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Sample records for 02-03 4-class gsr

  1. GSR particles and their evidential value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrly, Marek; Turková, Ivana

    2010-06-01

    Analysis of gunshot residues (GSR) is one of major areas in microparticle investigation. Results of the analysis usually have a high evidential value, but some information about potential secondary contamination by GSR is needed to maintain its value. A three-year study was carried out for ascertaining the level of possible secondary contamination monitoring GSR particles in urban means of transports in Prague (underground, trams, busses), taxi cars, randomly chosen civil vehicles, vehicles and trains of suburban transport, at places with a high concentration of people (supermarkets, hypermarkets, banks and financial institutions, premises of post offices). We also performed sampling at premises of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague (common areas, corridors, laboratory rooms), at police stations and in patrol cars of the Police of the Czech Republic, including Prague Metropolitan Police. Next, persons form selected professional groups of inhabitants (policemen, car mechanics, civilians without contact with a firearm and people who are in contact with hunting weapons - huntsmen and gamekeepers) were sampled as well.

  2. Automated SEM-EDS GSR Analysis for Turkish Ammunitions

    SciTech Connect

    Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H. Bulent

    2007-04-23

    In this work, Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) was used to characterize 7.65 and 9mm cartridges Turkish ammunition. All samples were analyzed in a SEM Jeol JSM-5600LV equipped BSE detector and a Link ISIS 300 (EDS). A working distance of 20mm, an accelerating voltage of 20 keV and gunshot residue software was used in all analysis. Automated search resulted in a high number of particles analyzed containing gunshot residues (GSR) unique elements (PbBaSb). The obtained data about the definition of characteristic GSR particles was concordant with other studies on this topic.

  3. Automated SEM-EDS GSR Analysis for Turkish Ammunitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H. Bulent

    2007-04-01

    In this work, Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) was used to characterize 7.65 and 9mm cartridges Turkish ammunition. All samples were analyzed in a SEM Jeol JSM-5600LV equipped BSE detector and a Link ISIS 300 (EDS). A working distance of 20mm, an accelerating voltage of 20 keV and gunshot residue software was used in all analysis. Automated search resulted in a high number of particles analyzed containing gunshot residues (GSR) unique elements (PbBaSb). The obtained data about the definition of characteristic GSR particles was concordant with other studies on this topic.

  4. Final Report. DOE Computational Nanoscience Project DE-FG02-03ER46096: Integrated Multiscale Modeling of Molecular Computing Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, Peter

    2009-11-15

    The document is the final report of the DOE Computational Nanoscience Project DE-FG02-03ER46096: Integrated Multiscale Modeling of Molecular Computing Devices. It included references to 62 publications that were supported by the grant.

  5. GSR Feedback as an Aid in Developing Counselor Empathy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwin, Scott I.; Growick, Bruce

    1982-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) feedback in developing empathy in novice counselors. Results suggest training with biofeedback was associated with more affective responding by the counselor but did not facilitate counselor communication of understanding of clients' concerns, nor was a pervasive increase in perceptual…

  6. Instrumentation (GSR) and Its Effects on Counselor Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michels, Thomas J.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to make a pilot investigation testing the feasibility of the use of the galvanic skin response (GSR) as a useful instrument to increase the sensitivity of counselors to their clients. The technique could reduce the amount of direct staff assistance needed in the training program. (Author/BY)

  7. Integrated Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) in Gunshot Residue (GSR) characterisation.

    PubMed

    Romolo, F S; Christopher, M E; Donghi, M; Ripani, L; Jeynes, C; Webb, R P; Ward, N I; Kirkby, K J; Bailey, M J

    2013-09-10

    Gunshot Residue (GSR) is residual material from the discharge of a firearm, which frequently provides crucial information in criminal investigations. Changes in ammunition manufacturing are gradually phasing out the heavy metals on which current forensic GSR analysis is based, and the latest Heavy Metal Free (HMF) primers urgently demand new forensic solutions. Proton scanning microbeam Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), in conjunction with the Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDS), can be introduced into forensic analysis to solve both new and old problems, with a procedure entirely commensurate with current forensic practice. Six cartridges producing GSR particles known to be interesting in casework by both experience and the literature were selected for this study. A standard procedure to relocate the same particles previously analysed by SEM-EDS, based on both secondary electron (SE) and X-ray imaging was developed and tested. Elemental Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) mapping of the emitted X-rays allowed relocation in a scan of 10 μm × 10 μm of even a 1 μm GSR particle. The comparison between spectra from the same particle obtained by SEM-EDS and IBA-PIXE showed that the latter is much more sensitive at mid-high energies. Results that are very interesting in a forensic context were obtained with particles from a cartridge containing mercury fulminate in the primer. Particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) maps of a particles from HMF cartridges allowed identification of Boron and Sodium in particles from hands using the (10)B(p,α1γ)(7)Be, (11)B(p,p1γ)(11)B and (23)Na(p,p1γ)(23)Na reactions, which is extraordinary in a forensic context. The capability for quantitative analysis of elements within individual particles by IBA was also demonstrated, giving the opportunity to begin a new chapter in the research on GSR particles. The integrated procedure that was developed, which makes use of all the IBA

  8. Handguns and ammunitions indicators extracted from the GSR analysis.

    PubMed

    Jozef, Lebiedzik; Johnson, David L

    2002-05-01

    The computer automated scanning electron microscope. X-ray microanalysis of Firearms Discharge Residue (FDR) can reveal substantial information about the circumstances of their generation beyond the presence of characteristic gunshot residue (GSR). Indicators of the type of weapon and ammunition used can he obtained from the distribution of GSR particle shapes and from the multi-element analysis of the FDR sample. This is demonstrated for a large database of GSR samples from nine different handguns and over 60 different ammunitions. An example classification scheme is presented for the supporting particles generally found present in FDR. When particle type area concentration ratios are normalized to the iron (Fe) particle type, results show it is possible to distinguish much about the metal used in the weapon manufacture, whether it was of large or small caliber, whether the bullets were jacketed or plated, and whether the cartridge cases were of aluminum, brass, or nickel-plated brass. Standardization of such analytical schemes would be advantageous. PMID:12051326

  9. Evaluation of gunshot residue (GSR) evidence: Surveys of prevalence of GSR on clothing and frequency of residue types.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, Thomas J; McDermott, Sean D; Greaney, Claire M; O'Shaughnessy, John; O'Brien, Cliona M

    2015-12-01

    The evaluative approach is a logical approach to interpreting scientific findings in criminal cases, applying knowledge regarding the transfer, persistence and recovery of particulate material. The application of this approach to interpreting the finding of gunshot residue on the clothing of a suspect requires knowledge of background levels of GSR on clothing and on the frequency of different residue types in a particular environment. The cuffs of 100 upper outer garments submitted to a forensic laboratory in connection with non-firearms offences were sampled for gunshot residue. No 3-component lead/antimony/barium particles were found on 98 of them. Two 3-component particles were found on one of them and one 3-component particle was found on another. The frequency of occurrence of various particle types regarded as consistent with GSR was also explored. The findings show that, while 3-component particles were somewhat more likely to be encountered by chance on clothing than on hands, they are still relatively uncommon events. To investigate the frequency of occurrence of particular residue types, 100 discharged rounds of ammunition recovered at crime scenes were sampled and the types of residue present were determined. The results show that some residue types are significantly more common than others. Both sets of data will be of value in evaluating the significance of finding GSR on clothing of suspects in criminal cases. PMID:26363439

  10. Evaluation of shooting distance by AFM and FTIR/ATR analysis of GSR.

    PubMed

    Mou, Yongyan; Lakadwar, Jyoti; Rabalais, J Wayne

    2008-11-01

    The techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR/ATR) spectroscopy are applied to the analysis of gun-shot residue (GSR) to test their ability to determine shooting distance and discrimination of the powder manufacturers. AFM is a nondestructive technique that is capable of characterizing the shapes and size distributions of GSR particles with resolution down to less than a nanometer. This may be useful for estimation of the shooting distance. Our AFM images of GSR show that the size distribution of the particles is inversely proportional to the shooting distance. Discrimination of powder manufacturers is tested by FTIR/ATR investigation of GSR. Identifying the specific compounds in the GSR by FTIR/ATR was not possible because it is a mixture of the debris of several compounds that compose the residue. However, it is shown that the GSR from different cartridges has characteristic FTIR/ATR bands that may be useful in differentiating the powder manufacturers. It appears promising that the development of AFM and FTIR/ATR databases for various powder manufacturers may be useful in analysis and identification of GSR. PMID:18761553

  11. Glutathione reductase gsr-1 is an essential gene required for Caenorhabditis elegans early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Mora-Lorca, José Antonio; Sáenz-Narciso, Beatriz; Gaffney, Christopher J; Naranjo-Galindo, Francisco José; Pedrajas, José Rafael; Guerrero-Gómez, David; Dobrzynska, Agnieszka; Askjaer, Peter; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J; Cabello, Juan; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Glutathione is the most abundant thiol in the vast majority of organisms and is maintained in its reduced form by the flavoenzyme glutathione reductase. In this work, we describe the genetic and functional analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans gsr-1 gene that encodes the only glutathione reductase protein in this model organism. By using green fluorescent protein reporters we demonstrate that gsr-1 produces two GSR-1 isoforms, one located in the cytoplasm and one in the mitochondria. gsr-1 loss of function mutants display a fully penetrant embryonic lethal phenotype characterized by a progressive and robust cell division delay accompanied by an aberrant distribution of interphasic chromatin in the periphery of the cell nucleus. Maternally expressed GSR-1 is sufficient to support embryonic development but these animals are short-lived, sensitized to chemical stress, have increased mitochondrial fragmentation and lower mitochondrial DNA content. Furthermore, the embryonic lethality of gsr-1 worms is prevented by restoring GSR-1 activity in the cytoplasm but not in mitochondria. Given the fact that the thioredoxin redox systems are dispensable in C. elegans, our data support a prominent role of the glutathione reductase/glutathione pathway in maintaining redox homeostasis in the nematode. PMID:27117030

  12. Gaia Reference frame determination: the AVU/GSR pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Abbas, Ummi; Becciani, Ugo; Bianchi, Luca; Bucciarelli, Beatrice; Crosta, Mariateresa; Lattanzi, Mario G.

    2015-08-01

    The main goal of the Gaia ESA mission is the production of a 5 parameters astrometric catalog - i.e. including positions, parallaxes and the two components of the proper motions - of about 1 billion stars of our Galaxy at an accuracy level going from the few micro-arcseconds of the brightest objects to some ~100 micro-arcseconds of the faintests. This goal will be reached by means of high-precision astrometric measurements conducted by a satellite sweeping continuously the celestial sphere during its 5-years mission.A fundamental step toward the realization of this catalog is the so-called ''Sphere Reconstruction'', which determines the celestial reference frame using the observations of a subset of up to 100 million ''primary stars'' among those observed by Gaia.From a mathematical point of view, these observations translate into a large number of equations, linearized with respect to the unknown parameters around known initial values, whose solution in the least-squares sense eventually provides the catalog with its errors, and determines the Gaia reference frame.This represents an extremely challenging problem because of the high accuracy of the observations and of the large number of unknowns involved. The former issue implies that an adequately accurate relativistic astrometric model has to be used, while the huge number of unknowns and observations puts this task at the forefront of the High-Performance Computing problems.These challenges, and the absolute character of the Gaia measurements and results, calls for a careful scientific validation of the sphere reconstruction, as it was done for the previous HIPPARCOS mission. For these reasons the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) decided to replicate the baseline process, named AGIS (Astrometric Global Iterative Solution) with another independent solution, named GSR (Global Sphere Reconstruction) which uses a different astrometric model and different algorithms for the system solution

  13. Is there a real danger of concealing gunshot residue (GSR) particles by skin debris using the tape-lift method for sampling GSR from hands?

    PubMed

    Zeichner, A

    2001-11-01

    Experiments were carried out to assess the danger of concealing GSR particles by skin debris using the tape-lift method for sampling GSR from hands. Thirty discrete spherical particles (from GSR and from the debris of oxygen cutting of steel) sized from 8 to 30 microns were mounted on a double-side adhesive coated stubs in known locations using a stereomicroscope. These stubs were then used for dabbing hands 50 times. Some of the particles or parts thereof were covered by skin flakes, however, all particles could be detected using the backscattered electron image (BEI) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Also, all could be identified by the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). PMID:11714158

  14. The Bayesian approach to reporting GSR analysis results: some first-hand experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Sebastien; Nys, Bart

    2010-06-01

    The use of Bayesian principles in the reporting of forensic findings has been a matter of interest for some years. Recently, also the GSR community is gradually exploring the advantages of this method, or rather approach, for writing reports. Since last year, our GSR group is adapting reporting procedures to the use of Bayesian principles. The police and magistrates find the reports more directly accessible and useful in their part of the criminal investigation. In the lab we find that, through applying the Bayesian principles, unnecessary analyses can be eliminated and thus time can be freed on the instruments.

  15. Time periods of GSR particles deposition after discharge-final results.

    PubMed

    Fojtásek, Lubor; Kmjec, Tomás

    2005-10-29

    The elemental objects of the research study are: determination of time periods corresponding to gunshot residue particles (GSR) deposition after the shot from selected pistols and a revolver, and evaluation of the deposited particles number. For several shooting experiments were used a pistol CZ model 85, caliber 9 mm Luger with common ammunition 9 mm Luger FMJ Sellier & Bellot, a pistol CZ model 70, caliber 7.65 mm Browning (32 ACP) with common 7.65 mm Browning FMJ Sellier & Bellot ammunition and a revolver S&W Modell 60, barell length 2-1/8'', cal. .38 Special with common Sellier&Bellot (FMJ) ammunition. The results of the study have indicated the behavior of GSR particles deposited after a single discharge. The overall time interval of GSR particles deposition and the number of deposited particles with the above mentioned arms and ammunition were established. The results can potentially be used for clarifying the situation at crime scenes and for subsequent interpretation of GSR evidential value in caseworks. PMID:16139100

  16. Feasibility of using a biowatch to monitor GSR as a measure of radiologists' stress and fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; MacKinnon, Lea; Reiner, Bruce I.

    2015-03-01

    We have been investigating the impact of fatigue on diagnostic performance of radiologists interpreting medical images. In previous studies we found evidence that eye strain could be objectively measured and that it correlates highly with degradations in diagnostic accuracy as radiologists work long hours. Eye strain however can be difficult to measure in a non-invasive and continuous manner over the work day so we have been investigating other ways to measure physiological stress and fatigue. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of using a commercially available biowatch to measure galvanic skin response (GSR), a well known indicator of stress. 10 radiology residents wore the biowatch for about 8 hours during their normal work day and data were automatically collected at 10 Hz. They completed the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI) at the start and finish of the day. GSR values (microsiemens) ranged from 0.14 to 38.27 with an average of 0.50 (0.28 median). Overall GSR tended to be fairly constant as the day progressed, but there were definite spikes indicating higher levels of stress. SOFI scores indicated greater levels of fatigue and stress at the end of the work day. Although further work is needed, GSR measurements obtained via an easy to wear watch may provide a means to monitor stress/fatigue and alert radiologists when to take a break from interpreting images to avoid making errors.

  17. A stress sensor based on Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) controlled by ZigBee.

    PubMed

    Villarejo, María Viqueira; Zapirain, Begoña García; Zorrilla, Amaia Méndez

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes, one needs to control different emotional situations which can lead the person suffering them to dangerous situations, in both the medium and short term. There are studies which indicate that stress increases the risk of cardiac problems. In this study we have designed and built a stress sensor based on Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), and controlled by ZigBee. In order to check the device's performance, we have used 16 adults (eight women and eight men) who completed different tests requiring a certain degree of effort, such as mathematical operations or breathing deeply. On completion, we appreciated that GSR is able to detect the different states of each user with a success rate of 76.56%. In the future, we plan to create an algorithm which is able to differentiate between each state. PMID:22778631

  18. Confirmatory analysis of field-presumptive GSR test sample using SEM/EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toal, Sarah J.; Niemeyer, Wayne D.; Conte, Sean; Montgomery, Daniel D.; Erikson, Gregory S.

    2014-09-01

    RedXDefense has developed an automated red-light/green-light field presumptive lead test using a sampling pad which can be subsequently processed in a Scanning Electron Microscope for GSR confirmation. The XCAT's sampling card is used to acquire a sample from a suspect's hands on the scene and give investigators an immediate presumptive as to the presence of lead possibly from primer residue. Positive results can be obtained after firing as little as one shot. The same sampling card can then be sent to a crime lab and processed on the SEM for GSR following ASTM E-1588-10 Standard Guide for Gunshot Residue Analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry, in the same manner as the existing tape lifts currently used in the field. Detection of GSR-characteristic particles (fused lead, barium, and antimony) as small as 0.8 microns (0.5 micron resolution) has been achieved using a JEOL JSM-6480LV SEM equipped with an Oxford Instruments INCA EDS system with a 50mm2 SDD detector, 350X magnification, in low-vacuum mode and in high vacuum mode after coating with carbon in a sputter coater. GSR particles remain stable on the sampling pad for a minimum of two months after chemical exposure (long term stability tests are in progress). The presumptive result provided by the XCAT yields immediate actionable intelligence to law enforcement to facilitate their investigation, without compromising the confirmatory test necessary to further support the investigation and legal case.

  19. Comparison of GSR composition occurring at different locations around the firing position.

    PubMed

    Rijnders, Marco R; Stamouli, Amalía; Bolck, Annabel

    2010-05-01

    Variations in gunshot residue (GSR) compositions are used in the reconstruction of shooting incidents. In this study, GSR samples taken from seven different locations around and in the firearm were collected and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Four different types of ammunition were applied. Very low correlations were found when different ammunition were used. This clearly shows that it is possible to differentiate between ammunition types. When the same ammunition was used, high correlations were found between samples taken from external positions (such as hands of shooter, bullet-entrance holes) but poor correlation was found between internal samples (such as firearm barrel, cartridge case) and external samples. A high degree of association was found between samples that simulated victim and shooter. These findings clearly demonstrate that GSR comparison studies are meaningful but care needs to be taken when choosing suitable exhibits. External samples (such as hands of shooter, bullet-entrance holes) are more suitable candidates than internal samples (barrel of the firearm, cartridge case). PMID:20158597

  20. The evaluation of a new technology for gunshot residue (GSR) analysis in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondrogiannis, Ellen; Andersen, Danielle; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2013-05-01

    There continues to be a need for improved technology to be used in theater to quickly and accurately identify the person who shot any weapon during a terrorist attack as well as to link a suspect to the actual weapon fired during a crime. Beyond this, in areas of conflict it would be desirable to have the capability to establish the source country for weaponry and ammunition. Gunshot residue (GSR) analysis is a reasonably well-studied technology area. Recent scientific publications have reported that the residues have a rich composition of both organic and inorganic compounds. For the purposes of identifying the manufacturer or country of origin for the ammunition, the inorganic components of GSR appear to be especially promising since their presence in the propellant and primer formulations are either specific to a given chemical formula, or they represent impurities in the manufacturing process that can be unique to a manufacturer or the source country for the chemicals used for propellants and primers. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technology has already demonstrated considerable capability for elemental fingerprinting, especially for inorganic/metallic components. A number of reports have demonstrated LIBS capability in forensics for matching materials such as inks, fabrics, paper, glass, and paint. This work describes the encouraging results of an initial study to assess a new commercial field-portable (battery operated) LIBS system for GSR analysis with gunshot residues having been collected from inside cartridge casings from 3 different ammunition manufacturers.

  1. A Generalized Model of E-trading for GSR Fair Exchange Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, Debajyoti; Mazumdar, Chandan

    In this paper we propose a generalized model of E-trading for the development of GSR Fair Exchange Protocols. Based on the model, a method is narrated to implement E-trading protocols that ensure fairness in true sense without using an additional trusted third party for which either party has to pay. The model provides the scope to include the correctness of the product, money atomicity and customer's anonymity properties within E-trading protocol. We conclude this paper by indicating the area of applicability for our model.

  2. The influence of surface chemistry on GSR particles: using XPS to complement SEM/EDS analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwoeble, A. J.; Strohmeier, Brian R.; Piasecki, John D.

    2010-06-01

    Gunshot residue particles (GSR) were examined using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) to illustrate the size, shape, morphology, and elemental composition normally observed in particulate resulting from a discharged firearm. Determining the presence of lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), and barium (Ba), barring other elemental tags, fused together in a single particle with the correct morphology, is all that is required for the positive identification of GSR. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), however, can reveal more detailed information on surface chemistry than SEM/EDS. XPS is a highly surface-sensitive (<= ~10 nm), non-destructive, analytical technique that provides qualitative information for all elements except hydrogen and helium. Nanometer-scale sampling depth and its ability to provide unique chemical state information make XPS a potential technique for providing important knowledge on the surface chemistry of GSR that complements results obtained from SEM/EDS analysis.

  3. Final Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-03ER25579; Development of High-Order Accurate Interface Tracking Algorithms and Improved Constitutive Models for Problems in Continuum Mechanics with Applications to Jetting

    SciTech Connect

    Puckett, Elbridge Gerry; Miller, Gregory Hale

    2012-10-14

    Much of the work conducted under the auspices of DE-FG02-03ER25579 was characterized by an exceptionally close collaboration with researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). For example, Andy Nonaka, one of Professor Miller's graduate students in the Department of Applied Science at U. C. Davis (UCD) wrote his PhD thesis in an area of interest to researchers in the Applied Numerical Algorithms Group (ANAG), which is a part of the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) at LBNL. Dr. Nonaka collaborated closely with these researchers and subsequently published the results of this collaboration jointly with them, one article in a peer reviewed journal article and one paper in the proceedings of a conference. Dr. Nonaka is now a research scientist in the Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE), which is also part of the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) at LBNL. This collaboration with researchers at LBNL also included having one of Professor Puckett's graduate students in the Graduate Group in Applied Mathematics (GGAM) at UCD, Sarah Williams, spend the summer working with Dr. Ann Almgren, who is a staff scientist in CCSE. As a result of this visit Sarah decided work on a problem suggested by the head of CCSE, Dr. John Bell, for her PhD thesis. Having finished all of the coursework and examinations required for a PhD, Sarah stayed at LBNL to work on her thesis under the guidance of Dr. Bell. Sarah finished her PhD thesis in June of 2007. Writing a PhD thesis while working at one of the University of California (UC) managed DOE laboratories is long established tradition at UC and Professor Puckett has always encouraged his students to consider doing this. Another one of Professor Puckett's graduate students in the GGAM at UCD, Christopher Algieri, was partially supported with funds from DE-FG02-03ER25579 while he wrote his MS thesis in which he analyzed and extended work originally published by Dr

  4. Preparation of a Ytterbium-tagged Gunshot Residue Standard for Quality Control in the Forensic Analysis of GSR.

    PubMed

    Hearns, Nigel G R; Laflèche, Denis N; Sandercock, Mark L

    2015-05-01

    Preparation of a ytterbium-tagged gunshot residue (GSR) reference standard for scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (SEM-EDS) microanalysis is reported. Two different chemical markers, ytterbium and neodymium, were evaluated by spiking the primers of 38 Special ammunition cartridges (no propellant, no projectile) and discharging them onto 12.7 mm diameter aluminum SEM pin stubs. Following SEM-EDS microanalysis, the majority of tri-component particles containing lead, barium, and antimony (PbBaSb) were successfully tagged with the chemical marker. Results demonstrate a primer spiked with 0.75% weight percent of ytterbium nitrate affords PbBaSb particles characteristic of GSR with a ytterbium inclusion efficiency of between 77% and 100%. Reproducibility of the method was verified, and durability of the ytterbium-tagged tri-component particles under repeated SEM-EDS analysis was also tested. The ytterbium-tagged PbBaSb particles impart synthetic traceability to a GSR reference standard and are suitable for analysis alongside case work samples, as a positive control for quality assurance purposes. PMID:25678346

  5. Renal denervation for treatment of uncontrolled hypertension in an Asian population: results from the Global SYMPLICITY Registry in South Korea (GSR Korea).

    PubMed

    Kim, B-K; Böhm, M; Mahfoud, F; Mancia, G; Park, S; Hong, M-K; Kim, H-S; Park, S-J; Park, C G; Seung, K B; Gwon, H-C; Choi, D-J; Ahn, T H; Kim, C J; Kwon, H M; Esler, M; Jang, Y S

    2016-05-01

    Reports detailing the response of hypertensive patients to renal denervation (RDN) in Asian patients are limited. We evaluated 6- and 12-month outcomes after RDN in an Asian population and compared outcomes to a primarily Caucasian population. The Global SYMPLICITY Registry (GSR) is a prospective, all-comer, worldwide registry that evaluates the safety and effectiveness of RDN and includes the Korean registry substudy (GSR Korea) and a Caucasian subset (GSR Caucasian). Given differences in baseline characteristics among GSR Korea (n=93) as compared with GSR Caucasian (n=169) patients, including lower baseline office systolic blood pressure (SBP), lower body mass index and differences in medications, propensity score adjustment was performed when comparing the change in SBP between subsets. The 6- and 12-month change in SBP in GSR Korea was -19.4±17.2 and -27.2±18.1 mm Hg, respectively (P<0.001 for both vs baseline). GSR Caucasian had a SBP change similar to GSR Korea at 6 months (-20.9±21.4 mm Hg, unadjusted P=0.547, adjusted P=0.998), whereas at 12 months the change was significantly less pronounced (-20.1±23.9 mm Hg, unadjusted P=0.004, adjusted P=0.002). There were no protocol-defined procedure-related adverse events and no chronic adverse events associated with the device in an Asian population. RDN provided a significant reduction in 6- and 12-month office SBP among Asian patients, with a favorable safety profile. The 12-month SBP reduction was larger than that observed in Caucasian patients. PMID:26155994

  6. GSR deposition along the bullet path in contact shots to composite models.

    PubMed

    Grosse Perdekamp, Markus; Arnold, Max; Merkel, Joachim; Mierdel, Katrin; Braunwarth, Roland; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Pollak, Stefan; Thierauf, Annette

    2011-01-01

    In contact shots, all the materials emerging from the muzzle (combustion gases, soot, powder grains, and metals from the primer) will be driven into the depth of the entrance wound and the following sections of the bullet track. The so-called "pocket" ("powder cavity") under the skin containing soot and gunpowder particles is regarded as a significant indicator of a contact entrance wound since one would expect that the quantity of GSR deposited along the bullet's path rapidly declines towards the exit hole. Nevertheless, experience has shown that soot, powder particles, and carboxyhemoglobin may be found not only in the initial part of the wound channel, but also far away from the entrance and even at the exit. In order to investigate the propagation of GSRs under standardized conditions, contact test shots were fired against composite models of pig skin and 25-cm-long gelatin blocks using 9-mm Luger pistol cartridges with two different primers (Sinoxid® and Sintox®). Subsequently, 1-cm-thick layers of the gelatin blocks were examined as to their primer element contents (lead, barium, and antimony as discharge residues of Sinoxid® as well as zinc and titanium from Sintox®) by means of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As expected, the highest element concentrations were found in the initial parts of the bullet tracks, but also the distal sections contained detectable amounts of the respective primer elements. The same was true for amorphous soot and unburned/partly burned powder particles, which could be demonstrated even at the exit site. With the help of a high-speed motion camera it was shown that for a short time the temporary cavitation extends from the entrance to the exit thus facilitating the unlimited spread of discharge residues along the whole bullet path. PMID:21088971

  7. Environmental impact assessment using a GSR tool for a landfarming case in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyeongseok; Kwon, Ip-Sae; Lee, Hanuk; Park, Jae-Woo

    2016-04-01

    An environmental impact assessment of a landfarming process, which was performed at an actual petroleum-contaminated site, was conducted using a green and sustainable remediation (GSR) tool in this study. The landfarming process was divided into four stages: site preparation, installation, system operation, and system dismantling/waste disposal. The environmental footprints of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, total energy usage, and air pollutants (SOx, NOx, and PM10) were analyzed. GHG emissions and water consumption were approximately 276 metric tons and 7.90E + 05 gal, respectively, in stage III, where they were the highest due to the consumables and equipment use in the system operation. Total energy usage had the highest value of 1.54E + 03 MMBTU in stage II due to material production. The SOx and NOx emissions primarily occurred in stages I and II due to energy usage. The PM10 was mostly emitted in stages I and III and was associated with heavy use of equipment. To reduce the environmental footprints, biodiesel and sunlight were suggested as alternatives in this study. The GHG and SOx emissions decreased to 1.7 and 4.4E-04 metric tons, respectively, on the basis of total emissions with a 1 % increase in biodiesel content, but the NOx emissions increased to 5.6E-03 metric tons. If sunlight was used instead of electricity, the GHG and NOx emissions could be reduced by as much as 79 and 84 %, respectively, and the SOx emissions could also be reduced. PMID:27000316

  8. Quality assurance aspects of GSR analysis by SEM/EDX: a report of first-hand experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Sebastien; Dehan, Didier; Geusens, Nadia; Nys, Bart

    2009-05-01

    Like many forensic science labs, the Belgian National Institute of Forensic Science (NICC) is involved in a Quality Assurance program aiming towards an ISO17025 Accreditation. Since last year, a project is underway in the GSR lab to validate the method used in the analysis of GSR samples acquired from the hands of suspects by SEM/EDX. The project is well underway, and is planned to lead to accreditation for this technique by the start of 2010. The presentation will discuss several aspects of the functioning of the lab that have to be addressed when preparing for this accreditation. Some of these issues and problems are so involved that separate sub-projects were defined in order to provide a manageable solution. The following topics will be treated in detail: definition of the scope of the accreditation, the validation of the SEM/EDX method with respect to : accuracy, precision, reproducibility and robustness, and the documentation of the Chain of Custody (CoC) of the samples and their storage. One specific sub-project that will be discussed is the study of contamination monitoring in different relevant locations of the lab. Finally, as we have recently acquired a new microscope, the technical criteria we used in the acquisition study will be presented with a focus on their relevance in a QA context. We feel this discussion is informative, both for labs that are pursuing a formal accreditation in the future, and those that work already in such a context and are in the process of acquiring new equipment.

  9. Semi-automatic detection of gunshot residue (GSR) by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX).

    PubMed

    Gansau, H; Becker, U

    1982-01-01

    Wide strips of adhesive tape (40 mm x 86 mm) are pressed for about one minute on the thumb, forefinger and outer edge of a subject's hand. Subsequently these tapes are fixed to a cylinder that rotates within the SEM chamber and is adjustable in an axial direction. The tapes are scanned for possible GSR particles with simultaneous SE and X-ray imaging. The X-ray signal caused by particles of high atomic number automatically stops the rotating cylinder, and the EDX spectrum of the suspect particle is produced within five seconds. A chart is then plotted to record the size, elemental composition, morphology and tape coordinates of the particles of interest. The outcome is a complete map of GSR particles found on certain parts of the hand, and this map has a characteristic pattern depending on the firearm used, the ammunition and the circumstances of the shooting incident. The time lapse between firing and sampling may allow this GSR pattern to change, but this method is helpful in suicide/homicide decisions. PMID:7167744

  10. Yearly Technical Report for DE-FG02-03ER46026

    SciTech Connect

    Duane D. Johnson

    2012-05-25

    We propose a unique, all-electron, thermodynamic density functional theory (DFT) code that directly predicts full or partial long-range order in crystalline (defected) solids and their effect on electronic properties via a first-principles mean-field theory, scales linear with number of atoms N per unit-cell [i.e. O(N), due to use of a mathematical-based screening in k-space], and addresses up to 1 million atoms using parallel architectures. Novel O(N) algorithms will be developed to permit this for an all-electron KKR Green's functional density-functional theory code.

  11. Grant No DE-FG02-03ER83720 Report for US Department of Engery

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Winston; Wagner, Robert

    2004-04-22

    Effective and reliable nuclear monitoring requires discrimination between small magnitude explosions and earthquakes based on the use of limited regional data. Lg is generally the largest seismic phase from both explosion and earthquake sources recorded at regional distances. For small events, Lg may sometimes be the only well-recorded seismic phase so that discriminants based only on the use of Lg are especially desirable. Recent research has provided significantly better understanding of Lg by demonstrating that the explosion-generated Rg makes significant contribution to the low-frequency S or Lg from explosions. Near-source scattering of explosion-generated Rg appears to be a viable mechanism for generating low-frequency(< 2 Hz) Lg waves from explosions. Detailed knowledge of the complex scattering process is, however, still incomplete and is in fact the subject of several ongoing studies. Our analysis of regional data from nuclear explosions from both Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and nearby earthquakes in Phase I has suggested that there are several reliable source discrimination methods only based on the use of Lg at regional distances. These discriminants should be. especially useful for small magnitude seismic events for which Lg may be the only well-recorded seismic phase. Our results suggest four possible regional discriminants: (a) frequency-amplitude-time analysis of spectrograms, (b) Lg(low frequency)/Lg(high frequency), (c) Lg spectral slopes, and (d) skewness of Lg spectra. Remarkable similarity of discrimination results from both NTS and KTS nuclear explosions and nearby earthquakes, with entirely different geological settings, indicates that our results should be applicable to other regions of the world.

  12. Final Report for Award DE-FG02-03ER63640

    SciTech Connect

    James Ehleringer

    2007-07-19

    The carbon isotope ratios of carbon dioxide fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems are key measurements needed to constrain interpretations of carbon sinks in North American carbon cycle analyses. The completed research was a multi-faceted effort addressing photosynthetic and respiratory isotope exchanges across the biosphere-atmosphere boundary at five AmeriFlux sites (Harvard Forest, Howland Forest, Rannalls Ranch, Niwot Ridge Forest, and Wind River Crane Site), spanning the dominant ecosystem types of the United States. The sampling and analysis protocols developed in this project have become the fundamental analytical approach for all sites measuring ecosystem isotope studies across the United States and Canada. It is the first network of long-term observations to characterize the isotopic composition of the biosphere-atmosphere CO2 flux. We focused on understanding the magnitude of changes in the carbon isotope ratio of respiration and of photosynthetic discrimination on seasonal and interannual bases. Focusing at AmeriFlux sites provided a direct link to NEE measurements associated with studies of the North American carbon cycle and an opportunity to provide mechanistic insights relating observed isotope changes and the controls over carbon sequestration and loss on seasonal and interannual bases. An additional component of our research linked directly with eddy covariance monitoring to partition NEE into assimilation and respiratory components. The completed project promoted cross-site analyses and resulting publications applicable at AmeriFlux and other long-term carbon cycle research sites. Lastly, the online monitoring of carbon dioxide in the Salt Lake Valley and the intermittent monitoring of absolute carbon dioxide concentrations at different AmeriFlux sites contributed public awareness and data sets that can be used in public education and as a basis for public policies related to carbon dioxide

  13. Final Technical Report For Closeout of Award No. DE-FG02-03ER41250

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. York

    2005-07-20

    Michigan State University (MSU) activities in support of this grant were made as part of a larger collaboration including Los Alamos National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The main task of the collaboration was the development of an end-to-end multiparticle beam-dynamics simulation tool for computation of beam losses in the RIA driver linac. As the first part of this task, it was planned to modify PARMTEQ for multicharge-state beam-dynamics simulation in the LEBT and RFQ. The next part of this task was to develop a new multiparticle parallel code to model the superconducting driver linac. The output particle distributions from PARMTEQ could then be used as input for simulations through the superconducting linac, using the new parallel code with different random number seeds. The stripping of heavy ions is proposed for the RIA driver linac to increase acceleration efficiency. MSU developed a complete charge stripping foil model to evaluate the impact of the stripping foil on the beam transverse and longitudinal emittance. The stripping foil model was developed in LANA [1] and included the effects of elastic and inelastic scattering, ionization energy loss, and thickness variation in the stripping foil using the code SRIM [2]. This model was provided to the collaboration for inclusion in the new simulation tools. Benchmarking information in support of the new code development was provided by supplying the collaboration with the MSU driver linac model consisting of input information for LANA and DIMAD [3] The output of simulations using LANA and DIMAD were also provided. As an element of these activities, LANA was modified to provide simulation results with high statistics. The simulation results from the newly developed simulation tools and those of MSU gave statistically equivalent results.

  14. Certification Can Count: The Case of Aircraft Mechanics. Issues in Labor Statistics. Summary 02-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC.

    This document is a summary of aerospace industry technician statistics gathered by the Occupational Employment Statistics Survey for the year 2000 by the Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. The data includes the following: (1) a comparison of wages earned by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certified and non-FAA certified…

  15. The Institutional Context of Community College Administration. No. 4 Leadership Series. Research Brief. AACC-RB-02-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amey, Marilyn J.; VanDerLinden, Kim E.

    2002-01-01

    This research brief examines administrator perspectives on institutional mission and priorities, while taking note of regional differences in perspectives. In addition, this brief presents other dimensions of the institutional context such as the factors that keep administrators engaged and satisfied in their positions. Given the challenges and…

  16. Spallation Neutrons and Pressure SNAP DE-FG02-03ER46085 CLOSE-OUT MAY 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, John B

    2009-05-22

    The purpose of the grant was to build a community of scientist and to draw upon their expertise to design and build the world's first dedicated high pressure beamline at a spallation source - the so called Spallation Neutron And Pressure (SNAP) beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at OAk Ridge NAtional LAboratory. . Key to this endeavor was an annual meeting attended by the instrument design team and the executive committee. The discussions at those meeting set an ambitious agenda for beamline design and construction and highlighted key science areas of interest for the community. This report documents in 4 appendices the deliberations at the annual SNAP meetings and the evolution of the beamline optics from concept to construction. The appendices also contain key science opportunities for extreme conditions research.

  17. Fast WMAP Likelihood Code and GSR PC Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorkin, Cora; Hu, Wayne

    2010-10-01

    We place functional constraints on the shape of the inflaton potential from the cosmic microwave background through a variant of the generalized slow roll approximation that allows large amplitude, rapidly changing deviations from scale-free conditions. Employing a principal component decomposition of the source function G'~3(V'/V)^2 - 2V''/V and keeping only those measured to better than 10% results in 5 nearly independent Gaussian constraints that maybe used to test any single-field inflationary model where such deviations are expected. The first component implies < 3% variations at the 100 Mpc scale. One component shows a 95% CL preference for deviations around the 300 Mpc scale at the ~10% level but the global significance is reduced considering the 5 components examined. This deviation also requires a change in the cold dark matter density which in a flat LCDM model is disfavored by current supernova and Hubble constant data and can be tested with future polarization or high multipole temperature data. Its impact resembles a local running of the tilt from multipoles 30-800 but is only marginally consistent with a constant running beyond this range. For this analysis, we have implemented a ~40x faster WMAP7 likelihood method which we have made publicly available.

  18. Deployment simulation for 3rd generation solar array GSR3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verne, C.; Rouchon, M.

    1989-01-01

    Deployment tests for different solar arrays are described. The Spacebus solar array deployment is tested in two dimensions. The Spot 4 array deployment is tested in three dimensions. A mock-up deployment test on an air cushion is compared to results obtained using simulation software. The third generation solar array concept equipped with Adele hinges is compared to previous solar array models. The need for greater accuracy and reliability in the deployment analysis of these third generation solar arrays is stressed.

  19. Final Technical Report for the Grant DF-FG02-03ER41236 Partial Support of CPO6, The Sixth International Charged-Particle Optics Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Alex J. Dragt

    2004-06-09

    The International Conference on Charged Particle Optics, CPO, is held every 4 years, and brings together scientists working in all areas of charged-particle optics including electron microscopy, accelerators, spectrometers, electron and ion sources, and theory. In October 2002 the sixth such conference, CPO6, was held near Washington, DC. This is the report on the Sixth International Charged-Particle Optics Conference. Proceedings of this conference have been published in Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research, Section A Volume 519, February/March 2004.

  20. Final Technical Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-03ER15473 “Molecular Level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysis”

    SciTech Connect

    David Sholl; Andrew Gellman

    2007-03-15

    The production of enantiomerically pure chiral compounds is of great importance in the pharmaceutical industry. Although processes involving chiral catalysis and separations involving solid surfaces are known, the molecular-scale details of these processes are not well understood. This lack of understanding strongly limits the development of new chiral processes. Our collaborative research effort examines several intertwined aspects of chirality and enantioselectivity at catalytically active metal surfaces. At Carnegie Mellon, our efforts focus on the development of chirally imprinted metal powders as materials for chiral columns and the experimental and theoretical study of small chiral molecules adsorbed on well-characterized metal surfaces, both achiral and chiral. These efforts are being performed in close collaboration with our team members at the University of California Riverside and the University of Wisconsin Milwaukee.

  1. Final Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-03ER54712, Experimental Studies of Collisionless Reconnection Processes in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Porkolab, Miklos; Egedal, Jan

    2007-11-30

    The Grant DE-FG-02-00ER54712, ?Experimental Studies of Collisionless Reconnection Processes in Plasmas?, financed within the DoE/NSF, spanned a period from September , 2003 to August, 2007. It partly supported an MIT Research scientist, two graduate students and material expenses. The grant enabled the operation of a basic plasma physics experiment (on magnetic reconnection) at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center and the MIT Physics Department. A strong educational component characterized this work throughout, with the participation of a large number of graduate and undergraduate students and interns to the experimental activities. The study of the collisionless magnetic reconnection constituted the primary work carried out under this grant. The investigations utilized two magnetic configurations with distinct boundary conditions. Both configurations were based upon the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF). The first configuration is characterized by open boundary conditions where the magnetic field lines interface directly with the vacuum vessel walls. The reconnection dynamics for this configuration has been methodically characterized and it has been shown that kinetic effects related to trapped electron trajectories are responsible for the high rates of reconnection observed [7]. This type of reconnection has not been investigated before. Nevertheless, the results are directly relevant to observations by the Wind spacecraft of fast reconnection deep in the Earth magnetotail [9]. The second configuration was developed to be specifically relevant to numerical simulations of magnetic reconnection, allowing the magnetic field-lines to be contained inside the device. The configuration is compatible with the presence of large current sheets in the reconnection region and reconnection is observed in fast powerful bursts. These reconnection events facilitate the first experimental investigations of the physics governing the spontaneous onset of fast reconnection [12]. In this Report we review the general motivation of this work, the experimental set-up, and the main physics results. The details of the individual chapters are naturally contained in the relevant publications [1-12], indicated in the reference list and annexed to this Report.

  2. The Impact of Flagging on the Admission Process: Policies, Practices, and Implications. Research Report No. 2002-2. ETS RR-02-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandinach, Ellen B.; Cahalan, Cara; Camara, Wayne J.

    2002-01-01

    The study represents a first step in trying to gain a better appreciation for the complexity of the issues surrounding flagging test scores taken with nonstandard conditions and how the admission process can better serve students with disabilities. Surveys were sent to admission officers, guidance counselors, and disability service providers at…

  3. Technical Report for DE-FG02-03ER46029 Sugar-Coated PPEs, Novel Nanomaterials and Sensing Modules for Disease and Bioterrorism Related Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Uwe Bunz

    2003-08-27

    The detection and sensing of biological warfare agents (Ricin, Anthrax toxin), of disease agents (cholera, botulinum and tetanus toxins, influenza virus etc) and of biologically active species is important for national security and disease control. A premiere goal would be the simple colorimetric or fluorimetric detection of such toxins by a dipstick test. It would be desirable to sense 5,000-10,000 toxin molecules, i.e. 10-100 fg of a toxin contained 1-5 mL of sample. Fluorescent conjugated polymers should be particularly interesting in this regard, because they can carry multiple identical and/or different recognition units. Such an approach is particularly valuable for the detection of lectin toxins, because these bind to oligomeric carbohydrate displays. Lectins bind multivalently to sugars, i.e. several covalently connected sugar moieties have to be exposed to the lectin at the same time to obtain binding. The requirement of multivalency of the lectin-sugar interactions should allow a very sensitive detection of lectins with sugar coated conjugated polymers in an agglutination type assay, where the fluorescence of the PPEs disappears upon binding to the lectins. High molecular weights of the used PPEs would mean high sensitivity. Herein we present our progress towards that goal up to date.

  4. FINAL REPORT FOR DE-FG02-03ER46071 ENTITLED, "UNDERSTANDING FOAM RHEOLOGY FROM THE MICROSCOPIC TO THE MACROSCOPIC SCALE"

    SciTech Connect

    Dennin, Michael

    2012-01-10

    This research effort is focused on understanding the mechanical response of foams, and other complex fluids, from the microscopic to the macroscopic level. The research uses a model two-dimensional system: bubble rafts. Bubble rafts are a single layer of gas bubbles with liquid walls that float on a water surface. The work involves studies of the macroscopic response of foam under various conditions of external forcing, mesoscopic studies of bubble motion, and systematic variations of the microscopic details of the system. In addition to characterizing the specific properties of the bubble raft, a second aim of the research is to provide experimental tests of various general theories that have recently been developed to characterize complex fluids. Primarily, the focus is on testing the proposed jamming phase diagram paradigm. This paradigm suggests that a general jamme state of matter exists and is common to a wide range of systems, including foam, colloids, granular matter, glasses, and emulsions. Therefore,we have extended our research in two directions. First, we have included studies of plastic bead rafts. These are systems of plastic beads floating on the air-water interface. The advantage of plastic beads is that they do not pop, so they can be studied for the much longer periods of time required to measure the slow dynamics associated with the jammed state. Also, they allow us to explore a different density regime than the bubbles. Second, to better understand the role of defects in jamming behavior, we have done a few experiments on the impact of defects on domain growth.

  5. DOE FG02-03ER63557: Final Technical Report: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn L. Nagy

    2009-05-04

    The purpose of the project was to investigate rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals and key components of waste tank solutions that leaked into the subsurface at the Hanford Site. Results were expected to enhance understanding of processes that cause (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. Measured rates can also be used directly in reactive transport models. Project tasks included (1) measurement of the dissolution rates of biotite mica from low to high pH and over a range of temperature relevant to the Hanford subsurface, (2) measurement of dissolution rates of quartz at high pH and in the presence of dissolved alumina, (3) measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms, (4) incorporation of perrhenate in iron-oxide minerals as a function of pH, and (5) initiation of experiments to measure the formation of uranium(VI)-silicate phases under ambient conditions. Task 2 was started under a previous grant from the Environmental Management Science Program and Task 4 was partially supported by a grant to the PI from the Geosciences Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Task 5 was continued under a subsequent grant from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program, Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  6. Final Scientific/Technical Report for DOE Award No. DE-FG02-03ER15426: Role of Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene in meristem function

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M. Kathryn Barton

    2011-11-29

    The shoot apical meristems of land plants are small mounds of hundreds of cells located at the tips of branches. It is from these small clusters of cells that essentially all above ground plant biomass and therefore much of our energy supply originates. Several key genes have been discovered that are necessary for cells in the shoot apical meristem to take on stem cell properties. The goal of this project is to understand how the synthesis and accumulation of the mRNAs and proteins encoded by these genes is controlled. A thorough understanding of the molecules that control the growth of shoot apical meristems in plants will help us to manipulate food, fiber and biofuel crops to better feed, clothe and provide energy for humans.

  7. 25 CFR 502.4 - Class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... II gaming, including but not limited to: (a) Any house banking game, including but not limited to— (1) Card games such as baccarat, chemin de fer, blackjack (21), and pai gow (if played as house banking games); (2) Casino games such as roulette, craps, and keno; (b) Any slot machines as defined in 15...

  8. 25 CFR 502.4 - Class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... II gaming, including but not limited to: (a) Any house banking game, including but not limited to— (1) Card games such as baccarat, chemin de fer, blackjack (21), and pai gow (if played as house banking games); (2) Casino games such as roulette, craps, and keno; (b) Any slot machines as defined in 15...

  9. 25 CFR 502.4 - Class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... II gaming, including but not limited to: (a) Any house banking game, including but not limited to— (1) Card games such as baccarat, chemin de fer, blackjack (21), and pai gow (if played as house banking games); (2) Casino games such as roulette, craps, and keno; (b) Any slot machines as defined in 15...

  10. 25 CFR 502.4 - Class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... II gaming, including but not limited to: (a) Any house banking game, including but not limited to— (1) Card games such as baccarat, chemin de fer, blackjack (21), and pai gow (if played as house banking games); (2) Casino games such as roulette, craps, and keno; (b) Any slot machines as defined in 15...

  11. 25 CFR 502.4 - Class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... II gaming, including but not limited to: (a) Any house banking game, including but not limited to— (1) Card games such as baccarat, chemin de fer, blackjack (21), and pai gow (if played as house banking games); (2) Casino games such as roulette, craps, and keno; (b) Any slot machines as defined in 15...

  12. Quantifying Hierarchy Stimuli in Systematic Desensitization Via GSR: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasz, Arreed F.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of the method for quantifying hierarchy stimuli by Galvanic Skin Resistance recordings is to improve the results of systematic desensitization by attenuating the subjective influences in hierarchy construction which are common in traditional procedures. (Author/CS)

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT FOR THE REDUCTION OF NITROGEN IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER FROM INDIVIDUAL RESIDENTIAL HOMES, WATERLOO BIOFILTER® MODEL 4-BEDROOM (NSF 02/03/WQPC-SWP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Waterloo Biofilter Systems (WBS), Inc. Waterloo Biofilter® Model 4-Bedroom system was conducted over a thirteen month period at the Massachusetts Alternative Septic System Test Center (MASSTC) located at Otis Air National Guard Base in Bourne, Mas...

  14. Final Report DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER83817 Integrated Reactor Design for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Sourced Reactants Streams Using the Aqueous-Phase Carbohydrate Reforming (ACR) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Randy D. Cortright

    2005-05-04

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation research project Virent Energy Systems (Virent) attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of generating high yields of hydrogen by developing the appropriate reactor system for the novel liquid-phase reforming of aqueous-phase carbohydrate streams derived from biomass. In this project platinum-based catalysts were initially utilized to establish the technical feasibility of reactor design for reforming carbohydrates found in biomass to hydrogen.

  15. Final Technical Report ARM DOE Grant #DE-FG02-03ER63520 Parameterizations of Shortwave Radiactive Properties of Broken Clouds from Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Bruce, A.

    2006-06-19

    This study used DOE ARM data and facilities to: 1) study macroscopic properties of continental stratus clouds at SGP and the factors controlling these properties, 2) develop a scientific basis for understanding the pocesses responsible for the formation of boundary layer clouds using ARM observations in conjunction with simple parametric models and LES, and 3) evaluate cumulus cloud characteristics retrieved retrieved from the MMCR operating at TWP-Nauru. In addition we have used high resolution 94 GHz observations of boundary layer clouds and precipitation to: 1)develop techniques for using high temporal resolution Doppler velocities to study large-eddy circulations and turbulence in boundary layer clouds and estimate the limitations of using current and past MMCR data for boundary layer cloud studies, 2) evaluate the capability and limitation of the current MMCR data for estimating reflectivity, vertical velocities, and spectral under low-signal-to-noise conditions associated with weak non-precipitating clouds, 3) develop possible sampling modes for the new MMCR processors to allow for adequate sampling of boundary layer clouds, and 4) retrieve updraft and downdraft structures under precipitating conditions.

  16. Final Report for Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER54706 "Support for the 7th Workshop on The Interrelationship between Plasma Experiment in Laboratory and Space"

    SciTech Connect

    C. Kletzing

    2005-09-13

    We describe the support given to support the 7th IPELS meeting which brings together space and laboratory based physicists. The meeting was a great success with more than 80 attendees and a significant number of young scientists. The major topics of discussion were magnetic reconnection, plasma turbulence, and waves in plasmas.

  17. 17 CFR 50.4 - Classes of swaps required to be cleared.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Entities Corporate. Region Europe. Indices iTraxx Europe. iTraxx Europe Crossover. iTraxx Europe HiVol. Tenor iTraxx Europe: 5Y, 10Y. iTraxx Europe Crossover: 5Y. iTraxx Europe HiVol: 5Y. Applicable Series i... Crossover 5Y: Series 10 and all subsequent Series, up to and including the current Series. iTraxx Europe...

  18. 17 CFR 50.4 - Classes of swaps required to be cleared.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Europe. Indices iTraxx Europe. iTraxx Europe Crossover. iTraxx Europe HiVol. Tenor iTraxx Europe: 5Y, 10Y. iTraxx Europe Crossover: 5Y. iTraxx Europe HiVol: 5Y. Applicable Series iTraxx Europe 5Y: Series 10... subsequent Series, up to and including the current Series. iTraxx Europe HiVol 5Y: Series 10 and...

  19. GEOCENTRIFUGE STUDIES OF FLOW AND TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA, FINAL REPORT FOR GRANT NUMBER DE-FG02-03ER63567 TO THE UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO (RW SMITH), ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SCIENCE PROGRAM PROJECT NUMBER 86598, COUPLED FLOW AND REACTIVITY IN VARIABLY SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Smith; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson

    2007-06-15

    Improved models of contaminant migration in heterogeneous, variably saturated porous media are required to better define the long-term stewardship requirements for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands and to assist in the design of effective vadose-zone barriers to contaminant migrations. The development of these improved models requires field and laboratory results to evaluate their efficacy. However, controlled laboratory experiments simulating vadose conditions can require extensive period of time, and often are conducted at condition near saturation rather than the much drier conditions common in many contaminated arid vadose zone sites. Collaborative research undertaken by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the University of Idaho as part of this Environmental Management Science Program project focused on the development and evaluation of geocentrifuge techniques and equipment that allows vadose zone experiments to be conducted for relevant conditions in time frames not possible in conventional bench top experiments. A key and novel aspect of the research was the use of the 2-meter radius geocentrifuge capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory to conduct unsaturated transport experiments. Specifically, the following activities were conducted ** Reviewing of the theory of unsaturated flow in the geocentrifuge to establish the range of centrifuge accelerations/experimental conditions and the translation of centrifuge results to 1 gravity applications. ** Designing, constructing, and testing of in-flight experimental apparatus allowing the replication of traditional bench top unsaturated transport experiments on the geocentrifuge. ** Performing unsaturated 1-dimenstional column geocentrifuge experiments using conservative tracers to evaluate the effects of increased centrifugal acceleration on derived transport properties and assessing the scaling relationships for these properties. Because the application of geocentrifuge techniques to vadose transport is in its infancy experimental apparatus such as pumps, flow meters, columns, fraction collectors, etc. that would reliably function under the increased self weight experienced on the centrifuge had to be developed and tested as part of this project. Although, we initially planed to conduct experiments using reactive tracer and 2-dimensional heterogeneities, the cost and time associated with designing, building, and testing of experimental apparatus limited our experimental program to conservative tracer experiments using 1-dimensional columns. The results we obtained in this study indicate that the geocentrifuge technique is a viable experimental method for the study of subsurface processes where gravitational acceleration is important. The geocentrifuge allows experiments to be completed more quickly than tests conducted at 1-g, can be used to experimentally address important scaling issues, and permits experiments under a range of conditions that would be difficult or impossible using conventional approaches. The application of the geocentrifuge approaches and associated models developed in this project allows more meaningful investigation of DOE relevant vadose-zone issues under scalable conditions in time frames previously not obtainable.

  20. Seroprevalence of IgG1 and IgG4 class antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Otsubo, Shigeru; Cossu, Davide; Eda, Shigetoshi; Otsubo, Yuriko; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Iwao, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Shizuo; Kuribayashi, Takashi; Momotani, Eiichi

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the established causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle and other ruminants, and it has also been speculated to be a putative etiological agent of several human autoimmune diseases. It is acknowledged that dairy products deriving from infected animals play a role (could be vehicles) in exposing humans to MAP. MAP could stimulate the human immune system by means of their complex antigen (in the case of lipids, multivalent antigens) and may modulate it, acting as adjuvant molecules such as Freund's complete adjuvant. The immune system might be abnormally stimulated by the constant presence of MAP antigens (for example, in the dairy products), and this might be particularly relevant in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there is limited understanding about the current human exposure to MAP. The present study analyzed the antibody recognition profile of MAP lipophilic antigens in a cohort of 126 healthy Japanese. We measured the serum levels of total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and subclasses targeting MAP surface antigens through ethanol vortex indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EVELISA) by using serum absorbed with Mycobacterium phlei. Elevated IgG (especially IgG1 and IgG4) responses were observed in 14% of the sera. To assess the specificity of EVELISA, the same samples were analyzed by means of a commercially available Johnelisa II kit. It was noteworthy that a high degree of correlation was observed when comparing the two methodologies (rs=0.7, p<0.0001). Moreover, in order to investigate the specificity of the binding, inhibition assay experiments were carried out also searching for antibodies against Bacillus Calmette-Guérin antigens, but no cross-reaction was observed. The result obtained represents the first evidence implying that the Japanese population is exposed to MAP, and additionally the existence of a foodborne chain of exposure that transmits MAP antigens to humans. PMID:26267654

  1. Firing distance estimation based on the analysis of GSR distribution on the target surface using ICP-MS--an experimental study with a 7.65 mm × 17 mm Browning pistol (.32 ACP).

    PubMed

    Santos, Agostinho; Ramos, Patrícia; Fernandes, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa; Almeida, Agostinho; Sousa, António

    2015-02-01

    An experimental study aiming to estimate the firing distance was conducted using a 7.65 mm × 17 mm Browning (.32ACP) pistol. Briefly, test shots were made against a target of cotton tissue (35 cm × 35 cm), and the amounts of antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), and lead (Pb) deposited in quadrangular pieces (1 cm × 1 cm) of the target cut from four radial positions at increasing distances from the bullet entrance hole ("samples") were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The data obtained were used to search for a mathematical model for estimating the firing distance. The best model was a simple linear correlation between FD (the firing distance) and ln c (where c is the content of Sb, Ba or Pb in the samples, expressed in μg/g of target tissue). Best results were obtained with samples collected at radial distances within 2.0-3.0 cm from the bullet entrance hole. Using this approach, it was possible to accurately (±6 cm) estimate the firing distance in the interval [20-90] cm from the target. PMID:25553356

  2. A Study of the Presence of Gunshot Residue in Pittsburgh Police Stations using SEM/EDS and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ali, Leah; Brown, Kyle; Castellano, Holly; Wetzel, Stephanie J

    2016-07-01

    Due to possible secondary transfer of gunshot residue (GSR) onto a suspect in police custody prior to sampling, a baseline must be created for the amount of GSR present. With an increase of "lead free" ammunition, testing for both gunpowder and primer GSR is relevant. Seventy samples were collected using carbon-coated adhesive stubs from four Pittsburgh Police Stations and vehicles to investigate these locations as sources of secondary GSR contamination. These seventy samples were analyzed for primer GSR using scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. One primer GSR particle was detected; no sample was classified as positive for primer GSR. These same samples were then analyzed for gunpowder GSR using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to test for akardite II, ethylcentralite, diphenylamine, N-nitrosodiphenylamine, 2-nitrodiphenylamine, and 4-nitrodiphenylamine. Ethylcentralite was quantifiable in two test samples. These results suggest there is a negligible potential for secondary transfer of primer and gunpowder GSR. PMID:27364271

  3. 75 FR 10324 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Meubles (Wkrs) Malone, NY 02/03/10 02/01/10 73422 AT&T Mobility Svcs, LLC St. Louis, MO 02/03/10 01/28/10... 01/28/10 73435 AT&T Mobility (Wkrs)........ Harrisburg, PA......... 02/03/10 01/28/10 73436 Rexam..., Inc. (Wkrs)...... Rocky Mount, NC........ 02/03/10 01/25/10 73440 AT&T Mobility (Wkrs)...........

  4. Media Research with a Galvanic Skin Response Biosensor: Some Kids Work Up a Sweat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    This study considers the galvanic skin response (GSR) of sixth-grade students (n=20) using print, video, and microcomputer segments. Subjects received all three media treatments, in randomized order. Data for analysis consisted of standardized test scores and GSR measures; a moderate positive relationship was shown between cumulative GSR and…

  5. Reconstruction of global solar radiation time series from 1933 to 2013 at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, R. D.; Cuevas, E.; García, O. E.; Cachorro, V. E.; Pallé, P.; Bustos, J. J.; Romero-Campos, P. M.; de Frutos, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the reconstruction of the 80-year time series of daily global solar radiation (GSR) at the subtropical high-mountain Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (IZO) located in Tenerife (The Canary Islands, Spain). For this purpose, we combine GSR estimates from sunshine duration (SD) data using the Ångström-Prescott method over the 1933/1991 period, and GSR observations directly performed by pyranometers between 1992 and 2013. Since GSR measurements have been used as a reference, a strict quality control has been applied based on principles of physical limits and comparison with LibRadtran model. By comparing with high quality GSR measurements, the precision and consistency over time of GSR estimations from SD data have been successfully documented. We obtain an overall root mean square error (RMSE) of 9.2% and an agreement between the variances of GSR estimations and GSR measurements within 92%. Nonetheless, this agreement significantly increases when the GSR estimation is done considering different daily fractions of clear sky (FCS). In that case, RMSE is reduced by half, to about 4.5%, when considering percentages of FCS > 40% (~ 90% of days in the testing period). Furthermore, we prove that the GSR estimations can monitor the GSR anomalies in consistency with GSR measurements and, then, can be suitable for reconstructing solar radiation time series. The reconstructed IZO GSR time series between 1933 and 2013 confirms change points and periods of increases/decreases of solar radiation at Earth's surface observed at a global scale, such as the early brightening, dimming and brightening. This fact supports the consistency of the IZO GSR time series presented in this work, which may be a reference for solar radiation studies in the subtropical North Atlantic region.

  6. Machine washing or brushing of clothing and its influence on shooting distance estimation.

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, A; Zeichner, A; Glattstein, B; Koffman, A; Levin, N; Rosengarten, A

    2001-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of machine washing or brushing of clothing items on Gunshot Residue (GSR) patterns (gunpowder residues, lead, and copper, deposits) around bullet entrance holes. Results show that those treatments decrease considerably the amount and density of GSR. However, for close shooting distances not all of the GSR deposits are removed. Remaining patterns may be visualized by specific color reactions and used for shooting distance estimation. PMID:11451081

  7. Glutathione Reductase Is Essential for Host Defense against Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jing; Ralston, Melissa M.; Meng, Xiaomei; Bongiovanni, Kathleen D.; Jones, Amanda L.; Benndorf, Rainer; Nelin, Leif D.; Frazier, W. Joshua; Rogers, Lynette K.; Smith, Charles V.; Liu, Yusen

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione reductase (Gsr)1 catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide to glutathione, a major cellular antioxidant. We have recently shown that Gsr is essential for host defense against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli in a mouse model of sepsis. While we have demonstrated that Gsr is required for sustaining the oxidative burst and the development of neutrophil extracellular traps, the role of Gsr in other phagocytic functions remains unclear. It is also unclear whether Gsr-deficient mice exhibit host defense defects against Gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, we characterized the effects of Gsr deficiency on the innate immune responses to a Gram-positive bacterium, group B Streptococcus, and to the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that like, E. coli, group B Streptococcus resulted in a substantially more robust cytokine response and a markedly higher morbidity and mortality in Gsr-deficient mice than in wildtype mice. The increased morbidity and mortality were associated with greater bacterial burden in the Gsr-deficient mice. Interestingly, Gsr-deficient mice did not exhibit a greater sensitivity to LPS than did wildtype mice. Analysis of the neutrophils of Gsr-deficient mice revealed impaired phagocytosis. In response to thioglycollate stimulation, Gsr-deficient mice mobilized far fewer phagocytes, including neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils, into their peritoneal cavities than did wildtype mice. The defective phagocyte mobilization is associated with profound oxidation and aggregation of ascitic proteins, particularly albumin. Our results indicate that the oxidative defense mechanism mediated by Gsr is required for an effective innate immune response against bacteria, likely by preventing phagocyte dysfunction due to oxidative damage. PMID:23623936

  8. Analysis and Modeling of the Galvanic Skin Response Spontaneous Component in the context of Intelligent Biofeedback Systems Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unakafov, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an approach to galvanic skin response (GSR) spontaneous component analysis and modeling. In the study a classification of biofeedback training methods is given, importance of intelligent methods development is shown. The INTENS method, which is perspective for intellectualization, is presented. An important problem of biofeedback training method intellectualization - estimation of the GSR spontaneous component - is solved in the main part of the work. Its main characteristics are described; results of GSR spontaneous component modeling are shown. Results of small research of an optimum material for GSR probes are presented.

