain MG1655…………………….………………...92 Figure 22. Carnitine metabolism in Escherichia coli……………….……………….….93 Figure 23. Southern blots of EcoRV...necrosis factor alpha generated in response to the gastrointestinal infection. The result is loss of vascular integrity in the brain, hemorrhage

  17. Mutations in the Histone-like Nucleoid Structuring Regulatory Gene (hns) Decrease the Adherence of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli 091:H21 Strain B2F1 to Human Colonic Epithelial Cells and Increase the Production of Hemolysin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-19

    rabbits (Cantey and Blake. 1977). calves ( Fischer et aI.., 1994), pigs (Zhu et al~ 1994) and dogs (Drolet et al~ 1994). F. Enterohemorrhaaie E. col; (EHEC...syndrome: a family outbreak. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. IS: 1008-1011. Barth, M., C. Marschall, A. Mumer, D. Fischer , and :R. Henggearonis. 1995. Role for the...osmoregulation of outer membrane proteins and virulence determinants in Vibrio cholerae requires toxR. J. Bacteriol. 170:2575-2583. Mobley, H. L., D. M. Green

  18. Genetic diversity and virulence potential of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli strains of O113 serogroup isolated from ground beef in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: An adherence factor such as intimin is often required for Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC) to cause severe diseases. O113:H21 strains do not produce intimin, but have caused HUS in Australia. Analysis of over 4000 ground beef samples in the U.S. found O113:H21 to be the serotype most ...

  19. Genome sequencing and comparative genomics provides insights on the evolutionary dynamics and pathogenic potential of different H-Types of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104 H-types including H4, H7, H21, and H¯ have been associated with sporadic cases of illness and have caused outbreaks globally. In the U.S., STEC O104:H21 caused an outbreak associated with milk in 1994. The aim of this work was to conduct a...

  20. A novel chalcone derivative attenuates the diabetes-induced renal injury via inhibition of high glucose-mediated inflammatory response and macrophage infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Qilu; Zhao, Leping; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yali; Li, Zhaoyu; Pan, Yong; Kanchana, Karvannan; Wang, Jingying; Tong, Chao; Li, Dan; Liang, Guang

    2015-01-15

    Inflammation plays a central role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Researches on novel anti-inflammatory agents may offer new opportunities for the treatment of DN. We previously found a chalcone derivative L6H21 could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine release from macrophages. The aim of this study was to investigate whether L6H21 could ameliorate the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells and attenuate the inflammation-mediated renal injury. According to the results, L6H21 showed a great inhibitory effect on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and macrophage adhesion via down-regulation of NF-κB/MAPKs activity in high glucose-stimulated renal NRK-52E cells. Further, in vivo oral administration with L6H21 at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/2 days showed a decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, which subsequently contributed to the inhibition on renal macrophage infiltration, the reduction of serum creatinine and BUN levels, and the improvement on the fibrosis and pathological changes in the renal tissues of diabetic mice. These findings provided that chalcone derived L6H21 may be a promising anti-inflammatory agent and have the potential in the therapy of diabetic nephropathy, and importantly, MAPK/NF-κB signaling system may be a novel therapeutic target for human DN in the future. - Highlights: • Inflammation plays a central role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. • Compound L6H21 reduced the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells. • Compound L6H21 attenuated the inflammation-mediated renal injury. • L6H21 exhibited anti-inflammatory effects via inactivation of NF-κB/MAPKs. • MAPKs/NF-κB may be a novel therapeutic target in diabetic nephropathy treatment.

  1. Parallelizing Serial Code for a Distributed Processing Environment with an Application to High Frequency Electromagnetic Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    1,k) 2p(i+’/2,j+ /,k) 1+++ At •1(22) B(i +l/’j +/2’k)58 1+ 0.m(i +𔃼,j +/2,k) 2p(i+ 1A ,j+1/,k) ,[ ZEn(i+/2J+1’k)-E(i ’ ij k] where 5 is the lattice...1991. 19. Tipler , Paul A. Physics. New York: Worth Publishers Inc., 1976. 20. Work, Paul Rt and Gary B. Lamont. "Efficient Parallelization of Serial

  2. Amino Acid Substitutions That Affect Receptor Binding and Stability of the Hemagglutinin of Influenza A/H7N9 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Schrauwen, Eefje J. A.; Burke, David F.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Herfst, Sander; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-binding preference and stability of hemagglutinin have been implicated as crucial determinants of airborne transmission of influenza viruses. Here, amino acid substitutions previously identified to affect these traits were tested in the context of an A/H7N9 virus. Some combinations of substitutions, most notably G219S and K58I, resulted in relatively high affinity for α2,6-linked sialic acid receptor and acid and temperature stability. Thus, the hemagglutinin of the A/H7N9 virus may adopt traits associated with airborne transmission. PMID:26792744

  3. Proceedings of the Workshop on the Assessment of Crew Workload Measurement Methods, Techniques, and Procedures: Part-Task Simulation Data Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    Boeing Aerospace Co. P.O. Box 3999 MS 2K-58 Seattle, WA 98124-2499 Dr. Peter V. Hwoschinsky (202)267-8531 FAA APM-430 800 Independence Avenue SW Washington...MO 63166 Antoinette R. Williams (408)720-5017 NASA-Ames Research Center Bldg. 257-1 Moffet Field, CA 94035 Dr. Ken Williams (818)887-1394 McDonnell...day. I would like to tell you a little about a study done at The Boeing Company recently by two of our engineers, Les Lautman and Peter Gallimore

  4. Recurrent Hemolytic and Uremic Syndrome Induced by Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Commereuc, Morgane; Weill, Francois-Xavier; Loukiadis, Estelle; Gouali, Malika; Gleizal, Audrey; Kormann, Raphaël; Ridel, Christophe; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Rondeau, Eric; Hertig, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A widespread belief is that typical hemolytic and uremic syndrome (HUS) does not recur. We report the case of a patient infected twice with raw milk taken from his own cow and containing a Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O174:H21 that induced recurrent HUS causing severe renal and cerebral disorders. A genomic comparison of the human and bovine Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O174:H21 isolates revealed that they were identical. Typical HUS may recur. Since milk from this animal was occasionally distributed locally, thereby posing a serious threat for the whole village, this particular cow was destroyed. PMID:26735524

  5. Influence of acid-soluble proteins from bivalve Siliqua radiata ligaments on calcium carbonate crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zeng-Qiong; Zhang, Gang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    In vitro biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of shell proteins is a heavily researched topic in biomineralization. However, little is known regarding the function of bivalve ligament proteins in the growth of CaCO3 crystals. In this study, using fibrous protein K58 from Siliqua radiata ligaments or coverslips as substrates, we report the results of our study of CaCO3 precipitation in the presence or absence of acid-soluble proteins (ASP) from inner ligament layers. ASP can disturb the controlling function of K58 or a coverslip on the crystalline phase, resulting in the formation of aragonite, calcite, and vaterite. In addition, we identified the following four primary components from ASP by mass spectroscopy: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ABC transporter, keratin type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT 1), and phosphate ABC transporter, phosphate-binding protein (PstS). Further analysis revealed that the first three proteins and especially ALP, which is important in bone mineralisation, could affect the polymorphism and morphology of CaCO3 crystals by trapping calcium ions in their domains. Our results indicate that ALP may play an important role in the formation of aragonite in S. radiata ligaments. This paper may facilitate our understanding of the biomineralization process.

  6. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... combination) or more of the skin protectant active ingredients identified in § 347.10(a), (d), (e), (g), (h... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 347... Active Ingredients § 347.20 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. (a) Combinations of...

  7. Extended hopane derivatives in sediments - Identification by H-1 NMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J.; Wardroper, A. M. K.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Sedimentary C32 hopanoic acid, one of the most abundant in nature and of probable bacterial origin, has been isolated for the first time as a single component and characterized by H-1 NMR. The 17 alpha H, 21 beta H configuration of the C31 alkane has been similarly confirmed.

  8. MASTER-SAAO: bright high amplitude outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelkina, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Vladimirov, V.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Potter, S.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-11-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 06h 21m 00.35s -58d 51m 20.5s on 2016-11-05.90053 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.5 (mlim=19.2).

  9. 27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 Section 21.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... biocides. 450.Cleaning solutions (including household detergents). (2) Miscellaneous uses:...

  10. Complete genome sequence and comparison of two Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104 isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104 strains have been associated with sporadic cases of illness and have caused outbreaks associated with milk and sprouts. E. coli O104:H21 caused an outbreak associated with milk in the U.S. in 1994. In this study, next generation sequencing techno...

  11. 27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... biocides. 450.Cleaning solutions (including household detergents). (2) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 Section 21.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  12. rac-N,N′-Bis(1-ferrocen­yleth­yl)pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Pattubala A. N.; Nasiruzzaman, Sk. Md; Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Tae-Jeong

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe2(C5H5)2(C21H21N3O2)], a potential novel N,N′,N′′-tridentate ligand with (non-crystallographic) C 2 axial symmetry, adopts a U-shaped molecular conformation. PMID:21582054

  13. Characterization and virulence potential of serogroup O113 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from beef and cattle in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of serotype O113:H21 have caused severe diseases but are unusual in that they do not produce the intimin protein required for adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. Strains of serogroup O113 are one of the most common STEC found in ground beef and be...

  14. Angular Momentum and Topological Dependence of Kepler's Third Law in the Broucke-Hadjidemetriou-Hénon Family of Periodic Three-Body Orbits.

    PubMed

    Janković, Marija R; Dmitrašinović, V

    2016-02-12

    We use 57 recently found topological satellites of Broucke-Hadjidemetriou-Hénon's periodic orbits with values of the topological exponent k ranging from k=3 to k=58 to plot the angular momentum L as a function of the period T, with both L and T rescaled to energy E=-0.5. Upon plotting L(T/k) we find that all our solutions fall on a curve that is virtually indiscernible by the naked eye from the L(T) curve for nonsatellite solutions. The standard deviation of the satellite data from the sixth-order polynomial fit to the progenitor data is σ=0.13. This regularity supports Hénon's 1976 conjecture that the linearly stable Broucke-Hadjidemetriou-Hénon orbits are also perpetually, or Kol'mogorov-Arnol'd-Moser, stable.

  15. Angular Momentum and Topological Dependence of Kepler's Third Law in the Broucke-Hadjidemetriou-Hénon Family of Periodic Three-Body Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janković, Marija R.; Dmitrašinović, V.

    2016-02-01

    We use 57 recently found topological satellites of Broucke-Hadjidemetriou-Hénon's periodic orbits with values of the topological exponent k ranging from k =3 to k =58 to plot the angular momentum L as a function of the period T , with both L and T rescaled to energy E =-0.5 . Upon plotting L (T /k ) we find that all our solutions fall on a curve that is virtually indiscernible by the naked eye from the L (T ) curve for nonsatellite solutions. The standard deviation of the satellite data from the sixth-order polynomial fit to the progenitor data is σ =0.13 . This regularity supports Hénon's 1976 conjecture that the linearly stable Broucke-Hadjidemetriou-Hénon orbits are also perpetually, or Kol'mogorov-Arnol'd-Moser, stable.

  16. Far infrared and submillimeter brightness temperatures of the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, R. H.; Loewenstein, R. F.; Harper, D. A.; Orton, G. S.; Keene, J.; Whitcomb, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    The brightness temperatures of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune in the range 35 to 1000 micron. The effective temperatures derived from the measurements, supplemented by shorter wavelength Voyager data for Jupiter and Saturn, are 126.8 + or - 4.5 K, 93.4 + or - 3.3 K, 58.3 + or - 2.0 K, and 60.3 + or - 2.0 K, respectively. The implications of the measurements for bolometric output and for atmospheric structure and composition are discussed. The temperature spectrum of Jupiter shows a strong peak at approx. 350 microns followed by a deep valley at approx. 450 to 500 microns. Spectra derived from model atmospheres qualitatively reproduced these features but do not fit the data closely.

  17. SIMPL-M Code Generation for the Intel 8080 Microcomputer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-23

    0407 — - • LINE 76OSIA NOV A,M 7E • .c. tc i IEP% P1 CS1B L X I H - - 21 04E8.._ ..__.__.._ .. C3~ O L)~! H 21 0416OSIE MCV M,A 77 Ob~ 3 MUV A.ll 71...OF THIS PAGE (ITh.n Dig. Eni .r.d~ DEDV ~ fl1. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ D A GfrP READ INSTRUCTIONS u~ u~iu~ u w~~ um u~ u ‘ii i’.” I - i’ BEFORE...Array F - 13 Intel Address .li I_ . I . I I t N e x t Global - It • Description * • 12 ~ Name Array Ii 13 Intel A4dress - II . - S . [ t0 I — - II

  18. Vibrational Spectra of 3-(Adamantan-1-YL)-4-(2-Propen-1-YL)-1 H-1,2,4-Triazole-5(4 H)-Thione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkov, L. L.; Matsukovich, A. S.; Pavich, T. A.; Gaponenko, S. V.; El-Emam, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Vibrational spectra of 3-(adamantan-1-yl)-4-(2-propen-1-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (C15H21N3S), which was promising for drug development, were studied experimentally and theoretically. The geometric structure and normal modes of the molecule and its dimer were calculated using quantum-mechanical density functional theory. It was shown that the experimentally obtained vibrational spectra were due to dimeric C15H21N3S structures. This conclusion was confirmed by spectra of the isotopically substituted compound with a deuterated imine. Bands at 1496 and 1549 cm-1 were identified as markers of dimer formation. Bands at 936 and 1244 cm-1 were found to be markers of intermolecular interactions of adamantane fragments.

  19. Early Attachment Sites for Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Experimentally Inoculated Weaned Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weaned 3-to- 4-month-old calves were fasted 48 h, inoculated with 10**10 CFU of Shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 strain 86-24 (STEC O157) or STEC O91:H21 strain B2F1 (STEC O91), Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 strain 87-23 (Stx**- O157), or non-pathogenic control E. coli, ne...

  20. (Isopropyl­amino)(meth­yl)diphenyl­phospho­nium iodide

    PubMed Central

    Peulecke, Normen; Peitz, Stephan; Müller, Bernd H.; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C16H21NP+·I−, was obtained by the reaction of Ph2PN(iPr)P(Ph)N(iPr)H with MeI involving cleavage of one of the P—N bonds in diethyl ether. The two phenyl rings form a dihedral angle of 82.98 (5)°. A weak donor–acceptor N—H⋯I inter­action is observed. PMID:21837129

  1. A tris(pyrazol-1-yl)methane bearing carboxylic acid groups at position 4: {1-[bis(4-carboxy-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methyl]-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylato}sodium dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; García, María Ángeles; López, Concepción; Claramunt, Rosa M; Andrade, Gabriel A; Yap, Glenn P A

    2013-09-01

    A low-resolution X-ray molecular structure of the title hydrated salt, [Na(C19H21N6O6)]·2H2O, displays scorpionate character and resolves apparent ambiguities between solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopies. The (13)C NMR CPMAS spectrum is consistent with this structure showing some splittings, which have been rationalized using GIAO/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) theoretical calculations.

  2. 1-Benzyl­piperidin-4-one O-(2-bromo­benz­yl)oxime

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Fuquen, Rodolfo; Loaiza, Alix E.; Diaz-Velandia, John; Kennedy, Alan R.; Morrison, Catriona A.

    2012-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C19H21BrN2O, the piperidone ring adopts a chair conformation with a total puckering amplitude Q T of 0.554 (2) Å. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 64.10 (7)°. There are no significant inter­molecular inter­actions. PMID:23125804

  3. Computer-Aided Environmental Impact Analysis for Industrial, Procurement, and Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation Activities: User Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    Inhibitors Trifluorine Chlork)e Phosphate Ester Brake System Preservative Cosmolene 70 Drying - 71 Evaporation Air Compressed Air Ovens Infrared Lamps 72...measure acceleration tests microwave adhesion tests ligh t aging tests lasers bearing tests Infrared certification Ionizing radiation tests compression...175 through 183 and 190 throug h 21 8) . electromagnetic waves (radio , light , lasers , infrare d , etc.). 187 Endurance tests. Tests of a person’s or

  4. Napropamide

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seonghwa; Kim, Jineun; Jeon, Youngeun; Kim, Tae Ho

    2013-01-01

    The title compound [systematic name: N,N-diethyl-2-(naphthalen-1-yl­oxy)propanamide], C17H21NO2, crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit in which the dihedral angles between the naphthalene ring systems and the amide groups are 88.1 (9) and 88.7 (3)°. Four C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds stabilize the crystal structure. PMID:24109304

  5. (Furfuryl-amino)-triphenyl-phospho-nium bromide.

    PubMed

    Martínez de León, Carla; Tlahuext, Hugo; Flores-Parra, Angelina; Duarte-Hernández, Angélica María; Grévy, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    In the title salt, C23H21NOP(+)·Br(-), the dihedral angles between the phenyl rings are 70.41 (18), 73.6 (2) and 80.85 (19)°. In the crystal, neighboring mol-ecules are linked through an N-H⋯Br hydrogen bond and four weak C-H⋯Br contacts, forming a three-dimensional network.

  6. Causes of General Aviation Weather-Related, Non-Fatal Incidents: Analysis Using NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    ed A pp ro ac h- ca pa bl e au to pi lo t-e qu ip pe d Com Nav Avoidance De-ice A/P 18 For the sake of completeness, the last four rows of... DME ...H.21 Navigation In Use: [Localizer, ILS, FMS/FMC, GPS/Area Nav , INS, NDB, Pilotage, VOR, Other _____] H.22 Flight Phase: [Ground: Parked

  7. Virulence characterization of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from wholesale produce.

    PubMed

    Feng, Peter C H; Councell, Terry; Keys, Christine; Monday, Steven R

    2011-01-01

    The 13 Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from wholesale spinach and lettuce consisted mostly of serotypes that have not been implicated in illness. Among these strains, however, were two O113:H21 that carried virulence genes common to this pathogenic serotype (stx(2), ehxA, saa, and subAB), suggesting that their presence in ready-to-eat produce may be of health concern.

  8. 1-Methyl­amino-3-(2,4,6-trimethyl­phen­yl)propan-2-ol

    PubMed Central

    Maharramov, Abel M.; Khalilov, Ali N.; Gurbanov, Atash V.; Allahverdiyev, Mirze A.; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-01-01

    The methyl­amino­propyl chain in the title compound, C13H21NO, adopts an extended zigzag conformation and the N atom shows a trigonal coordination. The N atom acts as hydrogen-bond acceptor to the hy­droxy group of an adjacent mol­ecule, generating a helical chain running along the b axis. The amino H atom is not involved in hydrogen bonding. PMID:21754075

  9. Robotic recovery of highly radioactive resin.

    PubMed

    Miller, D C

    1999-02-01

    As the ALARA coordinator at Waterford 3 Nuclear Steam Electric Station, I have seen radiological challenges in many forms. Some are handled as routine with little effort, while others can severely challenge even the finest Health Physics staff. One such event occurred on 26 December 1997, during a routine recirculation of the Spent Resin Tank, when contents of an unknown origin spilled from the tank. Technicians performing initial actions to contain the spill monitored radiation levels of 5-20 rem h21 (50-200 mSv) at waist level. Based on photographs and visual accounts it was estimated that approximately 30-40 ft3 (0.57-1.12 m3) of resin had spilled into the pump room. A sample of the resin indicated that dose rates at the floor would exceed 100 rem h21 (1 Sv h21). It was clear, given the volume of material spilled and dose rates in the room, that robots would be required for any type of recovery effort. This presented another problem in that Waterford 3 did not own a robot, and we had no experience in this area.

  10. Stabilizing effect of a double-harmonic RF system in the CERN PS

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.; Caspers, F.; Damerau, H.; Hancock, S.; Mahner, E.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN

    2009-04-01

    Motivated by the discussions on scenarios for LHC upgrades, beam studies on the stability of flat bunches in a double-harmonic RF system have been conducted in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS). Injecting nearly nominal LHC beam intensity per cycle, 18 bunches are accelerated on harmonic h = 21 to 26GeV with the 10MHz RF system. On the flat-top, all bunches are then transformed to flat bunches by adiabatically adding RF voltage at h = 42 from a 20 MHz cavity in anti-phase to the h = 21 system. The voltage ratio V (h42)/V (h21) of about 0.5 was set according to simulations. For the next 140 ms, longitudinal profiles show stable bunches in the double-harmonic RF bucket until extraction. Without the second harmonic component, coupled-bunch oscillations are observed. The flatness of the bunches along the batch is analyzed as a measure of the relative phase error between the RF systems due to beam loading. The results of beam dynamics simulations and their comparison with the measured data are presented.

  11. Influenza Hemagglutinin (HA) Stem Region Mutations That Stabilize or Destabilize the Structure of Multiple HA Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Byrd-Leotis, Lauren; Galloway, Summer E.; Agbogu, Evangeline

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A viruses enter host cells through endosomes, where acidification induces irreversible conformational changes of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) that drive the membrane fusion process. The prefusion conformation of the HA is metastable, and the pH of fusion can vary significantly among HA strains and subtypes. Furthermore, an accumulating body of evidence implicates HA stability properties as partial determinants of influenza host range, transmission phenotype, and pathogenic potential. Although previous studies have identified HA mutations that can affect HA stability, these have been limited to a small selection of HA strains and subtypes. Here we report a mutational analysis of HA stability utilizing a panel of expressed HAs representing a broad range of HA subtypes and strains, including avian representatives across the phylogenetic spectrum and several human strains. We focused on two highly conserved residues in the HA stem region: HA2 position 58, located at the membrane distal tip of the short helix of the hairpin loop structure, and HA2 position 112, located in the long helix in proximity to the fusion peptide. We demonstrate that a K58I mutation confers an acid-stable phenotype for nearly all HAs examined, whereas a D112G mutation consistently leads to elevated fusion pH. The results enhance our understanding of HA stability across multiple subtypes and provide an additional tool for risk assessment for circulating strains that may have other hallmarks of human adaptation. Furthermore, the K58I mutants, in particular, may be of interest for potential use in the development of vaccines with improved stability profiles. IMPORTANCE The influenza A hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA) mediates the receptor binding and membrane fusion functions that are essential for virus entry into host cells. While receptor binding has long been recognized for its role in host species specificity and transmission, membrane fusion and associated properties of HA

  12. Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in Spain: prevalence, serotypes, and virulence genes of O157:H7 and non-O157 VTEC in ruminants, raw beef products, and humans.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jesus E; Mora, Azucena; González, Enrique A; Bernárdez, Maria I; Alonso, Maria P; Coira, Amparo; Rodriguez, Asuncion; Rey, Joaquin; Alonso, Juan M; Usera, Miguel A

    2003-04-01

    In Spain, as in many other countries, verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains have been frequently isolated from cattle, sheep, and foods. VTEC strains have caused seven outbreaks in Spain (six caused by E. coli O157:H7 and one by E. coli O111:H- [nonmotile]) in recent years. An analysis of the serotypes indicated serological diversity. Among the strains isolated from humans, serotypes O26:H11, O111:H-, and O157:H7 were found to be more prevalent. The most frequently detected serotypes in cattle were O20:H19, O22:H8, O26:H11, O77:H41, O105:H18, O113:H21, O157:H7, O171:H2, and OUT (O untypeable):H19. Different VTEC serotypes (e.g., O5:H-, O6:H10, O91:H-, O117:H-, O128:H-, O128:H2, O146:H8, O146:H21, O156:H-, and OUT:H21) were found more frequently in sheep. These observations suggest a host serotype specificity for some VTEC. Numerous bovine and ovine VTEC serotypes detected in Spain were associated with human illnesses, confirming that ruminants are important reservoirs of pathogenic VTEC. VTEC can produce one or two toxins (VT1 and VT2) that cause human illnesses. These toxins are different proteins encoded by different genes. Another virulence factor expressed by VTEC is the protein intimin that is responsible for intimate attachment of VTEC and effacing lesions in the intestinal mucosa. This virulence factor is encoded by the chromosomal gene eae. The eae gene was found at a much less frequency in bovine (17%) and ovine (5%) than in human (45%) non-O157 VTEC strains. This may support the evidence that the eae gene contributes significantly to the virulence of human VTEC strains and that many animal non-O157 VTEC strains are less pathogenic to humans.

  13. Prevalence and some properties of verotoxin (Shiga-like toxin)-producing Escherichia coli in seven different species of healthy domestic animals.

    PubMed Central

    Beutin, L; Geier, D; Steinrück, H; Zimmermann, S; Scheutz, F

    1993-01-01

    Fecal samples from 720 healthy, domestic animals representing seven different species (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, chickens, dogs, and cats) were investigated for verotoxin (VT [Shiga-like toxin])-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). VTEC were isolated from 208 animals (28.9%), most frequently from sheep (66.6% VTEC carriers), goats (56.1%), and cattle (21.1%). VTEC were isolated less frequently from pigs (7.5%), cats (13.8%), and dogs (4.8%) and were not found in chickens (< 0.7%). Forty-one different O:H serotypes and 23 untypeable O-groups were isolated. Five serotypes (O5:H-, O91:H-, O146:H21, O87:H16, and O82:H8) occurred in more than one animal species. Serotypes O5:H-, O91:H-, O146:H21, O128:H2, and OX3:H8 represented 54.8% of the VTEC strains. Nearly 60% of all VTEC O:H serotypes isolated in this study have been implicated as human pathogens, indicating that healthy, domestic animals may serve as a reservoir of human pathogens. All VTEC, except nine feline strains, hybridized with one or both of the VT1 and VT2 specific DNA probes. VT production and enterohemolysin (E-Hly+) production were associated in E. coli from goats, sheep, and cattle but not in E. coli from chickens, pigs, dogs, and cats. A close association of VT with E-Hly+ was found in O5:H-, O146:H21, O128:H2, O77:H4, O119:H25, and O123:(H10) strains. Thirty of 240 (12.5%) E-Hly+ strains hybridized with an E-Hly+ specific DNA probe, indicating heterogeneity of regulatory or structural E-Hly+ genes in strains of E. coli. PMID:8408571

  14. Epidemiological relatedness and clonal types of natural populations of Escherichia coli strains producing Shiga toxins in separate populations of cattle and sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Beutin, L; Geier, D; Zimmermann, S; Aleksic, S; Gillespie, H A; Whittam, T S

    1997-01-01

    Two separate animal populations consisting of a herd of cattle (19 animals) and a flock of sheep (25 animals) were investigated for strains of Escherichia coli producing Shiga toxins (STEC) over a time period of 6 months. Thirty-three STEC were isolated from 63.2% of cattle and grouped into 11 serotypes and eight electrophoretic types (ETs) by multilocus enzyme analysis. In sheep, 88% of the animals excreted STEC (n = 67 isolates) belonging to 17 different serotypes and 12 different ETs. STEC from cattle and sheep differed with respect to serotype, and only 4 of the 16 ETs occurred in both animal populations. In cattle, ET14 (O116:H21) strains predominated, whereas other STEC serotypes occurred only sporadically. The predominating STEC types in sheep were ET4 (O125 strains), ET11 (O128:H2 and others), and ET14 (O146:H21). In contrast to their diversity, STEC originating from the same animal population were similar with respect to Shiga toxin (stxy genes. Almost all STEC isolated from cattle were positive for stx2 and stx2c; only one was positive for stx1. In sheep, almost all STEC isolated were positive for stx1 and stx2, whereas stx2c was not found. XbaI-digested DNAs of genetically closely related O146:H21 strains have different restriction profiles which were associated with size alterations in XbaI fragments hybridizing with stx1- and stx2-specific DNA probes. Our results indicate that stx-encoding bacteriophages might be the origin of the genetic heterogeneity in STEC from animals. PMID:9172336

  15. Crystal structure of 1-{4-hy-droxy-3-[(pyrrolidin-1-yl)meth-yl]phen-yl}-3-phenyl-prop-2-en-1-one.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Abdullah; Akkurt, Mehmet; Gul, Halise Inci; Yerdelen, Kadir Ozden; Celik, Raziye Catak

    2016-05-01

    In the title compound, C20H21NO2, the pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation with the N atom at the flap position. The central benzene ring makes dihedral angles of 21.39 (10) and 80.10 (15)° with the phenyl ring and the mean plane of the pyrrolidine ring, respectively. The mol-ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond, which closes an S(6) ring. A weak C-H⋯π inter-action is observed in the crystal.

  16. Crystal structure of 1-{4-hy­droxy-3-[(pyrrolidin-1-yl)meth­yl]phen­yl}-3-phenyl­prop-2-en-1-one

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Abdullah; Akkurt, Mehmet; Gul, Halise Inci; Yerdelen, Kadir Ozden; Celik, Raziye Catak

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C20H21NO2, the pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation with the N atom at the flap position. The central benzene ring makes dihedral angles of 21.39 (10) and 80.10 (15)° with the phenyl ring and the mean plane of the pyrrolidine ring, respectively. The mol­ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond, which closes an S(6) ring. A weak C—H⋯π inter­action is observed in the crystal. PMID:27308021

  17. Temporal, Directional, and Spatial Variability of Wet Deposition in the Northeastern United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-23

    relation between acids and bases to interpret the amount of acid found in precipitation and predict future depositions of acid by precipitation. Munn...be 6.5 to 6.6, with extreme variations ranging from 5.8 to 7.3. He also found that the pH 21 decreased as the alkaline CaCO3 -bearing particulates were...the temporal and spatial scale. Spatial variability Is difficult to interpret since the degree of coherency between stations is not usually proven

  18. 3-{[Bis(pyridin-2-ylmeth­yl)amino]­meth­yl}-2-hy­droxy-5-methyl­benz­aldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruo-Xu; Gao, Da-Zhi; Ye, Fan; Wu, Yan-Fei; Zhu, Dun-Ru

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C21H21N3O2, the pyridine rings and the benzene ring lie in a propeller arrangement around the central tertiary amine N atom. The dihedral angles formed by the benzene ring with the pyridine rings are 61.0 (3) and 49.6 (3)°, while the dihedral angle between the pyridine rings is 69.7 (3)°. The mol­ecular conformation is stabilized by intramolecular bifurcated O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, inversion dimers are formed via pairs of C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. PMID:22719467

  19. Assessment of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Wildlife Meat as Potential Pathogens for Humans▿

    PubMed Central

    Miko, Angelika; Pries, Karin; Haby, Sabine; Steege, Katja; Albrecht, Nadine; Krause, Gladys; Beutin, Lothar

    2009-01-01

    A total of 140 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains from wildlife meat (deer, wild boar, and hare) isolated in Germany between 1998 and 2006 were characterized with respect to their serotypes and virulence markers associated with human pathogenicity. The strains grouped into 38 serotypes, but eight O groups (21, 146, 128, 113, 22, 88, 6, and 91) and four H types (21, 28, 2, and 8) accounted for 71.4% and 75.7% of all STEC strains from game, respectively. Eighteen of the serotypes, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O26:[H11] and O103:H2, were previously found to be associated with human illness. Genes linked to high-level virulence for humans (stx2, stx2d, and eae) were present in 46 (32.8%) STEC strains from game. Fifty-four STEC isolates from game belonged to serotypes which are frequently found in human patients (O103:H2, O26:H11, O113:H21, O91:H21, O128:H2, O146:H21, and O146:H28). These 54 STEC isolates were compared with 101 STEC isolates belonging to the same serotypes isolated from farm animals, from their food products, and from human patients. Within a given serotype, most STEC strains were similar with respect to their stx genotypes and other virulence attributes, regardless of origin. The 155 STEC strains were analyzed for genetic similarity by XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. O103:H2, O26:H11, O113:H21, O128:H2, and O146:H28 STEC isolates from game were 85 to 100% similar to STEC isolates of the same strains from human patients. By multilocus sequence typing, game EHEC O103:H2 strains were attributed to a clonal lineage associated with hemorrhagic diseases in humans. The results from our study indicate that game animals represent a reservoir for and a potential source of human pathogenic STEC and EHEC strains. PMID:19700552

  20. (3E,5E)-3,5-Bis(naphthalen-1-yl­methyl­idene)piperidin-4-one

    PubMed Central

    Kia, Yalda; Osman, Hasnah; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C27H21NO, the piperidine ring adopts a chair conformation. The mean plane through the piperidine ring makes dihedral angles of 49.27 (5) and 63.07 (5)° with the naphthalene ring systems. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into dimers via pairs of inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions, generating ten-membered R 2 2(10) ring motifs. C—H⋯π inter­actions further stabilize the crystal structure. PMID:22412671

  1. 2-(3-Morpholino-prop-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo-[3,4-b]quinolin-1-one monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Long, Yu-Hua; Zhou, Ting; Yang, Ding-Qiao; Wang, Wen-Ling; Zhang, Han-Mei

    2010-11-13

    In the title compound, C(18)H(21)N(3)O(2)·H(2)O, the fused-ring system is approximately planar [maximum atomic deviation = 0.028 (3) Å]; the morpholine ring displays a chair conformation. The crystal packing is stabilized by classical inter-molecular O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the organic mol-ecules and the water mol-ecules.

  2. (Z)-Ethyl 3-(2,4,6-trimethyl­anilino)but-2-enoate

    PubMed Central

    Amézquita-Valencia, Manuel; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Suárez-Ortiz, G. Alejandra; Toscano, Rubén Alfredo; Cabrera, Armando

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C15H21NO2, was obtained by the reaction of acetoacetate with 2,4,6-trimethyl­aniline using Mexican bentonitic clay as a catalyst. It crystallizes in the enamine form. The β-enamino ester residue is almost perpendicular to the aromatic ring [dihedral angle = 88.10 (6)°]. The mol­ecular conformation is stabilized by a strong intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In addition, the N—H group forms a weak inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond linking the mol­ecules into centrosymmetric dimers. PMID:21578324

  3. Tris(1-naphth­yl)arsine chloro­form solvate

    PubMed Central

    Shawkataly, Omar bin; Khan, Imthyaz Ahmed; Yeap, Chin Sing; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C30H21As·CHCl3, the dihedral angles between the three naphthalene ring systems [r.m.s. deviations = 0.007, 0.009 and 0.020 Å] are 72.54 (4), 88.05 (4) and 83.36 (4)°. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are stacked down the a axis being consolidated by C—H⋯π and π–π inter­actions [centroid to centroid distance = 3.7839 (7) Å]. PMID:21578366

  4. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 62, Number 5, May 1925

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1925-05-01

    In fact all range finders nse the same formula, and really differ only in the means of reading the anglC’s and in the shape of the triangles involved...the miniature planes were shot down with blank cartridges brought forth cries of " Fake !" and "We want our money back." The I-pounder practice was...Army troops borrowed by the Air Ministr~".) Iraq h 68 1,583 Cyprus n h m h h h 6 108 Africa, West h m h h 21 231 Bermuda m m m 34 516 Ceylon h h h 18 239

  5. (3E,5E)-3,5-Bis(naphthalen-1-yl-methyl-idene)piperidin-4-one.

    PubMed

    Kia, Yalda; Osman, Hasnah; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2012-03-01

    In the title compound, C(27)H(21)NO, the piperidine ring adopts a chair conformation. The mean plane through the piperidine ring makes dihedral angles of 49.27 (5) and 63.07 (5)° with the naphthalene ring systems. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into dimers via pairs of inter-molecular C-H⋯O inter-actions, generating ten-membered R(2) (2)(10) ring motifs. C-H⋯π inter-actions further stabilize the crystal structure.

  6. High Frequency Integrated Vacuum Electronics (HiFIVE) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-10

    this document. 2 List of Figures Figure 1: Measured MAG/MSG and H21 of 120 µm transistor at a drain bias of 1.5 V and 54 mA de- embedded to the...the transistor unit cell used in power amplifiers. The cell consists of two individual emitter fingers and each finger has 0.25x6 µm 2 emitter area...mobility transistor (HEMT) technology. This included investigating the efficient power combining techniques, transitions from monolithic microwave

  7. X-ray investigations of sulfur-containing fungicides. IV. 4'-[[Benzoyl(4-chlorophenylhydrazono)methyl]sulfonyl]acetanilide and 4'-[[benzoyl(4-methoxyphenylhydrazono)methyl]sulfonyl]acetanilide.

    PubMed

    Wolf, W M

    2001-09-01

    The conformations of the two approximately isomorphous structures 4'-[[benzoyl(4-chlorophenylhydrazono)methyl]sulfonyl]acetanilide, C(22)H(18)ClN(3)O(4)S, and 4'-[[benzoyl(4-methoxyphenylhydrazono)methyl]sulfonyl]acetanilide, C(23)H(21)N(3)O(5)S, are stabilized by resonance-assisted intramolecular hydrogen bonds linking the hydrazone moieties and sulfonyl groups. The stronger bond is observed in the former compound. The difference in electronic properties between the Cl atom and the methoxy group is too small to significantly alter the non-bonding interactions of the sulfonyl and beta-carbonyl groups.

  8. Crystal structure of 5-[4-(di-methyl-amino)-phen-yl]-3-(4-methyl-phen-yl)-4,5-di-hydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Adam, Farook; Samshuddin, Seranthimata; Ameram, Nadiah; Subramaya; Samartha, Laxminarayana

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C19H21N3O, comprises a central pyrazole ring which is N-connected to an aldehyde group and C-connected twice to substituted benzene rings. The pyrazole ring is twisted on the C-C single bond, and the least-squares plane through this ring forms dihedral angles of 82.44 (5) and 4.52 (5)° with the (di-methyl-amino)-benzene and p-tolyl rings, respectively. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link mol-ecules into supra-molecular tubes along the b axis.

  9. Enteropathogen carriage by healthy individuals living in an area with poor sanitation.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, G.; Troncoso, M.; Araya, M.; Espinoza, J.; Brunser, O.

    1983-01-01

    Faecal carriage of bacterial enteropathogens (enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), shigellae and salmonellae) was studied in 265 individuals: 65 infants 3-6 months of age (50 bottle-fed and 15 breast-fed), 100 school-age children 8-10 years of age and 100 adults 21-50 years of age. All were apparently healthy, did not have gastrointestinal symptoms, had not received antibiotics in the preceding fortnight and were not malnourished. Enteropathogens were isolated from the faeces of 24 individuals (9.1%). Cultures were positive for enteropathogens in 20% of the infants (both breast- and bottle-fed), 8% of school-age children and 3% of the adults. EPEC was the most frequent isolate. Twelve different serotypes were detected. The highest recoveries were E. coli 026:K60 and 044 . K74. Shigella was detected only in school-age children (2%) and salmonella only in adults (1%). Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica were studied only in the school-age children: there was one isolate of each of them. Most enteropathogens isolated were susceptible to the majority of the antibiotics tested. Only four E. coli strains, isolated from bottle-fed infants, could be considered multi-resistant. Two of the strains wer E. coli 044:K74 and 020a020c:K61. The remainder were E. coli 0111:K58 and wee capable of transferring some of their antibiotic resistance traits to a recipient strain. PMID:6363528

  10. Minerals and organic nitrogen present in grape marc hydrolyzates enhance xylose consumption by Lactobacillus pentosus.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Oscar Manuel Portilla; Torrado, Ana María; Moldes, Ana Belén; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2009-02-01

    This work deals with the nutritional evaluation of grape marc hydrolyzates as fermentation medium for Lactobacillus pentosus. Usually, the fermentation of xylose and arabinose in the presence of glucose remains a primary obstacle for economical biomass conversion. The few microorganisms that can grow simultaneously on both pentose and hexose sugars contained in lignocellulosic feedstocks typically grow slowly and demonstrate marginal yields and productivities. Moreover, lignocellulosic hydrolyzates contain phenolic compounds and other components originated by the degradation of sugars that can inhibit lactic acid fermentation. However, in this case, grape marc hydrolyzates not only did not need a detoxification stage, but it also improved the xylose consumption by Lactobacillus pentosus with a faster and more efficient conversion of hemicellulosic sugars compared with synthetic media. After analysis of grape marc hydrolyzates, it was observed that minerals such as K (2,707 mg/L), Ca (3,681 mg/L), and Mg (198.5 mg/L) are present in higher concentration than those found in the general medium of Lactobacillus (1,705 mg/L of K, 58.3 mg/L of Ca, and 27.0 mg/L of Mg). Moreover, grape marc hydrolyzates contain an additional source of nitrogen (9.2 g/L) which, together with their elevated mineral concentration, improved lactic acid fermentation compared with synthetic media.

  11. Coordination compounds of zinc(II) and N-alkylphenothiazines: synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, Netkal M. Made; Pacquette, H. Lawrence; Kim, Doo-Hyung; Jayaram, Beby

    1996-08-01

    Zinc(II) chloride/acetate complexes of title ligands have been synthesized in {MeOH}/{water} medium. The compounds were characterized by their elemental analyses, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and spectroscopic data. The molecular formulas of the new complexes were found to be: [(C 17H 20ClN 2S) 4ZnCl 2]Cl 4 where C 17H 20ClN 2S = protonated chlorpromazine; [(C 19H 25N 2S) 2ZnCl 2]Cl 2 where C 19H 25N 2S = protonated ethopropazine; [(C 17H 21N 2S) 2ZnCl]Cl 3 where C 17H 21N 2S = protonated promethazine; [(C 21H 27N 2S 2) 2ZnCl 2]Cl 2 .MeOH and [(C 21H 27N 2S 2)ZnCl](OAc) 2 where C 21H 27N 2S 2 = protonated thioridazine; and [(C 21H 26F 3N 3S)ZnCl 3]Cl where C 21H 26F 3N 3S = diprotonated trifluoperazine. All compounds are diamagnetic and ionic in nature. Structures for the complexes are proposed.

  12. Close association of verotoxin (Shiga-like toxin) production with enterohemolysin production in strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Beutin, L; Montenegro, M A; Orskov, I; Orskov, F; Prada, J; Zimmermann, S; Stephan, R

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-four verotoxin-producing (VT+) Escherichia coli strains were analyzed for VT1- and VT2-specific DNA sequences and for production of hemolysin. Strains of human origin were of the following serotypes: O157:H7 or H-, O111:H8 or H-, O26:H11, O114:H4, and rough:H7. Strains of serotypes O157:H7, O113:H21, O116:H21, and rough:H- were from cattle, while those of serotype O139:K12:H1 were from pigs. All 64 isolates carried either VT1 or VT2 or both genes. Sixty of the strains (93.8%) were hemolytic (Hly+). The three O139:K12:H1 strains examined produced alpha-hemolysin, as shown by their reaction with the alpha-hemolysin-specific monoclonal antibody h2A and by DNA hybridization with an alpha-hly gene probe. The remaining 57 Hly+ strains (95%) produced a different type of hemolysin (enterohemolysin), which is genetically and serologically unrelated to alpha-hemolysin. The two types of hemolysin are further distinguished by the appearance of the lysis zone on blood agar and by the time interval for the detection of hemolysis. In contrast to alpha-hemolysin, enterohemolysin can be detected only on blood plates containing washed erythrocytes. The frequent association of enterohemolysin with verotoxin production (89%) makes it useful as an epidemiological marker for rapid and simple detection of potential VT+ E. coli. Images PMID:2681256

  13. Comparison of eight different agars for the recovery of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from baby spinach, cilantro, alfalfa sprouts and raw milk.