  9. Global signal regression has complex effects on regional homogeneity of resting state fMRI signal.

    PubMed

    Qing, Zhao; Dong, Zhangye; Li, Sufang; Zang, Yufeng; Liu, Dongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Regional homogeneity (ReHo) quantifies spatially local synchronization of resting state fMRI signal and has been applied to lots of clinic studies. Accumulating evidences demonstrated that the synchronization between spatially distinct brain regions, i.e. functional connectivity, can be remarkably influenced if the global mean time course is regressed out, namely global signal regression (GSR). Very recently, it was reported GSR reduces the test-retest reliability of ReHo, and reduces the positive correlation between ReHo and head motion. In this study, we were interested in two questions: 1) how GSR affects the raw ReHo values and its spatial distribution over the brain; 2) how GSR affects the differences of ReHo between two resting states, eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC), in healthy individuals. We found that the ReHo values were reduced by GSR but the spatial distribution of ReHo was not changed remarkably. In addition, split-half reproducibility analysis showed reproducible ReHo difference between EO and EC in some areas (e.g., thalamus and caudate) only with GSR, but showed reproducible ReHo difference in some other area (right temporal pole) only without GSR. The effects of GSR were almost independent of regression of other nuisance covariates. Our results suggest that the influences of GSR on ReHo are remarkable, reliable and complex. For the between-condition comparison, the GSR effects are region specific. We suggest that, for application studies using ReHo approach, it would be helpful to report results both with and without GSR. PMID:26234499

  10. A study into the distribution of gunshot residue particles in the random population.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Nick; Brown, Hayley; Cook, Michael; Redman, Kahlee; Condon, Tanith; Wrobel, Harald; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kobus, Hilton

    2016-05-01

    When considering the impact and value of gunshot residues (GSR) as forensic trace evidence, the likelihood of a suspect producing a positive GSR analysis result without having direct exposure to a firearm is a major consideration. Therefore, the random prevalence of GSR and 'GSR-like' residues in the wider population is a highly pertinent question when considering the probative value of such evidence. The random prevalence of GSR in two Australian jurisdictions - Victoria and South Australia - was assessed through the collection and analysis of GSR samples obtained from randomly selected members of the public. Volunteers were asked to declare any firearms use, hobbies or potential firearms exposure before allowing their hands to be sampled using aluminium GSR sample stubs coated in adhesive tape. A total of 289 samples, 120 from Victoria and 169 from South Australia were collected and analysed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDS). Across all samples, three 'characteristic' three-component Pb/Ba/Sb particles were detected from a single subject in South Australia, corresponding to an overall prevalence of 0.3%. Two-component 'consistent' particles were more prevalent, with Pb/Sb particles being the most frequently occurring, in 8% of samples, and in South Australia only. A number of samples, approximately 7%, showed populations of single element particles of Pb, Ba and Sb, which has the potential to generate a false positive for GSR if using a bulk analysis technique such as NAA or AAS. The prevalence of GSR or 'GSR like' particles in this study matches closely with similar surveys conducted in other jurisdictions. Such surveys are a useful foundation for the creation of a probabilistic method for the assessment of GSR evidence. PMID:26990563

  11. 11 CFR 8.4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-02-03

    ... voter identification number, the state's Privacy Act notice required at 11 CFR 8.6(c) shall be reprinted... 11 Federal Elections 1 2003-02-03 2003-02-03 false Contents. 8.4 Section 8.4 Federal Elections... Voter Registration Form § 8.4 Contents. (a) Information about the applicant. The application...

  12. Coping Checklist for Caregivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Service pamphlet, “What Do You Know About Stress” (DHHS Publication No. PHS79-50097) and is in the public domain. Please give appropriate credit if you copy it. Last Medical Review: 02/03/2016 Last Revised: 02/03/2016 ...

  13. Classification of Gaia16ace as type Ia supernova near maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piascik, A. S.; Steele, I. A.

    2016-02-01

    We conducted a spectroscopic observation of transient Gaia16ace at 2016-02-11T02:56:31 UT. The transient was discovered by the Gaia Photometric Science survey on 2016-02-03T22:43:39 UT at position RA=13:48:32.33 DEC=-02:03:33.6.

  14. Gunshot residue in Chicago police vehicles and facilities: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Berk, Robert E; Rochowicz, Scott A; Wong, Mary; Kopina, Michael A

    2007-07-01

    Suspects in shooting investigations in Chicago are routinely transported in department vehicles and detained in department facilities prior to gunshot residue (GSR) evidence collection. The GSR test results are used to associate the suspect with primary exposure to GSR. The potential for these vehicles and facilities being sources of secondary GSR contamination needed to be determined. A total of 201 samples were collected from randomly selected vehicles and detention facilities. The sampling collected trace materials from surfaces that suspects' hands may contact during the arrest process. These samples were examined for the presence of GSR particles using scanning electron microscopy. Upon completion of the automated analysis, those particles that met an initial GSR screening criterion were relocated and reanalyzed. The locations where GSR particles were recovered allowed us to make recommendations to the Chicago Police Department with regard to transporting and detaining these suspects. The low number of GSR particles recovered suggests that the potential for secondary contamination, although present, is relatively low. PMID:17524060

  15. A New Look at an Old Issue: Manifest Anxiety Scale Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neva, Edward; Hicks, Robert A.

    1970-01-01

    The MAS was administered while drive level was systematically manipulated. Drive state was varied at four levels by the induced muscular tension technique while heart rate (HR) and galvanic skin response (GSR) activity were recorded. No meaningful relationship between MAS scores and HR and GSR activity was observed. The intercorrelation between HR…

  16. Instructions and the Orienting Reflex in "Semantic Conditioning" of the Galvanic Skin Response in an Innocuous Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendery, Mary; Maltzman, Irving

    1977-01-01

    Concerns the effects of instructions on classical conditioning of the GSR (galvanic skin response). It demonstrates that verbal conditioning of the GSR can be obtained using an innocuous unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Discusses implications for theories of human classical conditioning. (Editor/RK)

  17. A Study of the Relationships Between Test Order, Physiological Arousal, and Intelligence and Achievement Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nighswander, James K.; Beggs, Donald L.

    The relative predictive abilities of two indices of test anxiety were investigated. The galvanic skin response (GSR) and the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC) were used as predictor variables for IQ and achievement test performance. The results of multiple linear regression analysis indicated that neither the TASC nor the GSR, combined over…

  18. Gender and Ability Attentional Differences while Watching an Educational Television Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    This study investigated the attention or arousal of above and below average boys and girls while viewing a science television program on videotape. Skin resistance (GSR) was measured by a biosensor attached to a microcomputer and served as the dependent variable. Analysis of the data included a 2x2x8 ANOVA of gender v. ability v. GSR. The…

  19. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Romeo B.; Baring, Rito V.; Sta. Maria, Madelene A.

    2016-01-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students. PMID:27247700

  20. Survey of gunshot residue analysis in forensic science laboratories.

    PubMed

    DeGaetano, D; Siegel, J A

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this survey was to determine the methods of analysis being used on gunshot residue (GSR) samples in forensic science laboratories across the United States. In addition, the two general techniques of GSR analysis are compared and contrasted. Problems encountered by analysts using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX) are discussed. PMID:2230684

  1. Ammunition identification by means of the organic analysis of gunshot residues using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    López-López, María; Delgado, Juan José; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2012-04-17

    The ability to unequivocally identify a gunshot residue (GSR) when a firearm is discharged is a very important and crucial part of crime scene investigation. To date, the great majority of the analyses have focused on the inorganic components of GSR, but the introduction of "lead-free" or "nontoxic" ammunitions makes it difficult to prevent false negatives. This study introduces a fast methodology for the organic analysis of GSR using Raman spectroscopy. Six different types of ammunition were fired at short distances into cloth targets, and the Raman spectra produced by the GSR were measured and compared with the spectra from the unfired gunpowder ammunition. The GSR spectrum shows high similarity to the spectrum of the unfired ammunition, allowing the GSR to be traced to the ammunition used. Additionally, other substances that might be found on the victim's, shooter's, or suspect's clothes and might be confused with GSR, such as sand, dried blood, or black ink from a common ballpoint pen, were analyzed to test the screening capability of the Raman technique. The results obtained evidenced that Raman spectroscopy is a useful screening tool when fast analysis is desired and that little sample preparation is required for the analysis of GSR evidence. PMID:22424274

  2. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Romeo B; Baring, Rito V; Sta Maria, Madelene A

    2016-02-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students. PMID:27247700

  3. Brassinosteroid's multi-modular interaction with the general stress network customizes stimulus-specific responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bjornson, Marta; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Chory, Joanne; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2016-09-01

    Adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions is a universal feature of plant life, governed by fundamental mechanisms optimizing resource allocation. This balance is achieved in part through tightly regulated communication networks among growth and stress response signaling pathways. Understanding the communication modules between brassinosteroids (BRs), the ubiquitous hormones known to control growth and stress adaptation, and the general stress response (GSR), a rapid and transient transcriptional output in response to perturbations, provides an optimal platform to unravel new facet(s) of plant stress adaptation. Here, we explore communication facets of BR with GSR via in planta quantification of the GSR in Arabidopsis expressing luciferase driven by a functional GSR cis-element, the Rapid Stress Response Element (4xRSRE:LUC). We establish that application of exogenous BR suppresses microbe-associated molecular pattern-activated GSR, but enhances the wound-triggered GSR. The enhanced wound-activated GSR in BR-treated plants results in a greater wound-induced resistance to Botrytis cinerea. A combination of molecular genetics using BR signaling mutants and application of an activator of BR signaling, bikinin, confirms these results and places the chief point of BR-GSR interaction downstream of potential membrane receptor circuitry. These results support a multi-modular interaction between BRs and stress signaling, instrumental in customizing stimulus-specific responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:27457993

  4. Developing a quality assurance program for gunshot primer residue analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Thomas R.

    2014-09-01

    The Texas DPS Crime Laboratory Service analyzes an average of 45 gunshot residue (GSR) kits a month using three different SEM/EDS systems and involving four different analysts. To maintain the volume of cases, we have developed a robust, cost-efficient method to ensure that all three systems are performing automated GSR analysis within laboratory specifications, and yielding consistent results across all three systems. This analysis commonly includes analysis of GSR kits collected from suspects' hands, but can also include kits from screening of suspects' clothing for GSR. Analysts have developed procedures for cleaning and monitoring areas where clothing and GSR stubs are processed and analyzed in order to ensure that casework stubs were not contaminated in the laboratory.

  5. Gunshot residue inserted under hair scales as a result of a muzzle blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Bryan R.

    2009-05-01

    The victim was alleged to have been shot in the head with a .40 caliber pistol from several feet. The defendant claimed that the shot was on the order of inches. Examination in the scanning electron microscope of the hair from around the victim's wound showed no adherent gunshot residue (GSR). However, when the hair was pulled apart by the adhesive of a standard GSR sampler, GSR was found associated with the exposed inner surfaces of the cuticle and cortex fragments. The pistol was discharged close enough to the victim's head that some of the cuticular scales were lifted in the muzzle blast which allowed GSR to be inserted under those scales. Gunshot residue associated with the surface of the victim's hair had somehow been removed. The defendant's account of the shooting was verified by the presence of under-scale GSR.

  6. The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E.; Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R.

    2010-08-15

    The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

  7. Estimation of global solar radiation using an artificial neural network based on an interpolation technique in southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ling; Wang, Lunche; Lin, Aiwen; Zhu, Hongji; Peng, Yuling; Zhao, Zhenzhen

    2016-08-01

    Solar radiation plays important roles in energy application, vegetation growth and climate change. Empirical relations and machine-learning methods have been widely used to estimate global solar radiation (GSR) in recent years. An artificial neural network (ANN) based on spatial interpolation is developed to estimate GSR in southeast China. The improved Bristow-Campbell (IBC) model and the improved Ångström-Prescott (IA-P) model are compared with the ANN model to explore the best model in solar radiation modeling. Daily meteorological parameters, such as sunshine duration hours, mean temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, air pressure, water vapor pressure, and wind speed, along with station-measured GSR and a daily surface GSR dataset over China obtained from the Data Assimilation and Modeling Center for Tibetan Multi-spheres (DAM), are used to predict GSR and to validate the models in this work. The ANN model with the network of 9-17-1 provides better accuracy than the two improved empirical models in GSR estimation. The root-mean-square error (RMSE), mean bias error (MBE), and determination coefficient (R2) are 2.65 MJ m-2, -0.94 MJ m-2, and 0.68 in the IA-P model; 2.19 MJ m-2, 1.11 MJ m-2, and 0.83 in the IBC model; 1.34 MJ m-2, -0.11 MJ m-2, and 0.91 in the ANN model, respectively. The regional monthly mean GSR in the measured dataset, DAM dataset, and ANN model is analyzed. The RMSE (RMSE %) is 1.07 MJ m-2 (8.91%) and the MBE (MBE %) is -0.62 MJ m-2 (-5.21%) between the measured and ANN-estimated GSR. The statistical errors of RMSE (RMSE %) are 0.91 MJ m-2 (7.28%) and those of MBE (MBE %) are -0.15 MJ m-2 (-1.20%) between DAM and ANN-modeled GSR. The correlation coefficients and R2 are larger than 0.95. The regional mean GSR is 12.58 MJ m-2. The lowest GSR is observed in the northwest area, and it increases from northwest to southeast. The annual mean GSR decreases by 0.02 MJ m-2 decade-1 over the entire

  8. Attenuated total reflectance-FT-IR imaging for rapid and automated detection of gunshot residue.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Justin; Lednev, Igor K

    2014-04-01

    An alternative approach for the nondestructive, rapid and selective detection of gunshot residue (GSR) was investigated. A cloth substrate containing GSR particles expelled during a firearm discharge was used as an analog for the clothing of a shooting victim or a suspect discharging a firearm. An established and efficient procedure for GSR collection (tape lifting) was utilized to recover GSR particles from the cloth substrate. Microscopic-attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform (FT) infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging rapidly and automatically scanned large areas of the tape collection substrate and detected varying morphologies (microscopic and macroscopic) and chemical compositions (organic and inorganic) of GSR. The "spectroscopic fingerprint" of each GSR type provided unique virbrational modes, which were not characteristic of the tape collection substrate or the cloth debris which was also recovered. ATR images (maps) targeted the detection of these unique chemical markers over the mapped area. The hues of the ATR images were determined by the intensity of the signal for the chemical marker of each analyte. The spatial resolution of the technique was determined to be 4.7 μm. Therefore, all GSR particles sized 4.7 μm or larger will be resolved and detected on the tape substrate using micro-ATR imaging. PMID:24588255

  9. Precise estimation of hourly global solar radiation for micrometeorological analysis by using data classification and hourly sunshine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Ishigooka, Yasushi

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a method for estimating hourly global solar radiation (GSR) from hourly sunshine duration data. This procedure requires only hourly sunshine duration as the input data and utilizes hourly precipitation and daily snow cover as auxiliary data to classify time intervals into six cases according to weather conditions. To obtain hourly GSR using a simple algebraic form, a quadratic function of the solar elevation angle and the sunshine duration ratio is used. Daily GSR is given by a sum of hourly GSRs. We evaluated the performance of the newly developed method using data obtained at 67 meteorological stations and found that the estimated GSR is highly consistent with that observed. Hourly and daily root-mean-square misfits are approximately 0.2 MJ/m2/h (~55 W/m2) and 1.4 to 1.5 MJ/m2/day (~16 to 17 W/m2), respectively. Our classification of weather conditions is effective for reducing estimation errors, especially under cloudy skies. Since the sunshine duration is observed at more meteorological stations than GSR, the proposed new method is a powerful tool for obtaining solar radiation with hourly resolution and a dense geographical distribution. One of the proposed methods, GSRgrn, can be applicable to hourly GSR estimations at different observation sites by setting local parameters (the precipitable water, surface albedo, and atmospheric turbidity) suitable to the sites. The hourly GSR can be applied for various micrometeorological studies, such as the heat budget of crop fields.

  10. A simple method for detection of gunshot residue particles from hands, hair, face, and clothing using scanning electron microscopy/wavelength dispersive X-ray (SEM/WDX).

    PubMed

    Kage, S; Kudo, K; Kaizoji, A; Ryumoto, J; Ikeda, H; Ikeda, N

    2001-07-01

    We devised a simple and rapid method for detection of gunshot residue (GSR) particles, using scanning electron microscopy/wavelength dispersive X-ray (SEM/WDX) analysis. Experiments were done on samples containing GSR particles obtained from hands, hair, face, and clothing, using double-sided adhesive coated aluminum stubs (tape-lift method). SEM/WDX analyses for GSR were carried out in three steps: the first step was map analysis for barium (Ba) to search for GSR particles from lead styphnate primed ammunition, or tin (Sn) to search for GSR particles from mercury fulminate primed ammunition. The second step was determination of the location of GSR particles by X-ray imaging of Ba or Sn at a magnification of x 1000-2000 in the SEM, using data of map analysis, and the third step was identification of GSR particles, using WDX spectrometers. Analysis of samples from each primer of a stub took about 3 h. Practical applications were shown for utility of this method. PMID:11451063

  11. Gunshot residue preservation in seawater.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Anne-Christine; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Athens, Josie; Obertova, Zuzana; Duncan, Warwick; Waddell, Neil; Kieser, Jules

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the persistence of gunshot residue (GSR) in soft tissue and bones during decomposition in marine environments. For a better understanding, qualitative and quantitative data were obtained on GSR retention on soft tissue and bony gunshot wounds (GSWs). A quantity of 36 fleshed and 36 defleshed bovine ribs were shot at contact range with 0.22 calibre hollow point ammunition using a Stirling 0.22 calibre long rifle. Bone specimens in triplicate were placed in three environments: submerged, intertidal and in supralittoral zone. Sets of triplicates were recovered on day 3, 10, 24 and 38, and analysed with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX), and inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The SEM-EDX recorded GSR-indicative particles surrounding the bullet entrance on all bone types (fleshed and defleshed) in all environments throughout the study. GSR-unique particles were only detected on the supralittoral bones. The ICP-MS analysis showed faster GSR loss on submerged than intertidal and supralittoral defleshed specimens. Fleshed specimens showed a faster GSR loss on intertidal than submerged and supralittoral specimens. In conclusion, the GSR disappeared faster from submerged and intertidal than non-submerged specimens. The difference of detection of GSR between analysed specimens (defleshed versus fleshed) disappeared upon defleshing. This study highlights the potential of finding evidence of GSR in a submerged body and the potential of microscopic and analytical methods for examining suspected GSW in highly decomposed bodies in marine habitats. PMID:26115226

  12. An electro-conductive organic coating for scanning electron microscopy (déjà vu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Bryan R.

    2014-09-01

    An organic compound, originally marketed as an antistatic, can form an extremely thin electro-conductive coating upon drying. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) application for this compound was first explored in the late 1960s. A coating of this compound eliminates the need for carbon or gold coating in some applications. It is well suited for the viewing of fabric samples and associated gunshot residue (GSR) in the SEM and makes it possible to quickly analyze fabric bullet wipe and bore wipe GSR. Fabric samples can also be examined for GSR from intermediate-range shots to estimate muzzle-target distances. Scanning

  13. No latest title...

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Ayotte, Kelly [R-NH

    2014-01-30

    02/03/2014 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 300. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. S.Res.43 — 112th Congress (2011-2012) A resolution to constitute the minority party's membership on certain committees for the One Hundred Twelfth Congress, or until their successors are chosen.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. McConnell, Mitch [R-KY

    2011-02-03

    02/03/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S557; text as passed Senate: CR S557; text of measure as introduced: CR S551-552) (All Actions)

  15. AirMSPI PODEX BigSur Terrain Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-13

    ... from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Big Sur target (Big Sur, California) 02/03/2013 Terrain-projected   Select ...   Version number   For more information, see the Data Product Specifications (DPS)   ...

  16. AirMSPI PODEX Big Sur Ellipsoid Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-11

    ... AirMSPI Browse Images from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Big Sur target 02/03/2013 Ellipsoid-projected   Select ...   Version number   For more information, see the  Data Product Specifications (DPS) ...

  17. A resolution observing the 100th birthday of civil rights leader Daisy Bates and honoring her legacy as an American heroine.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Pryor, Mark L. [D-AR

    2014-01-29

    02/03/2014 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. A bill to protect information relating to consumers, to require notice of security breaches, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Carper, Thomas R. [D-DE

    2014-01-15

    02/03/2014 Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Subcommittee on National Security and International Trade and Finance. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Honor Our Promise Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Ayotte, Kelly [R-NH

    2014-01-30

    02/03/2014 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 300. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate that all necessary measures should be taken to protect children in the United States from human trafficking, especially during the upcoming Super Bowl, an event around which many children are trafficked for sex.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Blumenthal, Richard [D-CT

    2014-01-28

    02/03/2014 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. A resolution recognizing and honoring Ralph Wilson, Jr. and Bruce Smith on being selected to the 2009 Pro Football Hall of Fame class.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Schumer, Charles E. [D-NY

    2009-02-03

    02/03/2009 Referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1438) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. 40 CFR 52.170 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 110 of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7410, and 40 CFR part 51 to meet national ambient air quality... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Material is....411 General Permits 02/03/05 04/12/07 (72 FR 18394) Reg. 19.412 Dispersion Modeling 02/03/05...

  3. Statistical challenges in the quantification of gunshot residue evidence.

    PubMed

    Gauriot, Romain; Gunaratnam, Lawrence; Moroni, Rossana; Reinikainen, Tapani; Corander, Jukka

    2013-09-01

    The discharging of a gun results in the formation of extremely small particles known as gunshot residues (GSR). These may be deposited on the skin and clothing of the shooter, on other persons present, and on nearby items or surfaces. Several factors and their complex interactions affect the number of detectable GSR particles, which can deeply influence the conclusions drawn from likelihood ratios or posterior probabilities for prosecution hypotheses of interest. We present Bayesian network models for casework examples and demonstrate that probabilistic quantification of GSR evidence can be very sensitive to the assumptions concerning the model structure, prior probabilities, and the likelihood components. This finding has considerable implications for the use of statistical quantification of GSR evidence in the legal process. PMID:23822522

  4. The incidence of transient particulate gunshot primer residue in Oregon and Washington bow hunters.

    PubMed

    Mann, M J; Espinoza, E O

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of GSR/PA (gunshot primer residue particulate analysis) results in an alleged firearm violation of bow hunting regulations is complicated by the theoretical presence of contaminant GSR from prior legitimate shooting incidents. A total of 120 samples representing field collections from thirty Oregon and Washington bow hunters were analyzed for the presence of particulate gunshot residue in order to assess the level of contamination that may be present in this population. Of the bow hunters sampled, 50% stated that they shoot guns; 80% of the shooting group stated at the time of the GSR field collection that they were wearing the same outer clothing or driving the same vehicle, or both, when they last handled and fired a weapon. Analysis of the 120 samples resulted in the detection of one tricomponent particle of GSR. PMID:8426156

  5. [Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry--a forensic chemistry method for detection of bullet metal residue in gunshot wounds].

    PubMed

    Havel, J; Zelenka, K

    2003-04-01

    The article describes using of energo-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) as the forensic method as the tool for detection of metals (gunshot residues--GSR) in connection with gunshot-wounds of persons. PMID:12874887

  6. Detection of gunshot residue on dark-colored clothing prior to chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kersh, Kyla L; Childers, James M; Justice, Dale; Karim, Greg

    2014-05-01

    Detection of gunshot residue (GSR) is an arduous task for investigators. It is often accomplished with chemical tests, which can reveal elements and ions indicating the presence of GSR, but are likely to cause physical alteration to the pattern. In this study, the Spex Forensics Mini-CrimeScope MCS 400, along with 16 accompanying wavelength filters, was applied to various GSR patterns and target types. Three dark shirt materials, four ammunition calibers, and eight ammunition manufacturers, along with the primer residue of the different manufacturer ammunitions were tested. Results indicate the alternate light source wavelength of 445 nm to be the optimal setting. In addition, target material plays a large role in the preservation of GSR patterns as particles burn. Furthermore, it can be extrapolated that residue, observed from a full round and firing distance of six inches, is mostly composed of unburnt gunpowder residue, not primer residue. PMID:24634985

  7. High photoluminescent metal-organic frameworks as optical markers for the identification of gunshot residues.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ingrid Távora; de Melo, Adenaule James Geber; Lucena, Marcella Auxiliadora de Melo; Rodrigues, Marcelo Oliveira; Alves, Severino

    2011-06-15

    Gunshot residue (GSR) are solid particles produced when a firearm is discharged, and its detection is important evidence in forensic investigations. Currently, scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) is the standard technique adopted for the analysis and identification of GSR; however, this methodology is inefficient for lead-free ammunition. Herein, we report the inclusion of high photoluminescent metal-organic frameworks in ammunition to allow for the visual detection of GSR. The tests indicated that marked GSR is easily visible in proportions above 5.0 wt %. A total of 1 g of marker suffices to tag 100 0.38 mm bullets or 62 0.40 mm bullets. PMID:21585195

  8. Gunshot residue testing in suicides: Part II: Analysis by inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molina, D Kimberley; Castorena, Joe L; Martinez, Michael; Garcia, James; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2007-09-01

    Several different methods can be employed to test for gunshot residue (GSR) on a decedent's hands, including scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM/EDX) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In part I of this 2-part series, GSR results performed by SEM/EDX in undisputed cases of suicidal handgun wounds were studied. In part II, the same population was studied, deceased persons with undisputed suicidal handgun wounds, but GSR testing was performed using ICP-AES. A total of 102 cases were studied and analyzed for caliber of weapon, proximity of wound, and the results of the GSR testing. This study found that 50% of cases where the deceased was known to have fired a handgun immediately prior to death had positive GSR results by ICP/AES, which did not differ from the results of GSR testing by SEM/EDX. Since only 50% of cases where the person is known to have fired a weapon were positive for GSR by either method, this test should not be relied upon to determine whether someone has discharged a firearm and is not useful as a determining factor of whether or not a wound is self-inflicted or non-self-inflicted. While a positive GSR result may be of use, a negative result is not helpful in the medical examiner setting as a negative result indicates that either a person fired a weapon prior to death or a person did not fire a weapon prior to death. PMID:17721164

  9. Usefulness of galvanic skin reflex monitor in CT-guided thoracic sympathetic blockade for palmar hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Seiichi; Miura, Hitoshi; Hirabayashi, Go; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Ohta, Takashi; Ishii, Nagao; Ito, Tatsushi

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT)-guided thoracic sympathetic blockade with ethanol was performed while monitoring sympathetic nerve activity, with an alternating current (AC) galvanic skin reflex (GSR) monitor, in a patient with palmar hyperhidrosis in whom endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy was impossible because of pleural adhesion. Sweating was suppressed after the thoracic sympathetic blockade, and the monitor showed a significant increase in skin resistance. The effect of sympathetic blockade could be evaluated directly and in real time using a GSR monitor. PMID:17680195

  10. Distribution of lead and barium in gunshot residue particles derived from 0.22 caliber rimfire ammunition.

    PubMed

    Coumbaros, J; Kirkbride, K P; Kobus, H; Sarvas, I

    2001-11-01

    0.22 caliber rimfire ammunition is commonly encountered in firearms incidents in Australia. This paper reports on work which has confirmed the nonhomogeneous nature of gunshot residue (GSR) particles and that the lead and barium distribution within particles varies significantly with the particle size and structure. The outcome has been an improved understanding of how the particle formation influences the ability to determine the origin of GSR derived specifically from 0.22 caliber rim fire ammunition. PMID:11714145

  11. Correcting for Blood Arrival Time in Global Mean Regression Enhances Functional Connectivity Analysis of Resting State fMRI-BOLD Signals

    PubMed Central

    Erdoğan, Sinem B.; Tong, Yunjie; Hocke, Lia M.; Lindsey, Kimberly P.; deB Frederick, Blaise

    2016-01-01

    Resting state functional connectivity analysis is a widely used method for mapping intrinsic functional organization of the brain. Global signal regression (GSR) is commonly employed for removing systemic global variance from resting state BOLD-fMRI data; however, recent studies have demonstrated that GSR may introduce spurious negative correlations within and between functional networks, calling into question the meaning of anticorrelations reported between some networks. In the present study, we propose that global signal from resting state fMRI is composed primarily of systemic low frequency oscillations (sLFOs) that propagate with cerebral blood circulation throughout the brain. We introduce a novel systemic noise removal strategy for resting state fMRI data, “dynamic global signal regression” (dGSR), which applies a voxel-specific optimal time delay to the global signal prior to regression from voxel-wise time series. We test our hypothesis on two functional systems that are suggested to be intrinsically organized into anticorrelated networks: the default mode network (DMN) and task positive network (TPN). We evaluate the efficacy of dGSR and compare its performance with the conventional “static” global regression (sGSR) method in terms of (i) explaining systemic variance in the data and (ii) enhancing specificity and sensitivity of functional connectivity measures. dGSR increases the amount of BOLD signal variance being modeled and removed relative to sGSR while reducing spurious negative correlations introduced in reference regions by sGSR, and attenuating inflated positive connectivity measures. We conclude that incorporating time delay information for sLFOs into global noise removal strategies is of crucial importance for optimal noise removal from resting state functional connectivity maps. PMID:27445751

  12. Distribution and properties of gunshot residue originating from a Luger 9 mm ammunition in the vicinity of the shooting gun.

    PubMed

    Brozek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2009-01-10

    Examinations of various features of gunshot residue (GSR) collected from targets in a function of the shooting distance as well as from hands and the forearm, front and back parts of the upper clothing of the shooting person were performed with SEM-EDX. GSR samples were obtained using Walther P-99 pistol and Luger 9 mm ammunition of Polish production. The experiments were designed in such a manner that the substrates for collecting GSR reminded the ones usually obtained for examinations within criminal cases. Results of the performed examinations in the form of parameters describing GSR particles: the number of GSR, proportions of their chemical classes as well as their sizes revealed a dependence on the shooting distance both, in the direction of shooting and backwards, i.e. on the shooting person. The analysis of the distribution of particles in the vicinity of the shooting gun may be utilised in description of the general rules of the dispersion of GSR as well as in the reconstruction of a real shooting case. PMID:19046837

  13. Distribution of gunshot residues--the influence of weapon type.

    PubMed

    Ditrich, Hans

    2012-07-10

    Gunshot residue (GSR) analysis is a frequently used forensic method for investigating shooting events. In this process, GSR-particles are detected on pertinent objects, often the hands of a suspect, with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in a scanning electron microscope. The question asked in court is usually the following: "… has or has not a given shot been fired by the suspect (at a certain place and time)?" Unfortunately, this question frequently cannot be answered by the analyst. Only the presence or absence of "characteristic" GSR-particles on the investigated sample can be stated with confidence. All other assumptions are inherently biased by many factors that are usually only known by the culprit or are generally unknown. In order to draw more profound conclusions from GSR analytical results, the dynamics of GSR particles have to be considered, i.e., how these particles reach a suspect. Consequently, the formation of the plume after firing was investigated for eleven different firearms with high speed-video analysis. The results show that a vast scope exists between revolvers - distributing many particles near the shooter - and e.g. shotguns that are quite sealed. These differences between the various weapon types should be considered for interpretation of the results of GSR-analysis. PMID:22370040

  14. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of smokeless gunpowders and macroscopic gunshot residues.

    PubMed

    López-López, María; Merk, Virginia; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Kneipp, Janina

    2016-07-01

    Gunshot residues (GSR) result from the discharge of a firearm being a potential piece of evidence in criminal investigations. The macroscopic GSR particles are basically formed by burned and non-burned gunpowder. Motivated by the demand of trace analysis of these samples, in this paper, the use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was evaluated for the analysis of gunpowders and macroscopic GSR particles. Twenty-one different smokeless gunpowders were extracted with ethanol. SERS spectra were obtained from the diluted extracts using gold nanoaggregates and an excitation wavelength of 633 nm. They show mainly bands that could be assigned to the stabilizers diphenylamine and ethylcentralite present in the gunpowders. Then, macroscopic GSR particles obtained after firing two different ammunition cartridges on clothing were also measured using the same procedure. SERS allowed the detection of the particles collected with an aluminum stub from cloth targets without interferences from the adhesive carbon. The results demonstrate the great potential of SERS for the analysis of macroscopic GSR particles. Furthermore, they indicate that the grain-to-grain inhomogeneity of the gunpowders needs to be considered. Graphical Abstract SERS allows the detection of GSR particles collected with adhesive stubs from cloth targets using gold nanoaggregates and an excitation wavelength of 633 nm. PMID:27137517

  15. Fast Analysis of Complete Macroscopic Gunshot Residues on Substrates Using Raman Imaging.

    PubMed

    López-López, María; Fernández de la Ossa, María Ángeles; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a viable technique for the organic analysis of gunshot residues (GSRs), offering additional information to the well-established analysis using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). In this article, a Raman imaging system with an electron-multiplying coupled-charged device (EMCCD) camera was used to analyze complete GSR particles from both conventional and nontoxic ammunition fired at different cloth targets. The same cloths were then stained with blood to mimic real evidence and measured. The direct analysis using Raman imaging of the GSR particles collected with the stubs used for SEM-EDX analysis (the frequent method used for GSR collection) was evaluated. Multivariate curve-resolution and chemical-mapping methods were applied to the spectroscopic data to identify and highlight the signal corresponding to the GSR particles and differentiate them from the substrates. It was confirmed that both measurement approaches (on the targets and the stubs) could be used for the identification of GSR particles, even under unfavorable conditions such as the presence of blood. The results obtained demonstrate the huge potential of Raman imaging for the fast analysis of complete GSR particles and prove its complementary usefulness in the analysis of the stubs used by the well-established SEM-EDX technique. PMID:26036696

  16. MicroCT detection of gunshot residue in fresh and decomposed firearm wounds.

    PubMed

    Cecchetto, Giovanni; Amagliani, Alessandro; Giraudo, Chiara; Fais, Paolo; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Montisci, Massimo; Feltrin, Giampietro; Viel, Guido; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2012-05-01

    Gunshot residue (GSR) evidence may be altered or obscured by after-death events such as putrefaction, autolysis, and/or damage by animals. The present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the amount and differential distribution of GSR utilizing microcomputed tomography (microCT) analysis of fresh and decomposed gunshot wounds. A total of 60 experimental shootings at three different firing distances (5, 15, and 30 cm) were performed on human calves surgically amputated for medical reasons. Thirty specimens (10 for each tested distance) were immediately formalin-fixed, while the other 30 specimens were enclosed in a cowshed for 15 days, before formalin fixation (air temperature ranging from 11°C to 38°C). MicroCT analysis with three-dimensional image reconstruction detected GSR particles in all the investigated entrance wounds. In fresh specimens, GSR was concentrated on the skin surface around the entrance hole and in the epidermis and dermis layers around the cavity, while in decomposed specimens, the high density particles were detected only in the dermis layer. No GSR was detected in exit wounds of both fresh and decomposed specimens regardless of the tested firing distance. Statistical analysis demonstrated that also in decomposed wounds the amount of GSR roughly correlated with the distance from which the gun was fired, exhibiting, however, a higher variability than in fresh samples. The obtained results suggest that microCT analysis can be a valid screening tool for differentiating decomposed entrance and exit gunshot wounds. PMID:22086714

  17. Automated gunshot residue particle search and characterization.

    PubMed

    Tillman, W L

    1987-01-01

    The main disadvantage to gunshot residue (GSR) particle analysis utilizing scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) instrumentation has been the excessive operator time required for search and identification. This study uses an automated particle search and characterization program for unattended GSR search and identification. This system allows for automatic matrix search, particle sizing, chemical typing, and spectral aquisition with subsequent storage of data to disk for later operator review and verification. This work describes various aspects of the program, determines appropriate parameters adequate for both unique and characteristic GSR particle identification, and evaluates the reliability of data obtained. Samples are collected via the tape lift method from test-firings of .38, .32, .25, and .22 caliber handguns at time after firing intervals of 0 to 6 h. Unique GSR particles are consistently and correctly identified by this method on tape lift samples taken up to 4 h after firing. False positive results of unique GSR particles are not encountered on control handblank samples. This technique appears to provide the forensic science community with an operator-free method of reliable GSR particle search and an improved analyst-time-per-case ratio. PMID:3819690

  18. Firework displays as sources of particles similar to gunshot residue.

    PubMed

    Grima, Matthew; Butler, Mark; Hanson, Robert; Mohameden, Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    In light of past research being targeted to find specific particles which may be similar to gunshot residue (GSR), this project was formulated to detect any possible particulate by random particle fallout onto substrates at firework displays and to assess the impact this may have on GSR evidence. Firework residue was collected at a display site, from amongst spectators as well as from the author's hair 90min after the display. SEM-EDX analysis has detected such particulate in all three scenarios, with the firework particle population at large providing a solid ground for discrimination from GSR. Wind dispersal was found to decrease the particle population and subsequently, the latter's discriminatory power. Some particles, if treated individually were found to be indistinguishable from GSR. Findings also include residues which may mimic strontium based GSR as well as GSR which may be mixed with that from previous firings. The continuous changes made to primer and propellant compositions by manufacturers also call for greater consideration when classifying particles as originating from pyrotechnic devices. Furthermore, authorities such as police forces should be made more aware about the incidence of such particle transfer in firework related periods. PMID:22325911

  19. Prevalence and Predictive Factors of Chronic Postsurgical Pain and Global Surgical Recovery 1 Year After Outpatient Knee Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hoofwijk, Daisy M.N.; Fiddelers, Audrey A.A.; Emans, Peter J.; Joosten, Elbert A.; Gramke, Hans-Fritz; Marcus, Marco A.E.; Buhre, Wolfgang F.F.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Outpatient knee arthroscopy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Previous research has demonstrated that chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) after outpatient surgery is prevalent. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and predictive factors of CPSP and Global Surgical Recovery (GSR) 1 year after knee arthroscopy. A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed. Patients were included during an 18-month period. Data were collected by using 3 questionnaires: at 1 week preoperatively, 4 days postoperatively, and 1 year postoperatively. A value of >3 on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) was defined as moderate to severe pain. A score of ≤80% on the Global Surgical Recovery Index was defined as poor GSR. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which variables were predictors for CPSP and poor GSR. The prevalence of moderate to severe preoperative pain in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy (n = 104) was 71.2%, of acute postsurgical pain 37.5%, and of CPSP 32.7%. Risk factors for CPSP were the presence of preoperative pain and preoperative analgesic use, with odds ratios of 6.31 (1.25–31.74) and 4.36 (1.58–12.07), respectively. The prevalence of poor GSR 1 year after outpatient knee arthrosocpy was 50.0%. Poor GSR 4 days after the surgery was a risk factor with an odds ratio of 8.38 (0.92–76.58) and quality of life 4 days after surgery was a protective factor with and odds ratio of 0.10 (0.02–0.64). Both CPSP and poor GSR are common 1 year after knee arthroscopy. Patients at risk for CPSP can be identified during the preoperative phase. Prediction of poor GSR 1 year after surgery is mainly related to early postoperative recovery. PMID:26559300

  20. CO2 and Tectonic Controls on the Opening of the Greenland-Scotland Seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staerz, M.; Jokat, W.; Lohmann, G.; Knorr, G.

    2014-12-01

    The subsidence history of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) from subaerial to current ocean depths has been investigated by several studies, and the initial hydrographic opening of the North Polar Seas, "NPS" (Arctic Ocean, Nordic Seas) has been linked to major reorganizations of the global oceans and climate throughout the Neogene (23‒3 Myrs ago). However, the current understanding of the GSR subsidence affecting the hydrographic evolution of the Greenland Scotland Seaway and of the critical GSR depth providing effective water mass exchange between the oceans are largely based on conceptual models. Here, we emulate the GSR subsidence by means of a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere General Circulation Model (GCM) with integrated terrestrial vegetation dynamics (community of earth system models, COSMOS). The model setup comprise a global reconstruction of the mid-Miocene 20‒15 Myrs ago (continental geography, orography, bathymetry, ice-sheet geography and topography) and a change of CO2 levels in the atmosphere. Especially, we additionally integrated a high resolution bathymetric dataset for the area of interest (northern North Atlantic, GSR, Nordic Seas and the Eurasian Basin). In different experiments we deepen GSR depth levels by increments of 100 m, ranging from a quasi-enclosed North Polar basin to an open gateway configuration. We identify thresholds in hydrographic communication across the seaway and discuss consequences in climate change and ocean characteristics. Secondly, we use the model setup close to the allocated depth threshold and test the models sensitivity by changes of greenhouse gas concentrations within the spectrum of CO2 reconstructions. We find that a shift in the modeled climate by CO2 changes directly impact the exchange of water masses across the GSR. Based on our model results, we provide a mechanism on the hydrographic opening of the NPS by controls of tectonic activity and CO2.

  1. Prevalence and Predictive Factors of Chronic Postsurgical Pain and Global Surgical Recovery 1 Year After Outpatient Knee Arthroscopy: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hoofwijk, Daisy M N; Fiddelers, Audrey A A; Emans, Peter J; Joosten, Elbert A; Gramke, Hans-Fritz; Marcus, Marco A E; Buhre, Wolfgang F F A

    2015-11-01

    Outpatient knee arthroscopy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Previous research has demonstrated that chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) after outpatient surgery is prevalent. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and predictive factors of CPSP and Global Surgical Recovery (GSR) 1 year after knee arthroscopy.A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed. Patients were included during an 18-month period. Data were collected by using 3 questionnaires: at 1 week preoperatively, 4 days postoperatively, and 1 year postoperatively. A value of >3 on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) was defined as moderate to severe pain. A score of ≤80% on the Global Surgical Recovery Index was defined as poor GSR. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which variables were predictors for CPSP and poor GSR.The prevalence of moderate to severe preoperative pain in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy (n = 104) was 71.2%, of acute postsurgical pain 37.5%, and of CPSP 32.7%. Risk factors for CPSP were the presence of preoperative pain and preoperative analgesic use, with odds ratios of 6.31 (1.25-31.74) and 4.36 (1.58-12.07), respectively. The prevalence of poor GSR 1 year after outpatient knee arthrosocpy was 50.0%. Poor GSR 4 days after the surgery was a risk factor with an odds ratio of 8.38 (0.92-76.58) and quality of life 4 days after surgery was a protective factor with and odds ratio of 0.10 (0.02-0.64).Both CPSP and poor GSR are common 1 year after knee arthroscopy. Patients at risk for CPSP can be identified during the preoperative phase. Prediction of poor GSR 1 year after surgery is mainly related to early postoperative recovery. PMID:26559300

  2. Orthogonal identification of gunshot residue with complementary detection principles of voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy: sample, screen, and confirm.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Aoife M; Samek, Izabela A; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Wang, Joseph

    2014-08-19

    Field-deployable voltammetric screening coupled with complementary laboratory-based analysis to confirm the presence of gunshot residue (GSR) from the hands of a subject who has handled, loaded, or discharged a firearm is described. This protocol implements the orthogonal identification of the presence of GSR utilizing square-wave stripping voltammetry (SWSV) as a rapid screening tool along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to confirm the presence of the characteristic morphology and metal composition of GSR particles. This is achieved through the judicious modification of the working electrode of a carbon screen-printed electrode (CSPE) with carbon tape (used in SEM analysis) to fix and retain a sample. A comparison between a subject who has handled and loaded a firearm and a subject who has had no contact with GSR shows the significant variations in voltammetric signals and the presence or absence of GSR-consistent particles and constituent metals. This initial electrochemical screening has no effect on the integrity of the metallic particles, and SEM/EDX analysis conducted prior to and postvoltammetry show no differences in analytical output. The carbon tape is instrumental in retaining the GSR sample after electrochemical analysis, supported by comparison with orthogonal detection at a bare CSPE. This protocol shows great promise as a two-tier detection system for the presence of GSR from the hands of a subject, whereby initial screening can be conducted rapidly onsite by minimally trained operators; confirmation can follow at the same substrate to substantiate the voltammetric results. PMID:25084547

  3. Gunshot residue testing in suicides: Part I: Analysis by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray.

    PubMed

    Molina, D Kimberley; Martinez, Michael; Garcia, James; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2007-09-01

    Several different methods can be employed to test for gunshot residue (GSR) on a deceased person's hands, including scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Each of these techniques has been extensively studied, especially on living individuals. The current studies (Part I and Part II) were designed to compare the use and utility of the different GSR testing techniques in a medical examiner setting. In Part I, the hands of deceased persons who died from undisputed suicidal handgun wounds were tested for GSR by SEM-EDX over a 4-year period. A total of 116 cases were studied and analyzed for caliber of weapon, proximity of wound, and results of GSR testing, including spatial deposition upon the hands. It was found that in only 50% of cases with a known self-inflicted gunshot wound was SEM-EDX positive for at least 1 specific particle for GSR. In 18% of the cases there was a discernible pattern (spatial distribution) of the particles on the hand such that the manner in which the weapon was held could be determined. Since only 50% of cases where the person is known to have fired a weapon immediately prior to death were positive for GSR by SEM-EDX, this test should not be relied upon to determine whether a deceased individual has discharged a firearm. Furthermore, in only 18% of cases was a discernible pattern present indicating how the firearm was held. The low sensitivity, along with the low percentage of cases with a discernible pattern, limits the usefulness of GSR test results by SEM-EDX in differentiating self-inflicted from non-self-inflicted wounds. PMID:17721163

  4. The development and comparison of collection techniques for inorganic and organic gunshot residues.

    PubMed

    Taudte, Regina Verena; Roux, Claude; Blanes, Lucas; Horder, Mark; Kirkbride, K Paul; Beavis, Alison

    2016-04-01

    The detection and interpretation of gunshot residues (GSR) plays an important role in the investigation of firearm-related events. Commonly, the analysis focuses on inorganic particles incorporating elements derived from the primer. However, recent changes in ammunition formulations and possibility that particles from non-firearm sources can be indistinguishable from certain primer particles challenge the standard operational protocol and call for adjustments, namely the combination of inorganic and organic GSR analysis. Two protocols for the combined collection and subsequent analysis of inorganic and organic GSR were developed and optimised for 15 compounds potentially present in organic GSR (OGSR). These protocols were conceptualised to enable OGSR analysis by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with UV detection and triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (confirmation) and IGSR analysis by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Using liquid extraction, the extraction recoveries from spiked swabs and stubs were ~80 % (50-98 % for swabs, 64-98 % for stubs). When the mixed OGSR standard was applied to the hands and recovered in the way that is usual for IGSR collection, GSR stubs performed significantly better than swabs (~30 %) for the collection of OGSR. The optimised protocols were tested and compared for combined OGSR and inorganic GSR analysis using samples taken at a shooting range. The most suitable protocol for combined collection and analysis of IGSR and OGSR involved collection using GSR stubs followed by SEM-EDX analysis and liquid extraction using acetone followed by analysis with UHPLC. PMID:26873197

  5. Attenuated total reflectance-FT-IR spectroscopy for gunshot residue analysis: potential for ammunition determination.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Justin; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-08-01

    The ability to link a suspect to a particular shooting incident is a principal task for many forensic investigators. Here, we attempt to achieve this goal by analysis of gunshot residue (GSR) through the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with statistical analysis. The firearm discharge process is analogous to a complex chemical process. Therefore, the products of this process (GSR) will vary based upon numerous factors, including the specific combination of the firearm and ammunition which was discharged. Differentiation of FT-IR data, collected from GSR particles originating from three different firearm-ammunition combinations (0.38 in., 0.40 in., and 9 mm calibers), was achieved using projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The technique was cross (leave-one-out), both internally and externally, validated. External validation was achieved via assignment (caliber identification) of unknown FT-IR spectra from unknown GSR particles. The results demonstrate great potential for ATR-FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of GSR for forensic purposes. PMID:23745950

  6. Rapid search and quantitative analysis of gunshot residue particles in the SEM.

    PubMed

    Lebiedzik, J; Johnson, D L

    2000-01-01

    Automated scanning electron microscopy coupled with image analysis and X-ray micro analysis was used to characterize a variety of gunshot residue (GSR) samples. More than 500 rounds of commercially available ammunition and six different types of hand gulls were used in the study of 17 GSR and 19 reference specimens. The individual particle X-ray composition was determined for 12 different elements. Elemental composition of GSR particles was highly variable but consistent with compounds mixed into or associated with a barium oxide matrix. When present in a specimen, GSR could be adequately characterized with automated procedures in less than an hour by restricting analyses to features larger than 2 microm. In "clean" samples, a higher resolution particle search was required to avoid reporting false negatives. Careful control of the back scattered electron signal strength threshold, by reference to a standard, was needed to ensure both time-efficient and accurate analyses. Samples collected from non-shooting subjects. active in a physical environment which contained firearms discharge residue were seen to be easily contaminated by sub-micron GSR particles. PMID:10641923

  7. Depth variations of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge: A driver for Miocene ocean circulation changes and marine carbon cycling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butzin, M.; Bickert, T.; Lohmann, G.

    2009-04-01

    It has been proposed that temporal depth variations of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) had a significant influence on properties and fluxes of Cenozoic North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Wright and Miller [1996] concluded that southward overflow of Cenozoic NADW decreased or even diminished during several high stands of the GSR between 14.5-11.0 Ma, 9.8-8.5, Ma, and 7.3-6.0 Ma. Similarly, Poore et al. [2006] found that Myr-scale variations of Cenozoic NADW formation after 12 Ma are controlled by vertical motions of the GSR, which are generated by temperature fluctuations associated with the Iceland Plume. On the other hand, there are also studies pointing to major deep water overflow at times of a shallow GSR at 11.5 Ma [Wei and Peleo-Alampey, 1997] and between 8-7 Ma [Wold, 1994]. Here, we present results of a numerical modeling study in which we explore the effects of GSR depth variations during the Miocene on ocean currents and associated heat transports as well as on the evolution of the marine carbon isotopic record.

  8. Group-based sparse representation for image restoration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Debin; Gao, Wen

    2014-08-01

    Traditional patch-based sparse representation modeling of natural images usually suffer from two problems. First, it has to solve a large-scale optimization problem with high computational complexity in dictionary learning. Second, each patch is considered independently in dictionary learning and sparse coding, which ignores the relationship among patches, resulting in inaccurate sparse coding coefficients. In this paper, instead of using patch as the basic unit of sparse representation, we exploit the concept of group as the basic unit of sparse representation, which is composed of nonlocal patches with similar structures, and establish a novel sparse representation modeling of natural images, called group-based sparse representation (GSR). The proposed GSR is able to sparsely represent natural images in the domain of group, which enforces the intrinsic local sparsity and nonlocal self-similarity of images simultaneously in a unified framework. In addition, an effective self-adaptive dictionary learning method for each group with low complexity is designed, rather than dictionary learning from natural images. To make GSR tractable and robust, a split Bregman-based technique is developed to solve the proposed GSR-driven ℓ0 minimization problem for image restoration efficiently. Extensive experiments on image inpainting, image deblurring and image compressive sensing recovery manifest that the proposed GSR modeling outperforms many current state-of-the-art schemes in both peak signal-to-noise ratio and visual perception. PMID:24835225

  9. The Brucella abortus virulence regulator, LovhK, is a sensor kinase in the general stress response signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Sook; Willett, Jonathan W.; Jain-Gupta, Neeta; Fiebig, Aretha; Crosson, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus, the general stress response (GSR) signaling system determines survival under acute stress conditions in vitro, and is required for long-term residence in a mammalian host. To date, the identity of the Brucella sensor kinase(s) that function to perceive stress and directly activate GSR signaling have remained undefined. We demonstrate that the flavin-binding sensor histidine kinase, LovhK (bab2_0652), functions as a primary B. abortus GSR sensor. LovhK efficiently and specifically phosphorylates the central GSR regulator, PhyR, and activates transcription of a set of genes that closely overlaps the known B. abortus GSR regulon. Deletion of lovhK severely compromises cell survival under defined oxidative and acid stress conditions. We further show that lovhK is required for cell survival during the early phase of mammalian cell infection and for establishment of long-term residence in a mouse infection model. Finally, we present evidence that particular regions of primary structure within the two N-terminal PAS domains of LovhK have distinct sensory roles under specific environmental conditions. This study elucidates new molecular components of a conserved signaling pathway that regulates B. abortus stress physiology and infection biology. PMID:25257300

  10. Unambiguous characterization of gunshot residue particles using scanning laser ablation and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abrego, Zuriñe; Ugarte, Ana; Unceta, Nora; Fernández-Isla, Alberto; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2012-03-01

    A new method based on scanning laser ablation and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) for the detection and identification of gunshot residue (GSR) particles from firearms discharges has been developed. Tape lifts were used to collect inorganic residues from skin surfaces. The laser ablation pattern and ICPMS conditions were optimized for the detection of metals present in GSR, such as (121)Sb, (137)Ba, and (208)Pb. Other isotopes ((27)Al, (29)Si, (31)P, (33)S, (35)Cl, (39)K, (44)Ca, (57)Fe, (60)Ni, (63)Cu, (66)Zn, and (118)Sn) were monitored during the ICPMS analyses to obtain additional information to possibly classify the GSR particles as either characteristic of GSR or consistent with GSR. In experiments with real samples, different firearms, calibers, and ammunitions were used. The performed method evaluation confirms that the developed methodology can be used as an alternative to the standard scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) technique, with the significant advantage of drastically reducing the analysis time to less than 66 min. PMID:22304477

  11. Quantifying gunshot residues in cases of suicide: Implications for evaluation of suicides and criminal shootings.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Nick; Cook, Michael; Wallace, James; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kobus, Hilton

    2016-09-01

    Gunshot residue (GSR) is a valuable form of forensic trace evidence in the investigation of firearms-related suicide and crime. In order to ensure that such evidence is given appropriate evidential weighting when it comes to case investigations, the dynamics of the deposition and distribution of GSR must be understood. As the activity of the subject after firing is a major factor in the retention of GSR, cases of suicide involving a firearm provide an opportunity to assess GSR distribution where post-shooting activity is not an issue, assuming the subject had not been moved. Seventy-one cases of suicide by gunshot in South Australia between 1998 and 2014 were examined to collect data on firearm type, calibre, and gunshot residue test results. Overall, 47% of cases were found to produce GSR results that were not of high probative value, even though it was known that the shooter had fired a firearm. Of particular interest were cases involving 0.22 rimfire ammunition, for which characteristic particles are not expected due to lack of antimony present in the primer. Despite this, 64% of these cases resulted in the detection of antimony-containing, three-component particles. PMID:27348466

  12. Raman spectroscopic analysis of gunshot residue offering great potential for caliber differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Justin; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2012-05-15

    Near-infrared (NIR) Raman microspectroscopy combined with advanced statistics was used to differentiate gunshot residue (GSR) particles originating from different caliber ammunition. The firearm discharge process is analogous to a complex chemical reaction. The reagents of this process are represented by the chemical composition of the ammunition, firearm, and cartridge case. The specific firearm parameters determine the conditions of the reaction and thus the subsequent product, GSR. We found that Raman spectra collected from these products are characteristic for different caliber ammunition. GSR particles from 9 mm and 0.38 caliber ammunition, collected under identical discharge conditions, were used to demonstrate the capability of confocal Raman microspectroscopy for the discrimination and identification of GSR particles. The caliber differentiation algorithm is based on support vector machines (SVM) and partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analyses, validated by a leave-one-out cross-validation method. This study demonstrates for the first time that NIR Raman microspectroscopy has the potential for the reagentless differentiation of GSR based upon forensically relevant parameters, such as caliber size. When fully developed, this method should have a significant impact on the efficiency of crime scene investigations. PMID:22448891

  13. [Using of scanning electron microscopy for detection of gunshot residue].

    PubMed

    Havel, J; Vajtr, D; Starý, V; Vrána, J; Zelenka, K; Adámek, T

    2006-07-01

    Scanning electron microscope improves the possibility of investigation of surroundings near of gunshot wounds in forensic medicine, it is the next subsequent method for differentiating of area of entrance and exit wound, supplemental method for determination of firing distance, permit of detection (GSR) on the hand of shooter and ensured describing of samples and their stored. Detection of GSR provides many information about composition of bullet and primer. Authors are demonstrating the possibility of detection of GSR on experimental shooting to the krupon (pigs' skin) in different situation (such as in a room and in outside area) and using of different weapon (hand gun CZ No.75 and machine gun No.58). PMID:16948447

  14. Variability of Solar Radiation under Cloud-Free Skies in China: The Role of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Yun; Wang, Weiguo; Leung, L. ruby; Kaiser, Dale P.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed long-term surface global and diffuse solar radiation, aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), and relative humidity (RH) from China. Our analysis reveals that much of China experienced significant decreases in global solar radiation (GSR) and increases in diffuse solar radiation under cloud-free skies between the 1960s and 1980s. With RH and aerosol SSA being rather constant during that time period, we suggest that the increasing aerosol loading from emission of pollutants is responsible for the observed reduced GSR and increased diffuse radiation in cloud-free skies. Although pollutant emissions continue to increase after the 1980s, the increment of aerosol SSA since 1980s can partly explain the transition of GSR from a decreasing trend to no apparent trend around that time. Preliminary analysis is also provided on the potential role of RH in affecting the global and diffuse solar radiation reaching the earth surface.

  15. Generalized stochastic resonance in a linear fractional system with a random delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shi-Long

    2012-12-01

    The generalized stochastic resonance (GSR) phenomena in a linear fractional random-delayed system driven by a weak periodic signal and an additive noise are considered in this paper. A random delay is considered for a linear fractional Langevin equation to describe the intercellular signal transmission and material exchange processes in ion channels. By virtue of the small delay approximation and Laplace transformation, the analytical expression for the amplitude of the first-order steady state moment is obtained. The simulation results show that the amplitude curves as functions of different system parameters behave non-monotonically and exhibit typical characteristics of GSR phenomena. Furthermore, a physical explanation for all the GSR phenomena is given and the cooperative effects of random delay and the fractional memory are also discussed.

  16. A comparison between digital radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance in the detection of gunshot residues in burnt tissues and bone.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Borgonovo, Simone; Brandone, Alberto; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    The radiological search for GSR is crucial in burnt material although it has been rarely tested. In this study, thirty-one bovine ribs were shot at near-contact range and burnt to calcination in an oven simulating a real combustion. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) were performed before and after carbonization and compared with former analyses with DR (digital radiography); thus comparing the assistance, the radiological methods can provide in the search for GSR in fresh and burnt bone. DR demonstrated the greatest ability in the detection of metallic residues, CT showed lower abilities, while MR showed a high sensitivity only in soft tissues. Thus, DR can be considered as the most sensitive method in the detection of GSR in charred bones, whereas CT and MR demonstrated much less reliability. Nonetheless, the MR ameliorates the analysis of gunshot wounds in other types of remains with large quantities of soft tissues. PMID:24147424

  17. The Relationship Between the Surface Morphology and Chemical Composition of Gunshot Residue Particles.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ilker; Lisesivdin, Sefer Bora; Kasap, Mehmet; Er, Elif; Uzek, Ugur

    2015-07-01

    In this study, chemical composition and morphology of gunshot residue (GSR) of 9 × 19 mm Parabellum-type MKE (Turkey)-brand ammunition were analyzed by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. GSR samples were collected by "swab" technique from the shooter's right hand immediately after shooting. According to general principles of thermodynamics, it is likely that the structures will have a more regular (homogeneous) spherical form to minimize their surface area due to very high temperatures and pressures that occur during explosion. Studied samples were collected under the same conditions with the same original ammunition, from the same firearm and a single shooter. This is because many other variables may affect size, structure, and composition in addition to the concentrations of elements of the structure. Results indicated that the chemical compositions are effective in the formation of GSR morphological structures. PMID:25864563

  18. Determining the lifetime of detectable amounts of gunshot residue on the hands of a shooter using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Matthew B; Dockery, Christopher R

    2008-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to determine the period of time that a shooter will test positive for gunshot residue (GSR) after firing a revolver. Multiple rounds of primer were fired and samples collected at multiple hour intervals using an adhesive tape pressed against the skin. Samples were analyzed directly using a commercially available laser-induced breakdown spectrometer where barium emission (originating from barium nitrate in the primer) was observed. Population statistics were used to compare suspected GSR to a library of blank samples from which a threshold value was established. Statistically significant results, positive for GSR, are obtained 5.27 days after a firearm discharge using these techniques. PMID:19007466

  19. A novel method for the identification of inorganic and organic gunshot residue particles of lead-free ammunitions from the hands of shooters using scanning laser ablation-ICPMS and Raman micro-spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Abrego, Zuriñe; Grijalba, Nagore; Unceta, Nora; Maguregui, Maite; Sanchez, Alicia; Fernández-Isla, Alberto; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2014-12-01

    A method based on scanning laser ablation and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SLA-ICPMS) and Raman micro-spectroscopy for the detection and identification of compounds consistent with gunshot residue particles (GSR) has been developed. The method has been applied to the characterization of particles resulting from the discharge of firearms using lead-free ammunition. Modified tape lifts were used to collect the inorganic and organic residues from skin surfaces in a single sample. Using SLA-ICPMS, aggregates related to the composition of the ammunition, such as Cu-Zn-Sn, Zr-Sr, Cu-Zn, Al-Ti, or Al-Sr-Zr were detected, but this composition is only consistent with GSR from lead-free ammunitions. Additional evidence was provided by micro-Raman spectroscopy, which identified the characteristic organic groups of the particles as centralite, diphenylamine or their nitrated derivatives, which are indicative of GSR. PMID:25303642

  20. A new method for collection and identification of gunshot residues from the hands of shooters.

    PubMed

    Reis, Edson L T; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Neto, Osvaldo N; Rodrigues, Claudio; Kakazu, Maurício H; Viebig, Sônia

    2003-11-01

    This work presents a novel collection method for gunshot residues (GSR) using a sampling procedure based on ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution as a complexing agent on moistened swabs. Detection was via a sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HRICP-MS). The proposed collection and analytical method allowed detection of antimony (Sb), barium (Ba) and lead (Pb) after .38 shot tests. at detection limits of less than 1 microg L(-1) in four different areas of the hands of volunteers. This paper includes a discussion concerning hand areas near the thumb and forefinger as being more suitable for GSR collection as well as a comparison between differences observed using 2% diluted EDTA. 2% nitric acid solution, and simple deionized water as collecting solutions, proving the superior efficiency of EDTA in GSR recoveries. PMID:14640269

  1. A new quantitative method for gunshot residue analysis by ion beam analysis.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Matthew E; Warmenhoeven, John-William; Romolo, Francesco S; Donghi, Matteo; Webb, Roger P; Jeynes, Christopher; Ward, Neil I; Kirkby, Karen J; Bailey, Melanie J

    2013-08-21

    Imaging and analyzing gunshot residue (GSR) particles using the scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) is a standard technique that can provide important forensic evidence, but the discrimination power of this technique is limited due to low sensitivity to trace elements and difficulties in obtaining quantitative results from small particles. A new, faster method using a scanning proton microbeam and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (μ-PIXE), together with Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) is presented for the non-destructive, quantitative analysis of the elemental composition of single GSR particles. In this study, the GSR particles were all Pb, Ba, Sb. The precision of the method is assessed. The grouping behaviour of different makes of ammunition is determined using multivariate analysis. The protocol correctly groups the cartridges studied here, with a confidence >99%, irrespective of the firearm or population of particles selected. PMID:23775063

  2. Identification of gunshot residue: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Saverio Romolo, F; Margot, P

    2001-06-15

    A review of the scientific papers published on inorganic gunshot residue (GSR) analysis permits to study how the particle analysis has shown its capability in detection and identification of gunshot residue. The scanning electron microscope can be the most powerful tool for forensic scientists to determine the proximity to a discharging firearm and/or the contact with a surface exposed to GSR. Particle analysis can identify individual gunshot residue particles through both morphological and elemental characteristics. When particles are detected on the collected sample, the analytical results can be interpreted following rules of a formal general interpretative system, to determine whether they come from the explosion of a primer or from other possible sources. The particles on the sample are compared with an abstract idea of "unique" GSR particle produced by the sole source of the explosion of a primer. "Uniqueness" is not the only problem related to GSR detection and identification for a forensic scientist. With "not-unique" particles interpretation of results is extremely important. The evidential strength of "not-unique" particles can increase with a more fruitful interpretative framework based on Bayes rule. For the assessment of the value of a GSR in linking a suspect and a crime, it is important to compare two hypothesis: the first can be that of the evidence if the suspect has been shooting in a specific situation, the second that of the evidence if the suspect was not involved in this shooting. This case specific or case-by-case approach is closer to what the court is interested in. The authors consider that a "case-by-case" approach should be followed whenever possible. Research of models and data such as those developed in other trace evidence material (fibres, glass, etc.) using a Bayesian approach is suggested in the interpretation of GSR. PMID:11376984

  3. Plastidial metabolite MEcPP induces a transcriptionally centered stress-response hub via the transcription factor CAMTA3.