    PubMed

    Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Lin, Andrew; Hammack, Thomas S

    2015-04-01

    The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a recommends several agars for isolating non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); not all have been thoroughly tested for recovering STECs from food. Using E. coli strains representing ten clinically relevant O serogroups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145) in artificially-contaminated fresh produce--bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, cilantro, and raw milk--we evaluated the performance of 8 different agars. Performance was highly dependent upon strain used and the presence of inhibitors, but not necessarily dependent on food matrix. Tellurite resistant-negative strains, O91:-, O103:H6, O104:H21, O113:H21, and O128, grew poorly on CHROMagar STEC, Rainbow agar O157, and a modified Rainbow O157 (mRB) agar. Although adding washed sheep's blood to CHROMagar STEC and mRB agars improved overall performance; however, this also reversed the inhibition of non-target bacteria provided by original formulations. Variable colony coloration made selecting colonies from Rainbow agar O157 and mRB agars difficult. Study results support a strategy using inclusive agars (e.g. L-EMB, SHIBAM) in combination with selective agars (R & F E. coli O157:H7, CHROMagar STEC) to allow for recovery of the most STECs while increasing the probability of recovering STEC in high bacterial count matrices.

  14. Size distribution of particle-phase molecular markers during a severe winter pollution episode.

    PubMed

    Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Jakober, Chris A

    2008-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected using filter samplers and cascade impactors in six size fractions below 1.8 microm during a severe winter air pollution event at three sites in the Central Valley of California. The smallest size fraction analyzed was 0.056 < Dp <0.1 microm particle diameter, which accounts for the majority of the mass in the ultrafine (PM0.1) size range. Separate samples were collected during the daytime (10 a.m. to 6 p.m. PST) and nighttime (8 p.m. to 8 a.m. PST) to characterize diurnal patterns. Each sample was extracted with organic solvents and analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry for molecular markers that can be used for size-resolved source apportionment calculations. Colocated impactor and filter measurements were highly correlated (R8 > 0.8) for retene, benzo[ghi]flouranthene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, MW302 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), 17beta(H)-21alpha(H)-30-norhopane, 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-hopane, alphabetabeta-20R-C29-ethylcholestane, levoglucosan, and cholesterol. Of these compounds, levoglucosan was present in the highest concentration (60-2080 ng m(-3)) followed by cholesterol (6-35 ng m(-3)), PAHs (2-38 ng m(-3)), and hopanes and steranes (0-2 ng m(-3)). Nighttime concentrations were higher than daytime concentrations in all cases. Organic compound size distributions were generally similar to the total carbon size distributions during the nighttime but showed greater variability during the daytime. This may reflect the dominance of fresh emission in the stagnant surface layer during the evening hours and the presence of aged organic aerosol at the surface during the daytime when the atmosphere is better mixed. All of the measured organic compound particle size distributions had a single mode that peaked somewhere between 0.18 and 0.56 microm, but the width of each distribution

  15. Genotypes and virulence characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104 strains from different origins and sources.

    PubMed

    Miko, Angelika; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Strockbine, Nancy A; Lindstedt, Björn Arne; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Reetz, Jochen; Beutin, Lothar

    2013-12-01

    Sixty-two Escherichia coli strains carrying the wzxO104-gene from different sources, origins and time periods were analyzed for their serotypes, virulence genes and compared for genomic similarity by pulsed-field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE). The O104 antigen was present in 55 strains and the structurally and genetically related capsular antigen K9 in five strains. The presence of 49 genes associated with enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) was investigated. Fifty-four strains of serotypes O104:H2 (n=1), O104:H4 (n=37), O104:H7 (n=5) and O104:H21 (n=11) produced Shiga-toxins (Stx). Among STEC O104, a close association between serotype, virulence gene profile and genomic similarity was found. EAEC virulence genes were only present in STEC O104:H4 strains. EHEC-O157 plasmid-encoded genes were only found in STEC O104:H2, O104:H7 and O104:H21 strains. None of the 62 O104 or K9 strains carried an eae-gene involved in the attaching and effacing phenotype. The 38 O104:H4 strains formed a single PFGE-cluster (>83.7% similarity). Thirty-one of these strains were from the European O104:H4 outbreak in 2011. The outbreak strains and older O104:H4 strains from Germany (2001), Georgia and France (2009) clustered together at>86.2% similarity. O104:H4 strains isolated between 2001 and 2009 differed for some plasmid-encoded virulence genes compared to the outbreak strains from 2011. STEC O104:H21 and STEC O104:H7 strains isolated in the U.S. and in Europe showed characteristic differences in their Stx-types, virulence gene and PFGE profiles indicating that these have evolved separately. E. coli K9 strains were not associated with virulence and were heterogeneous for their serotypes and PFGE profiles.

  16. Antibody-detected folding: kinetics of surface epitope formation are distinct from other folding phases.

    PubMed Central

    Raman, C. S.; Jemmerson, R.; Nall, B. T.

    2000-01-01

    The rate of macromolecular surface formation in yeast iso-2 cytochrome c and its site-specific mutant, N52I iso-2, has been studied using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes a tertiary epitope including K58 and H39. The results indicate that epitope refolding occurs after fast folding but prior to slow folding, in contrast to horse cytochrome c where surface formation occurs early. The antibody-detected (ad) kinetic phase accompanying epitope formation has k(ad) = 0.2 s(-1) and is approximately 40-fold slower than the fastest detectable event in the folding of yeast iso-2 cytochrome c (k2f approximately 8 s(-1)), but occurs prior to the absorbance- and fluorescence-detected slow folding steps (k1a approximately 0.06 s(-1); k1b approximately 0.09 s(-1)). N5I iso-2 cytochrome c exhibits similar kinetic behavior with respect to epitope formation. A detailed dissection of the mechanistic differences between the folding pathways of horse and yeast cytochromes c identifies possible reasons for the slow surface formation in the latter. Our results suggest that non-native ligation involving H33 or H39 during refolding may slow down the formation of the tertiary epitope in iso-2 cytochrome c. This study illustrates that surface formation can be coupled to early events in protein folding. Thus, the rate of macromolecular surface formation is fine tuned by the residues that make up the surface and the interactions they entertain during refolding. PMID:10739255

  17. Budgeting of major nutrients and the mitigation options for nutrient mining in semi-arid tropical agro-ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India using NUTMON model.

    PubMed

    Surendran, U; Rama Subramoniam, S; Raja, P; Kumar, V; Murugappan, V

    2016-04-01

    Mining of nutrients from soil is a major problem in developing countries causing soil degradation and threaten long-term food production. The present study attempts to apply NUTrient MONitoring (NUTMON) model for carrying out nutrient budgeting to assess the stocks and flows of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in defined geographical unit based on the inputs, viz., mineral fertilizers, manures, atmospheric deposition, and sedimentation, and outputs, viz., harvested crop produces, residues, leaching, denitrification, and erosion losses. The study area covers Coimbatore and Erode Districts, which are potential agricultural areas in western agro-ecological zone of Tamil Nadu, India. The calculated nutrient balances for both the districts at district scale, using NUTMON methodology, were negative for nitrogen (N -3.3 and -10.1 kg ha(-1)) and potassium (K -58.6 and -9.8 kg ha(-1)) and positive for phosphorus (P +14.5 and 20.5 kg ha(-1)). Soil nutrient pool has to adjust the negative balance of N and K; there will be an expected mining of nutrient from the soil reserve. A strategy was attempted for deriving the fertilizer recommendation using Decision Support System for Integrated Fertilizer Recommendation (DSSIFER) to offset the mining in selected farms. The results showed that when DSSIFER recommended fertilizers are applied to crops, the nutrient balance was positive. NUTMON-Toolbox with DSSIFER would serve the purpose on enhancing soil fertility, productivity, and sustainability. The management options to mitigate nutrient mining with an integrated system approach are also discussed.

  18. First Palaeogene sedimentary rock palaeomagnetic pole from stable western Eurasia and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Ward, David J.; King, Chris; Abrajevitch, Alexandra

    2003-08-01

    A palaeomagnetic investigation of lower Eocene (ca. 52 Ma) London Clay Formation cemented mudstones from Sheppey (SE England) has yielded a mean direction of Dec. = 1.1°, Inc. = 43.2°, where N= 9, α95 = 6.8° and K= 58.5. This apparently high-quality direction (Q-factor = 5) has an associated palaeopole of 178.6°E, 63.7°N, where A95= 6.8°. The data represent the first pole from post Jurassic stable Eurasia rocks outside of the European North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP), of which most results have been obtained from NW Britain and the Faroe Islands. The data can in part be used to constrain the position of Palaeogene Eurasia, in particular the zero-offset declination implying negligible rotation of western Eurasia since the early Cenozoic. This is in contrast with data derived from the European NAIP, which imply small to moderate clockwise rotations for this part of the plate. The inclination angle may provide less useful information as it appears to be anomalously shallow when compared with that associated with the NAIP derived poles. In an attempt to understand the shallowing, we re-examined data from Palaeocene-Eocene sediments recovered in several boreholes (bathyal sediments in DSDP Hole 550, four cores through fluvio-delatic to middle shelf sequences in the London area, and one borehole sequence from East Anglia). In all cases, the sediments show systematic inclination shallowing similar in magnitude to that reported from Sheppey. Tectonic and geomagnetic explanations can be discounted; sediment compaction appears to be the likely cause. In light of the current controversy surrounding the `stable Asia shallow inclination problem', the result reinforces the suggestion that tectonic modelling needs to be done carefully when the supporting data are based exclusively on palaeomagnetic studies of sedimentary rocks.

  19. Acidic and basic hair/nail ("hard") keratins: their colocalization in upper cortical and cuticle cells of the human hair follicle and their relationship to "soft" keratins

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Although numerous hair proteins have been studied biochemically and many have been sequenced, relatively little is known about their in situ distribution and differential expression in the hair follicle. To study this problem, we have prepared several mouse monoclonal antibodies that recognize different classes of human hair proteins. Our AE14 antibody recognizes a group of 10-25K hair proteins which most likely corresponds to the high sulfur proteins, our AE12 and AE13 antibodies define a doublet of 44K/46K proteins which are relatively acidic and correspond to the type I low sulfur keratins, and our previously described AE3 antibody recognizes a triplet of 56K/59K/60K proteins which are relatively basic and correspond to the type II low sulfur keratins. Using these and other immunological probes, we demonstrate the following. The acidic 44K/46K and basic 56-60K hair keratins appear coordinately in upper corticle and cuticle cells. The 10-25K, AE14-reactive antigens are expressed only later in more matured corticle cells that are in the upper elongation zone, but these antigens are absent from cuticle cells. The 10-nm filaments of the inner root sheath cells fail to react with any of our monoclonal antibodies and are therefore immunologically distinguishable from the cortex and cuticle filaments. Nail plate contains 10-20% soft keratins in addition to large amounts of hair keratins; these soft keratins have been identified as the 50K/58K and 48K/56K keratin pairs. Taken together, these results suggest that the precursor cells of hair cortex and nail plate share a major pathway of epithelial differentiation, and that the acidic 44K/46K and basic 56-60K hard keratins represent a co- expressed keratin pair which can serve as a marker for hair/nail-type epithelial differentiation. PMID:2432071

  20. Molecular and Genetic Characterization of HIV-1 Tat Exon-1 Gene from Cameroon Shows Conserved Tat HLA-Binding Epitopes: Functional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Teto, Georges; Fonsah, Julius Y.; Tagny, Claude T.; Mbanya, Dora; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Leopoldine; Fokam, Joseph; Njamnshi, Dora M.; Kouanfack, Charles; Njamnshi, Alfred K.; Kanmogne, Georgette D.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat plays a critical role in viral transactivation. Subtype-B Tat has potential use as a therapeutic vaccine. However, viral genetic diversity and population genetics would significantly impact the efficacy of such a vaccine. Over 70% of the 37-million HIV-infected individuals are in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and harbor non-subtype-B HIV-1. Using specimens from 100 HIV-infected Cameroonians, we analyzed the sequences of HIV-1 Tat exon-1, its functional domains, post-translational modifications (PTMs), and human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-binding epitopes. Molecular phylogeny revealed a high genetic diversity with nine subtypes, CRF22_01A1/CRF01_AE, and negative selection in all subtypes. Amino acid mutations in Tat functional domains included N24K (44%), N29K (58%), and N40K (30%) in CRF02_AG, and N24K in all G subtypes. Motifs and phosphorylation analyses showed conserved amidation, N-myristoylation, casein kinase-2 (CK2), serine and threonine phosphorylation sites. Analysis of HLA allelic frequencies showed that epitopes for HLAs A*0205, B*5301, Cw*0401, Cw*0602, and Cw*0702 were conserved in 58%–100% of samples, with B*5301 epitopes having binding affinity scores > 100 in all subtypes. This is the first report of N-myristoylation, amidation, and CK2 sites in Tat; these PTMs and mutations could affect Tat function. HLA epitopes identified could be useful for designing Tat-based vaccines for highly diverse HIV-1 populations, as in SSA. PMID:27438849

  1. Molten salt CO2 capture and electro-transformation (MSCC-ET) into capacitive carbon at medium temperature: effect of the electrolyte composition.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bowen; Chen, Zhigang; Gao, Muxing; Song, Yuqiao; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Tang, Juanjuan; Xiao, Wei; Mao, Xuhui; Wang, Dihua

    2016-08-15

    Electrochemical transformation of CO2 into functional materials or fuels (i.e., carbon, CO) in high temperature molten salts has been demonstrated as a promising way of carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) in recent years. In a view of continuous operation, the electrolysis process should match very well with the CO2 absorption kinetics. At the same time, in consideration of the energy efficiency, a molten salt electrochemical cell running at lower temperature is more beneficial to a process powered by the fluctuating renewable electricity from solar/wind farms. Ternary carbonates (Li : Na : K = 43.5 : 31.5 : 25.0) and binary chlorides (Li : K = 58.5 : 41.5), two typical kinds of eutectic melt with low melting points and a wide electrochemical potential window, could be the ideal supporting electrolyte for the molten salt CO2 capture and electro-transformation (MSCC-ET) process. In this work, the CO2 absorption behaviour in Li2O/CaO containing carbonates and chlorides were investigated on a home-made gas absorption testing system. The electrode processes as well as the morphology and properties of carbon obtained in different salts are compared to each other. It was found that the composition of molten salts significantly affects the absorption of CO2, electrode processes and performance of the product. Furthermore, the relationship between the absorption and electro-transformation kinetics are discussed based on the findings.

  2. Virulence Genes Content and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli from Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Moemen A; Shehata, Mostafa A; Rafeek, Elshimaa

    2014-01-01

    A total of 121 E. coli strains were isolated from broiler chickens (96 extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) strains from diseased broiler chickens and 25 avian fecal E. coli (AFEC) from healthy ones). Ten of the isolates (6 from diseased chickens and 4 from healthy birds) were serogrouped and 25 were examined for 4 virulence markers (tsh, papC, colV, and iss genes) as well as for their antimicrobial resistance. Five strains were nontypable and the rest were serotyped as follows: O86:K61 (2/5), O78:K80 (1/5), and O128:K67 (1/5) were recovered from diseased chickens, while O111:K58 strain (1/4) was isolated from healthy ones. The iss gene was found in 72.2% of the examined ExPEC strains in contrast to zero percentages (0%) in the AFEC strains, which may serve as a good marker for distinguishing APEC and its knocking out may help in creation of candidate vaccine that may prove sucess in elimination of infections in broiler chickens. Antimicrobial resistance patterns revealed a complete resistance to gentamicin, pefloxacin, amoxicillin, and enrofloxacin among examined strains followed by varying degrees of resistance for the rest of tested agents. The highest resistance was recorded against norfloxacin, in 24 isolates (96%), in contrast to the lowest resistance was recorded against colistin sulphate, in 14 strains (56%). These findings suggest the need for the prudent use of antimicrobials with broiler chickens and act as a warrant for the possibility of avian sources to transmit these resistant isolates to humans.

  3. Recognition of U-rich RNA by Hfq from the Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, Alexander R.; Hoff, Kirsten E.; Canty, John T.; Orans, Jillian; Brennan, Richard G.

    2014-08-22

    Hfq is a post-transcriptional regulator that binds U- and A-rich regions of sRNAs and their target mRNAs to stimulate their annealing in order to effect translation regulation and, often, to alter their stability. The functional importance of Hfq and its RNA-binding properties are relatively well understood in Gram-negative bacteria, whereas less is known about the RNAbinding properties of this riboregulator in Gram-positive species. Here, we describe the structure of Hfq from the Grampositive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in its RNA-free form and in complex with a U6 oligoribonucleotide. As expected, the protein takes the canonical hexameric toroidal shape of all other known Hfq structures. The U6 RNA binds on the “proximal face” in a pocket formed by conserved residues Q9, N42, F43, and K58. Additionally residues G5 and Q6 are involved in protein-nucleic and inter-subunit contacts that promote uracil specificity. Unlike Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) Hfq, Lm Hfq requires magnesium to bind U6 with high affinity. In contrast, the longer oligo-uridine, U16, binds Lm Hfq tightly in the presence or absence of magnesium, thereby suggesting the importance of additional residues on the proximal face and possibly the lateral rim in RNA interaction. Lastly, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence quenching (TFQ) studies reveal, surprisingly, that Lm Hfq can bind (GU)3G and U6 on its proximal and distal faces, indicating a less stringent adenine-nucleotide specificity site on the distal face as compared to the Gram-positive Hfq proteins from Sa and Bacillus subtilis and suggesting as yet uncharacterized RNA-binding modes on both faces.

  4. Anaplasma marginale Outer Membrane Protein A Is an Adhesin That Recognizes Sialylated and Fucosylated Glycans and Functionally Depends on an Essential Binding Domain.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Kathryn S; Seidman, David; Oki, Aminat T; Izac, Jerilyn; Emani, Sarvani; Oliver, Lee D; Miller, Daniel P; Tegels, Brittney K; Kannagi, Reiji; Marconi, Richard T; Carlyon, Jason A

    2017-03-01

    Anaplasma marginale causes bovine anaplasmosis, a debilitating and potentially fatal tick-borne infection of cattle. Because A. marginale is an obligate intracellular organism, its adhesins that mediate entry into host cells are essential for survival. Here, we demonstrate that A. marginale outer membrane protein A (AmOmpA; AM854) contributes to the invasion of mammalian and tick host cells. AmOmpA exhibits predicted structural homology to OmpA of A. phagocytophilum (ApOmpA), an adhesin that uses key lysine and glycine residues to interact with α2,3-sialylated and α1,3-fucosylated glycan receptors, including 6-sulfo-sialyl Lewis x (6-sulfo-sLe(x)). Antisera against AmOmpA or its predicted binding domain inhibits A. marginale infection of host cells. Residues G55 and K58 are contributory, and K59 is essential for recombinant AmOmpA to bind to host cells. Enzymatic removal of α2,3-sialic acid and α1,3-fucose residues from host cell surfaces makes them less supportive of AmOmpA binding. AmOmpA is both an adhesin and an invasin, as coating inert beads with it confers adhesiveness and invasiveness. Recombinant forms of AmOmpA and ApOmpA competitively antagonize A. marginale infection of host cells, but a monoclonal antibody against 6-sulfo-sLe(x) fails to inhibit AmOmpA adhesion and A. marginale infection. Thus, the two OmpA proteins bind related but structurally distinct receptors. This study provides a detailed understanding of AmOmpA function, identifies its essential residues that can be targeted by blocking antibody to reduce infection, and determines that it binds to one or more α2,3-sialylated and α1,3-fucosylated glycan receptors that are unique from those targeted by ApOmpA.

  5. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of pathogenic Escherichia coli virulence genes recovered from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A; Ali, Mohamed S; Hessain, Ashgan M; Zakri, Adel M; Dawoud, Turki M; Al-Maary, Khalid S; Moussa, Ihab M

    2016-11-01

    The current study was carried out to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli recovered from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. During the period of 10th February-30th May 2015, 70 E. coli strains were isolated from chicken farms located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All strains were tested phenotypically by standard microbiological techniques, serotyped and the virulence genes of such strains were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Most of the recovered strains from chickens belonged to serotype O111:K58 25 strains (35.7%), followed by serotype O157:H7 13 strains (18.57%), followed by serotype O114:K90 10 strains (14.29%), then serotype O126:K71 9 strains (12.9%), serotype O78:K80 8 strains (11.43%) and in lower percentage serotype O114:K90 and O119:K69 5 strains (7.14%). The virulence genotyping of E. coli isolates recovered from broilers revealed the presence of the uidA gene in all the field isolates (6 serovars) examined in an incidence of 100%, as well as the cvaC gene was also present in all field isolates (6 serovars), while the iutA gene and the iss gene were detected in 5 out of 6 field serovars in an incidence of 81.43% and 64.29%, respectively. Phenotypical examination of the other virulence factors revealed that 65 isolates were hemolytic (92.9%), as well as 15 isolates (21.42%) were positive for enterotoxin production. Meanwhile, 21 isolates (30%) were positive for verotoxin production, 58 isolates (82.86%) for the invasiveness and 31 isolates (44.29%) for Congo red binding activities of the examined serotypes.

  6. Recognition of U-rich RNA by Hfq from the Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes

    DOE PAGES

    Kovach, Alexander R.; Hoff, Kirsten E.; Canty, John T.; ...

    2014-08-22

    Hfq is a post-transcriptional regulator that binds U- and A-rich regions of sRNAs and their target mRNAs to stimulate their annealing in order to effect translation regulation and, often, to alter their stability. The functional importance of Hfq and its RNA-binding properties are relatively well understood in Gram-negative bacteria, whereas less is known about the RNAbinding properties of this riboregulator in Gram-positive species. Here, we describe the structure of Hfq from the Grampositive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in its RNA-free form and in complex with a U6 oligoribonucleotide. As expected, the protein takes the canonical hexameric toroidal shape of all othermore » known Hfq structures. The U6 RNA binds on the “proximal face” in a pocket formed by conserved residues Q9, N42, F43, and K58. Additionally residues G5 and Q6 are involved in protein-nucleic and inter-subunit contacts that promote uracil specificity. Unlike Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) Hfq, Lm Hfq requires magnesium to bind U6 with high affinity. In contrast, the longer oligo-uridine, U16, binds Lm Hfq tightly in the presence or absence of magnesium, thereby suggesting the importance of additional residues on the proximal face and possibly the lateral rim in RNA interaction. Lastly, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence quenching (TFQ) studies reveal, surprisingly, that Lm Hfq can bind (GU)3G and U6 on its proximal and distal faces, indicating a less stringent adenine-nucleotide specificity site on the distal face as compared to the Gram-positive Hfq proteins from Sa and Bacillus subtilis and suggesting as yet uncharacterized RNA-binding modes on both faces.« less

  7. Crystal structure of zwitterionic 2-[bis­(2-meth­oxy­phen­yl)phosphanium­yl]-4-methyl­benzene­sulfonate monohydrate di­chloro­methane monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyang; Feng, Ge; Filatov, Alexander S.; Jordan, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C21H21O5PS·H2O·CH2Cl2, the phospho­nium–sulfonate zwitterion has the acidic H atom located on the P atom rather than the sulfonate group. The S—O bond lengths [1.4453 (15)–1.4521 (14) Å] are essentially equal. In the crystal, the water mol­ecules bridge two zwitterions via Owater—H⋯Osulfonate hydrogen bonds into a centrosymmetric dimer. The dimers are further linked by weak CAr­yl—H⋯Osulfonate hydrogen bonds into chains extending along [100]. The PH+ group is not involved in inter­molecular inter­actions. PMID:26958395

  8. Crystal structure of (2Z,5Z)-3-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-2-[(4-meth-oxy-phenyl)-imino]-5-[(E)-3-(2-nitro-phen-yl)allyl-idene]-1,3-thia-zolidin-4-one.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Rachida; Djafri, Ahmed; Daran, Jean-Claude; Djafri, Ayada; Chouaih, Abdelkader; Hamzaoui, Fodil

    2016-02-01

    In the title compound, C26H21N3O5S, the thia-zole ring is nearly planar with a maximum deviation of 0.017 (2) Å, and is twisted with respect to the three benzene rings, making dihedral angles of 25.52 (12), 85.77 (12) and 81.85 (13)°. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions link the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture. Aromatic π-π stacking is also observed between the parallel nitro-benzene rings of neighbouring mol-ecules, the centroid-to-centroid distance being 3.5872 (15) Å.

  9. Crystal structure of zwitterionic 2-[bis-(2-meth-oxy-phen-yl)phosphanium-yl]-4-methyl-benzene-sulfonate monohydrate di-chloro-methane monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyang; Feng, Ge; Filatov, Alexander S; Jordan, Richard F

    2016-02-01

    In the title compound, C21H21O5PS·H2O·CH2Cl2, the phospho-nium-sulfonate zwitterion has the acidic H atom located on the P atom rather than the sulfonate group. The S-O bond lengths [1.4453 (15)-1.4521 (14) Å] are essentially equal. In the crystal, the water mol-ecules bridge two zwitterions via Owater-H⋯Osulfonate hydrogen bonds into a centrosymmetric dimer. The dimers are further linked by weak CAr-yl-H⋯Osulfonate hydrogen bonds into chains extending along [100]. The PH(+) group is not involved in inter-molecular inter-actions.

  10. Crystal structure of 2-[9-(2-hy-droxy-phen-yl)-1,8-dioxo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10-deca-hydro-acridin-10-yl]acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Akkurt, Mehmet; Jasinski, Jerry P; Mohamed, Shaaban K; Allah, Omyma A Abd; Tamam, Asmaa H A; Albayati, Mustafa R

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C21H21NO5, crystallizes with two mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. In each mol-ecule, the central 1,4-di-hydro-pyridine ring adopts a shallow sofa conformations (with the C atom bearing the phenol ring as the flap), whereas the pendant cyclo-hexene rings both have twisted-boat conformations. Each mol-ecule features an intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond, which closes an S(8) ring. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯O, C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional network.

  11. Crystal structure of (E)-2-[(2S,5R)-2-isopropyl-5-methyl­cyclo­hexyl­idene]hydrazine-1-carbo­thio­amide

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Adriano Bof; Beck, Johannes; Daniels, Jörg; de Farias, Renan Lira; de Godoy Netto, Adelino Vieira

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C11H21N3S, consists of a menthone moiety attached to an extended thio­semicarbazone group with the N—N—C—N torsion angle being 11.92 (16)°. The cyclo­hexane ring has a chair conformation and the conformation about the C=N bond is E. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via pairs of N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the a axis. The absolute structure could be assigned with reference to the starting material, i.e. enanti­opure (−)-menthone [Flack parameter = 0.05 (5)]. PMID:25309244

  12. [η5-1,3-Bis(trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dien­yl]dichlorido[η5-(trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dien­yl]titanium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Perdih, Franc

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ti(C8H13Si)(C11H21Si2)Cl2], the TiIV atom is bonded to two Cl atoms, one 1,3-bis­(trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dienyl (Si2Cp) and one (trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dienyl ring (SiCp). The Si2Cp centroid–titanium distance is 2.0763 (10) Å and the SiCp centroid–titanium distance is 2.0793 (10) Å. The angle subtended at the Ti atom by the centroids of both cyclo­penta­dienyl rings is 131.22 (4)° and the Cl—Ti—Cl angle is 94.14 (2)°. PMID:22199510

  13. Crystal structure of 1-[2-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl]propan-2-ol

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Shaaban K.; Marzouk, Adel A.; Albayati, Mustafa R.; Abdelhamid, Antar A.; Simpson, Jim

    2017-01-01

    The title compound, C24H21ClN2O, crystallizes with two unique mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. In each mol­ecule, the central imidazole ring is substituted at the 2-, 4- and 5-positions by benzene rings. The 2-substituted ring carries a Cl atom at the 4-position. One of the imidazole N atoms in each mol­ecule has a propan-2-ol substituent. In the crystal, a series of O—H⋯N, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, augmented by several C—H⋯π(ring) inter­actions, generate a three-dimensional network of mol­ecules stacked along the a-axis direction. PMID:28083137

  14. Tris(4-methyl­phen­yl)phosphine selenide

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C21H21PSe or PSe(C7H7)3, the P atom has a distorted PSeC3 tetra­hedral environment, formed by the Se atom [P=Se = 2.1119 (5) Å] and three aryl rings. Two short intra­molecular C—H⋯Se contacts occur. In the crystal, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯Se inter­actions link the mol­ecules into zigzag double chains propagating in [100]. The previous report of this structure [Zhdanov et al. (1953 ▶). Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (Russ.) (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USSR), 92, 983–985] contained no geometrical data. PMID:21522754

  15. Tris(4-methyl-phen-yl)phosphine selenide.

    PubMed

    Muller, Alfred

    2010-12-08

    In the title mol-ecule, C(21)H(21)PSe or PSe(C(7)H(7))(3), the P atom has a distorted PSeC(3) tetra-hedral environment, formed by the Se atom [P=Se = 2.1119 (5) Å] and three aryl rings. Two short intra-molecular C-H⋯Se contacts occur. In the crystal, weak inter-molecular C-H⋯Se inter-actions link the mol-ecules into zigzag double chains propagating in [100]. The previous report of this structure [Zhdanov et al. (1953 ▶). Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (Russ.) (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USSR), 92, 983-985] contained no geometrical data.

  16. trans-Dichloridobis[tris-(4-meth-oxy-lphen-yl)phosphane-κP]platinum(II) acetone disolvate.

    PubMed

    Muller, Alfred

    2012-12-01

    In the title compound, [PtCl2(C21H21O3P)2]·2C3H6O, the asymmetric unit contains a Pt(II) ion situated on an inversion center, one chloride anion, one tris-(4-meth-oxy-lphen-yl)phosphane (L) ligand and one acetone solvent mol-ecule. The Pt(II) ion is coordinated by two P atoms [Pt-P = 2.3196 (5) Å] from two L ligands and two chloride anions [Pt-Cl = 2.3075 (5) Å] in a distorted square-planar geometry with P-Pt-Cl angles of 88.016 (16) and 91.984 (16)°. The effective cone angle of the phosphane ligand was calculated to be 156°. Weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds hold mol-ecules together.

  17. Diphen­yl[2-(2-pyridylamino­meth­yl)phen­yl]phosphine oxide

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Cuenu Cabeza, Fernando; Cabrera-Ortiz, Armando

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C24H21N2OP, was obtained by reacting 2-amino­pyridine and 2-(diphenyl­phosphin­yl)benzaldehyde in ethanol. It crystallizes with two crystallographically independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The amino­pyridine units and the benzene ring bonded to the phosphine oxide P atom form dihedral angles of 88.58 (7) and 82.47 (9)° in the two mol­ecules. The crystal structure displays strong N—H⋯O and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds along the b axis and C—H⋯π aromatic intra- and inter­molecular inter­actions. PMID:21579222

  18. Anion Transport in Liposomes Responds to Variations in the Anchor Chains and the Fourth Amino Acid of Heptapeptide Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ferdani, Riccardo; Pajewski, Robert; Djedovič, Natasha; Pajewska, Jolanta; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Gokel, George W.

    2008-01-01

    Seven heptapeptide derivatives have been prepared. The peptide structure is (Gly)3Xxx(Gly)3 in which Xxx stands for a variable amino acid. The amino acid variations include azetidine carboxylic acid, pipecolic acid, meta-aminobenzoic acid, proline, and leucine. All seven compounds have a C-terminal benzyl group. In all cases, the heptapeptide's N-terminus was linked to diglycolic acid and a dialkylamine. In five cases, the N-terminal group was didecylamine and in two cases, N-ethyl-N-decyl. Chloride and carboxyfluorescein release from phospholipid vesicles was studied with the result that C10H21N(C2H5) COCH2OCH2CO-NH-(Gly)3Leu(Gly)3-OCH2Ph was the most active. Hill analysis showed that this compound involves pore formation by four monomer units rather than two, as previously found for other members of this family. PMID:19169373

  19. Petroleum hydrocarbon persistence following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill as a function of shoreline energy.

    PubMed

    Evans, Meredith; Liu, Jiqing; Bacosa, Hernando; Rosenheim, Brad E; Liu, Zhanfei

    2017-02-15

    An important aspect of oil spill science is understanding how the compounds within spilled oil, especially toxic components, change with weathering. In this study we follow the evolution of petroleum hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, on a Louisiana beach and salt marsh for three years following the Deepwater Horizon spill. Relative to source oil, we report overall depletion of low molecular weight n-alkanes and PAHs in all locations with time. The magnitude of depletion, however, depends on the sampling location, whereby sites with highest wave energy have highest compound depletion. Oiled sediment from an enclosed bay shows high enrichment of high molecular weight PAHs relative to 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane, suggesting the contribution from sources other than the Deepwater Horizon spill, such as fossil fuel burning. This insight into hydrocarbon persistence as a function of hydrography and hydrocarbon source can inform policy and response for future spills.

  20. Ethyl 3-[1-(5,5-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorin-2-yl)propan-2-ylidene]carbazate: a combined X-ray and density functional theory (DFT) study.

    PubMed

    Arfaoui, Youssef; Kouass, Salah; Salah, Nesrine; Ben Akacha, Azaiez; Guesmi, Abderrahmen

    2010-07-01

    In the title compound, C(11)H(21)N(2)O(5)P, one of the two carbazate N atoms is involved in the C=N double bond and the H atom of the second N atom is engaged in an intramolecular hydrogen bond with an O atom from the dimethylphosphorin-2-yl group, which is in an uncommon cis position with respect to the carbamate group. The cohesion of the crystal structure is also reinforced by weak intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++g(2d,2p) level revealed the lowest energy structure to have a Z configuration at the C=N bond, which is consistent with the configuration found in the X-ray crystal structure, as well as a less stable E counterpart which lies 2.0 kcal mol(-1) higher in potential energy. Correlations between the experimental and computational studies are discussed.

  1. Crystal structure of (2Z,5Z)-3-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-2-[(4-meth­oxy­phenyl)­imino]-5-[(E)-3-(2-nitro­phen­yl)allyl­idene]-1,3-thia­zolidin-4-one

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Rachida; Djafri, Ahmed; Daran, Jean-Claude; Djafri, Ayada; Chouaih, Abdelkader; Hamzaoui, Fodil

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C26H21N3O5S, the thia­zole ring is nearly planar with a maximum deviation of 0.017 (2) Å, and is twisted with respect to the three benzene rings, making dihedral angles of 25.52 (12), 85.77 (12) and 81.85 (13)°. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions link the mol­ecules into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture. Aromatic π–π stacking is also observed between the parallel nitro­benzene rings of neighbouring mol­ecules, the centroid-to-centroid distance being 3.5872 (15) Å. PMID:26958377

  2. Dichloridobis[3-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-2-methyl-5-(piperidin-1-yl)-2,3-di­hydro-1,2,4-oxa­diazole-κN 4]platinum(II)

    PubMed Central

    Kritchenkov, Andreii S.; Lavnevich, Leonid V.; Starova, Galina L.; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Kalibabchuk, Valentina A.

    2013-01-01

    In title compound, [PtCl2(C15H21N3O2)2], the PtII cation, located on an inversion center, is coordinated by two Cl− anions and two 3-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-2-methyl-5-(piperidin-1-yl)-2,3-di­hydro-1,2,4-oxa­diazole ligands in a distorted Cl2N2 square-planar geometry. The di­hydro­oxa­diazole and piperidine rings display envelope (with the non-coordinating N atom as the flap atom) and chair conformations, respectively. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into supra­molecular chains running along the b axis. The piperidine ring is disordered over two positions with the occupancy ratio of 0.528 (4):0.472 (4). PMID:24109266

  3. Tetrahydroberberine, a pharmacologically active naturally occurring alkaloid.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Subramanya; Donahue, James P; Payton-Stewart, Florastina

    2015-04-01

    Tetrahydroberberine (systematic name: 9,10-dimethoxy-5,8,13,13a-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[g][1,3]benzodioxolo[5,6-a]quinolizine), C20H21NO4, a widely distributed naturally occurring alkaloid, has been crystallized as a racemic mixture about an inversion center. A bent conformation of the molecule is observed, with an angle of 24.72 (5)° between the arene rings at the two ends of the reduced quinolizinium core. The intermolecular hydrogen bonds that play an apparent role in crystal packing are 1,3-benzodioxole -CH2···OCH3 and -OCH3···OCH3 interactions between neighboring molecules.

  4. Synthesis and structural study of 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-ethoxy-5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydrocycloocta[B]pyridine-3-carbonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathima, K. Saiadali; Vasumathi, M.; Anitha, K.

    2016-05-01

    The novel organic material C20H21ClN2O was synthesized by One-Pot synthesis method and the single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The crystal structure was elucidated by subjecting the grown crystals to the single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis and was refined by full matrix least-squares method to R=0.039 for 2746 reflections. Crystal system of the grown crystal was found to be monoclinic with the space group P21/a and a=9.196(4) Å, b=13.449(4) Å, c=14.818(4) Å, β= 101.542(3)°, V=1795.6(11) Å3 and Z=4. In this crystal structure, cyclooctanone prefers to reside in a chair-boat conformation. The structure is stabilized by attractive molecular force such as CH/π interaction called hydrophobic interaction.

  5. Ethyl 2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro­spiro­[carba­zole-3,2′-[1,3]dioxolan]-9-yl)acetate

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, Philipp M. G.; Ulven, Trond; Bond, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C18H21NO4, the hydrogenated six-membered ring of the carbazole unit adopts a half-chair conformation. The dioxolane ring and ethyl­acetate substituent point to opposite sides of the carbazole plane. The ethyl­acetate substituent adopts an essentially fully extended conformation, and its mean plane forms a dihedral angle of 83.8 (1)° with respect to the carbazole mean plane. The mol­ecules are arranged into stacks in which the carbazole planes form a dihedral angle of 4.4 (1)° and have an approximate inter­planar separation of 3.6 Å. PMID:21582427

  6. A triclinic polymorph of (−)-(S)-N-benzyl-2-[(R)-6-fluoro­chroman-2-yl]-2-hy­droxy­ethanaminium bromide

    PubMed Central

    Rousselin, Yoann; Laureano, Hugo; Clavel, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The title salt, C18H21FNO2 +·Br−, determined at 115 K, crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1. The previously reported polymorph occurs in the monoclinic space group P21 and has two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit [Peeters et al. (1993 ▶). Acta Cryst. C49, 2157–2160]. In the title molecule, the pyran rings adopt half-chair conformations. The absolute configuration is S for the hy­droxy-bearing C atom and R for the asymmetric C atom in the di­hydro­pyran unit. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯Br and O—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the c-axis direction. The crystal studied was refined as an inversion twin. PMID:24860291

  7. Full stereochemical understanding in a new (2R,3R,4R)-4-hydroxyisoleucine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rolland, M; Kassem, T; Rolland, V; Martinez, J

    2001-12-01

    We present the crystal and molecular structures of 2,3,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-6,8-methano-7,7,8a-trimethyl-3-(1-methyl-2-oxopropylidene)-5H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one, C16H21NO3, (III), and 2,3,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3-(2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl)-6,8-methano-7,7,8a-trimethyl-5H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one, C16H25NO3, (V). These compounds are two of the four key intermediates in our synthetic route to (2R,3R,4R)-4-hydroxyisoleucine. The two structures provide a full understanding of the stereochemistry in successive steps. This synthesis was based on a new optically pure chiral oxazinone auxiliary derived from (1R,2R,5R)-2-hydroxypinan-3-one.

  8. Hydrogen-bonded and π-interaction assembly in two 8-alkoxycarbonyl-1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-enium chloride salts.

    PubMed

    Mesto, E; Quaranta, E

    2013-04-01

    The crystal structures of 8-phenoxycarbonyl-1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-enium chloride, C16H21N2O2(+)·Cl(-), (I), and 8-methoxycarbonyl-1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-enium chloride monohydrate, C11H19N2O2(+)·Cl(-)·H2O, (II), recently reported by Carafa, Mesto & Quaranta [Eur. J. Org. Chem. (2011), pp. 2458-2465], are analysed and discussed with a focus on crystal interaction assembly. Both compounds crystallize in the space group P2(1)/c. The crystal packings are characterized by dimers linked through π-π stacking interactions and intermolecular nonclassical hydrogen bonds, respectively. Additional intermolecular C-H···Cl interactions [in (I) and (II)] and classical O-H···Cl hydrogen bonds [in (II)] are also evident and contribute to generating three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded networks.

  9. A second polymorph of 2,4,6-tris­(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Seik Weng

    2012-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, C18H21N9, is nearly planar, with the three pyrazole rings aligned at 2.40 (5), 9.27 (5) and 9.71 (5)° with respect to the triazine ring. The triazine ring is planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.005 Å), the distortion from a hexa­gonal arrangement arising from the angles at the N [112.4 (1)–113.1 (1)°] and C [127.1 (1)–127.6 (1)°] atoms deviating from 120°. The crystal studied was an inversion twin. PMID:23284510

  10. A triclinic polymorph of (-)-(S)-N-benzyl-2-[(R)-6-fluoro-chroman-2-yl]-2-hy-droxy-ethanaminium bromide.

    PubMed

    Rousselin, Yoann; Laureano, Hugo; Clavel, Alexandre

    2013-12-01

    The title salt, C18H21FNO2 (+)·Br(-), determined at 115 K, crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1. The previously reported polymorph occurs in the monoclinic space group P21 and has two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit [Peeters et al. (1993 ▶). Acta Cryst. C49, 2157-2160]. In the title molecule, the pyran rings adopt half-chair conformations. The absolute configuration is S for the hy-droxy-bearing C atom and R for the asymmetric C atom in the di-hydro-pyran unit. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯Br and O-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the c-axis direction. The crystal studied was refined as an inversion twin.

  11. (2E)-3-{4-[(1H-1,3-Benzimidazol-2-yl)meth­oxy]-3-eth­oxy­phen­yl}-1-(4-bromo­phen­yl)prop-2-en-1-one monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jasinski, Jerry P.; Miller, William M.; Samshuddin, S.; Narayana, B.; Yathirajan, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C25H21BrN2O3·H2O, the benzimidazole fragment and the water mol­ecule of crystallization are each disordered over two sets of sites of equal occupancy. The dihedral angles between the least-squares planes of the benzimidazole and the 3-eth­oxy- and 4-bromo­benzene rings are 86.9 (6) and 85.1 (1)°, respectively in one disorder component. The crystal packing is stabilized by inter­molecular O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, which link the mol­ecules into chains along the a axis. PMID:21754118

  12. Studies on flower initiation of Super-Dwarf wheat under stress conditions simulating those on the Space Station, Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, L.; Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Nan, R.

    1998-01-01

    Super-Dwarf wheat plants were grown in growth chambers under 12 treatments with three photoperiods (18 h, 21 h, 24 h) and four carbon dioxide (CO2) levels (360, 1,200, 3,000 and 7,000 micromoles mol-1). Carbon dioxide concentrations affected flower initiation rates of Super-Dwarf wheat. The optimum CO2 level for flower initiation and development was 1,200 micromoles mol-1. Super-optimum CO2 levels delayed flower initiation, but did not decrease final flower bud number per head. Longer photoperiods not only accelerated flower initiation rates, but also decreased deleterious effects of super-optimum CO2. Flower bud size and head length at the same developmental stage were larger under longer photoperiods, but final flower bud number was not affected by photoperiod.