    PubMed

    Benn, Geoffrey; Bjornson, Marta; Ke, Haiyan; De Souza, Amancio; Balmond, Edward I; Shaw, Jared T; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2016-08-01

    The general stress response (GSR) is an evolutionarily conserved rapid and transient transcriptional reprograming of genes central for transducing environmental signals into cellular responses, leading to metabolic and physiological readjustments to cope with prevailing conditions. Defining the regulatory components of the GSR will provide crucial insight into the design principles of early stress-response modules and their role in orchestrating master regulators of adaptive responses. Overaccumulation of methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP), a bifunctional chemical entity serving as both a precursor of isoprenoids produced by the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway and a stress-specific retrograde signal, in ceh1 (constitutively expressing hydroperoxide lyase1)-mutant plants leads to large-scale transcriptional alterations. Bioinformatic analyses of microarray data in ceh1 plants established the overrepresentation of a stress-responsive cis element and key GSR marker, the rapid stress response element (RSRE), in the promoters of robustly induced genes. ceh1 plants carrying an established 4×RSRE:Luciferase reporter for monitoring the GSR support constitutive activation of the response in this mutant background. Genetics and pharmacological approaches confirmed the specificity of MEcPP in RSRE induction via the transcription factor CALMODULIN-BINDING TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR 3 (CAMTA3), in a calcium-dependent manner. Moreover, CAMTA3-dependent activation of IRE1a (inositol-requiring protein-1) and bZIP60 (basic leucine zipper 60), two RSRE containing unfolded protein-response genes, bridges MEcPP-mediated GSR induction to the potentiation of protein-folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum. These findings introduce the notion of transcriptional regulation by a key plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite that induces nuclear GSR, thereby offering a window into the role of interorgannellar communication in shaping cellular adaptive

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Leading arm Magellanic Cloud Catalog (Venzmer+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venzmer, M. S.; Kerp, J.; Kalberla, P. M. W.

    2012-08-01

    The table represents a HI cloud catalogue of the Magellanic Cloud System's Leading Arm region. The catalogue is the result of a source finding algorithm applied on Parkes Galactic all-sky (GASS) data of that region. The considered size of the Leading Arm region in Magellanic Stream (MS) coordinates is: 0°GSR) velocity range is: -80km/sGSR<250km/s. The Leading Arm cloud catalog contains 449 spatial/kinetical separated emissions. (1 data file).

  5. A simple method for collection of gunshot residues from clothing.

    PubMed

    Andrasko, J; Pettersson, S

    1991-01-01

    Simple equipment for the sampling of gunshot residue particles from clothing, inside of bags, pockets, etc, is described. Collection was achieved by vacuuming through a double filtration system constructed from a Nucleopore aerosol holder connected to an ordinary vacuum cleaner. The collected particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Good results were observed in functional tests of this equipment and the method has been introduced into casework in our laboratory. Various experiments on possible contamination of clothing by GSR particles were performed. The usefulness of clothing as evidence material in searching for GSR particles is discussed. PMID:1744623

  6. Gunshot residue particles formed by using ammunitions that have mercury fulminate based primers.

    PubMed

    Zeichner, A; Levin, N; Dvorachek, M

    1992-11-01

    Ammunition having mercury fulminate-based primers are commonly manufactured by Eastern Bloc countries and used extensively in the Middle East. Gunshot residue (GSR) particles formed by firing these types of ammunition were examined. It was observed that much lower percentage of mercury-containing GSR particles were found in samples taken from a shooter as compared to the percentage of such particles in samples from cartridge cases. This fact must therefore be taken into account when interpreting case results. A plausible explanation for the results described is proposed. PMID:1453170

  7. S.Res.42 — 112th Congress (2011-2012) A resolution to constitute the majority party's membership on certain committees for the One Hundred Twelfth Congress, or until their successors are chosen.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-02-03

    02/03/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S556-557; text as passed Senate: CR S556-557; text of measure as introduced: CR S551) (All Actions)

  8. A resolution supporting democracy, universal rights, and the peaceful transition to a representative government in Egypt.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Kerry, John F. [D-MA

    2011-02-03

    02/03/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S557-558; text as passed Senate: CR S558; text of measure as introduced: CR S552) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. 77 FR 5525 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities to Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... REGISTER REPORT FOR 02/03/2012 Suitable/Available Properties Building Iowa Fee Booth Bridge View Park..., Washington, DC 20374; (202) 685-9305 (These are not toll-free numbers). Dated: January 26, 2012. Mark R... other use for homeless persons Reasons: Extensive deterioration Missouri Water Quality Bldg. Pomme...

  10. S.Res.44 — 112th Congress (2011-2012) A resolution supporting democracy, universal rights, and the peaceful transition to a representative government in Egypt.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Kerry, John F. [D-MA

    2011-02-03

    02/03/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S557-558; text as passed Senate: CR S558; text of measure as introduced: CR S552) (All Actions)

  11. 77 FR 7149 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/30/2012 Through 02/03/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  12. FINAL INTERIM REPORT, CANDIDATE SITES, MACHINES IN USE, DATA STORAGE AND TRANSMISSION METHODS: TESTING FEASIBILITY OF 3D ULTRASOUND DATA ACQUISITION AND RELIABILITY OF DATA RETRIEVAL FROM STORED 3D IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this Work Assignment, 02-03, is to examine the feasibility of collecting transmitting, and analyzing 3-D ultrasound data in the context of a multi-center study of pregnant women. The study will also examine the reliability of measurements obtained from 3-D images< ...

  13. S.Res.45 — 112th Congress (2011-2012) A resolution congratulating the Eastern Washington University football team for winning the 2010 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 Football Championship Subdivision title.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Murray, Patty [D-WA

    2011-02-03

    02/03/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S558-559; text as passed Senate: CR S558-559; text of measure as introduced: CR S552-553) (All Actions)

  14. No latest title...

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Kerry, John F. [D-MA

    2011-02-03

    02/03/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S557-558; text as passed Senate: CR S558; text of measure as introduced: CR S552) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. 78 FR 73524 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 11/25/2013 Through 11/29/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section..., Comment Period Ends: 02/03/2014, Contact: Hugh Heine 910-251-4070. Revision to the FR Notice Published...

  16. A resolution to constitute the minority party's membership on certain committees for the One Hundred Twelfth Congress, or until their successors are chosen.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. McConnell, Mitch [R-KY

    2011-02-03

    02/03/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S557; text as passed Senate: CR S557; text of measure as introduced: CR S551-552) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. A resolution to constitute the majority party's membership on certain committees for the One Hundred Twelfth Congress, or until their successors are chosen.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-02-03

    02/03/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S556-557; text as passed Senate: CR S556-557; text of measure as introduced: CR S551) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. 77 FR 13596 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    .../13/2012 (S) Starch, oxidized, 2-hydroxy-3- (trimethylammonio)propyl ether, chloride. P-11-0048 02/08...-hydroxypoly [oxy (methyl-1,2- ethanediyl)], 1,1'- methylenebis , and dihydroxydialkyl ether, reaction products.../07/2012 02/02/2012 (G) Water based acrylic dispersion. P-11-0615 02/03/2012 01/31/2012 (G) C18...

  19. 75 FR 26881 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A340-200 and A340-300 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 2057, January 14, 2010), the Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by... December 30, 2009, we issued AD 2010-02-03, Amendment 39-16174 (75 FR 2057, January 14, 2010). That AD... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive...

  20. NCAA Academic Performance Metrics: Implications for Institutional Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaForge, Larry; Hodge, Janie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the higher education community with information about the Federal Graduation Rate (FGR), the Academic Progress Rate (APR), and the Graduation Success Rate (GSR) to assist in developing sound institutional policy. First, relevant background information is provided to clarify the context underlying the…

  1. A Developmental Study of Efficiency in Differential Galvanic Skin Response Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishner, Julius; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that there should be an early age range during which inhibiting and facilitating sets do not result in appropriately differential behavior, and that at a subsequent age, there should occur differentiation of GSR conditioning rate as a function of the differential sets. (Author/SDH)

  2. Elemental analysis of gunshot residue to differentiate bullet type and firing distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Christine Ella

    Gunshot residue (GSR) was deposited on porcine tissue with hand loaded non-jacketed (NJ) and full-jacketed (FJ) ammunition at two different firing distances. Fresh tissue samples, as well as samples collected throughout decomposition were microwave digested in nitric acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the elemental composition of the GSR. Element concentrations for lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were statistically compared in order to investigate differentiation of bullet type and firing distance based on chemical concentrations in the GSR. Control (unshot) samples were collected in order to assess for environmental contaminants. Results of this study demonstrated that ICP-OES was adequate to detect the characteristic elements of GSR in fresh tissue, but was not sensitive enough to detect all elements throughout decomposition. Lead and Sb were significantly greater in NJ samples. Barium was useful in differentiating firing distance for both bullet types, while Cu was used to differentiate firing distance in FJ ammunition only. Analysis using ICP-MS, which has detection limits up to three orders of magnitude lower compared to ICP-OES, demonstrated the persistence of Pb, Sb, and Ba on porcine tissue throughout decomposition at a firing distance of 5 cm for both NJ and FJ ammunition.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIPS OF INTEREST AND ATTENTION TO RETENTION AND ATTITUDE CHANGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BECKER, SAMUEL L.

    THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WERE EXPLORED IN THIS STUDY--(1) WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG RESPONSES OBTAINED WHEN SUBJECTS VIEW AN INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION PROGRAM AND NOTE THEIR INTEREST BY PRESSING OR RELEASING A BUTTON, BY CHECKING COLUMNS ON A SHEET OF PAPER, AND WHEN GALVANIC SKIN RESPONSES (GSR) ARE CHARTED, (2) WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP…

  4. Multiple σEcfG and NepR Proteins Are Involved in the General Stress Response in Methylobacterium extorquens

    PubMed Central

    Francez-Charlot, Anne; Frunzke, Julia; Zingg, Judith; Kaczmarczyk, Andreas; Vorholt, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    In Alphaproteobacteria, the general stress response (GSR) is controlled by a conserved partner switch composed of the sigma factor σEcfG, its anti-sigma factor NepR and the anti-sigma factor antagonist PhyR. Many species possess paralogues of one or several components of the system, but their roles remain largely elusive. Among Alphaproteobacteria that have been genome-sequenced so far, the genus Methylobacterium possesses the largest number of σEcfG proteins. Here, we analyzed the six σEcfG paralogues of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. We show that these sigma factors are not truly redundant, but instead exhibit major and minor contributions to stress resistance and GSR target gene expression. We identify distinct levels of regulation for the different sigma factors, as well as two NepR paralogues that interact with PhyR. Our results suggest that in M. extorquens AM1, ecfG and nepR paralogues have diverged in order to assume new roles that might allow integration of positive and negative feedback loops in the regulatory system. Comparison of the core elements of the GSR regulatory network in Methylobacterium species provides evidence for high plasticity and rapid evolution of the GSR core network in this genus. PMID:27028226

  5. AROUSAL AND LOGICAL INFERENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOEN, FRANK

    THE PURPOSE OF THE EXPERIMENT WAS TO DETERMINE THE DEGREE TO WHICH PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL, AS INDEXED BY THE GRASON STADLER TYPE OPERANT CONDITIONING APPARATUS (GSR), IS RELATED TO THE ACCURACY OF LOGICAL REASONING. THE STIMULI WERE 12 SYLLOGISMS, THREE OF EACH OF FOUR DIFFERENT LOGICAL FORMS. THE 14 SUBJECTS (SS) INDICATED THEIR AGREEMENT OR…

  6. Psychological and Associative Meaning in Auditory Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarte, Robert; And Others

    In 1964 Tarte, Gadlin, and Ehrlich found a correlation between Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and associative meaning in an auditory recognition task. This study attempted to replicate the results and examine the critical variables involved. One hundred eighty female college students served as subjects. Each heard ten accelerated words followed by…

  7. Multiple σEcfG and NepR Proteins Are Involved in the General Stress Response in Methylobacterium extorquens.

    PubMed

    Francez-Charlot, Anne; Frunzke, Julia; Zingg, Judith; Kaczmarczyk, Andreas; Vorholt, Julia A

    2016-01-01

    In Alphaproteobacteria, the general stress response (GSR) is controlled by a conserved partner switch composed of the sigma factor σEcfG, its anti-sigma factor NepR and the anti-sigma factor antagonist PhyR. Many species possess paralogues of one or several components of the system, but their roles remain largely elusive. Among Alphaproteobacteria that have been genome-sequenced so far, the genus Methylobacterium possesses the largest number of σEcfG proteins. Here, we analyzed the six σEcfG paralogues of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. We show that these sigma factors are not truly redundant, but instead exhibit major and minor contributions to stress resistance and GSR target gene expression. We identify distinct levels of regulation for the different sigma factors, as well as two NepR paralogues that interact with PhyR. Our results suggest that in M. extorquens AM1, ecfG and nepR paralogues have diverged in order to assume new roles that might allow integration of positive and negative feedback loops in the regulatory system. Comparison of the core elements of the GSR regulatory network in Methylobacterium species provides evidence for high plasticity and rapid evolution of the GSR core network in this genus. PMID:27028226

  8. Optimizing and Interpreting Insular Functional Connectivity Maps Obtained During Acute Experimental Pain: The Effects of Global Signal and Task Paradigm Regression.

    PubMed

    Ibinson, James W; Vogt, Keith M; Taylor, Kevin B; Dua, Shiv B; Becker, Christopher J; Loggia, Marco; Wasan, Ajay D

    2015-12-01

    The insula is uniquely located between the temporal and parietal cortices, making it anatomically well-positioned to act as an integrating center between the sensory and affective domains for the processing of painful stimulation. This can be studied through resting-state functional connectivity (fcMRI) imaging; however, the lack of a clear methodology for the analysis of fcMRI complicates the interpretation of these data during acute pain. Detected connectivity changes may reflect actual alterations in low-frequency synchronous neuronal activity related to pain, may be due to changes in global cerebral blood flow or the superimposed task-induced neuronal activity. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the effects of global signal regression (GSR) and task paradigm regression (TPR) on the changes in functional connectivity of the left (contralateral) insula in healthy subjects at rest and during acute painful electric nerve stimulation of the right hand. The use of GSR reduced the size and statistical significance of connectivity clusters and created negative correlation coefficients for some connectivity clusters. TPR with cyclic stimulation gave task versus rest connectivity differences similar to those with a constant task, suggesting that analysis which includes TPR is more accurately reflective of low-frequency neuronal activity. Both GSR and TPR have been inconsistently applied to fcMRI analysis. Based on these results, investigators need to consider the impact GSR and TPR have on connectivity during task performance when attempting to synthesize the literature. PMID:26061382

  9. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF FILM MOVEMENT AND EMOTIONAL RESPONSE, AND ITS EFFECT ON LEARNING AND ATTITUDE FORMATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, WILLIAM CHARLES, III

    THIS EXPERIMENTAL STUDY EXAMINED THE HYPOTHESES THAT FILM MOTION INCREASES AUDIENCE EMOTIONAL INVOLVEMENT, INCREASES POSITIVE ATTITUDE RESPONSE TO THE FILM AND DOES NOT AFFECT AUDIENCE INFORMATION RETENTION. OTHER HYPOTHESES WERE THAT THE GALVANIC SKIN RESPONSE (GSR) IS USEFUL FOR EVALUATING FILM AUDIENCE EMOTIONAL INVOLVEMENT, THAT AUDIENCE…

  10. Galvanic Skin Response and Reported Anxiety During Systematic Desensitization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Edward T.; Gale, Elliot N.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the GSR during systematic desensitization. Three groups of females each were preselected for high snake fear. Outcome measures indicated that the desensitization group reduced phobic behavior most, followed by the relaxation group, and then the exposure groups. (Author)

  11. A Laboratory Approach to the Cognitive Control of Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, William A.; And Others

    This research focuses on the effect of verbal behavior on the conditioning and extinction of an autonomic response, namely, the galvanic skin response (GSR). The major assumption is that the experimentor's verbal behavior produces verbal behavior internal to the subject, and this, in turn has a modifying effect on the conditioning phenomena. The…

  12. Analysis of gunshot residues as trace in nasal mucus by GFAAS.

    PubMed

    Aliste, Marina; Chávez, Luis Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    When a gun is fired, the majority of gunshot residues are deposited on the shooter's hands. But these residues disappear through contact with surfaces or washing. Therefore, the maximum time frame to find GSR on a suspect's hands is 8h. The mucus, inside of a nostril, forms a surface layer where they are trapped foreign particles. In this way, mucus inside of a gunshot suspect's nostrils could act like an adhesive medium to stick on it gaseous particles from a gunshot. In this study, the presence of GSR in nasal mucus and its residence time is examined. A new procedure for the sampling of possible gunshot residue accumulated in the nasal mucus is designed. Samples are taken with cotton swabs moistened with a solution of EDTA and, after an acid digestion, are analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. In addition, samples of hands are taken for comparison purposes. GSR recovery has been successful. The concentration of GSR in nasal mucus is found to be lower than on the hands, but with a longer residence time. Thus, it is possible to expand the sampling time of a suspect also, as nasal mucus cannot be contaminated by handling weapons. PMID:26874050

  13. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO FILM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASE, HARRY W.; LEVONIAN, EDWARD

    THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM WHICH WOULD ALLOW THE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF STUDENTS VIEWING FILM MATERIAL UNDER CONVENTIONAL CLASSROOM CONDITIONS. THE GALVANIC SKIN RESPONSE (GSR) WAS MEASURED BY SENSORS AND USED AS AN INDICATOR OF STUDENT INTERACTION WITH THE FILM MATERIAL. IN…

  14. A Validity Study of Self-Report and Physiological Measures of Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nighswander, James K.; And Others

    This study was an investigation into the relative predictive abilities of two types of test anxiety measures. Galvanic skin response (GSR) levels obtained during achievement testing and a self-report measure of test anxiety, the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC), were used as predictors of IQ and achievement test performances of 119 fifth and…

  15. Reversed North Atlantic subpolar gyre dynamics in present and glacial climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, M.; Born, A.; Levermann, A.

    2009-04-01

    The dynamics of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) are assessed under present and glacial boundary conditions by investigating its sensitivity to surface wind-stress changes using an intermediate complexity coupled climate model. The SPG is found to be stronger in present than in glacial climates and shows an opposite sensitivity to wind-stress changes in both climates. While in the present it decreases with increasing surface wind-stress, in glacial times it rather increases. Both features result from density changes produced by wind-induced circulation changes. Our results suggest the existence of two dynamically distinct regimes of the SPG, depending on the absence or presence of deep water formation (DWF) in the Nordic Seas and a vigorous Greenland-Scotland ridge (GSR) overflow. In the first regime, the GSR overflow is weak and the SPG strength increases with the wind-stress as a result of a basin-scale reduction in stratification. As soon as a vigorous GSR overflow is established, its associated positive density anomalies in the southern GSR slope contribute to reduce the SPG strength. Our results have implications for past glacial abrupt climate changes, which are explained through latitudinal shifts in North Atlantic DWF sites and strengthening of the North Atlantic current. Regardless of the ultimate trigger, an abrupt shift of DWF into the Nordic Seas could result both in a drastic reduction of the SPG strength and a sudden change in its sensitivity to wind-stress variations.

  16. Determination of gunshot residues with image analysis: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tuğcu, Harun; Yorulmaz, Coşkun; Bayraktaroğlu, Görgün; Uner, Hüseyin Bülent; Karslioğlu, Yildirim; Koç, Sermet; Ulukan, Mustafa Ozer; Celasun, Bülent

    2005-09-01

    In firearm injuries, assessment of the firing range and determination of entrance and exit wounds are important. For this reason, evaluation of the amount and distribution of gunshot residues (GSRs) is necessary. Several methods and techniques for GSR analysis have been developed. Although these methods are relatively sensitive and specific, they may require expensive dedicated equipment. Therefore, a simple, easily applicable, more convenient method is needed. A total of 40 experimental shots were made to calf skin from distances of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 cm. Eighty samples were taken from the right and left sides of the wounds, and Alizarin Red S dye staining was performed. The amounts of GSR particles were measured with image analysis. GSRs were detected in all shots. The mean size of the distribution area of barium and lead elements around the wound had a significant negative correlation with increasing shooting distance (r = -0.97, p < 0.001). As the distance increased, the amount of GSR decreased, and this decrease rate was nonlinear. Variance analysis suggested significant differences between data groups depending on range (p < 0.001). The image analysis method may solve some of the standardization problems for evaluation of GSRs. GSR detection with the image analysis method does not require experienced personnel and may be a suitable method for scientific studies and for routine purposes. PMID:16261988

  17. For Apple Owners: A Four-Channel, Computer-Managed Physiograph for $600.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, E. W.; Gaines, Marion T., IV

    1986-01-01

    Describes the hardware, priced at under $600 in 1984, required to adapt an Apple IIe microcomputer for use as a physiograph. Gavlanic skin response (GSR), electromyograph (EMG), skin temperature, and heart rate data can be recorded at user-specified intervals, displayed on a monitor, saved to a disk, and printed on paper. (Author/JDH)

  18. Predicting the In-Hospital Responsiveness to Treatment of Alcoholics. Social Factors as Predictors of Outcome. Brain Damage as a Factor in Treatment Outcome of Chronic Alcoholic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascia, George V.; And Others

    The authors attempt to locate predictor variables associated with the outcome of alcoholic treatment programs. Muscia's study focuses on the predictive potential of: (1) response to a GSR conditioning procedure; (2) several personality variables; and (3) age and IQ measures. Nine variables, reflecting diverse perspectives, were selected as a basis…

  19. Rapeseed Oil and Ginseng Saponins Work Synergistically To Enhance Th1 and Th2 Immune Responses Induced by the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cenrong; Wang, Yuemin; Wang, Meng; Su, Xiaoyan; Lu, Yisong; Su, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations demonstrated that saponins isolated from the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (i.e., ginseng root saponin [GS-R]) had adjuvant activity. In the present study, the combined effects of rapeseed oil (RO) and GS-R on the immune responses elicited by foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine were investigated by measuring FMD virus (FMDV)-specific antibody levels, cytokine levels, lymphocyte proliferation, and long-lived IgG-secreting plasma cells from bone marrow in a mouse model. The results indicated that RO in combination with GS-R significantly enhanced serum IgG and isotype concentrations, gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin 5 (IL-5) levels, splenocyte proliferative responses to stimulations with concanavalin A (ConA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and FMDV antigen, and the numbers of IgG-secreting plasma cells in the bone marrow, suggesting that RO/GS-R enhanced both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. In addition, no significant difference was found between RO/GS-R and the commercial adjuvant oil ISA 206 in the promotion of FMD vaccine-induced immune responses. Considering the vegetable origin of RO and GS-R and the potent adjuvant activity, RO/GS-R should be studied further for the development of veterinary vaccines, especially for use in food animals in order to promote food safety. PMID:24920601

  20. Gunshot residues on dry bone after decomposition--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Taborelli, Anna; Gibelli, Daniele; Rizzi, Agostino; Andreola, Salvatore; Brandone, Alberto; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2012-09-01

    Very little literature exists concerning radiochemical and microscopic analyses of gunshot wounds in decomposed material, and even less concerning skeletonized samples; the most advanced technologies may provide useful indications for the diagnosis of suspect lesions, especially if gunshot wounds are no longer recognizable. However, we know very little of the survival of gunshot residues (GSR) in skeletonized samples. This study examined nine gunshot wounds produced on pig heads which then underwent skeletonization for 4 years, and four gunshot entries on human heads from judicial cases which were then macerated to the bone in water; the samples underwent scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis. Positive results for GSR were observed only in four of the nine animal samples and in all four human samples. Among the human samples, two lesions showed Pb and Sb, one lesion only Pb, and one Pb, Sb, and Ba. This pilot study showed the survival of GSR in skeletal material and therefore the crucial importance of SEM-EDX analyses on skeletonized material. Further studies are needed in order to ascertain the role of environmental modifications of GSR. PMID:22471895

  1. Structured and Dynamic Disordered Domains Regulate the Activity of a Multifunctional Anti-σ Factor

    PubMed Central

    Herrou, Julien; Willett, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The anti-σ factor NepR plays a central role in regulation of the general stress response (GSR) in alphaproteobacteria. This small protein has two known interaction partners: its cognate extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factor and the anti-anti-σ factor, PhyR. Stress-dependent phosphorylation of PhyR initiates a protein partner switch that promotes phospho-PhyR binding to NepR, which frees ECF σ to activate transcription of genes required for cell survival under adverse or fluctuating conditions. We have defined key functional roles for structured and intrinsically disordered domains of Caulobacter crescentus NepR in partner binding and activation of GSR transcription. We further demonstrate that NepR strongly stimulates the rate of PhyR phosphorylation in vitro and that this effect requires the structured and disordered domains of NepR. This result provides evidence for an additional layer of GSR regulation in which NepR directly influences activation of its binding partner, PhyR, as an anti-anti-σ factor. We conclude that structured and intrinsically disordered domains of NepR coordinately control multiple functions in the GSR signaling pathway, including core protein partner switch interactions and pathway activation by phosphorylation. PMID:26220965

  2. A computation ANN model for quantifying the global solar radiation: A case study of Al-Aqabah-Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolgasem, I. M.; Alghoul, M. A.; Ruslan, M. H.; Chan, H. Y.; Khrit, N. G.; Sopian, K.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a computation model is developed to predict the global solar radiation (GSR) in Aqaba city based on the data recorded with association of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The data used in this work are global solar radiation (GSR), sunshine duration, maximum & minimum air temperature and relative humidity. These data are available from Jordanian meteorological station over a period of two years. The quality of GSR forecasting is compared by using different Learning Algorithms. The decision of changing the ANN architecture is essentially based on the predicted results to obtain the best ANN model for monthly and seasonal GSR. Different configurations patterns were tested using available observed data. It was found that the model using mainly sunshine duration and air temperature as inputs gives accurate results. The ANN model efficiency and the mean square error values show that the prediction model is accurate. It is found that the effect of the three learning algorithms on the accuracy of the prediction model at the training and testing stages for each time scale is mostly within the same accuracy range.

  3. Affective Realism of Animated Films in the Development of Simulation-Based Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekanayake, Hiran B.; Fors, Uno; Ramberg, Robert; Ziemke, Tom; Backlund, Per; Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study focused on comparing real actors based scenarios and animated characters based scenarios with respect to their similarity in evoking psychophysiological activity for certain events by measuring galvanic skin response (GSR). In the experiment, one group (n = 11) watched the real actors' film whereas another group (n…

  4. A new method to reduce false positives due to antimony in detection of gunshot residues.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Çağdaş; Bora, Taner; Şenocak, Nilgün; Aydın, Fırat

    2015-05-01

    False positives due to the presence of antimony in vehicle seat fabrics are a problem in gunshot residue (GSR) analysis, in particular, when graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is employed. In this study, we sought to determine the reason for the prevalence of false positive results and to propose a new approach for the analysis of GSR on vehicle seats. GFAAS was used to examine adhesive tape swabs collected from 100 seats of 50 different automobiles. Characterization of seat fabrics was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) spectroscopy. The results of FTIR analysis indicated that all seat covers containing antimony were composed of polyester. Experimental results obtained by SEM/EDX analysis revealed that the fabrics in these seat covers contained evenly distributed antimony within the structure of polyester fibers. This study shows that the type of seat fabric should be determined by FTIR spectroscopy before elemental GSR analysis. In this way, most of the false positives caused by polyester fibers in GSR analysis can be prevented. PMID:25828380

  5. General slip regime permeability model for gas flow through porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bo; Jiang, Peixue; Xu, Ruina; Ouyang, Xiaolong

    2016-07-01

    A theoretical effective gas permeability model was developed for rarefied gas flow in porous media, which holds over the entire slip regime with the permeability derived as a function of the Knudsen number. This general slip regime model (GSR model) is derived from the pore-scale Navier-Stokes equations subject to the first-order wall slip boundary condition using the volume-averaging method. The local closure problem for the volume-averaged equations is studied analytically and numerically using a periodic sphere array geometry. The GSR model includes a rational fraction function of the Knudsen number which leads to a limit effective permeability as the Knudsen number increases. The mechanism for this behavior is the viscous fluid inner friction caused by converging-diverging flow channels in porous media. A linearization of the GSR model leads to the Klinkenberg equation for slightly rarefied gas flows. Finite element simulations show that the Klinkenberg model overestimates the effective permeability by as much as 33% when a flow approaches the transition regime. The GSR model reduces to the unified permeability model [F. Civan, "Effective correlation of apparent gas permeability in tight porous media," Transp. Porous Media 82, 375 (2010)] for the flow in the slip regime and clarifies the physical significance of the empirical parameter b in the unified model.

  6. Flooding and Systematic Desensitization: Efficacy in Subclinical Phobics as a Function of Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Yolanda; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Flooding and systematic desensitization procedures were investigated for possible interactions with subject arousal level on reduction in phobic reactions. No such interaction was found. Behaviorally and on GSR response, both flooding and systematic desensitization were effective, but only the latter was effective on subjective reports. (NG)

  7. Have Endovascular Procedures Negatively Impacted General Surgery Training?

    PubMed Central

    Grabo, Daniel J.; DiMuzio, Paul J.; Kairys, John C.; McIlhenny, Stephen E.; Crawford, Albert G.; Yeo, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Technological advances in vascular surgery have changed the field dramatically over the past 10 years. Herein, we evaluate the impact of endovascular procedures on general surgery training. Methods: National operative data from the Residency Review Committee for Surgery were examined from 1997 through 2006. Total major vascular operations, traditional open vascular operations and endovascular procedures were evaluated for mean number of cases per graduating chief general surgery resident (GSR) and vascular surgery fellow (VSF). Results: As endovascular surgical therapies became widespread, GSR vascular case volume decreased 34% over 10 years, but VSF total cases increased 78%. GSR experience in open vascular operations decreased significantly, as evidenced by a 52% decrease (P < 0.0001) in elective open AAA repair. VSFs have also seen significant decreases in open vascular procedures. Experience in endovascular procedures has increased for both general surgery and vascular residents, but the increase has been much larger in absolute number for VSFs. Conclusions: GSR experience in open vascular procedures has significantly decreased as technology has advanced within the field. Unlike VSFs, this loss has not been replaced by direct experience with endovascular training. These data demonstrate the impact technology can have on how we currently train general surgeons. New educational paradigms may be necessary in which either vascular surgery as an essential component is abandoned or training in catheter-based interventions becomes required. PMID:17717451

  8. Applications of focused ion beam systems in gunshot residue investigation.

    PubMed

    Niewöhner, L; Wenz, H W

    1999-01-01

    Scanning ion microscopy technology has opened a new door to forensic scientists, allowing the GSR investigator to see inside a particle's core. Using a focused ion beam, particles can be cross-sectioned, revealing interior morphology and character that can be utilized for identification of the ammunition manufacturer. PMID:9987878

  9. Analysis of gunshot residue test results in 112 suicides.

    PubMed

    Reed, G E; McGuire, P J; Boehm, A

    1990-01-01

    The results of gunshot residue (GSR) tests in 112 suicide cases investigated by the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command over a ten-year period are described. Only suicide cases in which there was certainty that the victim fired a weapon were examined in an effort to reduce ambiguous results. Previous case work research by Rudzitis indicated that positive GSR test results were encountered in suicides 62% of the time using various combinations of neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Threshold values of 0.2-micrograms antimony and 0.3-micrograms barium (0.2-micrograms antimony and 0.5-micrograms barium after 1985) used by the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory resulted in positive GSR results in suicide cases 38% of the time. The effects of time, location of body, handling of the body, weapon type, caliber, and condition of the hands on GSR results are examined. Case studies involving suicides by unit armorers are discussed. PMID:2313262

  10. Assets and pitfalls of chemical and microscopic analyses on gunshot residues in skeletonized bodies: a report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Gibelli, Daniele; Mazzarelli, Debora; Porta, Davide; Gaudio, Daniel; Salsarola, Dominic; Brandone, Alberto; Rizzi, Agostino; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    In case of gunshot wounds, forensic anthropologists and pathologists have many tools at hand, and the assistance that chemical and microscopic investigations can provide in such scenarios is often valuable and crucial. However, the results of such analyses in the search of gunshot residues (GSR) ought not to be acritically considered. We report five cases where chemical (sodium rhodizonate) and microscopic (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX)) analyses were performed for the search of GSR. Four cases concerned the forensic field and analyses on buried, charred, or submerged remains, whereas one case concerned the historical remains of a soldier of the First World War. In every case, the search for GSR with these techniques showed their persistence even after long periods and preservation in peculiar environments. However, chemical analyses provided their contribution, but in two cases, anthropological analyses provided crucial and solving results. The five cases show the indisputable usefulness of chemical and microscopic analyses in the search of GSR in gunshot wounds and especially how such residues may survive in time and in adverse environmental conditions. However, experts should always be dubious about some pitfalls (such as contamination) one can frequently find in these scenarios. PMID:25394744

  11. Eight-Year Trends in Federal Graduation Rates and Graduation Success Rates at NCAA Division I Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Data is presented on: (1) Comparison of GSR and Federal Graduation Rate Cohorts (1999-2002 Entering Classes); (2) Average GSRs for Division I Student-Athletes in 1998-01 Cohorts Vs. 1999-2002 Cohorts; (3) Graduation Success Rate Trends for Division I Men's Sports: Four-Class Averages for 1998-01 Cohorts vs. 1999-02 Cohorts; (4) Graduation Success…

  12. New high-resolution topographic model for the Pliocene Greenland-Scotland Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowsett, H. J.; Jones, S. M.; Robinson, M. M.; Haywood, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple temperature proxies indicate that the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans were significantly warmer during the mid-Pliocene than at present. Although coupled ocean atmosphere models predict significant warming in the Arctic during the Pliocene, they underestimate the magnitude of change compared to proxy sea surface temperature data. The problem might lie with a faulty representation of North Atlantic oceanic circulation in the region of Iceland. It has been shown recently that lowering the model Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) by about 1 km produces a much better simulation of the observed Pliocene meridional temperature gradient. This result is a step in the right direction, but further work is required because tectonic evidence shows that the Pliocene GSR was only several hundred meters, not 1 km, lower than present. Here, we present a new topographic reconstruction based on 15 years of detailed research into vertical tectonic motions of the GSR. The most important finding over this period has been that fluctuations in mantle temperature beneath Iceland cause periodic changes in GSR elevation of several hundred meters, with each phase of uplift or subsidence concentrated in <1 million years. This conclusion is based on a good correlation between mantle temperature records inferred from modern seabed topography south of Iceland and the % Northern Component Water proxy for global oceanic circulation. A reasonable picture of the mantle fluctuations is that hotter/cooler rings travel rapidly outward from Iceland beneath the surrounding plates, like ripples on a pond. Our new tectonic reconstruction shows that the Denmark Strait and Faroe-Iceland Ridge gateways in the GSR were several hundred meters deeper during the mid-Pliocene than at present, owing to cooler mantle beneath. The GSR then rose rapidly during the late Pliocene as cooler mantle was replaced by warmer mantle. The effects on GSR elevation of flexural loading of the Greenland Icecap and the

  13. Estimation of daily global solar radiation in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area: A combinational application of statistical downscaling method and Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.; Kotera, A.; Khang, N. D.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term daily global solar radiation (GSR) data of the same quality in the 20th century has been needed as a baseline to assess the climate change impact on paddy rice production in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area (MKD: 104.5-107.5oE/8.2-11.2oN). However, though sunshine duration data is available, the accessibility of GSR data is quite poor in MKD. This study estimated the daily GSR in MKD for 30-yr (1978- 2007) by applying the statistical downscaling method (SDM). The estimates of GSR was obtained from four different sources: (1) the combined equations with the corrected reanalysis data of daily maximum/minimum temperatures, relative humidity, sea level pressure, and precipitable water; (2) the correction equation with the reanalysis data of downward shortwave radiation; (3) the empirical equation with the observed sunshine duration; and (4) the observation at one site for short term. Three reanalysis data, i.e., NCEP-R1, ERA-40, and JRA-25, were used. Also the observed meteorological data, which includes many missing data, were obtained from 11 stations of the Vietnamese Meteorological Agency for 28-yr and five stations of the Global Summary of the Day for 30-yr. The observed GSR data for 1-yr was obtained from our station. Considering the use of data with many missing data for analysis, the Bayesian inference was used for this study, which has the powerful capability to optimize multiple parameters in a non-linear and hierarchical model. The Bayesian inference provided the posterior distributions of 306 parameter values relating to the combined equations, the empirical equation, and the correction equation. The preliminary result shows that the amplitude of daily fluctuation of modeled GSR was underestimated by the empirical equation and the correction equation. The combination of SDM and Bayesian inference has a potential to estimate the long- term daily GSR of the same quality even though in the area where the observed data is quite limited.

  14. Overview of Green and Sustainable Remediation for Soil and Groundwater Remediation - 12545

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkin, Thomas J.; Favara, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Making remediation efforts more 'sustainable' or 'green' is a topic of great interest in the remediation community. It has been spurred on by Executive Orders from the White House, as well as Department of Energy (DOE) sustainability plans. In private industry, it is motivated by corporate sustainability goals and corporate social responsibility. It has spawned new organizations, areas of discussion, tools and practices, and guidance documents around sustainable remediation or green remediation. Green remediation can be thought of as a subset of sustainable remediation and is mostly focused on reducing the environmental footprint of cleanup efforts. Sustainable remediation includes both social and economic considerations, in addition to environmental. Application of both green and sustainable remediation (GSR) may involve two primary activities. The first is to develop technologies and alternatives that are greener or more sustainable. This can also include making existing remediation approaches greener or more sustainable. The second is to include GSR criteria in the evaluation of remediation alternatives and strategies. In other words, to include these GSR criteria in the evaluation of alternatives in a feasibility study. In some cases, regulatory frameworks allow the flexibility to include GSR criteria into the evaluation process (e.g., state cleanup programs). In other cases, regulations allow less flexibility to include the evaluation of GSR criteria (e.g., Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)). New regulatory guidance and tools will be required to include these criteria in typical feasibility studies. GSR provides a number of challenges for remediation professionals performing soil and groundwater remediation projects. Probably the most significant is just trying to stay on top of the ever changing landscape of products, tools, and guidance documents coming out of various groups, the US EPA, and states. However, this

  15. Micro-CT features of intermediate gunshot wounds severely damaged by fire.

    PubMed

    Fais, Paolo; Giraudo, Chiara; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Amagliani, Alessandro; Miotto, Diego; Feltrin, Giampietro; Viel, Guido; Ferrara, S Davide; Cecchetto, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Incineration or extensive burning of the body, causing changes in the content and distribution of fluids, fixation and shrinking processes of tissues, can alter the typical macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of firearm wounds, hampering or at least complicating the reconstruction of gunshot fatalities. The present study aims at evaluating the potential role of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for detecting and quantifying gunshot residue (GSR) particles in experimentally produced intermediate-range gunshot wounds severely damaged by fire. Eighteen experimental shootings were performed on 18 sections of human calves surgically amputated for medical reasons at three different firing distances (5, 15 and 30 cm). Six stab wounds produced with an ice pick were used as controls. Each calf section underwent a charring cycle, being placed in a wood-burning stove for 4 min at a temperature of 400 °C. At visual inspection, the charred entrance wounds could not be differentiated from the exit lesions and the stab wounds. On the contrary, micro-CT analysis showed the presence of GSR particles in all burnt entrance gunshot wounds, while GSR was absent in the exit and stab wounds. The GSR deposits of the firearm lesions inflicted at very close distance (5 cm) were mainly constituted of huge particles (diameter >150 μm) with an irregular shape and well-delineated edges; at greater distances (15 and 30 cm), agglomerates of tiny radiopaque particles scattered in the epidermis and dermis layers were evident. Statistical analysis demonstrated that also in charred firearm wounds the amount of GSR roughly correlates with the distance from which the gun was fired. The obtained results suggest that micro-CT analysis can be a valid screening tool for identifying entrance gunshot wounds and for differentiating firearm wounds from sharp-force injuries in bodies severely damaged by fire. PMID:23010908

  16. Segregation of face sensitive areas within the fusiform gyrus using global signal regression? A study on amygdala resting-state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kruschwitz, Johann D; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Veer, Ilya M; Wackerhagen, Carolin; Erk, Susanne; Mohnke, Sebastian; Pöhland, Lydia; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Martin; Walter, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    The application of global signal regression (GSR) to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and its usefulness is a widely discussed topic. In this article, we report an observation of segregated distribution of amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) within the fusiform gyrus (FFG) as an effect of GSR in a multi-center-sample of 276 healthy subjects. Specifically, we observed that amygdala rs-FC was distributed within the FFG as distinct anterior versus posterior clusters delineated by positive versus negative rs-FC polarity when GSR was performed. To characterize this effect in more detail, post hoc analyses revealed the following: first, direct overlays of task-functional magnetic resonance imaging derived face sensitive areas and clusters of positive versus negative amygdala rs-FC showed that the positive amygdala rs-FC cluster corresponded best with the fusiform face area, whereas the occipital face area corresponded to the negative amygdala rs-FC cluster. Second, as expected from a hierarchical face perception model, these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters showed differential rs-FC with other regions of the visual stream. Third, dynamic connectivity analyses revealed that these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters also differed in their rs-FC variance across time to the amygdala. Furthermore, subsample analyses of three independent research sites confirmed reliability of the effect of GSR, as revealed by similar patterns of distinct amygdala rs-FC polarity within the FFG. In this article, we discuss the potential of GSR to segregate face sensitive areas within the FFG and furthermore discuss how our results may relate to the functional organization of the face-perception circuit. PMID:26178527

  17. TRAIL-Based High Throughput Screening Reveals a Link between TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis and Glutathione Reductase, a Key Component of Oxidative Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Rozanov, Dmitri; Cheltsov, Anton; Sergienko, Eduard; Vasile, Stefan; Golubkov, Vladislav; Aleshin, Alexander E; Levin, Trevor; Traer, Elie; Hann, Byron; Freimuth, Julia; Alexeev, Nikita; Alekseyev, Max A; Budko, Sergey P; Bächinger, Hans Peter; Spellman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A high throughput screen for compounds that induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis identified ML100 as an active chemical probe, which potentiated TRAIL activity in prostate carcinoma PPC-1 and melanoma MDA-MB-435 cells. Follow-up in silico modeling and profiling in cell-based assays allowed us to identify NSC130362, pharmacophore analog of ML100 that induced 65-95% cytotoxicity in cancer cells and did not affect the viability of human primary hepatocytes. In agreement with the activation of the apoptotic pathway, both ML100 and NSC130362 synergistically with TRAIL induced caspase-3/7 activity in MDA-MB-435 cells. Subsequent affinity chromatography and inhibition studies convincingly demonstrated that glutathione reductase (GSR), a key component of the oxidative stress response, is a target of NSC130362. In accordance with the role of GSR in the TRAIL pathway, GSR gene silencing potentiated TRAIL activity in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. Inhibition of GSR activity resulted in the induction of oxidative stress, as was evidenced by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidation of mitochondrial membrane after NSC130362 treatment in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. The antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) fully protected MDA-MB-435 cells from cell lysis induced by NSC130362 and TRAIL, thereby further confirming the interplay between GSR and TRAIL. As a consequence of activation of oxidative stress, combined treatment of different oxidative stress inducers and NSC130362 promoted cell death in a variety of cancer cells but not in hepatocytes in cell-based assays and in in vivo, in a mouse tumor xenograft model. PMID:26075913

  18. Crime scene investigations using portable, non-destructive space exploration technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, Jacob I.; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Selavka, Carl; Dale, Mark; Gahn, Norman; Floyd, Samuel; Marie, James; Hobson, Maritza; Zeosky, Jerry; Martin, Ken; McClannahan, Timothy; Solomon, Pamela; Gottschang, Elyse

    2002-01-01

    The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASAs) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals solve crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ programs with state and local forensic laboratories. A working group of NASA scientists and law enforcement professionals has been established to develop and implement a feasibility demonstration program. Specifically, the group has focused its efforts on identifying gunpowder and primer residue, blood, and semen at crime scenes. Non-destructive elemental composition identification methods are carried out using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. These systems are similar to those being developed for planetary exploration programs. A breadboard model of a portable XRF system has been constructed for these tests using room temperature silicon and cadmium-zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. Preliminary tests have been completed with gunshot residue (GSR), blood-spatter and semen samples. Many of the element composition lines have been identified. Studies to determine the minimum detectable limits needed for the analyses of GSR, blood and semen in the crime scene environment have been initiated and preliminary results obtained. Furthermore, a database made up of the inorganic composition of GSR is being developed. Using data obtained from the open literature of the elemental composition of barium (Ba) and antimony (Sb) in handswipes of GSR, we believe that there may be a unique GSR signature based on the Sb to Ba ratio.

  19. TRAIL-Based High Throughput Screening Reveals a Link between TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis and Glutathione Reductase, a Key Component of Oxidative Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Rozanov, Dmitri; Cheltsov, Anton; Sergienko, Eduard; Vasile, Stefan; Golubkov, Vladislav; Aleshin, Alexander E.; Levin, Trevor; Traer, Elie; Hann, Byron; Freimuth, Julia; Alexeev, Nikita; Alekseyev, Max A.; Budko, Sergey P; Bächinger, Hans Peter; Spellman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A high throughput screen for compounds that induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis identified ML100 as an active chemical probe, which potentiated TRAIL activity in prostate carcinoma PPC-1 and melanoma MDA-MB-435 cells. Follow-up in silico modeling and profiling in cell-based assays allowed us to identify NSC130362, pharmacophore analog of ML100 that induced 65-95% cytotoxicity in cancer cells and did not affect the viability of human primary hepatocytes. In agreement with the activation of the apoptotic pathway, both ML100 and NSC130362 synergistically with TRAIL induced caspase-3/7 activity in MDA-MB-435 cells. Subsequent affinity chromatography and inhibition studies convincingly demonstrated that glutathione reductase (GSR), a key component of the oxidative stress response, is a target of NSC130362. In accordance with the role of GSR in the TRAIL pathway, GSR gene silencing potentiated TRAIL activity in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. Inhibition of GSR activity resulted in the induction of oxidative stress, as was evidenced by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidation of mitochondrial membrane after NSC130362 treatment in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. The antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) fully protected MDA-MB-435 cells from cell lysis induced by NSC130362 and TRAIL, thereby further confirming the interplay between GSR and TRAIL. As a consequence of activation of oxidative stress, combined treatment of different oxidative stress inducers and NSC130362 promoted cell death in a variety of cancer cells but not in hepatocytes in cell-based assays and in in vivo, in a mouse tumor xenograft model. PMID:26075913

  20. Crime scene investigations using portable, non-destructive space exploration technology.

    PubMed

    Trombka, Jacob I; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Selavka, Carl; Dale, Mark; Gahn, Norman; Floyd, Samuel; Marie, James; Hobson, Maritza; Zeosky, Jerry; Martin, Ken; McClannahan, Timothy; Solomon, Pamela; Gottschang, Elyse

    2002-09-10

    The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASAs) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals solve crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ programs with state and local forensic laboratories. A working group of NASA scientists and law enforcement professionals has been established to develop and implement a feasibility demonstration program. Specifically, the group has focused its efforts on identifying gunpowder and primer residue, blood, and semen at crime scenes. Non-destructive elemental composition identification methods are carried out using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. These systems are similar to those being developed for planetary exploration programs. A breadboard model of a portable XRF system has been constructed for these tests using room temperature silicon and cadmium-zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. Preliminary tests have been completed with gunshot residue (GSR), blood-spatter and semen samples. Many of the element composition lines have been identified. Studies to determine the minimum detectable limits needed for the analyses of GSR, blood and semen in the crime scene environment have been initiated and preliminary results obtained. Furthermore, a database made up of the inorganic composition of GSR is being developed. Using data obtained from the open literature of the elemental composition of barium (Ba) and antimony (Sb) in handswipes of GSR, we believe that there may be a unique GSR signature based on the Sb to Ba ratio. PMID:12230992

  1. SURF: Taking Sustainable Remediation from Concept to Standard Operating Procedure (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. M.; Wice, R. B.; Torrens, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, many sectors of industrialized society have been rethinking behavior and re-engineering practices to reduce consumption of energy and natural resources. During this time, green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has evolved from conceptual discussions to standard operating procedure for many environmental remediation practitioners. Government agencies and private sector entities have incorporated GSR metrics into their performance criteria and contracting documents. One of the early think tanks for the development of GSR was the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF). SURF brings together representatives of government, industry, consultancy, and academia to parse the means and ends of incorporating societal and economic considerations into environmental cleanup projects. Faced with decades-old treatment programs with high energy outputs and no endpoints in sight, a small group of individuals published the institutional knowledge gathered in two years of ad hoc meetings into a 2009 White Paper on sustainable remediation drivers, practices, objectives, and case studies. Since then, SURF has expanded on those introductory topics, publishing its Framework for Integrating Sustainability into Remediation Projects, Guidance for Performing Footprint Analyses and Life-Cycle Assessments for the Remediation Industry, a compendium of metrics, and a call to improve the integration of land remediation and reuse. SURF's research and members have also been instrumental in the development of additional guidance through ASTM International and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. SURF's current efforts focus on water reuse, the international perspective on GSR (continuing the conversations that were the basis of SURF's December 2012 meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC), and ways to capture and evaluate the societal benefits of site remediation. SURF also promotes and supports student chapters at universities across the US

  2. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ``A through K`` evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site.

  3. A resolution congratulating the Eastern Washington University football team for winning the 2010 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 Football Championship Subdivision title.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Murray, Patty [D-WA

    2011-02-03

    02/03/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S558-559; text as passed Senate: CR S558-559; text of measure as introduced: CR S552-553) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Neurophysiological investigation of spontaneous correlated and anticorrelated fluctuations of the BOLD signal

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Corey J.; Bickel, Stephan; Honey, Christopher J.; Groppe, David M.; Entz, Laszlo; Craddock, R. Cameron; Lado, Fred A.; Kelly, Clare; Milham, Michael; Mehta, Ashesh D.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of intrinsic fMRI BOLD signal fluctuations reliably reveal correlated and anticorrelated functional networks in the brain. Since the BOLD signal is an indirect measure of neuronal activity, and anticorrelations can be introduced by preprocessing steps such as global signal regression (GSR), the neurophysiological significance of correlated and anticorrelated BOLD fluctuations is a source of debate. Here, we address this question by examining the correspondence between the spatial organization of correlated BOLD fluctuations and correlated fluctuations in electrophysiological high gamma power (HGP) signals recorded directly from the cortical surface of 5 patients. We demonstrate that both positive and negative BOLD correlations have neurophysiological correlates reflected in fluctuations of spontaneous neuronal activity. Although applying GSR to BOLD signals results in some BOLD anticorrelations that are not apparent in the ECoG data, it enhances the neuronal-hemodynamic correspondence overall. Together, these findings provide support for the neurophysiological fidelity of BOLD correlations and anticorrelations. PMID:23575832

  5. Three-dimensional Simulation of Magnetic Flux Dynamics and Temperature Rise in HTSC Bulk during Pulsed Field Magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, H.; Naito, T.; Oyama, M.

    We have performed a three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation of the dynamical motion of the magnetic flux and the heat propagation in the superconducting bulk after applying a pulsed magnetic field. An inhomogeneous Jc distribution was supposed in the bulk; the Jc in the growth sector boundary (GSB) is four times higher than that in the growth sector region (GSR). For lower applied pulsed field, magnetic flux was penetrated and trapped in the GSR, and for higher applied pulsed field, the magnetic flux was trapped more preferentially in the GSB. These results of the simulation reproduce the experimental ones and are valuable for the understanding the flux dynamics in the bulk during pulsed field magnetization.

  6. [Treat to participation : Position paper of the German Society for Rheumatology on sustained improvement of functional health of patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases].

    PubMed

    Mau, W; Beyer, W; Ehlebracht-König, I; Engel, J-M; Genth, E; Lange, U

    2015-08-01

    From the perspective of patients with rheumatic diseases, the reduction of inflammatory disease activity alone is not a sufficient treatment goal. In addition the functional health and participation also have to be improved. Starting with the first symptoms the empowerment for the self-management of the disease is important for the patients; therefore, the established treat to target-strategy has to be expanded by the functional dimension to treat to participation. The position paper of the German Society for Rheumatology (GSR) summarizes the relevant fields of the multiprofessional action that is frequently necessary. This includes the acquirement of function-related competencies during training, further education and advanced training as well as implementation in the everyday practice of patient care. Furthermore, the GSR acknowledges the need for research related to functional and sociomedical consequences of rheumatic diseases and to individual and combined function-related programs in outpatient and inpatient care in rheumatology. PMID:26238709

  7. The global sphere reconstruction for the Gaia mission in the Astrometric Verification Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Abbas, Ummi; Bandieramonte, Marilena; Becciani, Ugo; Bianchi, Luca; Bucciarelli, Beatrice; Busonero, Deborah; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Messineo, Rosario

    2012-09-01

    The core task of the Gaia mission is the solution of the Global Astrometric Sphere, which is providing the materialization of the astrometric reference frame for the catalog that will be the main outcome of the mission. Given the absolute character of the measurements, the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has decided to replicate a dedicated version of this task, together with two other ones selected for their mission criticality, in an Astrometric Verification Unit (AVU). This task, named Global Sphere Reconstruction (GSR), focusses on the importance of having an implementation of the astrometric sphere solution from a well-defined subset of objects, based on an independent astrometric model as well as on a different solution algorithm. We analyze here these two aspects in the context of the GSR implementation at the Data Processing Center of Torino (DPCT) and the solution to implement the most computationally intensive part of the pipeline as a High-Performance Computing module.

  8. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Tahira M.; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities. PMID:26999186

  9. Molecular imaging of hemoglobin using ground state recovery pump-probe optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, Brian E.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2007-02-01

    We have undertaken an effort to further develop ground state recovery Pump-Probe Optical Coherence Tomograpy (gsrPPOCT) to specifically target and measure 3-D images of hemoglobin concentration with the goals of mapping tissue vasculature, total hemoglobin, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation. As a first step toward those goals we have measured the gsrPPOCT signal from the hemoglobin in the filament arteries of a zebra danio fish. We have further processed the resulting signal to extract a qualitative map of the hemoglobin concentration. We have also demonstrated the potential to use ground state recovery times to differentiate between two chromophores which may prove to be an effective tool for differentiating between oxy and deoxy hemoglobin.

  10. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions.

    PubMed

    Probst, Tahira M; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities. PMID:26999186

  11. Shooting distance determination by m-XRF--examples on spectra interpretation and range estimation.

    PubMed

    Latzel, Silke; Neimke, Dieter; Schumacher, Rüdiger; Barth, Martin; Niewöhner, Ludwig

    2012-11-30

    The XRF's multiple element detection capability is especially useful for the detection of gunshot residue (GSR) of modern lead-free ammunition. An elemental mapping from milli-X-ray fluorescence analysis (m-XRF) can be used in an analogous way to the chemographic imprint to determine the shooting distance. As it is possible to take the mappings of all relevant elements into account, the shooting range estimation becomes more reliable. A numerical tool is presented to display the data and to help differentiate between shooting distances. From the nature of the samples, i.e. a small amount of GSR deposited on a highly scattering background some problems arise. Examples of some major problems in spectra interpretation are stated and examples are presented. Spectra interpretation cannot be fully automated and some points need to be verified by an experienced user. PMID:23107061

  12. The remote sensing of mental stress from the electromagnetic reflection coefficient of human skin in the sub-THz range.

    PubMed

    Safrai, Eli; Ishai, Paul Ben; Caduff, Andreas; Puzenko, Alexander; Polsman, Alexander; Agranat, Aharon J; Feldman, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the reflection coefficient of human skin in the frequency range from 95 to 110 GHz (W band) mirrors the temporal relaxation of stress induced by physical exercise. In this work, we extend these findings to show that in the event of a subtle trigger to stress, such as mental activity, a similar picture of response emerges. Furthermore, the findings are extended to cover not only the W band (75-110 GHz), but also the frequency band from 110 to 170 GHz (D band). We demonstrate that mental stress, induced by the Stroop effect and recorded by the galvanic skin response (GSR), can be correlated to the reflection coefficient in the aforementioned frequency bands. Intriguingly, a light physical stress caused by repeated hand gripping clearly showed an elevated stress level in the GSR signal, but was largely unnoted in the reflection coefficient in the D band. The implication of this observation requires further validation. PMID:22170380

  13. DNA-PCR analysis of bloodstains sampled by the polyvinyl-alcohol method.

    PubMed

    Schyma, C; Huckenbeck, W; Bonte, W

    1999-01-01

    Among the usual techniques of sampling gunshot residues (GSR), the polyvinyl-alcohol method (PVAL) includes the advantage of embedding all particles, foreign bodies and stains on the surface of the shooter's hand in exact and reproducible topographic localization. The aim of the present study on ten persons killed by firearms was to check the possibility of DNA-PCR typing of blood traces embedded in the PVAL gloves in a second step following GSR analysis. The results of these examinations verify that the PVAL technique does not include factors that inhibit successful PCR typing. Thus the PVAL method can be recommended as a combination technique to secure and preserve inorganic and biological traces at the same time. PMID:9987876

  14. Magnetization behavior of RE123 bulk magnets bearing twin seed-crystals in pulsed field magnetization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Ogawa, J.; Fukui, S.; Sato, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Langer, M.

    2016-02-01

    Melt-textured Y-Ba-Cu-O high temperature superconducting bulk magnets were fabricated by the cold seeding method with using single or twin-seed crystals composed of Nd-Ba-Cu-O thin films on MgO substrates. The behavior of the magnetic flux penetration into anisotropic-grown bulk magnets thus fabricated was precisely evaluated during and after the pulsed field magnetization operated at 35 K. These seed crystals were put on the top surfaces of the precursors to grow large grains during the melt-processes. Although we know the magnetic flux motion is restricted by the enhanced pinning effect in temperature ranges lower than 77 K, we observed that flux invasion occurred at applied fields of 3.3 T when the twin seeds were used. This is definitely lower than those of 3.7 T when the single-seeds were employed. This means that the magnetic fluxes are capable of invading into twin-seeded bulk magnets more easily than single-seeded ones. The twin seeds form the different grain growth regions, the narrow-GSR (growth sector region) and wide-GSR, according to the different grain growth directions which are parallel and normal to the rows of seed crystals, respectively. The invading flux measurements revealed that the magnetic flux invades the sample from the wide-GSR prior to the narrow-GSR. It suggests that such anisotropic grain growth leads to different distributions of pinning centers, variations of J c values, and the formation of preferential paths for the invading magnetic fluxes. Using lower applied fields definitely contributed to lowering the heat generation during the PFM process, which, in turn, led to enhanced trapped magnetic fluxes.

  15. Fast detection and characterization of organic and inorganic gunshot residues on the hands of suspects by CMV-GC-MS and LIBS.

    PubMed

    Tarifa, Anamary; Almirall, José R

    2015-05-01

    A rapid method for the characterization of both organic and inorganic components of gunshot residues (GSR) is proposed as an alternative tool to facilitate the identification of a suspected shooter. In this study, two fast screening methods were developed and optimized for the detection of organic compounds and inorganic components indicative of GSR presence on the hands of shooters and non-shooters. The proposed methods consist of headspace extraction of volatile organic compounds using a capillary microextraction of volatiles (CMV) device previously reported as a high-efficiency sampler followed by detection by GC-MS. This novel sampling technique has the potential to yield fast results (<2min sampling) and high sensitivity capable of detecting 3ng of diphenylamine (DPA) and 8ng of nitroglycerine (NG). Direct analysis of the headspace of over 50 swabs collected from the hands of suspected shooters (and non-shooters) provides information regarding VOCs present on their hands. In addition, a fast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) screening method for the detection of the inorganic components indicative of the presence of GSR (Sb, Pb and Ba) is described. The sampling method for the inorganics consists of liquid extraction of the target elements from the same cotton swabs (previously analyzed for VOCs) and an additional 30 swab samples followed by spiking 1μL of the extract solution onto a Teflon disk and then analyzed by LIBS. Advantages of LIBS include fast analysis (~12s per sample) and high selectivity and sensitivity, with expected LODs 0.1-18ng for each of the target elements after sampling. The analytical performance of the LIBS method is also compared to previously reported methods (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The combination of fast CMV sampling, unambiguous organic compound identification with GC-MS and fast LIBS analysis provides the basis for a new comprehensive screening method for GSR. PMID:25934368

  16. Detectability and medico-legal value of the gunshot residues in the intracorporeal channel.

    PubMed

    Migliorini, Arnaldo Stanislao; Andreola, Salvatore; Battistini, Alessio; Gentile, Guendalina; Muccino, Enrico; Vancheri, Giulia; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    The application of the histochemical stain of sodium rhodizonate to the entrance wound for the detection of the lead (Pb) residues coming from the gunshot may be affected by false positive cases due to the contamination of the environmental Pb. The aim of the Authors is to histochemically search the Pb of GSR in a region which should be more protected by the contamination: the intracorporeal channel. Two hundreds and eighteen serial histological specimens of the intracorporeal channels coming from 25 subjects (dead due to gunshots and being autopsied at the Section of Legal Medicine of the Milan University, in the years 2013-2014) were stained with the sodium rhodizonate and sodium rhodizonate in acid environment (HCl 5%), and then observed by the microscope. The sodium rhodizonate showed a positivity for the Pb residues in the intracorporeal channel, with the detection of the particles within the first 2 cm beyond the entrance wound in 6 cases over the total number of 25 (24%). Victims were characterized by common features: short-barreled weapon; contact shots or short-distance shots; involvement of regions that were not covered by clothing; preservation of the microscopic structure of organs interested by the intracorporeal channel. The searching of GSR in the intracorporeal channel, even in conditions securing a high sensitivity, could represent an important test for the discrimination between an environmental contamination of Pb and the presence of Pb residues by GSR: once confirmed the presence of GSR in the intracorporeal channel by the histochemical analysis, the diagnostic process should require the application of the SEM-EDX for the confirmation of the results. Although not yet studied, this combination could be applied to cadavers exposed to the environment, with advanced post-mortal phenomena permitting at least the suspects of the existence of gunshot wounds at the macroscopic autopsy evaluation. Indeed, in some cases, the putrefaction is so advanced

  17. Reversed North Atlantic gyre dynamics in present and glacial climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Marisa; Born, Andreas; Levermann, Anders

    2011-03-01

    The dynamics of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) are assessed under present and glacial boundary conditions by investigating the SPG sensitivity to surface wind-stress changes in a coupled climate model. To this end, the gyre transport is decomposed in Ekman, thermohaline, and bottom transports. Surface wind-stress variations are found to play an important indirect role in SPG dynamics through their effect on water-mass densities. Our results suggest the existence of two dynamically distinct regimes of the SPG, depending on the absence or presence of deep water formation (DWF) in the Nordic Seas and a vigorous Greenland-Scotland ridge (GSR) overflow. In the first regime, the GSR overflow is weak and the SPG strength increases with wind-stress as a result of enhanced outcropping of isopycnals in the centre of the SPG. As soon as a vigorous GSR overflow is established, its associated positive density anomalies on the southern GSR slope reduce the SPG strength. This has implications for past glacial abrupt climate changes, insofar as these can be explained through latitudinal shifts in North Atlantic DWF sites and strengthening of the North Atlantic current. Regardless of the ultimate trigger, an abrupt shift of DWF into the Nordic Seas could result both in a drastic reduction of the SPG strength and a sudden reversal in its sensitivity to wind-stress variations. Our results could provide insight into changes in the horizontal ocean circulation during abrupt glacial climate changes, which have been largely neglected up to now in model studies.