  13. [(1R,3S)-6,7-Dimeth­oxy-1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­isoquinolin-3-yl]methanol 2.33-hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Chakka, Sai Kumar; McKay, Michael G.; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Maguire, Glenn E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C18H21NO3·2.33H2O, is the fourth reported member in a series of (1R,3S)-6,7-dimeth­oxy-1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­isoquinoline derivatives used in catalysis as ligands (or their precursors). The N-heterocycle in the structure adopts a half-chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 77.29 (13)°. There are three ill-resolved water molecules of crystallization in the structure (one of them rotationally disordered about a threefold axis) involved in short contacts probably due to hydrogen bonding. PMID:21522445

  14. 3-(Triphenylphosphoranylidene)pentane-2,4-dione and diethyl 2-(triphenylphosphoranylidene)malonate.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Fernando; Aliaga, Christian; Bunton, Clifford A; Garland, María Teresa; Baggio, Ricardo

    2005-08-01

    The title ylides, 3-(triphenylphosphoranylidene)pentane-2,4-dione, C23H21O2P, (I), and diethyl 2-(triphenylphosphoranylidene)malonate, C25H25O4P, (II), differ in the conformations adopted by their extended ylide moieties. In (I), one carbonyl O atom is syn and the other is anti with respect to the P atom, the ylide group is nearly planar, with a maximum P-C-(C=O) angle of 18.2 (2)degrees, and the P-C, C-C and C=O bond lengths are consistent with electronic delocalization involving the O atoms. In (II), both carbonyl O atoms are anti and the ester groups are twisted out of the plane of the near trigonal ylide C atom, reducing delocalization, the largest P-C-(C=O) angle being 30.2 (2)degrees.

  15. Chlorido[1-diphenyl­phosphanyl-3-(phenyl­sulfan­yl)propane-κ2 P,S](η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iridium(III) chloride monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Gerd; Korb, Marcus; Rüffer, Tobias; Lang, Heinrich; Steinborn, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Ir(C10H15)Cl(C21H21PS)]Cl·H2O, consists of discrete [Ir(η5-C5Me5)Cl{Ph2P(CH2)3SPh-κP,κS}]+ cations, chloride anions and water mol­ecules. The IrIII atom is coordinated by an η5-C5Me5 ligand, a chloride and a Ph2P(CH2)3SPh-κP,κS ligand, leading to a three-legged piano-stool geometry. In the crystal, two water molecules and two chloride anions are linked by weak O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding into tetra­mers that are located on centers of inversion. The H atoms of one of the methyl groups are disordered and were refined using a split model. PMID:22719391

  16. Synthesis, structural, and spectroscopic (FT-IR, NMR, and UV) Characterization of 1-(Cyclohexylmethyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1 H-benzo[ d]imidazole by experimental techniques and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Namık; Dayan, Osman; Demirmen, Selin

    2016-05-01

    The title compound ( II), 1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1 H-benzo[ d]imidazole (C19H21N3), was synthesized via N-alkylation of 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1 H-benzo[ d]imidazole ( I). Both compounds I and II were characterized by IR, NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Solid-state structure of compound II was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Furthermore, quantum chemical calculations employing density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-311++ G( d, p) basis set were performed for the theoretical characterization of the molecular and spectroscopic features of the compounds. Using the TD-DFT method, electronic absorption spectra of the compounds have been predicted at same level. When the obtained results were compared with the experimental findings, it is seen that theoretical results support the experimental data and a good agreement exists between them.

  17. Development of Superconducting CH-Structures for Low and Medium Beta Beams and the Status of the 352 MHz Prototype Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Podlech, H.; Liebermann, H.; Ratzinger, U.; Sauer, A.

    2005-06-08

    In the last decades several types of H-mode cavities have been developed for a wide range of applications. The CH- or Crossbar-H-Structure which is currently under development at the IAP in Frankfurt is a new drift tube structure operated in the H21-mode. This type of cavity is a promising candidate for the use in future cw operated high current applications like IFMIF or XADS. Due to its mechanical rigidity this cavity is suited to realize room temperature as well as superconducting linacs. A superconducting 352 MHz prototype cavity designed for a {beta} of 0.1 is in the final stage of production. We present the latest results of the cavity developements and the status of the prototype cavity.

  18. Quantification of in situ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation using conservative internal markers

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, B.E.; McDonald, T.J.; Conti, E.; Moffitt, A.E.

    1996-10-01

    Determination of bioremediation effectiveness requires a methodology to quantify in situ biodegradation. Biodegradation of a target compound can be quantified by following the time dependence of the concentration ratio of the target compound to a conservative, natural internal standard. The molecular marker, 17{alpha}(H), 21{beta}(H)-hopane, a multi-ringed saturated hydrocarbon, has been used as an internal standard to quantify in situ biodegradation of petroleum-contaminated sites. This study critiques the use of hopane for the quantification of PAH biodegradation in soil contaminated with highly weathered petroleum. This work shows that the use a combination of several molecular markers as conservative internal standards is a more effective quantification technique for sites contaminated with crude oil from a number of sources.

  19. Crystal structure of (1,3-di-tert-butyl-η5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tri­methyl­hafnium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Redondo, Adrián; Varela-Izquierdo, Víctor; Yélamos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title organometallic hafnium(IV) com­pound, [Hf(CH3)3(C13H21)] or [HfMe3(η5-C5H3-1,3-tBu2)], adopts the classical three-legged piano-stool geometry for mono­cyclo­penta­dienylhafnium(IV) derivatives with the three methyl groups bonded to the Hf(IV) atom at the legs. The C atoms of the two tert-butyl group bonded to the cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp) ring are 0.132 (5) and 0.154 (6) Å above the Cp least-squares plane. There are no significant inter­molecular inter­actions present between the mol­ecules in the crystal structure. PMID:25995884

  20. [Occurrence of Salmonella spp. and shigatoxin-producing escherichia coli (STEC) in horse faeces and horse meat products].

    PubMed

    Pichner, Rohtraud; Sander, Andrea; Steinrück, Hartmut; Gareis, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    In order to assess the relevance of horses as a possible reservoir of Salmonella and Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), 400 samples of horse faeces and 100 samples of horse meat products were examined by PCR-screening methods. Salmonella enterica was not found in any of the samples. One faeces-sample and one horse meat product were proved to be STEC positive. The STEC-strain from faecal origin belonged to the serotype 0113:H21 and had the stx 2c gene and the enterohemolysin gene. The STEC-strain isolated from a horse meat product had the serotype O87:H16 and the stx 2d gene. The results indicate a very low risk for human to get a Salmonella- or EHEC- infection from horses in Germany.

  1. Synthesis and molecular characterization of 5,5‧-((2,4-dichlorophenyl)methylene)bis(1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, Assem; Al-Najjar, Hany J.; Al-Majid, Abdullah Mohammed; Soliman, Saied M.; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Ghabbour, Hazem A.; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-03-01

    A simple, economical, and green approach to the synthesis of 5,5‧-((2,4-dichlorophenyl)methylene)bis(1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione) 4 using a tandem Aldol condensation-Michael addition process in aqueous diethylamine medium was described. The 3D structure of the latter was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray structure determination. The molecular structure of the titled compound was calculated using DFT B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method. The calculated geometric parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained from our reported X-ay structure. The two pyrimidinetrione rings have C16 and C20 atoms deviated significantly from the ring plane. The electronic spectra of the studied compound have been calculated using the TD-DFT method. The longest wavelength band (257.8 nm, f = 0.0276) occurs due to H → L (86%) transition. The 1H and 13C NMR calculated chemical shifts using GIAO method showed good correlation with the experimental data. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) showed that the most reactive sites for electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks are the carbonyl oxygen (O5) and the H21 atoms, respectively. The NBO calculations were performed to predict the natural atomic charges at the different atomic sites and to study the different intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) interactions occurring in the studied system. Interestingly, there is some delocalization of electron densities from the occupied σ-type NBO of the C20sbnd H21 to the unoccupied π∗-NBO of the two adjacent carbonyl groups.

  2. Injury prevention target groups in soccer: injury characteristics and incidence rates in male junior and senior players.

    PubMed

    Schmikli, Sandor L; de Vries, Wouter R; Inklaar, Han; Backx, Frank J G

    2011-05-01

    To identify target groups for injury prevention in male amateur soccer players under 35 years of age. A computer-assisted telephone survey with a 12-month recall period for injuries in a representative sample of Dutch citizens from the Injuries and Physical Activity Netherlands (IPAN)-database. A comparison of the volume of soccer injuries, the incidence and the need for medical attention per level of exposure and age category. The incidence in seniors was twice that of juniors (17.5% versus 8.1%; odds ratio (OR=2.4). In juniors the overall incidence was lowest in the category with the least amount of soccer exposure time (0-3 h: 2.9%; 3-5 h: 13.0%; 5+ h: 12.3%). A comparable result was found in seniors: (0-3 h: 12.0%; 3-5 h: 21.6%; 5+ h: 21.5%). Within each level of soccer exposure, a different incidence was found in juniors and seniors (0-3 h: OR=4.6; 3-5 h: OR=1.8; 5+ h: OR=1.9). Ankle, knee and upper leg injuries were most common (59.9%). Contusions, strains and sprains dominated (78.1%). Body region and type of injuries were similar in both age categories. Medical treatment for injuries was equally necessary in both age groups. Senior male amateur soccer players and particularly the more skilled seniors (involved in soccer at least 3 h per week), should be primarily targeted for studies on injury risk factors and prevention programs.

  3. Lubricating oil and fuel contributions to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A

    2008-01-01

    Size-resolved particulate matter emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) operated under realistic driving cycles were analyzed for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measured hopane and sterane size distributions did not match the total carbon size distribution in most cases, suggesting that lubricating oil was not the dominant source of particulate carbon in the vehicle exhaust. A regression analysis using 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane as a tracer for lubricating oil and benzo[ghi/perylene as a tracer for gasoline showed that gasoline fuel and lubricating oil both make significant contributions to particulate EC and OC emissions from LDGVs. A similar regression analysis performed using 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane as a tracer for lubricating oil and flouranthene as a tracerfor diesel fuel was able to explain the size distribution of particulate EC and OC emissions from HDDVs. The analysis showed that EC emitted from all HDDVs operated under relatively high load conditions was dominated by diesel fuel contributions with little EC attributed to lubricating oil. Particulate OC emitted from HDDVs was more evenly apportioned between fuel and oil contributions. EC emitted from LDGVs operated underfuel-rich conditions was dominated by gasoline fuel contributions. OC emitted from visibly smoking LDGVs was mostly associated with lubricating oil, but OC emitted from all other categories of LDGVs was dominated by gasoline fuel. The current study clearly illustrates that fuel and lubricating oil make separate and distinct contributions to particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles. These particles should be tracked separately during ambient source apportionment studies since the atmospheric evolution and ultimate health effects of these particles may be different. The source profiles for fuel and lubricating oil contributions to EC and OC

  4. Prevalences of Shiga toxin subtypes and selected other virulence factors among Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Feng, Peter C H; Reddy, Shanker

    2013-11-01

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were isolated from a variety of fresh produce, but mostly from spinach, with an estimated prevalence rate of 0.5%. A panel of 132 produce STEC strains were characterized for the presence of virulence and putative virulence factor genes and for Shiga toxin subtypes. About 9% of the isolates were found to have the eae gene, which encodes the intimin binding protein, and most of these belonged to known pathogenic STEC serotypes, such as O157:H7 and O26:H11, or to serotypes that reportedly have caused human illness. Among the eae-negative strains, there were three O113:H21 strains and one O91:H21 strain, which historically have been implicated in illness and therefore may be of concern as well. The ehxA gene, which encodes enterohemolysin, was found in ∼60% of the isolates, and the saa and subAB genes, which encode STEC agglutinating adhesin and subtilase cytotoxin, respectively, were found in ∼30% of the isolates. However, the precise roles of these three putative virulence factors in STEC pathogenesis have not yet been fully established. The stx1a and stx2a subtypes were present in 22% and 56%, respectively, of the strains overall and were the most common subtypes among produce STEC strains. The stx2d subtype was the second most common subtype (28% overall), followed by stx2c (7.5%), and only 2 to 3% of the produce STEC strains had the stx2e and stx2g subtypes. Almost half of the produce STEC strains had only partial serotypes or were untyped, and most of those that were identified belonged to unremarkable serotypes. Considering the uncertainties of some of these Stx subtypes and putative virulence factors in causing human illness, it is difficult to determine the health risk of many of these produce STEC strains.

  5. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in Fresh Produce--A Food Safety Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Feng, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Produce contains high levels of mixed microflora, including coliforms and Escherichia coli, but occasionally pathogens may also be present. Enterotoxigenic E. coli and Shigatoxin-producing E. coli (STEC) have been isolated from various produce types, especially spinach. The presence of STEC in produce is easily detected by PCR for the Shiga toxin (Stx) gene, stx, but this is insufficient for risk analysis. STEC comprises hundreds of serotypes that include known pathogenic serotypes and strains that do not appear to cause severe illness. Moreover, Stx without a binding factor like intimin (encoded by eae) is deemed to be insufficient to cause severe disease. Hence, risk analyses require testing for other virulence or serotype-specific genes. Multiplex PCR enables simultaneous testing of many targets, but, in a mixed flora sample, not all targets detected may be coming from the same cell. The need to isolate and confirm STEC in produce is critical, but it is time- and labor-intensive due to the complexity of the group. Studies showed that only a handful of STEC strains in produce have eae, and most belonged to recognized pathogenic serotypes so are of definite health risks. Several eae-negative strains belonged to serotypes O113:H21 and O91:H21 that historically have caused severe illness and may also be of concern. Most of the other STEC strains in produce, however, are only partially serotyped or are unremarkable serotypes carrying putative virulence factors, whose role in pathogenesis is uncertain, thus making it difficult to assess the health risks of these STEC strains.

  6. Profile of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs and cats and genetic relationships with isolates from cattle, meat and humans.

    PubMed

    Bentancor, A; Rumi, M V; Carbonari, C; Gerhardt, E; Larzábal, M; Vilte, D A; Pistone-Creydt, V; Chinen, I; Ibarra, C; Cataldi, A; Mercado, E C

    2012-05-04

    Pets can be reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. The aim of this study was to examine nine strains belonging to several serotypes (O91:H21, O91:H16, O178:H19, O8:H19, O22:H8, O22:HNT, ONT:H8), previously recovered from cats or dogs. To this end, we assessed a set of additional virulence genes (stx(2) subtype, subAB, ehxA, eae and saa), cytotoxic activity, and genetic relationships with strains isolated from cattle, meat and humans using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Most of the isolates carried the stx(2) and/or stx(2vh-b) sequences, while only the O91:H21 isolate presented the mucus-activatable stx(2d) variant, as confirmed by sequencing the genes of subunits A and B. All the strains showed cytotoxic activity in cultured cells. One of the two O178:H19, selected for its high level of cytotoxicity in Vero cells, showed the ability to cause functional alterations in the human colon mucosa in vitro. None of the strains possessed the subAB, eae or saa genes and only the strains belonging to serotype O8:H19 carried the ehxA gene. The isolates shared 90-100% similarity by PFGE to epidemiologically unrelated strains of the corresponding serotypes recovered from cattle, meat or humans. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats may have a role in the infection of humans by STEC, probably serving as a vehicle for bovine strains in the cycle of human infection, and thus emphasize the health risks for owners and their families.

  7. On the Significance of Bacterial triterpenic Biomarkers in Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmer, M.

    2004-12-01

    Triterpenic biomarkers are ubiquitous in the organic matter of sediments. Bacterial contribution is essential for several series. Despite the numerous investigations performed over the last decades, little is known about the distribution of triterpenoids in Eubacteria. An updated survey of triterpene distribution in Eubacteria points out a much broader diversity of the structures than expected ten years ago. Hopanoids characterized by their C35 skeleton resulting from a carbon/carbon linkage between the triterpene hopane skeleton and a D-ribose derivative are the most frequent ones. Their distribution cannot be readily interpreted and may result from lateral gene transfer. Many groups, such as strict anaerobes, are underrepresented in the screenings, mainly because of the complex techniques required for their growth. Most of the bacterial hopanoids belong to the (17α H,21β H) series, corresponding to the stereochemistry of hopanoid biomarkers from non-mature sediments. (17β H,21α H)- and especially (17α ,21β H)-hopanoids are derived from the former series via diagenesis and maturation of the organic matter. Both series were, however, recently found in widespread soil bacteria (Frankia spp., Geodermatophilus spp.) questioning at least partially their significance as maturation indicators. Quasi-hopanoids with the gammacerane skeleton were first found in ciliate protozoa. They are also present in high concentrations in the phylogenetically related bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris and all Bradyrhizobium spp. In all closely investigated hopanoid producing bacteria, a complex mixture of triterpene hydrocarbons accompanied in small amounts hop-22(29)-ene. They include pentacyclic triterpenes (rearranged hopenes, fernenes) as well as tetracyclic triterpenes (dammaradienes, euphadienes) and result from a lack of strict control of the cyclization process by the squalene/hopene cyclase. Triterpenoids related to sterol biosynthesis (lanosterol, cycloartenol) have

  8. Characteristics of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from Swiss raw milk cheese within a 3-year monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, C; Giezendanner, N; Corti, S; Krause, G; Beutin, L; Danuser, J; Stephan, R

    2010-01-01

    Food is an important vehicle for transmission of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). To assess the potential public health impact of STEC in Swiss raw milk cheese produced from cow's, goat's, and ewe's milk, 1,422 samples from semihard or hard cheese and 80 samples from soft cheese were examined for STEC, and isolated strains were further characterized. By PCR, STEC was detected after enrichment in 5.7% of the 1,502 raw milk cheese samples collected at the producer level. STEC-positive samples comprised 76 semihard, 8 soft, and 1 hard cheese. By colony hybridization, 29 STEC strains were isolated from 24 semihard and 5 soft cheeses. Thirteen of the 24 strains typeable with O antisera belonged to the serogroups O2, O22, and O91. More than half (58.6%) of the 29 strains belonged to O:H serotypes previously isolated from humans, and STEC O22:H8, O91:H10, O91:H21, and O174:H21 have also been identified as agents of hemolytic uremic syndrome. Typing of Shiga toxin genes showed that stx(1) was only found in 2 strains, whereas 27 strains carried genes encoding for the Stx(2) group, mainly stx(2) and stx(2vh-a/b). Production of Stx(2) and Stx(2vh-a/b) subtypes might be an indicator for a severe outcome in patients. Nine strains harbored hlyA (enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin), whereas none tested positive for eae (intimin). Consequently, semihard and hard raw milk cheese may be a potential source of STEC, and a notable proportion of the isolated non-O157 STEC strains belonged to serotypes or harbored Shiga toxin gene variants associated with human infections.

  9. Lipophilic triphenylphosphonium derivatives enhance radiation-induced cell killing via inhibition of mitochondrial energy metabolism in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Hironobu; Yamamoto, Kumiko; Suzuki, Motofumi; Sakai, Yuri; Bo, Tomoki; Nagane, Masaki; Nishimura, Eri; Yamamori, Tohru; Yamasaki, Toshihide; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Inanami, Osamu

    2017-04-01

    It has recently been reported that radiation enhances mitochondrial energy metabolism in various tumor cell lines. To examine how this radiation-induced alteration in mitochondrial function influences tumor cell viability, various lipophilic triphenylphosphonium (TPP(+)) cation derivatives and related compounds such as 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxy-piperidin (Tempol) with TPP(+) (named "Mito-") were designed to inhibit the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Mito-(CH2)10-Tempol (M10T) and its derivatives, Mito-(CH2)5-Tempol (M5T), Mito-(CH2)10-Tempol-Methyl (M10T-Me), Mito-C10H21 (M10), and C10H21-Tempol (10T), were prepared. In HeLa human cervical adenocarcinoma cells and A549 human lung carcinoma cells, the fractional uptake of the compound into mitochondria was highest among the TTP(+) analogs conjugated with Tempol (M10T, M5T, and 10T). M10T, M10T-Me, and M10 exhibited strong cytotoxicity and enhanced X-irradiation-induced reproductive cell death, while 10T and M5T did not. Furthermore, M10T, M10T-Me, and M10 decreased basal mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP. M10T treatment inhibited X-ray-induced increases in ATP production. These results indicate that the TPP cation and a long hydrocarbon linker are essential for radiosensitization of tumor cells. The reduction in intracellular ATP by lipophilic TPP(+) is partly responsible for the observed radiosensitization.

  10. Solid pole tide in global GPS and superconducting gravimeter observations: Signal retrieval and inference for mantle anelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hao; Chao, Benjamin F.

    2017-02-01

    The mantle anelasticity plays an important role in Earth's interior dynamics. Here we seek to determine the lower-mantle anelasticity through the solution of the complex Love numbers at the Chandler wobble period. The Love numbers h21, l21, δ21 and k21 are obtained in the frequency domain by dividing off the observed polar motion, or more specifically the pole tide potential, from the observed GPS 3-D displacement field and SG gravity variation. The latter signals are obtained through the array processing method of OSE (optimal sequence estimation) that results in greatly enhanced signals to be extracted from global array data. The resultant Love number estimates h21 = 0.6248 (± 5 e - 4) - 0.013 (± 5 e - 3) i, l21 = 0.0904 (± 8 e - 4) - 0.0008 (± 2 e - 3) i, δ21 = 1.156 (± 2 e - 3) - 0.003 (± 1 e - 3) i and k21 = 0.3125 (± 2 e - 3) - 0.0069 (± 3 e - 3) i are thus well-constrained in comparison to past estimates that vary considerably. They further lead to estimates of the corresponding mantle anelastic parameters fr and fi, which in turn determines, under the single-absorption band assumption, the dispersion exponent of α = 0.21 ± 0.02 with respect to the reference frequency of 5 mHz. We believe our estimate is robust and hence can better constrain the mantle anelasticity and attenuation models of the Earth interior.

  11. Low-dose carbon ion irradiation effects on DNA damage and oxidative stress in the mouse testis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Long, Jing; Zhang, Luwei; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Weiping; Wu, Zhehua

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of low-dose carbon ion irradiation on reproductive system of mice, the testes of outbred Kunming strain mice were whole-body irradiated with 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 Gy, respectively. We measured DNA double-strand breaks (DNA DSBs) and oxidative stress parameters including malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and testis weight and sperm count at 12 h, 21 d and 35 d after irradiation in mouse testis. At 12 h postirradiation, a significant increase in DNA DSB level but no pronounced alterations in MDA content or SOD activity were observed in 0.5 and 1 Gy groups compared with the control group. At 21 d postirradiation, there was a significant reduction in sperm count and distinct enhancements of DSB level and MDA content in 0.5 and 1 Gy groups in comparison with control. At 35 d postirradiation, the levels of DNA DSBs and MDA, and SOD activity returned to the baseline except for the MDA content in 1 Gy (P < 0.05), while extreme falls of sperm count were still observed in 0.5 (P < 0.01) and 1 Gy (P < 0.01) groups. For the 0.05 or 0.1 Gy group, no differences were found in DNA DSB level and MDA content between control and at 12 h, 21 d and 35 d after irradiation, indicating that lower doses of carbon ion irradiation have no significant influence on spermatogenesis processes. In this study, male germ cells irradiated with over 0.5 Gy of carbon ions are difficult to repair completely marked by the sperm count. Furthermore, these data suggest that the deleterious effects may be chronic or delayed in reproductive system after whole-body exposure to acute high-dose carbon ions.

  12. Secretion of electrolytes, protein and urea by the mandibular gland of the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Beal, A M

    1995-01-01

    Saliva was collected from the mandibular glands of anaesthetized common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) to ascertain maximal flow rates, salivary composition and possible adaptations, particularly PO4(3-) secretion, to assist digestion. After temporary catheterization of the main duct through its oral opening, salivary secretion was evoked at flow rates ranging from 0.02 +/- 0.002 (+/- SEM) ml.min-1 (0.7 +/- 0.07 microliter.min-1.kg body weight-1) to 0.4 +/- 0.05 ml.min-1 (14 +/- 1.9 microliters.min-1.kg body weight-1) by ipsilateral intracarotid infusion of acetylcholine. The [Na+] (15 +/- 5.1 to 58 +/- 8.6 mmol.l-1) and [HCO3-] (35 +/- 1.9 to 60 +/- 1.9 mmol.l-1) were positively correlated with salivary flow rate. The [K+] (58 +/- 5.2 to 30 +/- 2.4 mmol.l-1), [Ca2+] (10.4 +/- 1.67 to 4.1 +/- 0.44 mmol.l-1), [Mg2+] (0.94 +/- 0.137 to 0.17 +/- 0.032 mmol.l-1), [Cl-] (71 +/- 9.2 to 45 +/- 6.0 mmol.l-1), [urea] (9.3 +/- 0.79 to 5.1 +/- 0.54 mmol.l-1), H+ activity (29 +/- 1.6 to 17 +/- 1.6 nEq.l-1) and amylase activity (251 +/- 57.4 to 92 +/- 23.3 mu kat.l-1) were negatively correlated with flow. Both concentration and osmolality fell with increasing flow at the lower end of the flow range but osmolality always increased again by maximal flow whereas the relation between protein and flow was not consistent at the higher levels of flow and stimulation. Salivary [PO4(3+)] was not correlated with flow and at 3-14% of the plasma concentration was extremely low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Brownian dynamics study of the interaction between plastocyanin and cytochrome f.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, D C; Gross, E L

    1998-01-01

    The electrostatic interaction between plastocyanin (PC) and cytochrome f (cyt f), electron transfer partners in photosynthesis was studied using Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations. By using the software package MacroDox, which implements the BD algorithm of Northrup et al. (Northrup, S. H., J. O. Boles, and J. C. L. Reynolds. 1987. J. Phys. Chem. 91:5991-5998), we have modeled the interaction of the two proteins based on crystal structures of poplar PC and turnip cyt f at pH 7 and a variety of ionic strengths. We find that the electrostatic attraction between positively charged residues (K58, K65, K187, and R209, among others) on cyt f and negatively charged residues (E43, D44, E59, and E60, among others) on PC steers PC into a single dominant orientation with respect to cyt f, and furthermore, that the single dominant orientation that we observe is one that we had predicted in our previous work (Pearson, D. C., E. L. Gross, and E. S. David. 1996. Biophys. J. 71:64-76). This dominant orientation permits the formation of hydrophobic interactions, which are not implemented in the MacroDox algorithm. This proposed complex between PC and cyt f implicates H87, a copper ligand on PC, as the residue that accepts electrons from the heme on cyt f (and possibly through Y1 as we proposed previously). We argue for the existence of this single dominant complex on the basis of observations that the most favorable orientations of the interaction between PC and cyt f, as determined by grouping successful BD trajectories on the basis of closest contacts of charged residues, tend to overlap one another and have very close distances between the metal centers on the two proteins (copper on PC, iron on cyt f). We use this knowledge to develop a model for PC/cyt f interaction that places a reaction between the two proteins occurring when the copper-to-iron distance is between 16 and 17 A. This reaction distance gives a good estimate of the experimentally observed rate constant for PC

  14. Size distribution of trace organic species emitted from light-duty gasoline vehicles.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A; Hannigan, Michael P; Kleeman, Michael J

    2007-11-01

    Size distributions for particulate hopanes+steranes and nonvolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from five classes of light-duty gasoline-powered vehicles were measured using the federal test procedure (FTP), unified cycle (UC), and correction cycle (CC) driving cycles. 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane, 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-hopane, alpha beta beta-20R-stigmastane, and alpha beta beta-20S-stigmastane were highly correlated and behaved consistently across sampling methods. Coronene and benzo[ghi]perylene were the most ubiquitous heavy PAHs detected in the vehicle exhaust. The emission rates of hopanes, steranes, and PAHs contained in particles with aerodynamic diameters of less than 1.8 ,m varied by 2 orders of magnitude between the lowest- and highest-emitting vehicle classes. Hopane+sterane size distributions emitted from vehicles without an operating catalyst (including "cold-start" emissions from catalyst-equipped vehicles) were bimodal with one mode between 0.10 and 0.18 microm and the second mode >0.32 microm particle diameter. Hopane+sterane emissions released from vehicles with a catalyst at operating temperature had a single mode between 0.1 and 0.18 microm diameter. Hopane+sterane emissions from visibly smoking vehicles had a single mode between 0.18 and 0.32 microm diameter. Heavy PAH size distributions for all vehicle classes consistently had a single mode between 0.10 and 0.18 microm particle diameter (0.1-0.32 microm diameter for smoking vehicles). The geometric standard deviations for PAH size distributions were generally smaller than the corresponding hopane+sterane distributions. These trends suggest that hopanes+steranes and heavy PAHs act as tracers for separate processes of particulate organic carbon formation. PAH and hopane+sterane emissions shifted to smaller sizes during the more aggressive UC and CC driving cycles relative to the FTP. The fraction of PAH and hopane+sterane emissions in the ultrafine (Dp < 0.1 microm) range

  15. Chemical composition of PM2.5 from two tunnels with different vehicular fleet characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cui, Min; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Zhang, Fan; Yan, Caiqing; Zheng, Mei

    2016-04-15

    The chemical compositions of PM2.5 including OC, EC, water soluble ions, elements, and organic components such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and steranes, emitted in Wuzushan (WZS) and Kuixinglou (KXL) tunnels were determined. WZS tunnel is a major route for diesel vehicles traveling, while KXL tunnel has limited to diesel vehicles. The results showed that the proportions of the different constituents of PM2.5 in the Wuzushan (WZS) tunnel were OC (27.7%), EC (32.1%), elements (13.9%), and water soluble ions (9.2%). Whereas the chemical profile of PM2.5 in the Kuixinglou (KXL) tunnel was OC (17.7%), EC (10.4%), elements (8.90%), and water soluble ions (8.87%). The emission factors (EFs) of PM2.5 and proportions of SO4(2-) and Pb were decreased by vehicle emission standards and fuel quality policy in China, and the higher molecular weight PAHs (4+5+6 rings) were more abundant than the lower molecular weight PAHs (2+3 rings) in the two tunnels. The proportions of 17A(H)-21B(H)-30-Norhopane and 17A(H)-21B(H)-Hopane in the hopane and sterane were not dependent on the vehicles types. In addition, specific composition profiles for PM2.5 from gasoline-fueled vehicles (GV) and diesel-fueled vehicles (DV) emissions were drafted, which indicated that OC (0.974mg·veh(-1)·km(-1)) was the most abundant component in PM2.5, followed by Fe, Cl(-), and Mg for GV. The relative proportions of the different constituents in the PM2.5 for DV were EC (35.9%), OC (27.2%), elements (12.8%), and water soluble ions (11.7%). Both the PM2.5 EFs and EC proportions in DV were higher than those in GV, and the HMW PAHs were the dominant PAHs for both GV and DV. The PM2.5 emissions from the vehicles in Yantai were 581±513tons to 1353±1197tons for GV, and 19,627±2477tons to 23,042±2887tons for DV, respectively.

  16. Size matters: The rotation rates of small near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statler, Thomas S.; Cotto-Figueroa, Desireé; Riethmiller, David A.; Sweeney, Kevin M.

    2013-07-01

    We present results from a program of optical light curve observations of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) with diameters under 1 km, designed to detect, and determine the distribution of, rotation periods shorter than a few hours. We obtain measurements or estimates of rotation period P for approximately one third of the 83 NEAs observed. Most of the measured periods are in the fast-rotating asteroid (FRA) regime (P < 2 h). We assess our detection sensitivity using simulated light curves and a new Monte Carlo algorithm (SALSA), which allows us to de-bias the counts of detected FRAs and determine the fraction of objects that are fast rotators as a function of H. We find that the FRA fraction F rises sharply from zero to a value statistically consistent with unity from H = 21.4 to H = 23.6, a span corresponding to a factor of only 2.8 in nominal diameter. Almost nothing larger than 170 m, and almost everything smaller than 60 m, is a fast rotator, assuming a mean S class albedo of 0.17. The formal 95% confidence limits are F < 13% for 18.5 < H < 21.4 and F > 56% for 23.6 < H < 26.3. Relative to a distribution with the same FRA fraction that is uniform in frequency (as implied by models of evolution following the YORP cycle) up to a size-dependent upper cutoff, the actual spin distribution extends to shorter periods. Approximately two thirds of our sample shows ambiguous light curves from which no period estimate can be obtained. Finite photometric errors account for some of these, but do not explain the steep increase in the ambiguous fraction toward larger objects, which suggests an increase in the actual fraction of very slow rotators, very fast rotators, or nearly axisymmetric objects. With a significantly larger data set, our fully general SALSA procedure will be able to extract the NEA spin rate distribution as a function of absolute magnitude H. Determining this distribution to the accuracy needed to constrain the physical properties of NEAs and their dynamical

  17. Minor activities and transition state properties of the human steroid hydroxylases cytochromes P450c17 and P450c21, from reactions observed with deuterium-labeled substrates

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Zhou, Yishan; Peng, Hwei-Ming; Stidd, David; Yoshimoto, Jennifer A.; Sharma, Kamalesh K.; Matthew, Susan; Auchus, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The steroid hydroxylases CYP17A1 (P450c17, 17-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) and CYP21A2 (P450c21, 21-hydroxylase) catalyze progesterone hydroxylation at one or more sites within a 2 Å radius. We probed their hydrogen atom abstraction mechanisms and regiochemical plasticity with deuterium-labeled substrates: 17-[2H]-pregnenolone; 17-[2H]-, 16α-[2H]-, 21,21,21-[2H3]-, and 21-[2H]-progesterone; and 21,21,21-[2H3]-17-hydroxyprogesterone. Product distribution and formation rates with recombinant human P450-oxidoreductase and wild-type human CYP17A1 or mutation A105L (reduced progesterone 16α-hydroxylation) and wild-type human CYP21A2 or mutation V359A (substantial progesterone 16α-hydroxylation) were used to calculate intramolecular and intermolecular kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). The intramolecular KIEs for CYP17A1 and mutation A105L were 4.1 and 3.8, respectively, at H-17 and 2.9 and 5.1, respectively, at H-16α. Mutation A105L 21-hydroxylates progesterone (5% of products), and wild-type CYP17A1 also catalyzes a trace of 21-hydroxylation, which increases with 16α-[2H]- and 17-[2H]-progesterone. The intramolecular KIEs with CYP21A2 mutation V359A and progesterone were 6.2 and 3.8 at H-21 and H-16α, respectively. Wild-type CYP21A2 also forms a trace of 16α-hydroxyprogesterone, which increased with 21,21,21-[2H3]-progesterone substrate. Competitive intermolecular KIEs paralleled the intramolecular KIE values, with DV values of 1.4–5.1 and DV/K values of 1.8–5.1 for these reactions. CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 mutation V359A both 16α-hydroxylate 16α-[2H]-progesterone with 33–44% deuterium retention, indicating stereochemical inversion. We conclude that human CYP17A1 has progesterone 21-hydroxylase activity and human CYP21A2 has progesterone 16α-hydroxylase activity, both of which are enhanced with deuterated substrates. The transition states for C-H bond cleavage in these hydroxylation reactions are either significantly non-linear and/or asymmetric, and C-H bond

  18. In Vitro Assessment of Antifungal Therapeutic Potential of Salivary Histatin-5, Two Variants of Histatin-5, and Salivary Mucin (MUC7) Domain 1

    PubMed Central

    Situ, Hongsa; Bobek, Libuse A.

    2000-01-01

    Human salivary histatin-5 (Hsn-5) is a 24-residue peptide that possesses potent antifungal activity in vitro. The MUC7 gene encodes human salivary low-molecular-weight mucin (MG2). The candidacidal activity of MUC7 domain 1 (MUC7 D1, the N-terminal 51 amino acid residues of MUC7) in vitro has also been demonstrated. In this study, we have investigated the antifungal therapeutic potential of Hsn-5, its two variants, R12I/K17N and R12I/H21L, and MUC7 D1. First, these peptides were tested for activities against different clinically important fungi. We found them to possess broad-spectrum antifungal activities; specifically, most exhibited excellent in vitro activity against eight clinically important fungal strains tested, including Candida albicans and Candida glabrata and their azole-resistant counterparts and Cryptococcus neoformans and its amphotericin B-resistant counterpart. These findings also suggest that the mechanism of action of both Hsn-5 and MUC7 D1 for these fungi is different from that of amphotericin B or azole antifungal agents. Second, we examined the stability of these peptides in whole human saliva and human serum. In saliva, the Hsn-5 variants R12I/K17N and R12I/H21L and MUC7 D1 degraded at a lower rate than Hsn-5. In human serum, MUC7 D1 was also more stable than Hsn-5; both peptides were more stable in serum than in saliva. Third, we examined the cytotoxicity of these peptides using human erythrocytes and two human cell lines (KB and HSG). No (or very low) hemolytic activity was observed with any of the four peptides, even at the highest protein concentration tested (200 μM), while amphotericin B caused 100% hemolysis at only 12.5 μM. The toxic effects of Hsn-5 and MUC7 D1 toward KB and HSG cells were also much lower than that of amphotericin B as measured by trypan blue exclusion. Together, these findings indicate that the investigated peptides possess high antifungal therapeutic potential, in particular for the treatment of drug

  19. Involvement of the nervous system following experimental infection with Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): A clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse, Faez Firdaus Abdullah; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd

    2016-04-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, fatal, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by one of two specific serotypes of Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2 in Asian and African, respectively. It is well known that HS affect mainly the respiratory and digestive tracts. However, involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS has been reported in previous studies without details. In this study, nine buffalo calves of 8 months old were distributed into three groups. Animals of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and subcutaneously with 10 ml of 1 × 10(12) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while animals of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. All calves in Group 1 and Group 3 were euthanised after 504 h (21 day) post-infection, while calves in Group 2 had to euthanise after 12 h post-infection as they develop sever clinical signs of HS. Significant differences were found in Group 2 in the mean scores of clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system. In addition, successful bacterial isolation of P. multocida B:2 were obtained from different sites of the nervous system. On the other hand, less sever, clinical, gross and histopathological changes were found in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence of involving of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS, especially in the peracute stage of the disease.

  20. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 strains in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jincai; Mark Ibekwe, A; Crowley, David E; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2014-08-15

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 serogroups are known to cause serious diseases in human. However, research on the persistence of E. coli non-O157 serogroups in preharvest environment is limited. In the current study, we compared the survival behavior of E. coli O157 to that of non-O157 E. coli strains in agricultural soils collected from three major fresh produce growing areas of California (CA) and Arizona (AZ). Results showed that the nonpathogenic E. coli O157:H7 4554 survived longer than the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in Imperial Valley CA and Yuma AZ, but not in soils from the Salinas area. However, E. coli O157:NM was found to persist significantly longer than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in all soil tested from the three regions. Furthermore, two non-O157 (E. coli O26:H21 and E. coli O103:H2) survived significantly longer than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in all soils tested. Pearson correlation analysis showed that survival of the E. coli strains was affected by different environmental factors. Our data suggest that survival of E. coli O157 and non-O157 may be strain and soil specific, and therefore, care must be taken in data interpretation with respect to survival of this pathogen in different soils.

  1. trans-Dichloridobis[tris­(4-meth­oxy­lphen­yl)phosphane-κP]platinum(II) acetone disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [PtCl2(C21H21O3P)2]·2C3H6O, the asymmetric unit contains a PtII ion situated on an inversion center, one chloride anion, one tris­(4-meth­oxy­lphen­yl)phosphane (L) ligand and one acetone solvent mol­ecule. The PtII ion is coordinated by two P atoms [Pt—P = 2.3196 (5) Å] from two L ligands and two chloride anions [Pt—Cl = 2.3075 (5) Å] in a distorted square-planar geometry with P—Pt—Cl angles of 88.016 (16) and 91.984 (16)°. The effective cone angle of the phosphane ligand was calculated to be 156°. Weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds hold mol­ecules together. PMID:23468701

  2. A triclinic polymorph of methyl (3R,3'S)-1',1''-dimethyl-2,2''-dioxodispiro-[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidine-3',3''-indoline]-4'-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, G; Yuvaraj, Panneer Selvam; Divakara, Chinthalapuri; Reddy, Boreddy S R; Subbiahpandi, A

    2012-12-01

    In the title compound, C22H21N3O4, the central pyrrolidine ring adopts a C-envelope conformation with a C atom 0.6593 (13) Å displaced from the mean plane formed by the remaining ring atoms. The indoline ring systems (r.m.s. devisations of 0.0356 and 0.0547 Å) are almost perpendicular to the mean plane of the pyrrolidine ring, making dihedral angles of 89.7 (6) and 82.5 (6)°. The acetate group attached to the pyrrolidine ring assumes an extended conformation. In the crystal,N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect adjacent molecules, forming an infinite tape extending along [1-1-1]. The crystal packing is further consolidated by strong π-π inter-actions with a centroid-centroid distance of 3.2585 (8) Å. The title compound is a polymorph of previously reported monoclinic structure [Ganesh et al. (2012 ▶). Acta Cryst. E68, o2902-o2903].

  3. [Survival of VTEC O157 and non-O157 in water troughs and bovine feces].

    PubMed

    Polifroni, Rosana; Etcheverría, Analía I; Arroyo, Guillermo H; Padola, Nora L

    2014-01-01

    Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) is the etiologic agent of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), which typically affects children ranging in age from six months to five years old. Transmission is produced by consumption of contaminated food, by direct contact with animals or the environment and from person to person. In previous studies we determined that the environment of a dairy farm is a non-animal reservoir; thus, we proposed to study the survival of 4 VTEC isolates (O20:H19; O91:H21; O157:H7 and O178:H19) in sterile water troughs and bovine feces by viable bacteria count and detection of virulence genes by PCR. It was demonstrated that the survival of different VTEC isolates (O157 and non-O157) varied in terms of their own characteristics as well as of the environmental conditions where they were found. The main differences between isolates were their survival time and the maximal counts reached. The competitive and adaptive characteristics of some isolates increase the infection risk for people that are visiting or working on a farm, as well as the risk for reinfection of the animals and food contamination.

  4. Crystal structure of {(S)-1-phenyl-N,N-bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ethanamine-κ(3)N,N',N''}bis-(thio-cyanato-κN)zinc from synchrotron data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Won; Shin, Jong Won

    2017-01-01

    The title Zn(II) complex, [Zn(NCS)2(C20H21N3)], has been characterized by synchrotron single-crystal diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The central Zn(II) ion has a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry, with three N atoms of the chiral (S) 1-phenyl-N,N-bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ethanamine (S-ppme) ligand and one N atom of a thio-cyanate anion in the equatorial plane, and one N atom of another thio-cyanate anion at the apical position. The average Zn-N S-ppme and Zn-NNCS bond lengths are 2.183 (2) and 1.986 (2) Å, respectively. In the crystal, inter-molecular C-H⋯S hydrogen bonds and a face-to-face π-π inter-action [centroid-centroid distance = 3.482 (1) Å] link the mol-ecules and give rise to a supra-molecular sheet structure parallel to the ac plane.

  5. Crystal structure of [bis­(2-amino­ethyl-κN)(2-{[4-(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)benzyl­idene]amino}­eth­yl)amine-κN]di­chlorido­copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Bussey, Katherine A.; Cavalier, Annie R.; Mraz, Margaret E.; Holderread, Ashley S.; Oshin, Kayode D.; Oliver, Allen G.; Zeller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The CuII atom in the title compound, [CuCl2(C14H21F3N4)], adopts a coordination geometry that is between distorted square-based pyramidal and very Jahn–Teller-elongated octa­hedral. It is coordinated by three N atoms from the bis­(2-amino­eth­yl)(2-{[4-(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)benzyl­idene]amino}­eth­yl)amine and two chloride ligands. The two crystallographically unique copper complexes present in the asymmetric unit exhibit noticeable differences in the coordination bond lengths. Considering the CuII atoms as having square-pyramidal geometry, the basal Cu—Cl bond lengths are typical [2.2701 (12) and 2.2777 (12) Å], while the apical distances are considerably elongated [2.8505 (12) and 2.9415 (12) Å]. For each mol­ecule, a CuII atom from inversion-related mol­ecules are in nearby proximity to the remaining axial CuII sites, but the Cu⋯Cl distances are very long [3.4056 (12) and 3.1645 (12) Å], attributable to van der Waals contacts. Nonetheless, these contacts appear to have some structure-directing properties, leading to association into dimers. These dimers associate via stacking of the aromatic rings to form extended zigzag chains. PMID:26870592

  6. Crystal structure of (4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)[(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)phospho-nato]dioxidophosphate(1-) 2-amino-6-benzyl-3-eth-oxy-carbon-yl-4,5,6,7-tetra-hydro-thieno[2,3-c]pyridin-6-ium.

    PubMed

    Mague, Joel T; Mohamed, Shaaban K; Akkurt, Mehmet; Younes, Sabry H H; Ahmed, Essam K; Albayati, Mustafa R

    2015-12-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title mol-ecular salt, C17H21N2O2S(+)·C14H15O7P2 (-), comprises two cations and two anions. Each cation features an intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bond, which closes an S(6) ring; in each case the hydro-pyridine ring adopts a half-chair conformation. In the anions, the dihedral angles between the aromatic rings are 64.1 (2) and 54.9 (2)°. In each case, the diphosphate groups are close to eclipsed [C-P⋯P-C pseudo-torsion angles = 11.6 (2) and -19.3 (2)°]. One of the meth-oxy groups in each anion is disordered over two orientations in a 0.539 (18):0.461 (18) ratio in one anion and 0.82 (2):0.18 (2) in the other. In the crystal, O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components into [100] chains. Numerous C-H⋯O inter-actions cross-link the chains into a three-dimensional network.

  7. Crystal structure of [bis-(2-amino-ethyl-κN)(2-{[4-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)benzyl-idene]amino}-eth-yl)amine-κN]di-chlorido-copper(II).

    PubMed

    Bussey, Katherine A; Cavalier, Annie R; Mraz, Margaret E; Holderread, Ashley S; Oshin, Kayode D; Oliver, Allen G; Zeller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The Cu(II) atom in the title compound, [CuCl2(C14H21F3N4)], adopts a coordination geometry that is between distorted square-based pyramidal and very Jahn-Teller-elongated octa-hedral. It is coordinated by three N atoms from the bis-(2-amino-eth-yl)(2-{[4-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)benzyl-idene]amino}-eth-yl)amine and two chloride ligands. The two crystallographically unique copper complexes present in the asymmetric unit exhibit noticeable differences in the coordination bond lengths. Considering the Cu(II) atoms as having square-pyramidal geometry, the basal Cu-Cl bond lengths are typical [2.2701 (12) and 2.2777 (12) Å], while the apical distances are considerably elongated [2.8505 (12) and 2.9415 (12) Å]. For each mol-ecule, a Cu(II) atom from inversion-related mol-ecules are in nearby proximity to the remaining axial Cu(II) sites, but the Cu⋯Cl distances are very long [3.4056 (12) and 3.1645 (12) Å], attributable to van der Waals contacts. Nonetheless, these contacts appear to have some structure-directing properties, leading to association into dimers. These dimers associate via stacking of the aromatic rings to form extended zigzag chains.

  8. Crystal structure of (4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)[(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)phospho­nato]dioxidophosphate(1−) 2-amino-6-benzyl-3-eth­oxy­carbon­yl-4,5,6,7-tetra­hydro­thieno[2,3-c]pyridin-6-ium

    PubMed Central

    Mague, Joel T.; Mohamed, Shaaban K.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Younes, Sabry H. H.; Ahmed, Essam K.; Albayati, Mustafa R.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title mol­ecular salt, C17H21N2O2S+·C14H15O7P2 −, comprises two cations and two anions. Each cation features an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, which closes an S(6) ring; in each case the hydro­pyridine ring adopts a half-chair conformation. In the anions, the dihedral angles between the aromatic rings are 64.1 (2) and 54.9 (2)°. In each case, the diphosphate groups are close to eclipsed [C—P⋯P—C pseudo-torsion angles = 11.6 (2) and −19.3 (2)°]. One of the meth­oxy groups in each anion is disordered over two orientations in a 0.539 (18):0.461 (18) ratio in one anion and 0.82 (2):0.18 (2) in the other. In the crystal, O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components into [100] chains. Numerous C—H⋯O inter­actions cross-link the chains into a three-dimensional network. PMID:26870570

  9. Bis{4-methylbenzyl 2-[4-(propan-2-yl)benzyl­idene]hydrazine­carbodi­thio­ato-κ2 N 2,S}nickel(II): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yusof, Enis Nadia Md; Ravoof, Thahira B. S. A.; Tahir, Mohamed I. M.; Jotani, Mukesh M.

    2017-01-01

    The complete mol­ecule of the title hydrazine carbodi­thio­ate complex, [Ni(C19H21N2S2)2], is generated by the application of a centre of inversion. The NiII atom is N,S-chelated by two hydrazinecarbodi­thio­ate ligands, which provide a trans-N2S2 donor set that defines a distorted square-planar geometry. The conformation of the five-membered chelate ring is an envelope with the NiII atom being the flap atom. In the crystal, p-tolyl-C—H⋯π(benzene-iPr), iPr-C—H⋯π(p-tol­yl) and π–π inter­actions [between p-tolyl rings with inter-centroid distance = 3.8051 (12) Å] help to consolidate the three-dimensional architecture. The analysis of the Hirshfeld surface confirms the importance of H-atom contacts in establishing the packing. PMID:28316818

  10. Crystal structure of {(S)-1-phenyl-N,N-bis­[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]ethanamine-κ3 N,N′,N′′}bis­(thio­cyanato-κN)zinc from synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Won; Shin, Jong Won

    2017-01-01

    The title ZnII complex, [Zn(NCS)2(C20H21N3)], has been characterized by synchrotron single-crystal diffraction and FT–IR spectroscopy. The central ZnII ion has a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry, with three N atoms of the chiral (S) 1-phenyl-N,N-bis­[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]ethanamine (S-ppme) ligand and one N atom of a thio­cyanate anion in the equatorial plane, and one N atom of another thio­cyanate anion at the apical position. The average Zn—NS-ppme and Zn—NNCS bond lengths are 2.183 (2) and 1.986 (2) Å, respectively. In the crystal, inter­molecular C—H⋯S hydrogen bonds and a face-to-face π–π inter­action [centroid–centroid distance = 3.482 (1) Å] link the mol­ecules and give rise to a supra­molecular sheet structure parallel to the ac plane. PMID:28083125

  11. Early nicotine withdrawal and transdermal nicotine effects on neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    AhnAllen, Christopher G; Nestor, Paul G; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A

    2008-03-01

    As cigarette smoking prevalence rates approach 90% in schizophrenia, an important emerging question is the role of nicotine in the disease-related disturbance in cognition. We therefore tested a total of 38 male cigarette smokers (22 schizophrenia, 16 normal control), matched on nicotine dependence, on the Attention Network Test (ANT) at three nicotine conditions (baseline, 8 h overnight withdrawal, 3 h 21 mg nicotine patch). The results indicated that the groups did not differ in performance on either of three ANT measures (alertness, orienting, and executive) across baseline, patch, and withdrawal conditions. However, in comparison to the controls, the participants with schizophrenia showed faster ANT reaction time (RT) for the nicotine patch in relation to the baseline condition. In comparison to controls, the participants with schizophrenia also showed reduced ANT accuracy at withdrawal but not at patch condition. These results suggest that overall processing speed and accuracy are affected differently by nicotine levels in participants with schizophrenia, with evidence supporting greater impairment from withdrawal and greater improvement from nicotine administration.

  12. Solvatochromism, hyperpolarizability, molecular and crystal structure of betaine dye 4-(2,4,6-triphenylpyridinium-1-yl)-phenolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadnicka, Katarzyna; Milart, Piotr; Olech, Andrzej; Olszewski, Piotr K.

    2002-01-01

    Solvatochromic effect of 4-(2,4,6-triphenylpyridinium-1-yl)-phenolate hydrate, 1, was determined. CT absorption band, which gave the shift from 23,880 (in water solution) to 14,440 cm -1 (in anisole solution) allowed the molecular second order polarizability βCT to be estimated as 59.5×10 -30 cm 5 esu -1. The crystal structure of 1 was determined: C 29H 21NO·5.78H 2O; orthorhombic, C222 1, a=15.005(9), b=24.356(4), c=7.5097(9) Å; V=2744.5(17) Å 3, Z=4, DX=1.224 g cm -1; λ=0.71073 Å (Mo Kα); μ=0.087 mm -1; final R1=0.0551 for 2882 reflections [ I>2 σ( I)]. The molecules of 1, in an anti-parallel arrangement, form columns along the c-axis through stacking between the pyridinium ring and a phenyl ring in para position of the neighbouring molecule. Water molecules filling channels between the columns are disordered. Two of water molecules are connected by hydrogen bonds with negatively charged oxygen atom of 1. Powdered samples of 1 revealed only weak SHG response as measured using HRS method in relation to urea standard.

  13. Diploptene: an indicator of terrigenous organic carbon in Washington coastal sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prahl, F. G.; Hayes, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The pentacyclic triterpene 17 beta(H),21 beta(H)-hop-22(29)-ene (diploptene) occurs in sediments throughout the Columbia River drainage basin and off the southern coast of Washington state in concentrations comparable to long-chain plantwax n-alkanes. The same relationship is evident for diploptene and long-chain n-alkanes in soils from the Willamette Valley. Microorganisms indigenous to soils and soil erosion are indicated as the biological source and physical process, respectively, for diploptene in coastal sediments. Similarity between the stable carbon isotopic composition (delta 13CPDB) of diploptene isolated from soil in the Willamette Valley (-31.2 +/- 0.3%) and from sediments deposited throughout the Washington coastal environment (-31.2 +/- 0.5%) supports this argument. Values of delta for diploptene in river sediments are variable and 8-17% lighter, indicating that an additional biological source such as methane-oxidizing bacteria makes a significant contribution to the diploptene record in river sediments. Selective biodegradation resulting from a difference in the physicochemical association within eroded particles can explain the absence of the more-13C-depleted form of diploptene in Washington coastal sediments, but this mechanism remains unproven.

  14. Domain walls in the quantum transverse Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Malte; Harris, A. Brooks; Cieplak, Marek

    1995-08-01

    We discuss several problems concerning domain walls in the spin-S Ising model at zero temeprature in a magnetic field, H/(2S), applied in the x direction. Some results are also given for the planar (y-z) model in a transverse field. We treat the quantum problem in one dimension by perturbation theory at small H and numerically over a large range of H. We obtain the spin-density profile by fixing the spins at opposite ends of the chain to have opposite signs of Sz. One dimensional is special in that there the quantum width of the wall is proportional to the size L of the system. We also study the quantitative features of the ``particle'' band which extends up to energies of order H above the ground state. Except for the planar limit, this particle band is well separated from excitations having energy J/S involving creation of more walls. At large S this particle band develops energy gaps and the lowest subband has tunnel splittings of order H21-2S. This scale of of energy gives rise to anomalous scaling with respect to (a) finite size, (b) temperature, or (c) random potentials. The intrinsic width of the domain wall and the pinning energy are also defined and calculated in certain limiting cases. The general conclusion is that quantum effects prevent the wall from being sharp and in higher dimension would prevent sudden excursions in the configuration of the wall.

  15. catena-Poly[2,2′,2′′-nitrilo­tris­(ethan­aminium) [tri-μ-oxido-tris­[dioxido­vanadate(V)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kelvin B.; Smith, Matthew D.; Zeller, Matthias; Norquist, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, {(C6H21N4)[V3O9]·H2O}n, crystallizes as a salt with [trenH3]3+ cations [tren is tris­(2-amino­eth­yl)amine], and one-dimensional anionic {[VVO3]−}n (metavanadate) chains along the c-axis direction. Three crystallographically distinct VV sites and one occluded water mol­ecule are present for every [trenH3]3+ cation in the unit cell. The {[VVO3]−}n chains are composed of vertex-sharing [VO4] tetra­hedra and have a repeat unit of six tetra­hedra. Each tetra­hedron in the chain contains two terminal and two μ2-bridging oxide ligands. The [trenH3]3+ cations, {[VVO3]−}n anions and occluded water mol­ecules participate in an extensive three-dimensonal hydrogen-bonding network. The three terminal ammonium sites of the [trenH3]3+ cations each form strong N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to terminal oxide ligands on the {[VVO3]−}n chain. Each occluded water mol­ecule also donates two O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the terminal oxide ligands. PMID:24454016

  16. N-arylated-lactam-type iminosugars as new immunosuppressive agents: discovery, optimization, and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Fu-Yu; Zhu, Jingjing; Song, Chengcheng; Xiong, De-Cai; Zhou, Yifa; Cui, Yuxin; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2014-08-01

    We have previously described the discovery of N-alkylated iminosugars that showed immunosuppressive activity both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of N-arylated lactam-type iminosugar derivatives. The synthesis started from simple monosaccharides and featured a Buchwald-Hartwig coupling reaction to construct the key N-aryl connection, thereby providing a highly diverse compound library. Structure-activity relationship studies, guided by a mouse-spleen-proliferation assay, led to the identification of 'hit' compound 12 f. Subsequently, the systematic modification of compound 12 f afforded compounds 21 h, 21 k, 21 n, 21 t, and 21 x with improved activities (IC50 =12-30 μM) and low Jurkat cytotoxicities (IC50 >100 μM). These new compounds also inhibited the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-4, which are hallmark cytokines of Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively. This work demonstrated that the N-arylated iminosugar structure represents a new scaffold with immunosuppressive activity.

  17. Mid Infrared Hydrogen Recombination Line Emission from the Maser Star MWC 349A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard A.; Strelnitski, V.; Miles, J. W.; Kelly, D. M.; Lacy, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    We have detected and spectrally resolved the mid-IR hydrogen recombination lines H6(alpha)(12.372 micrometers), H7(alpha)(19.062 micrometers), H7(beta)(l1.309 micrometers) and H8(gamma)(12.385 micrometers) from the star MWC349A. This object has strong hydrogen maser emission (reported in the millimeter and submillimeter hydrogen recombination lines from H36(alpha) to H21(alpha)) and laser emission (reported in the H15(alpha), H12(alpha) and H10(alpha) lines). The lasers/masers are thought to arise predominantly in a Keplerian disk around the star. The mid-IR lines do not show evident signs of lasing, and can be well modeled as arising from the strong stellar wind, with a component arising from a quasi-static atmosphere around the disk, similar to what is hypothesized for the near IR (less than or equal to 4 micrometers) recombination lines. Since populations inversions in the levels producing these mid-IR transitions are expected at densities up to approximately 10(exp 11)/cu cm, these results imply either that the disk does not contain high-density ionized gas over long enough path lengths to produce a gain approximately 1, and/or that any laser emission from such regions is small compared to the spontaneous background emission from the rest of the source as observed with a large beam. The results reinforce the interpretation of the far-IR lines as true lasers.

  18. Synthesis, structural, spectral, electrochemical and catalytic properties of VO (IV) complexes containing N, O donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanmani Raja, K.; Lekha, L.; Hariharan, R.; Easwaramoorthy, D.; Rajagopal, G.

    2014-10-01

    Complexes of the general formula M (X-DPMP)2 [where, (M = VOIV), DPMP = 2-[(2,6-Diisopropyl-phenylimino)-methyl]-phenol and X = Br, BrCl, Ph] have been synthesized and characterized by IR, electronic, ESR spectral, magnetic and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The newly synthesized Schiff bases act as monobasic bidentate ligand in their complexes. The spectral data indicate that the ligand coordinates through the phenolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen atoms. The observed parameters, hyperfine splitting constant (A) and Landé splitting energy (g) are found to be in good agreement with the values generally observed for the vanadyl complex with square pyramidal geometry. The cyclic voltammetric redox potentials of VO (IV) complexes suggest the existence of irreversible pairs in acetonitrile. The vanadium complexes were screened for sulfide oxidation studies and VO (C19H21BrON)2 or [VO (Br-DPMP)2] was found to be an efficient catalyst for the oxidation of various sulfides to sulfoxides with PhIO terminal oxidant. Both aryl and alkyl sulfides were selected and converted into sulfoxides in good to excellent yields.

  19. Electron-induced excitation of 93Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiara, C. J.; Carroll, J. J.; Marsh, J. C.; Matters, D. A.; Lane, G. J.; Hartley, D. J.; Polasik, M.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Greene, J. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.

    2016-09-01

    The inverse of the internal-conversion process, whereby a free electron is captured into an atomic orbital and subsequently excites the nucleus to a higher-lying state via a virtual energy exchange, was predicted to exist 40 years ago but has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. To search for this mode of nuclear excitation by electron capture, we performed an experiment at the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The t1/2 = 6.85-h, 21/2+ state of 93Mo was populated in the 7Li(90Zr, p 3 n) reaction. The excitation mechanism was predicted to induce depopulation of this isomer as the fast-moving 93mMo recoils slowed in the target material, emitting a characteristic sequence of γ rays in the process. Results of the search for these signature γ rays using Digital Gammasphere will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the US DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. This research used resources of ANL's ATLAS facility, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  20. Three closely related dibenzazepine carboxylic acids: hydrogen-bonded aggregation in one, two and three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Sanabría, Carlos M; Palma, Alirio; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    In the structure of (6R*,11R*)-5-acetyl-11-ethyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,e]azepine-6-carboxylic acid, C19H19NO3, (I), the molecules are linked into sheets by a combination of O-H...O and C-H...O hydrogen bonds; in the structure of the monomethyl analogue (6RS,11SR)-5-acetyl-11-ethyl-2-methyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,e]azepine-6-carboxylic acid, C20H21NO3, (II), the molecules are linked into simple C(7) chains by O-H...O hydrogen bonds; and in the structure of the dimethyl analogue (6RS,11SR)-5-acetyl-11-ethyl-1,3-dimethyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,e]azepine-6-carboxylic acid, C21H23NO3, (III), a combination of O-H...O, C-H...O and C-H...π(arene) hydrogen bonds links the molecules into a three-dimensional framework structure. None of these structures exhibits the R2(2)(8) dimer motif characteristic of simple carboxylic acids.

  1. Microbial production of a biofuel (acetone-butanol-ethanol) in a continuous bioreactor: impact of bleed and simultaneous product removal.

    PubMed

    Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka; Qureshi, Nasib; Blaschek, Hans Peter

    2013-01-01

    Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) was produced in an integrated continuous one-stage fermentation and gas stripping product recovery system using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 and fermentation gases (CO(2) and H(2)). In this system, the bioreactor was fed with a concentrated sugar solution (250-500 g L(-1) glucose). The bioreactor was bled semi-continuously to avoid accumulation of inhibitory chemicals and products. The continuous system was operated for 504 h (21 days) after which the fermentation was intentionally terminated. The bioreactor produced 461.3 g ABE from 1,125.0 g total sugar in 1 L culture volume as compared to a control batch process in which 18.4 g ABE was produced from 47.3 g sugar. These results demonstrate that ABE fermentation can be operated in an integrated continuous one-stage fermentation and product recovery system for a long period of time, if butanol and other microbial metabolites in the bioreactor are kept below threshold of toxicity.

  2. Distorted octahedral environments in tricarbonylrhenium(I) complexes of 5-[2-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)diazen-1-yl]quinolin-8-olate and 5,7-bis[2-(2-methylphenyl)diazen-1-yl]quinolin-8-olate.

    PubMed

    Schutte-Smith, Marietjie; Muller, Theunis J; Visser, Hendrik G; Roodt, Andreas

    2013-12-15

    The Re(I) centres of two Re(I)-tricarbonyl complexes, viz. tricarbonyl(pyridine-κN){5-[2-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)diazen-1-yl]quinolin-8-olato-κ(2)N(1),O}rhenium(I), [Re(C23H21N4O)(CO)3], (I), and {5,7-bis[2-(2-methylphenyl)diazen-1-yl]quinolin-8-olato-κ(2)N(1),O}tricarbonyl(pyridine-κN)rhenium(I), [Re(C28H23N6O)(CO)3], (II), are facially surrounded by three carbonyl ligands, a pyridine ligand and either a 5-[2-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)diazen-1-yl]quinolin-8-olate [in (I)] or a 5,7-bis[2-(2-methylphenyl)diazen-1-yl]quinolin-8-olate [in (II)] ligand, in a slightly distorted octahedral environment. The crystal structure of (I) is stabilized by two intermolecular C-H···O interactions and that of (II) is stabilized by three intermolecular C-H···O hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  3. Evaluation of biodiesel as bioremediation agent for the treatment of the shore affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, P; Vila, J; Garrido, J M; Grifoll, M; Feijoo, G; Lema, J M

    2007-08-25

    The efficiency of different bioremediation products (nutrients, microorganisms and biodiesel) was tested using tiles located in both the supra-littoral and intertidal zones of a beach that was affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige. Neither nutrients nor microorganisms meant an improvement with respect to the natural processes. The addition of biodiesel improved the appearance of the treated tiles and apparently accelerated the degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of the residual fuel oil. Nevertheless, PAHs degradation was similar and very high in all the treatments (80-85% after 60 days). On the other hand, the evolution with time of the amount of vanadium was similar to that of 17alpha(H),21beta(H)-hopane, so it was concluded that vanadium could also be used to estimate the extent of oil degradation in the field. These results also suggested that the residual fuel oil mineralization was very low throughout 1 year in all the treatments. Moreover, the increase of the oxygen content of the residual oil from around 1% till 4-8% indicated that the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons took place, and that the hydrocarbon oxidation products accumulated in the polar fractions. In general, the results pointed out that bioremediation techniques were not suitable for the recovery of shores affected by heavy oil spills.

  4. InAlAs/InGaAs Pseudomorphic High Eelectron Mobility Transistors Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on the InP Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jie; Guo, Tian-Yi; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Xu, Jing-Bo; Fu, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Hao; Niu, Jie-Bin

    2010-11-01

    A novel PMMA/PMGI/ZEP520 trilayer resist electron beam lithograph (EBL) technology is successfully developed and used to fabricate the 150 nm gate-length In0.7Ga0.3As/In0.52Al0.48As Pseudomorphic HEMT on an InP substrate, of which the material structure is successfully designed and optimized. A perfect profile of T-gate is successfully obtained. These fabricated devices demonstrate excellent dc and rf characteristics: the transconductance Gm, maximum saturation drain-to-source current IDSS, threshold voltage VT, maximum current gain frequency fT derived from h21, maximum frequency of oscillation derived from maximum available power gain/maximum stable gain and from unilateral power-gain of metamorphic InGaAs/InAlAs high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are 470 mS/mm, 560 mA/mm, -1.0 V, 76 GHz, 135 GHz and 436 GHz, respectively. The excellent high frequency performances promise the possibility of metamorphic HEMTs for millimeter-wave applications.

  5. Volatilization of Arsenic from Polluted Soil by Pseudomonas putida Engineered for Expression of the arsM Arsenic(III) S-Adenosine Methyltransferase Gene

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Even though arsenic is one of the most widespread environmental carcinogens, methods of remediation are still limited. In this report we demonstrate that a strain of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 endowed with chromosomal expression of the arsM gene encoding the As(III) S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransfase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris to remove arsenic from contaminated soil. We genetically engineered the P. putida KT2440 with stable expression of an arsM-gfp fusion gene (GE P. putida), which was inserted into the bacterial chromosome. GE P. putida showed high arsenic methylation and volatilization activity. When exposed to 25 μM arsenite or arsenate overnight, most inorganic arsenic was methylated to the less toxic methylated arsenicals methylarsenate (MAs(V)), dimethylarsenate (DMAs(V)) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAs(V)O). Of total added arsenic, the species were about 62 ± 2.2% DMAs(V), 25 ± 1.4% MAs(V) and 10 ± 1.2% TMAs(V)O. Volatilized arsenicals were trapped, and the predominant species were dimethylarsine (Me2AsH) (21 ± 1.0%) and trimethylarsine (TMAs(III)) (10 ± 1.2%). At later times, more DMAs(V) and volatile species were produced. Volatilization of Me2AsH and TMAs(III) from contaminated soil is thus possible with this genetically engineered bacterium and could be instrumental as an agent for reducing the inorganic arsenic content of soil and agricultural products. PMID:25122054

  6. Macondo oil in deep-sea sediments: Part 1 - sub-sea weathering of oil deposited on the seafloor.

    PubMed

    Stout, Scott A; Payne, James R

    2016-10-15

    Chemical analysis of sediment cores collected up to 8km from the Macondo well in 2010/2011 demonstrates the extent of weathering of the Macondo oil deposited in deep-sea sediments following the Deepwater Horizon disaster. On average, dissolution and biodegradation of the oil on the seafloor increased with distance from the well indicating that weathering occurred rapidly and overwhelmingly during the oil's transport as dispersed oil droplets within the deep-sea plume. Beyond about 5km from the well, the oil deposited on the seafloor had lost most mass below C25, was relatively enriched in n-C25+ n-alkanes and C3- and C4-alkylated benz[a]anthracenes/chrysenes, the latter owing to 95% depletion of total PAHs. Biodegradation of C28 and C29 tricyclic terpanes, C34 and C35 17α(H),21β(H)-homohopanes, C27 13β(H),17α(H)-dia and C27 14β(H),17β(H)-steranes and dissolution of C26 to C28 triaromatic steroids occurred. The results provide a means to distinguish Macondo oil in deep-sea sediments from naturally-occurring seep oils and pervasive ambient background hydrocarbons.

  7. Virulence profiles of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and other potentially diarrheagenic E.coli of bovine origin, in Mendoza, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, M A; Orozco, J H; Degarbo, S M; Calderón, A E; Nardello, A L; Laciar, A; Rüttler, M E

    2013-12-01

    This study described a group of strains obtained from a slaughter house in Mendoza, in terms of their pathogenic factors, serotype, antibiotype and molecular profile. Ninety one rectal swabs and one hundred eight plating samples taken from carcasses of healthy cattle intended for meat consumption were analyzed. Both the swab and the plate samples were processed to analyze the samples for the presence of virulence genes by PCR: stx1, stx2, eae and astA. The Stx positive strains were confirmed by citotoxicity assay in Vero cells. The isolates were subsequently investigated for their O:H serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular profile by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Twelve E.coli strains were identified by their pathogenicity. Nine were from fecal origin and three from carcasses. Three strains carried the stx1 gene, three the stx2 gene, two carried eae and four the astA gene. The detected serotypes were: O172:H-; O150:H8; O91:H21; O178:H19 and O2:H5. The strains showed a similarity around 70% by RAPD. Some of the E.coli strains belonged to serogroups known for certain life-threatening diseases in humans. Their presence in carcasses indicates the high probability of bacterial spread during slaughter and processing.

  8. Lambs are an important source of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Fernando H; Guth, Beatriz E C; Piazza, Roxane M F; Elias, Waldir P; Leão, Sylvia C; Marzoa, Juan; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jorge; Pelayo, Jacinta S

    2016-11-30

    Food-producing animals can harbor Escherichia coli strains with potential to cause diseases in humans. In this study, the presence of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was investigated in fecal samples from 130 healthy sheep (92 lambs and 38 adults) raised for meat in southern Brazil. EPEC was detected in 19.2% of the sheep examined, but only lambs were found to be positive. A total of 25 isolates was characterized and designated atypical EPEC (aEPEC) as tested negative for bfpA gene and BFP production. The presence of virulence markers linked to human disease as ehxA, paa, and lpfAO113 was observed in 60%, 24%, and 88% of the isolates, respectively. Of the 11 serotypes identified, eight were described among human pathogenic strains, while three (O1:H8, O11:H21 and O125:H19) were not previously detected in aEPEC. Associations between intimin subtypes and phylogroups were observed, including eae-θ2/A, eae-β1/B1, eae-α2/B2 and eae-γ1/D. Although PFGE typing of 16 aEPEC isolates resulted in 14 unique pulsetypes suggesting a genetic diversity, specific clones were found to be distributed in some flocks. In conclusion, potentially pathogenic aEPEC strains are present in sheep raised for meat, particularly in lambs, which can better contribute to dissemination of these bacteria than adult animals.

  9. Crystal structures of four indole derivatives with a phenyl substituent at the 2-position and a carbonyl group at the 3-position: the C(6) N—H⋯O chain remains the same, but the weak reinforcing inter­actions are different

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jamie R.; Trembleau, Laurent; Storey, John M. D.; Wardell, James L.; Harrison, William T. A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the crystal structures of four indole derivatives with a phenyl ring at the 2-position and different carbonyl-linked substituents at the 3-position, namely 1-(2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethanone, C16H13NO, (I), 2-cyclo­hexyl-1-(2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethanone, C22H23NO, (II), 3,3-dimethyl-1-(2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)butan-1-one, C20H21NO, (III), and 3-benzoyl-2-phenyl-1H-indole, C21H15NO, (IV). In each case, the carbonyl-group O atom lies close to the indole-ring plane and points towards the benzene ring. The dihedral angles between the indole ring system and 2-phenyl ring for these structures are clustered in a narrow range around 65°. The dominant inter­molecular inter­action in each case is an N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, which generates a C(6) chain, although each structure possesses a different crystal symmetry. The C(6) chains are consolidated by different (C—H⋯O, C—H⋯π and π–π stacking) weak inter­actions, with little consistency between the structures. PMID:27006809

  10. Enhancement of nisin, lysozyme, and monolaurin antimicrobial activities by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Branen, Jill K; Davidson, P Michael

    2004-01-01

    A microtiter plate assay was employed to systematically assess the interaction between ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or lactoferrin and nisin, lysozyme, or monolaurin against strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Low levels of EDTA acted synergistically with nisin and lysozyme against L. monocytogenes but EDTA and monolaurin interacted additively against this microorganism. EDTA synergistically enhanced the activity of nisin, monolaurin, and lysozyme in tryptic soy broth (TSB) against two enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains. In addition, various combinations of nisin, lysozyme, and monolaurin with EDTA were bactericidal to some gram-negative bacteria whereas none of the antimicrobials alone were bactericidal. Lactoferrin alone (2000 microg ml(-1)) did not inhibit any of the bacterial strains, but did enhance nisin activity against both L. monocytogenes strains. Lactoferrin in combination with monolaurin inhibited growth of E. coli O157:H7 but not E. coli O104:H21. While lactoferrin combined with nisin or monolaurin did not completely inhibit growth of the gram-negative bacteria, there was some growth inhibition. All combinations of EDTA or lactoferrin with antimicrobials were less effective in 2% fat UHT milk than in TSB. S. enteritidis and P. fluorescens strains were consistently more resistant to antimicrobial combinations. Resistance may be due to differences in the outer membrane and/or LPS structure.

  11. The adsorption and mass-transfer process of cationic red X-GRL dye on natural zeolite.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jingjing; Guan, Junfang; Gao, Huimin; Wen, Yafei; Ren, Zijie

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of natural zeolite was studied in order to determine the adsorption capacity and mass-transfer process of cationic red X-GRL (C(18)H(21)BrN(6)) onto the adsorbent. The adsorption tests to determine both the uptake capacity and the mass-transfer process at equilibrium were performed under batch conditions, which showed rapid uptake in general for the initial 5 min, corresponding to 92% total removal. The equilibrium adsorption capacity value (q(e,cal)) in pseudo-second-order kinetics was 13.51 mg/g at 293 K and the whole adsorption process was governed by physical adsorption with an endothermic, endothermic spontaneous nature. Adsorption tests indicated that the zeolite has great potential as an alternative low-cost material in the treatment of X-GRL drainage. However, the mass-transfer process to determine the rate-controlling steps showed that both film diffusion and pore diffusion were important in controlling the adsorption rate. The adsorption process was governed by film diffusion while pore diffusion was poor because the X-GRL molecules could not penetrate into the zeolite easily. The X-GRL molecules were only adsorbed on the external surface of the zeolite. Hence, to improve the adsorption capacity of natural zeolite further, modification to expand its micropores is necessary.

  12. Crystal structures of methyl 3-(4-iso­propyl­phen­yl)-1-methyl-1,2,3,3a,4,9b-hexa­hydro­thio­chromeno[4,3-b]pyrrole-3a-carboxyl­ate, methyl 1-methyl-3-(o-tol­yl)-1,2,3,3a,4,9b-hexa­hydro­thio­chromeno[4,3-b]pyrrole-3a-carboxyl­ate and methyl 1-methyl-3-(o-tol­yl)-3,3a,4,9b-tetra­hydro-1H-thio­chromeno[4,3-c]isoxazole-3a-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Raja, R.; Suresh, M.; Raghunathan, R.; SubbiahPandi, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compounds, C23H27NO2S, (I), and C21H23NO2S, (II), the pyrrole rings have envelope conformations with the C atom substituted by the benzene ring as the flap. In the third title compound, C20H21NO3S, (III), the isoxazole ring has a twisted conformation on the C—C bond substituted by the benzene ring and the carboxyl­ate group. In all three compounds, the thio­pyran ring has a half-chair conformation. The mean plane of the pyrrole ring is inclined to the mean plane of the thio­pyran ring by 57.07 (9), 58.98 (9) and 60.34 (12)° in (I), (II) and (III), respectively. The benzene rings are inclined to one another by 73.26 (10)° in (I), 65.781)° in (II) and 63.37 (13)° in (III). In the crystals of all three compounds, there are no classical hydrogen bonds present. Only in the crystal of compound (I) are mol­ecules linked by a pair of C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming inversion dimers. The isopropyl group in compound (I) is disordered over two sets of sites and has a refined occupancy ratio of 0.586 (13):0.414 (13). PMID:26090125

  13. Chemoprevention of Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci by Novel Schiff Based Dichlorido(4-Methoxy-2-{[2-(Piperazin-4-Ium-1-Yl)Ethyl]Iminomethyl}Phenolate)Cd Complex in Azoxymethane-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Shams, Keivan; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Karimian, Hamed; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Emtyazjoo, Mozhgan; Zahedifard, Maryam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-01-01

    Schiff-based complexes as a source of cancer chemotherapeutic compounds have been subjected to the variety of anticancer studies. The in-vitro analysis confirmed the CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex possess cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction properties in colon cancer cells, so lead to investigate the inhibitory efficiency of the compound on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Five groups of adult male rats were used in this study: Vehicle, cancer control, positive control groups and the groups treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg of complex for 10 weeks. The rats in vehicle group were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg of sterile normal saline once a week for 2 weeks and orally administered with 5% Tween-20 (5 ml/kg) for 10 weeks, other groups were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once a week for 2 weeks. The rats in positive groups were injected intra-peritoneally with 35 mg/kg 5-Flourouracil four times in a month. Administration of the complex suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to 73.4% (P < 0.05). The results also showed that treatment with the complex significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde while increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Furthermore, the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl2 and the up-regulation of Bax was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. PMID:26201720

  14. Molecular structure, spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies of 1‧,3‧,3‧-trimethylspiro[benzo[f]chromene-3,2‧-indoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiri, Abdullah M.; Ersanlı, Cem Cüneyt; Şahin, Onur; Arshad, Muhammad Nadeem; Hameed, Salem A.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, synthesis, X-ray single crystal determination, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and quantum mechanical studies of the 1‧,3‧,3‧-trimethylspiro[benzo[f]chromene-3,2‧-indoline [(C23H21NO), TMSBCI] have been both experimentally and theoretically reported. The molecular structure obtained from X-ray single-crystal analysis of the investigated compound in the ground state has been compared using Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) with the functional B3LYP using the 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. In addition to the optimized geometrical structures, atomic charges, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and natural bond orbital (NBO) have been investigated by using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of the theoretical approximation for the title compound. The energetic behavior of TMSBCI has been examined in solvent media using polarizable continuum model (PCM). The total dipole moment (μ), the average linear polarizability (α), and the first-order hyperpolarisability (β) values of the investigated molecule have been computed using the same method. The experimental measurements (1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-vis) have been compared with its corresponding the calculated values (using DFT). Besides, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and thermodynamic properties have also been studied.

  15. Alkyl-functionalized oxide-free silicon nanoparticles: synthesis and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Rosso-Vasic, Milena; Spruijt, Evan; van Lagen, Barend; De Cola, Luisa; Zuilhof, Han

    2008-10-01

    Highly monodisperse silicon nanoparticles (1.57 +/- 0.21 nm) are synthesized with a covalently attached alkyl monolayer on a gram scale. Infrared spectroscopy shows that these silicon nanoparticles contain only a few oxygen atoms per nanoparticle. XPS spectra clearly show the presence of unoxidized Si and attached alkyl chains. Owing to the relatively efficient synthesis (yields approximately 100-fold higher than of those previously reported) the molar extinction coefficient epsilon can be measured: epsilon(max) = 1.7 x 10(-4) M(-1)cm(-1), only a factor of 4 lower than that of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles of that size. The quantum yield of emission ranges from 0.12 (C(10)H(21)-capping) to 0.23 (C(16)H(33)-capping). UV/Vis absorption and emission spectroscopy show clear vibrational progressions (974 +/- 14 cm(-1); up to five vibrational bands visible at room temperature), resembling bulk SiC phonons, which support the monodispersity observed by TEM. This was also confirmed by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements, which display a strictly monoexponential decay that can only be indicative of monodisperse, ball-shaped nanoparticles.

  16. Bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-κN 2)bis­(3,3′′,5,5′′-tetra­methyl-[1,1′:3′,1′′-terphen­yl]-2′-carboxyl­ato-κO)iron(II) dichloro­methane monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yeojin; Sivanesan, Dharmalingam; Yoon, Sungho

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(C23H21O2)2(C5H8N2)2]·CH2Cl2, the Fe2+ cation is coordinated by the N atoms of two 3,5-dimethyl­pyrazole ligands and the carboxyl­ate O atoms from two tetra­methyl­terphenyl­carboxyl­ate ligands, forming an FeN2O2 polyhedron with a slightly distorted tetra­hedral coordination geometry. Intra­molecular N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions stabilize the mol­ecular conformation. The dihedral angles formed by the central benzene ring with the outer benzene rings of the terphenyl groups are 47.92 (8), 59.38 (8), 48.24 (8) and 52.37 (8)°. The dichloro­methane solvent mol­ecule inter­acts with the complex mol­ecule via a C—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, centrosymmetrically related complex mol­ecules are linked into dimers through pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:22590127

  17. Distribution and Sources of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Recent Sediments of the Imo River, SE Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyo-Ita, Inyang O; Oyo-Ita, Orok E; Dosunmu, Miranda I; Domínguez, Carmen; Bayona, Josep M; Albaigés, Joan

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of the lower course of the Imo River (Nigeria) was investigated to determine the sources and fate of these compounds. The aliphatic fraction is characterized by a widespread contribution of highly weathered/biodegraded hydrocarbon residues (reflected in the absence of prominent n-alkane peaks coupled with the presence of 17α(H),21β(H)-25-norhopane, an indicator of heavy hydrocarbon biodegradation) of Nigerian crude oils (confirmed by the occurrence of 18α(H)-oleanane, a compound characteristic of oils of deltaic origin). The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from 48 to 117 ng/g dry weight (dw; ∑13PAHs) indicate a moderate pollution, possibly lowered by the sandy lithology and low organic carbon (OC) content of the sediments. Concentrations slightly decrease towards the estuary of the river, probably due to the fact that these stations are affected by tidal flushing of pollutants adsorbed on sediment particles and carried away by occasional storm to the Atlantic Ocean. A number of PAH ratios, including parent/alkylated and isomeric compounds, indicates a predominance of petrogenic sources, with a low contribution of pyrolytic inputs, particularly of fossil fuel combustion. On the basis of OC/ON (>10) and Per/ΣPAHpenta- (>10) values, a diagenetic terrigenous OC was proposed as a source of perylene to the river.

  18. A Case Study On Pile Relaxation In Dilative Silts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-20

    HHH +~H+~~++~~ r losr-~~~~~~~~~~~~H 21~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~HH~~~~++~~~~44~ ~110~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 22HHHH~--HHHH44~44444444~ r-H4+++H...i ne gravel, trace of clay, medium dense , wet. SILT, grey, and fine sand, medium stiff, non plastic, wet. -HH++ HHH +~H4~~++HH4 f- 45 1 01-H-HH-1...rHH++HH4~HH4 8HH+rH+.rH++HH+~H++H -HH++ HHH ++HH+~HH++HH4 --40~++HH~+HH+~HH++HH~ 9H+~H++HH++HH+rHH+~ --HH++~~rHH++HH4++HH4 _ srq-+H~~H++H4+HH4

  19. Angiotensin II induces kidney inflammatory injury and fibrosis through binding to myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD2)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zheng; Li, Weixin; Han, Jibo; Zou, Chunpeng; Huang, Weijian; Yu, Weihui; Shan, Xiaoou; Lum, Hazel; Li, Xiaokun; Liang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent biologically active product of RAS, is a key regulator of renal inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Ang II induces renal inflammatory injury and fibrosis through interaction with myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD2), the accessory protein of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) of the immune system. Results indicated that in MD2−/− mice, the Ang II-induced renal fibrosis, inflammation and kidney dysfunction were significantly reduced compared to control Ang II-infused wild-type mice. Similarly, in the presence of small molecule MD2 specific inhibitor L6H21 or siRNA-MD2, the Ang II-induced increases of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory molecules were prevented in tubular NRK-52E cells. MD2 blockade also inhibited activation of NF-κB and ERK. Moreover, MD2 blockade prevented the Ang II-stimulated formation of the MD2/TLR4/MyD88 signaling complex, as well as the increased surface binding of Ang II in NRK-52E cells. In addition, Ang II directly bound recombinant MD2 protein, rather than TLR4 protein. We conclude that MD2 is a significant contributor in the Ang II-induced kidney inflammatory injury in chronic renal diseases. Furthermore, MD2 inhibition could be a new and important therapeutic strategy for preventing progression of chronic renal diseases. PMID:28322341

  20. Hybrid global model of water cluster ions in atmospheric pressure Ar/ H2O RF capacitive discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavant, A.; Lieberman, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    Water is a trace gas of strong interest for plasma-based medical applications. We use a hybrid global model to simulate a chemically complex Ar/{{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O} atmospheric pressure, radio frequency capacitive discharge, including 47 species with positive ion clusters up to {{\\text{H}}21}\\text{O}10+ . For a discharge gap of 1.5 mm driven at 27.12 MHz, we determine the discharge properties over a range of rf currents (150-500 A m-2) and initial {{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O} concentrations (0.25-2%). An isothermal plug-flow model is used with a gas residence time of 0.2 s for most calculations, with the gas temperature calculated self-consistently from the input power. The cluster density distributions are determined, and we find that the higher mass cluster densities decrease rapidly with increasing gas temperature. A simplified cluster dynamics analytic model is developed and solved to determine the cluster density distributions, which is in good agreement with the hybrid simulation results.

  1. Carbinoxaminium dipicrate

    PubMed Central

    Ramya, V.; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Shannon, James P.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ravishankara, D. K.