  18. Altered functional connectivity of the cingulate subregions in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Zhou, Y; Zhuo, C; Qin, W; Zhu, J; Liu, H; Xu, L; Yu, C

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have shown altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the cingulate cortex; however, it is unknown whether rsFCs of the cingulate subregions are differentially affected in this disorder. We aimed to clarify the issue by comparing rsFCs of each cingulate subregion between healthy controls and schizophrenia patients. A total of 102 healthy controls and 94 schizophrenia patients underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging with a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in imaging sequence to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion. The cingulate cortex was divided into nine subregions, including the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), areas 24 and 32 of the pregenual ACC, areas 24 and 32 of the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), posterior MCC (pMCC), dorsal (dPCC) and ventral (vPCC) posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). The rsFCs of each cingulate subregion were compared between the two groups and the atrophy effect was considered. Results with and without global signal regression were reported. Most cingulate subregions exhibited decreased rsFCs in schizophrenia after global signal regression (GSR). Without GSR, only increased rsFC was found in schizophrenia, which primarily restricted to the aMCC, PCC and RSC. Some of these increased rsFCs were also significant after GSR. These findings suggest that GSR can greatly affect between-group differences in rsFCs and the consistently increased rsFCs may challenge the functional disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia. PMID:26035059

  19. Physiological Synchronization in Emergency Response Teams: Subjective Workload, Drivers and Empaths.

    PubMed

    Guastello, Stephen J; Marra, David E; Perna, Claire; Castro, Julian; Gomez, Maribeth; Peressini, Anthony F

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral and physiological synchronization have important implications for work teams with regard to workload management, coordinated behavior and overall functioning. This study extended previous work on the nonlinear statistical structure of GSR series in dyads to larger teams and included subjective ratings of workload and contributions to problem solving. Eleven teams of 3 or 4 people played a series of six emergency response (ER) games against a single opponent. Seven of the groups worked under a time pressure instruction at the beginning of the first game. The other four groups were not given that instruction until the beginning of the fourth game. The optimal lag length for the teams, which appeared to be phase-locked, was substantially shorter than that obtained previously for loosely-coupled dyads. There was a complex nonlinear effect from the time pressure manipulation on the autocorrelation over time that reflected workload and fatigue dynamics that were operating. The R2 values for linear and nonlinear statistical models differed by less than .01. The average amount of influence from one ER team member to another was 4.5-4.7% of the variance in GSR readings. ER team members were classified as drivers and empaths, based on the autocorrelations and transfer influences to and from other players in the GSR time series. Empaths were rated by their peers as making more types of positive contributions to the problem solving discussions than others, and drivers received the lowest ratings. Larger Lyapunov exponents that were calculated from the GSR time series were positively correlated with individuals' ratings of subjective workload and were negatively correlated with leadership indicators. Several directions for further research are outlined. PMID:27033134

  20. Solid-state Forensic Finger sensor for integrated sampling and detection of gunshot residue and explosives: towards 'Lab-on-a-finger'.

    PubMed

    Bandodkar, Amay J; O'Mahony, Aoife M; Ramírez, Julian; Samek, Izabela A; Anderson, Sean M; Windmiller, Joshua R; Wang, Joseph

    2013-09-21

    Increasing security needs require field-deployable, on-the-spot detection tools for the rapid and reliable identification of gunshot residue (GSR) and nitroaromatic explosive compounds. This manuscript presents a simple, all-solid-state, wearable fingertip sensor for the rapid on-site voltammetric screening of GSR and explosive surface residues. To fabricate the new Forensic Fingers, we screen-print a three-electrode setup onto a nitrile finger cot, and coat another finger cot with an ionogel electrolyte layer. The new integrated sampling/detection methodology relies on 'voltammetry of microparticles' (VMP) and involves an initial mechanical transfer of trace amounts of surface-confined analytes directly onto the fingertip-based electrode contingent. Voltammetric measurements of the sample residues are carried out upon bringing the working electrode (printed on the index finger cot) in direct contact with a second finger cot coated with an ionogel electrolyte (worn on the thumb), thus completing the solid-state electrochemical cell. Sampling and screening are performed in less than four minutes and generate distinct voltammetric fingerprints which are specific to both GSR and explosives. The use of the solid, flexible ionogel electrolyte eliminates any liquid handling which can resolve problems associated with leakage, portability and contamination. A detailed study reveals that the fingertip detection system can rapidly identify residues of GSR and nitroaromatic compounds with high specificity, without compromising its attractive behavior even after undergoing repeated mechanical stress. This new integrated sampling/detection fingertip strategy holds considerable promise as a rapid, effective and low-cost approach for on-site crime scene investigations in various forensic scenarios. PMID:23865089

  1. A study of the potential risk of gunshot residue transfer from special units of the police to arrested suspects.

    PubMed

    Charles, Sébastien; Geusens, Nadia

    2012-03-10

    The presence of gunshot residues (GSRs) on arrested suspects can help the Court to form an opinion regarding the possibility of utilization of firearms by these suspects. Since the presence of a few particles can in some cases already have a strong indicative value, the GSR experts have to evaluate in their daily work the risk of a potential contamination of these suspects during their arrest. A few studies conducted on police officers and police facilities concluded that the risk of secondary transfer on arrested suspects is quite negligible. However, the case of special force units of the police should be taken into account, since these units can be assumed to be highly contaminated by GSR due to their intensive training. The aim of this study is to evaluate this possibility of particle transfer by performing simulations of arrests by special force police units, according to both low and high contamination scenarios. The results show that secondary transfers of GSR during these simulations are in most cases not negligible, even for the low contamination scenario. This is especially apparent on the vests of the target persons, with an average of 7 GSR particles (2 PbBaSb and 5 TiZn) found on the stubs used on these materials. Of course, the major contamination levels were observed in the case of the high contamination scenario, due to the use of highly contaminated gloves by the police officers during the arrests. Some recommendations are proposed to take into account this risk of contamination and to try to minimize it, or at least to better identify it. PMID:21937174

  2. New measures of multimodality for the detection of a ghost stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, H.; Ditlevsen, P.; Kurths, J.

    2009-12-01

    Large-amplitude (10-15 K) millennial-duration warming events, the Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, repeatedly occurred in the North Atlantic region during ice ages. So far, the trigger of these events is not known. To explain their recurrence pattern, a ghost stochastic resonance (GSR) scenario has been suggested, i.e., a dynamical scenario in which the events represent the subharmonic response to centennial-scale solar forcing plus noise. According to this hypothesis a multimodal phase distribution of the events is expected, which should be tested on the basis of climate records by means of time series analysis. A major obstacle in these tests, however, is the need of a statistical measure of regularity that can distinguish between a random occurrence of DO events and a GSR scenario. Here we construct and compare three new measures of phase multimodality. In a Monte Carlo simulation with a simple conceptual model of DO events we simulate probability distributions of the measures under both scenarios for realizations of only 11 DO events. Based on these distributions we find that our measures are able to distinguish between a random occurrence and a GSR scenario. We further apply our measures to analyze the recurrence pattern of the last 11 DO events in the North Greenland Ice Core Project deep ice core from Greenland.

  3. Is the oceanic heat transport with Atlantic water towards the Arctic changing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østerhus, Svein

    2013-04-01

    The flow of Atlantic water (Atlantic inflow) across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is critical for conditions in the Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean by importing heat and salt. All three branches crossing the GSR have been monitored since the mid-1990ies and the transports of water and heat have been estimated. The Atlantic inflow, that forms the surface part of the thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic, is affected by wind forcing and freshwater input but the most important driving appears to be the cooling of the ocean by the atmosphere in the subarctic seas and increasing of salinity in the Arctic Ocean through freezing of seawater. This results in the sinking of the surface waters that subsequently flow out of the area close to the bottom over the GSR. This removal of water from the Arctic region by the overflow generates sea level slopes that drive a northward transport of water and heat. With global climate change, the Arctic atmosphere is expected to warm and freshwater input to the Arctic to increase, both of which may act to slow the mechanism that drives these flows, and climate models predict a weakening of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. This presentation addresses the question, whether the weakening has already been initiated and what regions may have been affected. Based on observations and model results, we conclude that the volume transport of the Atlantic inflow has not weakened consistently whereas the temperature has increased.

  4. Grassmannian sparse representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azary, Sherif; Savakis, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    We present Grassmannian sparse representations (GSR), a sparse representation Grassmann learning framework for efficient classification. Sparse representation classification offers a powerful approach for recognition in a variety of contexts. However, a major drawback of sparse representation methods is their computational performance and memory utilization for high-dimensional data. A Grassmann manifold is a space that promotes smooth surfaces where points represent subspaces and the relationship between points is defined by the mapping of an orthogonal matrix. Grassmann manifolds are well suited for computer vision problems because they promote high between-class discrimination and within-class clustering, while offering computational advantages by mapping each subspace onto a single point. The GSR framework combines Grassmannian kernels and sparse representations, including regularized least squares and least angle regression, to improve high accuracy recognition while overcoming the drawbacks of performance and dependencies on high dimensional data distributions. The effectiveness of GSR is demonstrated on computationally intensive multiview action sequences, three-dimensional action sequences, and face recognition datasets.

  5. Fast Computation of Bispectrum Features with Generalized Slow Roll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adshead, Peter; Hu, Wayne; Dvorkin, Cora; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2011-08-01

    We develop a fast technique based on the generalized slow-roll (GSR) approach for computing the curvature bispectrum of inflationary models with features. We show that all triangle configurations can be expressed in terms of three simple integrals over the inflationary background with typical accuracy of better than ˜20%. With a first-order GSR approach the typical accuracy can be improved to better than the ˜5% level. We illustrate this technique with the step potential model that has been invoked to explain the WMAP temperature power spectrum glitches at ℓ˜20-40 and show that the maximum likelihood model falls short of observability by more than a factor of 100 in amplitude. We also explicitly demonstrate that the bispectrum consistency relation with the local slope of the power spectrum is satisfied for these models. In the GSR approach, the bispectrum arises from integrals of nearly the same function of the background slow-roll parameters as the power spectrum but with a stronger weight to the epoch before horizon crossing. Hence this technique enables reverse engineering of models with large bispectrum but small power spectrum features.

  6. EGFR-Mediated Reactivation of MAPK Signaling Induces Acquired Resistance to GSK2118436 in BRAF V600E-Mutant NSCLC Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Moo; Kim, Hwan; Jang, Kang Won; Kim, Min Hwan; Sohn, Jinyoung; Yun, Mi Ran; Kang, Han Na; Kang, Chan Woo; Kim, Hye Ryun; Lim, Sun Min; Moon, Yong Wha; Kim, Joo Hang; Paik, Soonmyung; Cho, Byoung Chul

    2016-07-01

    Although treatment of BRAF V600E-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC(V600E)) with GSK2118436 has shown an encouraging efficacy, most patients develop resistance. To investigate the mechanisms of acquired resistance to GSK2118436 in NSCLC(V600E), we established GSK2118436-resistant (GSR) cells by exposing MV522 NSCLC(V600E) to increasing GSK2118436 concentrations. GSR cells displayed activated EGFR-RAS-CRAF signaling with upregulated EGFR ligands and sustained activation of ERK1/2, but not MEK1/2, in the presence of GSK2118436. Treatment of GSR cells with GSK2118436 enhanced EGFR-mediated RAS activity, leading to the formation of BRAF-CRAF dimers and transactivation of CRAF. Interestingly, sustained activation of ERK1/2 was partly dependent on receptor-interacting protein kinase-2 (RIP2) activity, but not on MEK1/2 activity. Combined BRAF and EGFR inhibition blocked reactivation of ERK signaling and improved efficacy in vitro and in vivo Our findings support the evaluation of combined BRAF and EGFR inhibition in NSCLC(V600E) with acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1627-36. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27196768

  7. Physiological changes in response to hearing female voices recorded at high fertility.

    PubMed

    Shoup-Knox, Melanie L; Pipitone, R Nathan

    2015-02-01

    The human voice transmits pertinent information regarding health status and age, with recent evidence suggesting that it plays an important role in mate selection. However, the mechanism that drives preferences for voices of fertile females has yet to be elucidated. The current study examined the physiological changes that occur when listening to voices recorded from naturally cycling females at high and low fertility phases of the menstrual cycle, as well as from females using hormonal contraception. We found the voices of naturally cycling females recorded during a high fertility phase were rated as more attractive and produced the greatest increase in galvanic skin response (GSR). Heart rate (HR) also showed a trend towards the highest increase when listening to naturally cycling, high fertility female voices. There were no differences in ratings of voice attractiveness, GSR, or HR between the voices recorded from females using hormonal contraception. Analyzed separately, male and female listeners both showed a preference for naturally cycling, high fertility voices. Female listeners additionally showed increased GSR and HR responses to naturally cycling, high fertility voices. We discuss the adaptive benefits of detecting vocal changes for male as well as female listeners, and also discuss the role that the nervous system plays during human mate assessments. PMID:25449386

  8. An experimental investigation of the indirect transfer and deposition of gunshot residue: further studies carried out with SEM-EDX analysis.

    PubMed

    French, James; Morgan, Ruth

    2015-02-01

    Experiments were undertaken in order to explore the potential for gunshot residue (GSR) particles to undergo tertiary transfer, and to be deposited on individuals in the vicinity of a firearm discharge. Samples were taken from hands following a series of test-firings. SEM-EDX with automated detection and analysis software was used to determine the presence of GSR on these samples. As many as 22 particles were found to have undergone tertiary transfer via a series of handshakes following a firearm discharge. In one run, a particle measuring 49.19 μm was recovered from a tertiary transfer recipient. Significant numbers of particles were also recovered from bystanders, with as many as 36 being detected on a sample taken from an individual who was in the proximity of a firearm discharge. The implications of these observations for forensic investigations are considered. In particular, the need to prevent unwanted transfer during the collection phase is highlighted, and the importance of acknowledging the possibility of secondary and tertiary transfers when reconstructing firearms incidents is also stressed. Experimental studies offer a means of improving our understanding of the dynamics of GSR transfer and deposition, and assisting the forensic reconstruction of firearms incidents. PMID:25528642

  9. Enhancing emotional experiences to dance through music: the role of valence and arousal in the cross-modal bias

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Julia F.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gomila, Antoni; Oke, Peter; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that emotional responses to stimuli presented to one perceptive modality (e.g., visual) are modulated by the concurrent presentation of affective information to another modality (e.g., auditory)—an effect known as the cross-modal bias. However, the affective mechanisms mediating this effect are still not fully understood. It remains unclear what role different dimensions of stimulus valence and arousal play in mediating the effect, and to what extent cross-modal influences impact not only our perception and conscious affective experiences, but also our psychophysiological emotional response. We addressed these issues by measuring participants’ subjective emotion ratings and their Galvanic Skin Responses (GSR) in a cross-modal affect perception paradigm employing videos of ballet dance movements and instrumental classical music as the stimuli. We chose these stimuli to explore the cross-modal bias in a context of stimuli (ballet dance movements) that most participants would have relatively little prior experience with. Results showed (i) that the cross-modal bias was more pronounced for sad than for happy movements, whereas it was equivalent when contrasting high vs. low arousal movements; and (ii) that movement valence did not modulate participants’ GSR, while movement arousal did, such that GSR was potentiated in the case of low arousal movements with sad music and when high arousal movements were paired with happy music. Results are discussed in the context of the affective dimension of neuroentrainment and with regards to implications for the art community. PMID:25339880

  10. Gene Set-Based Functionome Analysis of Pathogenesis in Epithelial Ovarian Serous Carcinoma and the Molecular Features in Different FIGO Stages.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Wang, Mong-Lien; Yang, Ming-Jie; Chang, Cheng-Chang; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Serous carcinoma (SC) is the most common subtype of epithelial ovarian carcinoma and is divided into four stages by the Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system. Currently, the molecular functions and biological processes of SC at different FIGO stages have not been quantified. Here, we conducted a whole-genome integrative analysis to investigate the functions of SC at different stages. The function, as defined by the GO term or canonical pathway gene set, was quantified by measuring the changes in the gene expressional order between cancerous and normal control states. The quantified function, i.e., the gene set regularity (GSR) index, was utilized to investigate the pathogenesis and functional regulation of SC at different FIGO stages. We showed that the informativeness of the GSR indices was sufficient for accurate pattern recognition and classification for machine learning. The function regularity presented by the GSR indices showed stepwise deterioration during SC progression from FIGO stage I to stage IV. The pathogenesis of SC was centered on cell cycle deregulation and accompanied with multiple functional aberrations as well as their interactions. PMID:27275818

  11. The pleiotropic effects of the seed germination inhibitor germostatin.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yajin; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Seed dormancy and germination are the most important adaptive traits of seed plants, which control the germination in a proper space and time. Internal genetic factors together with environmental cues govern seed dormancy and germination. Abscisic acid (ABA), a key phytohormone induces seed dormancy and inhibits seed germination through its molecular genetic signaling network responding the seed inherent physiological and environmental factors. Recently, auxin has been shown to be another phytohormone that induces seed dormancy. We have recently shown that germonstatin (GS), a small synthetic molecule identified by high through-put chemical genetic screenings, inhibits seed germination through up-regulating auxin signaling and inducing auxin biosynthesis. GERMOSTATIN RESISTANCE LOCUS 1 (GSR1) encodes a plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein and is responsible for GS seed germination inhibition. Its knockdown mutant gsr1 displays decreased dormancy. In this report, we show that GS is not an ABA analog and provided 2 other GS-resistant mutants related to the chemical's function in seed germination inhibition other than gsr1, suggesting that GS may have pleiotropic effects through targeting different pathway governing seed germination. PMID:26918467

  12. HALO VELOCITY GROUPS IN THE PISCES OVERDENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Sesar, Branimir; Ivezic, Zeljko; Vivas, A. Katherina; Duffau, Sonia E-mail: zi@u.washington.ed E-mail: sonia.duffau@gmail.co

    2010-07-01

    We report spectroscopic observations of five faint (V {approx} 20) RR Lyrae stars associated with the Pisces overdensity conducted with the Gemini South Telescope. At a heliocentric and galactocentric distance of {approx}80 kpc, this is the most distant substructure in the Galactic halo known to date. We combined our observations with literature data and confirmed that the substructure is composed of two different kinematic groups. The main group contains eight stars and has (V{sub gsr}) = 50 km s{sup -1}, while the second group contains four stars at a velocity of (V{sub gsr}) = -52 km s{sup -1}, where V{sub gsr} is the radial velocity in the galactocentric standard of rest. The metallicity distribution of RR Lyrae stars in the Pisces overdensity is centered on [Fe/H] = -1.5 dex and has a width of 0.3 dex. The new data allowed us to establish that both groups are spatially extended making it very unlikely that they are bound systems, and are more likely to be debris of a tidally disrupted galaxy or galaxies. Due to small sky coverage, it is still unclear whether these groups have the same or different progenitors.

  13. Variation in the stress response between high- and low-neuroticism female undergraduates across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Zhou, Renlai; Oei, Tian P S; Wang, Qingguo; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Yanfeng

    2013-09-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate possible relationships between menstrual cycle stage, neuroticism and behavioral and physiological responses to a cognitive challenge. The study investigated the differences between high neuroticism and low neuroticism groups across the menstrual cycle (luteal, menstrual and ovulatory stages). The Stroop color-naming task was used as a stressor. During the task, the galvanic skin response (GSR), heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) were simultaneously recorded by a polygraph. The results showed a significant difference in reaction times (RT) on the Stroop task between the high- and low-neuroticism groups during menstruation. However, there were no significant RT differences between groups during the luteal or ovulatory cycle stages. The GSR of the high-neuroticism group during menstruation was significantly lower than it was in the luteal and ovulatory stages. Moreover, during menstruation, the cardiovascular responses (high-frequency HRV (HF) and low-frequency HRV (LF)) and accuracy on the Stroop task were positively correlated, while the correlations between HF, LF and the RT were negative. The results demonstrate that during menstruation, there were consistent variations in female behavior and physiology when facing a cognitive stressor. Specifically, the high-neuroticism group was more sensitive to the stressor than the low neuroticism group, with decreased reaction time on the Stroop task, and increased GSR and HRV. PMID:23597234

  14. Gene Set-Based Functionome Analysis of Pathogenesis in Epithelial Ovarian Serous Carcinoma and the Molecular Features in Different FIGO Stages

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Wang, Mong-Lien; Yang, Ming-Jie; Chang, Cheng-Chang; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Serous carcinoma (SC) is the most common subtype of epithelial ovarian carcinoma and is divided into four stages by the Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system. Currently, the molecular functions and biological processes of SC at different FIGO stages have not been quantified. Here, we conducted a whole-genome integrative analysis to investigate the functions of SC at different stages. The function, as defined by the GO term or canonical pathway gene set, was quantified by measuring the changes in the gene expressional order between cancerous and normal control states. The quantified function, i.e., the gene set regularity (GSR) index, was utilized to investigate the pathogenesis and functional regulation of SC at different FIGO stages. We showed that the informativeness of the GSR indices was sufficient for accurate pattern recognition and classification for machine learning. The function regularity presented by the GSR indices showed stepwise deterioration during SC progression from FIGO stage I to stage IV. The pathogenesis of SC was centered on cell cycle deregulation and accompanied with multiple functional aberrations as well as their interactions. PMID:27275818

  15. Skin permeation of organic gunshot residue: implications for sampling and analysis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jordan Wade; Bell, Suzanne

    2014-06-17

    Traditional gunshot residue (GSR) analysis is based on detection of particulates formed from metals found in the primer. Recent concerns regarding the interpretation of GSR evidence has led to interest in alternatives such as the organic constituents (organic gunshot residue, OGSR) found in propellants. Previous work has shown OGSR to be detectable on hands for several hours after a firing event, and given the lipophilic nature of these compounds, it was expected that losses due to secondary transfer (an issue with GSR particulates) would be negligible. However, other loss mechanisms have been identified, specifically skin permeation and evaporation. This paper describes experimental and modeling studies used to elucidate characteristics of skin permeation of 5 compounds present in OGSR. Pharmaceutical methods were adapted to characterize skin permeation using a skin surrogate and Franz diffusion cells. The amount of compounds deposited on skin after an authentic firing event (1 and 2 shots) was experimentally determined and applied for the permeation experiments. A fully validated selected ion monitoring GC/MS method was developed for quantitative analysis, and easily accessible online tools were employed for modeling. Results showed that OGSR residues should be detectable on skin for many hours after a firing event of as few as one or two shots, with detection capability being a function of the efficacy of sampling and sample preparation and the instrumental method employed. The permeation rates of the OGSR compounds were sufficiently different to suggest the potential to develop methods to approximate time-since-deposition. PMID:24837230

  16. Enhancing emotional experiences to dance through music: the role of valence and arousal in the cross-modal bias.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gomila, Antoni; Oke, Peter; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that emotional responses to stimuli presented to one perceptive modality (e.g., visual) are modulated by the concurrent presentation of affective information to another modality (e.g., auditory)-an effect known as the cross-modal bias. However, the affective mechanisms mediating this effect are still not fully understood. It remains unclear what role different dimensions of stimulus valence and arousal play in mediating the effect, and to what extent cross-modal influences impact not only our perception and conscious affective experiences, but also our psychophysiological emotional response. We addressed these issues by measuring participants' subjective emotion ratings and their Galvanic Skin Responses (GSR) in a cross-modal affect perception paradigm employing videos of ballet dance movements and instrumental classical music as the stimuli. We chose these stimuli to explore the cross-modal bias in a context of stimuli (ballet dance movements) that most participants would have relatively little prior experience with. Results showed (i) that the cross-modal bias was more pronounced for sad than for happy movements, whereas it was equivalent when contrasting high vs. low arousal movements; and (ii) that movement valence did not modulate participants' GSR, while movement arousal did, such that GSR was potentiated in the case of low arousal movements with sad music and when high arousal movements were paired with happy music. Results are discussed in the context of the affective dimension of neuroentrainment and with regards to implications for the art community. PMID:25339880

  17. Estimation of the firing distance through micro-CT analysis of gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Cecchetto, Giovanni; Giraudo, Chiara; Amagliani, Alessandro; Viel, Guido; Fais, Paolo; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Feltrin, Giampietro; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Montisci, Massimo

    2011-03-01

    Estimation of the firing range is often critical for reconstructing gunshot fatalities, where the main measurable evidence is the gunshot residue (GSR). In the present study intermediate-range gunshot wounds have been analysed by means of a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) coupled to an image analysis software in order to quantify the powder particles and to determine the firing distance. A total of 50 shootings were performed on skin sections obtained from human legs surgically amputated for medical reasons. For each tested distance (5, 15, 23, 30 and 40 cm), firing was carried out perpendicularly at the samples using a 7.65-mm pistol loaded with jacketed bullets. Uninjured skin sections were used as controls. By increasing the firing distance, micro-CT analysis demonstrated a clear decreasing trend in the mean GSR percentage, particularly for shots fired from more than 15 cm. For distances under 23 cm, the powder particles were concentrated on the epidermis and dermis around the hole, and inside the cavity; while, at greater distances, they were deposited only on the skin surface. Statistical analysis showed a nonlinear relationship between the amount of GSR deposits and the firing range, well explained by a Gaussian-like function. The proposed method allowed a good discrimination for all the tested distances, proving to be an objective, rapid and inexpensive tool for estimating the firing range in intermediate-range gunshot wounds. PMID:21120514

  18. Interannual variability of Gulf Stream warm-core rings in response to the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Ayan H.; Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Bisagni, James J.

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of a quality-controlled database of Gulf Stream warm-core rings (WCRs) between 75° and 50°W during 1978-1999 demonstrates a significant correlation between WCR occurrences and variations in large-scale atmospheric forcing related to the state of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The mechanisms for linking the NAO with the rate of WCR occurrences are two-fold: (1) the influence of the NAO on Gulf Stream (GS) position, which could affect the interaction of the Gulf Stream with the New England Seamounts chain and thus allow for a higher/lower number of WCR occurrences; (2) the NAO-induced eddy kinetic energy (EKE) variability in the Gulf Stream region (GSR), which is indicative of the baroclinic instability processes necessary for WCR formation. Variability in GS movement is studied by analyzing annual mean positions of the Gulf Stream North Wall obtained from satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) frontal charts. Response of GSR EKE to fluctuations in the state of the NAO is examined with a numerical simulation of the North Atlantic basin from 1980-1999. The North Atlantic basin is simulated using a 1/6°-resolution eddy-resolving Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model that spins up with Southampton Oceanography Center (SOC) ocean-atmosphere atlas-derived atmospheric forcing fields. Model-derived EKE estimates are observed to be in good agreement with TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter-based EKE estimates as well as with results from other modeling studies for the North Atlantic basin. We suggest that lateral movement of the GS may not be the primary mechanism causing variation in the rate of WCR occurrences, because GS position is observed to respond at a lag of one year, whereas annual rates of WCR occurrences respond at 0-year lag to the NAO. Based on results from numerical simulations of the North Atlantic basin, adjustment to NAO-induced wind forcing is seen to impact the GSR EKE intensity and possibly the related baroclinic instability

  19. Indications for control of the Iceland plume on the Eocene-Oligocene "greenhouse-icehouse" climate transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelson, M.; Agnon, A.; Almogi-Labin, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Eocene/Oligocene boundary, at about 33.5 Myr ago, marks the transition from ‘greenhouse-’ to ‘icehouse-world', accompanied by a sudden cooling of ocean bottom-water. We show that this global event is simultaneous with a deep rooted mantle process: an abrupt suppression of the Iceland plume triggered rapid deepening of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) - the sill moderating deep circulation between the Nordic seas and North Atlantic. Striking coincidence of several sets of events reflects the abrupt suppression of the Iceland plume and a rapid removal of its influence on the nearby Reykjanes Ridge (RR): 1) A sudden segmentation of the paleo-RR seen on seafloor magnetic anomalies, 2) a drop in spreading rate of the North Atlantic, 3) a transition from thick to normal oceanic crust, and 4) a rapid deepening and accelerated subsidence of the GSR, inferred from the sedimentary record of DSDP site 336. The plume suppression and the concomitant GSR deepening coincide with the initiation of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) at the Eocene/Oligocene (E/O) transition, attested by onset of drift sedimentation in the Faeroe-Shetland Channel (FSC), the deepest spill-point on the GSR, and in the North Atlantic, the Feni Drift. These processes have influenced global deepwater composition and temperature as indicated by the striking correlation with the jump in global δ18O (>1‰) measured on benthic foraminifers that reflects the E/O global cooling, and with enrichment of unradiogenic Nd isotopes in the southeastern Atlantic and Southern Ocean. The initiation of Atlantic thermohaline circulation at that time is inferred from the abrupt split between planktonic and benthic δ18O, indicating the building of ocean water stratification. This scenario is further corroborated by a reversal in benthic δ18O at the late Oligocene, coincident with the renewal of vigorous Iceland plume some 25 Myr ago, causing a considerable retardation in NADW fluxes. The plume renewal is

  20. Indications for control of the Iceland plume on the Eocene Oligocene “greenhouse icehouse” climate transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelson, Meir; Agnon, Amotz; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva

    2008-01-01

    The Eocene/Oligocene boundary, at about 33.5 Myr ago, marks the transition from 'greenhouse-' to 'icehouse-world', accompanied by a sudden cooling of ocean bottom-water. We show that this global event is simultaneous with a deep rooted mantle process: an abrupt suppression of the Iceland plume triggered rapid deepening of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) — the sill moderating deep circulation between the Nordic seas and North Atlantic. Striking coincidence of several sets of events reflects the abrupt suppression of the Iceland plume and a rapid removal of its influence on the nearby Reykjanes Ridge (RR): 1) A sudden segmentation of the paleo-RR seen on seafloor magnetic anomalies, 2) a drop in spreading rate of the North Atlantic, 3) a transition from thick to normal oceanic crust, and 4) a rapid deepening and accelerated subsidence of the GSR, inferred from the sedimentary record of DSDP site 336. The plume suppression and the concomitant GSR deepening coincide with the initiation of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) at the Eocene/Oligocene (E/O) transition, attested by onset of drift sedimentation in the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC), the deepest spill-point on the GSR, and in the North Atlantic, the Feni Drift. These processes have influenced global deepwater composition and temperature as indicated by the striking correlation with the jump in global δ18O (> 1‰) measured on benthic foraminifers that reflects the E/O global cooling, and with enrichment of unradiogenic Nd isotopes in the southeastern Atlantic and Southern Ocean. The initiation of Atlantic thermohaline circulation at that time is inferred from the abrupt split between planktonic and benthic δ18O, indicating the building of ocean-water stratification. This scenario is further corroborated by a reversal in benthic δ18O at the late Oligocene, coincident with the renewal of vigorous Iceland plume some 25 Myr ago, causing a considerable retardation in NADW fluxes. The plume renewal is inferred

  1. Glucose-Sensing Receptor T1R3: A New Signaling Receptor Activated by Glucose in Pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Itaru; Nakagawa, Yuko; Hamano, Kunihisa; Medina, Johan; Li, Longfei; Nagasawa, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Subunits of the sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are expressed in pancreatic β-cells. Compared with T1R3, mRNA expression of T1R2 is considerably lower. At the protein level, expression of T1R2 is undetectable in β-cells. Accordingly, a major component of the sweet taste-sensing receptor in β-cells may be a homodimer of T1R3 rather than a heterodimer of T1R2/T1R3. Inhibition of this receptor by gurmarin or deletion of the T1R3 gene attenuates glucose-induced insulin secretion from β-cells. Hence the T1R3 homodimer functions as a glucose-sensing receptor (GSR) in pancreatic β-cells. When GSR is activated by the T1R3 agonist sucralose, elevation of intracellular ATP concentration ([ATP]i) is observed. Sucralose increases [ATP]i even in the absence of ambient glucose, indicating that sucralose increases [ATP]i not simply by activating glucokinase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the glycolytic pathway. In addition, sucralose augments elevation of [ATP]i induced by methylsuccinate, suggesting that sucralose activates mitochondrial metabolism. Nonmetabolizable 3-O-methylglucose also increases [ATP]i and knockdown of T1R3 attenuates elevation of [ATP]i induced by high concentration of glucose. Collectively, these results indicate that the T1R3 homodimer functions as a GSR; this receptor is involved in glucose-induced insulin secretion by activating glucose metabolism probably in mitochondria. PMID:25947913

  2. Is Cholesteatoma a Risk Factor for Graft Success Rate in Chronic Otitis Media Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Mohammad; Dehbozorgi, Mohammad Mehdi; Heydari, Seyed Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In developing countries, chronic otitis media (COM) and cholesteatoma are relatively prevalent. Within the field of otology, COM surgery remains one of the most common surgical treatments. Most recent studies evaluating the potential prognostic factors in COM surgery have addressed graft success rate and types of middle ear and mastoid pathology. There has been much controversy about this issue until the present time. This study evaluated the effect of cholesteatoma on the GSR in COM surgery. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective, case-controlled study investigated 422 ears undergoing COM surgery. The minimum and maximum postoperative follow-up periods were 6 and 48 months, respectively. The study group consisted of patients with cholesteatomatous COM, while the control group included patients with non-cholesteatomatous COM, who had undergone ear surgery. Postoperative graft success rate and audiological test results were recorded and the effect of cholesteatoma on graft success rate was investigated. Results: The overall GSR was 92.4%. In the study group (COM with cholesteatoma),the postoperative GSR, mean speech reception threshold improvement, and mean air-bone gap gain were 95.3%, 2.1 dB, and 3.2 dB, respectively. In the control group (COM without cholesteatoma), however, these measurements were 90.9%, 9.4 dB, and 9.1 dB, respectively. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study results suggest that cholesteatoma is not a significant prognostic factor in graft success rate. PMID:26788485

  3. Three physiological responses in fathers and non-fathers’ to vocalizations of typically developing infants and infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Gianluca; Valenzi, Stefano; Islam, Tanvir; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Children with ASD, even before receiving a formal diagnosis, express atypical patterns of distress vocalizations (namely, episodes of crying). Their cries have higher fundamental frequencies, shorter inter-bout pauses, and fewer utterances. Cries of children with ASD are also perceived differently from other cries, and these perceptual differences may alter parent-infant interaction. This study assessed multiple physiological responses in fathers and non-fathers to atypical distress vocalizations (cries of children with ASD), acoustically matched typical distress vocalizations (cries of typically developing children), and positive vocalizations (laughter of typically developing children). The experimental procedures were designed to measure how components of the autonomic nervous system respond to typical and atypical infant vocalizations. Three convergent methodologies (Galvanic Skin Response – GSR; cardiac dynamics via Inter-Beat Interval – IBI; right hand temperature change – RHTC) were performed on two groups with contrasting caregiving experience: fathers of typically developing children (n=10) and non-fathers (n=10). Inferential statistical analysis compared the two groups (fathers, non-fathers) and three stimulus types (ASD cry, typical cry, laughter) for the three measures (GSR, IBI, RHTC). Both fathers and non-fathers showed greater negative responses (increased GSR) to ASD cries compared to typical cries and laughter. Fathers showed higher IBI and greater temperature increases (RHTC) than non-fathers while listening to typical and atypical cries. Fathers and non-fathers showed more emotional arousal mediated by sympathetic activation while listening to cries of children with ASD. Fathers were calmer and acted more promptly than non-fathers while listening to typical cries, perhaps because the fathers had more experience in caring for crying infants. These findings point to similarities and differences in fathers’ and non-fathers’ physiological

  4. N-acetyltransferase genotypes and the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of para-aminosalicylic acid in patients with drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sy, Sherwin K B; de Kock, Lizanne; Diacon, Andreas H; Werely, Cedric J; Xia, Huiming; Rosenkranz, Bernd; van der Merwe, Lize; Donald, Peter R

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between N-acetyltransferase genotypes, pharmacokinetics, and tolerability of granular slow-release para-aminosalicylic acid (GSR-PAS) in tuberculosis patients. The study was a randomized, two-period, open-label, crossover design wherein each patient received 4 g GSR-PAS twice daily or 8 g once daily alternately. The PAS concentration-time profiles were modeled by a one-compartment disposition model with three transit compartments in series to describe its absorption. Patients' NAT1 and NAT2 genotypes were determined by sequencing and restriction enzyme analysis, respectively. The number of daily vomits was modeled by a Poisson probability mass function. Comparisons of other tolerability measures by regimens, gender, and genotypes were evaluated by a linear mixed-effects model. The covariate effects associated with efavirenz, gender, and NAT1*3, NAT1*14, and NAT2*5 alleles corresponded to 25, 37, -17, -48, and -27% changes, respectively, in oral clearance of PAS. The NAT1*10 allele did not influence drug clearance. The time above the MIC of 1 mg/liter was significantly different between the two regimens but not influenced by the NAT1 or NAT2 genotypes. The occurrence and intensity of intolerance differed little between regimens. Four grams of GSR-PAS twice daily but not 8 g once daily ensured concentrations exceeding the MIC (1 mg/liter) throughout the dosing interval; PAS intolerance was not related to maximum PAS concentrations over the doses studied and was not more frequent after once-daily dosing. We confirm that the slow phenotype conferred by the NAT1*14 and NAT1*3 alleles resulted in higher PAS exposure but found no evidence of increased activity of the NAT1*10 allele. PMID:25963985

  5. Study on formation processes of Martian magnetic flux ropes observed downstream from crustal magnetic fields based on the Grad-Shafranov reconstruction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, T.; Seki, K.; Hasegawa, H.; Brain, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic flux ropes have been observed even in unmagnetized planets' ionosphere, such as Venus and Mars. In the case of Mars, the origin of Martian flux ropes is owing to not only the interplanetary magnetic field and associated draped magnetic fields, but also crustal magnetic fields. Planetary ions are energized through the direct interaction of the solar wind with the upper atmosphere, resulting in ion escape into interplanetary space. Hence magnetic flux ropes can contribute to the ion escape rates, because they may confine large amounts of ionospheric plasma. Here, we investigated formation processes of Martian magnetic flux ropes observed downstream from strong crustal magnetic fields in the southern hemisphere based on the Grad-Shafranov reconstruction (GSR) technique. The GSR technique can provide a two-dimensional axial magnetic field map as well as flux ropes axial orientation from single spacecraft data under assumptions that the structure is magneto-hydrostatic and time-independent. We reconstructed the 297 magnetic flux ropes from Mars Global Surveyor measurements between April 1999 and November 2006. Based on characteristics of their geometrical axial orientation and transverse magnetic field topology, we found that they can be mainly distinguished according to whether draped interplanetary magnetic fields overlaying on the crustal magnetic fields are involved or not. For approximately two-thirds of the events, they can be formed by magnetic reconnection between neighboring crustal magnetic fields attached to the surface. For the remaining events, however, magnetic reconnection between the crustal and overlaid draping magnetic fields seems to be necessary. Since the overlaid draping magnetic field connects to interplanetary space, planetary ions included inside those flux ropes can be easy to escape from Mars. We also quantitatively evaluate lower limits on potential ion escape rates from Mars owing to the magnetic flux ropes based on the GSR results

  6. Tracking Iceland Plume Motion Using Trace Element Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitton, J. G.; Walters, R. L.; Jones, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is a hotspot track built by interaction between the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Iceland mantle plume. Unlike most other hotspot tracks built by ridge-plume interaction, the GSR is 2 to 3 times wider than the plume conduit in the upper mantle. (This unusual wide morphology arises because Icelandic crust changes significantly in thickness within a few million years of accretion, probably mainly by viscous flow in the hot lower crust). The upshot is that the GSR cannot be compared directly with theoretical plume tracks from hotspot reference frame models. However, it is possible to track the position of the Iceland plume conduit using the trace element geochemistry of basaltic lavas. Away from the plume conduit, plate spreading drives upwelling of mantle through the melting region. Above the plume conduit, plume-driven flow forces mantle through the lower part of the melting region faster than the plate-driven upwelling rate. The average depth of melting is therefore greater directly above the plume conduit than away from the plume conduit, and this difference in average melting depth means that melts generated directly above the plume conduit are relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Joint modelling of trace element compositions and crustal thickness can also be used to establish location of melting relative to the plume conduit. To date, these concepts have been used only to explain compositional variations in modern (post-glacial) Icelandic lavas; in this study we show that the same concepts can be applied to map the location of the plume conduit throughout the onshore Icelandic geological record (since the middle Miocene, c. 16 Ma). The plume track thus determined is in reasonable agreement with theoretical tracks calculated under the assumption that the Iceland Plume has remained fixed relative to other Indo-Atlantic hotspots. This result also supports the idea that episodic relocations of the onshore part of

  7. N-Acetyltransferase Genotypes and the Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of para-Aminosalicylic Acid in Patients with Drug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    de Kock, Lizanne; Diacon, Andreas H.; Werely, Cedric J.; Xia, Huiming; Rosenkranz, Bernd; van der Merwe, Lize; Donald, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between N-acetyltransferase genotypes, pharmacokinetics, and tolerability of granular slow-release para-aminosalicylic acid (GSR-PAS) in tuberculosis patients. The study was a randomized, two-period, open-label, crossover design wherein each patient received 4 g GSR-PAS twice daily or 8 g once daily alternately. The PAS concentration-time profiles were modeled by a one-compartment disposition model with three transit compartments in series to describe its absorption. Patients' NAT1 and NAT2 genotypes were determined by sequencing and restriction enzyme analysis, respectively. The number of daily vomits was modeled by a Poisson probability mass function. Comparisons of other tolerability measures by regimens, gender, and genotypes were evaluated by a linear mixed-effects model. The covariate effects associated with efavirenz, gender, and NAT1*3, NAT1*14, and NAT2*5 alleles corresponded to 25, 37, −17, −48, and −27% changes, respectively, in oral clearance of PAS. The NAT1*10 allele did not influence drug clearance. The time above the MIC of 1 mg/liter was significantly different between the two regimens but not influenced by the NAT1 or NAT2 genotypes. The occurrence and intensity of intolerance differed little between regimens. Four grams of GSR-PAS twice daily but not 8 g once daily ensured concentrations exceeding the MIC (1 mg/liter) throughout the dosing interval; PAS intolerance was not related to maximum PAS concentrations over the doses studied and was not more frequent after once-daily dosing. We confirm that the slow phenotype conferred by the NAT1*14 and NAT1*3 alleles resulted in higher PAS exposure but found no evidence of increased activity of the NAT1*10 allele. PMID:25963985

  8. Investigation of gunshot residue patterns using milli-XRF-techniques: first experiences in casework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Rüdiger; Barth, Martin; Neimke, Dieter; Niewöhner, Ludwig

    2010-06-01

    The investigation of gunshot residue (GSR) patterns for shooting range estimation is usually based on visualizing the lead, copper, or nitrocellulose distributions on targets like fabric or adhesive tape by chemographic color tests. The method usually provides good results but has its drawbacks when it comes to the examination of ammunition containing lead-free primers or bloody clothing. A milli-X-ray fluorescence (m-XRF) spectrometer with a large motorized stage can help to circumvent these problems allowing the acquisition of XRF mappings of relatively large areas (up to 20 x 20 cm) in millimeter resolution within reasonable time (2-10 hours) for almost all elements. First experiences in GSR casework at the Forensic Science Institute of the Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) have shown, that m-XRF is a useful supplementation for conventional methods in shooting ranges estimation, which helps if there are problems in transferring a GSR pattern to secondary targets (e.g. bloody or stained garments) or if there is no suitable color test available for the element of interest. The resulting elemental distributions are a good estimate for the shooting range and can be evaluated by calculating radial distributions or integrated count rates of irregular shaped regions like pieces of human skin which are too small to be investigated with a conventional WD-XRF spectrometer. Beside a mapping mode the milli-XRF offers also point and line scan modes which can also be utilized in gunshot crime investigations as a quick survey tool to identify bullet holes based on the elements present in the wipe ring.

  9. Three physiological responses in fathers and non-fathers' to vocalizations of typically developing infants and infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gianluca; Valenzi, Stefano; Islam, Tanvir; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Children with ASD, even before receiving a formal diagnosis, express atypical patterns of distress vocalizations (namely, episodes of crying). Their cries have higher fundamental frequencies, shorter inter-bout pauses, and fewer utterances. Cries of children with ASD are also perceived differently from other cries, and these perceptual differences may alter parent-infant interaction. This study assessed multiple physiological responses in fathers and non-fathers to atypical distress vocalizations (cries of children with ASD), acoustically matched typical distress vocalizations (cries of typically developing children), and positive vocalizations (laughter of typically developing children). The experimental procedures were designed to measure how components of the autonomic nervous system respond to typical and atypical infant vocalizations. Three convergent methodologies (Galvanic Skin Response-GSR; cardiac dynamics via Inter-Beat Interval-IBI; right hand temperature change-RHTC) were performed on two groups with contrasting caregiving experience: fathers of typically developing children (n=10) and non-fathers (n=10). Inferential statistical analysis compared the two groups (fathers, non-fathers) and three stimulus types (ASD cry, typical cry, laughter) for the three measures (GSR, IBI, RHTC). Both fathers and non-fathers showed greater negative responses (increased GSR) to ASD cries compared to typical cries and laughter. Fathers showed higher IBI and greater temperature increases (RHTC) than non-fathers while listening to typical and atypical cries. Fathers and non-fathers showed more emotional arousal mediated by sympathetic activation while listening to cries of children with ASD. Fathers were calmer and acted more promptly than non-fathers while listening to typical cries, perhaps because the fathers had more experience in caring for crying infants. These findings point to similarities and differences in fathers' and non-fathers' physiological responsiveness to

  10. Complexities of emotional responses to social and non-social affective stimuli in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, Joel S.; Bekele, Esubalew; Bian, Dayi; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Park, Sohee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adaptive emotional responses are important in interpersonal relationships. We investigated self-reported emotional experience, physiological reactivity, and micro-facial expressivity in relation to the social nature of stimuli in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). Method: Galvanic skin response (GSR) and facial electromyography (fEMG) were recorded in medicated outpatients with SZ and demographically matched healthy controls (CO) while they viewed social and non-social images from the International Affective Pictures System. Participants rated the valence and arousal, and selected a label for experienced emotions. Symptom severity in the SZ and psychometric schizotypy in CO were assessed. Results: The two groups did not differ in their labeling of the emotions evoked by the stimuli, but individuals with SZ were more positive in their valence ratings. Although self-reported arousal was similar in both groups, mean GSR was greater in SZ, suggesting differential awareness, or calibration of internal states. Both groups reported social images to be more arousing than non-social images but their physiological responses to non-social vs. social images were different. Self-reported arousal to neutral social images was correlated with positive symptoms in SZ. Negative symptoms in SZ and disorganized schizotypy in CO were associated with reduced mean fEMG. Greater corrugator mean fEMG activity for positive images in SZ indicates valence-incongruent facial expressions. Conclusion: The patterns of emotional responses differed between the two groups. While both groups were in broad agreement in self-reported arousal and emotion labels, their mean GSR, and fEMG correlates of emotion diverged in relation to the social nature of the stimuli and clinical measures. Importantly, these results suggest disrupted self awareness of internal states in SZ and underscore the complexities of emotion processing in health and disease. PMID:25859230

  11. An alternative method to characterize the surface urban heat island.

    PubMed

    Martin, Philippe; Baudouin, Yves; Gachon, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    An urban heat island (UHI) is a relative measure defined as a metropolitan area that is warmer than the surrounding suburban or rural areas. The UHI nomenclature includes a surface urban heat island (SUHI) definition that describes the land surface temperature (LST) differences between urban and suburban areas. The complexity involved in selecting an urban core and external thermal reference for estimating the magnitude of a UHI led us to develop a new definition of SUHIs that excludes any rural comparison. The thermal reference of these newly defined surface intra-urban heat islands (SIUHIs) is based on various temperature thresholds above the spatial average of LSTs within the city's administrative limits. A time series of images from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) from 1984 to 2011 was used to estimate the LST over the warm season in Montreal, Québec, Canada. Different SIUHI categories were analyzed in consideration of the global solar radiation (GSR) conditions that prevailed before each acquisition date of the Landsat images. The results show that the cumulative GSR observed 24 to 48 h prior to the satellite overpass is significantly linked with the occurrence of the highest SIUHI categories (thresholds of +3 to +7 °C above the mean spatial LST within Montreal city). The highest correlation (≈0.8) is obtained between a pixel-based temperature that is 6 °C hotter than the city's mean LST (SIUHI + 6) after only 24 h of cumulative GSR. SIUHI + 6 can then be used as a thermal threshold that characterizes hotspots within the city. This identification approach can be viewed as a useful criterion or as an initial step toward the development of heat health watch and warning system (HHWWS), especially during the occurrence of severe heat spells across urban areas. PMID:25234752

  12. Micro-CT features of intermediate gunshot wounds covered by textiles.

    PubMed

    Giraudo, Chiara; Fais, Paolo; Pelletti, Guido; Viero, Alessia; Miotto, Diego; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Viel, Guido; Montisci, Massimo; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of gunshot residue (GSR) on the clothing and the underlying skin of the victim may play an important role in the reconstruction of the shooting incident. The aim of the present study was to test micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for the analysis of firearm wounds experimentally produced on human skin covered by textiles. Firing trials were performed on 60 sections of human calves enveloped by a single layer of fabric (cotton or jeans or leather or nylon) and 15 controls consisting of bare calves. Experimental firings were conducted in a ballistic laboratory at three different muzzle-to-target distances (5, 15, and 30 cm), using a .32 ACP pistol (Beretta Mod. 81) loaded with full-jacketed bullets coming from the same production lot (7.65 × 17 mm, Browning SR). The visual inspection revealed the classic pattern of GSR distribution on the fabrics and the skin of control samples, while only a dark ring around the entrance lesion was identified on the skin beneath the fabrics. Micro-CT analysis showed the presence of radiopaque material on all entrance wounds, with a statistically significant difference between cases and controls. No differences were found among specimens covered by fabrics, with regard to the firing distance and the type of clothing. No GSR-like deposits were detected in exit wounds. Our results suggest that micro-CT analysis may be a useful screening tool for differentiating entry from exit gunshot wounds when the covering textiles are contaminated, damaged, or missing. PMID:27325255

  13. An alternative method to characterize the surface urban heat island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Philippe; Baudouin, Yves; Gachon, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    An urban heat island (UHI) is a relative measure defined as a metropolitan area that is warmer than the surrounding suburban or rural areas. The UHI nomenclature includes a surface urban heat island (SUHI) definition that describes the land surface temperature (LST) differences between urban and suburban areas. The complexity involved in selecting an urban core and external thermal reference for estimating the magnitude of a UHI led us to develop a new definition of SUHIs that excludes any rural comparison. The thermal reference of these newly defined surface intra-urban heat islands (SIUHIs) is based on various temperature thresholds above the spatial average of LSTs within the city's administrative limits. A time series of images from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) from 1984 to 2011 was used to estimate the LST over the warm season in Montreal, Québec, Canada. Different SIUHI categories were analyzed in consideration of the global solar radiation (GSR) conditions that prevailed before each acquisition date of the Landsat images. The results show that the cumulative GSR observed 24 to 48 h prior to the satellite overpass is significantly linked with the occurrence of the highest SIUHI categories (thresholds of +3 to +7 °C above the mean spatial LST within Montreal city). The highest correlation (≈0.8) is obtained between a pixel-based temperature that is 6 °C hotter than the city's mean LST (SIUHI + 6) after only 24 h of cumulative GSR. SIUHI + 6 can then be used as a thermal threshold that characterizes hotspots within the city. This identification approach can be viewed as a useful criterion or as an initial step toward the development of heat health watch and warning system (HHWWS), especially during the occurrence of severe heat spells across urban areas.

  14. Phase locking and bandwidth in a gyrotron oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, P. E.; Granatstein, V. L.; Carmel, Y.

    1993-01-01

    For imaging radar and for satellite and space communication (e.g. NASA's deep space network), it is important that the bandwidth be as large as possible. Here we derive a formalism for computing the phase locking bandwidth that can be achieved in a gyrotron oscillator while varying the beam voltage. As an example, a second harmonic TE02/03 gyrotron is considered. For this device, the effective bandwidth can be increased by a factor of about 3 compared with the fixed voltage case by allowing the beam voltage to change together with the input locking signal.

  15. Utility Building Plan, elevations and sections. March Air Force Base, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Utility Building Plan, elevations and sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, COmbat Operations Center, Utility Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 57, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/57, Rev. "B"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 3 October 1966 "drawings updated." Various scales. 29 x 41 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Utility Building, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  16. Near-bottom temperature and salinity evolution around Iceland, 1975-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Schnurr, Sarah; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    The near-bottom water masses in the deep basins of the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas hold major temperature differences due to the barrier formed by the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge (GSR). Deep water exchanges across the ridge are prohibited, and only limited water mass exchange in intermediate layers is possible through deep channels, where the flow is southwestward (the Nordic Overflows). The shallow surface layers exhibit warm and saline water flowing north-eastwards across most of the ridge, only at the western GSR (along the east Greenland coast) cold and fresh water is transported southwestward. Several studies have indicated that the GSR or the environmental conditions connected to the influence of the ridge system shape the species distribution and composition of particular benthic groups in this region. Species distribution models (SDMs), which use spatial environmental variables, can lead to a better understanding of species distributions within the marine environment. Additionally, these models provide an estimate of the response of the marine ecosystem and species distributions to climate change. Hence, spatial environmental variables, known to have an influence on the distribution of species (e.g. temperature, salinity, sediment type), are needed to create realistic SDMs. Here we use near-bottom measurements of about 88,000 CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) and bottle profiles, collected in the period 1975-2007. The data is gridded into regular boxes of about 11 km size and interpolated following isobaths. We derive average spatial temperature and salinity distributions in the region around Iceland, showing the influence of the GSR on the near-bottom properties. The spatial distribution of standard deviation is used to compare local variability, which is enhanced near water mass fronts. These spatial property distributions can provide the basis for SDM modelling. Finally, property changes within the last 30 years are presented using time

  17. Enhancement of Glycerol Steam Reforming Activity and Thermal Stability by Incorporating CeO2 and TiO2 in Ni- and Co-MCM-41 Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dade, William N.

    Hydrogen (H2) has many applications in industry with current focus shifted to production of hydrocarbon fuels and valuable oxygenates using the Fischer-Tropsch technology and direct use in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Hydrogen is generally produced via steam reforming of natural gas or alcohols like methanol and ethanol. Glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production process, is currently considered to be one of the most attractive sources of sustainable H2 due to its high H/C ratio and bio-based origin. Ni and Co based catalysts have been reported to be active in glycerol steam reforming (GSR); however, deactivation of the catalysts by carbon deposition and sintering under GSR operating conditions is a major challenge. In this study, a series of catalysts containing Ni and Co nanoparticles incorporated in CeO2 and TiO2 modified high surface area MCM-41 have been synthesized using one-pot method. The catalysts are tested for GSR (at H2O/Glycerol mole ratio of 12 and GHSV of 2200 h-1) to study the effect of support modification and reaction temperature (450 - 700 °C) on the product selectivity and long term stability. GSR results revealed that all the catalysts performed significantly well exhibiting over 85% glycerol conversion at 650 °C except Ni catalysts that showed better low temperature activities. Deactivation studies of the catalysts conducted at 650 °C indicated that the Ni-TiO2-MCM-41 and Ni-CeO 2-MCM-41 were resistant to deactivation with ˜100% glycerol conversion for 40 h. In contrast, Co-TiO2-MCM-41 perform poorly as the catalyst rapidly deactivated after 12 h to yield ˜20% glycerol conversion after 40 h. The WAXRD and TGA-DSC analyses of spent catalysts showed a significant amount of coke deposition that might explain catalysts deactivation. The flattening shape of the original BET type IV isotherm with drastic reduction of catalyst surface area can also be responsible for observed drop in catalysts activities.

  18. Exploring the Sagittarius Stream With SEKBO Survey RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Sayuri L.; Da Costa, G. S.; Keller, Stefan C.

    2009-10-01

    A sample of RR Lyrae (RRL) variables from the Southern Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt Object survey in regions overlapping the expected position of debris from the interaction of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy with the Milky Way (R.A. ~ 20 and 21.5 hr distance = 16-21 kpc) has been followed up spectroscopically and photometrically. The 21 photometrically confirmed type ab RRLs in this region have lang[Fe/H]rang = -1.79 ± 0.08 on our system, consistent with the abundances found for RRLs in a different portion of the Sgr tidal debris stream. The distribution of velocities in the Galactic standard of rest frame (V GSR) of the 26 RRLs in the region is not consistent with a smooth halo population. Upon comparison with the Sgr disruption models of Law et al., a prominent group of five stars having highly negative radial velocities (V GSR ~-175 km s-1) is consistent with predictions for old trailing debris when the Galactic halo potential is modeled as oblate. In contrast, the prolate model does not predict any significant number of Sgr stars at the locations of the observed sample. The observations also require that the recent trailing debris stream has a broader spread perpendicular to the Sgr plane than predicted by the models. We have also investigated the possible association of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS) with Sgr debris by comparing radial velocities for RRLs in the region with the same models, finding similarities in the velocity-position trends. As suggested by our earlier work, the stars in the VSS region with large negative V GSR values are likely to be old leading Sgr debris, but we find that while old trailing Sgr debris may well make a contribution at positive V GSR values, it is unlikely to fully account for the VSS feature. Overall we find that further modeling is needed, as trailing arm data generally favor oblate models while leading arm data favor prolate models, with no single potential fitting all the observed data.

  19. Mean full-depth summer circulation and transports at the northern periphery of the Atlantic Ocean in the 2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarafanov, Artem; Falina, Anastasia; Mercier, Herlé; Sokov, Alexey; Lherminier, Pascale; Gourcuff, Claire; Gladyshev, Sergey; Gaillard, Fabienne; Daniault, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    A mean state of the full-depth summer circulation in the Atlantic Ocean in the region in between Cape Farewell (Greenland), Scotland and the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is assessed by combining 2002-2008 yearly hydrographic measurements at 59.5°N, mean dynamic topography, satellite altimetry data and available estimates of the Atlantic-Nordic Seas exchange. The mean absolute transports by the upper-ocean, mid-depth and deep currents and the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOCσ = 16.5 ± 2.2 Sv, at σ0= 27.55) at 59.5°N are quantified in the density space. Inter-basin and diapycnal volume fluxes in between the 59.5°N section and the GSR are then estimated from a box model. The dominant components of the meridional exchange across 59.5°N are the North Atlantic Current (NAC, 15.5 ± 0.8 Sv,σ0 < 27.55) east of the Reykjanes Ridge, the northward Irminger Current (IC, 12.0 ± 3.0 Sv) and southward Western Boundary Current (WBC, 32.1 ± 5.9 Sv) in the Irminger Sea and the deep water export from the northern Iceland Basin (3.7 ± 0.8 Sv, σ0 > 27.80). About 60% (12.7 ± 1.4 Sv) of waters carried in the MOCσ upper limb (σ0< 27.55) by the NAC/IC across 59.5°N (21.1 ± 1.0 Sv) recirculates westward south of the GSR and feeds the WBC. 80% (10.2 ± 1.7 Sv) of the recirculating NAC/IC-derived upper-ocean waters gains density ofσ0 > 27.55 and contributes to the MOCσlower limb. Accordingly, the contribution of light-to-dense water conversion south of the GSR (˜10 Sv) to the MOCσ lower limb at 59.5°N is one and a half times larger than the contribution of dense water production in the Nordic Seas (˜6 Sv).

  20. Recent developments in methods of chemical analysis in investigations of firearm-related events.

    PubMed

    Zeichner, Arie

    2003-08-01

    A review of recent (approximately the last ten years) developments in the methods used for chemical analysis in investigations of firearm-related events is provided. This review discusses:examination of gunshot (primer) residues (GSR) and gunpowder (propellant) residues on suspects and their clothing;detection of firearm imprints on the hands of suspects;identification of the bullet entry holes and estimation of shooting distance;linking weapons and/or fired ammunition to the gunshot entries, and estimation of the time since discharge. PMID:12811451

  1. Composition and distribution of selected munnopsid genera (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) in Icelandic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurr, Sarah; Brandt, Angelika; Brix, Saskia; Fiorentino, Dario; Malyutina, Marina; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2014-02-01

    The Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is a major topographic feature, extending from Greenland to Scotland. It constrains the water exchange between the northernmost North Atlantic Ocean and the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian Seas (GIN Seas) and thus forms a potential barrier for faunal exchange from the Arctic to the North Atlantic (and vice versa). Recently an increase in Atlantic water inflow has been observed, leading to changes in physical parameters (i.e. temperature and salinity), which may have an impact on the resident fauna. In this study, we analyzed the composition and distribution of six selected genera of the isopod family Munnopsidae (Crustacea) occurring north and south of the GSR. We examined 82 epibenthic sledge samples and 26 additional sub-samples taken in the course of the Benthic Invertebrates of Icelandic Waters (BIOICE) and Icelandic Marine Animals: Genetics and Ecology (IceAGE) projects, respectively, covering a total depth range from 103 to 2752 m depth. Overall, 58 of the evaluated stations originated in the area north of the GSR, while the remaining 50 samples were collected south of the ridge. In total, 10517 individuals could be assigned to 15 species, most belonging to the genus EurycopeSars, 1864. Due to the presence of the GSR as well as differences in the environment, we expected significant dissimilarities in faunal composition between the two study areas. However, most species (8) occurred on both sides of the ridge, while four species were restricted to the region north of Iceland, and three to the region south of the ridge. Depth (or factors related to depth) appeared to be the most important factor in driving distributional patterns of the studied species. Temperature was also an important driver, but not to the same extent as depth. On the contrary, salinity and sediment type did not have much influence on munnopsid distribution patterns. Hence, the presence of the ridge does not restrict faunal exchange between the northern

  2. In vivo desensitization of a severe driving phobia through radio contact with telemonitoring of neurophysiological reactions.

    PubMed

    Rovetto, F M

    1983-03-01

    A 34 year-old man with a severe driving phobia was treated by in vivo desensitization. A radio transceiver was used to provide the anxiety inhibiting effects of voice contact during exposure to phobic driving experiences. Transceivers were linked to a Telemonitor apparatus programmed to broadcast heartbeat and GSR readings automatically every 15 minutes or on demand, each of 10 seconds duration. The therapist was therefore in touch with the subjective and physiological arousal of the patient from distances up to 7 miles. This allowed him to conduct more efficiently a program of in vivo graduated exposure. Treatment effects were maintained at a 9-month follow-up. PMID:6134757

  3. The detection of gunshot residues in the nasal mucus of suspected shooters.

    PubMed

    Merli, Daniele; Brandone, Alberto; Amadasi, Alberto; Cattaneo, Cristina; Profumo, Antonella

    2016-07-01

    The identification and quantification of metallic residues produced by gunshots, called gunshot residues (GSR), provide crucial elements in forensic investigations. The research has been largely focused on their collection onto the hands of suspected shooters, but the method is often burdened by risks of contamination. This research was focused on the possibility of sampling GSR trapped inside the nasal mucus of consenting shooters. Samples of the nasal mucus of "blank" control subjects and shooters were chemically analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), for residues of antimony (Sb) and barium (Ba), while lead (Pb) was excluded as ubiquitously environmental contaminant and due to high instrumental quantification limit (IQL) of INAA for this element. Shots were fired using two types of weapons (pistols and revolvers) and different firing sequences. The mucus was sampled at different times: immediately after the shots, after 30-60-120 and 180 min. Different amounts of Sb and Ba were detected between controls and shooters, witnessing the ability of the nasal mucus to retain GSR at concentrations significantly different even from the highest basal levels. Moreover, in order to simulate actual cases, nasal mucus from five groups of shooters was sampled after different shots with the same weapon and cartridges, immediately and after 1, 3, 12, and 24 h. The highest values were always found in the first 3 h from firing, for both weapons. Interestingly, for all the weapons, significant Sb and Ba concentrations were also found up to 12 h after firing, contrary to what occurs on hands, even though a progressive decrease was detected, with values below the detection threshold only after 24 h, thus demonstrating that GSR are persistent in nasal mucus. These first results proving that both Sb and Ba were qualitatively detectable in the nasal mucus of shooters indicate that the chemical analysis of the nasal mucus of suspected shooters may represent a

  4. [Energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry--a forensic chemistry method for determination of shooting distance].

    PubMed

    Havel, J

    2003-10-01

    The article follows up the experiences Energo-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) as the forensic necrochemical method as the tool for detection of metals (gunshot residues--GSR) in connection with gunshot-wounds of persons--authors: dipl. Ing. J. Havel and dipl. Ing. K. Zelenka and Energo-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) as the forensic method as the tool for identification of inlets (gunshot--entries) and outlets (gunshot--exits)--author: dipl. Ing. J. Havel. PMID:14661530

  5. EXPLORING THE SAGITTARIUS STREAM WITH SEKBO SURVEY RR LYRAE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, Sayuri L.; Da Costa, G. S.; Keller, Stefan C.

    2009-10-20

    A sample of RR Lyrae (RRL) variables from the Southern Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt Object survey in regions overlapping the expected position of debris from the interaction of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy with the Milky Way (R.A. approx 20 and 21.5 hr; distance = 16-21 kpc) has been followed up spectroscopically and photometrically. The 21 photometrically confirmed type ab RRLs in this region have ([Fe/H]) = -1.79 +- 0.08 on our system, consistent with the abundances found for RRLs in a different portion of the Sgr tidal debris stream. The distribution of velocities in the Galactic standard of rest frame (V {sub GSR}) of the 26 RRLs in the region is not consistent with a smooth halo population. Upon comparison with the Sgr disruption models of Law et al., a prominent group of five stars having highly negative radial velocities (V {sub GSR} approx-175 km s{sup -1}) is consistent with predictions for old trailing debris when the Galactic halo potential is modeled as oblate. In contrast, the prolate model does not predict any significant number of Sgr stars at the locations of the observed sample. The observations also require that the recent trailing debris stream has a broader spread perpendicular to the Sgr plane than predicted by the models. We have also investigated the possible association of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS) with Sgr debris by comparing radial velocities for RRLs in the region with the same models, finding similarities in the velocity-position trends. As suggested by our earlier work, the stars in the VSS region with large negative V {sub GSR} values are likely to be old leading Sgr debris, but we find that while old trailing Sgr debris may well make a contribution at positive V {sub GSR} values, it is unlikely to fully account for the VSS feature. Overall we find that further modeling is needed, as trailing arm data generally favor oblate models while leading arm data favor prolate models, with no single potential fitting all the observed data.

  6. Towards a smart non-invasive fluid loss measurement system.

    PubMed

    Suryadevara, N K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Barrack, L

    2015-04-01

    In this article, a smart wireless sensing non-invasive system for estimating the amount of fluid loss, a person experiences while physical activity is presented. The system measures three external body parameters, Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, or skin conductance), and Skin Temperature. These three parameters are entered into an empirically derived formula along with the user's body mass index, and estimation for the amount of fluid lost is determined. The core benefit of the developed system is the affluence usage in combining with smart home monitoring systems to care elderly people in ambient assisted living environments as well in automobiles to monitor the body parameters of a motorist. PMID:25686913

  7. Changes in galvanic skin response as affected by musical selection, sex, and academic discipline.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O

    1975-03-01

    The present paper tested hypotheses that (a) music can influence anxiety; (b) differences in response to music may be found between males and females; and (c) differences in response may be found between music and nonmusic majors. Subjects included 100 music majors, (50 male and 50 female) and 100 nonmusic majors, (50 male and 50 female) randomly selected from students at North Park College, Chicago, Illinois. Test instruments included a pencil-maze, blindfold goggles, GSR apparatus, and a musical recording. All three hypotheses were substantiated in terms of levels of significance ranging from .01 to .05 for different Ss. PMID:1167304

  8. Diverless remote operated flowline connections

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Slider, M.; Galle, G.

    1997-07-01

    The diverless remote horizontal connection for a major project in the South China Sea was performed using the ABB Vetco Gray GSR connector in conjunction with a pull-in tool. New, innovative methods were developed whereby the hubs provide axial and angular misalignment capabilities and an ROV can make and break the connection and replace the innovative magnetic sealing assembly. The significance of this achievement is assessed with a focus on the implemented design philosophies, the principles of operation, the overall system reliability, the operational cost reduction, and the full-scale testing results. Additional comments are made concerning the applicability of this technology in various other subsea applications.

  9. Hair combing to collect organic gunshot residues (OGSR).

    PubMed

    MacCrehan, William A; Layman, Malinda J; Secl, Janelle D

    2003-08-12

    A protocol is presented for the collection and analysis of gunshot residues (GSR) from hair. A fine-toothed comb is used for collection of the residues. A small zip-closure bag serves as a container for both sample storage and extraction of the characteristic organic powder additives. The success of this residue recovery approach was tested on simulated shooters and victims using mannequin-supported human wig hair as well as on human shooters. Residues were collected from four weapons: a revolver and semi-automatic pistol, rifle and shotgun. One characteristic additive, nitroglycerin, was detected by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in the majority of the collection experiments. PMID:12927420

  10. EVALUATION OF GENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF Streptococcus mutans USING DISTINCT ARBITRARY PRIMERS

    PubMed Central

    Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado; Sousa, Maria Clara K.; Arthur, Rodrigo Alex; Mattos-Graner, Renata Oliveira; Cury, Altair Antoninha Del Bel; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been considered one of the main etiological agents of dental caries and the genotypic diversity rather than its salivary counts may be considered as a virulence factor of this bacterium. For genotyping with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with arbitrary primers, several primers have been used in order to improve complexity and specificity of amplicon patterns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement of genotypic identification among AP-PCR reactions performed with 5 distinct arbitrary primers of S. mutans isolated from saliva. Stimulated saliva was collected from 11 adult volunteers for isolation of S. mutans, and a total of 88 isolates were genotyped with arbitrary primers OPA 02, 03, 05, 13 and 18. Fourteen distinct genotypes were identified in the saliva samples. Most volunteers (9 out of 11) presented only one genotype. The results of the present study suggest that primers OPA 02, 03, 05 and 13 were suitable for genotypic identification of S. mutans isolates of saliva from adult volunteers. PMID:19082399

  11. Epizootic emergence of Usutu virus in wild and captive birds in Germany.

    PubMed

    Becker, Norbert; Jöst, Hanna; Ziegler, Ute; Eiden, Martin; Höper, Dirk; Emmerich, Petra; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Ehichioya, Deborah U; Czajka, Christina; Gabriel, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Racz, Paul; Günther, Stephan; Wink, Michael; Bosch, Stefan; Konrad, Armin; Pfeffer, Martin; Groschup, Martin H; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the causative agent of mass mortality in wild and captive birds in southwest Germany and to gather insights into the phylogenetic relationship and spatial distribution of the pathogen. Since June 2011, 223 dead birds were collected and tested for the presence of viral pathogens. Usutu virus (USUV) RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR in 86 birds representing 6 species. The virus was isolated in cell culture from the heart of 18 Blackbirds (Turdus merula). USUV-specific antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in brain, heart, liver, and lung of infected Blackbirds. The complete polyprotein coding sequence was obtained by deep sequencing of liver and spleen samples of a dead Blackbird from Mannheim (BH65/11-02-03). Phylogenetic analysis of the German USUV strain BH65/11-02-03 revealed a close relationship with strain Vienna that caused mass mortality among birds in Austria in 2001. Wild birds from lowland river valleys in southwest Germany were mainly affected by USUV, but also birds kept in aviaries. Our data suggest that after the initial detection of USUV in German mosquitoes in 2010, the virus spread in 2011 and caused epizootics among wild and captive birds in southwest Germany. The data also indicate an increased risk of USUV infections in humans in Germany. PMID:22389712

  12. User stress detection in human-computer interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jing; Barreto, Armando B; Chin, Craig; Li, Chao

    2005-01-01

    The emerging research area of Affective Computing seeks to advance the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) by enabling computers to interact with users in ways appropriate to their affective states. Affect recognition, including the use of psychophysiologcal measures (e.g. heart rate), facial expressions, speech recognition etc. to derive an assessment of user affective state based on factors from the current task context, is an important foundation required for the development of Affective Computing. Our research focuses on the use of three physiological signals: Blood Volume Pulse (BVP), Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and Pupil Diameter (PD), to automatically monitor the level of stress in computer users. This paper reports on the hardware and software instrumentation development and signal processing approach used to detect the stress level of a subject interacting with a computer, within the framework of a specific experimental task, which is called the 'Stroop Test'. For this experiment, a computer game was implemented and adapted to make the subject experience the Stroop Effect, evoked by the mismatch between the font color and the meaning of a certain word (name of a color) displayed, while his/her BVP, GSR and PD signals were continuously recorded. Several data processing techniques were applied to extract effective attributes of the stress level of the subjects throughout the experiment. Current results indicate that there exists interesting similarity among changes in those three signals and the shift in the emotional states when stress stimuli are applied to the interaction environment. PMID:15850118

  13. The determination of firing distance applying a microscopic quantitative method and confocal laser scanning microscopy for detection of gunshot residue particles.

    PubMed

    Neri, Margherita; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Riezzo, Irene; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we applied a microscopic quantitative method based on the use of sodium rhodizonate to verify the presence of residues and their distribution on the cutis of gunshot wounds. A total of 250 skin samples were selected from cases in which the manner of death (accidental, suicide, and homicide) and the shooting distance could be reliably determined. The samples were examined under a light microscope, in transmitted bright field illumination and phase contrast mode, and with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In all skin specimens the area of each histological section was directly measured by an image analysis system. Both the number and the size of powder particles were measured. The distribution of gunshot residues (GSR) in the epidermal and subepidermal layers was also analyzed. The evaluation of the microscopic entrance wounds demonstrated different findings related to the range of fire. The data derived from the evaluation of both macroscopic and microscopic features demonstrated that the amount and the spatial distribution of GSR deposits in the skin surrounding entrance wounds strictly correlate with shooting distance. PMID:16862444

  14. A YAC, P1, and cosmid contig and 17 new polymorphic markers for the Werner syndrome region at 8p12-p21

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chang-En; Matthews, S.; Schellenberg, G.D.

    1996-08-01

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC), P1, and cosmid clone contig was constructed for the Werner syndrome (WRN) region of chromosome 8p12-p21 and used to clone a candidate gene for WRN. This region also possibly contains a familial breast cancer locus. The contig was initiated by isolating YACs for the glutathione reductase (GSR) gene and extended in either direction by walking techniques. Sequence-tagged site (STS) markers were generated from subclones of 2 GSR YACs and used to identify P1 and cosmid clones. Additional STSs were generated from P1 and cosmid clones and from potential expressed sequences identified by cDNA selection and exon amplification methods. The final contig was assembled by typing 17 YACs, 20 P1 clones, and 109 cosmids for 54 STS markers. The WRN region could be spanned by 2 nonchimeric YACs covering approximately 1.4 Mb. A P1/cosmid contig was established covering the core 700-800 kb of the WRN region. Fifteen new short tandem repeat polymorphisms and 2 biallelic polymorphic markers were identified and included as STSs in the contig. Analysis of these markers in Werner syndrome subjects demonstrates that the candidate WRN gene is in a region of linkage disequilibrium. 47 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two morphological root types of Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch.

    PubMed

    Diehl, P; Fontenla, S B

    2010-01-01

    Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch is a conifer distributed in the Andean-Patagonian forests in the south of Argentina and Chile. The main objective of this work was to relate the different root classes appearing in A. araucana to mycorrhizal behavior. Samples were collected in three different sites in the Lanín National Park (NW Patagonia, Argentina). Two different root classes were present in A. araucana: longitudinal fine roots (LFR) and globular short roots (GSR). Both had extensive mycorrhizal arbuscular symbiosis (AM) and presented abundant hyphae and coils in root cells, a characteristic of the anatomical Paris-type. Dark septate fungal endophytes were also observed. Values of total AM colonization were high, with similar partial AM% values for each root class. Seasonal differences were found for total and partial colonization, with higher values in spring compared to autumn. Regarding the percentage of fungal structures between root classes, values were similar for vesicles and arbuscules, but higher coil percentages were observed in GSR compared to LFR. The percentages of vesicles increased in autumn, whereas the arbuscule percentages increased in spring, coinciding with the plant growth peak. Results show that both root classes of A. araucana in Andean-Patagonian forests are associated with AM fungi, which may have ecological relevance in terms of the importance of this symbiosis, in response to soil nutrient-deficiencies, especially high P-retention. PMID:20589337

  16. Vacuum collection of gunpowder residues from clothing worn by shooting suspects, and their analysis by GC/TEA, IMS, and GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Zeichner, Arie; Eldar, Baruch; Glattstein, Baruch; Koffman, Avi; Tamiri, Tsippy; Muller, Dan

    2003-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to collect gunpowder (propellant) residues from shooters' clothing by vacuum and to analyze them by gas chromatography/thermal energy analyzer (GC/TEA), ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The residues were collected on fiberglass and Teflon filters using the portable vacuum sampler, all supplied with the IMS instrument. Several solvents were examined for the extraction of the propellant components from the filters. The extracts were centrifuged and/or filtered, concentrated by evaporation, and analyzed without any additional clean-up procedure. Based on the results of the study, an operational method for analysis of gunpowder residues was introduced into casework without changing the present operational technique for gunshot (primer) residue (GSR) analysis on clothing implemented by the Israel Police. In the modified method, the clothing is first sampled by double-side adhesive-coated aluminum stubs (the tape-lift method) for GSR analysis (the existing method), followed by vacuum collection for propellant residue examination. The issue of interpretation of the analytical results is discussed. PMID:14535660

  17. Chemical and morphological study of gunshot residue persisting on the shooter by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Brożek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2011-12-01

    Persistence of gunshot residue (GSR) simultaneously collected from hands, face and hair, and clothing of the shooting person was examined. Samples were collected from five shooters in nine time intervals after a single shoot with a Luger 9 mm pistol, in the range of 0-4 h and examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Numbers of particles, frequencies of occurrence of certain compositions of particles, and their sizes in function of the time intervals were inspected. The greatest numbers of particles were observed in samples collected from hands right after shooting, but they decrease quickly with time. In samples collected from the face smaller initial numbers of particles were found, but they lasted at a similar level longer. The estimated half-life times of particles were less than 1 h for samples taken from the hands, over 1 h for clothing and about 2-3 h for the face. In samples collected at longer intervals after shooting, there were particles present of small sizes and irregular shapes. The results demonstrate that including evidence collected from the suspect's face and hair may increase the probability of detection of GSR in cases when the suspect has not been apprehended immediately after the investigated incident. PMID:22051052

  18. Exposure of Bacillus subtilis to Low Pressure (5 Kilopascals) Induces Several Global Regulons, Including Those Involved in the SigB-Mediated General Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Samantha M.; Robles-Martínez, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of how microorganisms respond to pressure have been limited mostly to the extreme high pressures of the deep sea (i.e., the piezosphere). In contrast, despite the fact that the growth of most bacteria is inhibited at pressures below ∼2.5 kPa, little is known of microbial responses to low pressure (LP). To study the global LP response, we performed transcription microarrays on Bacillus subtilis cells grown under normal atmospheric pressure (∼101 kPa) and a nearly inhibitory LP (5 kPa), equivalent to the pressure found at an altitude of ∼20 km. Microarray analysis revealed altered levels of 363 transcripts belonging to several global regulons (AbrB, CcpA, CodY, Fur, IolR, ResD, Rok, SigH, Spo0A). Notably, the highest number of upregulated genes, 86, belonged to the SigB-mediated general stress response (GSR) regulon. Upregulation of the GSR by LP was confirmed by monitoring the expression of the SigB-dependent ctc-lacZ reporter fusion. Measuring transcriptome changes resulting from exposure of bacterial cells to LP reveals insights into cellular processes that may respond to LP exposure. PMID:24878601

  19. Affective Visual Stimuli: Characterization of the Picture Sequences Impacts by Means of Nonlinear Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Goshvarpour, Ateke; Abbasi, Ataollah; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of preceding pictorial stimulus on the emotional autonomic responses of the subsequent one. Methods: To this effect, physiological signals, including Electrocardiogram (ECG), Pulse Rate (PR), and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) were collected. As these signals have random and chaotic nature, nonlinear dynamics of these physiological signals were evaluated with the methods of nonlinear system theory. Considering the hypothesis that emotional responses are usually associated with previous experiences of a subject, the subjective ratings of 4 emotional states were also evaluated. Four nonlinear characteristics (including Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), based parameters, Lyapunov exponent, and approximate entropy) were implemented. Nine standard features (including mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, median, mode, the second, third, and fourth moment) were also extracted. Results: To evaluate the ability of features in discriminating different types of emotions, some classification approaches were appraised, of them, Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) led to the best classification rate of 100%. The results show that considering the emotional sequences, GSR is the best candidate for the representation of the physiological changes. Discussion: Lower discrimination was attained when the sequence occurred in the diagonal line of valence-arousal coordinates (for instance, positive valence and positive arousal versus negative valence and negative arousal). By employing self-assessment ranks, no obvious improvement was achieved. PMID:26649159

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of Glycerol Steam Reforming for hydrogen production with in situ hydrogen and carbon dioxide separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Joel M.; Soria, M. A.; Madeira, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    A thermodynamic study of Glycerol Steam Reforming (GSR) for hydrogen production with in situ carbon dioxide and hydrogen (reaction products) simultaneous removal was performed. The sorption-enhanced membrane reactor (SEMR) was divided into multiple sub-Gibbs reactors and the Gibbs free energy minimization method was employed. The effects of temperature (600-800 K), molar water-to-glycerol feed ratio (WGFR) (3-9), pressure (1-5 atm) and fraction of hydrogen and carbon dioxide removal (f, 0-0.99) on the GSR process were target of investigation. A hydrogen yield (total moles of hydrogen produced/mole of reacted glycerol) very close to the stoichiometric value of 7 was obtained at 700 K, WGFR of 9, 1 atm and for fCO2 = 0.99 and fH2 = 0.80. This corresponds to an enhancement of 217%, 47% and 22% in terms of hydrogen yield comparatively to the traditional reactor (TR), sorption-enhanced reactor (SER) with carbon dioxide capture (fCO2 = 0.99) and membrane reactor (MR) with hydrogen separation (fH2 = 0.80) , respectively. In terms of coke, its formation was only observed under WGFRs below the stoichiometric value of 3.

  1. Sequentially released tilted flux ropes in the Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hietala, H.; Eastwood, J. P.; Isavnin, A.

    2014-06-01

    On 14 July 2011, the two ARTEMIS spacecraft observed a chain of flux ropes generated by reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail. The flux ropes are found to extend more than 90 ion inertial lengths out of the reconnection plane. We analyze six of these flux ropes by employing a novel combination of two-spacecraft-timing for their global orientation and Grad-Shafranov reconstruction (GSR) for their local orientation. We find that their diameter was ˜10 ion inertial lengths, temporal separations ˜100 ion gyroperiods, and that their speed increased from ˜30% to ˜70% of the Alfvén velocity. Given their temporal and spatial separations, we can infer that they were produced sequentially via a secondary instability. All of the flux ropes were tilted in the current sheet plane, suggesting that the secondary instability grew along the X-line in the direction of the electron current (-YGSM). The first five had a tilt between -14° and -26°. Based on the GSR axes their shape became increasingly complex over a period of ˜300 gyroperiods indicating kinking. The sixth event was again rather linear, and had a larger tilt (-38°), cross-section and core magnetic field; these changes are most likely related to a change in the boundary conditions.

  2. Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Sediment Remediation at the London Olympic Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, D.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, there is an emerging 'green and sustainable remediation' (GSR) movement. It is drawing increasing attention from both the government and the industry, because this GSR movement is promising in accelerating process in addressing the contaminated land issue, by overcoming regulatory barriers, encouraging technological innovation, and balancing life cycle environmental stewardship with economic vitality and social well-being. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used by both researchers and industrial practitioners in an initiative to make environmental remediation greener and more sustainable. Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), aiming at expanding the traditional LCA model in both breadth and depth (e.g. to incorporate both environmental and social-economic sustainability), is an important research direction in the existing LCA research field. The present study intends to develop a LCSA method based on a hybrid LCA model and economic input-output (EIO) data. The LCSA method is applied to a contaminated sediment remediation project conducted at the London Olympic Park site.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of time-domain fNIRS and physiological signals during a cognitive task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelzow, A.; Tachtsidis, I.; Kirilina, E.; Niessing, M.; Brühl, R.; Wabnitz, H.; Heine, A.; Ittermann, B.; Macdonald, R.

    2011-07-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a commonly used technique to measure the cerebral vascular response related to brain activation. It is known that systemic physiological processes, either independent or correlated with the stimulation task, can influence the optical signal making its interpretation challenging. The aim of the present work is to investigate the impact of task-evoked changes in the systemic physiology on fNIRS measurements for a cognitive paradigm. For this purpose we carried out simultaneous measurements of time-domain fNIRS on the forehead and systemic physiological signals, i.e. mean blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, galvanic skin response, scalp blood flow (flux) and red blood cell (RBC) concentration changes. We performed measurements on 15 healthy volunteers during a semantic continuous performance task (CPT). The optical data was analyzed in terms of depth-selective moments of distributions of times of flight of photons through the tissue. In addition, cerebral activation was localized by a subsequent fMRI experiment on the same subject population using the same task. We observed strong non-cerebral task-evoked changes in concentration changes of oxygenated hemoglobin in the forehead. We investigated the temporal behavior and mutual correlations between hemoglobin changes and the systemic processes. Mean blood pressure (BP), galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate exhibited significant changes during the activation period, whereby BP and GSR showed the highest correlation with optical measurements.

  4. GSH-dependent antioxidant defense contributes to the acclimation of colon cancer cells to acidic microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minnan; Liu, Qiao; Gong, Yanchao; Xu, Xiuhua; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Caibo; Guo, Haiyang; Zhang, Xiyu; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2016-04-17

    Due to increased glycolysis and poor local perfusion, solid tumors are usually immersed in an acidic microenvironment. While extracellular acidosis is cytotoxic, cancer cells eventually become acclimated to it. While previous studies have addressed the acute effect of acidosis on cancer cells, little is known about how cancer cells survive chronic acidosis. In this study we exposed colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (HCT15, HCT116 and LoVo) to acidic pH (pH 6.5) continuously for over three months and obtained CRC cells that become acclimated to acidic pH, designated as CRC-acidosis-acclimated or CRC-AA. We unexpectedly found that while acute exposure to low pH resulted in an increase in the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), CRC-AA cells exhibited a significantly reduced level of ROS when compared to ancestor cells. CRC-AA cells were found to maintain a higher level of reduced glutathione, via the upregulation of CD44 and glutathione reductase (GSR), among others, than their ancestor cells. Importantly, CRC-AA cells were more sensitive to agents that deplete GSH. Moreover, downregulation of GSR by RNA interference was more deleterious to CRC-AA cells than to control cells. Together, our results demonstrate a critical role of glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense in acclimation of CRC cells to acidic extracellular pH. PMID:26950675

  5. Formation processes of flux ropes downstream from Martian crustal magnetic fields inferred from Grad-Shafranov reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Takuya; Seki, Kanako; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Brain, David A.; Matsunaga, Kazunari; Saito, Miho H.; Shiota, Daikou

    2014-09-01

    We applied the Grad-Shafranov reconstruction (GSR) technique to Martian magnetic flux ropes observed downstream from strong crustal magnetic fields in the southern hemisphere. The GSR technique can provide a two-dimensional axial magnetic field map as well as the axial orientation of flux ropes from single-spacecraft data under assumptions that the structure is magnetohydrostatic and time independent. The reconstructed structures, including their orientation, allowed us to evaluate possible formation processes for the flux ropes. We reconstructed 297 magnetic flux ropes observed by Mars Global Surveyor between April 1999 and November 2006. Based on characteristics of their geometrical axial orientation and transverse magnetic field topology, we found that they can be mainly distinguished according to whether draped interplanetary magnetic fields overlaying the crustal magnetic fields are involved or not. Approximately two thirds of the flux ropes can be formed by magnetic reconnection between neighboring crustal magnetic fields attached to the surface. The remaining events seem to require magnetic reconnection between crustal and overlaid draped magnetic fields. The latter scenario should allow planetary ions to be transferred from closed magnetic flux tube to flux tubes connected to interplanetary space, allowing atmospheric ions to escape from Mars. We quantitatively evaluate lower limits on potential ion escape rates from Mars owing to magnetic flux ropes.

  6. Mapping afforestation and forest biomass using time-series Landsat stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liangyun; Peng, Dailiang; Wang, Zhihui; Hu, Yong

    2014-11-01

    Satellite data can adequately capture forest dynamics over larger areas. Firstly, the Landsat ground surface reflectance (GSR) images from 1974 to 2013 were collected and processed based on 6S atmospheric transfer code and a relative reflectance normalization algorithm. Subsequently, we developed a vegetation change tracking method to reconstruct the forest change history (afforestation and deforestation) from the dense time-series Landsat GSR images, and the afforestation age was successfully retrieved from the Landsat time-series stacks in the last forty years and shown to be consistent with the surveyed tree ages. Then, the above ground biomass (AGB) regression models were greatly improved by integrating the simple ratio vegetation index (SR) and tree age. Finally, the forest AGB images were mapped at eight epochs from 1985 to 2013 using SR and afforestation age. The total forest AGB in six counties of Yulin District increased by 20.8 G kg, from 5.8 G kg in 1986 to 26.6 G kg in 2013, a total increase of 360%. For the forest area, the forest AGB density increased from 15.72 t/ha in 1986 to 44.53 t/ha in 2013, with an annual rate of about 1 t/ha. The results present a noticeable carbon increment for the planted artificial forest in Yulin District over the last four decades.

  7. The characterization of nanoparticles using analytical electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Whitney B.

    2011-06-01

    Nanoparticles are often overlooked during routine trace evidence analyses because of their small size and the degree of difficulty needed to efficiently characterize them. However, analytical electron microscopy (AEM) enables the characterization and/or identification of nanoparticles because of its high magnification capability, the ability to gather elemental data and also the ability to determine the internal structure of a single nanoparticles(1). There is a wide variety of natural and manufactured nanoparticles that are prominent within the environment and their presence becomes very valuable in the absence of larger particles. The combustion of materials produces by-products such as nano-sized carbon soot, fumes, fly ash and gun-shot residue (GSR). Using AEM, nano-sized carbon soot, fumes, fly ash and GSR can not only be distinguished from other nanoparticles within the environment but can also be distinguished from each other because of differences in morphology, elemental composition, and internal structure. The elemental information gathered from combustion by-products during AEM analysis can also give an indication of the original source material. Other nanoparticles such as paint pigments and fillers can also be characterized by AEM using morphology, electron diffraction and elemental composition.

  8. Mechanisms for decadal scale variability in a simulated Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhaug, I.; Langehaug, H. R.; Eldevik, T.; Furevik, T.; Bentsen, M.

    2012-07-01

    Variability in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) has been analysed using a 600-year pre-industrial control simulation with the Bergen Climate Model. The typical AMOC variability has amplitudes of 1 Sverdrup (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1) and time scales of 40-70 years. The model is reproducing the observed dense water formation regions and has very realistic ocean transports and water mass distributions. The dense water produced in the Labrador Sea (1/3) and in the Nordic Seas, including the water entrained into the dense overflows across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR; 2/3), are the sources of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) forming the lower limb of the AMOC's northern overturning. The variability in the Labrador Sea and the Nordic Seas convection is driven by decadal scale air-sea fluxes in the convective region that can be related to opposite phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The Labrador Sea convection is directly linked to the variability in AMOC. Linkages between convection and water mass transformation in the Nordic Seas are more indirect. The Scandinavian Pattern, the third mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic, is a driver of the ocean's poleward heat transport (PHT), the overall constraint on northern water mass transformation. Increased PHT is both associated with an increased water mass exchange across the GSR, and a stronger AMOC.

  9. Comparisons between different techniques for measuring mass segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Richard J.; Goodwin, Simon P.

    2015-06-01

    We examine the performance of four different methods which are used to measure mass segregation in star-forming regions: the radial variation of the mass function {M}_MF; the minimum spanning tree-based ΛMSR method; the local surface density ΣLDR method; and the ΩGSR technique, which isolates groups of stars and determines whether the most massive star in each group is more centrally concentrated than the average star. All four methods have been proposed in the literature as techniques for quantifying mass segregation, yet they routinely produce contradictory results as they do not all measure the same thing. We apply each method to synthetic star-forming regions to determine when and why they have shortcomings. When a star-forming region is smooth and centrally concentrated, all four methods correctly identify mass segregation when it is present. However, if the region is spatially substructured, the ΩGSR method fails because it arbitrarily defines groups in the hierarchical distribution, and usually discards positional information for many of the most massive stars in the region. We also show that the ΛMSR and ΣLDR methods can sometimes produce apparently contradictory results, because they use different definitions of mass segregation. We conclude that only ΛMSR measures mass segregation in the classical sense (without the need for defining the centre of the region), although ΣLDR does place limits on the amount of previous dynamical evolution in a star-forming region.

  10. Relation between the wind stress curl in the North Atlantic and the Atlantic inflow to the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandø, A. B.; Furevik, T.

    2008-06-01

    In this study an isopycnic coordinate ocean model has been used to investigate the relationships between the North Atlantic wind stress curl (WSC) and the inflow of Atlantic water to the Nordic Seas. For the period 1995-2001, there is a maximum in the correlation between the zonally averaged WSC at 55°N and the inflow with a 15-month time lag, capturing a relation already found in observational data. In the model this relation is linked to the mixing along the western flank of the Rockall Bank (56°N, 15°W). For the period 1995-2001 the atmospheric forcing in the northeastern North Atlantic is relatively weak, and the depth of the mixed layer is shallower than the sill depths of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR). Slowly moving, baroclinic disturbances caused by anomalies in the wind forcing will then be transmitted into the Nordic Seas where they are recorded as anomalous volume transports in the Norwegian Atlantic Current. In contrast, for the pentad prior to this period the atmospheric forcing is much more intense, and generates mixing well below sill depths of the GSR for all winters. Baroclinic disturbances forced by variations in the atmospheric forcing will then tend to follow f/H contours that do not enter the Nordic Seas, and the 15-month lagged relations between the wind and the volume transports will vanish. Recent observational data support this view.

  11. GSH-dependent antioxidant defense contributes to the acclimation of colon cancer cells to acidic microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Minnan; Liu, Qiao; Gong, Yanchao; Xu, Xiuhua; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Caibo; Guo, Haiyang; Zhang, Xiyu; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to increased glycolysis and poor local perfusion, solid tumors are usually immersed in an acidic microenvironment. While extracellular acidosis is cytotoxic, cancer cells eventually become acclimated to it. While previous studies have addressed the acute effect of acidosis on cancer cells, little is known about how cancer cells survive chronic acidosis. In this study we exposed colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (HCT15, HCT116 and LoVo) to acidic pH (pH 6.5) continuously for over three months and obtained CRC cells that become acclimated to acidic pH, designated as CRC-acidosis-acclimated or CRC-AA. We unexpectedly found that while acute exposure to low pH resulted in an increase in the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), CRC-AA cells exhibited a significantly reduced level of ROS when compared to ancestor cells. CRC-AA cells were found to maintain a higher level of reduced glutathione, via the upregulation of CD44 and glutathione reductase (GSR), among others, than their ancestor cells. Importantly, CRC-AA cells were more sensitive to agents that deplete GSH. Moreover, downregulation of GSR by RNA interference was more deleterious to CRC-AA cells than to control cells. Together, our results demonstrate a critical role of glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense in acclimation of CRC cells to acidic extracellular pH. PMID:26950675

  12. Meson Clouds and Dressed Constituent Quarks in the Complete Rg-Improvement Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarzian, K.; Mirjalili, A.; Yazdanpanah, M. M.

    Sea quark densities in the nucleon, based on the constituent quark model are analyzed. To model the asymmetry of these densities, the meson cloud or alternatively chiral quark model (χQM) is used. Valence quark densities of the meson which are required to extract the sea quark densities in the constituent quarks are obtained using the phenomenological valon model. In addition to the standard perturbative QCD approach which uses the /lineMS scheme with a physical choice of renormalization scale, the calculations are also performed using the complete RG-improvement (CORGI) approach. To avoid a physically unacceptable Q2 behavior of the sea densities inside the constituent quarks, we assume that the free parameter which exists in the vertex function of the boson-quark splitting function, is Q2-dependent. Using the unsymmetrized sea densities of the nucleon which result from convoluting the constituent density in a nucleon with the quark density in the constituent quark, the Gottfried sum rule (GSR) is calculated using the standard perturbative and CORGI approaches. The CORGI result is closer to the reported experimental value for the GSR. The extracted sea and valence quark density in a nucleon, using χQM and also the CORGI approach, have been compared with available experimental data and what was obtained, based on χQM in the standard approach. This comparison confirms the anticipated better agreement of the CORGI approach with the data.

  13. Grad-Shafranov Reconstruction: Overview and Improvement of the Numerical Solution Used in Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, A. Ojeda; Domingues, M. O.; Mendes, O.; Kaibara, M. K.; Prestes, A.

    2015-10-01

    The Grad-Shafranov equation is a Poisson's equation, i.e., a partial differential equation of elliptic type. The problem is depending on the initial condition and can be treated as a Cauchy problem. Although it is ill-posed or ill-conditioned, it can be integrated numerically. In the integration of the GS equation, singularities with large values of the potential arise after a certain number of integration steps away from the original data line, and a filter should be used. The Grad-Shafranov reconstruction (GSR) technique was developed from 1996 to 2000 for recovering two-dimensional structures in the magnetopause in an ideal MHD formulation. Other works have used the GSR techniques to study magnetic flux ropes in the solar wind and in the magnetotail from a single spacecraft dataset; posteriorly, it was extended to treat measurements from multiple satellites. From Vlasov equation, it is possible to arrive at the GS-equation in function of the normalized vector potential. A general solution is obtained using complex variable theory. A specific solution was chosen as benchmark case to solve numerically the GS equation. We propose some changes in the resolution scheme of the GS equation to improve the solution. The result of each method is compared with the solution proposed by Hau and Sonnerup (J. Geophys. Res. 104(A4), 6899-6917 (1999)). The main improvement found in the GS resolution was the need to filter B x values at each y value.

  14. Bioclimatic impacts of the 1994 smoke haze event in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichol, Janet

    A smoke haze event of unprecedented magnitude which occurred in southeast Asia 1994 is statistically evaluated for its impact on regional and global climate using climatic and air quality data from Singapore, and by comparison with the better-known smoke pollution episode resulting from the Kuwait oil fires of 1991. Several local climatic parameters were found to be closely related to air quality on a daily basis. Mean data for the haze period in 1994 appeared to differ significantly from the long-term means for the same period in previous years, with the exception of daily mean air temperature and mean Global Solar Radiation (GSR). The latter is in spite of the inverse relationship between daily GSR and pollution levels. An ENSO-related influence on regional climate (masking some of the perceived regional impacts of the haze) is invoked to explain the apparent contradiction. The significance of the smoke haze at global scale is considered for its impact on the global carbon budget, especially due to the combustion of peat in the coastal lowlands of Sumatra and Kalimantan. The scarcity of available ecological data is regretted and recommendations are made for future cooperation over monitoring and research between scientists and government bodies from the countries in the southeast Asian region.

  15. A Comparison of Physiological Signal Analysis Techniques and Classifiers for Automatic Emotional Evaluation of Audiovisual Contents.

    PubMed

    Colomer Granero, Adrián; Fuentes-Hurtado, Félix; Naranjo Ornedo, Valery; Guixeres Provinciale, Jaime; Ausín, Jose M; Alcañiz Raya, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on finding the most discriminatory or representative features that allow to classify commercials according to negative, neutral and positive effectiveness based on the Ace Score index. For this purpose, an experiment involving forty-seven participants was carried out. In this experiment electroencephalography (EEG), electrocardiography (ECG), Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and respiration data were acquired while subjects were watching a 30-min audiovisual content. This content was composed by a submarine documentary and nine commercials (one of them the ad under evaluation). After the signal pre-processing, four sets of features were extracted from the physiological signals using different state-of-the-art metrics. These features computed in time and frequency domains are the inputs to several basic and advanced classifiers. An average of 89.76% of the instances was correctly classified according to the Ace Score index. The best results were obtained by a classifier consisting of a combination between AdaBoost and Random Forest with automatic selection of features. The selected features were those extracted from GSR and HRV signals. These results are promising in the audiovisual content evaluation field by means of physiological signal processing. PMID:27471462

  16. LOV Histidine Kinase Modulates the General Stress Response System and Affects the virB Operon Expression in Brucella abortus

    PubMed Central

    Sycz, Gabriela; Carrica, Mariela Carmen; Tseng, Tong-Seung; Bogomolni, Roberto A.; Briggs, Winslow R.; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Paris, Gastón

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease brucellosis, and its success as an intracellular pathogen relies on its ability to adapt to the harsh environmental conditions that it encounters inside the host. The Brucella genome encodes a sensor histidine kinase containing a LOV domain upstream from the kinase, LOVHK, which plays an important role in light-regulated Brucella virulence. In this report we study the intracellular signaling pathway initiated by the light sensor LOVHK using an integrated biochemical and genetic approach. From results of bacterial two-hybrid assays and phosphotransfer experiments we demonstrate that LOVHK functionally interacts with two response regulators: PhyR and LovR, constituting a functional two-component signal-transduction system. LOVHK contributes to the activation of the General Stress Response (GSR) system in Brucella via PhyR, while LovR is proposed to be a phosphate-sink for LOVHK, decreasing its phosphorylation state. We also show that in the absence of LOVHK the expression of the virB operon is down-regulated. In conclusion, our results suggest that LOVHK positively regulates the GSR system in vivo, and has an effect on the expression of the virB operon. The proposed regulatory network suggests a similar role for LOVHK in other microorganisms. PMID:25993430

  17. The Marble-Hand Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Senna, Irene; Maravita, Angelo; Bolognini, Nadia; Parise, Cesare V.

    2014-01-01

    Our body is made of flesh and bones. We know it, and in our daily lives all the senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? Here we report a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating that humans rapidly update their assumptions about the material qualities of their body, based on their recent multisensory perceptual experience. To induce a misperception of the material properties of the hand, we repeatedly gently hit participants' hand with a small hammer, while progressively replacing the natural sound of the hammer against the skin with the sound of a hammer hitting a piece of marble. After five minutes, the hand started feeling stiffer, heavier, harder, less sensitive, unnatural, and showed enhanced Galvanic skin response (GSR) to threatening stimuli. Notably, such a change in skin conductivity positively correlated with changes in perceived hand stiffness. Conversely, when hammer hits and impact sounds were temporally uncorrelated, participants did not spontaneously report any changes in the perceived properties of the hand, nor did they show any modulation in GSR. In two further experiments, we ruled out that mere audio-tactile synchrony is the causal factor triggering the illusion, further demonstrating the key role of material information conveyed by impact sounds in modulating the perceived material properties of the hand. This novel bodily illusion, the ‘Marble-Hand Illusion', demonstrates that the perceived material of our body, surely the most stable attribute of our bodily self, can be quickly updated through multisensory integration. PMID:24621793

  18. Does the prior application of the field kit bullet hole testing kit 3 on a suspected bullet hole bias the analysis of atomic absorption spectrophotometry?

    PubMed

    Seltenhammer, Monika H; Fitzl, Christine; Wieser, Ingo; Binder, Reinhard; Paula, Pia; Risser, Daniele U

    2014-09-01

    Forensic ballistics is the study of bullet trajectory and consists of determining gunshot residue (GSR) to identify bullet holes. Among several highly sensitive methods, atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is employed to analyze GSR in the laboratory. However, it is sometimes necessary to identify bullet holes immediately at a crime scene. The purpose of this examination was to determine whether the use of the field test Bullet Hole Testing Kit 3 (BTK3) on a suspected bullet hole would influence the outcome of AAS-analysis: Three commonly encountered firearms (Glock17, Tokarev, and Colt) were fired at skin, wood, and cloth. AAS-analysis was performed with and without previous BTK3 application. The results clearly indicate that there is no significant interaction on the grounds of BTK3 use (BTK3 vs. no-BTK3 [kit_nokit] [Pb: p = 0.1309; Sb: p = 0.9111], material*kit_nokit [Pb: p = 0.5960; Sb: p = 0.9930], distance*kit_nokit [Pb: p = 0.4014; Sb: p = 0.9184], and firearm type*kit_nokit [Pb: p = 0.9662; Sb: p = 0.9885]); hence, applying this field kit does not falsify later AAS outcomes. PMID:25040851

  19. Synchronization Analysis of Language and Physiology in Human Dyads.

    PubMed

    Orsucci, Franco F; Musmeci, Nicolò; Aas, Benjamin; Schiepek, Günter; Reda, Mario A; Canestri, Luca; Giuliani, Alessandro; de Felice, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    We studied the synchronization dynamics of a therapist and patient during a psychotherapy session. This investigation was developed in order to explore a new possible perspective and methodology for studying the expression of emotions. More specifically, literature concerning synchronization of in-session non-verbal variables emphasises its positive correlation with empathy and therapeutic outcomes. We compared the dynamics of galvanic skin response (GSR) and linguistic prosody, chosen as indicators of emotional expression in different domains. We studied their synchronization through complementary methodologies: Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Markov Transition Matrix (MTM) and Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQA). We investigated the nonlinearity of GSR in terms of self-similarity and power-law, as emerged in autocorrelation functions and signal variations. We considered time-lagged correlations as a measure of dynamical systems' memory. This article concludes by highlighting the importance of a deeper study of all variables related to the psychotherapeutic process and their synchronization in order to extend our knowledge of general human dynamics. PMID:27033132

  20. Geodesic synchrotron radiation in the Kerr geometry by the method of asymptotically factorized Green's functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrzanowski, P. L.; Misner, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    The scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational geodesic-synchrotron-radiation (GSR) spectra are determined for the case of a test particle moving on a highly relativistic circular orbit about a rotating (Kerr) black hole. It is found that the spectral shape depends only weakly on the value of the angular-momentum parameter (a/M) of the black hole, but the total radiated power drops unexpectedly for a value of at least 0.95 and vanishes as the value approaches unity. A spin-dependent factor (involving the inner product of the polarization of a radiated quantum with the source) is isolated to explain the dependence of the spectral shape on the spin of the radiated field. Although the scalar wave equation is solved by separation of variables, this procedure is avoided for the vector and tensor cases by postulating a sum-over-states expansion for the Green's function similar to that found to hold in the scalar case. The terms in this sum, significant for GSR, can then be evaluated in the geometric-optics approximation without requiring the use of vector or tensor spherical harmonics.

  1. Game design to measure reflexes and attention based on biofeedback multi-sensor interaction.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Vigon Uriarte, Inigo de Loyola; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya; Garcia-Chimeno, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-sensor system for implementing biofeedback as a human-computer interaction technique in a game involving driving cars in risky situations. The sensors used are: Eye Tracker, Kinect, pulsometer, respirometer, electromiography (EMG) and galvanic skin resistance (GSR). An algorithm has been designed which gives rise to an interaction logic with the game according to the set of physiological constants obtained from the sensors. The results reflect a 72.333 response to the System Usability Scale (SUS), a significant difference of p = 0.026 in GSR values in terms of the difference between the start and end of the game, and an r = 0.659 and p = 0.008 correlation while playing with the Kinect between the breathing level and the energy and joy factor. All the sensors used had an impact on the end results, whereby none of them should be disregarded in future lines of research, even though it would be interesting to obtain separate breathing values from that of the cardio. PMID:25789493

  2. Temporal Reliability and Lateralization of the Resting-State Language Network

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Qihong; Wang, Jue; Gao, Jia-Hong; Niu, Zhendong

    2014-01-01

    The neural processing loop of language is complex but highly associated with Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The left dominance of these two areas was the earliest observation of brain asymmetry. It was demonstrated that the language network and its functional asymmetry during resting state were reproducible across institutions. However, the temporal reliability of resting-state language network and its functional asymmetry are still short of knowledge. In this study, we established a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis of language network with seed regions located at Broca's and Wernicke's areas, and investigated temporal reliability of language network and its functional asymmetry. The language network was found to be temporally reliable in both short- and long-term. In the aspect of functional asymmetry, the Broca's area was found to be left lateralized, while the Wernicke's area is mainly right lateralized. Functional asymmetry of these two areas revealed high short- and long-term reliability as well. In addition, the impact of global signal regression (GSR) on reliability of the resting-state language network was investigated, and our results demonstrated that GSR had negligible effect on the temporal reliability of the resting-state language network. Our study provided methodology basis for future cross-culture and clinical researches of resting-state language network and suggested priority of adopting seed-based functional connectivity for its high reliability. PMID:24475058

  3. Detection of Gunshot Residues Using Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Blanes, Lucas; Cole, Nerida; Doble, Philip; Roux, Claude

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, forensic scientists have become increasingly interested in the detection and interpretation of organic gunshot residues (OGSR) due to the increasing use of lead- and heavy metal-free ammunition. This has also been prompted by the identification of gunshot residue- (GSR-) like particles in environmental and occupational samples. Various techniques have been investigated for their ability to detect OGSR. Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to a chromatographic system is a powerful tool due to its high selectivity and sensitivity. Further, modern MS instruments can detect and identify a number of explosives and additives which may require different ionization techniques. Finally, MS has been applied to the analysis of both OGSR and inorganic gunshot residue (IGSR), although the “gold standard” for analysis is scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray microscopy (SEM-EDX). This review presents an overview of the technical attributes of currently available MS and ionization techniques and their reported applications to GSR analysis. PMID:24977168

  4. Elemental quantification of large gunshot residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, A.; Silva, L. M.; de Souza, C. T.; Stori, E. M.; Boufleur, L. A.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    In the present work we embarked on the evaluation of the Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba elemental ratios found in relatively large particles (of the order of 50-150 μm across) ejected in the forward direction when a gun is fired. These particles are commonly referred to as gunshot residues (GSR). The aim of this work is to compare the elemental ratios of the GSR with those found in the primer of pristine cartridges in order to check for possible correlations. To that end, the elemental concentration of gunshot residues and the respective ammunition were investigated through PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) and micro-PIXE techniques. The ammunition consisted of a .38 SPL caliber (ogival lead type) charged in a Taurus revolver. Pristine cartridges were taken apart for the PIXE measurements. The shooting sessions were carried out in a restricted area at the Forensic Institute at Porto Alegre. Residues ejected at forward directions were collected on a microporous tape. The PIXE experiments were carried out employing 2.0 MeV proton beams with a beam spot size of 1 mm2. For the micro-PIXE experiments, the samples were irradiated with 2.2 MeV proton beams of 2 × 2 μm2. The results found for the ratios of Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba do not correlate with those stemming from the analysis of the primer.

  5. Genetic data simulators and their applications: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Huann-Sheng; Mechanic, Leah E.; Racine, Ben; Clarke, John; Gillanders, Elizabeth; Feuer, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Computer simulations have played an indispensable role in the development and application of statistical models and methods for genetic studies across multiple disciplines. The need to simulate complex evolutionary scenarios and pseudo-datasets for various studies has fueled the development of dozens of computer programs with varying reliability, performance, and application areas. To help researchers compare and choose the most appropriate simulators for their studies, we have created the Genetic Simulation Resources (GSR) website, which allows authors of simulation software to register their applications and describe them with more than 160 defined attributes. This article summarizes the properties of 93 simulators currently registered at GSR and provides an overview of the development and applications of genetic simulators. Unlike other review articles that address technical issues or compare simulators for particular application areas, we focus on software development, maintenance, and features of simulators, often from a historical perspective. Publications that cite these simulators are used to summarize both the applications of genetic simulations and the utilization of simulators. PMID:25504286

  6. Total Glutamine Synthetase Activity during Soybean Nodule Development Is Controlled at the Level of Transcription and Holoprotein Turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Temple, S. J.; Kunjibettu, S.; Roche, D.; Sengupta-Gopalan, C.

    1996-01-01

    Gln synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia with glutamate to yield Gln. In higher plants GS is an octameric enzyme and the subunits are encoded by members of a small multigene family. In soybeans (Glycine max), following the onset of N2 fixation there is a dramatic increase in GS activity in the root nodules. GS activity staining of native polyacrylamide gels containing nodule and root extracts showed a common band of activity (GSrs). The nodules also contained a slower-migrating, broad band of enzyme activity (GSns). The GSns activity band is a complex of many isozymes made up of different proportions of two kinds of GS subunits: GSr and GSn. Root nodules formed following inoculation with an Nif- strain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum showed the presence of GS isoenzymes (GSns1) with low enzyme activity, which migrated more slowly than GSns. Gsns1 is most likely made up predominantly of GSn subunits. Our data suggest that, whereas the class I GS genes encoding the GSr subunits are regulated by the availability of NH3, the class II GS genes coding for the GSn subunits are developmentally regulated. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the GSns1 isozymes in the Nif- nodules are relatively more labile. Our overall conclusion is that GSns activity in soybean nodules is regulated by N2 fixation both at the level of transcription and at the level of holoprotein stability. PMID:12226474

  7. Prediction of ozone concentration in tropospheric levels using artificial neural networks and support vector machine at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, A. S.; Paredes, M. L. L.; de Oliveira, G. C. G.; Corrêa, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that air quality is a complex function of emissions, meteorology and topography, and statistical tools provide a sound framework for relating these variables. The observed data were contents of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), scalar wind speed (SWS), global solar radiation (GSR), temperature (TEM), moisture content in the air (HUM), collected by a mobile automatic monitoring station at Rio de Janeiro City in two places of the metropolitan area during 2011 and 2012. The aims of this study were: (1) to analyze the behavior of the variables, using the method of PCA for exploratory data analysis; (2) to propose forecasts of O3 levels from primary pollutants and meteorological factors, using nonlinear regression methods like ANN and SVM, from primary pollutants and meteorological factors. The PCA technique showed that for first dataset, variables NO, NOx and SWS have a greater impact on the concentration of O3 and the other data set had the TEM and GSR as the most influential variables. The obtained results from the nonlinear regression techniques ANN and SVM were remarkably closely and acceptable to one dataset presenting coefficient of determination for validation respectively 0.9122 and 0.9152, and root mean square error of 7.66 and 7.85, respectively. For these datasets, the PCA, SVM and ANN had demonstrated their robustness as useful tools for evaluation, and forecast scenarios for air quality.

  8. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype studies of chromosome 8p 11. 1-21. 1 markers and Werner syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chang-En; Schellenberg, G.D.; Oshima, Junko; Martin, G.M.; Goddard, K.A.B.; Wijsman, E.M. ); Miki, Tetsuro; Nakura, Jun; Ogihara, Toshio ); Poot, M.; Hoehn, H. )

    1994-08-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized as a progeroid syndrome, previously mapped to the 8p 11.2-21.1 region. Because WS is so rare, and because many patients are from consanguineous marriages, fine localization of the gene by traditional meiotic mapping methods is unlikely to succeed. Here the authors present the results of a search for a region that exhibits linkage disequilibrium with the disorder, under the assumption that identification of such a region may provide an alternative method of narrowing down the location of WRN, the gene responsible for WS. They present allele frequencies in Japanese and Caucasian cases and controls for D8S137, D8S131, D8S87, D8S278, D8S259, D8S283, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, ankyrin 1, D8S339, and two polymorphisms in glutathione reductase (GSR), covering [approximately] 16.5 cM in total. They show that three of the markers examined - D8S339 and both polymorphisms in the GSR locus - show strong statistically significant evidence of disequilibrium with WRN in the Japanese population but not in the Caucasian population. In addition, they show that a limited number of haplotypes are associated with the disease in both populations and that these haplotypes define clusters of apparently related haplotypes that may identify as many as eight or nine independent WRN mutations in these two populations. 36 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Game Design to Measure Reflexes and Attention Based on Biofeedback Multi-Sensor Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Vigon Uriarte, Inigo de Loyola; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya; Garcia-Chimeno, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-sensor system for implementing biofeedback as a human-computer interaction technique in a game involving driving cars in risky situations. The sensors used are: Eye Tracker, Kinect, pulsometer, respirometer, electromiography (EMG) and galvanic skin resistance (GSR). An algorithm has been designed which gives rise to an interaction logic with the game according to the set of physiological constants obtained from the sensors. The results reflect a 72.333 response to the System Usability Scale (SUS), a significant difference of p = 0.026 in GSR values in terms of the difference between the start and end of the game, and an r = 0.659 and p = 0.008 correlation while playing with the Kinect between the breathing level and the energy and joy factor. All the sensors used had an impact on the end results, whereby none of them should be disregarded in future lines of research, even though it would be interesting to obtain separate breathing values from that of the cardio. PMID:25789493

  10. A Comparison of Physiological Signal Analysis Techniques and Classifiers for Automatic Emotional Evaluation of Audiovisual Contents

    PubMed Central

    Colomer Granero, Adrián; Fuentes-Hurtado, Félix; Naranjo Ornedo, Valery; Guixeres Provinciale, Jaime; Ausín, Jose M.; Alcañiz Raya, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on finding the most discriminatory or representative features that allow to classify commercials according to negative, neutral and positive effectiveness based on the Ace Score index. For this purpose, an experiment involving forty-seven participants was carried out. In this experiment electroencephalography (EEG), electrocardiography (ECG), Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and respiration data were acquired while subjects were watching a 30-min audiovisual content. This content was composed by a submarine documentary and nine commercials (one of them the ad under evaluation). After the signal pre-processing, four sets of features were extracted from the physiological signals using different state-of-the-art metrics. These features computed in time and frequency domains are the inputs to several basic and advanced classifiers. An average of 89.76% of the instances was correctly classified according to the Ace Score index. The best results were obtained by a classifier consisting of a combination between AdaBoost and Random Forest with automatic selection of features. The selected features were those extracted from GSR and HRV signals. These results are promising in the audiovisual content evaluation field by means of physiological signal processing. PMID:27471462

  11. The origin of intermittent exhalation (A! Ha! Ha!) peculiar to human laugh.

    PubMed

    Sumitsuji, N

    2000-01-01

    Since Darwin (1872), the origin of the laugh with an intermittent exhalation "A! Ha! Ha!" which is peculiar to human, has been a great question. The author found out that this laugh is caused by the three sets of emotion. Firstly, light surprise or discovery. The ability to estimate "light" is absolutely important, because the amount of the first exhalation "A!" caused by the stimulation is decided by the amount of "surprise" felt by the subject. The ability to estimate the amount of "surprise" to be "light", makes the partial exhalation "A!". Secondly, consciousness of this harmlessness or delight, and thirdly, the following expectation of some safe circumstances. The author proved this theory by electromyography (EMG), photoplethysmography and galvanic skin reaction (GSR). The similarity between the facial EMG distribution pattern of "the beginning of laugh" and "the light surprise" was proved by electromyography about many facial muscles, with special fine electrode which did not disturb any natural facial expression of the subjects. Plethysmography and GSR proved light sympathetic tension and following relaxation when laughing. The author also suggests relationships between human laugh and human history such as the origin of clothing, language, and use of fire, which are specific in human. PMID:10938997

  12. Genetic data simulators and their applications: an overview.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Huann-Sheng; Mechanic, Leah E; Racine, Ben; Clarke, John; Gillanders, Elizabeth; Feuer, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Computer simulations have played an indispensable role in the development and applications of statistical models and methods for genetic studies across multiple disciplines. The need to simulate complex evolutionary scenarios and pseudo-datasets for various studies has fueled the development of dozens of computer programs with varying reliability, performance, and application areas. To help researchers compare and choose the most appropriate simulators for their studies, we have created the genetic simulation resources (GSR) website, which allows authors of simulation software to register their applications and describe them with more than 160 defined attributes. This article summarizes the properties of 93 simulators currently registered at GSR and provides an overview of the development and applications of genetic simulators. Unlike other review articles that address technical issues or compare simulators for particular application areas, we focus on software development, maintenance, and features of simulators, often from a historical perspective. Publications that cite these simulators are used to summarize both the applications of genetic simulations and the utilization of simulators. PMID:25504286

  13. Evaluating Autonomic Parameters: The Role of Sleep ‎Duration in Emotional Responses to Music ‎

    PubMed Central

    Goshvarpour‎, Atefeh; Abbasi, Ataollah; Goshvarpour‎, Ateke

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It has been recognized that sleep has an important effect on emotion processing. The aim ‎of this study was to investigate the effect of previous night sleep duration on autonomic ‎responses to musical stimuli in different emotional contexts.‎ Method: A frequency based measure of GSR, PR and ECG signals were examined in 35 healthy ‎students in three groups of oversleeping, lack of sleep and normal sleep. ‎ Results: The results of this study revealed that regardless of the emotional context of the musical ‎stimuli (happy, relax, fear, and sadness), there was an increase in the maximum power of ‎GSR, ECG and PR during the music time compared to the rest time in all the three ‎groups. In addition, the higher value of these measures was achieved while the ‎participants listened to relaxing music. Statistical analysis of the extracted features ‎between each pair of emotional states revealed that the most significant differences ‎were attained for ECG signals. These differences were more obvious in the participants ‎with normal sleeping (p<10-18). The higher value of the indices has been shown, ‎comparing long sleep duration with the normal one.‎ Conclusion: There was a strong relation between emotion and sleep duration, and this association can ‎be observed by means of the ECG signals.‎ PMID:27252770

  14. Emerging technology for the reduction of sulfur in FCC fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wormsbecher, R.F.; Weatherbee, G.D.; Kim, G.; Dougan, T.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Passage of the Clean Air Act of 1990 and new regulations issued in California will set new limits on the sulfur content of gasoline. Because most of the sulfur in the gasoline pool comes from FCC naphtha, there is a strong incentive to reduce the sulfur content of this stream in the most cost efficient manner. This work introduces emerging catalytic technology for the direct reduction of the sulfur content of FCC gasolines, called the GSR[trademark] (Gasoline Sulfur Reduction) technology. Studies of this new technology were carried out using the Davison Circulating Riser pilot unit. The GSR technology is shown to reduce the sulfur in FCC naphtha by 15%, with two feedstocks. It is shown that this technology is selective to sulfur species in the middle of the gasoline boiling range, and converts these species to H[sub 2]S, while preserving most of the base catalyst selectivities. Various other catalytic scenarios for minimizing the gasoline sulfur content are also given.

  15. Multiple Views of X1.4 Solar Flare on July 12, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the July 12, 2012 X1.4 class solar flare in a variety of wavelength; 131- Teal colored, 335 - blue colored, 171 - yellow colored and finally a combined wavelength view. All video w...

  16. MitoNEET Protects HL-1 Cardiomyocytes from Oxidative Stress Mediated Apoptosis in an In Vitro Model of Hypoxia and Reoxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Habener, Anika; Chowdhury, Arpita; Echtermeyer, Frank; Lichtinghagen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The iron-sulfur cluster containing protein mitoNEET is known to modulate the oxidative capacity of cardiac mitochondria but its function during myocardial reperfusion injury after transient ischemia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of mitoNEET on oxidative stress induced cell death and its relation to the glutathione-redox system in cardiomyocytes in an in vitro model of hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R). Our results show that siRNA knockdown (KD) of mitoNEET caused an 1.9-fold increase in H/R induced apoptosis compared to H/R control while overexpression of mitoNEET caused a 53% decrease in apoptosis. Necrosis was not affected. Apoptosis of both, mitoNEET-KD and control cells was diminished to comparable levels by using the antioxidants Tiron and glutathione compound glutathione reduced ethyl ester (GSH-MEE), indicating that mitoNEET-dependent apoptosis is mediated by oxidative stress. The interplay between mitoNEET and glutathione redox system was assessed by treating cardiomyocytes with 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylthio-carbonylamino) phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl] propionic acid (2-AAPA), known to effectively inhibit glutathione reductase (GSR) and to decrease the GSH/GSSG ratio. Surprisingly, inhibition of GSR-activity to 20% by 2-AAPA decreased apoptosis of control and mitoNEET-KD cells to 23% and 25% respectively, while at the same time mitoNEET-protein was increased 4-fold. This effect on mitoNEET-protein was not accessible by mitoNEET-KD but was reversed by GSH-MEE. In conclusion we show that mitoNEET protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis during H/R. Inhibition of GSH-recycling, GSR-activity by 2-AAPA increased mitoNEET-protein, accompanied by reduced apoptosis. Addition of GSH reversed these effects suggesting that mitoNEET can in part compensate for imbalances in the antioxidative glutathione-system and therefore could serve as a potential therapeutic approach for the

  17. Northern versus southern gateways control on ocean overturning circulation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition and possible implications to global cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelson, M.; Erez, J.

    2013-12-01

    There is a growing body of evidence indicating reorganization in the ocean overturning circulation during the transition from the Eocene to the Oligocene, in particular, the initiation of the northern-sourced overturning circulation that comprises the northern component water (NCW) and northward flowing intermediate water. This evidence includes Nd isotopes from the Southern Hemisphere, δ13C from intermediate water in the subtropical North Atlantic, and increasing difference in the benthic δ18O between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We compare all these sets of proxies and show that the increasing trends have been conjugated throughout most of the Oligocene indicating enhancement of the northern-sourced overturning circulation that began around the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT). This reorganization was attributed mainly to the development of the wind-driven Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC). Based on variety of geological inferences, we suggest that the shift to interhemispheric bipolar overturning circulation was initiated by buoyancy fluxes formed by the development of anti-estuarine circulation between the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic around the EOT, which significantly intensified the NCW. The Nordic anti-estuarine circulation began at a critical threshold during rapid tectonic subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) triggered by the suppression of the Iceland mantle plume. We show that the development of northern-sourced circulation cell during the Oligocene correlates compellingly with the histories of the GSR subsidence and the activity of the Iceland mantle plume, and to a lesser degree with the ACC history. Accordingly, this circulation was enhanced as long as the GSR subsided rapidly. The onset of the northern-sourced overturning circulation, which is the biologically productive circulation domain, has probably triggered the marked increase in the ocean productivity during the EOT. The relationship between the EOT climatic

  18. MitoNEET Protects HL-1 Cardiomyocytes from Oxidative Stress Mediated Apoptosis in an In Vitro Model of Hypoxia and Reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Habener, Anika; Chowdhury, Arpita; Echtermeyer, Frank; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Theilmeier, Gregor; Herzog, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The iron-sulfur cluster containing protein mitoNEET is known to modulate the oxidative capacity of cardiac mitochondria but its function during myocardial reperfusion injury after transient ischemia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of mitoNEET on oxidative stress induced cell death and its relation to the glutathione-redox system in cardiomyocytes in an in vitro model of hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R). Our results show that siRNA knockdown (KD) of mitoNEET caused an 1.9-fold increase in H/R induced apoptosis compared to H/R control while overexpression of mitoNEET caused a 53% decrease in apoptosis. Necrosis was not affected. Apoptosis of both, mitoNEET-KD and control cells was diminished to comparable levels by using the antioxidants Tiron and glutathione compound glutathione reduced ethyl ester (GSH-MEE), indicating that mitoNEET-dependent apoptosis is mediated by oxidative stress. The interplay between mitoNEET and glutathione redox system was assessed by treating cardiomyocytes with 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylthio-carbonylamino) phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl] propionic acid (2-AAPA), known to effectively inhibit glutathione reductase (GSR) and to decrease the GSH/GSSG ratio. Surprisingly, inhibition of GSR-activity to 20% by 2-AAPA decreased apoptosis of control and mitoNEET-KD cells to 23% and 25% respectively, while at the same time mitoNEET-protein was increased 4-fold. This effect on mitoNEET-protein was not accessible by mitoNEET-KD but was reversed by GSH-MEE. In conclusion we show that mitoNEET protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis during H/R. Inhibition of GSH-recycling, GSR-activity by 2-AAPA increased mitoNEET-protein, accompanied by reduced apoptosis. Addition of GSH reversed these effects suggesting that mitoNEET can in part compensate for imbalances in the antioxidative glutathione-system and therefore could serve as a potential therapeutic approach for the

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Quality of Recovery at Home After Day Surgery.