    2013-01-01

    In the dication of the title salt, C16H21ClN2O2+·2C6H2N3O7 − [systematic name: 2-{(4-chloro­phen­yl)[2-(di­methyl­aza­nium­yl)eth­oxy]meth­yl}pyridinium bis­(2,4,6-tri­nitro­phenolate), contains a carbinoxaminium dication and two picrate anions, which are held together through inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In the dication, the two aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 80.1 (1)°. In the two independent picrate anions, the nitro groups are twisted from the benzene plane, the largest dihedral angle in each ion being 42.8 (1) and 81.1 (5)°. In the crystal, in addition to the classical N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π–π inter­actions between the aromatic rings of the anions [centroid–centroid distances of 3.5768 (15) and 3.7436 (15) Å] help to establish the packing. PMID:24109348

  2. A new pilot flow reactor for high-intensity ultrasound irradiation. Application to the synthesis of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Cintas, Pedro; Mantegna, Stefano; Gaudino, Emanuela Calcio; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, chemistry in flowing systems has become more prominent as a method of carrying out chemical transformations, ranging in scale from microchemistry up to kilogram-scale processes. Compared to classic batch ultrasound reactors, flow reactors stand out for their greater efficiency and flexibility as well as lower energy consumption. This paper presents a new ultrasonic flow reactor developed in our laboratory, a pilot system well suited for reaction scale up. This was applied to the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol for biodiesel production. This reaction is mass-transfer-limited initially because the two reactants are immiscible with each other, then because the glycerol phase separates together with most of the catalyst (Na or K methoxide). In our reactor a mixture of oil (1.6 L), methanol and sodium methoxide 30% in methanol (wt/wt ratio 80:19.5:0.5, respectively) was fully transesterified at about 45 degrees C in 1h (21.5 kHz, 600 W, flow rate 55 mL/min). The same result could be achieved together with a considerable reduction in energy consumption, by a two-step procedure: first a conventional heating under mechanical stirring (30 min at 45 degrees C), followed by ultrasound irradiation at the same temperature (35 min, 600 W, flow rate 55 mL/min). Our studies confirmed that high-throughput ultrasound applications definitively require flow reactors.

  3. PROPERTIES OF A LYSOZYME-DISSOCIATED ENDOTOXIC FRACTION FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    PubMed

    MERGENHAGEN, S E; MARTIN, G R

    1964-10-01

    Mergenhagen, Stephan E. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.), and George R. Martin. Properties of a lysozyme-dissociated endotoxic fraction from Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:1169-1174. 1964.-Treatment of a phenol-water preparation of C(14)-labeled Escherichia coli O91-H21 endotoxin of low solubility with lysozyme at pH 5.0 or 8.0 effected a dissociation of the preparation. Such products of dissociation were equally distributed in the chloroform and water phases after extraction. beta-Glucosidase, but not beta-galactosidase, significantly dissociated this endotoxin also. Concomitant with dissociation, recoverable endotoxin after lysozyme treatment had a reduced content of bound lipid, and dissolved easily in aqueous media to yield a clear solution. Examination of lysozyme-treated endotoxin in an analytical ultracentrifuge revealed that it sedimented as a single major boundary with a sedimentation coefficient of 13.3. Lysozyme-treated endotoxin was more potent than was the conventional endotoxin as evidenced by lethal activity in rabbits and pertussis-sensitized mice. Agar-gel diffusion analysis indicated that the higher molecular weight component associated with conventional endotoxin was dissociated by lysozyme treatment. In immunoelectrophoresis, lysozyme-treated endotoxin was observed as a single sharp band of precipitation which migrated toward the cathode.

  4. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in meat marketed in Casablanca (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Badri, S; Fassouane, A; Filliol, I; Hassar, M; Cohen, N

    2011-03-01

    The contamination of meat and meat products with Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157 Escherichia coli (STEC), obtained from markets in Casablanca, Morocco, was investigated. A total of 460 meat and meat products were sampled between March 2004 and July 2006 analysed and 176 strains of E. coli were isolated from these samples. The presence of the stx1, stx2, eae and ehxA genes, recognized as major virulence factors of STEC, was tested in E. coli isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). STEC was detected in 4 (0.9%) samples. The result of serotyping by molecular method showed that two of these STEC isolates corresponded to the serotype O157:H7. The others Shiga toxin-producing E. coli non-O157 corresponded to O6:H21 and O76:H19. The presence of O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC in meat and meat products marketed in Casablanca, Morocco, emphasizes the importance of implementing the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, as well as the need for implementing, evaluating, and validating antimicrobial interventions to reduce the presence of potential pathogenic microorganisms.

  5. THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE X-RAY COUNTERPART TO PSR J2021+4026

    SciTech Connect

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Elsner, Ronald F.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Romani, Roger W.; Razzano, Massimiliano; Belfiore, Andrea; Saz Parkinson, Pablo; Ziegler, Marcus; Dormody, Michael; Ray, Paul S.; Kerr, Matthew; Harding, Alice; Swartz, Douglas A.; Carraminana, Alberto; Becker, Werner; Kanbach, Gottfried; De Luca, Andrea; Thompson, David J.

    2011-12-10

    We report the probable identification of the X-ray counterpart to the {gamma}-ray pulsar PSR J2021+4026 using imaging with the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and timing analysis with the Fermi satellite. Given the statistical and systematic errors, the positions determined by both satellites are coincident. The X-ray source position is R.A. 20{sup h}21{sup m}30.{sup s}733, decl. +40 Degree-Sign 26'46.''04 (J2000) with an estimated uncertainty of 1.''3 combined statistical and systematic error. Moreover, both the X-ray to {gamma}-ray and the X-ray to optical flux ratios are sensible assuming a neutron star origin for the X-ray flux. The X-ray source has no cataloged infrared-to-visible counterpart and, through new observations, we set upper limits to its optical emission of i' > 23.0 mag and r' > 25.2 mag. The source exhibits an X-ray spectrum with most likely both a power law and a thermal component. We also report on the X-ray and visible light properties of the 43 other sources detected in our Chandra observation.

  6. High resolution mapping of Dense spike-ar (dsp.ar) to the genetic centromere of barley chromosome 7H.

    PubMed

    Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Druka, Arnis; Franckowiak, Jerome; Morgante, Michele; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

    2012-02-01

    Spike density in barley is under the control of several major genes, as documented previously by genetic analysis of a number of morphological mutants. One such class of mutants affects the rachis internode length leading to dense or compact spikes and the underlying genes were designated dense spike (dsp). We previously delimited two introgressed genomic segments on chromosome 3H (21 SNP loci, 35.5 cM) and 7H (17 SNP loci, 20.34 cM) in BW265, a BC(7)F(3) nearly isogenic line (NIL) of cv. Bowman as potentially containing the dense spike mutant locus dsp.ar, by genotyping 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in both BW265 and its recurrent parent. Here, the gene was allocated by high-resolution bi-parental mapping to a 0.37 cM interval between markers SC57808 (Hv_SPL14)-CAPSK06413 residing on the short and long arm at the genetic centromere of chromosome 7H, respectively. This region putatively contains more than 800 genes as deduced by comparison with the collinear regions of barley, rice, sorghum and Brachypodium, Classical map-based isolation of the gene dsp.ar thus will be complicated due to the infavorable relationship of genetic to physical distances at the target locus.

  7. Virulence profiles of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and other potentially diarrheagenic E.coli of bovine origin, in Mendoza, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, M.A.; Orozco, J.H.; Degarbo, S.M.; Calderón, A.E.; Nardello, A.L.; Laciar, A.; Rüttler, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This study described a group of strains obtained from a slaughter house in Mendoza, in terms of their pathogenic factors, serotype, antibiotype and molecular profile. Ninety one rectal swabs and one hundred eight plating samples taken from carcasses of healthy cattle intended for meat consumption were analyzed. Both the swab and the plate samples were processed to analyze the samples for the presence of virulence genes by PCR: stx1, stx2, eae and astA. The Stx positive strains were confirmed by citotoxicity assay in Vero cells. The isolates were subsequently investigated for their O:H serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular profile by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Twelve E.coli strains were identified by their pathogenicity. Nine were from fecal origin and three from carcasses. Three strains carried the stx1 gene, three the stx2 gene, two carried eae and four the astA gene. The detected serotypes were: O172:H-; O150:H8; O91:H21; O178:H19 and O2:H5. The strains showed a similarity around 70% by RAPD. Some of the E.coli strains belonged to serogroups known for certain life-threatening diseases in humans. Their presence in carcasses indicates the high probability of bacterial spread during slaughter and processing. PMID:24688508

  8. Identification of Mercury and Dissolved Organic Matter Complexes Using Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Hongmei; Johnston, Ryne C.; Mann, Benjamin F.; ...

    2016-12-22

    The chemical speciation and bioavailability of mercury (Hg) is markedly influenced by its complexation with naturally dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic environments. To date, however, analytical methodologies capable of identifying such complexes are scarce. Here in this paper, we utilize ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) coupled with electrospray ionization to identify individual Hg–DOM complexes. The measurements were performed by direct infusion of DOM in a 1:1 methanol:water solution at a Hg to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) molar ratio of 3 × 10–4. Heteroatomic molecules, especially those containing multiple S and N atoms, were foundmore » to be among the most important in forming strong complexes with Hg. Major Hg–DOM complexes of C10H21N2S4Hg+ and C8H17N2S4Hg+ were identified based on both the exact molecular mass and patterns of Hg stable isotope distributions detected by FTICR-MS. Density functional theory was used to predict the solution-phase structures of candidate molecules. Finally, these findings represent the first step to unambiguously identify specific DOM molecules in Hg binding, although future studies are warranted to further optimize and validate the methodology so as to explore detailed molecular compositions and structures of Hg–DOM complexes that affect biological uptake and transformation of Hg in the environment.« less

  9. Circadian rhythm of Z- and E-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxy cinnamic acids and herniarin in leaves of Matricaria chamomilla.

    PubMed

    Repcák, Miroslav; Smajda, Benadik; Kovácik, Jozef; Eliasová, Adriana

    2009-07-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) in the above-ground organs synthesizes and accumulates (Z)- and (E)-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxy cinnamic acids (GMCA), the precursors of phytoanticipin herniarin (7-methoxycoumarin). The diurnal rhythmicity of the sum of GMCA (maximum before daybreak) and herniarin (acrophase at 10 h 21 min of circadian time) was observed under artificial lighting conditions LD 12:12. The acrophase is the time point of the maximum of the sinusoidal curve fitted to the experimental data. In continuous light, the circadian rhythms of both compounds were first described with similar acrophases of endogenous rhythms; a significantly different result from that in synchronized conditions. The rhythms' mesor (the mean value of the sinusoidal curve fitted to the experimental data) under free-running conditions was not influenced. Abiotic stress under synchronized conditions decreased the average content of GMCA to half of the original level and eliminated the rhythmicity. In contrast, the rhythm of herniarin continued, though its content significantly increased. Nitrogen deficiency resulted in a significant increase in GMCA content, which did not manifest any rhythmicity while the rhythm of herniarin continued. Circadian control of herniarin could be considered as a component of the plant's specialized defence mechanisms.

  10. The effect of early detection of anterolateral thigh free flap crisis on the salvage success rate, based on 10 years of experience and 1072 flaps.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Ren, Z H; Chickooree, D; Wu, H J; Tan, H Y; Wang, K; He, Z J; Gong, C J; Ram, V; Zhang, S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of early exploration of anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap compromise in head and neck reconstruction and to correlate this with the salvage success rate. The perioperative data of 1051 patients with 1072 ALT flap reconstructions were reviewed retrospectively for the period January 2002 to December 2012. Outcome measures included ethnicity, defect type, incidence and timing of flap compromise, type of flap compromise, causes of vascular occlusion, and salvage rate. The success rate of free flap reconstruction was 97.3% (1043/1072). Of the 29 failures, 21 were complete and eight were partial failures (10-40% of the flap). Venous occlusions occurred in 39 flaps (83.0%) and arterial occlusions in five flaps (17.0%). Six cases were detected within 8h postoperatively, 13 at 8-16 h postoperatively, seven at 16-24h postoperatively, and 18 at 24-48 h postoperatively, with respective salvage rates of 66.7%, 61.5%, 28.6%, and 22.2%; three cases detected after 48 h failed. The salvage rate at ≤16 h (62.2%) was much higher than that at >16 h (21.4%, P=0.0039). Early detection, re-exploration, and effective handling of the flap crisis increases the rate of flap salvage tremendously.

  11. Organic geochemistry of marine sediments in Antarctic region: marine lipids in McMurdo Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesan, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    The compositions of resolvable lipid components from four sediment cores (0-90 cm) of McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea, have been examined. The various lipid components occur in the following order of abundance: sterols approx. = n-fatty acids > n-alcohols > n-alkanes > PAH. The data indicate that the organic matter is mainly derived from recycled kerogen mixed with modern marine input. The distribution of lipids and lignin analyses indicate that there is little recognizable higher plant debris in the sediments. The sediments contain unaltered biogenic triterpenoids, and there is no evidence for natural and/or anthropogenic petroleum influx in the region. Aeolian transport of organic carbon from the continents appears to be negligible. The dominance of labile alkenes (C/sub 25/ compounds) and hopenes and the presence of unsaturated fatty acids down to a depth of 90 cm reflect a very early diagenetic stage. The persistent cold climate has probably helped in the better preservation of these labile lipids in the water column and in the young sediments. Diploptene (17..beta..(H),21..beta..(H)-hop-22(29)-ene) appears to originate from autochthonous marine productivity in McMurdo Sound. 111 references.

  12. Acute effects of nicotine and mecamylamine on tobacco withdrawal symptoms, cigarette reward and ad lib smoking.

    PubMed

    Rose, J E; Behm, F M; Westman, E C

    2001-02-01

    Separate and combined effects of nicotine and the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine were studied in 32 healthy volunteer smokers after overnight abstinence from smoking. Subjects participated in three sessions (3 h each), during which they wore skin patches delivering either 0 mg/24 h, 21 mg/24 h or 42 mg/24 h nicotine. Thirty-two subjects were randomly assigned to two groups receiving oral mecamylamine hydrochloride (10 mg) vs. placebo capsules. Two and one-half hours after drug administration, subjects were allowed to smoke ad lib, rating the cigarettes for rewarding and aversive effects. Transdermal nicotine produced a dose-related reduction in the subjective rewarding qualities of smoking. Nicotine also reduced craving for cigarettes and this effect was attenuated, but not eliminated, by mecamylamine. Mecamylamine blocked the discriminability of high vs. low nicotine puffs of smoke, and increased nicotine intake substantially during the ad lib smoking period. Some of the psychophysiological effects of each drug (elevation in blood pressure from nicotine, sedation and decreased blood pressure from mecamylamine) were offset by the other drug. The results supported the hypothesis that nicotine replacement can alleviate tobacco withdrawal symptoms even in the presence of an antagonist such as mecamylamine. Mecamylamine did not precipitate withdrawal beyond the level associated with overnight cigarette deprivation, suggesting its effects were primarily due to offsetting the action of concurrently administered nicotine as opposed to blocking endogenous cholinergic transmission.

  13. Biodegradation of Hopane Prevents Use As Conservative Biomarker During Bioremediation of PAHs in Petroleum Contaminated Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    2003-04-01

    The pentacyclic triterpane C30 17a (H), 21b (H)-hopane, a biomarker commonly used in hydrocarbon bioremediation laboratory experiments and field studies, was found to be completely removed without the formation of the demethylated intermediate nor-hopane in a crude oil contaminated soil undergoing slurry biotreatment while PAHs such as benzo(e)pyrene were recalcitrant. The partial or complete biodegradation of hopane has also been previously reported in a few bioremediation studies and has been explored by petroleum geochemists in an effort to characterize crude oil deposits. It is currently not clear what conditions induce hopane biodegradation or biotransformation, although the use of microbial enrichment cultures appears to speed up the process. Considering that hopane is not necessarily conserved during a bioremediation study, the uncritical normalization of hydrocarbon concentrations using this biomarker can lead to incorrect estimates of biodegradation rates and extents. If hopane is found to be unstable in a particular case, other potential biomarkers such as pentahopane, oleanane, or vanadium may be used instead.

  14. Chemoprevention of Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci by Novel Schiff Based Dichlorido(4-Methoxy-2-{[2-(Piperazin-4-Ium-1-Yl)Ethyl]Iminomethyl}Phenolate)Cd Complex in Azoxymethane-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Shams, Keivan; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Karimian, Hamed; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Emtyazjoo, Mozhgan; Zahedifard, Maryam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-07-23

    Schiff-based complexes as a source of cancer chemotherapeutic compounds have been subjected to the variety of anticancer studies. The in-vitro analysis confirmed the CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex possess cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction properties in colon cancer cells, so lead to investigate the inhibitory efficiency of the compound on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Five groups of adult male rats were used in this study: Vehicle, cancer control, positive control groups and the groups treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg of complex for 10 weeks. The rats in vehicle group were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg of sterile normal saline once a week for 2 weeks and orally administered with 5% Tween-20 (5 ml/kg) for 10 weeks, other groups were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once a week for 2 weeks. The rats in positive groups were injected intra-peritoneally with 35 mg/kg 5-Flourouracil four times in a month. Administration of the complex suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to 73.4% (P < 0.05). The results also showed that treatment with the complex significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde while increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Furthermore, the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl2 and the up-regulation of Bax was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining.

  15. PROPERTIES OF A LYSOZYME-DISSOCIATED ENDOTOXIC FRACTION FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI

    PubMed Central

    Mergenhagen, Stephan E.; Martin, George R.

    1964-01-01

    Mergenhagen, Stephan E. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.), and George R. Martin. Properties of a lysozyme-dissociated endotoxic fraction from Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:1169–1174. 1964.—Treatment of a phenol-water preparation of C14-labeled Escherichia coli O91–H21 endotoxin of low solubility with lysozyme at pH 5.0 or 8.0 effected a dissociation of the preparation. Such products of dissociation were equally distributed in the chloroform and water phases after extraction. β-Glucosidase, but not β-galactosidase, significantly dissociated this endotoxin also. Concomitant with dissociation, recoverable endotoxin after lysozyme treatment had a reduced content of bound lipid, and dissolved easily in aqueous media to yield a clear solution. Examination of lysozyme-treated endotoxin in an analytical ultracentrifuge revealed that it sedimented as a single major boundary with a sedimentation coefficient of 13.3. Lysozyme-treated endotoxin was more potent than was the conventional endotoxin as evidenced by lethal activity in rabbits and pertussis-sensitized mice. Agar-gel diffusion analysis indicated that the higher molecular weight component associated with conventional endotoxin was dissociated by lysozyme treatment. In immunoelectrophoresis, lysozyme-treated endotoxin was observed as a single sharp band of precipitation which migrated toward the cathode. Images PMID:14219034

  16. Tamarugite in the Steam-Condensate Alteration Paragenesis in Diana Cave (SW Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puscas, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povară, I.

    2012-12-01

    The double-salt hydrate tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)2 6H2O] is an uncommon mineral in the cave environment, forming as a result of chemical reactions between water and bedrock only under very specific conditions. The Diana Cave hosts a unique tamarugite occurrence, the first one to be reported from a typical karst environment. The cave is located within the limits of Băile Herculane township in the Cerna Mountains, SW Romania. It consists of a 14 m long, westward-oriented single passage, developed along the Diana Fault. In 1974 a concrete-clad mine gallery was created to channel the thermal water (Diana 1+2 Spring) flowing through the cave to a pumping station. The spring's chemical and physical parameters fluctuated through time, averaging 51.98° C, discharge of 0.96 Ls-1, pH of 7.46, 5768.66 ppm TDS, 9303 μScm-1 conductivity, 5.02 salinity. The major chemical components of the thermo-mineral water in Diana Cave are, Na+ (1392.57 ppm), K+ (58.55 ppm), Ca2+ (725.16 ppm), Mg2+ (10.78 ppm), Cl- (3376.83 ppm), and SO42- (92.27 ppm), and H2S (24.05 ppm), with traces of Si, Fe2+, Br+, I-, and Li+. The general air circulation pattern within the cave is fairly simple: cold air from the outside sweeps into the cave along the floor, heats up at the contact with the thermo-mineral water, ascends, and exists the cave along the ceiling. At the contact with the cold walls of the Diana Cave, the hot steam condenses and gives rise to a rich and exotic sulfate-mineral paragenesis (including halotrichite-series minerals, gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite, epsomite, alunite, halite, native sulfur, etc.). The most exotic minerals precipitate at or below the contact between the Tithonic - Neocomian limestone and the overlaying Cretaceous shaly limestone, as a result of steam-condensate alteration. Minerogenetic mechanisms responsible for the peculiar sulfate mineral assemblage in Diana Cave are evaporation, oxidation, hydrolysis, double exchange reactions, and deposition from vapours or

  17. Assessment of extreme quantitative precipitation forecasts and development of regional extreme event thresholds using data from HMT-2006 and COOP observers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralph, F.M.; Sukovich, E.; Reynolds, D.; Dettinger, M.; Weagle, S.; Clark, W.; Neiman, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme precipitation events, and the quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) associated with them, are examined. The study uses data from the Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT), which conducted its first field study in California during the 2005/06 cool season. National Weather Service River Forecast Center (NWS RFC) gridded QPFs for 24-h periods at 24-h (day 1), 48-h (day 2), and 72-h (day 3) forecast lead times plus 24-h quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) fromsites in California (CA) and Oregon-Washington (OR-WA) are used. During the 172-day period studied, some sites received more than 254 cm (100 in.) of precipitation. The winter season produced many extreme precipitation events, including 90 instances when a site received more than 7.6 cm (3.0 in.) of precipitation in 24 h (i.e., an "event") and 17 events that exceeded 12.7 cm (24 h)-1 [5.0 in. (24 h)-1]. For the 90 extreme events f.7.6 cm (24 h)-1 [3.0 in. (24 h)-1]g, almost 90% of all the 270 QPFs (days 1-3) were biased low, increasingly so with greater lead time. Of the 17 observed events exceeding 12.7 cm (24 h)-1 [5.0 in. (24 h)-1], only 1 of those events was predicted to be that extreme. Almost all of the extreme events correlated with the presence of atmospheric river conditions. Total seasonal QPF biases for all events fi.e., $0.025 cm (24 h)-1 [0.01 in. (24 h)-1]g were sensitive to local geography and were generally biased low in the California-Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC) region and high in the Northwest River Forecast Center(NWRFC) domain. The low bias in CA QPFs improved with shorter forecast lead time and worsened for extreme events. Differences were also noted between the CNRFC and NWRFC in terms of QPF and the frequency of extreme events. A key finding from this study is that there were more precipitation events .7.6 cm (24 h)-1 [3.0 in. (24 h)21] in CA than in OR-WA. Examination of 422 Cooperative Observer Program (COOP) sites in the NWRFC domain and 400 in the CNRFC domain

  18. Crystallographic investigations of select cathinones: emerging illicit street drugs known as `bath salts'.

    PubMed

    Wood, Matthew R; Lalancette, Roger A; Bernal, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The name `bath salts', for an emerging class of synthetic cathinones, is derived from an attempt to evade prosecution and law enforcement. These are truly illicit drugs that have psychoactive CNS (central nervous system) stimulant effects and they have seen a rise in abuse as recreational drugs in the last few years since first having been seen in Japan in 2006. The ease of synthesis and modification of specific functional groups of the parent cathinone make these drugs particularly difficult to regulate. MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone) is commonly encountered as its hydrochloride salt (C16H21NO3·HCl), in either the hydrated or the anhydrous forms. This `bath salt' has various names in the US, e.g. `Super Coke', `Cloud Nine', and `Ivory Wave', to name just a few. We report here the structures of two forms of the HCl salt, one as a mixed bromide/chloride salt, C16H22NO3(+)·0.343Br(-)·0.657Cl(-) [systematic name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one bromide/chloride (0.343/0.657)], and the other with the H7O3(+) cation, as well as the HCl counter-ion [systematic name: hydroxonium 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one dichloride, H7O3(+)·C16H22NO3(+)·2Cl(-)]. This is one of a very few structures (11 to be exact) in which we have a new example of a precisely determined hydroxonium cation. During the course of researching the clandestine manufacture of MDPV, we were surprised by the fact that a common precursor of this illicit stimulant is known to be the fragrant species piperonal, which is present in the fragrances of orchids, most particularly in the case of the vanilla orchid. We found that MDPV can be made by a Grignard reaction of this heliotropin. This may also explain the unexpected appearance of the bromide counter-ion in some of the salts we encountered (C16H21NO3·HBr), one of which is presented here [systematic name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one

  19. Topological data analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 survival in soils.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, Abasiofiok M; Ma, Jincai; Crowley, David E; Yang, Ching-Hong; Johnson, Alexis M; Petrossian, Tanya C; Lum, Pek Y

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 have been implicated in many foodborne illnesses caused by the consumption of contaminated fresh produce. However, data on their persistence in soils are limited due to the complexity in datasets generated from different environmental variables and bacterial taxa. There is a continuing need to distinguish the various environmental variables and different bacterial groups to understand the relationships among these factors and the pathogen survival. Using an approach called Topological Data Analysis (TDA); we reconstructed the relationship structure of E. coli O157 and non-O157 survival in 32 soils (16 organic and 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) with a multi-resolution output. In our study, we took a community approach based on total soil microbiome to study community level survival and examining the network of the community as a whole and the relationship between its topology and biological processes. TDA produces a geometric representation of complex data sets. Network analysis showed that Shiga toxin negative strain E. coli O157:H7 4554 survived significantly longer in comparison to E. coli O157:H7 EDL 933, while the survival time of E. coli O157:NM was comparable to that of E. coli O157:H7 EDL 933 in all of the tested soils. Two non-O157 strains, E. coli O26:H11 and E. coli O103:H2 survived much longer than E. coli O91:H21 and the three strains of E. coli O157. We show that there are complex interactions between E. coli strain survival, microbial community structures, and soil parameters.

  20. A plant-based oral vaccine to protect against systemic intoxication by Shiga toxin type 2.

    PubMed

    Wen, Sharon X; Teel, Louise D; Judge, Nicole A; O'Brien, Alison D

    2006-05-02

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome, the leading cause of kidney failure in children, often follows infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and is mediated by the Shiga type toxins, particularly type 2 (Stx2), produced by such strains. The challenge in protecting against this life-threatening syndrome is to stimulate an immune response at the site of infection while also protecting against Shiga intoxication at distal sites such as the kidney. As one approach to meeting this challenge, we sought to develop and characterize a prototypic orally delivered, plant-based vaccine against Stx2, an AB5 toxin. First, we genetically inactivated the Stx2 active A subunit gene and then optimized both subunit genes for expression in plants. The toxoid genes were then transformed into the Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) cell line NT-1 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Toxoid expression was detected in NT-1 cell extracts, and the assembly of the holotoxoid was confirmed. Finally, mice were immunized by feeding with the toxoid-expressing NT-1 cells or by parenteral immunization followed by oral vaccination (prime-boost strategy). The immunized mice produced Stx2-specific mucosal IgA and Stx2-neutralizing serum IgG. The protective efficacy of these responses was assessed by challenging the immunized mice with E. coli O91:H21 strain B2F1, an isolate that produces an activatable variant of Stx2 (Stx2d) and is lethal to mice. The oral immunization fully protected mice from the challenge. Results of this study demonstrated that a plant-based oral vaccine can confer protection against lethal systemic intoxication.

  1. In-stream attenuation of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and their metabolites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Writer, Jeffrey; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Ferrar, Imma; Ryan, Joseph N.; Thurman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In-stream attenuation was determined for 14 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites. Lagrangian sampling, which follows a parcel of water as it moves downstream, was used to link hydrological and chemical transformation processes. Wastewater loading of neuro-active compounds varied considerably over a span of several hours, and thus a sampling regime was used to verify that the Lagrangian parcel was being sampled and a mechanism was developed to correct measured concentrations if it was not. In-stream attenuation over the 5.4-km evaluated reach could be modeled as pseudo-first-order decay for 11 of the 14 evaluated neuro-active pharmaceutical compounds, illustrating the capacity of streams to reduce conveyance of neuro-active compounds downstream. Fluoxetine and N-desmethyl citalopram were the most rapidly attenuated compounds (t1/2 = 3.6 ± 0.3 h, 4.0 ± 0.2 h, respectively). Lamotrigine, 10,11,-dihydro-10,11,-dihydroxy-carbamazepine, and carbamazepine were the most persistent (t1/2 = 12 ± 2.0 h, 12 ± 2.6 h, 21 ± 4.5 h, respectively). Parent compounds (e.g., buproprion, carbamazepine, lamotrigine) generally were more persistent relative to their metabolites. Several compounds (citalopram, venlafaxine, O-desmethyl-venlafaxine) were not attenuated. It was postulated that the primary mechanism of removal for these compounds was interaction with bed sediments and stream biofilms, based on measured concentrations in stream biofilms and a column experiment using stream sediments.

  2. η Carinae Baby Homunculus uncovered by ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P. B.; Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego

    2014-08-20

    We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the 'Baby Homunculus'.

  3. Fallout plume of submerged oil from Deepwater Horizon.

    PubMed

    Valentine, David L; Fisher, G Burch; Bagby, Sarah C; Nelson, Robert K; Reddy, Christopher M; Sylva, Sean P; Woo, Mary A

    2014-11-11

    The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico led to uncontrolled emission of oil to the ocean, with an official government estimate of ∼ 5.0 million barrels released. Among the pressing uncertainties surrounding this event is the fate of ∼ 2 million barrels of submerged oil thought to have been trapped in deep-ocean intrusion layers at depths of ∼ 1,000-1,300 m. Here we use chemical distributions of hydrocarbons in >3,000 sediment samples from 534 locations to describe a footprint of oil deposited on the deep-ocean floor. Using a recalcitrant biomarker of crude oil, 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (hopane), we have identified a 3,200-km(2) region around the Macondo Well contaminated by ∼ 1.8 ± 1.0 × 10(6) g of excess hopane. Based on spatial, chemical, oceanographic, and mass balance considerations, we calculate that this contamination represents 4-31% of the oil sequestered in the deep ocean. The pattern of contamination points to deep-ocean intrusion layers as the source and is most consistent with dual modes of deposition: a "bathtub ring" formed from an oil-rich layer of water impinging laterally upon the continental slope (at a depth of ∼ 900-1,300 m) and a higher-flux "fallout plume" where suspended oil particles sank to underlying sediment (at a depth of ∼ 1,300-1,700 m). We also suggest that a significant quantity of oil was deposited on the ocean floor outside this area but so far has evaded detection because of its heterogeneous spatial distribution.

  4. Tumour regression and improved gastrointestinal tolerability from controlled release of SN-38 from novel polyoxazoline-modified dendrimers.

    PubMed

    England, Richard M; Hare, Jennifer I; Barnes, Jennifer; Wilson, Joanne; Smith, Aaron; Strittmatter, Nicole; Kemmitt, Paul D; Waring, Michael J; Barry, Simon T; Alexander, Cameron; Ashford, Marianne B

    2017-02-10

    Irinotecan is used clinically for the treatment of colorectal cancer; however, its utility is limited by its narrow therapeutic index. We describe the use of a generation 5 l-lysine dendrimer that has been part-modified with a polyoxazoline as a drug delivery vehicle for improving the therapeutic index of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan. By conjugating SN-38 to the dendrimer via different linker technologies we sought to vary the release rate of the drug to generate diverse pharmacokinetic profiles. Three conjugates with plasma release half-lives of 2.5h, 21h, and 72h were tested for efficacy and toxicity using a mouse SW620 xenograft model. In this model, the linker with a plasma release half-life of 21h achieved sustained SN-38 exposure in blood, above the target concentration. Control over the release rate of the drug from the linker, combined with prolonged circulation of the dendrimer, enabled administration of an efficacious dose of SN-38, achieving significant regression of the SW620 tumours. The conjugates with 2.5 and 72h release half-lives did not achieve an anti-tumour effect. Intraperitoneal dosing of the clinically used prodrug irinotecan produces high initial and local concentrations of SN-38, which are associated with gastrointestinal toxicity. Administration of the 21h release dendrimer conjugate did not produce a high initial Cmax of SN-38. Consequently, a marked reduction in gastrointestinal toxicity was observed relative to irinotecan treatment. Additional studies investigating the dose concentrations and dose scheduling showed that a weekly dosing schedule of 4mg SN-38/kg was the most efficacious regimen. After 4 doses at weekly intervals, the survival period of the mice extended beyond 70 days following the final dose. These extensive studies have allowed us to identify a linker, dose and dosing regimen for SN-38 conjugated to polyoxazoline-modified dendrimer that maximised efficacy and minimised adverse side effects.

  5. An experimental study of adolescent sleep restriction during a simulated school week: changes in phase, sleep staging, performance and sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Alex; Carskadon, Mary A; Dorrian, Jillian; Coussens, Scott; Short, Michelle A

    2017-04-01

    This laboratory study investigated the impact of restricted sleep during a simulated school week on circadian phase, sleep stages and daytime functioning. Changes were examined across and within days and during a simulated weekend recovery. Participants were 12 healthy secondary school students (six male) aged 15-17 years [mean = 16.1 years, standard deviation (SD) = 0.9]. After 2 nights with 10 h (21:30-07:30 hours), time in bed was restricted to 5 h for 5 nights (02:30-07:30 hours), then returned to 10 h time in bed for 2 nights (21:30-07:30 hours). Saliva was collected in dim light on the first and last sleep restriction nights to measure melatonin onset phase. Sleep was recorded polysomnographically, and the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale were undertaken 3-hourly while awake. Average phase delay measured by melatonin was 3 h (SD = 50 min). Compared to baseline, sleep during the restriction period contained a smaller percentage of Stages 1 and 2 and rapid eye movement (REM) and a greater percentage of Stage 4. PVT lapses increased significantly during sleep restriction and did not return to baseline levels during recovery. Subjective sleepiness showed a similar pattern during restriction, but returned to baseline levels during recovery. Results suggest that sustained attention in adolescents is affected negatively by sleep restriction, particularly in the early morning, and that a weekend of recovery sleep is insufficient to restore performance. The discrepancy between sleepiness ratings and performance may indicate a lack of perception of this residual impairment.

  6. Heterogeneity of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome Patients, Cattle, and Food Samples in Central France

    PubMed Central

    Pradel, Nathalie; Boukhors, Karima; Bertin, Yolande; Forestier, Christiane; Martin, Christine; Livrelli, Valérie

    2001-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the molecular epidemiology of non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was performed by using isolates from sporadic cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), animal reservoirs, and food products. The isolates belonged to the O91 and OX3 serogroups and were collected in the same geographical area over a short period of time. Five typing methods were used; some of these were used to explore potentially mobile elements like the stx genes or the plasmids (stx2-restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP], stx2 gene variant, and plasmid analyses), and others were used to study the whole genome (ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE]). The techniques revealed that there was great diversity among the O91 and OX3 STEC strains isolated in central France. A close relationship between strains of the same serotype having the same virulence factor pattern was first suggested by ribotyping. However, stx2-RFLP and stx2 variant analyses differentiated all but 5 of 21 isolates, and plasmid analysis revealed further heterogeneity; a unique combination of characteristics was obtained for all strains except two O91:H21 isolates from beef. The latter strains were shown by PFGE to be the most closely related isolates, with >96% homology, and hence may be subtypes of the same strain. Overall, our results indicate that the combination of stx2-RFLP, stx2 variant, and plasmid profile analyses is as powerful as PFGE for molecular investigation of STEC diversity. Finally, the non-O157:H7 STEC strains isolated from HUS patients were related to but not identical to those isolated from cattle and food samples in the same geographical area. The possibility that there are distinct lineages of non-O157:H7 STEC, some of which are more virulent for humans, should be investigated further. PMID:11375151

  7. Asteroid 2012 XE133: a transient companion to Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2013-06-01

    Apart from Mercury that has no known co-orbital companions, Venus remains as the inner planet that hosts the smallest number of known co-orbitals (two): (322756) 2001 CK32 and 2002 VE68. Both objects have absolute magnitudes 18 < H < 21 and were identified as Venus co-orbitals in 2004. Here, we analyse the orbit of the recently discovered asteroid 2012 XE133 with H = 23.5 mag to conclude that it is a new Venus co-orbital currently following a transitional trajectory between Venus' Lagrangian points L5 and L3. The object could have been a 1:1 librator for several thousand years and it may leave the resonance with Venus within the next few hundred years, after a close encounter with the Earth. Our calculations show that its dynamical status as co-orbital, as well as that of the two previously known Venus co-orbitals, is controlled by the Earth-Moon system with Mercury playing a secondary role. The three temporary co-orbitals exhibit resonant (or near-resonant) behaviour with Mercury, Venus and the Earth and they follow rather chaotic but similar trajectories with e-folding times of the order of 100 yr. Out of the three co-orbitals, 2012 XE133 currently follows the most perturbed path. An actual collision with the Earth during the next 10 000 yr cannot be discarded; an encounter at 0.005 au may take place in 2028, but even closer encounters are possible within that time frame. Extrapolation of the number distribution of Venus co-orbitals as a function of the absolute magnitude suggests that dozens of objects similar to 2012 XE133 could be transient companions to Venus. Some additional objects that were or will be transient co-orbitals to Venus are also briefly discussed.

  8. Characteristics of particulate carbon emissions from real-world Chinese coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanxun; Schauer, James Jay; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Wei, Yongjie; Liu, Yuan; Shao, Min

    2008-07-15

    Particulate matter emissions from a series of different Chinese coal combustion systems were collected and analyzed for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), and molecular markers. Emissions from both industrial boilers and residential stoves were investigated. The coal used in this study included anthracite, bituminite, and brown coal, as well as commonly used coal briquettes produced in China for residential coal combustion. Results show significant differences in the contribution of carbonaceous species to particulate mass emissions. Industrial boilers had much higher burn out of carbon yielding particulate matter emissions with much lower levels of OC, EC, and speciated organic compounds, while residential stoves had significantly higher emissions of carbonaceous particulate matter with emission rates of approximately 100 times higher than that of industrial boilers. Quantified organic compounds emitted from industrial boilers were dominated by oxygenated compounds, of which 46-68% were organic acids, whereas the dominate species quantified in the emissions from residential stoves were PAHs (38%) and n-alkanes (20%). An important observation was the fact that emission factors of PAHs and the distribution of hopanoids were different among the emissions from industrial and residential coal combustion even using the same coal for combustion. Although particulate matter emissions from industrial and residential combustion were different in many regards, picene was detected in all samples with detectable OC mass concentrations, which supports the use of this organic tracer for OC from all types of coal combustion. 17alpha(H),21beta(H)-29-norhopane was the predominant hopanoid in coal combustion emissions, which is different from mobile source emissions and may be used to distinguish emissions from these different fossil fuel sources.

  9. Effect of zinc binding residues in growth hormone (GH) and altered intracellular zinc content on regulated GH secretion.

    PubMed

    Petkovic, Vibor; Miletta, Maria Consolata; Eblé, Andrée; Iliev, Daniel I; Binder, Gerhard; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus E

    2013-11-01

    Endocrine cells store hormones in concentrated forms (aggregates) in dense-core secretory granules that are released upon appropriate stimulation. Zn(2+) binding to GH through amino acid residues His18, His21, and Glu174 are essential for GH dimerization and might mediate its aggregation and storage in secretory granules. To investigate whether GH-1 gene mutations at these positions interfere with this process, GH secretion and intracellular production were analyzed in GC cells (rat pituitary cell line) transiently expressing wt-GH and/or GH Zn mutant (GH-H18A-H21A-E174A) in forskolin-stimulated vs nonstimulated conditions. Reduced secretion of the mutant variant (alone or coexpressed with wt-GH) compared with wt-GH after forskolin stimulation was observed, whereas an increased intracellular accumulation of GH Zn mutant vs wt-GH correlates with its altered extracellular secretion. Depleting Zn(2+) from culture medium using N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylemethyl)ethylenediamine, a high-affinity Zn(2+) chelator, led to a significant reduction of the stimulated wt-GH secretion. Furthermore, externally added Zn(2+) to culture medium increased intracellular free Zn(2+) levels and recovered wt-GH secretion, suggesting its direct dependence on free Zn(2+) levels after forskolin stimulation. Confocal microscopy analysis of the intracellular secretory pathway of wt-GH and GH Zn mutant indicated that both variants pass through the regulated secretory pathway in a similar manner. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that loss of affinity of GH to Zn(2+) as well as altering intracellular free Zn(2+) content may interfere with normal GH dimerization (aggregation) and storage of the mutant variant (alone or with wt-GH), which could possibly explain impaired GH secretion.

  10. Erythrocyte sequestration and anemia in severe falciparum malaria. Analysis of acute changes in venous hematocrit using a simple mathematical model.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, T M; Krishna, S; Looareesuwan, S; Supanaranond, W; Pukrittayakamee, S; Attatamsoonthorn, K; White, N J

    1990-01-01

    Microvascular erythrocyte sequestration, the characteristic pathological feature of falciparum malaria, was evaluated using a mathematical model in 46 patients with severe infections. From admission radioisotopic circulating red cell volumes and simultaneous venous hematocrits, the model-derived sequestrum hematocrit (mean [95% confidence limits]: 0.70 [0.43-0.97], n = 29) was twice that of peripheral blood (0.33 [0.30-0.36]). Serial reticulocyte and radiolabeled erythrocyte counts indicated that small numbers of cells enter the circulation during initial therapy. The mean fall in hematocrit over 84 h in 26 nontransfused patients conformed to a three-term equation. A first-order decline (t1/2 2.0 h [0.6-3.4]) suggested an average 7.5% plasma volume expansion through rehydration. A zero-order 6.3% (3.1-9.5) fall (t1/2 25.7 h [21.2-30.2]) occurred contemporaneously with a fall in mean parasitemia from 4.5% (3.6-5.4); from these data the model-derived average sequestered erythrocyte volume (4.8% of the admission hematocrit) was similar to the peripheral parasite burden. A second, first-order fall (t1/2 1,047 h [278-1,816]) indicated loss of uninfected erythrocytes with mean lifespan 62 d. Predicted total plasma volume expansion during initial therapy (21.2%) was similar to radioisotopic estimates in 11 patients (17.3% [2.0-33.1]). Application of the model to individual patient data showed wide variations in relative proportions of circulating and sequestered parasitized cells. The model provides evidence of the nature and fate of all parasitized erythrocytes in malaria. PMID:2203822

  11. Colorimetric chemosensor of symmetrical benzoylthiourea derivatives as for detection of Cu2+ in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamedan, N. A.; Hasan, S.; Zaki, H. M.; Alias, N. Z.

    2017-02-01

    A novel receptor, designed with a combination of oxygen (O), nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) -binding sites for metal ions was synthesized. Ortho (A), meta (B) and para (C) bearing benzoyl thiourea were designed and synthesized with triamine group to apply as colorimetric chemosensors for detection of Cu2+. The structure was confirmed by characterized the compound using Elemental analysis, Fourier Infrared (FTIR) and proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. Functional groups of C=O, N-H, C=N and C=S were found at 1677 cm-1, 3240 cm-1, 1591 cm-1, 1024 cm-1 respectively while 1H NMR shows peaks of alkane (CH2), benzene (Ar-H), CONH, CSNH at 3.68 – 4.14, 7.16 – 7.86, 8.74, and 9.2 respectively. Elemental analysis for A, B and C C20H21N5O2S2Br2 found was compatible with the expected theoretical calculation. For an application, all of these three sensors showed excellent colorimetric specific selectivity and high sensitivity for Cu2+ in acetonitrile/water binary solutions, so only A was selected for further studies towards sensitivity. When Cu2+ was added to the solution of A, a dramatic color change from yellow to green, while other cations Fe2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ did not interfere with the recognition process for Cu2+. The detection limit of the sensor C toward Cu2+ was 1.15 x 10-5 M, which is less sensitive that sensor A and B with a detection limit of 6.2 x 10-6 M and 1.5 x 10-6 M respectively. This indicated that the sensor A and B might be useful as an efficient chemical sensor.

  12. An Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon Decreases the Cost of Uphill Walking and Running.

    PubMed

    Vernillo, Gianluca; Savoldelli, Aldo; Skafidas, Spyros; Zignoli, Andrea; La Torre, Antonio; Pellegrini, Barbara; Giardini, Guido; Trabucchi, Pietro; Millet, Grégoire P; Schena, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of the world's most challenging mountain ultramarathon (MUM, 330 km, cumulative elevation gain of +24,000 m) on the energy cost and kinematics of different uphill gaits. Methods: Before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the competition, 19 male athletes performed three submaximal 5-min treadmill exercise trials in a randomized order: walking at 5 km·h(-1), +20%; running at 6 km·h(-1), +15%; and running at 8 km·h(-1), +10%. During the three trials, energy cost was assessed using an indirect calorimetry system and spatiotemporal gait parameters were acquired with a floor-level high-density photoelectric cells system. Results: The average time of the study participants to complete the MUM was 129 h 43 min 48 s (range: 107 h 29 min 24 s to 144 h 21 min 0 s). Energy costs in walking (-11.5 ± 5.5%, P < 0.001), as well as in the first (-7.2 ± 3.1%, P = 0.01) and second (-7.0 ± 3.9%, P = 0.02) running condition decreased between PRE and POST, with a reduction both in the heart rate (-11.3, -10.0, and -9.3%, respectively) and oxygen uptake only for the walking condition (-6.5%). No consistent and significant changes in the kinematics variables were detected (P-values from 0.10 to 0.96). Conclusion: Though fatigued after completing the MUM, the subjects were still able to maintain their uphill locomotion patterns noted at PRE. The decrease (improvement) in the energy costs was likely due to the prolonged and repetitive walking/running, reflecting a generic improvement in the mechanical efficiency of locomotion after ~130 h of uphill locomotion rather than constraints imposed by the activity on the musculoskeletal structure and function.

  13. Persistence and biodegradation of oil at the ocean floor following Deepwater Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Bagby, Sarah C.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Aeppli, Christoph; Fisher, G. Burch; Valentine, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster introduced an unprecedented discharge of oil into the deep Gulf of Mexico. Considerable uncertainty has persisted regarding the oil’s fate and effects in the deep ocean. In this work we assess the compound-specific rates of biodegradation for 125 aliphatic, aromatic, and biomarker petroleum hydrocarbons that settled to the deep ocean floor following release from the damaged Macondo Well. Based on a dataset comprising measurements of up to 168 distinct hydrocarbon analytes in 2,980 sediment samples collected within 4 y of the spill, we develop a Macondo oil “fingerprint” and conservatively identify a subset of 312 surficial samples consistent with contamination by Macondo oil. Three trends emerge from analysis of the biodegradation rates of 125 individual hydrocarbons in these samples. First, molecular structure served to modulate biodegradation in a predictable fashion, with the simplest structures subject to fastest loss, indicating that biodegradation in the deep ocean progresses similarly to other environments. Second, for many alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation occurred in two distinct phases, consistent with rapid loss while oil particles remained suspended followed by slow loss after deposition to the seafloor. Third, the extent of biodegradation for any given sample was influenced by the hydrocarbon content, leading to substantially greater hydrocarbon persistence among the more highly contaminated samples. In addition, under some conditions we find strong evidence for extensive degradation of numerous petroleum biomarkers, notably including the native internal standard 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane, commonly used to calculate the extent of oil weathering. PMID:27994146

  14. ALMA Observations of Orion Source I at 350 and 660 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plambeck, R. L.; Wright, M. C. H.

    2016-12-01

    Orion Source I (“SrcI”) is the protostar at the center of the Kleinmann-Low Nebula. ALMA observations of SrcI with 0.″2 angular resolution were made at 350 and 660 GHz to search for the H26α and H21α hydrogen recombination lines and to measure the continuum flux densities. The recombination lines were not detected, ruling out the possibility that SrcI is a hypercompact H ii region. The deconvolved size of the continuum source is approximately 0.″23 × 0.″07 (˜100 × 30 au); it is interpreted as a disk viewed almost edge-on. Optically thick thermal emission from ˜500 K dust is the most plausible source of the continuum, even at frequencies as low as 43 GHz; the disk mass is most likely in the range 0.02-0.2 {M}⊙ . A rich spectrum of molecular lines is detected, mostly from sulfur- and silicon-rich molecules like SO, SO2, and SiS, but also including vibrationally excited CO and several unidentified transitions. Lines with upper energy levels {E}{{U}}\\gt 500 K appear in emission and are symmetric about the source’s LSR velocity of 5 {km} {{{s}}}-1, while lines with {E}{{U}}\\lt 500 K appear as blueshifted absorption features against the continuum, indicating that they originate in outflowing gas. The emission lines exhibit a velocity gradient along the major axis of the disk that is consistent with rotation around a 5-7 {M}⊙ central object. The relatively low mass of SrcI and the existence of a 100 au disk around it are difficult to reconcile with the model in which SrcI and the nearby Becklin-Neugebauer Object were ejected from a multiple system 500 years ago.

  15. In-stream attenuation of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Writer, Jeffrey H; Antweiler, Ronald C; Ferrer, Imma; Ryan, Joseph N; Thurman, E Michael

    2013-09-03

    In-stream attenuation was determined for 14 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites. Lagrangian sampling, which follows a parcel of water as it moves downstream, was used to link hydrological and chemical transformation processes. Wastewater loading of neuro-active compounds varied considerably over a span of several hours, and thus a sampling regime was used to verify that the Lagrangian parcel was being sampled and a mechanism was developed to correct measured concentrations if it was not. In-stream attenuation over the 5.4-km evaluated reach could be modeled as pseudo-first-order decay for 11 of the 14 evaluated neuro-active pharmaceutical compounds, illustrating the capacity of streams to reduce conveyance of neuro-active compounds downstream. Fluoxetine and N-desmethyl citalopram were the most rapidly attenuated compounds (t1/2 = 3.6 ± 0.3 h, 4.0 ± 0.2 h, respectively). Lamotrigine, 10,11,-dihydro-10,11,-dihydroxy-carbamazepine, and carbamazepine were the most persistent (t1/2 = 12 ± 2.0 h, 12 ± 2.6 h, 21 ± 4.5 h, respectively). Parent compounds (e.g., buproprion, carbamazepine, lamotrigine) generally were more persistent relative to their metabolites. Several compounds (citalopram, venlafaxine, O-desmethyl-venlafaxine) were not attenuated. It was postulated that the primary mechanism of removal for these compounds was interaction with bed sediments and stream biofilms, based on measured concentrations in stream biofilms and a column experiment using stream sediments.

  16. Characteristics of particulate carbon emissions from real-world Chinese coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Yuanxun Zhang; James Jay Schauer; Yuanhang Zhang; Limin Zeng; Yongjie Wei; Yuan Liu; Min Shao

    2008-07-15

    Particulate matter emissions from a series of different Chinese coal combustion systems were collected and analyzed for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), and molecular markers. Emissions from both industrial boilers and residential stoves were investigated. The coal used in this study included anthracite, bituminite, and brown coal, as well as commonly used coal briquettes produced in China for residential coal combustion. Results show significant differences in the contribution of carbonaceous species to particulate mass emissions. Industrial boilers had much higher burn out of carbon yielding particulate matter emissions with much lower levels of OC, EC, and speciated organic compounds, while residential stoves had significantly higher emissions of carbonaceous particulate matter with emission rates of approximately 100 times higher than that of industrial boilers. Quantified organic compounds emitted from industrial boilers were dominated by oxygenated compounds, of which 46-68% were organic acids, whereas the dominate species quantified in the emissions from residential stoves were PAHs (38%) and n-alkanes (20%). An important observation was the fact that emission factors of PAHs and the distribution of hopanoids were different among the emissions from industrial and residential coal combustion even using the same coal for combustion. Although particulate matter emissions from industrial and residential combustion were different in many regards, picene was detected in all samples with detectable OC mass concentrations, which supports the use of this organic tracer for OC from all types of coal combustion. 17{alpha}(H),21{beta}(H)-29-norhopane was the predominant hopanoid in coal combustion emissions, which is different from mobile source emissions and may be used to distinguish emissions from these different fossil fuel sources. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Population trends of binary near-Earth asteroids based on radar and lightcurves observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozovic, Marina; Benner, Lance A. M.; Naidu, Shantanu P.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Busch, Michael W.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Nolan, Michael C.; Howell, Ellen S.; Springmann, Alessondra; Giorgini, Jon D.; Shepard, Michael K.; Magri, Christopher; Richardson, James E.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Zambrano Marin, Luisa Fernanda

    2016-10-01

    The Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radars are invaluable instruments for the discovery and characterization of binary and triple asteroids in the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population. To date, 41 out of 56 known binaries and triples (~73% of the objects) have been discovered by radar and 49 of these multiple systems have been detected by radar. Their absolute magnitudes range from 12.4 for (1866) Sisyphus to 22.6 for 2015 TD144 and have a mean and rms dispersion of 18.1+-2.0. There is a pronounced decrease in the abundance of binaries for absolute magnitudes H>20. One of the smallest binaries, 1994 CJ1, with an absolute magnitude H=21.4, is also the most accessible binary for a spacecraft rendezvous. Among 365 NEAs with H<22 (corresponding to diameters larger than ~ 140 m) detected by radar since 1999, ~13% have at least one companion. Two triple systems are known, (15391) 2001 SN263 and (136617) 1994 CC, but this is probably an underestimate due to low signal to noise ratios (SNRs) for many of the binary radar detections. Taxonomic classes have been reported for 41 out of 56 currently known multiple systems and some trends are starting to emerge: at least 50% of multiple asteroid systems are S, Sq, Q, or Sk, and at least 20% are optically dark (C, B, P, or U). Thirteen V-class NEAs have been observed by radar and six of them are binaries. Curiously, a comparable number of E-class objects have been detected by radar, but none is known to be a binary.

  18. RED-SEQUENCE GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT BY THE COMBO-17+4 SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, Marie-Helene; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Wolf, Christian; Tapken, Christian E-mail: meise@mpia.de E-mail: ctapken@aip.de

    2011-01-20

    We investigate the evolution of the galaxy population since redshift 2 with a focus on the color bimodality and mass density of the red sequence. We obtain precise and reliable photometric redshifts up to z = 2 by supplementing the optical survey COMBO-17 with observations in four near-infrared bands on 0.2 deg{sup 2} of the COMBO-17 A901-field. Our results are based on an H-band-selected catalog of 10,692 galaxies complete to H = 21fm7. We measure the rest-frame color (U{sub 280}-V) of each galaxy, which across the redshift range of our interest requires no extrapolation and is robust against moderate redshift errors by staying clear of the 4000 A break. We measure the color-magnitude relation of the red sequence as a function of look-back time from the peak in a color-error-weighted histogram, and thus trace the galaxy bimodality out to z {approx_equal} 1.65. The (U{sub 280}-V) of the red sequence is found to evolve almost linearly with look-back time. At high redshift, we find massive galaxies in both the red and the blue population. Red-sequence galaxies with log M{sub *}/M{sub sun}>11 increase in mass density by a factor of {approx}4 from z {approx} 2 to 1 and remain nearly constant at z < 1. However, some galaxies as massive as log M{sub *}/M{sub sun} = 11.5 are already in place at z {approx} 2.

  19. Metabolomics-Based Analysis of Banana and Pear Ingestion on Exercise Performance and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Sha, Wei; Meaney, Mary Pat; John, Casey; Pappan, Kirk L; Kinchen, Jason M

    2015-12-04

    Bananas and pears vary in sugar and phenolic profiles, and metabolomics was utilized to measure their influence on exercise performance and recovery. Male athletes (N = 20) cycled for 75 km while consuming water (WATER), bananas (BAN), or pears (PEAR) (0.6 g carbohydrate/kg each hour) in randomized order. UPLC-MS/MS and the library of purified standards maintained by Metabolon (Durham, NC) were used to analyze metabolite shifts in pre- and postexercise (0-h, 1.5-h, 21-h) blood samples. Performance times were 5.0% and 3.3% faster during BAN and PEAR versus WATER (P = 0.018 and P = 0.091, respectively), with reductions in cortisol, IL-10, and total leukocytes, and increases in blood glucose, insulin, and FRAP. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) showed a distinct separation between trials immediately (R(2)Y = 0.877, Q(2)Y = 0.457) and 1.5-h postexercise (R(2)Y = 0.773, Q(2)Y = 0.441). A total of 107 metabolites (primarily lipid-related) increased more than 2-fold during WATER, with a 48% and 52% reduction in magnitude during BAN and PEAR recovery (P < 0.001). Increases in metabolites unique to BAN and PEAR included fructose and fruit constituents, and sulfated phenolics that were related to elevated FRAP. These data indicate that BAN and PEAR ingestion improves 75-km cycling performance, attenuates fatty acid utilization and oxidation, and contributes unique phenolics that augment antioxidant capacity.

  20. Crystal structure of 2A proteinase from hand, foot and mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhixia; Wang, Bei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Gao, Xiaopan; Qin, Bo; Zhao, Zhendong; Cui, Sheng

    2013-11-15

    EV71 is responsible for several epidemics worldwide; however, the effective antiviral drug is unavailable to date. The 2A proteinase (2A(pro)) of EV71 presents a promising drug target due to its multiple roles in virus replication, inhibition of host protein synthesis and evasion of innate immunity. We determined the crystal structure of EV71 2A(pro) at 1.85Å resolution, revealing that the proteinase maintains a chymotrypsin-like fold. The active site is composed of the catalytic triads C110A, H21 and D39 with the geometry similar to that in other picornaviral 2A(pro), 3C(pro) and serine proteinases. The cI-to-eI2 loop at the N-terminal domain of EV71 2A(pro) adopts a highly stable conformation and contributes to the hydrophilic surface property, which are strikingly different in HRV2 2A(pro) but are similar in CVB4 2A(pro). We identified a hydrophobic motif "LLWL" followed by an acidic motif "DEE" at the C-terminus of EV71 2A(pro). The "LLWL" motif is folded into the β-turn structure that is essential for the positioning of the acidic motif. Our structural and mutagenesis study demonstrated that both the negative charging and the correct positioning of the C-terminus are essential for EV71 replication. Deletion of the "LLWL" motif abrogated the proteolytic activity, indicating that the motif is critical for maintaining the active proteinase conformation. Our findings provide the structural and functional insights into EV71 2A(pro) and establish a framework for structure-based inhibitor design.

  1. Effect of grapefruit juice and food on the pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone in healthy Chinese volunteers: a diet-drug interaction study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinqing; Shang, Dewei; Xu, Xinwen; He, Xiuling; Ni, Xiaojia; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Zhanzhang; Qiu, Chang; Deng, Shuhua; Lu, Haoyang; Zhu, Xiuqing; Huang, Wencan; Wen, Yuguan

    2016-01-01

    1. Ingestion of grapefruit juice and food could be factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone, a promising drug for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. 2. A randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study was carried out in 12 healthy Chinese male volunteers who were randomized to one of the three treatments: pirfenidone tablets (0.4 g) were orally administered to fasted or fed subjects, or with grapefruit juice. The washout period was 7 d. 3. Significantly reduced maximum plasma concentration (Cmax, 5.0 5 ± 1.39 versus 10.9 0 ± 2.94 mg·L(- 1)), modestly affected area-under-the-plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to 12 h post dosing (AUC0-12 h, 21.8 9 ± 6.47 versus 26.1 6 ± 7.32 mg·h·L(- 1)) and delayed time to reach Cmax (Tmax) were observed in fed group compared with fasted group. Similar effects on Cmax (5.8 2 ± 1.23 versus 10.9 0 ± 2.94 mg·L(- 1)) and AUC0-12 h (modest but not statistically significant, 24.4 4 ± 7.40 versus 26.1 6 ± 7.32 mg·h·L(- 1)) were observed for grapefruit juice compared to fasted subjects. 4. Co-administration of pirfenidone with grapefruit juice resulted in modestly reduced overall oral absorption and significantly reduced peak concentrations compared to fasting, which was similar to effect of food ingestion. No adverse events were observed in the study, but relatively dramatic reduction of peak concentrations should raise concerns for clinical efficacy and safety.

  2. Thermal neutron capture cross section for 56Fe(n ,γ )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.; Belgya, T.; Krtička, M.; Bečvář, F.; Szentmikloṡi, L.; Tomandl, I.

    2017-01-01

    The 56Fe(n ,γ ) thermal neutron capture cross section and the 57Fe level scheme populated by this reaction have been investigated in this work. Singles γ -ray spectra were measured with an isotopically enriched 56Fe target using the guided cold neutron beam at the Budapest Reactor, and γ γ -coincidence data were measured with a natural Fe target at the LWR-15 research reactor in Řež, Czech Republic. A detailed level scheme consisting of 448 γ rays populating/depopulating 97 levels and the capture state in 57Fe has been constructed, and ≈99 % of the total transition intensity has been placed. The transition probability of the 352-keV γ ray was determined to be Pγ(352 ) =11.90 ±0.07 per 100 neutron captures. The 57Fe level scheme is substantially revised from earlier work and ≈33 previously assigned levels could not be confirmed while a comparable number of new levels were added. The 57Feγ -ray cross sections were internally calibrated with respect to 1H and 32Sγ -ray cross section standards using iron(III) acetylacetonate (C15H21FeO6) and iron pyrite (FeS2) targets. The thermal neutron cross section for production of the 352-keV γ -ray cross section was determined to be σγ(352 ) =0.2849 ±0.015 b. The total 56Fe(n ,γ ) thermal radiative neutron cross section is derived from the 352-keV γ -ray cross section and transition probability as σ0=2.394 ±0.019 b. A least-squares fit of the γ rays to the level scheme gives the 57Fe neutron separation energy Sn=7646.183 ±0.018 keV.

  3. Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Grimalt, J.O.; Albaiges, J. ); Yruela, I.; Saizjimenez, C. ); Toja, J. ); Leeuw, J.W. De. )

    1991-09-01

    A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C{sub 30}-C{sub 32}, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5{alpha}(H)- and 5{beta}(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17{beta}(H), 21{beta}(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C{sub 30}-C{sub 33} hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

  4. Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimalt, J. O.; Yruela, I.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Toja, J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Albaigés, J.

    1991-09-01

    A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C30-C32, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5α(H)- and 5β(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17β(H),21β(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C30-C33 hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

  5. Photometric redshifts and clustering of emission line galaxies selected jointly by DES and eBOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouvel, S.; et al.

    2015-09-23

    We present the results of the first test plates of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. This paper focuses on the emission line galaxies (ELG) population targetted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry. We analyse the success rate, efficiency, redshift distribution, and clustering properties of the targets. From the 9000 spectroscopic redshifts targetted, 4600 have been selected from the DES photometry. The total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71\\% and 68\\% respectively for a bright and faint, on average more distant, samples including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. We find a mean redshift of 0.8 and 0.87, with 15 and 13\\% of unknown redshifts respectively for the bright and faint samples. In the redshift range 0.6h < -21.0. We note that biasing is derived from the galaxy clustering relative to a model for the mass fluctuations. We investigate the quality of the DES photometric redshifts and find that the outlier fraction can be reduced using a comparison between template fitting and neural network, or using a random forest algorithm.

  6. Fallout plume of submerged oil from Deepwater Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, David L.; Fisher, G. Burch; Bagby, Sarah C.; Nelson, Robert K.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Sylva, Sean P.; Woo, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico led to uncontrolled emission of oil to the ocean, with an official government estimate of ∼5.0 million barrels released. Among the pressing uncertainties surrounding this event is the fate of ∼2 million barrels of submerged oil thought to have been trapped in deep-ocean intrusion layers at depths of ∼1,000–1,300 m. Here we use chemical distributions of hydrocarbons in >3,000 sediment samples from 534 locations to describe a footprint of oil deposited on the deep-ocean floor. Using a recalcitrant biomarker of crude oil, 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (hopane), we have identified a 3,200-km2 region around the Macondo Well contaminated by ∼1.8 ± 1.0 × 106 g of excess hopane. Based on spatial, chemical, oceanographic, and mass balance considerations, we calculate that this contamination represents 4–31% of the oil sequestered in the deep ocean. The pattern of contamination points to deep-ocean intrusion layers as the source and is most consistent with dual modes of deposition: a “bathtub ring” formed from an oil-rich layer of water impinging laterally upon the continental slope (at a depth of ∼900–1,300 m) and a higher-flux “fallout plume” where suspended oil particles sank to underlying sediment (at a depth of ∼1,300–1,700 m). We also suggest that a significant quantity of oil was deposited on the ocean floor outside this area but so far has evaded detection because of its heterogeneous spatial distribution. PMID:25349409

  7. New insights into the mechanism of dihydrodipicolinate synthase using isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Muscroft-Taylor, Andrew C; Soares da Costa, Tatiana P; Gerrard, Juliet A

    2010-03-01

    Thermodynamic binding information, obtained via isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), provides new insights into the binding of substrates, and of allosteric inhibitor interactions of dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) from Escherichia coli. DHDPS catalyses the first committed step in (S)-lysine biosynthesis: the Schiff-base mediated aldol condensation of pyruvate with (S)-aspartate semi-aldehyde. Binding studies indicate that pyruvate is a weak binder (0.023 mM) but that (S)-ASA does not interact with the enzyme in the absence of a Schiff-base with pyruvate. These results support the assignment of a ping pong catalytic mechanism in which enthalpically driven Schiff-base formation (DeltaH = -44.5 +/- 0.1 kJ mol(-1)) provides the thermodynamic impetus for pyruvate association. The second substrate, (S)-ASA, was observed to bind to a Schiff-base mimic (DeltaH = -2.8 +/- 0.1 kJ mol(-1)) formed through the reduction of the intermediate pyruvyl-Schiff-base complex. The binding interaction of (S)-lysine was characterised as a cooperative event in which an entropic pre-organisation step (TDeltaS = 17.6 +/- 1.1 kJ mol(-1)) precedes a secondary enthalpic association (DeltaH = -21.6 +/- 0.2 kJ mol(-1)). This allosteric association was determined to be of a mixed competitive nature in which heterotropic ligand cooperativity was observed to subtly influence the binding events. These results offer new insights into the inhibition of this enzyme, a validated antibiotic target.

  8. Persistence and biodegradation of oil at the ocean floor following Deepwater Horizon.

    PubMed

    Bagby, Sarah C; Reddy, Christopher M; Aeppli, Christoph; Fisher, G Burch; Valentine, David L

    2017-01-03

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster introduced an unprecedented discharge of oil into the deep Gulf of Mexico. Considerable uncertainty has persisted regarding the oil's fate and effects in the deep ocean. In this work we assess the compound-specific rates of biodegradation for 125 aliphatic, aromatic, and biomarker petroleum hydrocarbons that settled to the deep ocean floor following release from the damaged Macondo Well. Based on a dataset comprising measurements of up to 168 distinct hydrocarbon analytes in 2,980 sediment samples collected within 4 y of the spill, we develop a Macondo oil "fingerprint" and conservatively identify a subset of 312 surficial samples consistent with contamination by Macondo oil. Three trends emerge from analysis of the biodegradation rates of 125 individual hydrocarbons in these samples. First, molecular structure served to modulate biodegradation in a predictable fashion, with the simplest structures subject to fastest loss, indicating that biodegradation in the deep ocean progresses similarly to other environments. Second, for many alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation occurred in two distinct phases, consistent with rapid loss while oil particles remained suspended followed by slow loss after deposition to the seafloor. Third, the extent of biodegradation for any given sample was influenced by the hydrocarbon content, leading to substantially greater hydrocarbon persistence among the more highly contaminated samples. In addition, under some conditions we find strong evidence for extensive degradation of numerous petroleum biomarkers, notably including the native internal standard 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane, commonly used to calculate the extent of oil weathering.

  9. Methanogenesis produces strong 13C enrichment in stromatolites of Lagoa Salgada, Brazil: a modern analogue for Palaeo-/Neoproterozoic stromatolites?

    PubMed

    Birgel, D; Meister, P; Lundberg, R; Horath, T D; Bontognali, T R R; Bahniuk, A M; de Rezende, C E; Vasconcelos, C; McKenzie, J A

    2015-05-01

    Holocene stromatolites characterized by unusually positive inorganic δ(13) CPDB values (i.e. up to +16‰) are present in Lagoa Salgada, a seasonally brackish to hypersaline lagoon near Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Such positive values cannot be explained by phototrophic fixation of CO2 alone, and they suggest that methanogenesis was a dominating process during the growth of the stromatolites. Indeed, up to 5 mm methane was measured in the porewater. The archaeal membrane lipid archaeol showing δ(13) C values between -15 and 0‰ suggests that archaea are present and producing methane in the modern lagoon sediment. Moreover, (13) C-depleted hopanoids diplopterol and 3β-methylated C32 17β(H),21β(H)-hopanoic acid (both -40‰) are preserved in lagoon sediments and are most likely derived from aerobic methanotrophic bacteria thriving in the methane-enriched water column. Loss of isotopically light methane through the water column would explain the residual (13) C-enriched pool of dissolved inorganic carbon from where the carbonate constituting the stromatolites precipitated. The predominance of methanogenic archaea in the lagoon is most likely a result of sulphate limitation, suppressing the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria under brackish conditions in a seasonally humid tropical environment. Indeed, sulphate-reduction activity is very low in the modern sediments. In absence of an efficient carbonate-inducing metabolic process, we propose that stromatolite formation in Lagoa Salgada was abiotically induced, while the (13) C-enriched organic and inorganic carbon pools are due to methanogenesis. Unusually, (13) C-enriched stromatolitic deposits also appear in the geological record of prolonged periods in the Palaeo- and Neoproterozoic. Lagoa Salgada represents a possible modern analogue to conditions that may have been widespread in the Proterozoic, at times when low sulphate concentrations in sea water allowed methanogens to prevail over sulphate

  10. An Independent Evaluation of a Novel Peptide Mimetic, Brilacidin (PMX30063), for Ocular Anti-Infective

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Eric G.; Yates, Kathleen A.; Mah, Francis S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Brilacidin (BRI), a novel defensin mimetic, was evaluated as an ocular anti-infective. Methods: In vitro: Potency based on MIC90s was compared for 50 Staphylococcus aureus (SA), 50 Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), and 25 each of Streptococcus pneumonia (SP), Streptococcus viridans (SV), Moraxella (MS), Haemophilus influenzae (HI), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), and Serratia marcescens (SM). In vivo: Using established methods, ocular toxicity was graded with Draize testing. For efficacy testing, both corneas of 24 rabbits were infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), whereas the corneal epithelium was removed in the left eye. After 4 h, 21 topical drops over 5 h were administered to 4 groups: BRI 0.5%, vancomycin (VAN) 5%, saline, and no treatment. The eyes were clinically graded and the corneas were harvested for colony counts. Results: In vitro: Both SA and SE had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations among the bacterial groups. The MIC90s to BRI for SP, SV, MS, HI, PA, and SM were 4, 32, 256, 32, 16, and 128-fold higher, respectively, than SA and SE. In vivo: Draize testing determined BRI 0.5% to be minimally irritating. For abraded corneas, BRI was not statistically different from VAN for reducing MRSA. BRI was bactericidal. For intact corneas, VAN reduced more CFU than BRI. BRI reduced CFU in abraded corneas more than intact corneas suggesting poor corneal penetration. Conclusions: BRI has Gram-positive in vitro activity; topical BRI 0.5% was minimally irritating; and BRI 0.5% was equally efficacious as VAN in a MRSA keratitis model when the corneal epithelium was removed. PMID:26501484

  11. An isotopic biogeochemical study of the Green River oil shale.

    PubMed

    Collister, J W; Summons, R E; Lichtfouse, E; Hayes, J M

    1992-12-01

    Thirty-five different samples from three different sulfur cycles were examined in this stratigraphically oriented study of the Shell 22x-l well (U.S.G.S. C177 core) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Carbon isotopic compositions of constituents of Green River bitumens indicate mixing of three main components: products of primary photoautotrophs and their immediate consumers (delta approximately -30% vs PDB), products of methanotrophic bacteria (delta approximately -85%), and products of unknown bacteria (delta approximately -40%). For individual compounds synthesized by primary producers, delta-values ranged from -28 to -32%. 13C contents of individual primary products (beta-carotane, steranes, acyclic isoprenoids, tricyclic triterpenoids) were not closely correlated, suggesting diverse origins for these materials. 13C contents of numerous hopanoids were inversely related to sulfur abundance, indicating that they derived both from methanotrophs and from other bacteria, with abundances of methanotrophs depressed when sulfur was plentiful in the paleoenvironment. gamma-Cerane coeluted with 3 beta(CH3),17 alpha(H),21 beta(H)-hopane, but delta-values could be determined after deconvolution. gamma-Cerane (delta approximately -25%) probably derives from a eukaryotic heterotroph grazing on primary materials, the latter compound (delta approximately -90%) must derive from methanotrophic organisms. 13C contents of n-alkanes in bitumen differed markedly from those of paraffins generated pyrolytically. Isotopic and quantitative relationships suggest that alkanes released by pyrolysis derived from a resistant biopolymer of eukaryotic origin and that this was a dominant constituent of total organic carbon.

  12. An Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon Decreases the Cost of Uphill Walking and Running

    PubMed Central

    Vernillo, Gianluca; Savoldelli, Aldo; Skafidas, Spyros; Zignoli, Andrea; La Torre, Antonio; Pellegrini, Barbara; Giardini, Guido; Trabucchi, Pietro; Millet, Grégoire P.; Schena, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of the world's most challenging mountain ultramarathon (MUM, 330 km, cumulative elevation gain of +24,000 m) on the energy cost and kinematics of different uphill gaits. Methods: Before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the competition, 19 male athletes performed three submaximal 5-min treadmill exercise trials in a randomized order: walking at 5 km·h−1, +20%; running at 6 km·h−1, +15%; and running at 8 km·h−1, +10%. During the three trials, energy cost was assessed using an indirect calorimetry system and spatiotemporal gait parameters were acquired with a floor-level high-density photoelectric cells system. Results: The average time of the study participants to complete the MUM was 129 h 43 min 48 s (range: 107 h 29 min 24 s to 144 h 21 min 0 s). Energy costs in walking (−11.5 ± 5.5%, P < 0.001), as well as in the first (−7.2 ± 3.1%, P = 0.01) and second (−7.0 ± 3.9%, P = 0.02) running condition decreased between PRE and POST, with a reduction both in the heart rate (−11.3, −10.0, and −9.3%, respectively) and oxygen uptake only for the walking condition (−6.5%). No consistent and significant changes in the kinematics variables were detected (P-values from 0.10 to 0.96). Conclusion: Though fatigued after completing the MUM, the subjects were still able to maintain their uphill locomotion patterns noted at PRE. The decrease (improvement) in the energy costs was likely due to the prolonged and repetitive walking/running, reflecting a generic improvement in the mechanical efficiency of locomotion after ~130 h of uphill locomotion rather than constraints imposed by the activity on the musculoskeletal structure and function. PMID:27877137

  13. Scanning tunneling microscopy study of molecular order at liquid-solid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magonov, S. N.; Wawkuschewski, A.; Cantow, H.-J.; Liang, W.; Whangbo, M.-H.

    1994-08-01

    Adsorbates of normal alkane C36H74, cycloalkanes (CH2)48 and (CH2)72, decanol C10H21OH, 4-hexyl-4'-CyanoBiphenyl (6CB) and 4-octyl-4t'-CyanoBiphenyl (8CB) on graphite and β-Nb3I8 were studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), and the molecular arrangements at the liquid-solid interface were examined. Large-scale STM images show that the adsorbates possess complex multilayered structures, and that molecular ordering at the liquid-solid interfaces occurs primarily in the immediate vicinity of the substrate. Molecular-scale STM images are primarily determined by the electronic contributions of the most protruded atoms of the topmost overlayer. The underlying overlayers and the substrate affect the images indirectly by perturbing the topography of the topmost overlayer. The STM images of the adsorbates on graphite show that the atomically flat surface of graphite leads organic molecules to form lamella-like structures, while on the grooved surface of β-Nb3I8, long chain-like molecules are trapped in the grooves. We were unable to image the cycloalkanes on β-Nb3I8, which suggests that the cycloalkanes cannot assemble on the grooved surface due to a mismatch between the molecular shape and surface topography. The layers of 6CB and 8CB adsorbed on β-Nb3I8 exhibit two types of domains, which may be related to how the grooves of the β-Nb3I8 surface are occupied by the organic molecules. The STM images of decanol adsorbed on β-Nb3I8 show two domains of different brightness. The relative brightness of these domains switches reversibly as the gap resistance is changed in the region around -60 MΩ.

  14. Design of N-doped anatase TiO2 photocatalyst with visible-light-response based on Ti-O bond weakening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.-C.; Liu, G.; Cheng, H.-M.; Advanced Carbon Division Team

    2013-03-01

    Nitrogen bulk doping is an effective strategy to change the electronic structures of anatase TiO2 photocatalyst for visible light response improvement. Unfortunately, it is hard to achieve nitrogen bulk doping in practice, due to both limited thermodynamic solubility of substitutional nitrogen and N-induced recombination centers. It remains challenging yet highly desirable to develop new doping approach to increase nitrogen solubility in bulk. This challenge is originally stemmed from both strong Ti-O bond and charge difference (O2- versus N3-) between lattice oxygen and nitrogen dopant. In this work, we propose a new doping approach to promote the bulk substitution of lattice oxygen with nitrogen in bulk anatase TiO2, based on the Ti-O bond weakening by pre-implanted interstitial boron.1 By using the first-principles calculations, we study the interstitial boron induced Ti-O bonding weakening and the thermodynamics/kinetics changes for nitrogen bulk doping.2 In experiment, we realize to synthesize a bulk gradient B-N co-doping red anatase TiO2 microsphere which has an extended absorption edge up to ca. 700 nm covering the full visible light spectrum and has a bandgap varying from 1.94 eV on its surface to 3.22 eV in its core by gradually elevating VBM. This approach could be extended to modify other electronic materials that demand bulk substitutional doping. 1. G. Liu, J. Pan, L. C. Yin et al., Adv. Funct. Mater., 2012, 22, 3233. 2. G. Liu, L. C. Yin, J. Q. Wang et al., Energy Environ. Sci. 2012, 5, 9603. Financial support from Ministry of Science and Technology of China (no. 2009CB220001), NSFC (no. 50921004, 51002160, 21090343, 51172243, 51202255), CAS China (KJCX2-YW-H21-01).

  15. Geochemical imprint of depositional conditions on organic matter in laminated-Bioturbated interbeds from fine-grained marine sequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, L.M.; Claypool, G.E.; King, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Laminated organic-rich shales are interbedded at a scale of centimeters to a few meters with bioturbated organic-poor mudstones or limestones in some fine-grained marine sequences. We have analyzed the organic matter in pairs of laminated/bioturbated interbeds from Cretaceous and Devonian rocks deposited in epicontinental and oceanic settings for the purpose of studying the influence of depositional and early diagenetic environment on the organic geochemical properties of marine shales. Results of these analyses indicate that for rocks that are still in a diagenetic stage of thermal alteration, the relative abundance of biomarker compounds and specific biomarker indices can be useful indicators of depositional and early diagenetic conditions. Pristane/phytane ratios are generally highest for laminated rocks from epicontinental basins and appear to reflect the input of isoprenoid precursors more than oxygenated versus anoxic depositional conditions. The thermally immature laminated rocks are characterized by relatively high contents of 17??(H), 21??(H)-hopanes, hopenes, sterenes and diasterenes, and by strong predominance of the 22R over 22S homohopane isomers. Thermally immature bioturbated samples are characterized by absence of the ??,??-hopanes, by low contents of both saturated and unsaturated polycyclic hydrocarbons, and by slight or no predominance of the 22R over 22S homohopane isomers. There are less obvious compositional differences between the saturated hydrocarbons in the laminated and bioturbated units from the thermally mature sequences. For both the thermally mature and immature laminated samples, the degree of isomerization at the 22C position for hopanes and at the 20C position for steranes is generally consistent with the degree of thermal maturity interpreted from other properties of the organic matter. The bioturbated samples, however, exhibit inconsistent and anomalously high degrees of isomerization for the homohopanes, resulting either from

  16. Genetic characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolates from goat's milk and goat farm environment.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Suárez, María-Elena; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Blanco, Miguel; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Santos, Jesús A

    2016-11-07

    The aim of this study was to characterize a collection of 44 Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolated from goat milk and goat farm environment. Of the 19 STEC isolates, five (26.3%) carried the stx1 gene, four (21.1%) the stx2 gene and 10 (52.6%) presented both stx genes. Six (31.6%) STEC strains were eae-positive and belonged to serotypes related to severe human disease (O157:H7 and O5:HNM). Another seven STEC strains were of serotype O146:H21 and three of serotype O166:H28, also linked to human disease. The STEC strains isolated from goat milk were of serotypes potentially pathogenic for humans. All the 25 EPEC isolates were considered atypical (aEPEC) and one aEPEC strain was of serotype O26:H11, a serotype frequently isolated in children with diarrhea. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out with seven housekeeping genes and 23 sequence types (ST) were detected, 14 of them newly described. Twelve STs grouped STEC isolates and 11 STs grouped EPEC isolates. Genetic typing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) resulted in 38 patterns which grouped in 10 clusters. Well-defined groups were also observed for strains of pathogenic serotypes. In conclusion, strains of STEC and aEPEC belonging to serotypes related to severe human disease have been detected in goat milk and the goat farm environment. Ruminants are an important reservoir of STEC strains and the role of these animals as carriers of other pathogenic types of E. coli seems to be an emerging concern.

  17. Protection against Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli by Non-Genetically Modified Organism Receptor Mimic Bacterial Ghosts.

    PubMed

    Paton, Adrienne W; Chen, Austen Y; Wang, Hui; McAllister, Lauren J; Höggerl, Florian; Mayr, Ulrike Beate; Shewell, Lucy K; Jennings, Michael P; Morona, Renato; Lubitz, Werner; Paton, James C

    2015-09-01

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) causes severe gastrointestinal infections in humans that may lead to life-threatening systemic sequelae, such as the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Rapid diagnosis of STEC infection early in the course of disease opens a window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention, for example, by administration of agents that neutralize Shiga toxin (Stx) in the gut lumen. We previously developed a recombinant bacterium that expresses a mimic of the Stx receptor globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb3) on its surface through modification of the lipopolysaccharide (A. W. Paton, R. Morona, and J. C. Paton, Nat Med 6:265-270, 2000, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/73111). This construct was highly efficacious in vivo, protecting mice from otherwise fatal STEC disease, but the fact that it is a genetically modified organism (GMO) has been a barrier to clinical development. In the present study, we have overcome this issue by development of Gb3 receptor mimic bacterial ghosts (BGs) that are not classified as GMOs. Gb3-BGs neutralized Stx1 and Stx2 in vitro with high efficiency, whereas alternative Gb3-expressing non-GMO subbacterial particles (minicells and outer membrane blebs) were ineffective. Gb3-BGs were highly efficacious in a murine model of STEC disease. All mice (10/10) treated with Gb3-BGs survived challenge with a highly virulent O113:H21 STEC strain and showed no pathological signs of renal injury. In contrast, 6/10 mice treated with control BGs succumbed to STEC challenge, and survivors exhibited significant weight loss, neutrophilia, and histopathological evidence of renal damage. Thus, Gb3-BGs offer a non-GMO approach to treatment of STEC infection in humans, particularly in an outbreak setting.

  18. Protection against Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli by Non-Genetically Modified Organism Receptor Mimic Bacterial Ghosts

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Adrienne W.; Chen, Austen Y.; Wang, Hui; McAllister, Lauren J.; Höggerl, Florian; Mayr, Ulrike Beate; Shewell, Lucy K.; Jennings, Michael P.; Morona, Renato; Lubitz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) causes severe gastrointestinal infections in humans that may lead to life-threatening systemic sequelae, such as the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Rapid diagnosis of STEC infection early in the course of disease opens a window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention, for example, by administration of agents that neutralize Shiga toxin (Stx) in the gut lumen. We previously developed a recombinant bacterium that expresses a mimic of the Stx receptor globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb3) on its surface through modification of the lipopolysaccharide (A. W. Paton, R. Morona, and J. C. Paton, Nat Med 6:265–270, 2000, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/73111). This construct was highly efficacious in vivo, protecting mice from otherwise fatal STEC disease, but the fact that it is a genetically modified organism (GMO) has been a barrier to clinical development. In the present study, we have overcome this issue by development of Gb3 receptor mimic bacterial ghosts (BGs) that are not classified as GMOs. Gb3-BGs neutralized Stx1 and Stx2 in vitro with high efficiency, whereas alternative Gb3-expressing non-GMO subbacterial particles (minicells and outer membrane blebs) were ineffective. Gb3-BGs were highly efficacious in a murine model of STEC disease. All mice (10/10) treated with Gb3-BGs survived challenge with a highly virulent O113:H21 STEC strain and showed no pathological signs of renal injury. In contrast, 6/10 mice treated with control BGs succumbed to STEC challenge, and survivors exhibited significant weight loss, neutrophilia, and histopathological evidence of renal damage. Thus, Gb3-BGs offer a non-GMO approach to treatment of STEC infection in humans, particularly in an outbreak setting. PMID:26099582

  19. Deposition and Biodegradation of Submerged Oil from the Deepwater Horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagby, S. C.; Fisher, G. B.; Reddy, C. M.; Valentine, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 sinking of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico caused the release of ~5 million barrels of oil to the deep ocean. Roughly half of this oil, ~2 million barrels, is believed to have been trapped ~1000-1300 m deep in the water column, in plumes comprising water-soluble hydrocarbons in the aqueous phase and water-insoluble oil particles in suspension. While the soluble fraction was subject to rapid biodegradation, the fate of the oil particles has remained unknown. Using 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (hopane) as a conservative marker of water-insoluble crude oil, we have examined the sediment data collected in support of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process and identified a 3200-km2 depositional footprint surrounding the Macondo well. Under conservative assumptions, we estimate that this footprint accounts for ~12% of the suspended liquid oil. Monte Carlo modeling of the distribution of surficial hopane concentrations provides an initial estimate of the size distribution and spatial density of deposited particles, and suggests that the local spatial heterogeneity of particle deposition is likely to be extremely high, such that low-density sediment sampling is unlikely to capture the true extent of deposition. Thus, the 'missing' oil may be hiding in plain sight. Finally, we examined the spatial and temporal concentration distribution of >100 hydrocarbon compounds in relation to hopane, finding that, while there is clear evidence for biodegradation of many compounds, biodegradative efficiency appears to be impeded by high concentrations of oil, perhaps reflecting the low surface area to volume ratio of large oil particles.

  20. Preparation and characterization of rifampicin-PLGA microspheres/sodium alginate in situ gel combination delivery system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunhui; Feng, Hanzhou; Zhu, Chunyan

    2012-06-15

    We prepared a complex drug delivery system consisted of rifampicin-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres in combination with sodium alginate in situ gel. The microspheres were obtained by using a solvent evaporation method, the mean diameter was 1.748 μm and the span of particle distribution was 0.78. The combination delivery system was obtained by adding microspheres to sodium alginate solution followed by physically mixing. In an in vitro study of drug release monitored for 11 days, the release of rifampicin from combination delivery system was slower than microspheres. The cumulative release percent of rifampicin from combination delivery system was 91.83 ± 1.26%, which was lower than 97.36 ± 3.41% of rifampicin released from microspheres. An in vivo fluorescence imaging study suggests that the gel adhered to lungs within 24h, and microspheres stayed in lungs at least for 504 h (21 days). In vivo drug release study indicates that the maximum local rifampicin concentration in lungs was 48.60 ± 15.67 μg mL(-1) 5h after administration. After 21 days, the local rifampicin concentration was 0.81±0.14μgmL(-1), which was above the minimum inhibitory concentration of rifampicin. The combination delivery system significantly prolonged RFP release compared to microspheres, from which RFP released could only be detected for 10 days. This approach to control the release of rifampicin using PLGA microspheres/in situ gel combination delivery system in conjunction with interventional technology is useful for improving anti-tuberculosis treatment effectiveness for patients.