    PubMed

    Stessel, Björn; Fiddelers, Audrey A; Joosten, Elbert A; Hoofwijk, Daisy M N; Gramke, Hans-Fritz; Buhre, Wolfgang F F A

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, major complications and unanticipated admission/readmission rates were used to assess outcome after day surgery. However, in view of the relative absence of major complications the quality of recovery (QOR) should be considered one of the principal endpoints after day surgery. In our study, the level of QOR is defined by a combination of the Global Surgical Recovery (GSR) Index and the Quality of Life (QOL). The aim of this study was to analyze prevalence and predictors of QOR after day surgery on the fourth postoperative day. Elective patients scheduled for day surgery from November 2008 to April 2010 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Outcome parameters were measured by using questionnaire packages at 2 time points: 1 week preoperatively and 4 days postoperatively. Primary outcome parameter is the QOR and is defined as good if the GSR index >80% as well as the postoperative QOL is unchanged or improved as compared with baseline. QOR is defined as poor if both the GSR index ≤ 80% and if the postoperative QOL is decreased as compared with baseline. QOR is defined as intermediate in all other cases. Three logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors for poor QOR after day surgery. A total of 1118 patients were included. A good QOR was noted in 17.3% of patients, an intermediate QOR in 34.8%, and a poor QOR in 47.8% 4 days after day surgery. The best predictor for poor QOR after day surgery was type of surgery. Other predictors were younger age, work status, and longer duration of surgery. A history of previous surgery, expected pain (by the patient) and high long-term surgical fear were significant predictors of poor QOR in only 1 of 3 prediction models. The QOR at home 4 days after day surgery was poor in the majority of patients and showed a significant procedure-specific variation. Patients at risk for poor QOR can be identified during the preoperative period based on type of surgery, age, work status, and the

  20. Physiological Mechanisms Underlying the High-Grain Yield and High-Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Elite Rice Varieties under a Low Rate of Nitrogen Application in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lilian; Yuan, Shen; Huang, Liying; Sun, Fan; Zhu, Guanglong; Li, Guohui; Fahad, Shah; Peng, Shaobing; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Selecting rice varieties with a high nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) is the best approach to reduce N fertilizer application in rice production and is one of the objectives of the Green Super Rice (GSR) Project in China. However, the performance of elite candidate GSR varieties under low N supply remains unclear. In the present study, differences in the grain yield and NUE of 13 and 14 candidate varieties with two controls were determined at a N rate of 100 kg ha−1 in field experiments in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The grain yield for all of the rice varieties ranged from 8.67 to 11.09 t ha−1, except for a japonica rice variety YG29, which had a grain yield of 6.42 t ha−1. HY549 and YY4949 produced the highest grain yield, reflecting a higher biomass production and harvest index in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Total N uptake at maturity (TNPM) ranged from 144 to 210 kg ha−1, while the nitrogen use efficiency for grain production (NUEg) ranged from 35.2 to 62.0 kg kg−1. Both TNPM and NUEg showed a significant quadratic correlation with grain yield, indicating that it is possible to obtain high grain yield and NUEg with the reduction of TNPM. The correlation between N-related parameters and yield-related traits suggests that promoting pre-heading growth could increase TNPM, while high biomass accumulation during the grain filling period and large panicles are important for a higher NUEg. In addition, there were significant and negative correlations between the NUEg and N concentrations in leaf, stem, and grain tissues at maturity. Further improvements in NUEg require a reduction in the stem N concentration but not the leaf N concentration. The daily grain yield was the only parameter that significantly and positively correlated with both TNPMand NUEg. This study determined variations in the grain yield and NUE of elite candidate GSR rice varieties and provided plant traits that could be used as selection criteria in breeding N-efficient rice varieties

  1. Physiological Mechanisms Underlying the High-Grain Yield and High-Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Elite Rice Varieties under a Low Rate of Nitrogen Application in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lilian; Yuan, Shen; Huang, Liying; Sun, Fan; Zhu, Guanglong; Li, Guohui; Fahad, Shah; Peng, Shaobing; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Selecting rice varieties with a high nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) is the best approach to reduce N fertilizer application in rice production and is one of the objectives of the Green Super Rice (GSR) Project in China. However, the performance of elite candidate GSR varieties under low N supply remains unclear. In the present study, differences in the grain yield and NUE of 13 and 14 candidate varieties with two controls were determined at a N rate of 100 kg ha(-1) in field experiments in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The grain yield for all of the rice varieties ranged from 8.67 to 11.09 t ha(-1), except for a japonica rice variety YG29, which had a grain yield of 6.42 t ha(-1). HY549 and YY4949 produced the highest grain yield, reflecting a higher biomass production and harvest index in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Total N uptake at maturity (TNPM) ranged from 144 to 210 kg ha(-1), while the nitrogen use efficiency for grain production (NUEg) ranged from 35.2 to 62.0 kg kg(-1). Both TNPM and NUEg showed a significant quadratic correlation with grain yield, indicating that it is possible to obtain high grain yield and NUEg with the reduction of TNPM. The correlation between N-related parameters and yield-related traits suggests that promoting pre-heading growth could increase TNPM, while high biomass accumulation during the grain filling period and large panicles are important for a higher NUEg. In addition, there were significant and negative correlations between the NUEg and N concentrations in leaf, stem, and grain tissues at maturity. Further improvements in NUEg require a reduction in the stem N concentration but not the leaf N concentration. The daily grain yield was the only parameter that significantly and positively correlated with both TNPMand NUEg. This study determined variations in the grain yield and NUE of elite candidate GSR rice varieties and provided plant traits that could be used as selection criteria in breeding N-efficient rice varieties

  2. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  3. Prevalence and Predictors of Quality of Recovery at Home After Day Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stessel, Björn; Fiddelers, Audrey A.; Joosten, Elbert A.; Hoofwijk, Daisy M.N.; Gramke, Hans-Fritz; Buhre, Wolfgang F.F.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traditionally, major complications and unanticipated admission/readmission rates were used to assess outcome after day surgery. However, in view of the relative absence of major complications the quality of recovery (QOR) should be considered one of the principal endpoints after day surgery. In our study, the level of QOR is defined by a combination of the Global Surgical Recovery (GSR) Index and the Quality of Life (QOL). The aim of this study was to analyze prevalence and predictors of QOR after day surgery on the fourth postoperative day. Elective patients scheduled for day surgery from November 2008 to April 2010 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Outcome parameters were measured by using questionnaire packages at 2 time points: 1 week preoperatively and 4 days postoperatively. Primary outcome parameter is the QOR and is defined as good if the GSR index >80% as well as the postoperative QOL is unchanged or improved as compared with baseline. QOR is defined as poor if both the GSR index ≤80% and if the postoperative QOL is decreased as compared with baseline. QOR is defined as intermediate in all other cases. Three logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors for poor QOR after day surgery. A total of 1118 patients were included. A good QOR was noted in 17.3% of patients, an intermediate QOR in 34.8%, and a poor QOR in 47.8% 4 days after day surgery. The best predictor for poor QOR after day surgery was type of surgery. Other predictors were younger age, work status, and longer duration of surgery. A history of previous surgery, expected pain (by the patient) and high long-term surgical fear were significant predictors of poor QOR in only 1 of 3 prediction models. The QOR at home 4 days after day surgery was poor in the majority of patients and showed a significant procedure-specific variation. Patients at risk for poor QOR can be identified during the preoperative period based on type of surgery, age, work status, and

  4. VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER STATION IN THE CASTING SHOP. (OTHER UNITS MELT BRASS ALLOYS.) THIS IS THE SOUTHERNMOST FURNACE OF THE FOUR PRESENTLY IN SITU. THE CURRENT CASTING SHOP WAS CONSTRUCTED DURING THE EARLY 1970'S, REPLACING THE ORIGINAL PRE-WWI FACILITY. STATIONS #02, 03, AND 04 EACH CONSIST OF A HOLDER FLANKED BY A PAIR OF 800 KW ELECTRIC MELTERS. THE HOLDER IS REHEATED AT 85,000 LBS. SHAKER BOX, LOCATED AT THE REAR OF EACH MELTER SUPPLY THE MIXTURE OF INGREDIENTS REQUIRED FOR EACH PARTICULAR ALLOY. ONE MEMBER OF THE THREE-MAN CASTING TEAMS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SHAKING METAL INTO THE MELTERS. IN THE LOWER RIGHT ARE SHOWN THE MOLD STORAGE AREA AND THE FURNACE BUILDERS' AREA FOR CHIPPING AND REBRICKING OFF-LINE UNITS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  5. VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER STATION IN THE CASTING SHOP. (OTHER UNITS MELT BRASS ALLOYS.) THIS IS THE SOUTHERNMOST FURNACE OF THE FOUR PRESENTLY IN SITU. THE CURRENT CASTING SHOP WAS CONSTRUCTED DURING THE EARLY 1970'S, REPLACING THE ORIGINAL PRE-WWI FACILITY. STATIONS #02,03, AND 04 EACH CONSIST OF A HOLDER FLANKED BY A PAIR OF 800 KW ELECTRIC MELTERS. THE HOLDER IS RATED AT 85,000 LBS. SHAKER BOXES, LOCATED AT THE REAR OF EACH MELTER SUPPLY THE MIXTURE OF INGREDIENTS REQUIRED FOR EACH PARTICULAR ALLOY. ONE MEMBER OF THE THREE-MAN CASTING TEAMS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SHAKING METAL INTO THE MELTERS. IN THE LOWER RIGHT ARE SHOWN THE MOLD STORAGE AREA AND THE FURNACE BUILDERS' AREA FOR CHIPPING AND REBRICKING OFF-LINE UNITS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. Equipment Location Plan, partial first floor plan. (Includes identification of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Equipment Location Plan, partial first floor plan. (Includes identification of each separate CPU, tape drive, hard drive, printer, keyboard, etc., within the data processing center in the southwest part of the first floor.) March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, 465-L EDTCC/EDLCC. By International Electric Corporation, Paramus, New Jersey (3/5/62); for Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 85, approved March, 1962; specifications no. OCI-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/85, Rev. "A"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-quarter inch to one foot. 28.75x40.5 inches. ink on linen - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  7. Equipment Location Plan, partial basement plan. (Includes identification of each ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Equipment Location Plan, partial basement plan. (Includes identification of each separate CPU, tape drive, hard drive, printer, keyboard, etc., within the data processing center in the southeast part of the basement.) March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, 465-L DPC. By International Electric Corporation, Paramus, New Jersey (3/5/62); for Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 100, approved March, 1962; specifications no. OCI-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/100, Rev. "A"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-quarter inch to one foot. 28.75x40.5 inches. ink on linen - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  8. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 124: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Draft), Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 124, Areas 8, 15, and 16 Storage Tanks, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 124 consists of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8, 15, and 16 of the Nevada Test Site as follows: • 08-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 15-02-01, Irrigation Piping • 16-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 16-02-04, Fuel Oil Piping • 16-99-04, Fuel Line (Buried) and UST This plan provides the methodology of field activities necessary to gather information to close each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 124 using the SAFER process.

  9. ASYMPTOTICALLY OPTIMAL HIGH-ORDER ACCURATE ALGORITHMS FOR THE SOLUTION OF CERTAIN ELLIPTIC PDEs

    SciTech Connect

    Leonid Kunyansky, PhD

    2008-11-26

    The main goal of the project, "Asymptotically Optimal, High-Order Accurate Algorithms for the Solution of Certain Elliptic PDE's" (DE-FG02-03ER25577) was to develop fast, high-order algorithms for the solution of scattering problems and spectral problems of photonic crystals theory. The results we obtained lie in three areas: (1) asymptotically fast, high-order algorithms for the solution of eigenvalue problems of photonics, (2) fast, high-order algorithms for the solution of acoustic and electromagnetic scattering problems in the inhomogeneous media, and (3) inversion formulas and fast algorithms for the inverse source problem for the acoustic wave equation, with applications to thermo- and opto- acoustic tomography.

  10. Final Report: X-ray Studies of Materials Dynamics at MHATT-CAT Sector 7 , Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Clarke

    2006-04-25

    This Final Report describes the scientific accomplishments that have been achieved with support from grant DE-FG02-03ER46023 during the period 12/01/02 ? 11/30/05. The funding supported a vigorous scientific program allowing the PI to achieve leadership in a number of important areas. In particular, research carried out during this period has opened way to ultrafast dynamics studies of materials by combining the capabilities of synchrotron radiation with those of ultrafast lasers. This enables the initiation of laser-induced excitations and studies of their subsequent dynamics using laser-pump/x-ray probe techniques. Examples of such excitations include phonons, shock waves, excitons, spin-waves, and polaritons. The breadth of phenomena that can now be studied in the time-domain is very broad, revealing new phenomena and mechanisms that are critical to many applications of materials.

  11. Second floor plan. (Also includes a roof plan and finish ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Second floor plan. (Also includes a roof plan and finish schedule.) March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 13, approved March, 1962; specifications no. OCI-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/13, Rev. "C"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 7 February 1984. Roof plan scale one-sixteenth inch to one foot; second floor plan scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 28.75x41 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  12. [Microbiological quality of indoor air at the School of Building and Environmental Engineering at Białystok University of Technology].

    PubMed

    Butarewicz, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    The investigation of microbiological rate of indoor air pollution on Faculty of Building and Environmental Engineering at Białystok University of Technology were made by sedimentation method in accordance with Polish standards (PN-89/Z-04111/01,02,03). Six series of measurements were carried out from autumn 2002 to spring 2003. The results show bad microbiological quality of indoor air on Faculty of Building and Environmental Engineering at Białystok University of Technology. It was found that the number of Staphylococcus, Actinomycetales as well as the total count of bacteria were too high and broke the Polish regulations of the clear air. Because of the students' and other workers' safety, monitoring of microbiological pollution of the indoor air must be done and existing emergency to improve the quality of the air must be lead. PMID:16252812

  13. Sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 14, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/15, Rev. "A"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 30x36 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  14. First floor plan. (Also includes a door schedule and door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First floor plan. (Also includes a door schedule and door elevations). March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 12, approved March 1962; specifications no. OCI-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/12, Rev. "C"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 25 August 1975. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 28.5x 41 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  15. Elevations. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 14, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/14, Rev. "B"; file drawer 77-1/102. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 30x36 inches. photocopy on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  16. Surgical Outcome of Intradural Spinal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, M K; Sakeb, N; Ali, M Y; Awwal, M A; Khan, S I; Goni, M M; Mia, M B; Alam, M B; Zaman, N; Jannat, S N

    2016-07-01

    Results of 63 surgically treated intradural spinal tumors between the period of October 2003 and December 2014 at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and in our private settings, Dhaka, were analyzed retrospectively. There were 33 males, 30 females with an average age of 52.4 years (13-70 years) and followed up for at least a year. The preoperative symptom with duration, tumors location and intradural space occupancy and the histopathological diagnosis were analyzed. Pain was evaluated by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the neurologic function was assessed by Nurick's grade. The tumors were located as, thoracic (n=32, 50.79%), lumbar (n=16, 25.39%), cervical (n=05, 07.93%), and junctional (n=10, 15.87%, CervicoThoracic-01, Thoracolumbar-09). The histopathological diagnosis included schwannoma (n=30, 47.7%), meningiomas (n=14, 22.3%), neurofibroma, arachnoid cyst and myxopapillary ependymoma (n=03, 04.76%) each and paraganglioma (n=01, 01.59%). Among the intramedullary tumors, ependymoma (n=03, 04.76%), astrocytoma and epidermoid cyst (n=02, 03.17%), haemangioblastoma, paraganglioma and cavernous haemangioma (n=01, 01.59%) each. The VAS score was reduced in all cases from 8.0±1.2 to 1.2±0.8 (p<0.003) and the Nurick's grade was improved in all cases from 3.0±1.3 to 1.0±0.0 (p<0.005). The preoperative neurological deficit improved within 8 postoperative weeks in most cases and within 1 postoperative year in all cases. Complications included cerebrospinal fluid leakage, parasthesia and further neurological deterioration (Astrocytoma) (n=02, 03.17%) and dependant bedsore and recurrence (Ependymoma) (n=01, 01.59%). Aggressive surgical excision potentially minimizes neurologic morbidity and improved outcome except intramedullary tumors where initial treatment consists of maximum safe surgical resection or biopsy. PMID:27612900

  17. Effects of menstrual cycle and neuroticism on females' emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengying; Zhou, Renlai; Huang, Yamei

    2014-12-01

    Fifteen highly neurotic women and 21 women who were low in neuroticism participated in this study. The women were surveyed three times over a single menstrual cycle during the mid-late luteal, menstrual, and late follicular phases. Each time, the participants were asked to use reappraisal to regulate their emotions, which were evoked by a sad film clip, and their subjective emotional experiences and physiological responses were recorded. The results showed that neuroticism had no impact on emotion regulation, and the females experienced fluctuations in their emotion regulation success over their menstrual cycle. During the menstrual phase, women reported significantly higher levels of reappraisal, but subjective sadness did not differ throughout the three phases. Additionally, the regulation effects on galvanic skin response (GSR) were smaller during the menstrual phase than in the mid-late luteal phase. These results suggested that women in the menstrual phase expended more effort but gained less success at regulating their emotions. PMID:25312202

  18. Hypoarousal in patients with the neglect syndrome and emotional indifference.

    PubMed

    Heilman, K M; Schwartz, H D; Watson, R T

    1978-03-01

    Physiologic theories of emotion suggest that activation is important in the experience of emotion; patients exhibiting "neglect" as a consequence of right parietotemporal of dysfunction show flattened affect. We studied arousal in patients with lesions of the right hemisphere who also exhibited emotional indifference, in aphasic patients with lesions of the left hemisphere, and in non-brain-damaged controls, by stimulating the forearm ipsilateral to the side of the brain lesion while recording galvanic skin responses (GSRs) from the fingers on the same side. The group exhibiting neglect had lower GSRs than aphasic patients or non-brain-damaged controls. Aphasic patients had higher GSRs than non-brain-damaged controls. These results suggest that neglect is associated with disturbances in bilateral arousal and that this disorder of arousal may be responsible in part for flattened affect. The heightened GSR in aphasic patients may reflect disinhibition, which might be partly responsible for increased emotionality in these patients. PMID:564476

  19. Optoacoustic imaging quality enhancement based on geometrical super-resolution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hailong; Mandal, Subhamoy; Buehler, Andreas; Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-01

    In optoacoustic imaging, the resolution and image quality in a certain imaging position usually cannot be enhanced without changing the imaging configuration. Post-reconstruction image processing methods offer a new possibility to improve image quality and resolution. We have developed a geometrical super-resolution (GSR) method which uses information from spatially separated frames to enhance resolution and contrast in optoacoustic images. The proposed method acquires several low resolution images from the same object located at different positions inside the imaging plane. Thereafter, it applies an iterative registration algorithm to integrate the information in the acquired set of images to generate a single high resolution image. Herein, we present the method and evaluate its performance in simulation and phantom experiments, and results show that geometrical super-resolution techniques can be a promising alternative to enhance resolution in optoacoustic imaging.

  20. Image-based EPI real time ghost correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shunshan; Buonocore, Michael H.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a new, real-time, ghost correction method for echo planar imaging (EPI) that has been implemented using the Imaging Calculation Environment (ICE) on a 3T Siemens MRI System. Conventional methods for correcting EPI image ghost are based on image phase correction or on a reference scan. This new method is also based on image phase correction, but uses a new algorithm for automatic determination of the phase correction, which allows entirely automated operation. With implementation of the new correction method in ICE, ghost-corrected images are automatically generated and loaded into the system's image database immediately after completion of each EPI scan. Experiments showed that this real time ghost correction method consistently reduced the ghost intensity in EPI images and improved overall image quality. On average, the ghost to signal ratio (GSR) improved from 13.0% to 3.2% using the new method.

  1. Preliminary analysis of the use of smartwatches for longitudinal health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jovanov, Emil

    2015-08-01

    New generations of smartwatches feature continuous measurement of physiological parameters, such as heart rate, galvanic skin resistance (GSR), and temperature. In this paper we present the results of preliminary analysis of the use of Basis Peak smartwatch for longitudinal health monitoring during a 4 month period. Physiological measurements during sleep are validated using Zephyr Bioharness 3 monitor and SOMNOscreen+ polysomnographic monitoring system from SOMNOmedics. Average duration of sequences with no missed data was 49.9 minutes, with maximum length of 17 hours, and they represent 88.88% of recording time. Average duration of the charging event was 221.9 min, and average time between charges was 54 hours, with maximum duration of the charging event of 16.3 hours. Preliminary results indicate that the physiological monitoring performance of existing smartwatches provides sufficient performance for longitudinal monitoring of health status and analysis of health and wellness trends. PMID:26736399

  2. Global Sphere Reconstruction in the Astrometric Verification Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, U.; Vecchiato, A.; Bucciarelli, B.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Morbidelli, R.

    2011-02-01

    The Gaia space satellite will perform absolute astrometry, aiming at the definition of a global astrometric reference frame at visual wavelengths. Within this reference system, it will be very difficult to identify possible errors in the measurements or in the data reduction process that brings about the definition of the final catalogue. The Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has established an Astrometric Verification Unit (AVU) to verify crucial steps in the baseline data processing chain and report on any significant difference. This process is essential in order to guarantee a high quality catalogue to the larger scientific community. We describe here the global sphere reconstruction (GSR) component of AVU hosted by the Italian data processing centre at Torino (DPCT).

  3. Design considerations for intrusion detection wide-area surveillance radars for perimeters and borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Walker

    2009-05-01

    Ground Surveillance Radars (GSRs) can build a virtual wall around facilities or on a border. They provide operators and agents with much more time to assess, prioritize and apprehend intruders than a traditional fence system. The extra response time is one of the important features of the wide area surveillance concept, along with added benefits for both the operators and the response teams. These are described in detail in the paper. But all GSRs are not alike. There are two primary GSR technologies - Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) and Pulse Doppler. Most pulse Doppler radars are derivatives of legacy military battlefield radar technology being applied for wide area surveillance, while a new generation of FMCW radar technology has been developed for this new type of surveillance, applied to high value site security, airports, military bases, ports and borders. The purpose of this paper is to explore the benefits of each type of radar for the wide area application.

  4. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    SciTech Connect

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  5. Nickel and Copper Toxicity and Plant Response Mechanisms in White Birch (Betula papyrifera).

    PubMed

    Theriault, Gabriel; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-08-01

    Nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) are the most prevalent metals found in the soils in the Greater Sudbury Region (Canada) because of smelting emissions. The main objectives of the present study were to (1) determine the toxicity of nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) at different doses in Betula papyrifera (white birch), (2) Characterize nickel resistance mechanism, and (3) assess segregating patterns for Ni and Cu resistance in B. papyrifera populations. This study revealed that B. papyrifera is resistant to Ni and Cu concentrations equivalent to the levels reported in metal-contaminated stands in the GSR. Resistant genotypes (RG) accumulate Ni in roots but not in leaves. Moderately susceptible (MSG) and susceptible genotypes (SG) show a high level of Ni translocation to leaves. Gene expression analysis showed differential regulation of genes in RG compared to MSG and SG. Analysis of segregation patterns suggests that resistance to Ni and Cu is controlled by single recessive genes. PMID:27230027

  6. Forensic Evidence in Homicide Investigations and Prosecutions.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Tom; Regoeczi, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Even though forensic evidence is collected at virtually every homicide scene, only a few studies have examined its role in investigation and prosecution. This article adds to the literature by providing the results of a study of 294 homicide cases (315 victims) occurring in Cleveland, Ohio, between 2008 and 2011. Through a logistic regression on open versus closed cases, the collection of knives, administration of gunshot residue (GSR) kits, and clothing at the scene were positively and significantly related to case closures, while collection of ballistics evidence and DNA evidence were statistically significant in the opposite direction. With regard to analysis, the clearance rate for cases with probative results (i.e., matches or exclusions) was 63.1% compared to a closure rate of 56.3% for cases without probative results. However, only 23 cases had probative results prior to arrest compared to 128 cases with probative results after arrest. PMID:26174557

  7. Hereditary spherocytic anemia with deletion of the short arm of chromosome 8

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Wada, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Yoich

    1995-09-11

    We describe a 30-month-old boy with multiple anomalies and mental retardation with hereditary spherocytic anemia. His karyotype was 46,XYdel(8)(p11.23p21.1). Genes for ankyrin and glutathione reductase (GSR) were localized to chromosome areas 8p11.2 and 8p21.1, respectively. Six patients with spherocytic anemia and interstitial deletion of 8p- have been reported. In these patients, severe mental retardation and multiple anomalies are common findings. This is a new contiguous gene syndrome. Lux established that ankyrin deficiency and associated deficiencies of spectrin and protein 4.2 were responsible for spherocytosis in this syndrome. We reviewed the manifestations of this syndrome. Patients with spherocytic anemia and multiple congenital anomalies should be investigated by high-resolution chromosomal means to differentiate this syndrome. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. First experiences with 2D-mXRF analysis of gunshot residue on garment, tissue, and cartridge cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knijnenberg, Alwin; Stamouli, Amalia; Janssen, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The investigation of garment and human tissue originating from a victim of a shooting incident can provide crucial information for the reconstruction of such an incident. The use of 2D-mXRF for such investigations has several advantages over current methods as this new technique can be used to scan large areas, provides simultaneous information on multiple elements, can be applied under ambient conditions and is non-destructive. In this paper we report our experiences and challenges with the implementation of 2D-mXRF in GSR analysis. Currently we mainly focus on the use of 2D-mXRF as a tool for visualizing elemental distributions on various samples.

  9. LC-MS method development and comparison of sampling materials for the analysis of organic gunshot residues.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Anne-Laure; Weyermann, Céline

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at developing a LC-MS method to compare the efficiency of various sampling materials for the collection and subsequent analysis of organic gunshot residues (OGSR). Seven sampling materials, namely two "swab"-type and five "stub"-type collection materials, were tested. The evaluation of sampling materials was systematically carried out by first analyzing blank extracts of the materials to check for potential interferences and determining matrix effects. Based on these results, the best four materials, namely cotton buds, polyester swabs, a tape from 3M and PTFE were compared in terms of collection efficiency during shooting experiments using a set of 9mm Luger ammunition. It was found that the tape was capable of recovering the highest amounts of OGSR. As tape-lifting is the technique currently used in routine for inorganic GSR, OGSR analysis might be implemented without modifying IGSR sampling and analysis procedure. PMID:27023011

  10. Personalizing energy expenditure estimation using physiological signals normalization during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Altini, Marco; Penders, Julien; Vullers, Ruud; Amft, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we propose a generic approach to reduce inter-individual variability of different physiological signals (HR, GSR and respiration) by automatically estimating normalization parameters (e.g. baseline and range). The proposed normalization procedure does not require a dedicated personal calibration during system setup. On the other hand, normalization parameters are estimated at system runtime from sedentary and low intensity activities of daily living (ADLs), such as lying and walking. When combined with activity-specific energy expenditure (EE) models, our normalization procedure improved EE estimation by 15 to 33% in a study group of 18 participants, compared to state of the art activity-specific EE models combining accelerometer and non-normalized physiological signals. PMID:25120177

  11. Biochemical and galvanic skin responses to music stimuli by college students in biology and music.

    PubMed

    VanderArk, S D; Ely, D

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine biochemical and physiological responses to musical stimuli. Specifically, university music and biology students' plasma levels of norepinephrine, endorphin, and cortisol, and their galvanic skin responses were measured before and after listening to two different musical selections in an anechoic chamber and during controlled silence. The results indicated that biochemical variables changed significantly in both groups during listening to music but were not different during the controlled silence. These data suggest that music majors may listen more analytically to music. GSR responses were significantly higher for music majors than biology majors, and plasma cortisol increased in music students but decreased in biology students. Music which elicits specific emotions induces physiological changes which may be beneficial to relaxation and behavioral therapies. PMID:1501973

  12. THE ORIGIN OF THE VIRGO STELLAR SUBSTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yam, William; Willett, Benjamin A.; Newberg, Heidi J.; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.; Majewski, Steven R.

    2012-07-10

    We present three-dimensional space velocities of stars selected to be consistent with membership in the Virgo stellar substructure. Candidates were selected from SA 103, a single 40' Multiplication-Sign 40' field from our proper-motion (PM) survey in Kapteyn's Selected Areas (SAs), based on the PMs, Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry, and follow-up spectroscopy of 215 stars. The signature of the Virgo substructure is clear in the SDSS color-magnitude diagram (CMD) centered on SA 103, and 16 stars are identified that have high Galactocentric-frame radial velocities (V{sub GSR} > 50 km s{sup -1}) and lie near the CMD locus of Virgo. The implied distance to the Virgo substructure from the candidates is 14 {+-} 3 kpc. We derive mean kinematics from these 16 stars, finding a radial velocity V{sub GSR} = 153 {+-} 22 km s{sup -1} and proper motions ({mu}{sub {alpha}}cos {delta}, {mu}{sub {delta}}) = (- 5.24, -0.91) {+-} (0.43, 0.46) mas yr{sup -1}. From the mean kinematics of these members, we determine that the Virgo progenitor was on an eccentric (e {approx} 0.8) orbit that recently passed near the Galactic center (pericentric distance R{sub p} {approx} 6 kpc). This destructive orbit is consistent with the idea that the substructure(s) in Virgo originated in the tidal disruption of a Milky Way satellite. N-body simulations suggest that the entire cloud-like Virgo substructure (encompassing the 'Virgo Overdensity' and the 'Virgo Stellar Stream') is likely the tidal debris remnant from a recently disrupted massive ({approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }) dwarf galaxy. The model also suggests that some other known stellar overdensities in the Milky Way halo (e.g., the Pisces Overdensity and debris near NGC 2419 and SEGUE 1) are explained by the disruption of the Virgo progenitor.

  13. Bottom temperature and salinity distribution and its variability around Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Schnurr, Sarah M.; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-05-01

    The barrier formed by the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge (GSR) shapes the oceanic conditions in the region around Iceland. Deep water cannot be exchanged across the ridge, and only limited water mass exchange in intermediate layers is possible through deep channels, where the flow is directed southwestward (the Nordic Overflows). As a result, the near-bottom water masses in the deep basins of the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas hold major temperature differences. Here, we use near-bottom measurements of about 88,000 CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) and bottle profiles, collected in the period 1900-2008, to investigate the distribution of near-bottom properties. Data are gridded into regular boxes of about 11 km size and interpolated following isobaths. We derive average spatial temperature and salinity distributions in the region around Iceland, showing the influence of the GSR on the near-bottom hydrography. The spatial distribution of standard deviation is used to identify local variability, which is enhanced near water mass fronts. Finally, property changes within the period 1975-2008 are presented using time series analysis techniques for a collection of grid boxes with sufficient data resolution. Seasonal variability, as well as long term trends are discussed for different bottom depth classes, representing varying water masses. The seasonal cycle is most pronounced in temperature and decreases with depth (mean amplitudes of 2.2 °C in the near surface layers vs. 0.2 °C at depths > 500 m), while linear trends are evident in both temperature and salinity (maxima in shallow waters of +0.33 °C/decade for temperature and +0.03/decade for salinity).

  14. Genetic Biomarkers for ALS Disease in Transgenic SOD1G93A Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Ana C.; Manzano, Raquel; Atencia-Cibreiro, Gabriela; Oliván, Sara; Muñoz, María J.; Zaragoza, Pilar; Cordero-Vázquez, Pilar; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; García-Redondo, Alberto; Osta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms of both familial and sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are unknown, although growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle tissue is a primary target of ALS toxicity. Skeletal muscle biopsies were performed on transgenic SOD1G93A mice, a mouse model of ALS, to determine genetic biomarkers of disease longevity. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and three biopsy samples were obtained per animal at the three main stages of the disease. Transcriptional expression levels of seventeen genes, Ankrd1, Calm1, Col19a1, Fbxo32, Gsr, Impa1, Mef2c, Mt2, Myf5, Myod1, Myog, Nnt, Nogo A, Pax7, Rrad, Sln and Snx10, were tested in each muscle biopsy sample. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol Reagent according to the manufacturer's protocol, and variations in gene expression were assayed by real-time PCR for all of the samples. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the linear correlation between transcriptional expression levels throughout disease progression and longevity. Consistent with the results obtained from total skeletal muscle of transgenic SOD1G93A mice and 74-day-old denervated mice, five genes (Mef2c, Gsr, Col19a1, Calm1 and Snx10) could be considered potential genetic biomarkers of longevity in transgenic SOD1G93A mice. These results are important because they may lead to the exploration of previously unexamined tissues in the search for new disease biomarkers and even to the application of these findings in human studies. PMID:22412900

  15. The Origin of the Virgo Stellar Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yam, William; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Willett, Benjamin A.; Newberg, Heidi J.; Majewski, Steven R.; Girard, Terrence M.

    2012-07-01

    We present three-dimensional space velocities of stars selected to be consistent with membership in the Virgo stellar substructure. Candidates were selected from SA 103, a single 40' × 40' field from our proper-motion (PM) survey in Kapteyn's Selected Areas (SAs), based on the PMs, Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry, and follow-up spectroscopy of 215 stars. The signature of the Virgo substructure is clear in the SDSS color-magnitude diagram (CMD) centered on SA 103, and 16 stars are identified that have high Galactocentric-frame radial velocities (V GSR > 50 km s-1) and lie near the CMD locus of Virgo. The implied distance to the Virgo substructure from the candidates is 14 ± 3 kpc. We derive mean kinematics from these 16 stars, finding a radial velocity V GSR = 153 ± 22 km s-1 and proper motions (μαcos δ, μδ) = (- 5.24, -0.91) ± (0.43, 0.46) mas yr-1. From the mean kinematics of these members, we determine that the Virgo progenitor was on an eccentric (e ~ 0.8) orbit that recently passed near the Galactic center (pericentric distance Rp ~ 6 kpc). This destructive orbit is consistent with the idea that the substructure(s) in Virgo originated in the tidal disruption of a Milky Way satellite. N-body simulations suggest that the entire cloud-like Virgo substructure (encompassing the "Virgo Overdensity" and the "Virgo Stellar Stream") is likely the tidal debris remnant from a recently disrupted massive (~109 M ⊙) dwarf galaxy. The model also suggests that some other known stellar overdensities in the Milky Way halo (e.g., the Pisces Overdensity and debris near NGC 2419 and SEGUE 1) are explained by the disruption of the Virgo progenitor.

  16. Experience with V-STORE: considerations on presence in virtual environments for effective neuropsychological rehabilitation of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Lo Priore, Corrado; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Liccione, Diego; Liccione, Davide

    2003-06-01

    The paper discusses the use of immersive virtual reality systems for the cognitive rehabilitation of dysexecutive syndrome, usually caused by prefrontal brain injuries. With respect to classical P&P and flat-screen computer rehabilitative tools, IVR systems might prove capable of evoking a more intense and compelling sense of presence, thanks to the highly naturalistic subject-environment interaction allowed. Within a constructivist framework applied to holistic rehabilitation, we suggest that this difference might enhance the ecological validity of cognitive training, partly overcoming the implicit limits of a lab setting, which seem to affect non-immersive procedures especially when applied to dysexecutive symptoms. We tested presence in a pilot study applied to a new VR-based rehabilitation tool for executive functions, V-Store; it allows patients to explore a virtual environment where they solve six series of tasks, ordered for complexity and designed to stimulate executive functions, programming, categorical abstraction, short-term memory and attention. We compared sense of presence experienced by unskilled normal subjects, randomly assigned to immersive or non-immersive (flat screen) sessions of V-Store, through four different indexes: self-report questionnaire, psychophysiological (GSR, skin conductance), neuropsychological (incidental recall memory test related to auditory information coming from the "real" environment) and count of breaks in presence (BIPs). Preliminary results show in the immersive group a significantly higher GSR response during tasks; neuropsychological data (fewer recalled elements from "reality") and less BIPs only show a congruent but yet non-significant advantage for the immersive condition; no differences were evident from the self-report questionnaire. A larger experimental group is currently under examination to evaluate significance of these data, which also might prove interesting with respect to the question of objective

  17. Application of talcum powder, trichloroacetic acid and silver nitrate in female rats for non-surgical sterilization: evaluation of the apoptotic pathway mRNA and miRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Yumrutas, Onder; Kara, Murat; Atilgan, Remzi; Kavak, Salih Burcin; Bozgeyik, Ibrahim; Sapmaz, Ekrem

    2015-04-01

    There are several methods used for non-surgical sterilization in birth control including quinacrine, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), erythromycin, tetracycline, silver nitrate and talcum powder. Among these, talcum powder, TCA and silver nitrate are the most commonly used. However, the toxic and carcinogenic activities of these chemicals in ovarian tissue have been poorly elucidated. This study demonstrates the expression levels of antioxidant, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes after administration of talc powder, TCA and silver nitrate for non-surgical sterilization in female rat models. The expression changes of some microRNAs (miR-15b, miR-21, miR-34a and miR-98) that play key roles in the apoptosis pathway were also included. All expression analyses were evaluated with real-time PCR. The expression levels of all genes appeared to be upregulated in the talcum powder group, but the results were not statistically significant. Increased expression of Gsr and Sod1 genes was statistically significant in the talcum powder group. In TCA and silver nitrate group, expression of all genes was appeared to be elevated but only the Gsr expression was statistically significant in the TCA-administrated group; there were no statistically significant changes in the silver nitrate group. miRNA expression levels were increased in talcum powder and TCA-administrated groups, but these results were not significant. Expression levels of miR-15b, miR-21 and miR-98 in the silver nitrate group were significantly increased. Consequently, these chemicals appear to be non-carcinogenic agents for rat ovarian tissue which do not induce apoptosis. However, talcum powder and TCA can be considered as agents that are toxic to ovarian tissue. PMID:25885949

  18. Protective effects of different antioxidants against cadmium induced oxidative damage in rat testis and prostate tissues.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Zahra, Asia; Irum, Umaira; Iftikhar, Natasha; Ullah, Hizb

    2014-08-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effects of different antioxidants on testicular histopathology and oxidative damage induced by cadmium (Cd) in rat testis and prostate. Twenty five rats were equally divided into five groups (n = 5/group). The control group was injected subcutaneously with saline while the Cd alone treated group received a subcutaneous injection of 0.2 mg/kg CdCl(2). Other groups were treated with sulphoraphane (25 µg/rat), vitamin E (75 mg/kg), and Ficus Religiosa plant extract (100 mg/kg) orally along with subcutaneous injections of 0.2 mg/kg CdCl(2) for fifteen days. Oxidative damage in the testicular and prostate tissues were assessed by the estimation of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GSR) activity. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein estimation, and histomorphology were also assessed. Cadmium exposure caused a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes like CAT, POD, SOD, GSR, protein concentrations, and a marked increase in TBARS activity in rat testis and prostate. Histological examination of adult male rat testes showed a disruption in the arrangement of seminiferous tubules along with a reduction in the number of germ cells, Leydig cells, tunica albuginea thickness, diameter of seminiferous tubules, and height of germinal epithelium. Co-treatment with vitamin E, sulphoraphane, and Ficus religiosa were found to be effective in reversing Cd induced toxicity, representing potential therapeutic options to protect the reproductive tissues from the detrimental effects of Cd toxicity. PMID:24758558

  19. Effect of static magnetic fields and phloretin on antioxidant defense system of human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna; Kimsa-Dudek, Magdalena; Synowiec-Wojtarowicz, Agnieszka; Orchel, Joanna; Glinka, Marek; Gawron, Stanisław

    2016-08-01

    The available evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies is deemed not sufficient to draw conclusions about the potential health effects of static magnetic field (SMF) exposure. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the influence of static magnetic fields and phloretin on the redox homeostasis of human dermal fibroblasts. Control fibroblasts and fibroblasts treated with phloretin were subjected to the influence of static magnetic fields. Three chambers with static magnetic fields of different intensities (0.4, 0.55, and 0.7 T) were used in the study. Quantification of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1), glutathione reductase (GSR), and catalase (CAT) messenger RNAs (mRNAs) was performed by means of real-time reverse transcription PCR (QRT-PCR) technique. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured using a commercially available kit. No significant differences were found in SOD1, SOD2, GPX1, MGST1, GSR, and CAT mRNA levels among the studied groups in comparison to the control culture without phloretin and without the magnet. There were also no changes in SOD, GPx, and CAT activities. In conclusion, our study indicated that static magnetic fields generated by permanent magnets do not exert a negative influence on the oxidative status of human dermal fibroblasts. Based on these studies, it may also be concluded that phloretin does not increase its antioxidant properties under the influence of static magnetic fields. However, SMF-induced modifications at the cellular and molecular level require further clarification. PMID:27080405

  20. New isoforms and assembly of glutamine synthetase in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaochun; Wei, Yihao; Shi, Lanxin; Ma, Xinming; Theg, Steven M

    2015-11-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) plays a crucial role in the assimilation and re-assimilation of ammonia derived from a wide variety of metabolic processes during plant growth and development. Here, three developmentally regulated isoforms of GS holoenzyme in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings are described using native-PAGE with a transferase activity assay. The isoforms showed different mobilities in gels, with GSII>GSIII>GSI. The cytosolic GSI was composed of three subunits, GS1, GSr1, and GSr2, with the same molecular weight (39.2kDa), but different pI values. GSI appeared at leaf emergence and was active throughout the leaf lifespan. GSII and GSIII, both located in the chloroplast, were each composed of a single 42.1kDa subunit with different pI values. GSII was active mainly in green leaves, while GSIII showed brief but higher activity in green leaves grown under field conditions. LC-MS/MS experiments revealed that GSII and GSIII have the same amino acid sequence, but GSII has more modification sites. With a modified blue native electrophoresis (BNE) technique and in-gel catalytic activity analysis, only two GS isoforms were observed: one cytosolic and one chloroplastic. Mass calibrations on BNE gels showed that the cytosolic GS1 holoenzyme was ~490kDa and likely a dodecamer, and the chloroplastic GS2 holoenzyme was ~240kDa and likely a hexamer. Our experimental data suggest that the activity of GS isoforms in wheat is regulated by subcellular localization, assembly, and modification to achieve their roles during plant development. PMID:26307137

  1. Crystal Structures Reveal the Multi-Ligand Binding Mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus ClfB

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiawei; Liu, Bao; Chen, Yeguang; Liu, Lei; Deng, Xuming; Yang, Maojun

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) pathogenesis is a complex process involving a diverse array of extracellular and cell wall components. ClfB, an MSCRAMM (Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules) family surface protein, described as a fibrinogen-binding clumping factor, is a key determinant of S. aureus nasal colonization, but the molecular basis for ClfB-ligand recognition remains unknown. In this study, we solved the crystal structures of apo-ClfB and its complexes with fibrinogen α (Fg α) and cytokeratin 10 (CK10) peptides. Structural comparison revealed a conserved glycine-serine-rich (GSR) ClfB binding motif (GSSGXGXXG) within the ligands, which was also found in other human proteins such as Engrailed protein, TCF20 and Dermokine proteins. Interaction between Dermokine and ClfB was confirmed by subsequent binding assays. The crystal structure of ClfB complexed with a 15-residue peptide derived from Dermokine revealed the same peptide binding mode of ClfB as identified in the crystal structures of ClfB-Fg α and ClfB-CK10. The results presented here highlight the multi-ligand binding property of ClfB, which is very distinct from other characterized MSCRAMMs to-date. The adherence of multiple peptides carrying the GSR motif into the same pocket in ClfB is reminiscent of MHC molecules. Our results provide a template for the identification of other molecules targeted by S. aureus during its colonization and infection. We propose that other MSCRAMMs like ClfA and SdrG also possess multi-ligand binding properties. PMID:22719251

  2. Crystal structures reveal the multi-ligand binding mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus ClfB.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hua; Feng, Yue; Wang, Jiawei; Liu, Bao; Chen, Yeguang; Liu, Lei; Deng, Xuming; Yang, Maojun

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) pathogenesis is a complex process involving a diverse array of extracellular and cell wall components. ClfB, an MSCRAMM (Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules) family surface protein, described as a fibrinogen-binding clumping factor, is a key determinant of S. aureus nasal colonization, but the molecular basis for ClfB-ligand recognition remains unknown. In this study, we solved the crystal structures of apo-ClfB and its complexes with fibrinogen α (Fg α) and cytokeratin 10 (CK10) peptides. Structural comparison revealed a conserved glycine-serine-rich (GSR) ClfB binding motif (GSSGXGXXG) within the ligands, which was also found in other human proteins such as Engrailed protein, TCF20 and Dermokine proteins. Interaction between Dermokine and ClfB was confirmed by subsequent binding assays. The crystal structure of ClfB complexed with a 15-residue peptide derived from Dermokine revealed the same peptide binding mode of ClfB as identified in the crystal structures of ClfB-Fg α and ClfB-CK10. The results presented here highlight the multi-ligand binding property of ClfB, which is very distinct from other characterized MSCRAMMs to-date. The adherence of multiple peptides carrying the GSR motif into the same pocket in ClfB is reminiscent of MHC molecules. Our results provide a template for the identification of other molecules targeted by S. aureus during its colonization and infection. We propose that other MSCRAMMs like ClfA and SdrG also possess multi-ligand binding properties. PMID:22719251

  3. Using molecular biomarkers and traditional morphometric measurements to assess the health of slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) from streams with elevated selenium in North-Eastern British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lana L; Isaacs, Meghan A; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2015-10-01

    Canadian fish-based environmental effects monitoring programs use individual and population-level endpoints to assess aquatic health. Impacts of coal mining and selenium (Se) exposure were assessed in slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) from reference streams located both inside and outside of a coal zone, and from 1 stream with a history of coal mining, using traditional environmental effects monitoring endpoints. In addition, physical characteristics of the streams and benthic macro-invertebrate communities were assessed. To determine whether the assessment of effects could be improved by including molecular markers, real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were optimized for genes associated with reproduction (vtg, esr1, star, cyp19a1, and gys2), and oxidative and cellular stress (sod1, gpx, gsr, cat, and hsp 90). Water Se levels exceeded guidelines in the stream with historical mining (4 μg/L), but benthic macroinvertebrates did not exceed dietary thresholds (2-3 μg/g dry wt). Whole-body Se levels were above British Columbia's tissue guideline in fish from all streams, but only above the draft US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) criterion (7.91 μg/g dry wt) at the reference stream inside the coal zone. Some markers of cellular and oxidative stress were elevated in fish liver at the exposed site (sod1, gpx), but some were lower (cat, sod1, gpx, gsr, hsp90) in the gonads of fish inside the coal zone. Some of the differences in gene expression levels between the reference and impacted sites were sex dependent. Based on benthic macroinvertebrate assessments, the authors hypothesize that traditional and molecular differences in slimy sculpin at impacted sites may be driven by food availability rather than Se exposure. The present study is the first to adapt molecular endpoints in the slimy sculpin for aquatic health assessments. PMID:25982233

  4. Environmental assessment on electrokinetic remediation of multimetal-contaminated site: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Yoo, Jong-Chan; Hwang, Bo-Ram; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2014-05-01

    In this study, an environmental assessment on an electrokinetic (EK) system for the remediation of a multimetal-contaminated real site was conducted using a green and sustainable remediation (GSR) tool. The entire EK process was classified into major four phases consisting of remedial investigations (RIs), remedial action construction (RAC), remedial action operation (RAO), and long-term monitoring (LTM) for environmental assessment. The environmental footprints, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, total energy used, air emissions of criteria pollutants, such as NOx, SOx, and PM10, and water consumption, were calculated, and the relative contribution in each phase was analyzed in the environmental assessment. In the RAC phase, the relative contribution of the GHG emissions, total energy used, and PM10 emissions were 77.3, 67.6, and 70.4%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases because the material consumption and equipment used for system construction were high. In the RAO phase, the relative contributions of water consumption and NOx and SOx emissions were 94.7, 85.2, and 91.0%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases, because the water and electricity consumption required for system operation was high. In the RIs and LTM phases, the environmental footprints were negligible because the material and energy consumption was less. In conclusion, the consumable materials and electrical energy consumption might be very important for GSR in the EK remediation process, because the production of consumable materials and electrical energy consumption highly affects the GHG emissions, total energy used, and air emissions such as NOx and SOx. PMID:24515871

  5. Depression, anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment are associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat model of social stress

    PubMed Central

    Patki, Gaurav; Solanki, Naimesh; Atrooz, Fatin; Allam, Farida; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have examined the behavioral and biochemical effect of induction of psychological stress using a modified version of the resident-intruder model for social stress (social defeat). At the end of the social defeat protocol, body weights, food and water intake were recorded, depression and anxiety-like behaviors as well as learning-memory function was examined. Biochemical analysis including oxidative stress measurement, inflammatory markers and other molecular parameters, critical to behavioral effects were examined. We observed a significant decrease in the body weight in the socially defeated rats as compared to the controls. Furthermore, social defeat increased anxiety-like behavior and caused memory impairment in rats (P<0.05). Socially defeated rats made significantly more errors in long term memory tests (P<0.05) as compared to control rats. Furthermore, brain extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), and an inflammatory marker, interleukin (IL)-6 were activated (P<0.05), while the protein levels of glyoxalase (GLO)-1, glutathione reductase (GSR)-1, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type (CAMK)-IV, cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were significantly less (P<0.05) in the hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of socially defeated rats, when compared to control rats. We suggest that social defeat stress alters ERK1/2, IL-6, GLO1, GSR1, CAMKIV, CREB, and BDNF levels in specific brain areas, leading to oxidative stress-induced anxiety-depression-like behaviors and as well as memory impairment in rats. PMID:24096214

  6. The influence of the 2:1 yogic breathing technique on essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Adhana, Ritu; Gupta, Rani; Dvivedii, Jyoti; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2013-01-01

    In 2:1 breathing exhalation is twice of inhalation. The study was performed to study the influence of 2:1 yogic breathing technique on patients of essential hypertension. 30 patients of essential hypertension between ages of 20-50 years were selected. After a rest of 15-20 minutes in a comfortable sitting posture their baseline physiological parameters recorded on a digital polygraph were, Electromyogram (EMG), Galvanic skin response (GSR), Finger tip temperature (FTT), Heart rate(HR) and Respiratory rate(RR). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were recorded by automated digital Sphygmomanometer. Then they were guided to do 2:1 breathing maintaining respiratory rate of around 6/min. Subjects were then instructed to do 2:1 breathing twice a day for 5-7 minutes for next 3 months. Subjects reported back weekly for recording of BP. The physiological parameters of the subjects were assessed again by polygraph at the end of three months of practicing 2:1 yogic breathing. The mean fall of SBP over 12 weeks was 12 mm Hg (8%) and DBP was 7 mm Hg (7%). P value < 0.001 in both. After practicing 2:1 breathing for 3 months there was statistically significant reduction of SBP, DBP, HR RR, EMG, GSR and rise in FTT. The study showed that 2:1 breathing technique caused a comprehensive change in body physiology by altering various parameters that are governed by the autonomic nervous system. It is an effective modality for management of essential hypertension. PMID:24020097

  7. Use of luminescent gunshot residues markers in forensic context.

    PubMed

    Weber, I T; Melo, A J G; Lucena, M A M; Consoli, E F; Rodrigues, M O; de Sá, G F; Maldaner, A O; Talhavini, M; Alves, S

    2014-11-01

    Chemical evaluation of gunshot residues (GSR) produced by non-toxic lead-free ammunition (NTA) has been a challenge to forensic analyses. Our group developed some luminescent markers specific to the detection of GSR. Here, we evaluated the performance of selected markers in experiments that mimic forensic context and/or routines in which luminescent characteristics would be very useful. We evaluated the influence of markers' addition on the bullet's speed, the rate of shot failure (i.e., when the cartridge case is not fully ejected and/or a new ammunition is not automatically replaced in the gun chamber) as a function of marker percentage, the possibility of collecting luminescent gunshot residue (LGSR) in unconventional locations (e.g. the shooters' nostrils), the LGSR lifetime after hand washing, the transfer of LGSR to objects handled by the shooter, and the dispersion of LGSR at the crime scene and on simulated victims. It was observed that high amounts of marker (10 wt%) cause high rates of failure on pistols, as well as a substantial decrease in bullet speed. However, the use of 2 wt% of marker minimizes these effects and allows LGSR detection, collection and analysis. Moreover, in all conditions tested, markers showed high performance and provided important information for forensic analyses. For instance, the LGSR particles were found on the floor, ranging from 0 to 9.4 m away from the shooter, on the door panel and seats after a car shooting experiment, and were found easily on a pig leg used to simulate a victim. When a selective tagging was done, it was possible to obtain positive or negative correlation between the victim and shooter. Additionally LGSR possesses a fairly long lifetime (9 h) and good resistance to hand washing (up to 16 washes). PMID:25305530

  8. The Influence of North Atlantic Valves and Gateways on Neogene Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Our current proxies for pCO2 suggest Neogene levels were relatively constant (~300 ± 100 ppm) except for the middle Miocene Climatic Optimum with estimates approaching 400 ± 100 ppm. Yet, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet became a polar ice sheet and permanent feature on Earth while large-scale Northern Hemisphere ice sheets waxed and waned with scant differences in pCO2. Three possibilities to explain these observations are: 1) our pCO2 proxies are incorrect; 2) Earth's climate is far more sensitive than our current model simulations suggest; or 3) tectonic differences overprinted accepted climate sensitivity to pCO2. Two marine gateways that influenced Neogene deep-water circulation are the Greenland-Scotland Ridge and the Central American Isthmus (CAI). Driven by mantle plume variations under Iceland, the GSR acted as a regulator of Northern Component Water (NCW, analogous to NADW) by controlling access to the dense polar waters to the north. During the latest Miocene and early Pliocene, mean depths along the GSR and NCW production were at their greatest. By the late Pliocene (~3 Ma), mantle plume activity increased and NCW production waned. Most researchers have focused on surface water changes (e.g., salinity) in relating closure of the CAI to Pliocene climate change. However, I propose that its primary influence came with the elimination of low-latitude, deep-water connection between the Atlantic and Pacific. Combined with vigorous NCW production, closure of the CAI re-distributed nutrients between the oceans. Carbon isotope and Cd/Ca profiles indicate that "modern" basin-to-basin differences started during the latest Miocene and were fully developed in the Pliocene. The South Atlantic path for NCW also delivered heat to the Southern Ocean, facilitating sea ice changes, as indicated by biosiliceous patterns. These tectonic boundary changes and their affects on surface and deep water circulation contributed to the Pliocene pause in global cooling that began in

  9. The head-tail structure of high-velocity clouds. A survey of the northern sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüns, C.; Kerp, J.; Kalberla, P. M. W.; Mebold, U.

    2000-05-01

    We present new observational results on high-velocity clouds (HVCs) based on an analysis of the Leiden/Dwingeloo \\ion{HI} survey. We cataloged all HVCs with N_HI>= 1*1019 cm-2 and found 252 clouds that form a representative flux limited sample. The detailed analysis of each individual HVC in this sample revealed a significant number of HVCs (nearly 20%) having simultaneously a velocity and a column density gradient. These HVCs have a cometary appearance in the position-velocity representation and are called henceforward head-tail HVCs (HT HVCs). The head is the region with the highest column density of the HVC, while the column density of the tail is in general much lower (by a factor of 2-4). The absolute majority of the cataloged HVCs belongs to the well known HVC complexes. With exception of the very faint HVC complex L, all HVC complexes contain HT HVCs. The HT HVCs were analyzed statistically with respect to their physical parameters like position, velocity (v_LSR, v_GSR), and column density. We found a linear correlation between the fraction of HVCs having a head-tail structure and the peak column density of the HVCs. While there is no correlation between the fraction of HT HVCs and v_LSR, we found a dependence of the fraction of HT HVCs and v_GSR. There is no significant correlation between the fraction of HT HVCs and the parameters galactic longitude and latitude. The HT HVCs may be interpreted as HVCs that are currently interacting with their ambient medium. In the context of this model the tails represent material that is stripped off from the HVC core. We discuss the implications of this model for galactic and extragalactic HVCs.

  10. Enhancing Cognitive and Social-Emotional Development through a Simple-to-Administer Mindfulness-Based School Program for Elementary School Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Oberle, Eva; Lawlor, Molly Stewart; Abbott, David; Thomson, Kimberly; Oberlander, Tim F.; Diamond, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that a social and emotional learning (SEL) program involving mindfulness and caring for others, designed for elementary school students, would enhance cognitive control, reduce stress, promote well-being and prosociality, and produce positive school outcomes. To test this hypothesis, 4 classes of combined 4th and 5th…

  11. AR 1121 Unleases X-ray Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    Increasingly active sunspot 1121 has unleashed one of the brightest x-ray solar flares in years, an M5.4-class eruption at 15:36 UT on Nov. 6th. This close-up video shows the detail of the flare an...

  12. The Parental "Acceptance-Rejection Syndrome": Universal Correlates of Perceived Rejection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews theory, methods, and evidence supporting the concept of a relational diagnosis here called the parental acceptance-rejection syndrome. This syndrome is composed of 2 complementary sets of factors. First, 4 classes of behaviors appear universally to convey the symbolic message that "my parent (or other attachment…

  13. A Festschrift for Jacob Ornstein: Studies in General Linguistics and Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blansitt, Edward L., Jr., Ed.; Teschner, Richard V., Ed.

    Among the 29 articles collected here are the following: (1) "On Markedness and Sociolinguistic Variation" (Amastae); (2) "On the Form of Bilingual Grammars: The Phonological Component" (Elerick); (3) "On Negation in Comparative Constructions" (Fries); (4) "Class by Value System: Implications for Bilingual Education" (Hoffer); (5)…

  14. SDO Captures X1.4 Solar Flare on July 12, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows the sun July 11-12, ending with the X1.4 class flare on July 12, 2012. It was captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory in the 304 Angstrom wavelength - a wavelength coloriz...

  15. Sunspot 1520 Releases Strong (X1.4) Solar Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows the sun July 10-12, ending with the X1.4 class flare on July 12, 2012. It was captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory in the 131 Angstrom wavelength - a wavelength that is...

  16. Teaching for Inclusion: A Resource Book for NU Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prenger, Suzanne M., Ed.

    This teaching manual helps college faculty understand how to work with diverse students in the classroom. An introductory section defines diversity, discusses teacher attitudes, and suggests where to begin. The 14 chapters are: (1) "Creating Inclusive Classrooms"; (2) "Selected Strategies for Teaching for Inclusion"; (3) "Gender"; (4) "Class in…

  17. DIOXIN EXPOSURE INITIATIVE PUBLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following is a listing of published articles that have come out of EPA's Dioxin Exposure Initiative
    4
    class="TDMedium">SOURCES:

      <...

    1. Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Cakir, Ozlem S.; Yuruk, Nejla; Geban, Omer

      The purpose of the study is to compare the effectiveness of conceptual change text oriented instruction and traditional instruction on students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts and their attitudes toward biology as a school subject. The sample of this study consisted of 84 eleventh-grade students from the 4 classes of a high school.…

    2. Ciencias en Espanol, 1995-96 (Sciences in Spanish, 1995-96). Research Report on Educational Grants.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Houston Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

      An elementary science program was taught in Spanish for English-speaking children to give them the opportunity to acquire second language skills through hands-on science instruction. The program included 4 classes of approximately 22 students at kindergarten and first-grade levels in the gifted and talented program at the Gary Herod Elementary…

    3. Contemporary Art: Familiar Objects in New Contexts.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Prabhu, Vas

      1990-01-01

      Describes objects from everyday life and analyzes artworks by four contemporary artists whose works make use of familiar objects (Louise Nevelson, Claes Oldenburg, Mitchell Syrop, and Betye Sarr). Divides lesson into four steps: (1) discussing everyday objects; (2) viewing artworks; (3) studying artists; and (4) class activities related to the…

  1. The Commoditization of Chinese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Hill

    1989-01-01

    Documents women's historically low place in Chinese culture as an integral part of a complex economic pattern. Covers the following topics: (1) women, family, and economy; (2) the Chinese modes of production; (3) views of commodity production in China; (4) class relations; (5) women's labor; and (6) textiles, women, and class. (JS)

  2. Children's Invented Spellings in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports research on children's conceptualizations of spelling. Researchers asked a combined grades 3-4 class and a combined grades 6-7 class to invent new ways of spelling words and produce written justifications for each alternate spelling. Most of the children gave phonological reasons for their creative spellings. (DR)

  3. Compartiendo Culturas/Sharing Cultures: A Title VII Two-Way Bilingual Program at Herod Elementary School 1995-96. Research Report on Educational Grants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    This report describes a program that was designed to end the isolation typically experienced by language minority students in traditional bilingual education and to provide language majority students the opportunity to acquire proficiency in a second Language. The program served 4 classes of approximately 22 students each (85 students) in…

  4. The Reconceptualisation of Outdoor Education in the Primary School Classroom in Aotearoa New Zealand: How Might "We" Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgriff, Marg

    2016-01-01

    The powerful learning that occurs outdoors has been well documented in this journal, as has an array of barriers teachers typically face in providing outdoor learning experiences. This paper draws on findings from a collaborative, practice-based research project examining the reconceptualisation of outdoor education in two Year 4 classes in a…

  5. Social Conflict and Collective Violence in American Institutions of Higher Learning. Volume 1. Dynamics of Student Protest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Carl F.

    This volume of a 2 volume report presents an historical study of collective student conflict and violence in America and a framework for analyzing the internal and external dynamics of current student disorders in America. In the historical segment collective student behavior is categorized into 4 classes: faddism, deprivation, normative action,…

  6. What Do We Teachers Need to Know to Enhance Our Creativity? A Report on a Pilot Project into Primary School Pupils' Perceptions of Their Identities as Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the findings from the first part of a pilot project which gathered data from a mixed-ability Year-4 class on their perceptions of their identities as learners. A questionnaire was used which addressed both academic and affective issues, for example, why pupils do or do not enjoy certain subjects, whether they prefer to work…

  7. Students, Teachers, and Opportunity Perceptions in Kenya, 1961-1968. Volume I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, C. Arnold; And Others

    This report dealing with the educational situation in Kenyan schools immediately preceding independence, is a two-part study which focuses on the characteristics of a 196a Form-4 class and several groups of teachers. Both sections investigate the selectivity in recruitment of the groups studied, including secondary school attendance, teaching…

  8. Family Decision Making: Benefits to Persons with Developmental Disabilities and Their Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely-Barnes, Susan; Graff, J. Carolyn; Marcenko, Maureen; Weber, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Family involvement in planning and choosing services has become a key intervention concept in developmental disability services. This study (N = 547) modeled patterns of family decision making and assessed benefits to persons with developmental disabilities (DDs) and their family members. A latent profile analysis identified 4 classes that were…

  9. DIOXIN EXPOSURE INITIATIVE ONGOING PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following is a listing and descriptions of projects that are underway in EPA's Dioxin Exposure Initiative

    4 class="TDMedium">SOURCES:

    1. Understanding the Heterogeneity of BPD Symptoms through Latent Class Analysis: Initial Results and Clinical Correlates among Inner-City Substance Users

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bornovalova, Marina A.; Levy, Roy; Gratz, Kim L.; Lejuez, C. W.

      2010-01-01

      The current study investigated the heterogeneity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms in a sample of 382 inner-city, predominantly African American male substance users through the use of latent class analysis. A 4-class model was statistically preferred, with 1 class interpreted to be a baseline class, 1 class interpreted to be a…

    2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 145: Wells and Storage Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0, with ROTC No. 1 and Addendum

      SciTech Connect

      David Strand

      2006-04-01

      This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 145, Wells and Storage Holes in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 145 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-01, Core Storage Holes; (2) 03-20-02, Decon Pad and Sump; (3) 03-20-04, Injection Wells; (4) 03-20-08, Injection Well; (5) 03-25-01, Oil Spills; and (6) 03-99-13, Drain and Injection Well. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for the six CASs within CAU 145. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 1, 2005, through November 8, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 145 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. Analytes detected during the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) were evaluated against appropriate final action levels to identify the contaminants of concern for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified contaminants of concern at one of the six CASs in CAU 145 and required the evaluation of corrective action alternatives. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 145 revealed the following: CASs 03-20-01, 03-20-02, 03-20-04, 03-20-08, and 03-99-13 do not contain contamination; and CAS 03-25-01 has pentachlorophenol and arsenic contamination in the subsurface soils. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at the six CASs, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential corrective action alternatives, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 145. No further action is the preferred corrective action for CASs 03-20-01, 03-20-02, 03-20-04, 03-20-08, and 03-99-13. Close in place is the preferred corrective action for CAS 03-25-01. The

    3. The role of the st313-td gene in virulence of Salmonella Typhimurium ST313.

      PubMed

      Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Wallrodt, Inke; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hendriksen, Rene S

      2014-01-01

      Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 has emerged in sub-Saharan Africa causing severe infections in humans. Therefore, it has been speculated that this specific sequence type, ST313, carries factors associated with increased pathogenicity. We assessed the role in virulence of a gene with a yet unknown function, st313-td, detected in ST313 through comparative genomics. Additionally, the structure of the genomic island ST313-GI, harbouring the gene was determined. The gene st313-td was cloned into wild type S. Typhimurium 4/74 (4/74-C) as well as knocked out in S. Typhimurium ST313 02-03/002 (Δst313-td) followed by complementation (02-03/002-C). Δst313-td was less virulent in mice following i.p. challenge than the wild type and this phenotype could be partly complemented in trans, indicating that st313-td plays a role during systemic infection. The gene st313-td was shown not to affect invasion of cultured epithelial cells, while the absence of the gene significantly affects uptake and intracellular survival within macrophages. The gene st313-td was proven to be strongly associated to invasiveness, harboured by 92.5% of S. Typhimurium blood isolates (n = 82) and 100% of S. Dublin strains (n = 50) analysed. On the contrary, S. Typhimurium isolates of animal and food origin (n = 82) did not carry st313-td. Six human, non-blood isolates of S. Typhimurium from Belarus, China and Nepal harboured the gene and belonged to sequence types ST398 and ST19. Our data showed a global presence of the st313-td gene and in other sequence types than ST313. The gene st313-td was shown to be expressed during logarithmic phase of growth in 14 selected Salmonella strains carrying the gene. This study reveals that st313-td plays a role in S. Typhimurium ST313 pathogenesis and adds another chapter to understanding of the virulence of S. Typhimurium and in particular of the emerging sequence type ST313. PMID:24404174

    4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

      SciTech Connect

      U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

      1999-12-23

      This corrective action decision document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks, referred to as the Engine, Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault; 25-02-03, Underground Electrical Vault, referred to as the Deluge Valve Pit at the Test Cell A Facility; and 25-02-10, Underground Storage Tank, referred to as the former location of an aboveground storage tank for demineralized water at the Test Cell A Facility. Two of these CASs (25-02-03 and 25-02-10) were originally considered as underground storage tanks, but were found to be misidentified. Further, radio logical surveys conducted by Bechtel Nevada in January 1999 found no radiological contamination detected above background levels for these two sites; therefore, the closure report for CAU 135 will recommend no further action at these two sites. A corrective action investigation for the one remaining CAS (25-02-01) was conducted in June 1999, and analytes detected during this investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels. It was determined that contaminants of potential concern included polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Two corrective action objectives were identified for this CAS (i.e., prevention and mitigation of human exposure to sediments and surrounding areas), and subsequently two CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, and

    5. Mapping afforestation and its carbon stock using time-series Landsat stacks

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Liu, L.; Wu, Y.