  1. Early attachment sites for Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in experimentally inoculated weaned calves.

    PubMed

    Dean-Nystrom, Evelyn A; Stoffregen, William C; Bosworth, Brad T; Moon, Harley W; Pohlenz, Joachim F

    2008-10-01

    Weaned 3- to 4-month-old calves were fasted for 48 h, inoculated with 10(10) CFU of Shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 strain 86-24 (STEC O157) or STEC O91:H21 strain B2F1 (STEC O91), Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 strain 87-23 (Stx(-) O157), or a nonpathogenic control E. coli strain, necropsied 4 days postinoculation, and examined bacteriologically and histologically. Some calves were treated with dexamethasone (DEX) for 5 days (3 days before, on the day of, and 1 day after inoculation). STEC O157 bacteria were recovered from feces, intestines, or gall bladders of 74% (40/55) of calves 4 days after they were inoculated with STEC O157. Colon and cecum were sites from which inoculum-type bacteria were most often recovered. Histologic lesions of attaching-and-effacing (A/E) O157(+) bacteria were observed in 69% (38/55) of the STEC O157-inoculated calves. Rectum, ileocecal valve, and distal colon were sites most likely to contain A/E O157(+) bacteria. Fecal and intestinal levels of STEC O157 bacteria were significantly higher and A/E O157(+) bacteria were more common in DEX-treated calves than in nontreated calves inoculated with STEC O157. Fecal STEC O157 levels were significantly higher than Stx(-) O157, STEC O91, or control E. coli; only STEC O157 cells were recovered from tissues. Identifying the rectum, ileocecal valve, and distal colon as early STEC O157 colonization sites and finding that DEX treatment enhances the susceptibility of weaned calves to STEC O157 colonization will facilitate the identification and evaluation of interventions aimed at reducing STEC O157 infection in cattle.

  2. An isotopic biogeochemical study of the Green River oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collister, J. W.; Summons, R. E.; Lichtfouse, E.; Hayes, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-five different samples from three different sulfur cycles were examined in this stratigraphically oriented study of the Shell 22x-l well (U.S.G.S. C177 core) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Carbon isotopic compositions of constituents of Green River bitumens indicate mixing of three main components: products of primary photoautotrophs and their immediate consumers (delta approximately -30% vs PDB), products of methanotrophic bacteria (delta approximately -85%), and products of unknown bacteria (delta approximately -40%). For individual compounds synthesized by primary producers, delta-values ranged from -28 to -32%. 13C contents of individual primary products (beta-carotane, steranes, acyclic isoprenoids, tricyclic triterpenoids) were not closely correlated, suggesting diverse origins for these materials. 13C contents of numerous hopanoids were inversely related to sulfur abundance, indicating that they derived both from methanotrophs and from other bacteria, with abundances of methanotrophs depressed when sulfur was plentiful in the paleoenvironment. gamma-Cerane coeluted with 3 beta(CH3),17 alpha(H),21 beta(H)-hopane, but delta-values could be determined after deconvolution. gamma-Cerane (delta approximately -25%) probably derives from a eukaryotic heterotroph grazing on primary materials, the latter compound (delta approximately -90%) must derive from methanotrophic organisms. 13C contents of n-alkanes in bitumen differed markedly from those of paraffins generated pyrolytically. Isotopic and quantitative relationships suggest that alkanes released by pyrolysis derived from a resistant biopolymer of eukaryotic origin and that this was a dominant constituent of total organic carbon.

  3. Mandibular Advancement Device as a Comparable Treatment to Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Positional Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Tsuiki, Satoru; Kobayashi, Mina; Komada, Yoko; Nakayama, Hideaki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Positional obstructive sleep apnea (P-OSA) is a clinically common phenotype of OSA, which can be treated effectively with mandibular advancement devices (MADs). We hypothesized that the efficacy of an MAD is comparable to that of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in P-OSA patients. Methods: Among patients diagnosed with OSA at a single sleep center from January 2008 to May 2014, male subjects with moderate OSA were recruited and stringently categorized as having P-OSA when the ratio of their lateral apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) to supine AHI was ≤ 0.5, their lateral sleep time was > 60 minutes, and their lateral REM sleep time was longer than 10 minutes. Treatment efficacy was compared between P-OSA subjects with an MAD (n = 34) and those with nCPAP (n = 34) after matching for age, body-mass index, and baseline AHI. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline AHI (MAD: nCPAP = 20.6 ± 3.9/h: 21.3 ± 1.7/h, p = 0.35) or in follow-up AHI (MAD: nCPAP = 4.7 ± 3.5/h: 3.4 ± 3.7/h, p = 0.12) between the 2 treatment groups, and hence MADs lowered the AHI to the same extent as nCPAP. Conclusions: These findings suggest that an MAD is as efficacious as nCPAP for P-OSA patients. MAD treatment for this specific phenotype may be a promising patient-tailored and first-line approach to OSA. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1079. Citation: Takaesu Y, Tsuiki S, Kobayashi M, Komada Y, Nakayama H, Inoue Y. Mandibular advancement device as a comparable treatment to nasal continuous positive airway pressure for positional obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(8):1113–1119. PMID:27250814

  4. Myocardialization of the cardiac outflow tract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van den Hoff, M. J.; Moorman, A. F.; Ruijter, J. M.; Lamers, W. H.; Bennington, R. W.; Markwald, R. R.; Wessels, A.

    1999-01-01

    During development, the single-circuited cardiac tube transforms into a double-circuited four-chambered heart by a complex process of remodeling, differential growth, and septation. In this process the endocardial cushion tissues of the atrioventricular junction and outflow tract (OFT) play a crucial role as they contribute to the mesenchymal components of the developing septa and valves in the developing heart. After fusion, the endocardial ridges in the proximal portion of the OFT initially form a mesenchymal outlet septum. In the adult heart, however, this outlet septum is basically a muscular structure. Hence, the mesenchyme of the proximal outlet septum has to be replaced by cardiomyocytes. We have dubbed this process "myocardialization." Our immunohistochemical analysis of staged chicken hearts demonstrates that myocardialization takes place by ingrowth of existing myocardium into the mesenchymal outlet septum. Compared to other events in cardiac septation, it is a relatively late process, being initialized around stage H/H28 and being basically completed around stage H/H38. To unravel the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the induction and regulation of myocardialization, an in vitro culture system in which myocardialization could be mimicked and manipulated was developed. Using this in vitro myocardialization assay it was observed that under the standard culture conditions (i) whole OFT explants from stage H/H20 and younger did not spontaneously myocardialize the collagen matrix, (ii) explants from stage H/H21 and older spontaneously formed extensive myocardial networks, (iii) the myocardium of the OFT could be induced to myocardialize and was therefore "myocardialization-competent" at all stages tested (H/H16-30), (iv) myocardialization was induced by factors produced by, most likely, the nonmyocardial component of the outflow tract, (v) at none of the embryonic stages analyzed was ventricular myocardium myocardialization-competent, and finally

  5. EMERGENCE OF A BROAD ABSORPTION LINE OUTFLOW IN THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WPVS 007

    SciTech Connect

    Leighly, Karen M.; Casebeer, Darrin A.; Hamann, Fred; Grupe, Dirk

    2009-08-10

    We report results from a 2003 Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observation and reanalysis of a 1996 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observation of the unusual X-ray transient Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy WPVS 007. The HST Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) spectrum revealed mini-BALs (broad absorption lines) with V {sub max} {approx} 900 km s{sup -1} and FWHM {approx}550 km s{sup -1}. The FUSE spectrum showed that an additional BAL outflow with V {sub max} {approx} 6000 km s{sup -1} and FWHM {approx}3400 km s{sup -1} had appeared. WPVS 007 is a low-luminosity object in which such a high-velocity outflow is not expected; therefore, it is an outlier on the M{sub V} /v {sub max} relationship. Template spectral fitting yielded apparent ionic columns, and a Cloudy analysis showed that the presence of P V requires a high-ionization parameter log(U) {>=} 0 and high-column density log(N {sub H}) {>=} 23 assuming solar abundances and a nominal spectral energy distribution (SED) for low-luminosity NLS1s with {alpha} {sub ox} = -1.28. A recent long Swift observation revealed the first hard X-ray detection and an intrinsic (unabsorbed) {alpha} {sub ox} {approx} -1.9. Using this SED in our analysis yielded lower column density constraints (log(N {sub H}) {>=} 22.2 for Z = 1, or log(N {sub H}) {>=} 21.6 if Z = 5). The X-ray weak continuum, combined with X-ray absorption consistent with the UV lines, provides the best explanation for the observed Swift X-ray spectrum. The large column densities and velocities implied by the UV data in any of these scenarios could be problematic for radiative acceleration. We also point out that since the observed P V absorption can be explained by lower total column densities using an intrinsically X-ray weak spectrum, we might expect to find P V absorption preferentially more often (or stronger) in quasars that are intrinsically X-ray weak.

  6. Extensive analysis of N-H...O hydrogen bonding in four classes of phosphorus compounds: a combined experimental and database study.

    PubMed

    Hamzehee, Farahnaz; Pourayoubi, Mehrdad; Nečas, Marek; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane

    2017-03-01

    The N-H...O hydrogen bond is the characteristic interaction in the crystal structures of N-benzyl-P-phenyl-N'-(p-tolyl)phosphonic diamide, C20H21N2OP or (C6H5)P(O)(NHCH2C6H5)(NHC6H4-p-CH3), (I), diphenylphosphinic 1-methylpropylamide, C16H20NOP or (C6H5)2P(O)[NHCH(CH3)(C2H5)], (II), (S)-1-phenylethylammonium N-[(S)-1-phenylethyl]phenylphosphonamidate, C8H12N(+)·C14H15NO2P(-) or [S-(C6H5)CH(CH3)NH3][(C6H5)P(O){S-NHCH(CH3)(C6H5)}(O)], (III), and (4-methylbenzyl)ammonium diphenylphosphinate, C8H12N(+)·C12H10O2P(-) or [4-CH3-C6H4CH2NH3][(C6H5)2P(O)(O)], (IV). This article focuses on the N-H...O hydrogen bonds by considering the structures of (I), (II), (III) and (IV), and reviewing their analogous compounds, including 43 (C)P(O)(N)2, 102 (C)2P(O)(N), 31 (C)P(O)(N)(O) and 96 (C)2P(O)(O) structures, deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). For the structures with a (C)P(O)(N)2 segment, only neutral hydrogen bonds were found in the CSD. The other three classes of compounds included both neutral and `charge-assisted' hydrogen bonds, and the (C)2P(O)(O) structures were particularly noticeable for a high number of cation-anion compounds. The overall tendencies of N...O distances in neutral and cation-anion compounds were compared. The N-H...O hydrogen-bond angles were also analyzed for the four classes of phosphorus compounds.

  7. Occurrence of Hybrid Escherichia coli Strains Carrying Shiga Toxin and Heat-Stable Toxin in Livestock of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Parveen, Rozina; Islam, Atiqul; Sadique, Abdus; Rahim, Md Niaz; Monira, Shirajum; Khan, Anisur R; Ahsan, Sunjukta; Ohnishi, Makoto; Watanabe, Haruo; Chakraborty, Subhra; George, Christine M; Cravioto, Alejandro; Navarro, Armando; Hasan, Badrul; Alam, Munirul

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are important causes of diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. Although ruminant animals are the main source of STEC, diarrhea due to this pathotype is very low in Bangladesh where ETEC remains the predominant group associated with childhood diarrhea. In the present study, E. coli strains (n = 35) isolated from Bangladesh livestock (goats, sheep, and cattle) and poultry (chicken and ducks) were analyzed for the presence of major virulence factors, such as Shiga toxins (STX-1 and STX-2), heat-labile toxin, and heat-stable toxins (STa and STb). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction results revealed 23 (66%) E. coli strains to be virulent possessing either sta (n = 5), stx (stx1, n = 8; stx2, n = 2), or both (n = 8) genes in varying combinations. Thirty-four percent (8/23) of strains from livestock were hybrid type that carried both stx (either stx1 or stx2) and ETEC-specific enterotoxin gene sta. Serotyping results revealed that the ETEC strains belonged to five serotypes, namely O36:H5, O174:H-, O152:H8, O109:H51, and O8:H21, while the STEC-producing strains belonged to serotypes O76:H19 (n = 3), O43:H2 (n = 2), O87:H16 (n = 2), OR:H2 (n = 1), O110:H16 (n = 1), and O152:H8 (n = 1). The STEC-ETEC hybrid strains belonged to serotypes O76:H19 (n = 3), O43:H2 (n = 2), O87:H16, OR:H2, and O152:H8. Forty percent (2/5) of the ETEC and 20% (2/10) of the STEC strains were multidrug resistant with the highest drug resistance (50%) being found in the hybrid strains. Molecular fingerprinting determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and cluster analyses by dendrogram revealed that, genetically, STEC-ETEC hybrid strains were highly heterogeneous. Multidrug-resistant E. coli STEC-ETEC hybrid strains in domesticated animals pose a public health threat for humans in Bangladesh.

  8. Changes in cerebral neurotransmitters and metabolites induced by acute donepezil and memantine administrations: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Shearman, E; Rossi, S; Szasz, B; Juranyi, Z; Fallon, S; Pomara, N; Sershen, H; Lajtha, A

    2006-03-31

    Cholinesterase inhibitors including donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, memantine are the medications currently approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to their beneficial effects on cognitive and functional domains typically disrupted in AD, these agents have also been shown to slow down the emergence of behavioral and psychotic symptoms associated with this disease. However, the underlying mechanisms for these therapeutic effects remain poorly understood and could involve effects of these medications on non-cholinergic or non-glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems respectively. These considerations prompted us to initiate a series of investigations to examine the acute and chronic effects of donepezil (Aricept (+/-)-2,3-dihydro-5,6-dimethoxy-2-[[1-(phenylmethyl)-4-piperidinyl]methyl]-1H-inden-1-1 hydrochloride and memantine (1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane hydrochloride C12H21N.HCl)). The present study focuses on the acute effects of donepezil and memantine on brain extracellular levels of acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine and their metabolites. We assayed changes in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus and the prefrontal and medial temporal cortex by microdialysis. Memantine resulted in significant increases in extracellular dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and their metabolites, in the cortical regions, and in a reduction of DA in the hippocampus. Donepezil produced an increase in extracellular DA in the cortex and in the dorsal hippocampus. Norepinephrine increased in the cortex; with donepezil it increased in the dorsal hippocampus and the medial temporal cortex, and decreased in the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly both compounds decreased extracellular serotonin (5HT) levels. The metabolites of the neurotransmitters were increased in most areas. We also found an increase in extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) by memantine in the nucleus accumbens and the

  9. Asteroid 2013 ND15: Trojan companion to Venus, PHA to the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2014-04-01

    Venus has three known co-orbitals: (322756) 2001 CK32, 2002 VE68 and 2012 XE133. The first two have absolute magnitudes 18 < H < 21. The third one, significantly smaller at H = 23.4 mag, is a recent discovery that signals the probable presence of many other similar objects: small transient companions to Venus that are also potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs). Here, we study the dynamical evolution of the recently discovered asteroid 2013 ND15. At H = 24.1 mag, this minor body is yet another small Venus co-orbital and PHA, currently close to the Lagrangian point L4 and following the most eccentric path found so far for objects in this group. This transient Trojan will leave the 1:1 mean motion resonance within a few hundred years although it could be a recurrent librator. Due to its high eccentricity (0.6), its dynamics is different from that of the other three known Venus co-orbitals even if they all are near-Earth objects (NEOs). A Monte Carlo simulation that uses the orbital data and discovery circumstances of the four objects as proxies to estimate the current size of this population, indicates that the number of high-eccentricity, low-inclination Venus co-orbital NEOs may have been greatly underestimated by current models. Three out of four known objects were discovered with solar elongation at perigee greater than 135° even if visibility estimates show that less than 4 per cent of these objects are expected to reach perigee at such large elongations. Our calculations suggest that the number of minor bodies with sizes above 150 m currently engaged in co-orbital motion with Venus could be at least one order of magnitude larger than usually thought; the number of smaller bodies could easily be in many thousands. These figures have strong implications on the fraction of existing PHAs that can barely be detected by current surveys. Nearly 70 per cent of the objects discussed here have elongation at perigee <90° and 65 per cent are prospective PHAs.

  10. Genotypic Analyses of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157 and Non-O157 Recovered from Feces of Domestic Animals on Rural Farms in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Amézquita-López, Bianca A.; Quiñones, Beatriz; Cooley, Michael B.; León-Félix, Josefina; Castro-del Campo, Nohelia; Mandrell, Robert E.; Jiménez, Maribel; Chaidez, Cristóbal

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic enteric pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. Cattle and small ruminants are important animal reservoirs of STEC. The present study investigated animal reservoirs for STEC in small rural farms in the Culiacan Valley, an important agricultural region located in Northwest Mexico. A total of 240 fecal samples from domestic animals were collected from five sampling sites in the Culiacan Valley and were subjected to an enrichment protocol followed by either direct plating or immunomagnetic separation before plating on selective media. Serotype O157:H7 isolates with the virulence genes stx2, eae, and ehxA were identified in 40% (26/65) of the recovered isolates from cattle, sheep and chicken feces. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis grouped most O157:H7 isolates into two clusters with 98.6% homology. The use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) differentiated isolates that were indistinguishable by PFGE. Analysis of the allelic diversity of MLVA loci suggested that the O157:H7 isolates from this region were highly related. In contrast to O157:H7 isolates, a greater genotypic diversity was observed in the non-O157 isolates, resulting in 23 PFGE types and 14 MLVA types. The relevant non-O157 serotypes O8:H19, O75:H8, O111:H8 and O146:H21 represented 35.4% (23/65) of the recovered isolates. In particular, 18.5% (12/65) of all the isolates were serotype O75:H8, which was the most variable serotype by both PFGE and MLVA. The non-O157 isolates were predominantly recovered from sheep and were identified to harbor either one or two stx genes. Most non-O157 isolates were ehxA-positive (86.5%, 32/37) but only 10.8% (4/37) harbored eae. These findings indicate that zoonotic STEC with genotypes associated with human illness are present in animals on small farms within rural communities in the Culiacan Valley and emphasize the need for the development of control

  11. [μ(2)-Bis(diphenyl-phosphanyl)methane][μ(3)-bis-(diphenyl-phosphanyl)meth-yl]trichlorido-tetra-gold(I) tetra-hydro-furan disolvate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan-Huan; Gao, Qian; Cui, Yue; Wang, Lin; Xie, Ya-Bo

    2011-01-08

    The title tetra-nuclear complex, [Au(4)(C(25)H(21)P(2))Cl(3)(C(25)H(22)P(2))]·2C(4)H(8)O, features two non-equivalent Ph(2)PCPPh(2) fragments, one of which represents the 'complete' mol-ecule (with two H atoms at the central C atom); each of the two P atoms of this mol-ecule is coordinated by an Au atom [Au-P = 2.2256 (13) and 2.2710 (13) Å], and these two Au atoms form an Au-Au bond [3.2945 (3) Å], thus closing the five-membered Au(2)P(2)C ring. The first of these Au atoms has a terminal chlorido ligand [Au-Cl = 2.2806 (12) Å], whereas the second Au atom forms a covalent bond with the central C atom of the bis-(diphenyl-phosphino)methyl group [Au-C = 2.114 (5) Å]; the latter group in turn coordinates with its P atoms the gold atoms of the Cl-Au-Au-Cl group [Au-P = 2.2356 (13) and 2.2338 (13), Au-Au = 3.3177 (3), Au-Cl = 2.3091 (12) and 2.2950 (13) Å], thus closing the second Au(2)P(2)C ring. The two such rings have different chemical functions, but both exhibit envelope conformations. However, the first (with different substituents at the Au atoms) is non-symmetrical with one of the P atoms in the flap position of the envelope; the other one has a conformation with mirror symmetry, and the gold-substituted C atom is displaced by 0.740 (5) Å from the almost exactly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0038 Å) Au(2)P(2) group.

  12. Comparison between air and carbon dioxide insufflation in the endoscopic submucosal excavation of gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei-Bin; Wang, Zi-Hao; Qu, Chun-Ying; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Han; Zhou, Min; Chen, Ying; Xu, Lei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CO2 insufflation compared with air insufflation in the endoscopic submucosal excavation (ESE) of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized to undergo endoscopic submucosal excavation, with the CO2 group (n = 30) and the air group (n = 30) undergoing CO2 insufflation and air insufflation in the ESE, respectively. The end-tidal CO2 level (pETCO2) was observed at 4 time points: at the beginning of ESE, at total removal of the tumors, at completed wound management, and 10 min after ESE. Additionally, the patients’ experience of pain at 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after the examination was registered using a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: Both the CO2 group and air group were similar in mean age, sex, body mass index (all P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in PetCO2 values before and after the procedure (P > 0.05). However, the pain scores after the ESE at different time points in the CO2 group decreased significantly compared with the air group (1 h: 21.2 ± 3.4 vs 61.5 ± 1.7; 3 h: 8.5 ± 0.7 vs 42.9 ± 1.3; 6 h: 4.4 ± 1.6 vs 27.6 ± 1.2; 24 h: 2.3 ± 0.4 vs 21.4 ± 0.7, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the percentage of VAS scores of 0 in the CO2 group after 1, 3, 6 and 24 h was significantly higher than that in the air group (60.7 ± 1.4 vs 18.9 ± 1.5, 81.5 ± 2.3 vs 20.6 ± 1.2, 89.2 ± 0.7 vs 36.8 ± 0.9, 91.3 ± 0.8 vs 63.8 ± 1.3, respectively, P < 0.05). Moreover, the condition of the CO2 group was better than that of the air group with respect to anal exsufflation. CONCLUSION: Insufflation of CO2 in the ESE of gastrointestinal stromal tumors will not cause CO2 retention and it may significantly reduce the level of pain, thus it is safe and effective. PMID:23326136

  13. Effective interactions between nanoparticles: Creating temperature-independent solvation environments for self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Hari O S; Shrivastav, Gourav; Agarwal, Manish; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2016-06-28

    The extent to which solvent-mediated effective interactions between nanoparticles can be predicted based on structure and associated thermodynamic estimators for bulk solvents and for solvation of single and pairs of nanoparticles is studied here. As a test of the approach, we analyse the strategy for creating temperature-independent solvent environments using a series of homologous chain fluids as solvents, as suggested by an experimental paper [M. I. Bodnarchuk et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 11967 (2010)]. Our conclusions are based on molecular dynamics simulations of Au140(SC10H21)62 nanoparticles in n-alkane solvents, specifically hexane, octane, decane and dodecane, using the TraPPE-UA potential to model the alkanes and alkylthiols. The 140-atom gold core of the nanocrystal is held rigid in a truncated octahedral geometry and the gold-thiolate interaction is modeled using a Morse potential. The experimental observation was that the structural and rheological properties of n-alkane solvents are constant over a temperature range determined by equivalent solvent vapour pressures. We show that this is a consequence of the fact that long chain alkane liquids behave to a good approximation as simple liquids formed by packing of monomeric methyl/methylene units. Over the corresponding temperature range (233-361 K), the solvation environment is approximately constant at the single and pair nanoparticle levels under good solvent conditions. However, quantitative variations of the order of 10%-20% do exist in various quantities, such as molar volume of solute at infinite dilution, entropy of solvation, and onset distance for soft repulsions. In the opposite limit of a poor solvent, represented by vacuum in this study, the effective interactions between nanoparticles are no longer temperature-independent with attractive interactions increasing by up to 50% on decreasing the temperature from 361 K to 290 K, accompanied by an increase in emergent anisotropy due to

  14. Steranes and triterpanes in the Beacon Supergroup samples from southern Victoria Land in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Genki I.; Machihara, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Funaki, Minoru; Watanuki, Kunihiko

    1987-10-01

    Steranes and triterpanes in Beacon Supergroup samples (sedimentary rock and silicified wood) from Allan Hills and Carapace Nunatak of southern Victoria Land in Antarctica were studied to elucidate sources of organic materials, sedimentary paleoenvironment and thermal history after deposition. Relative abundances of C 27, C 28 and C 29 steranes and visual kerogen results of Beacon Supergroup samples from Allan Hills imply that organic materials in the sedimentary paleoenvironments are contributed mainly by vascular plants with some influence of microorganisms, while those of the Carapace Nunatak sample may be largely due to fern spores. The pristane/phytane and pristane/heptadecane ratios of the samples were generally close to unity and between 0.50 and 0.99, respectively, suggesting that the sedimentary paleoenvironment was shallow lacustrine with alternating oxic and anoxic conditions. The ( 22S/22R)-17α(H),21β(H)-C 31-C 33 triterpane ratios are approximately at thermal equilibrium values ( ca. 1.5) in most samples, while the ( 20S/20R)-5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29 sterane ratios and the (20R + 20S)-5α(H), 14β(H), 17β(H)/5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29 sterane ratios vary from 0.0 to 1.1 and from 0.0 to 1.4, respectively. Most of the ( 20S/20R)-5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29 sterane ratios did not reach thermal equilibrium values. The correlation coefficient between the ( 20S/20R)-5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29 sterane ratios and (20R + 20S)-5α(H), 14β(H), 17β(H)/5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29, sterane ratios is very high (0.96). These variable maturities probably reflect thermal effects of basaltic dikes on the Beacon Supergroup at Allan Hills and Carapace Nunatak during Jurassic time. Thermal stresses on the Beacon Supergroup prior to basaltic intrusion have been estimated to be quite low, so the paleotemperatures of this formation have been quite low.

  15. Occurrence of Hybrid Escherichia coli Strains Carrying Shiga Toxin and Heat-Stable Toxin in Livestock of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Parveen, Rozina; Islam, Atiqul; Sadique, Abdus; Rahim, Md Niaz; Monira, Shirajum; Khan, Anisur R.; Ahsan, Sunjukta; Ohnishi, Makoto; Watanabe, Haruo; Chakraborty, Subhra; George, Christine M.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Navarro, Armando; Hasan, Badrul; Alam, Munirul

    2017-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are important causes of diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. Although ruminant animals are the main source of STEC, diarrhea due to this pathotype is very low in Bangladesh where ETEC remains the predominant group associated with childhood diarrhea. In the present study, E. coli strains (n = 35) isolated from Bangladesh livestock (goats, sheep, and cattle) and poultry (chicken and ducks) were analyzed for the presence of major virulence factors, such as Shiga toxins (STX-1 and STX-2), heat-labile toxin, and heat-stable toxins (STa and STb). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction results revealed 23 (66%) E. coli strains to be virulent possessing either sta (n = 5), stx (stx1, n = 8; stx2, n = 2), or both (n = 8) genes in varying combinations. Thirty-four percent (8/23) of strains from livestock were hybrid type that carried both stx (either stx1 or stx2) and ETEC-specific enterotoxin gene sta. Serotyping results revealed that the ETEC strains belonged to five serotypes, namely O36:H5, O174:H−, O152:H8, O109:H51, and O8:H21, while the STEC-producing strains belonged to serotypes O76:H19 (n = 3), O43:H2 (n = 2), O87:H16 (n = 2), OR:H2 (n = 1), O110:H16 (n = 1), and O152:H8 (n = 1). The STEC–ETEC hybrid strains belonged to serotypes O76:H19 (n = 3), O43:H2 (n = 2), O87:H16, OR:H2, and O152:H8. Forty percent (2/5) of the ETEC and 20% (2/10) of the STEC strains were multidrug resistant with the highest drug resistance (50%) being found in the hybrid strains. Molecular fingerprinting determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and cluster analyses by dendrogram revealed that, genetically, STEC–ETEC hybrid strains were highly heterogeneous. Multidrug-resistant E. coli STEC–ETEC hybrid strains in domesticated animals pose a public health threat for humans in Bangladesh. PMID:28119905

  16. Extracting nuclear sizes of medium to heavy nuclei from total reaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, W.; Hatakeyama, S.; Ebata, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Background: Proton and neutron radii are fundamental quantities of atomic nuclei. To study the sizes of short-lived unstable nuclei, there is a need for an alternative to electron scattering. Purpose: The recent paper by Horiuchi et al. [Phys. Rev. C 89, 011601(R) (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.89.011601 proposed a possible way of extracting the matter and neutron-skin thickness of light- to medium-mass nuclei using total reaction cross section, σR. The analysis is extended to medium to heavy nuclei up to lead isotopes with due attention to Coulomb breakup contributions as well as density distributions improved by paring correlation. Methods: We formulate a quantitative calculation of σR based on the Glauber model including the Coulomb breakup. To substantiate the treatment of the Coulomb breakup, we also evaluate the Coulomb breakup cross section due to the electric dipole field in a canonical-basis-time-dependent-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory in the three-dimensional coordinate space. Results: We analyze σR's of 103 nuclei with Z =20 , 28, 40, 50, 70, and 82 incident on light targets, H,21, 4He, and 12C. Three kinds of Skyrme interactions are tested to generate those wave functions. To discuss possible uncertainty due to the Coulomb breakup, we examine its dependence on the target, the incident energy, and the Skyrme interaction. The proton is a most promising target for extracting the nuclear sizes as the Coulomb excitation can safely be neglected. We find that the so-called reaction radius, aR=√{σR/π } , for the proton target is very well approximated by a linear function of two variables, the matter radius and the skin thickness, in which three constants depend only on the incident energy. We quantify the accuracy of σR measurements needed to extract the nuclear sizes. Conclusions: The proton is the best target because, once the incident energy is set, its aR is very accurately determined by only the matter radius and neutron-skin thickness. If σR's at

  17. Hydrothermal Petroleum in Active Continental Rift: Lake Chapala, Western Mexico, Initial Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate-del Valle, P. F.; Simoneit, B. R.; Ramirez-Sanchez, H. U.

    2003-12-01

    Lake Chapala in western Mexico is located partially in the Citala Rift, which belongs to the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The region is characterized by active volcanism (Ceboruco, Volcan de Fuego), tectonic (1995 earthquake, M=8, 40-50 mm to SW) and hydrothermal (San Juan Cosala & Villa Corona spas and La Calera sinter deposit) activities. Hydrothermal petroleum has been described in active continental rift (East African Rift) and marine spreading zones (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California). In 1868 the Mexican local press reported that manifestations of bitumen were appearing in front of the Columba Cap on the mid south shore of Lake Chapala. This bitumen is linked to the lake bottom and when the water level decreases sufficiently it is possible to access these tar bodies as islands. Because of these manifestations the Mexican oil company (PEMEX) drilled an exploration well (2,348m) at Tizapan El Alto without success. Hydrothermal activity is evident in the tar island zone as three in-shore thermal springs (26.8 m depth, 48.5° C, pH 7.8 and oriented N-S). The preliminary analyses by GC-MS of the tar from these islands indicate hydrothermal petroleum derived from lake sedimentary organic matter, generated at low temperatures (150° -200° C). The tars contain no n-alkanes, no PAH or other aromatics, but a major UCM of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons and mature biomarkers derived from lacustrine biota. The biomarkers consist of mainly 17α (H),21β (H)-hopanes ranging from C27 to C34 (no C28), gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes (C20-C26), carotane and its cracking products, and drimanes (C14-C16). The biomarker composition indicates an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. 14C dating of samples from two tar islands yielded ages exceeding 40 kyrs, i.e., old carbon from hydrothermal/tectonic remobilization of bitumen from deeper horizons to the surface. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in

  18. Raman Spectroscopic Signature Markers of Dopamine-Human Dopamine Transporter Interaction in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Silwal, Achut Prasad; Yadav, Rajeev; Sprague, Jon E; Lu, H Peter

    2017-04-04

    Dopamine (DA) controls many psychological and behavioral activities in the central nervous system (CNS) through interactions with the human dopamine transporter (hDAT) and dopamine receptors. The roles of DA in the function of the CNS are affected by the targeted binding of drugs to hDAT; thus, hDAT plays a critical role in neurophysiology and neuropathophysiology. An effective experimental method is necessary to study the DA-hDAT interaction and effects of variety of drugs like psychostimulants and anti-depressants that are dependent on this interaction. In searching for obtaining and identifying the Raman spectral signatures, we have used surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to record SERS spectrum from DA, Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells (HEK293), hDAT-HEK293, DA-HEK293, and DA-hDAT-HEK293. We have demonstrated a specific 2D-distribution SERS spectral analytical approach to analyze DA-hDAT interaction. Our study shows that the Raman modes at 807, 839, 1076, 1090, 1538, and 1665 cm-1 are related to DA-hDAT interaction, where Raman shift at 807 and 1076 cm-1 are the signature marker for bound state of DA to probe DA-hDAT interaction. On the basis of density function theory (DFT) calculation, Raman shift of bound state of DA at 807 cm-1 is related to combination of bending modes α(C3-O10-H21), α(C2-O11-H22), α(C7-C8-H18), α(C6-C4-H13), α(C7-C8-H19), α(C7-C8-N9), and Raman shift at 1076 cm-1 is related to combination of bending modes α(H19-N9-C8), γ(N9-H19), γ(C8-H19), γ(N9-H20), γ(C8-H18), and α(C7-C8-H18). These findings demonstrate that protein-ligand interactions can be confirmed by probing change in Raman shift of ligand molecules, which could be crucial to understanding molecular interactions between neurotransmitters and their receptors or transporters.

  19. Effective interactions between nanoparticles: Creating temperature-independent solvation environments for self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Hari O. S.; Shrivastav, Gourav; Agarwal, Manish; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2016-06-01

    The extent to which solvent-mediated effective interactions between nanoparticles can be predicted based on structure and associated thermodynamic estimators for bulk solvents and for solvation of single and pairs of nanoparticles is studied here. As a test of the approach, we analyse the strategy for creating temperature-independent solvent environments using a series of homologous chain fluids as solvents, as suggested by an experimental paper [M. I. Bodnarchuk et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 11967 (2010)]. Our conclusions are based on molecular dynamics simulations of Au140(SC10H21)62 nanoparticles in n-alkane solvents, specifically hexane, octane, decane and dodecane, using the TraPPE-UA potential to model the alkanes and alkylthiols. The 140-atom gold core of the nanocrystal is held rigid in a truncated octahedral geometry and the gold-thiolate interaction is modeled using a Morse potential. The experimental observation was that the structural and rheological properties of n-alkane solvents are constant over a temperature range determined by equivalent solvent vapour pressures. We show that this is a consequence of the fact that long chain alkane liquids behave to a good approximation as simple liquids formed by packing of monomeric methyl/methylene units. Over the corresponding temperature range (233-361 K), the solvation environment is approximately constant at the single and pair nanoparticle levels under good solvent conditions. However, quantitative variations of the order of 10%-20% do exist in various quantities, such as molar volume of solute at infinite dilution, entropy of solvation, and onset distance for soft repulsions. In the opposite limit of a poor solvent, represented by vacuum in this study, the effective interactions between nanoparticles are no longer temperature-independent with attractive interactions increasing by up to 50% on decreasing the temperature from 361 K to 290 K, accompanied by an increase in emergent anisotropy due to

  20. Occurrence and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other non-sorbitol-fermenting E. coli in cattle and humans in urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lupindu, Athumani M; Olsen, John E; Ngowi, Helena A; Msoffe, Peter L M; Mtambo, Madundo M; Scheutz, Flemming; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli strains such as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic, attaching, and effacing E. coli, and enteroinvasive E. coli cause diarrhea in humans. Although other serotypes exist, the most commonly reported STEC in outbreaks is O157:H7. A cross-sectional study was conducted to isolate and characterize non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) E. coli O157:H7 from urban and periurban livestock settings of Morogoro, Tanzania. Human stool, cattle feces, and soil and water samples were collected. Observations and questionnaire interview studies were used to gather information about cattle and manure management practices in the study area. E. coli were isolated on sorbitol MacConkey agar and characterized by conventional biochemical tests. Out of 1049 samples, 143 (13.7%) yielded NSF E. coli. Serological and antimicrobial tests and molecular typing were performed to NSF E. coli isolates. These procedures detected 10 (7%) pathogenic E. coli including STEC (n=7), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (n=2), and attaching and effacing E. coli (A/EEC) (n=1) strains. The STEC strains had the ability to produce VT1 and different VT2 toxin subtypes that caused cytopathic effects on Vero cells. The prevalence of STEC in cattle was 1.6%, out of which 0.9% was serotype O157:H7 and the overall prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in cattle was 2.2%. The serotypes O157:H7, O142:H34, O113:H21, O+:H-, O+:H16, and O25:H4 were identified. One ESBL-producing isolate showed the MLST type ST131. To our knowledge, this is the first finding in Tanzania of this recently emerged worldwide pandemic clonal group, causing widespread antimicrobial-resistant infections, and adds knowledge of the geographical distribution of ST131. Cattle manure was indiscriminately deposited within residential areas, and there was direct contact between humans and cattle feces during manure handling. Cattle and manure management practices expose humans, animals, and the environment

  1. Dynamics of myosin heavy chain isoform transition in the longissimus muscle of domestic and wild pigs during growth: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Fazarinc, G; Vrecl, M; Škorjanc, D; Čehovin, T; Čandek-Potokar, M

    2017-01-01

    Dynamics of myofiber differentiation/maturation in porcine skeletal muscle is associated with domestication, breeding and rearing conditions. This study was aimed to comparatively elucidate the age-dependent myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform expression and transition pattern in domestic and wild pig (WP) skeletal muscle from birth until adulthood. Domestic pigs (DPs) of Large White breed raised in conventional production system were compared with WPs reared in a large hunting enclosure. Muscle samples for immuno/enzyme histochemistry were taken from the longissimus dorsi muscle within 24 h postmortem at 24 to 48 h, 21 to 23 days, 7 months and ~2 years postpartum. Based on the antibody reactivity to MyHCs (NCL-MHCs, A4.74, BF-F3) and succinate dehydrogenase activity, myofibers were classified into I, I/IIa, IIa, IIx and IIb types. In addition, foetal MyHC expression was determined with the use of F158.4C10 antibody. Maturation of the longissimus dorsi muscle in the WP was characterized by an accelerated transformation of the fast to slow MyHC during the first hours postpartum, followed by differentiation towards oxidative myofibers in which type I, IIa and IIx MyHCs predominated. In the DP, the transformation shifted towards glycolytic myofibers that expressed MyHC-IIb. The expression of foetal MyHC was higher in the DP than in the WP at 1 day of age, and the decline in the foetal MyHC during the first 3 weeks was more rapid in the WP than in the DP denoting an accelerated early postnatal muscle maturation in WP than DP piglets. All foetal MyHC-positive myofibers co-expressed IIa isoform, but not vice versa. The intense myofiber hypertrophy was evident from 3 weeks until 7 months of age. In this period, the myofiber cross-sectional area increased up to 10- and 20-fold in the WP and the DP, respectively. In the DP, the hypertrophy of all myofiber types was more pronounced than in the WP, particularly the hypertrophy of IIx and IIb myofibers. To summarize, the

  2. Metabolism and antioxidant defense in the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus: adjustments to diel variations in the extreme conditions of Lake Magadi

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Chris M.; Bergman, Harold L.; Johannsson, Ora E.; Laurent, Pierre; Chevalier, Claudine; Kisipan, Mosiany L.; Kavembe, Geraldine D.; Papah, Michael B.; Brix, Kevin V.; De Boeck, Gudrun; Maina, John N.; Ojoo, Rodi O.; Bianchini, Adalto

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa), which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time. Additionally, changes in larval metabolism and antioxidant defense correlated with diel variations in the extremely hostile environmental conditions of the lake are described. Wide variations in water temperature (20.2-29.3°C) and dissolved oxygen content (3.2-18.6 mg O2 l−1) were observed at different times of day, without significant change in water pH (10.0±0.03). Temperature and dissolved oxygen were higher at 13:00 h (29.3±0.4°C and 18.6±1.0 mg O2 l−1) and 19:00 h (29.3±0.8°C and 16.2±1.6 mg O2 l−1) and lower at 01:00 h (21.1±0.1°C and 10.7±0.03 mg O2 l−1) and 07:00 h (20.2±0.4°C and 3.2±0.7 mg O2 l−1). Significant and parallel increases in parameters related to metabolism (cholinesterase, glucose, cholesterol, urea, creatinine and hemoglobin) and the antioxidant system (SOD, GPx, GR, GSH and GSSG) were observed in larvae collected at 13:00 h. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in pro-oxidants (ROS and NO), TOSC and oxidative damage parameters (LPO and DNA damage). Therefore, the observed increases in temperature and dissolved O2 content in Lake Magadi were associated with changes in the antioxidant system of T. minutipalpus larvae. Adjustments performed by the chironomid larvae were efficient in maintaining body homeostasis, as well as protecting biomolecules against oxidative damage, so that oxidative stress did not occur. GSH-GSSG and GPx-GR systems appeared to

  3. Hematocrit and blood osmolality in developing chicken embryos (Gallus gallus): in vivo and in vitro regulation.

    PubMed

    Andrewartha, Sarah J; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Burggren, Warren W

    2011-12-15

    Hematocrit (Hct) regulation is a complex process involving potentially many factors. How such regulation develops in vertebrate embryos is still poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the role of blood pH in the regulation of Hct across developmental time in chicken embryos. We hypothesized that blood pH alterations in vitro (i.e., in a test tube) would affect Hct far more than in vivo because of in vivo compensatory regulatory processes for Hct. Large changes in Hct (through mean corpuscular volume (MCV)) and blood osmolality (Osm) occur when the blood was exposed to varying ambient temperatures (T(a)'s) and P(CO2) in vitro alongside an experimentally induced blood pH change from ~7.3 to 8.2. However, homeostatic regulatory mechanisms apparently limited these alterations in vivo. Changes in blood pH in vitro were accompanied by hydration or dehydration of red blood cells depending on embryonic age, resulting in changes in Hct that also were specific to developmental stage, due likely to initial blood gas and [HCO(3)(-)](v) values. Significant linear relationships between Hct and pH (Hct/ΔpH=-21.4%/(pH unit)), Hct and [HCO(3)(-)] (ΔHct/Δ[HCO(3)(-)]=1.6%/(mEq L(-1))) and the mean buffer value (Δ[HCO(3)(-)]/ΔpH=-13.4 (mEq L(-1))/(pH unit)) demonstrate that both pH and [HCO(3)(-)] likely play a role in the regulation of Hct through MCV at least in vitro. Low T(a) (24°C) resulted in relatively large changes in pH with small changes in Hct and Osm in vitro with increased T(a) (42°C) conversely resulting in larger changes in both Hct and Osm. In vivo exposure to altered T(a) caused age-dependent changes in Hct, demonstrating a trend towards increased Hct at higher T(a). Further, exposing embryos to a gas mixture where P(CO2) = 5.1 kPa for >4 h period at T(a) of 37 or 42°C also did not elicit a change in Hct or Osm. Presumably, homeostatic mechanisms ensured that in vivo Hct was stable during a 4-6 h temperature and/or hypercapnic stress. Thus, although blood p

  4. Hypercholesterolemia magnitude increases sympathetic modulation and coagulation in LDLr knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Evangelho, Juliano S; Casali, Karina Rabello; Campos, Cristina; De Angelis, Kátia; Veiga, Ana B G; Rigatto, Katya

    2011-01-20

    We investigated the effects of low lipoprotein receptor deficiency in cholesterol blood concentrations, blood pressure, hemostatic factors, and the autonomic nervous system in three groups: control mice fed standard diet (CO, n=9), lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice (LDLr(-/-), n=9) fed standard diet (LDLr-S) or hypercholesterolemic diet (LDLr-H, n=8). Frequency domain analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability was performed with an autoregressive algorithm. The spectral components were expressed in absolute (s(2) or mmHg(2)) and normalized units. Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was estimated by alpha index, defined as square root ratio between low frequency power in blood pressure variability and heart rate variability. LDLr/- mice presented a significant increase in the cholesterol blood concentration (mean±SD; mg/dl; LDLr-S=202.01±34.38 and LDLr-H=530.7±75.17) compared to CO (79.2±13.6), p=0.001. The receptor deletion was associated with a heart rate variability reduction (p=0.013). The BRS was reduced (p<0.05) in LDLr-S and LDL-H (mean±SD: 0.96±0.39 and 0.59±0.34, respectively) compared to CO (4.02±1.92). Moreover, hypercholesterolemic diet significantly increased the cardiac sympathetic modulation (0V pattern of symbolic analysis: mean±SD, CO=8.04±4.53; LDLr-S=16.49±4.52 and LDLr-H=21.80±8.24, p=0.006). The 0V pattern was statically correlated to coagulation factor VII (r=0.555, p=0.0208). In LDLr-H, the concentration (interquartile range) of plasmatic fibrinogen and hemostatic factors VII (2.8-3.3) and XII (1.1-1.3) were increased compared to CO (0.9-1.1and 0.9-1.0, respectively) and LDLr-S (0.7-1.0 and 0.8-0.9, respectively) (p<0.004 for FVII and p<0.006 for FXII). Taken together, the results indicate that plasmatic cholesterol magnitude is determinant to increase the coagulation and the sympathetic modulation.

  5. Electrochemical Properties of Organosilane Self Assembled Monolayers on Aluminum 2024

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Calle, Luz Marina

    2004-01-01

    Self assembled monolayers are commonly used to modify surfaces. Within the last 15 years, self assembled monolayers have been investigated as a way to protect from corrosion[1,2] or biofouling.[3] In this study, self assembled monolayers of decitriethoxysilane (C10H21Si(OC2H5)3) and octadecyltriethoxysilane (C18H37Si(OC2H5)3) were formed on aluminum 2024-T3. The modified surfaces and bare Al 2024 were characterized by dynamic water contact angle measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XIPS) and infrared spectroscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.5 M NaCl was used to characterize the monolayers and evaluate their corrosion protection properties. The advancing water contact angle and infrared measurements show that the mono layers form a surface where the hydrocarbon chains are packed and oriented away from the surface, consistent with what is found in similar systems. The contact angle hysteresis measured in these systems is relatively large, perhaps indicating that the hydrocarbon chains are not as well packed as monolayers formed on other substrates. The results of the EIS measurements were modeled using a Randle's circuit modified by changing the capacitor to a constant phase element. The constant phase element values were found to characterize the monolayer. The capacitance of the monolayer modified surface starts lower than the bare Al 2024, but approaches values similar to the bare Al 2024 within 24 hours as the monolayer is degraded. The n values found for bare Al 2024 quickly approach the value of a true capacitor and are greater than 0.9 within hours after the start of exposure. For the monolayer modified structure, n can stay lower than 0.9 for a longer period of time. In fact, n for the monolayer modified surfaces is different from the bare surface even after the capacitance values have converged. This indicates that the deviation from ideal capacitance is the most sensitive indicator of the presence of the monolayer.

  6. Metabolism and antioxidant defense in the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus: adjustments to diel variations in the extreme conditions of Lake Magadi.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Lucas F; Wood, Chris M; Bergman, Harold L; Johannsson, Ora E; Laurent, Pierre; Chevalier, Claudine; Kisipan, Mosiany L; Kavembe, Geraldine D; Papah, Michael B; Brix, Kevin V; De Boeck, Gudrun; Maina, John N; Ojoo, Rodi O; Bianchini, Adalto

    2017-01-15

    Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa), which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time. Additionally, changes in larval metabolism and antioxidant defense correlated with diel variations in the extremely hostile environmental conditions of the lake are described. Wide variations in water temperature (20.2-29.3°C) and dissolved oxygen content (3.2-18.6 mg O2 l(-1)) were observed at different times of day, without significant change in water pH (10.0±0.03). Temperature and dissolved oxygen were higher at 13:00 h (29.3±0.4°C and 18.6±1.0 mg O2 l(-1)) and 19:00 h (29.3±0.8°C and 16.2±1.6 mg O2 l(-1)) and lower at 01:00 h (21.1±0.1°C and 10.7±0.03 mg O2 l(-1)) and 07:00 h (20.2±0.4°C and 3.2±0.7 mg O2 l(-1)). Significant and parallel increases in parameters related to metabolism (cholinesterase, glucose, cholesterol, urea, creatinine and hemoglobin) and the antioxidant system (SOD, GPx, GR, GSH and GSSG) were observed in larvae collected at 13:00 h. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in pro-oxidants (ROS and NO), TOSC and oxidative damage parameters (LPO and DNA damage). Therefore, the observed increases in temperature and dissolved O2 content in Lake Magadi were associated with changes in the antioxidant system of T. minutipalpus larvae. Adjustments performed by the chironomid larvae were efficient in maintaining body homeostasis, as well as protecting biomolecules against oxidative damage, so that oxidative stress did not occur. GSH-GSSG and GPx-GR systems appeared to play an

  7. Specific detection of enteroaggregative hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4 strains by use of the CRISPR locus as a target for a diagnostic real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Sabine; Beutin, Lothar; Burgos, Ylanna; Fach, Patrick

    2012-11-01

    In 2011, a large outbreak of an unusual bacterial strain occurred in Europe. This strain was characterized as a hybrid of an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) and a Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strain of the serotype O104:H4. Here, we present a single PCR targeting the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats locus of E. coli O104:H4 (CRISPR(O104:H4)) for specific detection of EAEC STEC O104:H4 strains from different geographical locations and time periods. The specificity of the CRISPR(O104:H4) PCR was investigated using 1,321 E. coli strains, including reference strains for E. coli O serogroups O1 to O186 and flagellar (H) types H1 to H56. The assay was compared for specificity using PCR assays targeting different O104 antigen-encoding genes (wbwC(O104), wzx(O104), and wzy(O104)). The PCR assays reacted with all types of E. coli O104 strains (O104:H2, O104:H4, O104:H7, and O104:H21) and with E. coli O8 and O9 strains carrying the K9 capsular antigen and were therefore not specific for detection of the EAEC STEC O104:H4 type. A single PCR developed for the CRISPR(O104:H4) target was sufficient for specific identification and detection of the 48 tested EAEC STEC O104:H4 strains. The 35 E. coli O104 strains expressing H types other than H4 as well as 8 E. coli strains carrying a K9 capsular antigen tested all negative for the CRISPR(O104:H4) locus. Only 12 (0.94%) of the 1,273 non-O104:H4 E. coli strains (serotypes Ont:H2, O43:H2, O141:H2, and O174:H2) reacted positive in the CRISPR(O104:H4) PCR (99.06% specificity).

  8. Protein source and dietary structure influence growth performance, gut morphology, and hindgut fermentation characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Qaisrani, S N; Moquet, P C A; van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2014-12-01

    An experiment with 210 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet improves performance of broilers fed a poorly digestible protein source. A highly digestible diet based on soybean meal was gradually replaced by a low digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) in 5 steps (RSM-0%, RSM-25%, RSM-50%, RSM-75%, and RSM-100%). Two diet structures (fine and coarse) were used as an additional factor. These 2 factors and their interactions were tested at different ages in a factorial arrangement with 10 dietary treatments. An increase in indigestible dietary protein negatively affected feed intake (P = 0.003), BW gain (P = 0.008), and feed conversion ratio (P = 0.034). This increase in dietary indigestible protein contents resulted in a decrease (P = 0.001) in total cecal volatile fatty acid concentration from 209.1 to 125.9 mmol/kg of DM digesta in broilers with increasing RSM in diets. Increase in the indigestible protein level, from RSM-0% to RSM-100%, resulted in a decrease (P = 0.042) in villus heights (1,782 vs. 1,574 µm), whereas crypt depths increased (P = 0.021; 237 vs. 274 µm). A coarse diet improved feed intake (P = 0.006), BW gain (P = 0.014), and feed conversion ratio (P = 0.009). Broilers fed coarse diets had approximately 11, 24, and 10% lower relative empty weights of the crop, proventriculus, and jejunum, respectively, whereas a 15% heavier gizzard was found compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in approximately 16% lower gizzard pH, 21% greater villus heights, 27% lower crypt depths, 24% reduced branched-chain fatty acids, and 12% lower biogenic amines in the cecal digesta compared with broilers fed fine diets. In conclusion, feeding coarse particles improved broiler performance irrespective of digestibility of the diet. Hindgut protein fermentation can be reduced by coarse grinding of the diet.

  9. Paleogene biomarker records from the central Arctic Ocean (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302): Organic carbon sources, anoxia, and sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Petra; Stein, Ruediger

    2008-03-01

    During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302 (Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX)) a more than 200 m thick sequence of Paleogene organic carbon (OC)-rich (black shale type) sediments was drilled. Here we present new biomarker data determined in ACEX sediment samples to decipher processes controlling OC accumulation and their paleoenvironmental significance during periods of Paleogene global warmth and proposed increased freshwater discharge in the early Cenozoic. Specific source-related biomarkers including n-alkanes, fatty acids, isoprenoids, carotenoids, hopanes/hopenes, hopanoic acids, aromatic terpenoids, and long-chain alkenones show a high variability of components, derived from marine and terrestrial origin. The distribution of hopanoic acid isomers is dominated by compounds with the biological 17β(H), 21β(H) configuration indicating a low level of maturity. On the basis of the biomarker data the terrestrial OC supply was significantly enriched during the late Paleocene and part of the earliest Eocene, whereas increased aquatic contributions and euxinic conditions of variable intensity were determined for the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and Eocene thermal maximum 2 events as well as the middle Eocene time interval. Furthermore, samples from the middle Eocene are characterized by the occurrence of long-chain alkenones, high proportions of lycopane, and high ratios (>0.6) of (n-C35 + lycopane)/n-C31. The occurrence of C37-alkenenones, which were first determined toward the end of the Azolla freshwater event, indicates that the OC becomes more marine in origin during the middle Eocene. Preliminary U37K'-based sea surface temperature (SST) values display a long-term temperature decrease of about 15°C during the time interval 49-44.5 Ma (25° to 10°C), coinciding with the global benthic δ18O cooling trend after the early Eocene climatic optimum. At about 46 Ma, parallel with onset of ice-rafted debris, SST (interpreted as summer temperatures

  10. Three tetracyclic dibenzoazepine derivatives exhibiting different molecular conformations, different patterns of intermolecular hydrogen bonding and different modes of supramolecular aggregation.

    PubMed

    Mateus-Ruíz, Jeferson B; Acosta Quintero, Lina M; Palma, Alirio; Macías, Mario A; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The biological potential of compounds of the tricyclic dibenzo[b,e]azepine system has resulted in considerable synthetic efforts to develop efficient methods for the synthesis of new derivatives of this kind. (9RS,15RS)-9-Ethyl-11-methyl-9,13b-dihydrodibenzo[c,f]thiazolo[3,2-a]azepin-3(2H)-one, C19H19NOS, (I), crystallizes as a kryptoracemate with Z' = 2 in the space group P21, with one molecule each of the (9R,15R) and (9S,15S) configurations in the asymmetric unit, while (9RS,15RS)-9-ethyl-7,12-dimethyl-9,13b-dihydrodibenzo[c,f]thiazolo[3,2-a]azepin-3(2H)-one, C20H21NOS, (II), crystallizes with Z' = 1 in the space group C2/c. Ethyl (13RS)-2-chloro-13-ethyl-4-oxo-8,13-dihydro-4H-benzo[5,6]azepino[3,2,1-ij]quinoline-5-carboxylate, C22H20ClNO3, (III), exhibits enantiomeric disorder in the space group P-1 such that the reference site is occupied by the 13R and 13S enantiomers, with occupancies of 0.900 (6) and 0.100 (6). In each of the two independent molecules in (I), the five-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation, but the corresponding ring in (II) adopts a half-chair conformation, while the six-membered ring in the major form of (III) adopts a twist-boat conformation. The conformation of the seven-membered ring in each of (I), (II) and the major form of (III) approximates to the twist-boat form. The molecules of compound (I) are linked by two C-H...O hydrogen bonds to form two independent antiparallel C(5) chains, with each type containing only one enantiomer. These chains are linked into sheets by two C-H...π(arene) hydrogen bonds, in which the two donors are both provided by the (9R,15R) enantiomer and the two acceptor arene rings form part of a molecule of (9S,15S) configuration, precluding any additional crystallographic symmetry. The molecules of compound (II) are linked by inversion-related C-H...π(arene) hydrogen bonds to form isolated cyclic centrosymmetric dimers. The molecules of compound (III) are linked into cyclic centrosymmetric dimers

  11. Molecular Profiling of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Enteropathogenic E. coli Strains Isolated from French Coastal Environments

    PubMed Central

    Balière, C.; Rincé, A.; Delannoy, S.; Fach, P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains may be responsible for food-borne infections in humans. Twenty-eight STEC and 75 EPEC strains previously isolated from French shellfish-harvesting areas and their watersheds and belonging to 68 distinguishable serotypes were characterized in this study. High-throughput real-time PCR was used to search for the presence of 75 E. coli virulence-associated gene targets, and genes encoding Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae) were subtyped using PCR tests and DNA sequencing, respectively. The results showed a high level of diversity between strains, with 17 unique virulence gene profiles for STEC and 56 for EPEC. Seven STEC and 15 EPEC strains were found to display a large number or a particular combination of genetic markers of virulence and the presence of stx and/or eae variants, suggesting their potential pathogenicity for humans. Among these, an O26:H11 stx1a eae-β1 strain was associated with a large number of virulence-associated genes (n = 47), including genes carried on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) or other pathogenicity islands, such as OI-122, OI-71, OI-43/48, OI-50, OI-57, and the high-pathogenicity island (HPI). One O91:H21 STEC strain containing 4 stx variants (stx1a, stx2a, stx2c, and stx2d) was found to possess genes associated with pathogenicity islands OI-122, OI-43/48, and OI-15. Among EPEC strains harboring a large number of virulence genes (n, 34 to 50), eight belonged to serotype O26:H11, O103:H2, O103:H25, O145:H28, O157:H7, or O153:H2. IMPORTANCE The species E. coli includes a wide variety of strains, some of which may be responsible for severe infections. This study, a molecular risk assessment study of E. coli strains isolated from the coastal environment, was conducted to evaluate the potential risk for shellfish consumers. This report describes the characterization of virulence gene profiles and stx/eae polymorphisms of E. coli

  12. Gravity-driven membrane filtration as pretreatment for seawater reverse osmosis: linking biofouling layer morphology with flux stabilization.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Ebrahim; Wu, Bing; Sun, Shuyang; Marxer, Brigit; Lim, Weikang; Gu, Jun; Liu, Linbo; Burkhardt, Michael; McDougald, Diane; Pronk, Wouter; Fane, Anthony G

    2015-03-01

    In this study gravity-driven membrane (GDM) ultrafiltration is investigated for the pretreatment of seawater before reverse osmosis (RO). The impacts of temperature (21 ± 1 and 29 ± 1 °C) and hydrostatic pressure (40 and 100 mbar) on dynamic flux development and biofouling layer structure were studied. The data suggested pore constriction fouling was predominant at the early stage of filtration, during which the hydrostatic pressure and temperature had negligible effects on permeate flux. With extended filtration time, cake layer fouling played a major role, during which higher hydrostatic pressure and temperature improved permeate flux. The permeate flux stabilized in a range of 3.6 L/m(2) h (21 ± 1 °C, 40 mbar) to 7.3 L/m(2) h (29 ± 1 °C, 100 mbar) after slight fluctuations and remained constant for the duration of the experiments (almost 3 months). An increase in biofouling layer thickness and a variable biofouling layer structure were observed over time by optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The presence of eukaryotic organisms in the biofouling layer was observed by light microscopy and the microbial community structure of the biofouling layer was analyzed by sequences of 16S rRNA genes. The magnitude of permeate flux was associated with the combined effect of the biofouling layer thickness and structure. Changes in the biofouling layer structure were attributed to (1) the movement and predation behaviour of the eukaryotic organisms which increased the heterogeneous nature of the biofouling layer; (2) the bacterial debris generated by eukaryotic predation activity which reduced porosity; (3) significant shifts of the dominant bacterial species over time that may have influenced the biofouling layer structure. As expected, most of the particles and colloids in the feed seawater were removed by the GDM process, which led to a lower RO fouling potential. However, the dissolved organic carbon in the

  13. From Farm to Table: Follow-Up of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Throughout the Pork Production Chain in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Colello, Rocío; Cáceres, María E.; Ruiz, María J.; Sanz, Marcelo; Etcheverría, Analía I.; Padola, Nora L.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are important reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The entrance of these strains into the food chain implies a risk to consumers because of the severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome. This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC throughout the pork production chain. From 764 samples, 31 (4.05%) were stx positive by PCR screening. At farms, 2.86% of samples were stx positive; at slaughter, 4.08% of carcasses were stx positive and at boning rooms, 6% of samples were stx positive. These percentages decreased in pork meat ready for sale at sales markets (4.59%). From positive samples, 50 isolates could be characterized. At farms 37.5% of the isolates carried stx1/stx2 genes, 37.5% possessed stx2e and 25%, carried only stx2. At slaughter we detected 50% of isolates positive for stx2, 33% for stx2e, and 16% for stx1/stx2. At boning rooms 59% of the isolates carried stx1/stx2, 14% stx2e, and 5% stx1/stx2/stx2e. At retail markets 66% of isolates were positive for stx2, 17% stx2e, and 17% stx1/stx2. For the other virulence factors, ehxA and saa were not detected and eae gene was detected in 12% of the isolates. Concerning putative adhesins, agn43 was detected in 72%, ehaA in 26%, aida in 8%, and iha in 6% of isolates. The strains were typed into 14 E. coli O groups (O1, O2, O8, O15, O20, O35, O69, O78, O91, O121, O138, O142, O157, O180) and 10 H groups (H9, H10, H16, H21, H26, H29, H30, H32, H45, H46). This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC strains through the chain pork suggesting the vertical transmission. STEC contamination originates in the farms and is transferred from pigs to carcasses in the slaughter process and increase in meat pork at boning rooms and sales markets. These results highlight the need to implement an integrated STEC control system based on good management practices on the farm and critical control point systems in the food chain. PMID:26903972

  14. Crystal structures of two substituted thia­zolidine derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Vijayan; Rao, Naga Siva; Raghunathan, Raghavachary; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2016-01-01

    In the first of the compounds reported herein, namely 6′-ferrocenyl-6a′-nitro-6′,6a′,6b′,7′,9′,11a′-hexa­hydro-2H-spiro­[ace­naphthyl­ene-1,11′-chromeno[3′,4′:3,4]pyrrolo­[1,2-c]thia­zol]-2-one, [Fe(C5H5)(C29H21N2O4S)], (I), the thia­zolidine ring adopts a twist conformation on the methine N—C atoms. In the second compound, viz. 6′-(4-methoxy­phen­yl)-6a′-nitro-6′,6a′,6b′,7′,9′,11a′-hexa­hydro-2H-spiro­[ace­naphthyl­ene-1,11′-chromeno[3′,4′:3,4]pyrrolo­[1,2-c]thia­zol]-2-one, [Fe(C5H5)(C26H19N2O5S)], (II), the thia­zolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation with a methine C atom as the flap. In both compounds, the pyrrolidine ring adopts a twist conformation on the thia­zolidine and tetra­hydro­pyran C atoms. The mean planes of the thia­zolidine and pyrrolidine rings subtend angles of 67.30 (1) and 62.95 (7)° in (I) and (II), respectively, while the mean plane of the pyrrolidine ring makes dihedral angles of 76.53 (1) and 87.74 (7)° with the ace­naphthyl­ene ring system in (I) and (II), respectively. In both compounds, an intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond forms an S(7) ring motif. In the crystal of (I), mol­ecules are linked via two different C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [001] and [100]. In (II), they are linked through C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming dimers with an R 2 2(10) ring motif while C—H⋯π inter­actions link the mol­ecules in a head-to-tail fashion, forming chains along the a-axis direction. PMID:27536396

  15. Relationship Between Lower Limb Muscle Activity and Platform Acceleration During Whole-Body Vibration Exercise.

    PubMed

    Lienhard, Karin; Vienneau, Jordyn; Nigg, Sandro; Meste, Olivier; Colson, Serge S; Nigg, Benno M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different magnitudes and directions of the vibration platform acceleration on surface electromyography (sEMG) during whole-body vibration (WBV) exercises. Therefore, a WBV platform was used that delivers vertical vibrations by a side-alternating mode, horizontal vibrations by a circular mode, and vibrations in all 3 planes by a dual mode. Surface electromyography signals of selected lower limb muscles were measured in 30 individuals while they performed a static squat on a vibration platform. The WBV trials included 2 side-alternating trials (Side-L: 6 Hz, 2.5 mm; Side-H: 16 Hz, 4 mm), 2 circular trials (Circ-L: 14 Hz, 0.8 mm; Circ-H: 43 Hz, 0.8 mm), and 4 dual-mode trials that were the combinations of the single-mode trials (Side-L/Circ-L, Side-L/Circ-H, Side-H/Circ-L, Side-H/Circ-H). Furthermore, control trials without vibration were assessed, and 3-dimensional platform acceleration was quantified during the vibration. Significant increases in the root mean square of the sEMG (sEMGRMS) compared with the control trial were found in most muscles for Side-L/Circ-H (+17 to +63%, p ≤ 0.05), Side-H/Circ-L (+7 to +227%, p ≤ 0.05), and Side-H/Circ-H (+21 to +207%, p < 0.01) and in the lower leg muscles for Side-H (+35 to +138%, p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, only the vertical platform acceleration showed a linear relationship (r = 0.970, p < 0.001) with the averaged sEMGRMS of the lower limb muscles. Significant increases in sEMGRMS were found with a vertical acceleration threshold of 18 m·s(-2) and higher. The present results emphasize that WBV exercises should be performed on a platform that induces vertical accelerations of 18 m·s(-2) and higher.

  16. Crowd-sourcing Near-Earth Asteroid Science with the OSIRIS-REx Target Asteroids! Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergenrother, Carl W.; Hill, Dolores H.; Spitz, Anna; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Binzel, Richard P.; Beshore, Ed; Bottke, William; Brucato, John Robert; Clark, Beth E.; Cloutis, Edward; Connolly, Harold C.; Delbo, Marco; Dotto, Elisabetta; Ieva, Simone; Licandro, Javier; Nolan, Michael C.; Perna, Davide; Sandford, Scott A.; Takir, Driss; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2014-11-01

    OSIRIS-REx Target Asteroids! is an award-winning citizen science project conducted as part of the Communications and Public Engagement program of the NASA OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission. The project furthers the study of near-Earth asteroids (NEA) and promotes interest among the amateur astronomy community. The goal of Target Asteroids! is to expand the pool of observers who can contribute to the characterization of NEAs. We also seek to coordinate the observation of specific asteroids in order to maximize the usefulness of the data and to minimize duplication of effort.Target Asteroids! was originally focused on a list of ~80 NEAs suitable for spacecraft sample return compiled by the OSIRIS-REx science team. The list was constrained to NEAs with absolute magnitude H < 21.5, perihelion distance > 0.8 AU, aphelion distance < 2.0 AU and inclination < 8°. Since many sample return targets are beyond the reach of typical amateur telescopes (limiting magnitudes of ~14 to 20), the program was expanded to include other objects, namely asteroids that shed light on the properties of OSIRIS-REx target (101955) Bennu, bright NEAs making relatively close approaches to Earth and radar target NEAs. An introductory paper on the goals and methods of Target Asteroids! was published in the Minor Planet Bulletin (Hergenrother & Hill, Minor Planet Bulletin 40, 164-166, 2013).Since 2012, over 100 participants with a wide range of instrumentation and experience from around the world have contributed photometry of 53 asteroids. While small telescope users cannot produce high S/N observations for faint objects, they do have the advantage of being able to make observations often. A large number of low S/N observations are useful if made over different observing geometries. Utilizing many photometric observations made at different times and phase angles, small telescope users can produce direct measurements of the phase function, absolute magnitude, broadband color, and rotation

  17. Chemical and carbon isotopic evolution of hydrocarbons during prograde metamorphism from 100°C to 550°C: Case study in the Liassic black shale formation of Central Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Valérie; Spangenberg, Jorge. E.; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2005-04-01

    Hydrocarbon distributions and stable isotope ratios of carbonates (δ 13C car, δ 18O car), kerogen (δ 13C ker), extractable organic matter (δ 13C EOM) and individual hydrocarbons of Liassic black shale samples from a prograde metamorphic sequence in the Swiss Alps were used to identify the major organic reactions with increasing metamorphic grade. The studied samples range from the diagenetic zone (<100°C) to amphibolite facies (˜550°C). The samples within the diagenetic zones (<100 and 150°C) are characterized by the dominance of C <20n-alkanes, suggesting an origin related with marine and/or bacterial inputs. The metamorphic samples (200 to 550°C) have distributions significantly dominated by C 12 and C 13n-alkanes, C 14, C 16 and C 18n-alkylcyclopentanes and to a lesser extend C 15, C 17 and C 21n-alkylcyclohexanes. The progressive 13C-enrichment (up to 3.9‰) with metamorphism of the C >17n-alkanes suggests the occurrence of cracking reactions of high molecular weight compounds. The isotopically heavier (up to 5.6 ‰) C <17n-alkanes in metamorphic samples are likely originated by thermal degradation of long-chain homologous with preferential release of isotopically light C 1 and C 2 radicals. The dominance of specific even C-number n-alkylcyclopentanes suggests an origin related to direct cyclization mechanism (without decarboxylation step) of algal or bacterial fatty acids occurring in reducing aqueous metamorphic fluid conditions. The regular increase of the concentrations of n-alkylcycloalkanes vs. C >13n-alkanes with metamorphism suggests progressive thermal release of kerogen-linked fatty acid precursors and degradation of n-alkanes. Changes of the steroid and terpenoid distributions are clearly related to increasing metamorphic temperatures. The absence of 18α(H)-22,29,30-trisnorneohopane (Ts), the occurrence of 17β(H)-trisnorhopane, 17β(H), 21α(H)-hopanes in the C 29 to C 31 range and 5α(H),14α(H),17α(H)-20R C 27, C 29 steranes in the

  18. Characterization of Lunar Crater Ejecta Deposits Using Radar Data from the Mini-RF Instrument on LRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, G. W.; Raney, R. K.; Cahill, J. T.; Bussey, B.

    2012-12-01

    of up to ~1 m. As observed with visible image data, the increased roughness as-sociated with the ejecta of Byrgius A appears nearly continuous to a radial distance of ~70 km. An m-chi decomposition of Mini-RF S-band data for Byrgius A suggests that the portion of ejecta that extends radially from ~10 to 70 km appears far less continuous than is suggested in both optical data and CPR information (Fig. 1). The implication is that we are observing properties of the ejecta and lunar background terrain in the top meter of the surface. In other words the thickness of the ejecta in this distance range is on the order of meters or less. This result suggests that the thickness of ejecta at radial distances > a crater radius differ significantly from estimates of ejecta thickness derived from models of ejecta emplacement [6,7]. References: [1] Melosh, H. J. (1989), Oxford Univ. Press; [2] Ghent, R. R. et al. (2008), Geology, 36, 343-346; [3] Raney, R. K. et al. (2011), Proc. of the IEEE, 99, 808-823; [4] Raney, R.K. et al. (2012), JGR, 117, E00H21; [5] Robinson, M. S. et al. (2010), Space Sci. Rev., 150, 81-124; [6] McGetchin et al. (1973), EPSL, 20, 226-236; [7] Pike (1974), EPSL, 23, 265-274.

  19. Incidence and Virulence Determinants of Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in the Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium, in 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    De Gheldre, Yves; Dediste, Anne; de Moreau, Anne-Isabelle; Mascart, Georges; Simon, Anne; Allemeersch, Daniël; Scheutz, Flemming; Lauwers, Sabine; Piérard, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) was investigated by PCR in all human stools from Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZB) and in selected stools from six other hospital laboratories in the Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium, collected between April 2008 and October 2010. The stools selected to be included in this study were those from patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), patients with a history of bloody diarrhea, patients linked to clusters of diarrhea, children up to the age of 6 years, and stools containing macroscopic blood. Verocytotoxin genes (vtx) were detected significantly more frequently in stools from patients with the selected conditions (2.04%) than in unselected stools from UZB (1.20%) (P = 0.001). VTEC was detected most frequently in patients with HUS (35.3%), a history of bloody diarrhea (5.15%), or stools containing macroscopic blood (1.85%). Stools from patients up to the age of 17 years were significantly more frequently vtx positive than those from adult patients between the ages of 18 and 65 years (P = 0.022). Although stools from patients older than 65 years were also more frequently positive for vtx than those from patients between 18 and 65 years, this trend was not significant. VTEC was isolated from 140 (67.9%) vtx-positive stools. One sample yielded two different serotypes; thus, 141 isolates could be characterized. Sixty different O:H serotypes harboring 85 different virulence profiles were identified. Serotypes O157:H7/H− (n = 34), O26:H11/H− (n = 21), O63:H6 (n = 8), O111:H8/H− (n = 7), and O146:H21/H− (n = 6) accounted for 53.9% of isolates. All O157 isolates carried vtx2, eae, and a complete O island 122 (COI-122); 15 also carried vtx1. Non-O157 isolates (n = 107), however, accounted for the bulk (75.9%) of isolates. Fifty-nine (55.1%) isolates were positive for vtx1, 36 (33.6%) were positive for vtx2, and 12 (11.2%) carried both vtx1 and vtx2. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed

  20. Distribution and Origin of Organic Matter Preserved in Modern Surface Sediments throughout Coastal SE Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walinsky, S.; Prahl, F. G.; Mix, A. C.; Finney, B.

    2006-12-01

    In the summer of 2004, modern surface sediments (0-2cm) were obtained by multicoring 27 sites beneath inland waters of SE Alaska (55° to 61°N). To evaluate the distribution pattern and source contribution of organic matter throughout the region, these samples were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) and biogenic silica (bioSi) content as well as elemental (C/N), stable isotopic (δ13C) and plantwax lipid composition of TOC. TOC ranged from 0.3% to 8.0% (by weight) with sediments from the region south of 58°N off the coast of the Queen Charlotte and Baranof Islands much more TOC-enriched than those deposited in the region to the north. bioSi content, a gauge of diatom input, ranged from 0.1% to 33.1% (by weight) and displayed high correlation with TOC (r = +0.98). δ13C values ranged from 24.5o/oo to 19.8o/oo with most 13C-depleted values typically found in sediments deposited to the north of 58°N from Malispina Shelf to Prince William Sound. C/N (molar ratio) varied from 7.7 to 12.7 with values typically increasing in sediments to the north. The observed distributional patterns for bioSi, δ13C and C/N fit the interpretation that organic matter deposited in sediments north and south of 58°N is relatively more terrestrial-enriched and marine-enriched, respectively. Plantwax lipid signatures produced a contrasting picture for the organic matter source contribution to this region. Long chain, odd predominant n-alkanes (C23-C35) and even predominant n-acids (C20- C28) characteristic of the epicuticular waxes produced by higher plants were most concentrated (per g TOC) in sediments south of 58°N. Although highest concentrations of long chain n-alkanes were actually measured in sediments to the north, the series of compounds displayed very low odd-to-even chain length predominance, a common fingerprint of fossil organic matter. The plantwax n-alkane signature preserved in sediments south of 58°N was accompanied by a pentacyclic triterpene-β(H),21β(H)-hop-22

  1. Effect of water and feed withdrawal and health status on blood and serum components, body weight loss, and meat and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows.

    PubMed

    Vogel, K D; Claus, J R; Grandin, T; Oetzel, G R; Schaefer, D M

    2011-02-01

    During marketing, cattle may be exposed to periods of water deprivation. The impact of water and feed access and health status on the physiological well-being and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows during preslaughter marketing was studied through analysis of serum components, BW loss percentage, and fresh meat composition. Ninety-one multiparous Holstein cows (609 ± 89 kg mean BW, 2.9 ± 0.5 mean BCS, varying stage of lactation) were purchased over 3 wk in 3 groups (n = 31, 29, and 31) at a terminal market in central Wisconsin. Each cow was screened to determine health status (sick or not sick) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 water and feed withdrawal treatment pens (AL, ad libitum access to water for 36 h; 18H, 18 h of ad libitum access to water followed by 18 h of water withdrawal; 36H, 36 h of water withdrawal; all 3 treatments included 36 h of feed withdrawal) in a randomized complete block arrangement with repeated measures for serum components. Blood samples were collected by tail venipuncture at 0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 h of each treatment. Ambient temperatures were 1.9 ± 6.2°C during the trial period, which occurred over a 3-wk period in March and April 2007 near Arlington, WI. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in mean serum cortisol in AL (18.41 ± 2.17 ng/mL) or 36H (22.98 ± 2.17 ng/mL). Mean serum glucose was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (78.15 ± 0.77 mg/dL) than AL (75.91 ± 0.77 mg/dL). Mean serum creatinine was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (0.71 ± 0.03 mg/dL) than AL (0.60 ± 0.03 mg/dL). The 36H pens also displayed increased (P < 0.05) serum albumin, anion gap, Ca, Cl, Na, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase over AL. Greater (P < 0.05) mean percentage BW loss was observed in 36H pens (5.2 ± 0.6%) than AL (3.1 ± 0.6%). Mean muscle protein (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H (22.2 ± 0.4%) than 18H (21.3 ± 0.4%). Mean muscle moisture (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in AL and 18H (75.3 ± 0.4% and 75.2 ± 0.4%) than 36H

  2. The solvent-extractable organic compounds in the Indonesia biomass burning aerosols - characterization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; To, K. L.; Jaafar, A. B.; Tong, S. L.

    for n-alkanols, and the presence of abundant moretane (17 β(H), 21 α(H)-hopanes). The biomarkers dehydroabietic acid and retene were not found in the samples suggesting there is a difference in the long-distance transport samples of an Asian forest fire and the controlled experiments reported in the literature. Similar to the biomass burning in Amazonia (Abas et al., 1995), the present study also showed an absence of conifer tracers in the smoke aerosols indicating tropical wood sources. Abundant friedelin, a specific biomarker for smoke from oak wood fires (Standley and Simoneit, 1990), was present in the late September samples when the fire was more intense. The results were compared to literature values from an earlier study of the haze episode on 29 September 1991 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Abas and Simoneit, 1996).

  3. Effects of variations in flow characteristics through W.P. Franklin Lock and Dam on downstream water quality in the Caloosahatchee River Estuary and in McIntyre Creek in the J.N. “Ding” Darling National Wildlife Refuge, southern Florida, 2010–13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, Amanda C.; Soderqvist, Lars E.; Knight, Travis M.

    2016-05-17

    Franklin Lock increases. The highest FDOM recorded during a survey was at Billy’s Creek. Chlorophyll fluorescence was positively correlated with flow at Franklin Lock, with 23 percent of the variation explained by the flow rate at Franklin Lock. An increase in flow rate at Franklin Lock resulted in a decrease in pH (21 percent of variation explained by flow rates). Data from the pH surveys indicate an increase in pH with distance from Franklin Lock. Turbidity and dissolved oxygen near the surface in McIntyre Creek were not correlated with flow rate at Franklin Lock. Moving-boat surveys did not document a change in turbidity or dissolved oxygen with a change in distance from the Franklin Lock. Correlations between Franklin Lock flow rate and water quality in McIntyre Creek indicate that releases at Franklin Lock affect water quality in the Caloosahatchee River Estuary and Ding Darling Refuge.

  4. Automation of Eastern Kentucky University Observatory and Preliminary Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocca, M.; Kilgore, E. E.; Williams, W. W.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) Eastern Kentucky University is a regional comprehensive institution located in Richmond, Kentucky. Its service area includes much of the eastern part of Kentucky, commonly referred to as Appalachia. As such, Eastern has truly been a "school of opportunities" for the region. We offer three astronomy courses and one of them, AST 135, has an outdoor lab component, in which the students observe the moon and the brightest planets using 6-inch SCT. To expand our offerings by adding advanced classes in observational astronomy, and with support from the University and a small grant from the AAS (Small Research Grants), we constructed a small observatory for that purpose. We have a 14-inch telescope (C14 from Celestron), with a research grade mount (Paramount ME), housed permanently in a two-room facility. The telescope room has a retractable roof and the control room is insulated against the elements. The telescope is conveniently located near campus, in a location away from city lights and vehicular traffic, with access via a secure gate. The observatory is on a concrete pad poured directly onto the ground, to minimize vibrations. The instrument package consists of a SBIG STL-6303E CCD camera with filter wheel and full complement of photographic, narrow-band, and photometric filters (Ha and UBVRI). Courtesy of the AAS grant, we also have a temperature-compensated focuser (TCF-S3i), off-axis guider, and SBIG AO-L adaptive optics accessory. Our first step has been the measurement of our CCD transformation parameters, to assess the capabilities of our telescope-camera combination. We imaged a standard photometric field from Landolt (1992) (R.A. 09h 21m 32s, Dec. +02° 47' 00" (J2000, Plate 38 of Landolt). Data were obtained with a time integration of 90 seconds, binned 2 x 2 (~1 arcsec/pixel) at air mass X = 1.31. We determined the CCD transformation parameter as described by the AAVSO document "Computing and Using CCD transformation coefficients" (Cohen 2003

  5. A Literature Survey to Identify Potentially Volatile Iodine-Bearing Species Present in Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bruffey, S. H.; Spencer, B. B.; Strachan, D. M.; Jubin, R. T.; Soelberg, N. R.; Riley, B. J.

    2015-06-30

    Four radionuclides have been identified as being sufficiently volatile in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel that their gaseous release needs to be controlled to meet regulatory requirements (Jubin et al. 2011, 2012). These radionuclides are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Of these, 129I has the longest half-life and potentially high biological impact. Accordingly, control of the release of 129I is most critical with respect to the regulations for the release of radioactive material in stack emissions. It is estimated that current EPA regulations (EPA 2010) would require any reprocessing plant in the United States to limit 129I release to less than 0.05 Ci/MTIHM for a typical fuel burnup of 55 gigawatt days per metric tonne (GWd/t) (Jubin 2011). The study of inorganic iodide in off-gas systems has been almost exclusively limited to I2 and the focus of organic iodide studies has been CH3I. In this document, we provide the results of an examination of publically available literature that is relevant to the presence and sources of both inorganic and organic iodine-bearing species in reprocessing plants. We especially focus on those that have the potential to be poorly sequestered with traditional capture methodologies. Based on the results of the literature survey and some limited thermodynamic modeling, the inorganic iodine species hypoiodous acid (HOI) and iodine monochloride (ICl) were identified as potentially low-sorbing iodine species that could present in off-gas systems. Organic species of interest included both short chain alkyl iodides such as methyl iodide (CH3I) and longer alkyl iodides up to iodododecane (C10H21I). It was found that fuel dissolution may provide conditions conducive to HOI formation and has been shown to result in volatile long-chain alkyl iodides, though these may not volatilize until later in the reprocessing sequence. Solvent extraction processes were found to be significant sources of various organic iodine-bearing species; formation of these

  6. Influence of Relief on Vegetation Factors and Agrotechnical Differentiation Measures in Transylvania Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioana Moraru, Paula; Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Ioan Pop, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Transylvanian Plain (TP), with an area of 395.616 hectares, has a special importance for Romanian agriculture being characterized as a region orographically represented by hilly areas hills whereas climatically appears as a plain. Physical-geographical conditions from TP (low level of forestation; climate specific to plains) have resulted in numerous land degradation phenomena: land erosion, landslide, draining of gradient springs and groundwater level. These conditions create a favourable framework for the development of anthropic morphogenetic processes, as well as those triggered by natural mechanisms, thus intensifying the pace and their territorial expansion. Rainfall, through annual distribution and spring-summer pluvial aggressiveness, require the implementation of preservation measures on arable land, particularly for spring cultures. Along with rainfall, more factors are involved: relief, by the high degree of fragmentation and through tilting slopes; vegetation, by the dominance of cultivated plants and by the advanced state of degradation of vegetal grasslands (especially on southern slopes); lithology, by the predominance of loose rocks (sand, marl, sandstone etc.). In order to determine the influence of landscape morphology on the agro-technical characterization of land, 11 HOBO Micro Stations (H21-002) have been implemented from April to October in the locality Caianu, at various altitudes (311-441 m) at exposure coverage (N, NW, W, S, SE, E, NE). HOBO Smart Temp (S-TMB-M002) temperature sensors and Decagon EC-5 (S-SMC-M005) moisture sensors were connected to HOBO Micro Stations. Additionally, in 4 of the 11 sites, tipping bucket rain gauges (RG3-M) were deployed to measure precipitation. Each station stored electronic data regarding ground temperature at 3 depths (10, 20, 30 cm), humidity at a depth of 10 cm, air temperature (1 m) and precipitation. Data were downloaded from the Micro Stations via a laptop computer using HOBOware Pro Software Version

  7. Global system for hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Enrique; De Michele, Carlo; Todini, Ezio; Cifres, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    connection) and not need update (all upgrade are deployed on the remote server)and DSS is a classical client-server application. The client side will be an HTML 5-CSS 3 application, it runs in one of the most common browser. The server side consist in: A web server (Apache web server); a map server (Geoserver); a Geographical q3456Relational Database Management Sytem (Postgresql+Postgis); Tools based on GDAL Lybraries. A customized web page will be implemented to publish all hydrometeorological information and forecast runs (free) for all users in the world. In this first presentation of the project are invited to attend all those scientific / technical people, Universities, Research Centers (public or private) who want to collaborate in it, opening a brainstorming to improve the System. References: • Liu Z. and Todini E., (2002). Towards a comprehensive physically based rainfall-runoff model. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS), 6(5):859-881, 2002. • Thielen, J., Bartholmes, J., Ramos, M.-H., and de Roo, A., (2009): The European Flood Alert System - Part 1: Concept and development, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 125-140, 2009. • Coccia C., Mazzetti C., Ortiz E., Todini E., (2010) - A different soil conceptualization for the TOPKAPI model application within the DMIP 2. American Geophysical Union. Fall Meeting, San Francisco H21H-07, 2010. • Pappenberger, F., Cloke, H. L., Balsamo, G., Ngo-Duc, T., and Oki,T., (2010) Global runoff routing with the hydrological component of the ECMWF NWP system, Int. J. Climatol., 30, 2155-2174, 2010. • Coccia, G. and Todini, E., (2011). Recent developments in predictive uncertainty assessment based on the Model Conditional Processor approach. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15, 3253-3274, 2011. • Wu, H., Adler, R. F., Hong, Y., Tian, Y., and Policelli, F.,(2012): Evaluation of Global Flood Detection Using Satellite-Based Rainfall and a Hydrologic Model, J. Hydrometeorol., 13, 1268-1284, 2012. • Simth M. et al., (2013