      2015-12-01

      The Three Norths Shelter Forest Programme (TNSFP) is the largest afforestation reconstruction project in the world. Remote sensing is a crucial tool to map land cover and cover changes, but it is still challenging to accurately quantify the plantation and its carbon stock from time-series satellite images. In this paper, the Yulin district, Shaanxi province, representing a typical afforestation area in the TNSFP region, was selected as the study area, and there were twenty-nine Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ epochs were collected from 1974 to 2012 to reconstruct the forest changes and carbon stock in last 40 years. Firstly, the Landsat ground surface reflectance (GSR) images from 1974 to 2013 were collected and processed based on 6S atmospheric transfer code and a relative reflectance normalization algorithm. Subsequently, we developed a vegetation change tracking method to reconstruct the forest change history (afforestation and deforestation) from the dense time-series Landsat GSR images based on the integrated forest z-score (IFZ) model, and the afforestation age was successfully retrieved from the Landsat time-series stacks in the last forty years and shown to be consistent with the surveyed tree ages, with a RMSE value of 4.32 years and a determination coefficient (R²) of 0.824. Then, the AGB regression models were successfully developed by integrating vegetation indices and tree age. The simple ratio vegetation index (SR) is the best candidate of the commonly used vegetation indices for estimating forest AGB, and the forest AGB model was significantly improved using the combination of SR and tree age, with R² values from 0.50 to 0.727. Finally, the forest AGB images were mapped at eight epochs from 1985 to 2013 using SR and afforestation age. The total forest AGB in six counties of Yulin District increased by 20.8 G kg, from 5.8 G kg in 1986 to 26.6 G kg in 2013, a total increase of 360%. For the forest area since 1974, the forest AGB density increased from 15.72 t

    6. Variability of Winter Extreme Heat Flux Events in Kuroshio Extension and Gulf Stream Extension Regions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ma, X.; Chang, P.; Wu, D.; Lin, X.

      2012-12-01

      We analyzed extreme surface heat flux events, defined by daily sensible (latent) heat flux greater than 80 percentile value (hereafter referred to as high-flux events) associated with boreal winter (NDJFM) cold-air outbreaks (CAOs) in the Kuroshio Extension Region (KER) of the Northwestern Pacific, using the high-resolution NCEP-CFSR (1979-2009) and NCEP-NCAR (1948-2009) reanalysis, and compared the results to those in the Gulf Stream Region (GSR) of the Northwestern Atlantic. The average accumulated number of days of the Pacific high-flux events, which typically last fewer than 3 days, is only less than 20% of the winter period but contributes significantly (>30%) to the total sensible and latent heat fluxes during the entire winter season in the KER. These high flux events are characterized by "cold storms" with a positive geopotential height anomaly (anti-cyclone) over Japan and a negative geopotential height anomaly (cyclone) further downstream, in between which there is an anomalous northerly wind that brings cold and dry air from the Eurasian continent to the KER. In contrast, non-event days are characterized by "warm storms" that have a cyclone (an anti-cyclone) to the west (east) of the KER, bringing warm and moist air from the subtropics to the KER. There are important differences between the Pacific and Atlantic CAOs. Generally, the Atlantic CAOs occur more frequently with stronger intensity and shorter duration than those in the Pacific. The "cold storms" in the KER also differ from those in the GSR in terms of their detailed structure and orientation relative to geographic location. However, in both the Pacific and Atlantic, interannual and longer term variations of sensible and latent heat flux are determined by the high flux events, suggesting that extreme winter storm events play an important role in the mid-latitude climate system. In the Pacific basin, decadal variability dominates the low-frequency variability of total and event-day sensible and

    7. Exploring the Milky Way halo with SDSS-II SN survey RR Lyrae stars

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      De Lee, Nathan

      This thesis details the creation of a large catalog of RR Lyrae stars, their lightcurves, and their associated photometric and kinematic parameters. This catalog contains 421 RR Lyrae stars with 305 RRab and 116 RRc. Of these, 241 stars have stellar spectra taken with either the Blanco 4m RC spectrograph or the SDSS/SEGUE survey, and in some cases taken by both. From these spectra and photometric methods derived from them, an analysis is conducted of the RR lyrae's distribution, metallicity, kinematics, and photometric properties within the halo. All of these RR Lyrae originate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. The SDSS-II SN Survey covers a 2.5 degree equatorial stripe ranging from -60 to +60 degrees in RA. This corresponds to relatively high southern galactic latitudes in the anti-center direction. The full catalog ranges from g 0 magnitude 13 to 20 which covers a distance of 3 to 95 kpc from the sun. Using this sample, we explore the Oosterhoff dichotomy through the D log P method as a function of | Z | distance from the plane. This results in a clear division of the RRab stars into OoI and OoII groups at lower | Z |, but the population becomes dominated by OoI stars at higher | Z |. The idea of a dual halo is explored primarily in the context of radial velocity distributions as a function of | Z |. In particular, V gsr , the radial velocity in the galactic standard of rest, is used as a proxy for V [straight phi] , the cylindrical rotational velocity. This is then compared against a single halo model galaxy, which results in very similar V gsr histograms for both at low to medium | Z |. However, at high | Z | there is a clear separation into two distinct velocity groups for the data without a corresponding separation in the model, suggesting that at least a two-component model for the halo is necessary. The final part of the analysis involves [Fe/H] measurements from both spectra and photometric relations cut in both | Z | and radial velocity. In this case

    8. Investigation on flavonoid composition and anti free radical potential of Sida cordata

      PubMed Central

      2013-01-01

      Background Sida cordata, a member of Family Malvaceae is used in folk medicine for various ailments including liver diseases. In this study we investigated, its flavonoid constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential against different free radicals and hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rat. Methods Dried powder of S. cordata whole plant was extracted with methanol and the resultant (SCME) obtained was fractionated with escalating polarity to obtain n-hexane fraction (SCHE), ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE), n-butanol fraction (SCBE) and the remaining soluble portion as aqueous fraction (SCAE). Diverse in vitro antioxidants assays such as DPPH, H2O2, •OH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching assay, superoxide radical, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity were studied to assess scavenging potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions. On account of marked scavenging activity SCEE was selected to investigate the hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 induced toxicity in Sprague–Dawley male rats by assessing the level of serum markers (alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, and γ-glutamyltransferase) and of liver antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione-S-transfers (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Histology of the liver was performed to study alteration in histoarchitecture. Existence of active flavonoids was established by thin layer chromatographic studies. Results Considerable amount of flavonoid and phenolic contents were recorded in the methanol extract and its derived fractions. Although the extract and all its derived fractions exhibited good antioxidant activities however, the most distinguished scavenging potential was observed for SCEE. Treatment of SCEE decreased

    9. RADIAL VELOCITIES OF GALACTIC HALO STARS IN VIRGO

      SciTech Connect

      Brink, Thomas G.; Mateo, Mario; Martinez-Delgado, David E-mail: mmateo@umich.ed

      2010-11-15

      We present multi-slit radial velocity measurements for 111 stars in the direction of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS). The stars were photometrically selected to be probable main-sequence stars in the Galactic halo. When compared with the radial velocity distribution expected for the halo of the Milky Way, as well as the distribution seen in a control field, we observe a significant excess of negative velocity stars in the field, which can likely be attributed to the presence of a stellar stream. This kinematic excess peaks at a Galactic standard of rest radial velocity of -75 km s{sup -1}. A rough distance estimate suggests that this feature extends from {approx}15 kpc out to, and possibly beyond, the {approx}30 kpc limit of the study. The mean velocity of these stars is incompatible with those of the VSS itself (V{sub gsr} {approx} 130 km s{sup -1}), which we weakly detect, but it is consistent with radial velocity measurements of nearby 2MASS M-giants and SDSS+SEGUE K/M-giants and blue horizontal branch stars that constitute the leading tidal tail of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Some oblate models for the shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo predict that the leading arm of the Sagittarius Stream should pass through this volume, and have highly negative (V{sub gsr} {approx}< -200 km s{sup -1}) radial velocities, as it descends down from the northern Galactic hemisphere toward the Galactic plane. The kinematic feature observed in this study, if it is in fact Sagittarius debris, is not consistent with these predictions, and instead, like other leading stream radial velocity measurements, is consistent with a recently published triaxial halo model, or, if axisymmetry is imposed, favors a prolate shape for the Galactic halo potential. However, a rough distance estimate to the observed kinematic feature places it somewhat closer (D {approx} 15-30 kpc) than the Sagittarius models predict (D {approx} 35-45 kpc).

    10. Grape powder supplementation prevents oxidative stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, memory impairment, and high blood pressure in rats.

      PubMed

      Allam, Farida; Dao, An T; Chugh, Gaurav; Bohat, Ritu; Jafri, Faizan; Patki, Gaurav; Mowrey, Christopher; Asghar, Mohammad; Alkadhi, Karim A; Salim, Samina

      2013-06-01

      We examined whether or not grape powder treatment ameliorates oxidative stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, memory impairment, and hypertension in rats. Oxidative stress in Sprague-Dawley rats was produced by using L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO). Four groups of rats were used: 1) control (C; injected with vehicle and provided with tap water), 2) grape powder-treated (GP; injected with vehicle and provided for 3 wk with 15 g/L grape powder dissolved in tap water), 3) BSO-treated [injected with BSO (300 mg/kg body weight), i.p. for 7 d and provided with tap water], and 4) BSO plus grape powder-treated (GP+BSO; injected with BSO and provided with grape powder-treated tap water). Anxiety-like behavior was significantly greater in BSO rats compared with C or GP rats (P < 0.05). Grape powder attenuated BSO-induced anxiety-like behavior in GP+BSO rats. BSO rats made significantly more errors in both short- and long-term memory tests compared with C or GP rats (P < 0.05), which was prevented in GP+BSO rats. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly greater in BSO rats compared with C or GP rats (P < 0.05), whereas grape powder prevented high blood pressure in GP+BSO rats. Furthermore, brain extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) was activated (P < 0.05), whereas levels of glyoxalase-1 (GLO-1), glutathione reductase-1 (GSR-1), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV (CAMK-IV), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were significantly less (P < 0.05) in BSO but not in GP+BSO rats compared with C or GP rats. We suggest that by regulating brain ERK-1/2, GLO-1, GSR-1, CAMK-IV, CREB, and BDNF levels, grape powder prevents oxidative stress-induced anxiety, memory impairment, and hypertension in rats. PMID:23596160

    11. TWO DISTANT HALO VELOCITY GROUPS DISCOVERED BY THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY

      SciTech Connect

      Sesar, Branimir; Cohen, Judith G.; Levitan, David; Kirby, Evan N.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Prince, Thomas A.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason A.; Juric, Mario; Ofek, Eran O.

      2012-08-20

      We report the discovery of two new halo velocity groups (Cancer groups A and B) traced by eight distant RR Lyrae stars and observed by the Palomar Transient Factory survey at R.A. {approx} 129 Degree-Sign , decl. {approx} 20 Degree-Sign (l {approx} 205 Degree-Sign , b {approx} 32 Degree-Sign ). Located at 92 kpc from the Galactic center (86 kpc from the Sun), these are some of the most distant substructures in the Galactic halo known to date. Follow-up spectroscopic observations with the Palomar Observatory 5.1 m Hale telescope and W. M. Keck Observatory 10 m Keck I telescope indicate that the two groups are moving away from the Galaxy at v-bar{sub gsr}{sup A} = 78.0{+-}5.6 km s{sup -1} (Cancer group A) and v-bar{sub gsr}{sup B} = 16.3{+-}7.1 km s{sup -1} (Cancer group B). The groups have velocity dispersions of {sigma}{sub v{sub g{sub s{sub r}{sup A}}}} = 12.4{+-}5.0 km s{sup -1} and {sigma}B{sub v{sub g{sub s{sub r}{sup B}}}} =14.9{+-}6.2 km s{sup -1} and are spatially extended (about several kpc), making it very unlikely that they are bound systems, and more likely to be debris of tidally disrupted dwarf galaxies or globular clusters. Both groups are metal-poor (median metallicities of [Fe/H]{sup A} = -1.6 dex and [Fe/H]{sup B} = -2.1 dex) and have a somewhat uncertain (due to small sample size) metallicity dispersion of {approx}0.4 dex, suggesting dwarf galaxies as progenitors. Two additional RR Lyrae stars with velocities consistent with those of the Cancer groups have been observed {approx}25 Degree-Sign east, suggesting possible extension of the groups in that direction.

  1. A New 3He-Target Design for Compton Scattering Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalchick, S.; Gao, H.; Laskaris, G.; Weir, W.; Ye, Q.; Ye, Q. J.

    2011-10-01

    The neutron spin polarizabilities describe the stiffness of the neutron spin to external electric and magnetic fields. A double-polarized elastic Compton Scattering experiment will try to determine the neutron spin polarizabilities using a new polarized 3He target and the circularly polarized γ-beam of HI γS facility at the Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory (DFELL). To polarize the 3He target, a newly constructed solenoid is being used which can provide a very uniform magnetic field around the target area and allows to place High Intensity Gamma Source NaI Detector Arrays (HINDA) closer to the target. The ideal target polarization is 40-60% and will be measured using the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. A prototype of the polarized 3He target is being constructed in the Medium Energy Physics Group laboratories at Duke and is currently being tested. The experiment is expected to take place in 2013 after the DFELL upgrade. I will be presenting details of the construction process, including design specifications and data from the magnetic field mapping, as well as preliminary target polarization results. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, under contract number DE-FG02-03ER41231, and by the National Science Foundation, grant number NSF-PHY-08-51813.

  2. Observation of heterodyne and homodyne mixing in X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy during thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headrick, Randall; Ulbrandt, Jeffrey; Rainville, Meliha; Wagenbach, Christa; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Zhou, Hua; Ludwig, Karl

    The properties of artificially grown thin films are often strongly affected by the dynamic relationship between surface growth processes and subsurface structure. Coherent mixing of X-ray signals promises to provide an approach to better understand such processes. Continuously variable mixing of surface and bulk scattering signals during real-time studies of sputter deposition of a-Si and a-WiSi2 films has been observed by controlling the X-ray penetration and escape depths in coherent grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (Co-GISAXS). Under conditions where the X-ray signal comes from both the growth surface and the thin film bulk, oscillations in temporal correlations arise from coherent interference between scattering from stationary bulk features and from the advancing surface. The absence of oscillations at larger in-plane wavevector transfer is interpreted as evidence that elongated bulk features propagate upward at the same velocity as the surface. Additionally, a highly surface sensitive mode is demonstrated that can access the surface dynamics independently of the subsurface structure. Acknowledgements: USDOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences under DE-FG02-07ER46380 (RH and JU), and DE-FG02-03ER46037 (MR, CW, and KL).

  3. Dimuon Tracking and Triggering at SeaQuest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherity, Michael; SeaQuest Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Fermilab E906/SeaQuest experiment measures 120 GeV protons from the Main Injector incident on fixed Hydrogen and Deuterium liquid targets and W, C, and Fe solid targets. Dimuons produced in these interactions from the Drell-Yan process and charmonia states are extremely sensitive probes of nuclear structure, particularly the light quark sea. Therefore the primary goal of SeaQuest is to measure muon pairs to study antiquarks in the nucleon. The spectrometer is optimized to select and analyze dimuons through a 25-m path with two dipole magnets, four detector stations, and multiple layers of hadron shielding. Each of the first three detector stations are instrumented with 6 planes of wire chambers and 2 planes of scintillators, while the fourth station uses scintillators and proportional tubes. SeaQuest has two primary methods for tracking reconstruction using sagitta ratios and Hough Transforms to identify muon tracks. The dimuon trigger is based on scintillator hodoscopes perpendicular to the bend plane at each of the four stations. This talk will report on performance of the tracking and trigger systems in the recent run and plans for future improvements. Supported in part by U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  4. Risk Factors and Predictors Of Subsequent ACL Injury After ACL Reconstruction: Prospective Analysis Of 2801 Primary ACL Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Kaeding, Christopher C.; Pedroza, Angela; Reinke, Emily; Huston, Laura J.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2014-01-01

    Marx score (p = 0.017). The odds of contralateral ACL tear increase by 7% for every increased point on the Marx score (p = 0.004) and decreases by 5% for every one point increase in BMI (p = 0.03). In 2002/3, there were 61/815 (7.5%) retears compared to 37/1056 (3.5%) in 2007/8. The odds of retear by for the 2002/03 and 2007/08 cohorts are summarized in table 1. The mean age (figure 1) of subjects receiving BTB and hamstring remained constant over time whereas the mean age of subjects receiving allograft rose by seven years (p < 0.001). Hamstring use was a predictor of retear compared to BTB in the 02/03 group (7.9% vs. 4.2%), but not in the 07/08 group (4.1% vs. 3.4%). Conclusion: Age, activity, and graft type were predictors of increased risk of ipsilateral graft failure after ACLR. Higher activity and lower BMI were found to be risk factors in contralateral ACL tears. Allograft use in young active patients was shown to be a risk factor for graft retear in the 02/03 group, subsequent to this, graft choice changed to using allografts in older and less active patients with an associated decrease in graft retear risk in the 07/08 group. The contralateral ACL injury risk did not change from the early group to the later group. The risk of ACL graft retear was lower for all graft types in the 07/08 group compared to the 02/03 group. The relative decrease risk in hamstring autografts compared to BTB in 07/08 compared to 02/03 may be due to improved surgical techniques, rehabilitation, and/or slower return to play guidelines, and bears further investigation.

  5. Parallel calculations of vibrational properties in complex materials: negative thermal expansion and elastic inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.

    Effects of thermal vibrations are essential to obtain a more complete understanding of the properties of complex materials. For example, they are important in the analysis and simulation of x-ray absorption spectra (XAS). In previous work we introduced an ab initio approach for a variety of vibrational effects, such as crystallographic and XAS Debye-Waller factors, Debye and Einstein temperatures, and thermal expansion coefficients. This approach uses theoretical dynamical matrices from which the locally-projected vibrational densities of states are obtained using a Lanczos recursion algorithm. In this talk I present recent improvements to our implementation, which permit simulations of more complex materials with up to two orders of magnitude larger simulation cells. The method takes advantage of parallelization in calculations of the dynamical matrix with VASP. To illustrate these capabilities we discuss two problems of considerable interest: negative thermal expansion in ZrW2O8; and local inhomogeneities in the elastic properties of supported metal nanoparticles. Both cases highlight the importance of a local treatment of vibrational properties. Supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-03ER15476, with computer support from DOE-NERSC.

  6. Improvement of Environmental Monitoring for the SeaQuest Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlisle, Elizabeth; SeaQuest Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    SeaQuest (E906), is a fixed target experiment at Fermilab that uses the Drell-Yan process to measure the anti-down to anti-up quark asymmetry in the nucleon sea. Recording environmental conditions is important for a particle physics detector, since detector performance and response can vary depending on conditions such as temperature and pressure. SeaQuest uses many drift chambers, and monitoring their performance can be aided by having these environmental measurements. Due to the size of the detector hall, there are vertical temperature gradients, so temperature must be measured at varying heights. Another important need is to monitor temperature in electronics racks to know when they are overheating. The requirements of the equipment to be used were that it had to be ethernet based and rely only on non-proprietary software. Also, in order to be used during a data run, it had to be fast enough to be recorded between beam spills. This poster will focus on our solution for measuring environmental conditions, such as decreasing the sensor readout from 17.5 seconds to 6.9 seconds. Supported in part by the U.S. DOE under Grant #DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  7. Simulations of Sawtooth Oscillations In CTH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberds, Nicholas; Guazzotto, Luca; Hanson, James; Maurer, David

    2015-11-01

    Sawteeth are driven relaxation oscillations seen in tokamaks. Experimentally, they can be reproduced reliably. They affect the confinement of the plasma core, and in some circumstances can trigger disruptions. Sawtoothing has been observed in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH), a tokamak-stellarator hybrid having a non-axisymmetric equilibrium field. We present novel numerical simulations of sawtooth oscillations in this tokamak-stellarator hybrid. Results are contrasted and compared with simulations of a small ohmic tokamak that resembles CTH without the helical stellarator field. We have used NIMROD to conduct these extended-MHD simulations in toroidal geometry. Sawtooth simulations are obtained by starting with a stable ideal MHD equilibrium from VMEC, and driving the central safety factor below unity with an applied loop voltage. The challenges of sawtooth simulations with 3D equilibrium fields are discussed. This material is based upon work supported by Auburn University and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-FG02-03ER54692.

  8. Video Observations Of Leonids 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molau, Sirko; Rendtel, Jürgen; Bellot-Rubio, Luis Ramon

    1999-07-01

    We analyse data obtained by different ground-based video camera systems during the 1999 Leonid meteor storm. We observe similar activity profiles at nearby observing sites, but significant differences over distances in the order of 4,000 km. The main peak occured at 02:03 UT (λ⊙=235.286, J2000, corrected for the time of the topocentric stream encounter). At the Iberian peninsula quasi-periodic activity fluctuations with a period of about 7 min were recorded. The camera in Jordan detected a broad plateau of activity at 01:39-01:53 UT, but no periodic variations. The Leonid brightness distribution derived from all cameras shows a lack of faint meteors with a turning point close to +3m, which corresponds to meteoroids of approximately 10-3 g. We find a pin-point radiant at αalpha=153.65 ±0.1, δ=21.80 ±0. (λ⊙=235.290). The radiant positionis identical before and after the storm, and also during the storm no driftis observed.

  9. A calcium oxide sorbent process for bulk separation of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.; Han, C.; Silaban, A.

    1993-08-01

    Reaction conditions for those runs discussed in this paper are summarized in Table 1. In tests 02, 03, and 04 the carbonation feed gas consisted of CO{sub 2} in N{sub 2} in order to establish the ability of the calcined dolomite sorbent to remove CO{sub 2} at conditions where the shift reaction could not occur. In the next group of tests (15, 16, 18) the carbonation feed gas contained only CO, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2}. Any change in feed gas composition would serve as proof that the shift reaction was occurring at the test conditions. CO{sub 2} formed by the shift reaction should be removed from the gas phase by reacting with the sorbent. Therefore this series of tests involved both reactions even though the feed gas contained no CO{sub 2}. Finally, the feed gas in test 19 contained all of the major components found in a sulfur-free coal-gas. CO{sub 2} in the reactor feed as well as that produced by the shift reaction was available for reacting with the sorbent.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of a strongly driven single spin solid state qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppersmith, S. N.; Jullien, Thibaut; Scarlino, P.; Kawakami, E.; Ward, D. R.; Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; Friesen, Mark; Eriksson, M. A.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    This talk will discuss how dynamical systems theory can yield new insight into some exotic behavior found in experiments on strongly driven quantum spins in silicon/silicon-germanium heterostructures. Spin resonance experiments were performed by using ac voltages to drive an electron wavefunction in a strong magnetic field gradient. Nontrivial dependence of the resonance frequency on applied power, including the observation of multiple resonant frequencies at one power, are shown to be consistent with frequency-dependent attenuation in the high-frequency lines. The method of analysis is very similar to that presented in the course on nonlinear dynamics that Leo Kadanoff developed at the University of Chicago in the early 1990's. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607). Development and maintenance of the growth facilities used for fabricating samples is supported by DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028). This research utilized NSF-supported shared facilities at UW-Madison.

  11. Tenfold increase in the Rabi decay time of the quantum dot hybrid qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorgrimsson, Brandur; Kim, Dohun; Simmons, C. B.; Ward, Daniel R.; Foote, Ryan H.; Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, M. A.

    The quantum dot hybrid qubit is formed from three electrons in a double quantum dot. In previous work, we showed that the hybrid qubit has the speed of a charge qubit and the stability of a spin qubit. Here, we show that the hybrid qubit is also highly tunable, and can be tuned into regimes with desirable coherence properties. By changing the interdot tunnel rate by only 25%, from 5 GHz to 6.25 GHz, we are able to increase the Rabi decay time by a factor of ten, from 18 ns to 177 ns. We attribute this improvement to the refinement of an extended ``sweet spot'' in the energy dispersion of the hybrid qubit, where the qubit is less susceptible to charge noise, which is a dominant source of decoherence. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607) and NSF (DMR-1206915 and PHY-1104660). Development and maintenance of the growth facilities used for fabricating samples is sup- ported by DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028). This research utilized NSF-supported shared facilities at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  12. Thermal oxidation of Si/SiGe heterostructures for use in quantum dot qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyens, Samuel F.; Foote, Ryan H.; Knapp, T. J.; McJunkin, Thomas; Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, M. A.

    Here we demonstrate dry thermal oxidation of a Si/SiGe heterostructure at 700°C and use a Hall bar device to measure the mobility after oxidation to be 43,000 cm2V-1s-1 at a carrier density of 4.1 ×1011 cm-2. Surprisingly, we find no significant reduction in mobility compared with an Al2O3 device made with atomic layer deposition on the same heterostructure, indicating thermal oxidation can be used to process Si/SiGe quantum dot devices. This result provides a path for investigating improvements to the gate oxide in Si/SiGe qubit devices, whose performance is believed to be limited by charge noise in the oxide layer. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607) and NSF (DMR-1206915 and PHY-1104660). Development and maintenance of the growth facilities used for fabricating samples is supported by DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028). This research utilized NSF-supported shared facilities at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  13. jTracker and Monte Carlo Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selensky, Lauren; SeaQuest/E906 Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    SeaQuest is designed to observe the characteristics and behavior of `sea-quarks' in a proton by reconstructing them from the subatomic particles produced in a collision. The 120 GeV beam from the main injector collides with a fixed target and then passes through a series of detectors which records information about the particles produced in the collision. However, this data becomes meaningful only after it has been processed, stored, analyzed, and interpreted. Several programs are involved in this process. jTracker (sqerp) reads wire or hodoscope hits and reconstructs the tracks of potential dimuon pairs from a run, and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulates dimuon production and background noise from the beam. During track reconstruction, an event must meet the criteria set by the tracker to be considered a viable dimuon pair; this ensures that relevant data is retained. As a check, a comparison between a new version of jTracker and Monte Carlo was made in order to see how accurately jTracker could reconstruct the events created by Monte Carlo. In this presentation, the results of the inquest and their potential effects on the programming will be shown. This work is supported by U.S. DOE MENP Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  14. Nucleon Structure Studies with Electromagnetic Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, Michael F.

    2011-03-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from March 1, 2008 to June 14, 2009 under contract number DE-FG02-03ER41252. This is the final technical report under this contract. The experimental work described here is part of the electromagnetic nuclear physics program of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) Collaboration at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) that published 17 journal articles during the period of this report. One of these journal articles reported on the results of precise measurements of the neutron magnetic form factor. I was a spokesperson on this experiment and the publication of these results is the culmination of years of effort by a small subset of the CLAS Collaboration. As usual, undergraduate students were involved in all aspects of this work. Three Union College students participated in this program during the window of this report and one presented a paper on his work at the 2009 National Conference on Undergraduate Research (NCUR22). In this report, I discuss recent progress on the measurements of the neutron magnetic form factor and describe my service work for the CLAS Collaboration.

  15. Nanosecond Dynamics in Pt Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, F. D.; Moore, J. M.; Rehr, J. J.

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of supported catalysts is of fundamental and technological importance. However, due to the complex nature of their structure and dynamics at operando temperatures, their nanoscale behavior remains poorly understood. We have shown that DFT/MD calculations provide fundamental insight into the few ps dynamic structure of the nanoparticles, but such methods can be very computationally intensive.[2,3] In order to examine relaxation dynamics in the ns regime here we present finite temperature MD simulations based on a modified Sutton-Chen (SC) model potential, supplemented with Lennard-Jones potentials for the interaction with the support. We find that bulk SC parameters tend to produce nanoparticles with less fluxional dynamics than those in ab initio simulations. To address this issue, we have determined modified SC parameters that capture the DFT dynamics. Nanosecond simulations reveal regimes controlled by internal particle melting and activation of surface mobility. The approach is illustrated for nano-catalysts of Pt/ γ-alumina and compared with ab initio DFT/MD results. Supported in part by DOE grant DE-FG02-03ER15476 (F.D.V and J.J.R) and by NSF grant PHY-1262811, REU Site: University of Washington Physics (J.M.M.), with computer support from DOE - NERSC.

  16. Identification of a major quantitative trait locus for ear size induced by space flight in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y T; Li, G K; Yang, Z L; Hu, J G; Zheng, J R; Qi, X T

    2014-01-01

    The development of molecular markers has contributed to progress in identifying the gene(s) responsible for favorable variations in maize studies. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted using simple sequence repeat markers in an F2 sweet corn population from a cross between parental line 1132 and space flight-induced mutant line 751 to identify the loci contributing to an increase in some yield traits. A primary mutated genomic region was located on chromosome 9. In total, 26 QTL were detected for eight yield-related traits and assembled into three clusters on chromosome 9. The largest QTL cluster at bin 9.02/03, primarily contributing to >10% of the phenotypic variation in ear and cob diameters, was likely due to a major QTL. Desired alleles of these QTL were provided by the mutant line 751. The primary action of the major mutant allele was an additive effect. Another mutant locus, which was induced in bin 9.01, increased cob and ear diameters by dominant genetic action. PMID:24782164

  17. Volatile Composition of Comet C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Nathan; Gibb, Erika; Bonev, Boncho P.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Paganini, Lucas; Mumma, Michael J.

    2015-11-01

    On 2014 May 22 and 24 we characterized the volatile composition of the dynamically new Oort Cloud comet C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) using the long-slit, high resolution (λ/Δλ ≈ 25,000) infared echelle spectrograph (NIRSPEC) at the 10m Keck 2 telescope on Maunakea, HI. We detected fluorescent emission from six primary species (H2O, HCN, CH4, C2H6, CH3OH, and CO) and prompt emission from one product species (OH* - a directory proxy for H­2O). Upper limits were derived for C2H2 and H2CO. We report rotational temperatures, production rates, and mixing ratios (relative to water). Based on the inventory of comets characterized to date, mixing ratios of trace gases in C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) are about normal - CH3OH and C2H6 are slightly enriched, CO, CH4, HCN, and H2CO are average, and C­2H2 is depleted. I will discuss C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) in the context of an emerging taxonomy for comets based on volatile composition.This work is supported through the NASA Missouri Space Grant Consortium and the National Science Foundation (NSF 1211362), the NASA Astrobiology Institute through a grant to the Goddard Center for Astrobiology (811073.02.12.03.91), and the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program (811073.02.03.03.43).

  18. Spectroscopic Measurements of Non-Hydrogenic Compact Toroids on CTIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, D. Q.; Buchenauer, D.; Horton, R. D.; Evans, R. W.; Klauser, R.; Whaley, J. A.; Mills, B. E.

    2015-11-01

    The CTIX device is currently being used to investigate the production of compact-toroid plasmas consisting primarily of high-Z ions, using ionization and accretion of high-Z neutrals in the acceleration region. The axial density profile of the high-Z ions will be determined by transverse spectroscopic measurements, which are able to identify particular ion species. Ion velocity can then be deduced from axial time of flight. In addition, high-resolution spectroscopy will be used to directly measure high-Z ion velocity via Doppler shifts. These results are important in determining the degree of slip of high-Z ion velocity relative to CT magnetic field. Scaling of this slippage can be measured as a function of ion species, magnetic field strength, and gas injection location, and compared with a test-particle simulation. The results are relevant to determining the ability of the CT to penetrate a magnetic field, either for the purposes of shock formation study, or for applications to runaway electron suppression in large tokamak experiments. Beneficial effects, in terms of discharge reproducibility and surface durability, for a new tungsten-coated inner electrode will also be presented, along with a design for improved diagnostic access through the outer electrode. This work was supported by USDOE grant # DE-FG02-03ER54732 at UC Davis, and USDOE contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 at Sandia National Laboratories.

  19. Laser Channeling in mm-Scale Underdense Plasmas for Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, C.; Li, G.; Yan, R.; Tonge, J.; Wang, T.-L.; Mori, W. B.

    2008-11-01

    Recent 2D PIC simulations for laser channeling in mm-scale underdense plasmas show many new phenomena that were not present in previous 100 m-scale experiments and simulations, including plasma buildup to above critical density in front of the laser, laser hosing/refraction, channel bifurcation and self-correction, and electron heating to relativistic temperatures [G. Li et al., PRL 100, 125002 (2008).] The channeling speed is much less than the linear group velocity of the laser. A scaling from the simulations shows that low-intensity channeling pulses are preferred to minimize the required energy. Significant improvement of the transmission of the ignition pulse in a preformed channel has been demonstrated. New 3D PIC simulations show that the channeling speed is larger in 3D than in 2D due to stronger laser self-focusing. This work was supported by the U.S. DoE under Grants No. DE-FG02-06ER54879, DE- FC02-04ER54789, DE-FG52-06NA26195, and DE-FG02-03ER54721. Simulations were carried out at NERSC through an INCITE grant and on the UCLA DAWSON Cluster under Grant No. NSF-Phy-0321345.

  20. Advances in HYDRA and its application to simulations of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinak, M. M.; Kerbel, G. D.; Koning, J. M.; Patel, M. V.; Sepke, S. M.; Brown, P. N.; Chang, B.; Procassini, R.; Veitzer, S. A.

    2008-11-01

    We will outline new capabilities added to the HYDRA 2D/3D multiphysics ICF simulation code. These include a new SN multigroup radiation transport package (1D), constitutive models for elastic-plastic (strength) effects, and a mix model. A Monte Carlo burn package is being incorporated to model diagnostic signatures of neutrons, gamma rays and charged particles. A 3D MHD package that treats resistive MHD is available. Improvements to HYDRA's implicit Monte Carlo photonics package, including the addition of angular biasing, now enable integrated hohlraum simulations to complete in substantially shorter time. The heavy ion beam deposition package now includes a new model for ion stopping power developed by the Tech-X Corporation, with improved accuracy below the Bragg peak. Examples will illustrate HYDRA's enhanced capabilities to simulate various aspects of inertial confinement fusion targets.This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. The work of Tech-X personnel was funded by the Department of Energy under Small Business Innovation Research Contract No. DE-FG02-03ER83797.

  1. Genetic dissection of maize seedling root system architecture traits using an ultra-high density bin-map and a recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Song, Weibin; Wang, Baobao; Hauck, Andrew L; Dong, Xiaomei; Li, Jieping; Lai, Jinsheng

    2016-03-01

    Maize (Zea mays) root system architecture (RSA) mediates the key functions of plant anchorage and acquisition of nutrients and water. In this study, a set of 204 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was derived from the widely adapted Chinese hybrid ZD958(Zheng58 × Chang7-2), genotyped by sequencing (GBS) and evaluated as seedlings for 24 RSA related traits divided into primary, seminal and total root classes. Significant differences between the means of the parental phenotypes were detected for 18 traits, and extensive transgressive segregation in the RIL population was observed for all traits. Moderate to strong relationships among the traits were discovered. A total of 62 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified that individually explained from 1.6% to 11.6% (total root dry weight/total seedling shoot dry weight) of the phenotypic variation. Eighteen, 24 and 20 QTL were identified for primary, seminal and total root classes of traits, respectively. We found hotspots of 5, 3, 4 and 12 QTL in maize chromosome bins 2.06, 3.02-03, 9.02-04, and 9.05-06, respectively, implicating the presence of root gene clusters or pleiotropic effects. These results characterized the phenotypic variation and genetic architecture of seedling RSA in a population derived from a successful maize hybrid. PMID:26593310

  2. Cellulose synthesizing Complexes in Vascular Plants andProcaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard M, Jr; Saxena, Inder Mohan

    2009-07-07

    Continuing the work initiated under DE-FG03-94ER20145, the following major accomplishments were achieved under DE-FG02-03ER15396 from 2003-2007: (a) we purified the acsD gene product of the Acetobacter cellulose synthase operon as well as transferred the CesA cellulose gene from Gossypium into E. coli in an attempt to crystallize this protein for x-ray diffraction structural analysis; however, crystallization attempts proved unsuccessful; (b) the Acetobacter cellulose synthase operon was successfully incorporated into Synechococcus, a cyanobacterium2; (c) this operon in Synechococcus was functionally expressed; (d) we successfully immunolabeled Vigna cellulose and callose synthase components and mapped their distribution before and after wounding; (e) we developed a novel method to produce replicas of cellulose synthases in tobacco BY-2 cells, and we demonstrated the cytoplasmic domain of the rosette TC; (f) from the moss Physcomitrella, we isolated two full-length cDNA sequences of cellulose synthase (PpCesA1 and PpCesA2) and attempted to obtain full genomic DNA sequences; (g) we examined the detailed molecular structure of a new form of non-crystalline cellulose known as nematic ordered cellulose (=NOC)3.

  3. Genetic Distances and Variations of Three Clupeid Species Determined by PCR Technique

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang-Hoon; Yoon, Jong-Man

    2014-01-01

    In this study, seven oligonucleotides primers were shown to generate the shared loci, specific loci, unique shared loci to each species and shared loci by the three species which could be obviously calculated. Euclidean genetic distances within- and between-species were also calculated by complete linkage method with the sustenance of the hierarchical dendevrepogram program Systat version 13. The genomic DNA isolated from herring (Clupea pallasii), Korean anchovy (Coilia nasus) and large-eyed herring (Harengula zunashi), respectively, in the Yellow Sea, were amplified several times by PCR reaction. The hierarchical dendevrepogram shows three chief branches: cluster 1 (PALLASII 01, 02, 03, 04, 06 and 07), cluster 2 (NASUS 08, 09, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14), and cluster 3 (ZUNASHI 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and PALLASII 05). In three clupeid species, the shortest genetic distance displaying significant molecular difference was between individual PALLASII no. 03 and PALLASII no. 02 (0.018). Individual no. 06 of PALLASII was most distantly related to NASUS no. 11 (genetic distance = 0.318). Individuals from herring (C. pallasii) species (0.920) exhibited higher bandsharing values than did individuals from Korean anchovy (C. nasus) species (0.872) (P<0.05). As a result, this PCR analysis generated on the genetic data displayed that the herring (C. pallasii) species was widely separated from Korean anchovy (C. nasus) species. Reversely, individuals of Korean anchovy (C. nasus) species were a little closely related to those of large-eyed herring (H. zunashi) species. PMID:25949199

  4. Pressure-induced magneto-structural transition in iron via a modified solid-state nudged elastic band method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2015-03-01

    Materials under pressure may exhibit critical electronic and structural transitions that affect equation of states, as known for superconductors and the magneto-structural transformations of iron with both geophysical and planetary implications. While experiments often use constant-pressure (diamond-anvil cell, DAC) measurements, many theoretical results address a constant-volume transitions, which avoid issues with magnetic collapse but cannot be directly compared to experiment. We establish a modified solid-state nudge elastic band (MSS-NEB) method to handle magnetic systems that may exhibit moment (and volume) collapse during transformation. We apply it to the pressure-induced transformation in iron between the low-pressure body-centered cubic (bcc) and the high-pressure hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phases, find the bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure and a transitional pathway, and compare to shock and DAC experiments. We use methods developed with support by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-03ER46026 and DE-AC02-07CH11358). Ames Laboratory is operated for the DOE by Iowa State University under contract DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  5. Using Neural Networks to Detect Di-muon Tracks for Fermilab E906/SeaQuest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstens, Paul; SeaQuest Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The experiment E906/SeaQuest aims to gain further insight into the nucleon quark sea by gathering information about the anti-down/anti-up ratio produced by Drell-Yan events. SeaQuest collides a 120 GeV proton beam with one of several targets, liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium, carbon, tungsten, iron, and two calibration targets, empty target and no target. The di-muon pairs created by the Drell-Yan events are monitored by four detector stations. Each has a set of hodoscopes, stations one, two, and three have wire chambers, and station four, which has a lower resolution, has a set of prop tubes. In order to separate the useful Drell-Yan events from dump events and background noise we employ the use of the hodoscopes to trigger potentially useful events to keep. This neural network would learn to properly discern Drell-Yan events by associating hodoscope readings from real data with results from existing trigger systems. By doing this, we could efficiently replicate existing results while alleviating the processing needed. This work is supported by U.S. DOE MENP Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  6. Transport through an impurity tunnel coupled to a Si/SiGe quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Ryan H.; Ward, Daniel R.; Prance, J. R.; Gamble, John King; Nielsen, Erik; Thorgrimsson, Brandur; Savage, D. E.; Saraiva, A. L.; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, M. A.

    Here we present measurements of transport through a gate-defined quantum dot formed in a Si/SiGe heterostructure, demonstrating controllable tunnel coupling between the quantum dot and a localized electronic state.1 Combining experimental stability diagram measurements with 3D capacitive modeling based on the expected electron density profiles, we determine the most likely location of the localized state in the quantum well. This work is supported in part by NSF (DMR-1206915, IIA-1132804), ARO (W911NF-12-1-0607) and the William F. Vilas Estate Trust. Development and maintenance of the growth facilities used for fabricating samples supported by DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028). This research utilized facilities supported by the NSF (DMR-0832760, DMR-1121288). The work of J.K.G. and E.N. was supported in part by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1Ryan H. Foote et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 103112 (2015)

  7. Ti α - ω phase transformation and metastable structure, revealed by the solid-state nudged elastic band method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarkevich, Nikolai; Johnson, Duane D.

    Titanium is on of the four most utilized structural metals, and, hence, its structural changes and potential metastable phases under stress are of considerable importance. Using DFT+U combined with the generalized solid-state nudged elastic band (SS-NEB) method, we consider the pressure-driven transformation between Ti α and ω phases, and find an intermediate metastable body-centered orthorhombic (bco) structure of lower density. We verify its stability, assess the phonons and electronic structure, and compare computational results to experiment. Interestingly, standard density functional theory (DFT) yields the ω phase as the Ti ground state, in contradiction to the observed α phase at low pressure and temperature. We correct this by proper consideration of the strongly correlated d-electrons, and utilize DFT+U method in the SS-NEB to obtain the relevant transformation pathway and structures. We use methods developed with support by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-03ER46026 and DE-AC02-07CH11358). Ames Laboratory is operated for the DOE by Iowa State University under Contract DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  8. Is the Bohm Criterion satisfied in magnetized plasmas, and how does ion-neutral collisionality matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severn, Greg; Green, Jonathan; Winters, Victoria; Yip, Chi-Shung; Hershkowitz, Noah; Schmitz, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    It is taken for granted that the usual Bohm criterion must be satisfied for weakly collisional, magnetized plasmas at the plasma-wall boundary for the case in which the magnetic field is normally incident on the boundary, but there is a paucity of experimental works that confirm it. Beyond this, theorists view the Bohm criterion as approximately true, holding only for collisionless plasmas. The question is whether Bohm's criterion really is satisfied in weakly collisional magnetized plasmas in the simplest case (n ∧ ∥ B /B, where n ∧ is the boundary surface normal vector) and how that criterion (the ions reaching a sonic point at the end of the presheath) is modified as collisionality rises. Experiments are conducted in a linear magnetized helicon plasma source at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, an upgraded version of MARIA (MARIA-Magnetized Anisot Ropic Ion-distribution Apparatus), in order to address these questions. Experimental results are discussed in light of relevant theoretical works. Work supported by NSF Grant Nos. PHY-1206421, CBET-0903783, and CBET-0903832, and MSN178461, and DOE Grant Nos. DE-FG02-97ER54437, DE FG02-03ER54728, and MSN170010.

  9. Rabi oscillations at different tunnel couplings for an ac-gated quantum dot qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorgrimsson, Brandur; Kim, Dohun; Simmons, C. B.; Ward, Daniel R.; Foote, Ryan H.; Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    One way to create a qubit is to use two distinct positions of a single electron as qubit states. Such a system can be achieved by using the left and right positions in a gated double quantum dot. In this system the qubit is strongly coupled to electric fields and has potential for high-speed operations. By tuning specific gate voltages, the tunnel coupling between the left and right quantum dots can be changed. Here, by using resonant ac microwave driving and gate tuning, we explore variations of T2* and the Rabi frequency on the tunnel coupling and microwave drive power, and we study strong driving effects such as generation of second harmonics. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607) and NSF (DMR-1206915 and PHY-1104660). Development and maintenance of the growth facilities used for fabricating samples is sup- ported by DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028). This research utilized NSF-supported shared facilities at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  10. Antioxidant-rich coffee reduces DNA damage, elevates glutathione status and contributes to weight control: results from an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Bakuradze, Tamara; Boehm, Nadine; Janzowski, Christine; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas; Stockis, Jean-Pierre; Albert, Franz W; Stiebitz, Herbert; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence increasingly suggests coffee consumption to be correlated to prevention or delay of degenerative diseases connected with oxidative cellular stress. In an intervention study comprising 33 healthy volunteers, we examined DNA-protective and antioxidative effects exerted in vivo by daily ingestion of 750 mL of freshly brewed coffee rich in both green coffee bean constituents as well as roast products. The study design encompassed an initial 4 wk of wash-out, followed by 4 wk of coffee intake and 4 wk of second wash-out. At the start and after each study phase blood samples were taken to monitor biomarkers of oxidative stress response. In addition, body weight/composition and intake of energy/nutrients were recorded. In the coffee ingestion period, the primary endpoint, oxidative DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay (± FPG), was markedly reduced (p<0.001). Glutathione level (p<0.05) and GSR-activity (p<0.01) were elevated. Body weight (p<0.01)/body fat (p<0.05) and energy (p<0.001)/nutrient (p<0.001-0.05) intake were reduced. Our results allow to conclude that daily consumption of 3-4 cups of brew from a special Arabica coffee exerts health beneficial effects, as evidenced by reduced oxidative damage, body fat mass and energy/nutrient uptake. PMID:21462335

  11. Full of sound and fury, signifying something: the impact of autonomic arousal on EGM gambling.

    PubMed

    Rockloff, Matthew Justus; Signal, Tania; Dyer, Victoria

    2007-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to observe the influence of autonomic arousal on subsequent gambling behavior. Thirty-seven male and 32 female regular Electronic Gaming Machine (EGM) players were recruited through newspaper advertisements. Participants were randomly assigned to either: (1) a control condition, or (2) an experimental condition that introduced a loud white-noise event (80 db) at fixed 120 s intervals throughout the 5-min EGM gambling session. Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) measurements showed that the manipulation was successful in elevating autonomic arousal. The results showed differences in behavioral response to the manipulation based on prior experience with gambling problems. Persons with many gambling problems had lower average bet-sizes in the white-noise condition compared to the control, while those with few or no problems had higher average bet-sizes. The results suggest that arousal may provide different signals to gamblers with few versus many problems. Gamblers with many problems may interpret their arousal as a sign that they will soon lose money, while gamblers with few or no problems may associate feelings of arousal exclusively with winning. PMID:17357850

  12. Statistical Properties of Blue Horizontal Branch Stars in the Spheroid: Detection of a Moving Group approximately 50 kpc from the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, Matthew J.; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Newberg, Lee A.; Yanny, Brian; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Fiorentin, Paola Re; /Ljubljana U. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.

    2010-02-01

    A new moving group comprising at least four Blue Horizontal Branch (BHB) stars is identified at (l; b) = (65{sup o}; 48{sup o}). The horizontal branch at g{sub 0} = 18.9 magnitude implies a distance of 50 kpc from the Sun. The heliocentric radial velocity is = -157 {+-} 4 km s{sup -1}, corresponding to V{sub gsr} = -10 km s{sup -1}; the dispersion in line-of-sight velocity is consistent with the instrumental errors for these stars. The mean metallicity of the moving group is [Fe/H] {approx} -2.4, which is significantly more metal poor than the stellar spheroid. We estimate that the BHB stars in the outer halo have a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]=-2.0, with a wide scatter and a distribution that does not change much as a function of distance from the Sun. We explore the systematics of SDSS DR7 surface gravity metallicity determinations for faint BHB stars, and present a technique for estimating the significance of clumps discovered in multidimensional data. This moving group cannot be distinguished in density, and highlights the need to collect many more spectra of Galactic stars to unravel the merger history of the Galaxy.

  13. A versatile technique for the investigation of gunshot residue patterns on fabrics and other surfaces: m-XRF.

    PubMed

    Berendes, Antje; Neimke, Dieter; Schumacher, Rüdiger; Barth, Martin

    2006-09-01

    With heavy-metal-free ammunitions becoming more and more popular, it is necessary to find methods to visualize patterns of those elements in gunshot residues (GSRs) that are not accessible by chemographic coloring tests. The recently introduced millimeter-X-ray fluorescence analysis (m-XRF) spectrometer Spectro Midex M offers an easy way to record mappings of GSRs containing such elements in order to determine shooting distances as well as the general composition of these particles. A motorized stage enables samples of a maximum size of 20 x 20 cm to be investigated, like fabric, clothes, adhesive tapes (Filmolux films), and polyvinylalcohol gloves of shooter's hands. Human tissues can be measured using a Peltier-cooled specimen holder that is mounted onto the stage. As the spot size of the exiting X-rays lies in the millimeter range, which is adequate for the assessment of the residue patterns for shooting distance determination, a significant reduction in measurement time is achieved compared with mu-XRF methods. Test shots with heavy-metal-free ammunitions were performed on different target materials, like pork skin and fabric, and the elemental distributions of Ti, K, and Ga were determined. In order to show the capability of the spectrometer for conventional lead ammunitions as well, a shot series of 5-100 cm shooting distance and an adhesive tape of a shooter's hand were investigated analogously. A comparison of several methods applied in GSR investigation shows the advantages of the m-XRF method. PMID:17018086

  14. Sub-toxic Ethanol Exposure Modulates Gene Expression and Enzyme Activity of Antioxidant Systems to Provide Neuroprotection in Hippocampal HT22 Cells.

    PubMed

    Casañas-Sánchez, Verónica; Pérez, José A; Quinto-Alemany, David; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is known to cause severe systemic damage often explained as secondary to oxidative stress. Brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) because the high amounts of lipids, and because nerve cell membranes contain high amounts of peroxidable fatty acids. Usually these effects of ethanol are associated to high and/or chronic exposure to ethanol. However, as we show in this manuscript, a low and acute dose of ethanol trigger a completely different response in hippocampal cells. Thus, we have observed that 0.1% ethanol exposure to HT22 cells, a murine hippocampal-derived cell line, increases the transcriptional expression of different genes belonging to the classical, glutathione/glutaredoxin and thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin antioxidant systems, these including Sod1, Sod2, Gpx1, Gclc, and Txnrd1. Paralleling these changes, enzyme activities of total superoxide dismutase (tSOD), catalase, total glutathione peroxidase (tGPx), glutathione-S-reductase (GSR), and total thioredoxin reductase (tTXNRD), were all increased, while the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as indicators of lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels remained unaltered. Ethanol exposure did not affect cell viability or cell growing as assessed by real-time cell culture monitoring, indicating that low ethanol doses are not deleterious for hippocampal cells, but rather prevented glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In summary, we conclude that sub-toxic exposure to ethanol may well be neuroprotective against oxidative insults in hippocampal cells. PMID:27512374

  15. Naturalistic Enactment to Elicit and Recognize Caregiver State Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Darien; Favela, Jesus; Ibarra, Catalina; Cruz, Netzahualcoyotl

    2016-09-01

    Caring for people with dementia imposes significant stress on family members and caregivers. Often, these informal caregivers have no coping strategy to deal with these behaviors. Anxiety and stress episodes are often triggered by problematic behaviors exhibited by the person who suffers from dementia. Detecting these behaviors could help them in dealing with them and reduce caregiver burden. However, work on anxiety detection using physiological signals has mostly been done under controlled conditions. In this paper we describe an experiment aimed at inducing anxiety among caregivers of people with dementia under naturalistic conditions. We report an experiment, using the naturalistic enactment technique, in which 10 subjects were asked to care for an older adult who acts as if she experiences dementia. We record physiological signals from the participants (GSR, HR, EEG) during the sessions that lasted for approximately 30 min. We explain how we obtained ground truth from self-report and observation data. We conducted two different tests using the Support Vector Machine technique. We obtained an average precision of 77.8 % and 38.1 % recall when classifying two different possible states: "Anxious" and "Not anxious". Analysis of the data provides evidence that the experiment elicits state anxiety and that it can be detected using wearable sensors. Furthermore, if episodes of problematic behaviors can also be detected, the recognition of anxiety in the caregiver can be improved, leading to the enactment of appropriate interventions to help caregivers cope with anxiety episodes. PMID:27443338

  16. Development of a novel headspace sorptive extraction method to study the aging of volatile compounds in spent handgun cartridges.

    PubMed

    Gallidabino, M; Romolo, F S; Bylenga, K; Weyermann, C

    2014-05-01

    Estimating the time since the last discharge of firearms and/or spent cartridges may be a useful piece of information in forensic firearm-related cases. The current approach consists of studying the diffusion of selected volatile organic compounds (such as naphthalene) released during the shooting using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). However, this technique works poorly on handgun cartridges because the extracted quantities quickly fall below the limit of detection. In order to find more effective solutions and further investigate the aging of organic gunshot residue after the discharge of handgun cartridges, an extensive study was carried out in this work using a novel approach based on high-capacity headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE). By adopting this technique, for the first time 51 gunshot residue (GSR) volatile organic compounds could be simultaneously detected from fired handgun cartridge cases. Application to aged specimens showed that many of those compounds presented significant and complementary aging profiles. Compound-to-compound ratios were also tested and proved to be beneficial both in reducing the variability of the aging curves and in enlarging the time window useful in a forensic casework perspective. The obtained results were thus particularly promising for the development of a new complete forensic dating methodology. PMID:24684369

  17. Effects of Head-Down Bed Rest on the Executive Functions and Emotional Response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Zhou, Renlai; Chen, Shanguang; Tan, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged bed rest may cause changes in the autonomic nervous system that are related to cognition and emotion. This study adopted an emotional flanker task to evaluate the effect of 45 days -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR) on executive functioning in 16 healthy young men at each of six time points: the second-to-last day before the bed rest period, the eleventh, twentieth, thirty-second and fortieth day during the bed rest period, and the eighth day after the bed rest period. In addition, self-report inventories (Beck Anxiety Inventory, BAI; Beck Depression Inventory, BDI; Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, PANAS) were conducted to record emotional changes, and the participants’ galvanic skin response (GSR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were assessed as measures of physiological activity. The results showed that the participants’ reaction time on the flanker task increased significantly relative to their responses on the second-to-last day before the period of bed rest, their galvanic skin response weakened and their degrees of positive affect declined during the bed rest period. Our results provide some evidence for a detrimental effect of prolonged bed rest on executive functioning and positive affect. Whether this stems from a lack of aerobic physical activity and/or the effect of HDBR itself remains to be determined. PMID:23284916

  18. Analysis of particles produced during airbag deployment by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and their deposition on surrounding surfaces: a mid-research summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, J. Matney

    2011-06-01

    Airbags can be encountered in forensic work when investigating a car crash and are typically constructed with primerlike material to begin the deployment apparatus. The mechanisms of airbag deployment can produce particles ideal for scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. A recent study published by Berk studied airbags with vents and showed that it is possible for particles generated from the deployment of these airbags to deposit on surfaces in the vehicle as the airbags deflate.1 Another paper published by Berk reported particles similar in morphology and composition to primer gunshot residue (GSR) are produced by side impact airbags.2 This paper's aim will be to show mid-point results of a study still in progress in which non-vented airbags were analyzed to determine if they exhibited the same particle depositing features as their vented airbag counterparts. Further investigation in this study is being performed to find more airbags which produce primer gunshot residue-like particles containing lead, barium, and antimony from airbag deployment. To date, the study has resulted in (1) non-vented airbags exhibiting deposition of particles suitable for SEM/EDS analysis and (2) no gunshot residue-like particles being detected from the airbag residues studied thus far.

  19. Acute Exposure to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCIPP) Causes Hepatic Inflammation and Leads to Hepatotoxicity in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunsheng; Su, Guanyong; Giesy, John P; Letcher, Robert J; Li, Guangyu; Agrawal, Ira; Li, Jing; Yu, Liqin; Wang, Jianghua; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) has been frequently detected in environmental media and has adverse health effect on wildlife and humans. It has been implicated to have hepatotoxicity, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, adult male zebrafish were exposed to TDCIPP and global hepatic gene expression was examined by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of TDCIPP-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results indicated that TDCIPP exposure significantly up-regulated the expression of genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, implying an inflammatory response, which was supported by up-regulation of inflammation-related biomaker genes. Hepatic inflammation was further confirmed by histological observation of increase of infiltrated neutrophils and direct observation of liver recruitment of neutrophils labeled with Ds-Red fluorescent protein of Tg(lysC:DsRed) zebrafish upon TDCIPP exposure. To further characterize the hepatotoxicity of TDCIPP, the expression of hepatotoxicity biomarker genes, liver histopathology and morphology were examined. The exposure to TDCIPP significantly up-regulated the expression of several biomarker genes for hepatotoxicity (gck, gsr and nqo1) and caused hepatic vacuolization and apoptosis as well as increase of the liver size. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TDCIPP induces hepatic inflammation and leads to hepatotoxicity in zebrafish. PMID:26743178

  20. Cell line-specific oxidative stress in cellular toxicity: A toxicogenomics-based comparison between liver and colon cell models.

    PubMed

    Deferme, L; Briedé, J J; Claessen, S M H; Cavill, R; Kleinjans, J C S

    2015-08-01

    Imbalance between high reactive oxygen species formation and antioxidant capacity in the colon and liver has been linked to increased cancer risk. However, knowledge about possible cell line-specific oxidative stress-mechanisms is limited. To explore this further, gene expression data from a human liver and colon cell line (HepG2/Caco-2), both exposed to menadione and H2O2 at six time points (0.5-1-2-4-8 and 24h) were compared in association with cell cycle distribution. In total, 3164 unique- and 1827 common genes were identified between HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. Despite the higher number of unique genes, most oxidative stress-related genes such as CAT, OGG1, NRF2, NF-κB, GCLC, HMOX1 and GSR were differentially expressed in both cell lines. However, cell-specific regulation of genes such as KEAP1 and GCLM, or of the EMT pathway, which are of pathophysiological importance, indicates that oxidative stress induces different transcriptional effects and outcomes in the two selected cell lines. In addition, expression levels and/or -direction of common genes were often different in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells, and this led to very diverse downstream effects as confirmed by correlating pathways to cell cycle changes. Altogether, this work contributes to obtaining a better molecular understanding of cell line-specific toxicity upon exposure to oxidative stress-inducing compounds. PMID:25800948

  1. The Application of Nonlinear Local Lyapunov Vectors to Ensemble Prediction in a barotropic quasi-geostrophicmodel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ruiqiang; Feng, Jie; Liu, Deqiang; Li, Jianping

    2014-05-01

    The breeding method is used extensively as an ensemble generation technique for its simple concept and cheap computing. Bred vectors (BVs) are dynamically obtained from the nonlinear model and represent a set of fastest-growing modes that are globally quasi-orthogonal at each time. However, the BVs have similar local structures that may degrade the global orthogonality to some extent and the natural breeding may not be able to stably capture the fast-growing directions. In this paper, we introduced a new ensemble generation scheme, nonlinear Local Lyapunov Vectors (NLLVs), which is obtained by using the comparison and the Gram-Schmidt reorthonormalization (GSR) methods. The NLLVs are a set of strictly orthogonal vectors that represent the directions from the fastest growing direction to the fastest shrinking direction, and thus the first few of them could be used to provide the subspace of the fastest-growing errors. The performances of the NLLV and the BV schemes are systematically compared in a barotropic quasi-geostrophic model. The results show that the NLLVs perform more stable in capturing the fastest-growing modes and have greater diversity in both local and global regions than the BVs. The NLLVs also have improved performance according to various verification measures, such as the Brier scores and the rank histograms.

  2. Affective Assessment of a Computer User through the Processing of the Pupil Diameter Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ying; Barreto, Armando; Adjouadi, Malek

    This study proposes to achieve the affective assessment of a computer user through the processing of the pupil diameter (PD) signal. An adaptive interference canceller (AIC) system using the H∞ time-varying (HITV) adaptive algorithm was developed to minimize the impact of the PLR (pupil size changes caused by light intensity variations) on the measured pupil diameter signal. The modified pupil diameter (MPD) signal, obtained from the AIC, was expected to reflect primarily the pupillary affective responses (PAR) of the subject. Additional manipulations of the AIC output resulted in a Processed MPD (PMPD) signal, from which a classification feature, “PMPDmean”, was extracted. This feature was used to train and test a support vector machine (SVM), for the identification of “stress” states in the subject, achieving an accuracy rate of 77.78%. The advantages of affective recognition through the PD signal were verified by comparatively investigating the classification of “stress” and “relaxation” states through features derived from the simultaneously recorded galvanic skin response (GSR) and blood volume pulse (BVP) signals, with and without the PD feature. Encouraging results in affective assessment based on pupil diameter monitoring were obtained in spite of intermittent illumination increases purposely introduced during the experiments. Therefore, these results confirmed the possibility of using PD monitoring to evaluate the evolving affective states of a computer user.

  3. The Essential Role of H19 Contributing to Cisplatin Resistance by Regulating Glutathione Metabolism in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Hong; Suo, Sha-Sha; Xu, Xiao-Li; Ni, Mao-Wei; Gu, Lin-Hui; Chen, Wei; Wang, Liang-Yan; Zhao, Ye; Tian, Bing; Hua, Yue-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Primary and acquired drug resistance is one of the main obstacles encountered in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) chemotherapy. Cisplatin induces DNA damage through cross-linking and long integrated non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) play an important role in chemical induced DNA-damage response, which suggests that lincRNAs may be also associated with cisplatin resistance. However, the mechanism of long integrated non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) acting on cisplatin resistance is not well understood. Here, we showed that expression of lin-RECK-3, H19, LUCAT1, LINC00961, and linc-CARS2-2 was enhanced in cisplatin-resistant A2780-DR cells, while transcriptome sequencing showed decreased Linc-TNFRSF19-1 and LINC00515 expression. Additionally, we verified that different H19 expression levels in HGSC tissues showed strong correlation with cancer recurrence. H19 knockdown in A2780-DR cells resulted in recovery of cisplatin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative proteomics analysis indicated that six NRF2-targeted proteins, including NQO1, GSR, G6PD, GCLC, GCLM and GSTP1 involved in the glutathione metabolism pathway, were reduced in H19-knockdown cells. Furthermore, H19-knockdown cells were markedly more sensitive to hydrogen-peroxide treatment and exhibited lower glutathione levels. Our results reveal a previously unknown link between H19 and glutathione metabolism in the regulation of cancer-drug resistance. PMID:27193186

  4. Estimating Appropriate Lag Length for Synchronized Physiological Time Series: The Electrodermal Response.

    PubMed

    Guastello, Stephen J; Reiter, Katherine; Malon, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Physiological synchronization of autonomic arousal between people is thought to be an important component of work team dynamics, therapist-client relationships, and other interpersonal dynamics. This article examines concepts and mathematical models of synchronization that could be relevant to work teams. Before it is possible to deploy nonlinear modeling, however, it is necessary to develop a strategy for determining appropriate lag lengths. If a measurement at time 2 is a function of itself at time 1 and a coupling effect from another source, what is the appropriate amount of real time that should be allowed to elapse between the two measurements in order to observe the coupling effect? This study examined four strategies for doing so. In the experiment, 78 undergraduates worked in pairs to perform a vigilance dual task for 90 min while galvanic skin responses (GSR) were recorded. Lags based on mutual entropy and the natural rate criteria produced corroborating results, whereas strategies based on a critical decline in the linear autocorrelation (max r/e) and Theiler's W did not produce usable results for this situation. Some connections were uncovered between linear autocorrelation strength and lag based on mutual entropy with performance on the tasks and subjective ratings of workload. PMID:26058337

  5. Novel Elements of the Chondrocyte Stress Response Identified Using an in Vitro Model of Mouse Cartilage Degradation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard; Golub, Suzanne B; Rowley, Lynn; Angelucci, Constanza; Karpievitch, Yuliya V; Bateman, John F; Fosang, Amanda J

    2016-03-01

    The destruction of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis involves chondrocyte dysfunction and imbalanced extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1α (IL-1α) contribute to osteoarthritis pathophysiology, but the effects of IL-1α on chondrocytes within their tissue microenvironment have not been fully evaluated. To redress this we used label-free quantitative proteomics to analyze the chondrocyte response to IL-1α within a native cartilage ECM. Mouse femoral heads were cultured with and without IL-1α, and both the tissue proteome and proteins released into the media were analyzed. New elements of the chondrocyte response to IL-1α related to cellular stress included markers for protein misfolding (Armet, Creld2, and Hyou1), enzymes involved in glutathione biosynthesis and regeneration (Gstp1, Gsto1, and Gsr), and oxidative stress proteins (Prdx2, Txn, Atox1, Hmox1, and Vnn1). Other proteins previously not associated with the IL-1α response in cartilage included ECM components (Smoc2, Kera, and Crispld1) and cysteine proteases (cathepsin Z and legumain), while chondroadherin and cartilage-derived C-type lectin (Clec3a) were identified as novel products of IL-1α-induced cartilage degradation. This first proteome-level view of the cartilage IL-1α response identified candidate biomarkers of cartilage destruction and novel targets for therapeutic intervention in osteoarthritis. PMID:26794603

  6. The ghost of stochastic resonance: an introductory review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balenzuela, Pablo; Braun, Holger; Chialvo, Dante R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear systems driven by noise and periodic forces with more than one frequency exhibit the phenomenon of Ghost Stochastic Resonance (GSR) found in a wide and disparate variety of fields ranging from biology to geophysics. The common novel feature is the emergence of a 'ghost' frequency in the system's output which is absent in the input. As reviewed here, the uncovering of this phenomenon helped to understand a range of problems, from the perception of pitch in complex sounds or visual stimuli, to the explanation of climate cycles. Recent theoretical efforts show that a simple mechanism with two ingredients are at work in all these observations. The first one is the linear interference between the periodic inputs and the second a nonlinear detection of the largest constructive interferences, involving a noisy threshold. These notes are dedicated to review the main aspects of this phenomenon, as well as its different manifestations described on a bewildering variety of systems ranging from neurons, semiconductor lasers, electronic circuits to models of glacial climate cycles.

  7. Hunting the Parent of the Orphan Stream: Identifying Stream Members from Low-resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Andrew R.; Da Costa, Gary; Keller, Stefan C.; Maunder, Elizabeth

    2013-02-01

    We present candidate K-giant members in the Orphan Stream that have been identified from low-resolution data taken with the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. From modest signal-to-noise spectra and independent cuts in photometry, kinematics, gravity, and metallicity we yield self-consistent, highly probable stream members. We find a revised stream distance of 22.5 ± 2.0 kpc near the celestial equator and our kinematic signature peaks at V GSR = 82.1 ± 1.4 km s-1. The observed velocity dispersion of our most probable members is consistent with arising from the velocity uncertainties alone. This indicates that at least along this line of sight, the Orphan Stream is kinematically cold. Our data indicate an overall stream metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.63 ± 0.19 dex which is more metal-rich than previously found and unbiased by spectral type. Furthermore, the significant metallicity dispersion displayed by our most probable members, σ([Fe/H]) = 0.56 dex, suggests that the unidentified Orphan Stream parent is a dSph satellite. We highlight likely members for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up.

  8. VehiHealth: An Emergency Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Network to Support Healthcare System.

    PubMed

    Bhoi, S K; Khilar, P M

    2016-03-01

    Survival of a patient depends on effective data communication in healthcare system. In this paper, an emergency routing protocol for Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is proposed to quickly forward the current patient status information from the ambulance to the hospital to provide pre-medical treatment. As the ambulance takes time to reach the hospital, ambulance doctor can provide sudden treatment to the patient in emergency by sending patient status information to the hospital through the vehicles using vehicular communication. Secondly, the experienced doctors respond to the information by quickly sending a treatment information to the ambulance. In this protocol, data is forwarded through that path which has less link breakage problem between the vehicles. This is done by calculating an intersection value I v a l u e for the neighboring intersections by using the current traffic information. Then the data is forwarded through that intersection which has minimum I v a l u e . Simulation results show VehiHealth performs better than P-GEDIR, GyTAR, A-STAR and GSR routing protocols in terms of average end-to-end delay, number of link breakage, path length, and average response time. PMID:26696419

  9. Contribution of the spin-1 diquark to the nucleon's g1 structure function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, F.

    2010-07-01

    This is the final installment of a series of work that we have done in the context of the meson cloud model that investigates F2 and g1 structure functions. In our previous work on g1 structure function, we showed that having a spin-0 quark-diquark for the nucleon core along with both pseudoscalar and vector meson clouds was not sufficient to reproduce experimental observation(s) consistently. For the F2 structure function, we found that both superposition of a spin-0 diquark and a spin-1 diquark in the nucleon core along with pseudoscalar and vector meson clouds are needed to reproduce the observed F2(x) and the Gottfried sum rule (GSR) violation. Therefore, in the present work, we consider the contribution of a spin-1 diquark in the nucleon core to the g1 structure function. The calculation is performed in the light-cone frame. The dressed nucleon is assumed to be a superposition of the bare nucleon plus virtual light-cone Fock states of baryon-meson pairs. For the bare nucleon, we consider different quark-diquark configurations along with the possibility that there is no diquark inside the nucleon. The initial distributions are evolved. The final results are compared with experimental results and other theoretical predictions.

  10. Annotation and prediction of stress and workload from physiological and inertial signals.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arindam; Danieli, Morena; Riccardi, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Continuous daily stress and high workload can have negative effects on individuals' physical and mental well-being. It has been shown that physiological signals may support the prediction of stress and workload. However, previous research is limited by the low diversity of signals concurring to such predictive tasks and controlled experimental design. In this paper we present 1) a pipeline for continuous and real-life acquisition of physiological and inertial signals 2) a mobile agent application for on-the-go event annotation and 3) an end-to-end signal processing and classification system for stress and workload from diverse signal streams. We study physiological signals such as Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), Skin Temperature (ST), Inter Beat Interval (IBI) and Blood Volume Pulse (BVP) collected using a non-invasive wearable device; and inertial signals collected from accelerometer and gyroscope sensors. We combine them with subjects' inputs (e.g. event tagging) acquired using the agent application, and their emotion regulation scores. In our experiments we explore signal combination and selection techniques for stress and workload prediction from subjects whose signals have been recorded continuously during their daily life. The end-to-end classification system is described for feature extraction, signal artifact removal, and classification. We show that a combination of physiological, inertial and user event signals provides accurate prediction of stress for real-life users and signals. PMID:26736585

  11. Historical perspective on the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Hanawalt, Philip C

    2015-12-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) has been broadly defined as a complex network of cellular pathways that cooperate to sense and repair lesions in DNA. Multiple types of DNA damage, some natural DNA sequences, nucleotide pool deficiencies and collisions with transcription complexes can cause replication arrest to elicit the DDR. However, in practice, the term DDR as applied to eukaryotic/mammalian cells often refers more specifically to pathways involving the activation of the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM-Rad3-related) kinases in response to double-strand breaks or arrested replication forks, respectively. Nevertheless, there are distinct responses to particular types of DNA damage that do not involve ATM or ATR. In addition, some of the aberrations that cause replication arrest and elicit the DDR cannot be categorized as direct DNA damage. These include nucleotide pool deficiencies, nucleotide sequences that can adopt non-canonical DNA structures, and collisions between replication forks and transcription complexes. The response to these aberrations can be called the genomic stress response (GSR), a term that is meant to encompass the sensing of all types of DNA aberrations together with the mechanisms involved in coping with them. In addition to fully functional cells, the consequences of processing genomic aberrations may include mutagenesis, genomic rearrangements and lethality. PMID:26507443

  12. Position dependence of irreversibility line on thin plate Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Tomoyuki; Furuta, Daiki; Arayashiki, Takahiro; Fujishiro, Hiroyuki; Yanagi, Yousuke; Itoh, Yoshitaka

    We measured the profiles of the trapped field, BT, on a thin Gd-Ba-Cu-O superconducting bulk plate with 45 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness magnetized by the pulsed field, where Gd-Ba-Cu-O consists of a superconducting matrix phase of GdBa2Cu3O7-δ and a nonsuperconducting secondary phase of Gd2BaCuO5. The vortices were mainly trapped at the periphery in the growth sector regions (GSRs) for low applied fields, and around the growth sector boundaries (GSBs) and under the seed crystal (SC) position for high applied fields. The irreversibility line, which was determined from the resistivity measurements, of the sample cut from the GSR was rather lower than those of the samples cut from the GSBs and the SC position. This result revealed the weak vortex pinning strength in the GSRs and was consistent with the BT profiles by PFM. The obtained results suggest that the resistivity can also probe the distribution of the vortex pinning strength.

  13. Carboplatin/taxane-induced gastrointestinal toxicity: a pharmacogenomics study on the SCOTROC1 trial.

    PubMed

    He, Y J; Winham, S J; Hoskins, J M; Glass, S; Paul, J; Brown, R; Motsinger-Reif, A; McLeod, H L

    2016-06-01

    Carboplatin/taxane combination is first-line therapy for ovarian cancer. However, patients can encounter treatment delays, impaired quality of life, even death because of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. A candidate gene study was conducted to assess potential association of genetic variants with GI toxicity in 808 patients who received carboplatin/taxane in the Scottish Randomized Trial in Ovarian Cancer 1 (SCOTROC1). Patients were randomized into discovery and validation cohorts consisting of 404 patients each. Clinical covariates and genetic variants associated with grade III/IV GI toxicity in discovery cohort were evaluated in replication cohort. Chemotherapy-induced GI toxicity was significantly associated with seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the ATP7B, GSR, VEGFA and SCN10A genes. Patients with risk genotypes were at 1.53 to 18.01 higher odds to develop carboplatin/taxane-induced GI toxicity (P<0.01). Variants in the VEGF gene were marginally associated with survival time. Our data provide potential targets for modulation/inhibition of GI toxicity in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:26194361

  14. Our Local Superbubble and Local Bubble Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiles, Carl

    2009-08-01

    We briefly describe the local superbubbles and supershells that lie near the Sun. These include, of course, the famous ones-the Orion/Eridanus superbubble and the North Polar Spur shell. It also includes less famous, less prominent, older, but equally important ones: we stress the elliptical Lindblad Ring, which surrounds the Sun and has a maximum diameter 364 pc, and GSH 238+00+09, which is a huge old shell. Both appear to be responsible for shock-induced star formation; GSR 238+0+09, in particular, may be responsible for the Orion and Gum associations. We then turn to the Local Bubble and describe some of its little-known and remarkable occupants: interstellar scattering centers, which are ionized blobs having sizes of a few Earth diameters, and one of the coldest HI clouds known, which produces prominent X-ray shadow and allows us to estimate the local X-ray production rate within a few dozen parsec from the Sun.

  15. Heritability of the network architecture of intrinsic brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Benjamin; Hansell, Narelle K; Blokland, Gabriëlla A M; Martin, Nicholas G; Thompson, Paul M; Breakspear, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Wright, Margaret J; McMahon, Katie L

    2015-11-01

    The brain's functional network exhibits many features facilitating functional specialization, integration, and robustness to attack. Using graph theory to characterize brain networks, studies demonstrate their small-world, modular, and "rich-club" properties, with deviations reported in many common neuropathological conditions. Here we estimate the heritability of five widely used graph theoretical metrics (mean clustering coefficient (γ), modularity (Q), rich-club coefficient (ϕnorm), global efficiency (λ), small-worldness (σ)) over a range of connection densities (k=5-25%) in a large cohort of twins (N=592, 84 MZ and 89 DZ twin pairs, 246 single twins, age 23 ± 2.5). We also considered the effects of global signal regression (GSR). We found that the graph metrics were moderately influenced by genetic factors h(2) (γ=47-59%, Q=38-59%, ϕnorm=0-29%, λ=52-64%, σ=51-59%) at lower connection densities (≤ 15%), and when global signal regression was implemented, heritability estimates decreased substantially h(2) (γ=0-26%, Q=0-28%, ϕnorm=0%, λ=23-30%, σ=0-27%). Distinct network features were phenotypically correlated (|r|=0.15-0.81), and γ, Q, and λ were found to be influenced by overlapping genetic factors. Our findings suggest that these metrics may be potential endophenotypes for psychiatric disease and suitable for genetic association studies, but that genetic effects must be interpreted with respect to methodological choices. PMID:26226088

  16. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment: First Detection of High-velocity Milky Way Bar Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidever, David L.; Zasowski, Gail; Majewski, Steven R.; Bird, Jonathan; Robin, Annie C.; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Beaton, Rachael L.; Schönrich, Ralph; Schultheis, Mathias; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Shetrone, Matthew; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Weiner, Benjamin; Gerhard, Ortwin; Schneider, Donald P.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Sellgren, Kris; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, Jon; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García Pérez, Ana Elia; Holtzman, Jon; Hearty, Fred R.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Muna, Demitri; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2012-08-01

    Commissioning observations with the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, have produced radial velocities (RVs) for ~4700 K/M-giant stars in the Milky Way (MW) bulge. These high-resolution (R ~ 22, 500), high-S/N (>100 per resolution element), near-infrared (NIR; 1.51-1.70 μm) spectra provide accurate RVs (epsilonV ~ 0.2 km s-1) for the sample of stars in 18 Galactic bulge fields spanning -1° -32°. This represents the largest NIR high-resolution spectroscopic sample of giant stars ever assembled in this region of the Galaxy. A cold (σV ~ 30 km s-1), high-velocity peak (V GSR ≈ +200 km s-1) is found to comprise a significant fraction (~10%) of stars in many of these fields. These high RVs have not been detected in previous MW surveys and are not expected for a simple, circularly rotating disk. Preliminary distance estimates rule out an origin from the background Sagittarius tidal stream or a new stream in the MW disk. Comparison to various Galactic models suggests that these high RVs are best explained by stars in orbits of the Galactic bar potential, although some observational features remain unexplained.

  17. Skin sympathetic nerve activity in humans during exposure to emotionally-charged images: sex differences.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachael; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2014-01-01

    While it is known that anxiety or emotional arousal affects skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), the galvanic skin response (GSR) is the most widely used parameter to infer increases in SSNA during stress or emotional studies. We recently showed that SSNA provides a more sensitive measure of emotional state than effector-organ responses. The aim of the present study was to assess whether there are gender differences in the responses of SSNA and other physiological parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, skin blood flow and sweat release, while subjects viewed neutral or emotionally-charged images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Changes in SSNA were assessed using microneurography in 20 subjects (10 male and 10 female). Blocks of positively-charged (erotica) or negatively-charge images (mutilation) were presented in a quasi-random fashion, following a block of neutral images, with each block containing 15 images and lasting 2 min. Images of both erotica and mutilation caused significant increases in SSNA, with increases being greater for males viewing erotica and greater for females viewing mutilation. The increases in SSNA were often coupled with sweat release and cutaneous vasoconstriction; however, these markers were not significantly different than those produced by viewing neutral images and were not always consistent with the SSNA increases. We conclude that SSNA increases with both positively-charged and negatively-charged emotional images, yet sex differences are present. PMID:24678303

  18. Antioxidant defense enzyme genes and asthma susceptibility: gender-specific effects and heterogeneity in gene-gene interactions between pathogenetic variants of the disease.

    PubMed

    Polonikov, Alexey V; Ivanov, Vladimir P; Bogomazov, Alexey D; Freidin, Maxim B; Illig, Thomas; Solodilova, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from an increased amount of reactive oxygen species and an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The present study tested the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic variants of asthma is determined by complex interactions between genes encoding antioxidant defense enzymes (ADE). We carried out a comprehensive analysis of the associations between adult asthma and 46 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 34 ADE genes and 12 other candidate genes of asthma in Russian population using set association analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction approaches. We found for the first time epistatic interactions between ADE genes underlying asthma susceptibility and the genetic heterogeneity between allergic and nonallergic variants of the disease. We identified GSR (glutathione reductase) and PON2 (paraoxonase 2) as novel candidate genes for asthma susceptibility. We observed gender-specific effects of ADE genes on the risk of asthma. The results of the study demonstrate complexity and diversity of interactions between genes involved in oxidative stress underlying susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic asthma. PMID:24895604

  19. Neurophysiological Tools to Investigate Consumer's Gender Differences during the Observation of TV Commercials

    PubMed Central

    Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Graziani, Ilenia; Trettel, Arianna

    2014-01-01

    Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender. PMID:25147579

  20. Neuroelectrical Correlates of Trustworthiness and Dominance Judgments Related to the Observation of Political Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Toppi, Jlenia; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Astolfi, Laura; Mattia, Donatella; Colosimo, Alfredo; Babiloni, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigates the neurophysiological activity elicited by fast observations of faces of real candidates during simulated political elections. We used simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals as well as galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) as measurements of central and autonomic nervous systems. Twenty healthy subjects were asked to give judgments on dominance, trustworthiness, and a preference of vote related to the politicians' faces. We used high-resolution EEG techniques to map statistical differences of power spectral density (PSD) cortical activity onto a realistic head model as well as partial directed coherence (PDC) and graph theory metrics to estimate the functional connectivity networks and investigate the role of cortical regions of interest (ROIs). Behavioral results revealed that judgment of dominance trait is the most predictive of the outcome of the simulated elections. Statistical comparisons related to PSD and PDC values highlighted an asymmetry in the activation of frontal cortical areas associated with the valence of the judged trait as well as to the probability to cast the vote. Overall, our results highlight the existence of cortical EEG features which are correlated with the prediction of vote and with the judgment of trustworthy and dominant faces. PMID:25214884

  1. Acute Exposure to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCIPP) Causes Hepatic Inflammation and Leads to Hepatotoxicity in Zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunsheng; Su, Guanyong; Giesy, John P.; Letcher, Robert J.; Li, Guangyu; Agrawal, Ira; Li, Jing; Yu, Liqin; Wang, Jianghua; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) has been frequently detected in environmental media and has adverse health effect on wildlife and humans. It has been implicated to have hepatotoxicity, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, adult male zebrafish were exposed to TDCIPP and global hepatic gene expression was examined by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of TDCIPP-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results indicated that TDCIPP exposure significantly up-regulated the expression of genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, implying an inflammatory response, which was supported by up-regulation of inflammation-related biomaker genes. Hepatic inflammation was further confirmed by histological observation of increase of infiltrated neutrophils and direct observation of liver recruitment of neutrophils labeled with Ds-Red fluorescent protein of Tg(lysC:DsRed) zebrafish upon TDCIPP exposure. To further characterize the hepatotoxicity of TDCIPP, the expression of hepatotoxicity biomarker genes, liver histopathology and morphology were examined. The exposure to TDCIPP significantly up-regulated the expression of several biomarker genes for hepatotoxicity (gck, gsr and nqo1) and caused hepatic vacuolization and apoptosis as well as increase of the liver size. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TDCIPP induces hepatic inflammation and leads to hepatotoxicity in zebrafish.

  2. IJS: An Intelligent Junction Selection Based Routing Protocol for VANET to Support ITS Services

    PubMed Central

    Khilar, Pabitra Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Selecting junctions intelligently for data transmission provides better intelligent transportation system (ITS) services. The main problem in vehicular communication is high disturbances of link connectivity due to mobility and less density of vehicles. If link conditions are predicted earlier, then there is a less chance of performance degradation. In this paper, an intelligent junction selection based routing protocol (IJS) is proposed to transmit the data in a quickest path, in which the vehicles are mostly connected and have less link connectivity problem. In this protocol, a helping vehicle is set at every junction to control the communication by predicting link failures or network gaps in a route. Helping vehicle at the junction produces a score for every neighboring junction to forward the data to the destination by considering the current traffic information and selects that junction which has minimum score. IJS protocol is implemented and compared with GyTAR, A-STAR, and GSR routing protocols. Simulation results show that IJS performs better in terms of average end-to-end delay, network gap encounter, and number of hops.

  3. A possible source of reference DNA from archived treated adhesive lifters.

    PubMed

    Zamir, Ashira; Oz, Carla; Wolf, Ehud; Vinokurov, Asya; Glattstein, Baruch

    2004-01-01

    During the course of a double murder trial, it became apparent that the two adhesive lifters from the two cadavers had been mislabeled before being presented in court. The question was raised whether DNA testing from the biological material remaining attached to the lifters could resolve this mix-up. In fatal shooting cases where a bullet has been fired through a body surface, an adhesive lifter is applied directly to the entrance wound. The total nitrite residues, as well as biological material surrounding the wound (blood, hair, tissue) are transferred to the adhesive lifter. The nitrite residues are used for estimating firing distance. In a worst-case scenario, the biological material on the lifter may be the only remaining reference material from a victim. In this paper, we examined whether the biological material retrieved from adhesive lifters could be used for DNA typing after the lifters had been treated for GSR pattern. In as much as the biological material found on the lifters can be typed and profiled following physical and chemical treatment, we submit that archived adhesive lifters can be used as a future source of reference DNA from cadavers where no other sample is available. PMID:14979346

  4. The Essential Role of H19 Contributing to Cisplatin Resistance by Regulating Glutathione Metabolism in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Hong; Suo, Sha-Sha; Xu, Xiao-Li; Ni, Mao-Wei; Gu, Lin-Hui; Chen, Wei; Wang, Liang-Yan; Zhao, Ye; Tian, Bing; Hua, Yue-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Primary and acquired drug resistance is one of the main obstacles encountered in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) chemotherapy. Cisplatin induces DNA damage through cross-linking and long integrated non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) play an important role in chemical induced DNA-damage response, which suggests that lincRNAs may be also associated with cisplatin resistance. However, the mechanism of long integrated non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) acting on cisplatin resistance is not well understood. Here, we showed that expression of lin-RECK-3, H19, LUCAT1, LINC00961, and linc-CARS2-2 was enhanced in cisplatin-resistant A2780-DR cells, while transcriptome sequencing showed decreased Linc-TNFRSF19-1 and LINC00515 expression. Additionally, we verified that different H19 expression levels in HGSC tissues showed strong correlation with cancer recurrence. H19 knockdown in A2780-DR cells resulted in recovery of cisplatin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative proteomics analysis indicated that six NRF2-targeted proteins, including NQO1, GSR, G6PD, GCLC, GCLM and GSTP1 involved in the glutathione metabolism pathway, were reduced in H19-knockdown cells. Furthermore, H19-knockdown cells were markedly more sensitive to hydrogen-peroxide treatment and exhibited lower glutathione levels. Our results reveal a previously unknown link between H19 and glutathione metabolism in the regulation of cancer-drug resistance. PMID:27193186

  5. Physiological responses of food neophobics and food neophilics to food and non-food stimuli.

    PubMed

    Raudenbush, Bryan; Capiola, August

    2012-06-01

    Individual differences in human food neophobia (the reluctance to try novel foods) and food neophilia (the overt willingness to try novel foods) influence the evaluation of tastes and odors, as well as the sampling of such stimuli. Past research also notes an association of food neophobia to PTC sensitivity, body weight, and cephalic phase salivary response. The present study assessed physiological reactions of food neophobics and neophilics to pictures of food and non-food stimuli. Stimuli pictures were presented in random order on a computer screen for a period of 5 min. No significant differences were found between the groups in relation to non-food stimuli. However, pulse, GSR, and respirations were significantly increased in food neophobics when presented pictures of food stimuli. Thus, further evidence is provided to support a physiological component at least partially responsible for differences noted between neophobics and neophilics in sensitivity, psychophysical ratings, and "willingness to try" personality. Such a component may also lead to differences in weight, nutrition, and overall health. PMID:22369957

  6. Neurophysiological tools to investigate consumer's gender differences during the observation of TV commercials.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Cherubino, Patrizia; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Latuszynska, Anna; Latuszynska, Malgorzata; Nermend, Kesra; Graziani, Ilenia; Leucci, Maria Rita; Trettel, Arianna; Babiloni, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender. PMID:25147579

  7. THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT: FIRST DETECTION OF HIGH-VELOCITY MILKY WAY BAR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nidever, David L.; Zasowski, Gail; Majewski, Steven R.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Bird, Jonathan; Schoenrich, Ralph; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Sellgren, Kris; Robin, Annie C.; Schultheis, Mathias; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Gerhard, Ortwin; Shetrone, Matthew; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Weiner, Benjamin; Schneider, Donald P.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; and others

    2012-08-20

    Commissioning observations with the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, have produced radial velocities (RVs) for {approx}4700 K/M-giant stars in the Milky Way (MW) bulge. These high-resolution (R {approx} 22, 500), high-S/N (>100 per resolution element), near-infrared (NIR; 1.51-1.70 {mu}m) spectra provide accurate RVs ({epsilon}{sub V} {approx} 0.2 km s{sup -1}) for the sample of stars in 18 Galactic bulge fields spanning -1 Degree-Sign -32 Degree-Sign . This represents the largest NIR high-resolution spectroscopic sample of giant stars ever assembled in this region of the Galaxy. A cold ({sigma}{sub V} {approx} 30 km s{sup -1}), high-velocity peak (V{sub GSR} Almost-Equal-To +200 km s{sup -1}) is found to comprise a significant fraction ({approx}10%) of stars in many of these fields. These high RVs have not been detected in previous MW surveys and are not expected for a simple, circularly rotating disk. Preliminary distance estimates rule out an origin from the background Sagittarius tidal stream or a new stream in the MW disk. Comparison to various Galactic models suggests that these high RVs are best explained by stars in orbits of the Galactic bar potential, although some observational features remain unexplained.

  8. Embodiments, visualizations, and immersion with enactive affective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Diana; Miosso, Cristiano J.; Rodrigues, Suélia F.; Silva Rocha Aguiar, Carla; Lucena, Tiago F.; Miranda, Mateus; Rocha, Adson F.; Raskar, Ramesh

    2014-02-01

    Our proposal in Bioart and Biomedical Engineering for a ective esthetics focuses on the expanded sensorium and investigates problems regarding enactive systems. These systems enhance the sensorial experiences and amplify kinesthesia by adding the sensations that are formed in response to the physical world, which aesthetically constitutes the principle of synaesthesia. In this paper, we also present enactive systems inside the CAVE, con guring compelling experiences in data landscapes and human a ective narratives. The interaction occurs through the acquisition, data visualization and analysis of several synchronized physiological signals, to which the landscapes respond and provide immediate feedback, according to the detected participants' actions and the intertwined responses of the environment. The signals we use to analyze the human states include the electrocardiography (ECG) signal, the respiratory ow, the galvanic skin response (GSR) signal, plantar pressures, the pulse signal and others. Each signal is collected by using a speci cally designed dedicated electronic board, with reduced dimensions, so it does not interfere with normal movements, according to the principles of transparent technologies. Also, the electronic boards are implemented in a modular approach, so they are independent, and can be used in many di erent desired combinations, and at the same time provide synchronization between the collected data.

  9. The great beauty: a neuroaesthetic study by neuroelectric imaging during the observation of the real Michelangelo's Moses sculpture.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, F; Cherubino, P; Graziani, I; Trettel, A; Bagordo, G M; Cundari, C; Borghini, G; Arico, P; Maglione, A G; Vecchiato, G

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have been showed as the perception of real or displayed masterpieces by ancient or modern painters generate stable neuroelectrical correlates in humans. In this study, we collected the neuroelectrical brain activity correlated with the observation of the real sculpture of Michelangelo's Moses within the church where it is actually installed in a group of healthy subjects. In addition to the cerebral activity also the heart rate (HR) and the galvanic skin response (GSR) were collected simultaneously, to assess the emotional engage of the investigated population. The Moses sculpture was observed by the group from three different point of views, each one revealing different details of the sculpture. In addition, in each location the light conditions related to the specific observation of the sculpture were explicitly changed. Results showed that cerebral activity of the subjects varied significantly across the three different views and for light condition against no light condition (p<;0.04). Furthermore, the emotional engage estimated on the whole population is higher for a point of observation in which the Mose's face is directed toward the eyes of the observers (p<;0.02). Finally, the cerebral appreciation of the investigated group was found maximum from a perspective in which all the details of the sculpture could be easily grab by the eyes. Results suggested how the perception of the sculpture depends critically by the point of view of the observers and how such point of view can produce separate emotional and cerebral responses. PMID:25571598

  10. Antioxidant Defense Enzyme Genes and Asthma Susceptibility: Gender-Specific Effects and Heterogeneity in Gene-Gene Interactions between Pathogenetic Variants of the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Polonikov, Alexey V.; Ivanov, Vladimir P.; Bogomazov, Alexey D.; Freidin, Maxim B.; Illig, Thomas; Solodilova, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from an increased amount of reactive oxygen species and an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The present study tested the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic variants of asthma is determined by complex interactions between genes encoding antioxidant defense enzymes (ADE). We carried out a comprehensive analysis of the associations between adult asthma and 46 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 34 ADE genes and 12 other candidate genes of asthma in Russian population using set association analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction approaches. We found for the first time epistatic interactions between ADE genes underlying asthma susceptibility and the genetic heterogeneity between allergic and nonallergic variants of the disease. We identified GSR (glutathione reductase) and PON2 (paraoxonase 2) as novel candidate genes for asthma susceptibility. We observed gender-specific effects of ADE genes on the risk of asthma. The results of the study demonstrate complexity and diversity of interactions between genes involved in oxidative stress underlying susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic asthma. PMID:24895604

  11. A novel method for extraction and analysis of gunpowder residues on double-side adhesive coated stubs.

    PubMed

    Zeichner, Arie; Eldar, Baruch

    2004-11-01

    A study was conducted to develop an efficient method for extraction and analysis of gunpowder (propellant) residues from double-side adhesive coated stubs, which are used for sampling suspects or their clothing for gunshot (primer) residues (GSR). Conductive and non-conductive double-side adhesives were examined, and the analysis was carried out by gas chromatography/thermal energy analyzer (GC/TEA) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The optimal procedure for the extraction, as was developed in the present study, employs two stages: (1) extraction of the stubs with a mixture of 80% v/v aqueous solution of 0.1% w/v of sodium azide and 20% v/v of ethanol employing sonication at 80 degrees C for 15 min. and (2) residues from the obtained extract were further extracted with methylene chloride. The methylene chloride phase was concentrated by evaporation prior to analysis. Extraction efficiencies of 30-90% for nitroglycerine (NG) and for 2,4-dinitro toluene (2,4-DNT) were found. No significant interferences in the analysis were observed from the adhesives or skin. Interferences were observed in the analysis by the GC/TEA of the samples collected from hair. The method enables analysis of propellant residues on a double-side adhesive coated stub after it was examined for primer residues by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). Thus, the probative value of the evidence may be increased. PMID:15568690

  12. The survival of metallic residues from gunshot wounds in cremated bone: a radiological study.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Borgonovo, Simone; Brandone, Alberto; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2012-05-01

    In literature, many studies have been performed in order to investigate the presence of GSR ("gunshot residue") and metallic residues in general with radiological techniques on several types of material, but the survival of metallic residues on charred samples has never been systematically performed. In this study, 31 adult bovine ribs underwent a shooting test. Every rib was shot with a single bullet, at a near-contact shooting distance, using two kinds of projectile: 17 samples were shot with a full metal-jacketed bullet and the remaining 14 with an unjacketed bullet. After the shooting test, every rib underwent a "charring cycle" in an electric oven up to 800°C. Every sample underwent radiological investigation with conventional radiography, before and after the burning process, to evaluate any changes in number and distribution of metallic residues. Radiographs showed survival of radiopaque residues in every sample, even after the charring process, especially when the bullet used was of the unjacketed type. PMID:22037901

  13. The survival of gunshot residues in cremated bone: an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry study.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Merli, Daniele; Brandone, Alberto; Poppa, Pasquale; Gibelli, Daniele; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Gunshot residue (GSR) has been sought and demonstrated on many types of material and with many techniques. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) could be a useful method on difficult substrates, but a systematic study on burnt material has never been performed. Hence, this study aims at evaluating the usefulness and reliability of this method on burnt samples. Sixteen adult bovine ribs (eight with soft tissues, eight totally skeletonized) were shot using two kinds of projectile (both 9 mm full metal-jacketed or unjacketed). Then, every sample was led to complete calcination in an electric oven. The area of the gunshot entrance wound was swabbed and analyzed by ICP-OES; the results were also correlated with a previously published parallel study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an SEM-energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. ICP-OES proved to be very sensitive and reliable even on degraded material and can be an appropriate nondestructive method for detecting residues on difficult and delicate substrates such as burnt bone. PMID:23692414

  14. Historical GIS Data and Changes in Urban Morphological Parameters for the Analysis of Urban Heat Islands in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, F.; Wong, M. S.; Nichol, J. E.; Chan, P. W.

    2016-06-01

    Rapid urban development between the 1960 and 2010 decades have changed the urban landscape and pattern in the Kowloon Peninsula of Hong Kong. This paper aims to study the changes of urban morphological parameters between the 1985 and 2010 and explore their influences on the urban heat island (UHI) effect. This study applied a mono-window algorithm to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1987 to 2009. In order to estimate the effects of local urban morphological parameters to LST, the global surface temperature anomaly was analysed. Historical 3D building model was developed based on aerial photogrammetry technique using aerial photographs from 1964 to 2010, in which the urban digital surface models (DSMs) including elevations of infrastructures and buildings have been generated. Then, urban morphological parameters (i.e. frontal area index (FAI), sky view factor (SVF)), vegetation fractional cover (VFC), global solar radiation (GSR), Normalized Difference Built-Up Index (NDBI), wind speed were derived. Finally, a linear regression method in Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) was used to build prediction model for revealing LST spatial patterns. Results show that the final apparent surface temperature have uncertainties less than 1 degree Celsius. The comparison between the simulated and actual spatial pattern of LST in 2009 showed that the correlation coefficient is 0.65, mean absolute error (MAE) is 1.24 degree Celsius, and root mean square error (RMSE) is 1.51 degree Celsius of 22,429 pixels.

  15. [Determination of Sb and Bi in 24 international geological reference materials by using pressurized acid digestion-ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhao-chu; Gao, Shan; Liu, Xiao-ming; Yuan, Hong-lin; Liu, Ye; Diwu, Chun-rong

    2007-12-01

    The authors studied in detail the memory effect of Bi, Sb, As and Te in ICP-MS. The produced memory effects of these element were in the order of Bi>Sb>Te>As. Bi was seriously adsorbed by the polypropylene sample storing bottle and the sample introduction system in the low nitric acid medium (0.01%-1% HNO3). The washout effect of 0.1% HF was found to be better than those of 6% HNO3 and 0.1% HClO4. Under the given experiment conditions, the instrumental limit of detection was 0.001 and 0.0001 ng x mL(-1) for Sb and Bi, respectively. The authors report the determination of Sb and Bi in 24 international geological reference materials by using pressurized acid digestion-ICP-MS (including AGV-2, BHVO-2, BCR-2, etc.). Most of the results were found to be in reasonable agreement with the reported values in the literature. The authors' determined values of Sb for GSR-1 (granite; 0.30 microg x g(-1)) and JP-1 (peridotite; 0.045 microg x g(-1)) are obviously higher than those reported values. This is attributed to the efficient pressurized acid digestion, which is generally much more efficient than conventional wet digestions for insoluble minerals. PMID:18330312

  16. Studies on the reproductive biology of spiny eel, Macrognathus aral from upper Assam.

    PubMed

    Abujam, Santoshkumar Singh; Biswas, S P

    2011-09-01

    The one-stripe spiny eel, Macrognathus aral (Bloch and Schneider), has been gaining importance not only as a food fish but also as an aquarium fish for its body shape and behaviour. The overall M:F ratio recorded 1:0.27, both the males and females were mostly mature in May-August. The peak values of gonado somatic ratio (GSR) attained during May for males (1.3) and August forfemales (12.4) indicating that the fish have only one breeding season during summer. The range of ova diameter was found to vary from 0.3 to 1.4 mm, the absolute fecundity ranged from 250 (21.6 cm/27.4 g) to 5220.1 (27.2 cm/66.3 g) while relative fecundity ranged from 9.1 to 128.9. The 50% maturity is attained in length group of 10.1-14 cm for males and 14.1-18 cm for females. The species is a moderately fecund, isochronal spawner and having a restricted breeding season. The relationship between fecundity and body weight and length has also been discussed. PMID:22319881

  17. HUNTING THE PARENT OF THE ORPHAN STREAM: IDENTIFYING STREAM MEMBERS FROM LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Andrew R.; Da Costa, Gary; Keller, Stefan C.; Maunder, Elizabeth

    2013-02-10

    We present candidate K-giant members in the Orphan Stream that have been identified from low-resolution data taken with the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. From modest signal-to-noise spectra and independent cuts in photometry, kinematics, gravity, and metallicity we yield self-consistent, highly probable stream members. We find a revised stream distance of 22.5 {+-} 2.0 kpc near the celestial equator and our kinematic signature peaks at V {sub GSR} = 82.1 {+-} 1.4 km s{sup -1}. The observed velocity dispersion of our most probable members is consistent with arising from the velocity uncertainties alone. This indicates that at least along this line of sight, the Orphan Stream is kinematically cold. Our data indicate an overall stream metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.63 {+-} 0.19 dex which is more metal-rich than previously found and unbiased by spectral type. Furthermore, the significant metallicity dispersion displayed by our most probable members, {sigma}([Fe/H]) = 0.56 dex, suggests that the unidentified Orphan Stream parent is a dSph satellite. We highlight likely members for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up.

  18. Probabilistic evidential assessment of gunshot residue particle evidence (Part I): likelihood ratio calculation and case pre-assessment using Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, A; Bozza, S; Taroni, F

    2009-10-30

    Well developed experimental procedures currently exist for retrieving and analyzing particle evidence from hands of individuals suspected of being associated with the discharge of a firearm. Although analytical approaches (e.g. automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDS) microanalysis) allow the determination of the presence of elements typically found in gunshot residue (GSR) particles, such analyses provide no information about a given particle's actual source. Possible origins for which scientists may need to account for are a primary exposure to the discharge of a firearm or a secondary transfer due to a contaminated environment. In order to approach such sources of uncertainty in the context of evidential assessment, this paper studies the construction and practical implementation of graphical probability models (i.e. Bayesian networks). These can assist forensic scientists in making the issue tractable within a probabilistic perspective. The proposed models focus on likelihood ratio calculations at various levels of detail as well as case pre-assessment. PMID:19592185

  19. Measurements of gunshot residues by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry--further studies with pistols.

    PubMed

    Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Neto, Osvaldo N; Viebig, Sônia; Durrant, Steven F

    2007-10-01

    The most popular handgun in Brazil is the single round-barrel caliber 0.38 revolver. In recent years, however, owing to the modernization of police arms and their availability on the legal and illicit markets, pistols have become increasingly popular and currently represent about 20% of police seizures. In a previous paper we presented a novel collection method for gunshot residues (GSR) using a sampling procedure based on ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution as a complexing agent on moistened swabs with subsequent detection using sector field-high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SF-HR-ICP-MS). In the present paper, we discuss the capability of this methodology to identify antimony (Sb), barium (Ba) and lead (Pb) on the hands of volunteers after shot tests with 9 mm and 0.40 in. caliber pistols. Two types of munitions were tested: 9 mm Taurus and clean range. The use of a technique with high sensitivity, such as SF-HR-ICP-MS, permits the identification of low concentrations (less than 1 microg/L) of metals in firearm residue and constitutes a powerful tool in forensic science. We also discuss the importance of the sampling procedure, including collection from a different body part than the gun hand of the suspect. Comparison of the analytical data obtained allows clear discrimination between samples from the hands of shooters and non-shooters. PMID:17254727

  20. Cognitive Workload and Fatigue in a Vigilance Dual Task: Miss Errors, False Alarms, and the Effect of Wearing Biometric Sensors While Working.

    PubMed

    Guastello, Stephen J; Reiter, Katherine E; Malon, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    The effects of workload, fatigue, and practice on the performance of cognitive tasks are often intertwined. Previous research has shown that these influences can be separated with the two cusp catastrophe models. This study expanded an earlier investigation of the two models for workload and fatigue in a vigilance task to include a wider range of bifurcation variables that could affect the elasticity versus rigidity of the operator in response to workload and added performance variability resulting from fatigue. The study also responded to a concern in the literature that performance on cognitive tasks can be complicated by adaptive responses to artificial task situations and thus distort underlying cognitive events. Therefore, we also explored whether wearing biometric sensors, frequently used in workload studies, can affect performance dynamics. Participants were 279 undergraduates who responded to target stimuli that appeared on a simulated security camera display at three rates of speed while completing a secondary task. Participants worked alone, in pairs, or in pairs wearing GSR sensors. Results supported the efficacy of the two models and isolated the impact of wearing sensors on the fatigue process. The strongest control variables across both the workload and fatigue models were field independence, anxiety, indecisiveness, inflexibility, secondary task completion, working in pairs, and wearing the sensors. The contributing effect of wearing sensors could possibly extend to other types of wearable technologies. PMID:27550706

  1. Measurement of airborne gunshot particles in a ballistics laboratory by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ernesto; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Viebig, Sônia; Saldiva, Paulo

    2012-01-10

    The present study aimed determines lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and barium (Ba) as the major elements present in GSR in the environmental air of the Ballistics Laboratory of the São Paulo Criminalistics Institute (I.C.-S.P.), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Micro environmental monitors (mini samplers) were located at selected places. The PM(2.5) fraction of this airborne was collected in, previously weighted filters, and analyzed by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-HR-ICP-MS). The higher values of the airborne lead, antimony and barium, were found at the firing range (lead (Pb): 58.9 μg/m(3); barium (Ba): 6.9 μg/m(3); antimony (Sb): 7.3 μg/m(3)). The mean value of the airborne in this room during 6 monitored days was Pb: 23.1 μg/m(3); Ba: 2.2 μg/m(3); Sb: 1.5 μg/m(3). In the water tank room, the air did not show levels above the limits of concern. In general the airborne lead changed from day to day, but the barium and antimony remained constant. Despite of that, the obtained values suggest that the workers may be exposed to airborne lead concentration that can result in an unhealthy environment and could increase the risk of chronic intoxication. PMID:21831549

  2. Acute Exposure to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCIPP) Causes Hepatic Inflammation and Leads to Hepatotoxicity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunsheng; Su, Guanyong; Giesy, John P.; Letcher, Robert J.; Li, Guangyu; Agrawal, Ira; Li, Jing; Yu, Liqin; Wang, Jianghua; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) has been frequently detected in environmental media and has adverse health effect on wildlife and humans. It has been implicated to have hepatotoxicity, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, adult male zebrafish were exposed to TDCIPP and global hepatic gene expression was examined by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of TDCIPP-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results indicated that TDCIPP exposure significantly up-regulated the expression of genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, implying an inflammatory response, which was supported by up-regulation of inflammation-related biomaker genes. Hepatic inflammation was further confirmed by histological observation of increase of infiltrated neutrophils and direct observation of liver recruitment of neutrophils labeled with Ds-Red fluorescent protein of Tg(lysC:DsRed) zebrafish upon TDCIPP exposure. To further characterize the hepatotoxicity of TDCIPP, the expression of hepatotoxicity biomarker genes, liver histopathology and morphology were examined. The exposure to TDCIPP significantly up-regulated the expression of several biomarker genes for hepatotoxicity (gck, gsr and nqo1) and caused hepatic vacuolization and apoptosis as well as increase of the liver size. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TDCIPP induces hepatic inflammation and leads to hepatotoxicity in zebrafish. PMID:26743178

  3. Sub-toxic Ethanol Exposure Modulates Gene Expression and Enzyme Activity of Antioxidant Systems to Provide Neuroprotection in Hippocampal HT22 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Casañas-Sánchez, Verónica; Pérez, José A.; Quinto-Alemany, David; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is known to cause severe systemic damage often explained as secondary to oxidative stress. Brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) because the high amounts of lipids, and because nerve cell membranes contain high amounts of peroxidable fatty acids. Usually these effects of ethanol are associated to high and/or chronic exposure to ethanol. However, as we show in this manuscript, a low and acute dose of ethanol trigger a completely different response in hippocampal cells. Thus, we have observed that 0.1% ethanol exposure to HT22 cells, a murine hippocampal-derived cell line, increases the transcriptional expression of different genes belonging to the classical, glutathione/glutaredoxin and thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin antioxidant systems, these including Sod1, Sod2, Gpx1, Gclc, and Txnrd1. Paralleling these changes, enzyme activities of total superoxide dismutase (tSOD), catalase, total glutathione peroxidase (tGPx), glutathione-S-reductase (GSR), and total thioredoxin reductase (tTXNRD), were all increased, while the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as indicators of lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels remained unaltered. Ethanol exposure did not affect cell viability or cell growing as assessed by real-time cell culture monitoring, indicating that low ethanol doses are not deleterious for hippocampal cells, but rather prevented glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In summary, we conclude that sub-toxic exposure to ethanol may well be neuroprotective against oxidative insults in hippocampal cells. PMID:27512374

  4. Summary of Saturn swingby missions to Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, L. A.

    1973-01-01

    The interplanetary trajectory characteristics for missions to Uranus, which employ an intermediate swingby of Saturn to reduce the total trip time are summarized. Opportunities for such swingby missions will occur from 1979 through 1987 and not again until 2025. The general trajectory characteristics (C sub 3; departure, swingby, and arrival dates; swingby radius; and arrival speed) are evaluated, and payload and launch window information for a Titan 3E/Centaur/TE-364-4 class launch vehicle is provided.

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-02-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563, Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). The corrective action sites (CASs) for CAU 563 are located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and are comprised of the following four sites: •03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank •03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool •12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks •12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the four CASs within CAU 563. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 17 through November 19, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 563 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2007). Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern (COCs) for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at one of the four CASs in CAU 563 and required the evaluation of CAAs. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 563 revealed the following: •CASs 03-04-02, 03-59-05, and 12-60-01 do not contain contamination at concentrations exceeding the FALs. •CAS 12-59-01 contains arsenic and chromium contamination above FALs in surface and near-surface soils surrounding a stained location within the site. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at CAS 12-59-01, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 563.

  6. Embryonic, Larval, and Early Juvenile Development of the Tropical Sea Urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Aminur; Yusoff, Fatimah Md.; Arshad, A.; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Amin, S. M. N.

    2012-01-01

    Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10−5 dilution) was 96.6 ± 1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell), 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla) stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72 ± 4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition. PMID:23055824

  7. An LAPW Study of d - Plutonium and the (001) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. K.

    2005-03-01

    The electronic structure properties of bulk fcc δ-Plutonium and the quantum size effects in the surface energies and the work functions of the (001) ultra thin films (UTF) up to 7 layers have been investigated with periodic density functional theory calculations within the full-potential linearized augmented-plane wave approach.^1 Several levels of theory, namely NSP-NSO, NSP-SO, SP-NSO, and SP-SO, have been examined and our calculated equilibrium atomic volume of 178.3 a.u.^3 and bulk modulus of 24.9 GPa at the fully relativistic level of theory are in good agreement with experimental results. The energy difference brought by spin-orbit coupling, about 7-8 eV, is dominant, but the energy difference brought by spin-polarization, from a few tenths to 2 eV, has a stronger dependence on the atomic volume. Density of states show that 5f electrons are more itinerant when the volume of δ-plutonium is compressed and they are more localized when the volume is expanded. The surface energy converges rapidly and the semi-infinite surface energy is predicted to be 0.692eV. Quantum size effects for the work function is not pronounced for (001) surface. ^*Work supported by the Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER15409) and the Welch Foundation (Grant No. Y-1525). ^1 P. Blaha, K. Schwarz, G. K. H. Madsen, D. Kvasnicka and J. Luitz, WIEN2k (Technische Universitat Wien, Austria, 2001)

  8. Quantum Size Effects in δ -- Pu (111) and (110) Films*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Haoran; Ray, Asok Kumar

    2006-03-01

    First-principles full-potential linearized-augmented-plane-wave (FP-LAPW) calculations have been carried out for δ-Pu (111) and (110) films up to seven layers. The layers have been studied at the non-spin-polarized-no-spin-orbit coupling (NSP-NSO), non-spin-polarized-spin-orbit coupling (NSP-SO), spin-polarized-no-spin-orbit coupling (SP-NSO), spin-polarized-spin-orbit coupling (SP-SO), anti-ferromagnetic-no-spin-orbit coupling (AFM-NSO), and anti-ferromagnetic-spin-orbit-coupling (AFM-SO) levels of theory. The ground state of both δ-Pu (111) and (110) films is found to be at the AFM-SO level of theory and the surface energy is found to rapidly converge. The semi-infinite surface energy for δ-Pu (111) and (110) films is predicted to be 1.18 and 1.42 J/m^2, while the magnetic moments show an oscillating behavior, gradually approaching the bulk value of zero with increase in the number of layers. Work functions indicate a strong quantum size effect up to and including five layers for the (111) surface and seven layers for the (110) surface, respectively. The work functions of δ-Pu (111) and (110) films at the ground state are predicted be 3.41 and 2.99eV, respectively. *This work is supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, Department of Energy (Grant DE-FG02-03ER15409) and the Welch Foundation, Houston, Texas (Grant Y-1525).

  9. Characteristic time for halo current growth and rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boozer, Allen

    2015-11-01

    Halo currents, Ih, flow in part through plasma on open magnetic lines and in part through the walls. A halo current has the same function as the wall current of a resistive wall mode and arises when a kink cannot be wall stabilized. When flowing in the plasma, the halo current can produce no forces, so j->h = (j∥ / B) B-> with B-> . ∇ -> j∥ / B = 0 . To avoid too strong a coupling to stable kinks, the wall interception must be of sufficient toroidal extent, which implies the width of the halo current channel Δh aIh /Ip , where aIh /Ip is the amplitude of the kink, a is the minor radius, and Ip is the plasma current. The equation for the growth of the halo current is dIh / dt =Ip /τg , where τg (μ0 /ηh) (a2 / 4) /seff and seff is a dimensionless stability coefficient. The rocket effect of the plasma flowing out of the two ends of the magnetic field lines in the halo can set the magnetic perturbation into toroidal rotation at a Mach number, Mh, comparable to unity. The rotation period is τr = (2 πR0 /Cs) /Mh , where R0 is the major radius and Cs =√{ (Te +Ti) /mi } is the speed of sound. NSTX results appear consistent for seff 0 . 5 , Mh 1 , and Te , i = 10 eV. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Award Number De-FG02-03ER54696.

  10. In vitro isolation and molecular identification of reptarenavirus in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abba, Yusuf; Hassim, Hasliza; Hamzah, Hazilawati; Ibrahim, Omar Emad; Ilyasu, Yusuf; Bande, Faruku; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi; Noordin, Mohamed Mustapha

    2016-10-01

    Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a viral disease of boids caused by reptarenavirus. In this study, tissue from naturally infected boid snakes were homogenized and propagated in African Monkey kidney (Vero) and rat embryonic fibroblast (REF) cells. Virus replication was determined by the presence of cytopathic effect, while viral morphology was observed using transmission electron microscopy. Viral RNA was amplified using RT-PCR with primers specific for the L-segment of reptarenavirus; similarly, quantification of viral replication was done using qPCR at 24-144 h postinfection. Viral cytopathology was characterized by cell rounding and detachment in both Vero and REF cells. The viral morphology showed round-to-pleomorphic particles ranging from 105 to 150 nm which had sand-like granules. Sanger sequencing identified four closely associated reptarenavirus species from 15 (37.5 %) of the total samples tested, and these were named as follows: reptarenavirus UPM-MY 01, 02, 03, and 04. These isolates were phylogenetically closely related to the University Helsinki virus (UHV), Boa Arenavirus NL (ROUTV; BAV), and unidentified reptarenavirus L20 (URAV-L20). Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences further confirmed identities to L-protein of UHV, L-polymerase of BAV and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of URAV-L20. Viral replication in Vero cells increased steadily from 24 to 72 h and peaked at 144 h. This is the first study in South East Asia to isolate and characterize reptarenavirus in boid snakes with BIBD. PMID:27142080

  11. Time-Resolved O3 Chemical Chain Reaction Kinetics Via High-Resolution IR Laser Absorption Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcke, Axel; Blackmon, Brad; Chapman, William B.; Kim, In Koo; Nesbitt, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Excimer laser photolysis in combination with time-resolved IR laser absorption detection of OH radicals has been used to study O3/OH(v = 0)/HO2 chain reaction kinetics at 298 K, (i.e.,(k(sub 1) is OH + 03 yields H02 + 02 and (k(sub 2) is H02 + 03 yields OH + 202). From time-resolved detection of OH radicals with high-resolution near IR laser absorption methods, the chain induction kinetics have been measured at up to an order of magnitude higher ozone concentrations ([03] less than or equal to 10(exp 17) molecules/cu cm) than accessible in previous studies. This greater dynamic range permits the full evolution of the chain induction, propagation, and termination process to be temporally isolated and measured in real time. An exact solution for time-dependent OH evolution under pseudo- first-order chain reaction conditions is presented, which correctly predicts new kinetic signatures not included in previous OH + 03 kinetic analyses. Specifically, the solutions predict an initial exponential loss (chain "induction") of the OH radical to a steady-state level ([OH](sub ss)), with this fast initial decay determined by the sum of both chain rate constants, k(sub ind) = k(sub 1) + k(sub 2). By monitoring the chain induction feature, this sum of the rate constants is determined to be k(sub ind) = 8.4(8) x 10(exp -14) cu cm/molecule/s for room temperature reagents. This is significantly higher than the values currently recommended for use in atmospheric models, but in excellent agreement with previous results from Ravishankara et al.

  12. Small electromagnetically clean satellite platform and advanced space instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Makarov, Oleksander; Belyayev, Serhiy; Lukenyuk, Adolf; Marusenkov, Andriy

    The Ukrainian space program in the branch of space scientific research is based on recent achievements in the development of small microsatellite platforms and advanced onboard instrumentation. The present state of both these activities is outlined in the report. First, the design and composition peculiarities of a new microsatellite platform dedicated to carry the high sensitive electromagnetic sensors and mass-spectrometers are presented. An open nonhermetic construction gives possibilities to divide efficiently service and scientific payload. This feature as well as special measures foreseen by the solar panels and cable harness layout allows electromagnetic interference decreasing and easy introducing of shielding and compensating facilities. Up to 4 booms deployment is foreseen by the platform construction to move away far enough the electromagnetic sensors from the satellite body allow realizing the ultimate sensors sensitivity up to highest international standards. An onboard data collection and processing unit is organized in such a way that it controls efficiently both service and scientific systems. Second, some recent advances are reported in the branch of onboard electromagnetic instrumentation creation. New combined sensor - wave probe - is developed and experimentally tested in laboratory plasma chamber and in spatial experiment. This is a unique device which permits measuring simultaneously in one point three physical values - spatial current density, magnetic field fluctuations and electric potential. Other recent versions of super-light flux-gate and induction coil sensors are described. The performances of both microsatellite platform and mentioned electromagnetic sensors are discussed and the results of experimental verification of their parameters are presented. This works were supported by NSAU contract No 1-02/03 and STCU grant 3165.

  13. Spatial Information Technology Center at Fulton-Montgomery Community College

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Spatial Information Technology Center (SITC) at Fulton-Montgomery Community College (FMCC) continued to fulfill its mission and charter by successfully completing its fourth year of operations under Congressional funding and NASA sponsorship. Fourth year operations (01 Oct 03 - 30 Sep 04) have been funded and conducted utilizing an authorized Research Grant NAG 13-02053 (via a one-year no-cost extension expiring Sep 04). Drawdown and reporting of fiscal activities for SITC operations passes through the Institute for the Application of Geo-spatial Technology (IAGT) at Cayuga Community College in Auburn, New York. Fiscal activity of the Center is reported quarterly via SF 272 to IAGT, this report contains an overview and expenditures for the remaining funds of NAG 13-02053. NAG 13-02053, slated for operating costs for the fiscal year FY02-03, received a one-year no-cost extension. SITC also received permission to use remaining funds for salaries and benefits through December 31,2004. The IAGT receives no compensation for administrative costs. This report includes addendums for the NAG award as required by federal guidelines. Attached are the signed Report of New Technology/Inventions and a Final Property Report. As an academic, economic, and workforce development program, the Center has made significant strides in bringing the technology, knowledge and applications of the spatial information technology field to the region it serves. Through the mission of the Center, the region's communities have become increasingly aware of the benefits of Geospatial technology, particularly in the region s K-12 arena. SITC continues to positively affect the region's education, employment and economic development, while expanding its services and operations.

  14. Crust and lithosphere structure in the eastern segment of the Xing-Meng orogenic belt from S-receiver function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Wu, Q.

    2013-12-01

    From 2009 to 2011, a 60 station broadband seismic array extending over 1200km was deployed in northeast China (NEC) by the Institute of geophysics, China Earthquake Administration (CEA). The recently linear deployment of seismic array in Northeast China (NEC) facilitated collection of more high-quality broadband data, thus provide us an opportunity to use S-wave receiver functions to investigate its crustal and mantle lithosphere structure with high resolution. Two distinct signals with large amplitude can be identified in our imaged S receiver functions. The strong positive one from the Moho can be observed continuously at depths from 40 km beneath Great Xing'an Range to less than 30 km beneath the Songliao Basin. The imaged Moho agrees with previous estimate of crustal thickness, and the lateral variations correlate to its surface tomography. The deep negative Sp phase interpreted as from the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is as shallow as ~100km in the Songliao basin, down to 140-160km in the westward of Xingmeng block. The boundary is less prominent east of the Songliao Basin. The imaged Moho and LAB structure indicate the crust and lithosphere thinning in the Songliao Basin, and the vertical thinning of LAB is more obvious, evidence in a depth variation up to 50 km. The Songliao Basin is a continental rifting where a large amount of extension occurs, and the coupling of thinning between in the crust and underlying lithosphere indicated that the lithosphere stretching may be involved to the crustal rifting. The stretching can be more explained by the pure shear regime proposed in extensional tectonics. Acknowledgments. Seismic data were collected by the by the Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration. This work was supported by the NSF of China (grants 40974061, 90814013), the Chinese government's executive program (SinoProbe-02-03) and the international cooperation project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2011DFB

  15. HLA Class I and Class II Alleles and Haplotypes Confirm the Berber Origin of the Present Day Tunisian Population.

    PubMed

    Hajjej, Abdelhafidh; Almawi, Wassim Y; Hattab, Lasmar; El-Gaaied, Amel; Hmida, Slama

    2015-01-01

    In view of its distinct geographical location and relatively small area, Tunisia witnessed the presence of many civilizations and ethnic groups throughout history, thereby questioning the origin of present-day Tunisian population. We investigated HLA class I and class II gene profiles in Tunisians, and compared this profile with those of Mediterranean and Sub-Sahara African populations. A total of 376 unrelated Tunisian individuals of both genders were genotyped for HLA class I (A, B) and class II (DRB1, DQB1), using reverse dot-blot hybridization (PCR-SSO) method. Statistical analysis was performed using Arlequin software. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by DISPAN software, and correspondence analysis was carried out by VISTA software. One hundred fifty-three HLA alleles were identified in the studied sample, which comprised 41, 50, 40 and 22 alleles at HLA-A,-B,-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci, respectively. The most frequent alleles were HLA-A*02:01 (16.76%), HLA-B*44:02/03 (17.82%), HLA-DRB1*07:01 (19.02%), and HLA-DQB1*03:01 (17.95%). Four-locus haplotype analysis identified HLA-A*02:01-B*50:01-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:02 (2.2%) as the common haplotype in Tunisians. Compared to other nearby populations, Tunisians appear to be genetically related to Western Mediterranean population, in particular North Africans and Berbers. In conclusion, HLA genotype results indicate that Tunisians are related to present-day North Africans, Berbers and to Iberians, but not to Eastern Arabs (Palestinians, Jordanians and Lebanese). This suggests that the genetic contribution of Arab invasion of 7th-11th century A.D. had little impact of the North African gene pool. PMID:26317228

  16. Compositional profile of α/β-hydrolase fold proteins in mangrove soil metagenomes: prevalence of epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in oil-contaminated sites

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Ottoni, Júlia Ronzella; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of genes encoding biotechnologically relevant α/β-hydrolases in mangrove soil microbial communities was assessed using data obtained by whole-metagenome sequencing of four mangroves areas, denoted BrMgv01 to BrMgv04, in São Paulo, Brazil. The sequences (215 Mb in total) were filtered based on local amino acid alignments against the Lipase Engineering Database. In total, 5923 unassembled sequences were affiliated with 30 different α/β-hydrolase fold superfamilies. The most abundant predicted proteins encompassed cytosolic hydrolases (abH08; ∼ 23%), microsomal hydrolases (abH09; ∼ 12%) and Moraxella lipase-like proteins (abH04 and abH01; < 5%). Detailed analysis of the genes predicted to encode proteins of the abH08 superfamily revealed a high proportion related to epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in polluted mangroves BrMgv01-02-03. This suggested selection and putative involvement in local degradation/detoxification of the pollutants. Seven sequences that were annotated as genes for putative epoxide hydrolases and five for putative haloalkane dehalogenases were found in a fosmid library generated from BrMgv02 DNA. The latter enzymes were predicted to belong to Actinobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria. Our integrated approach thus identified 12 genes (complete and/or partial) that may encode hitherto undescribed enzymes. The low amino acid identity (< 60%) with already-described genes opens perspectives for both production in an expression host and genetic screening of metagenomes. PMID:25171437

  17. OH maser observations using the Russian interferometric network ``Quasar'' in preparation for scientific observations with the space mission RadioAstron.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litovchenko, I. D.; Alakoz, A. V.; Kostenko, V. I.; Lihachev, S. F.; Finkelstein, A. M.; Ipatov, A. V.

    2012-07-01

    We present results of a VLBI experiment at a wavelength of 18 cm, which simulates the ground-space interferometer with space link to RadioAstron. An array of five antennas was used, four of them are located in the Russian Federation, plus the the 32-m radio telescope in Medicine (Italy). The 22-m radio telescope in Pushchino (Moscow Region) acted in place of the space arm. It has an effective area of 100 square meters. The three other Russian 32-m antennas are operated by the Institute of Applied Astronomy RAS; they are located at Badary, Svetloe and Zelenchukskaya (interferometer network ``Quasar''). The maximum base-line, Badary-Svetloe, was about 4402 km, providing an angular resolution of about 0.009 arc seconds at a wavelength of 18 cm. The duration of the experiment was 10 hours on 02/03 February 2011. The program of observations included quasars 3C273, 3C279, 3C286 and the maser source - W3(OH). W3(OH) was observed only by the Russian telescopes and was investigated at the frequency of the 1665 MHz main line. The data were recorded on the MK5 recorder (32-m radio telescopes) and the RDR system (RadioAstron Digital Recorder) in Pushchino. The low SEFD (system equivalence of flux density) of Pushchino emulated the RadioAstron antenna. Correlation was performed with the universal software correlator of the AstroSpace Center of Lebedev Physical Institute. The correlator output format is compatible with that used by the AIPS package, which was used for data analysis. After analyzing the correlated data we obtained relative coordinates of the maser components. The main results are tabulated and presented in the figures. The data quality is sufficient for astrophysical analysis and comparison with previous observations of maser source W3(OH) on VLBI networks EVN and VLBA.

  18. Embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of the tropical sea urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Aminur; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Arshad, A; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Amin, S M N

    2012-01-01

    Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10(-5) dilution) was 96.6 ± 1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell), 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla) stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72 ± 4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition. PMID:23055824

  19. Experimental study of lithosphere-troposphere-ionosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Fedorov, Oleh; Lizunov, Georgy

    The ionosphere is the closest to the Earth area of near-Earth space and because of this the powerful natural and man-made processes, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunami, big explosions and starts of heavy rockets to name a few, have to create corresponding disturbances there. Numerous experimental observations evidence the existence of such "terragenic" variations of ionospheric parameters, created by the sources below the ionosphere, in the troposphere and even in the lithosphere. Probably the most important question here is whether it is possible to detect enough reliably the ionospheric disturbances, related to the earthquake preparation state, at the background of the much stronger influences "from above" - of solar and galactic sources. So, the seismo-ionospheric coupling is one of the hottest topics of modern scientific research. The importance to shed more light to this process is connected with the study of possible earthquakes precursors in the ionosphere, monitoring of which could be a further step to the scientifically substantiated solution of the problem of earthquakes warning. The processing results of the data collected at Ukrainian Antarctic Station "Academician Vernadsky" are discussed. Basing on these data the theoretical study was performed and the energy transmission mechanism in the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere system is analyzed. The atmospheric gravity waves are proposed as the most probable energy carriers for troposphere-ionosphere coupling. Basing on this study, as well as on the experience of preparation of several dedicated satellite mission (e. g., WARNING, INTERBALL-PROGNOZ) a new idea of spatial experiment IONOSAT is proposed to study in details the mechanism of seismo-ionospheric coupling and its realization peculiarities are discussed. This study was supported by NSAU contract No 1-02/03.

  20. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Bob; Munson, Vicki; Rogers, Rox

    2003-10-01

    The Kootenai River Network Inc. (KRN) was incorporated in Montana in early 1995 with a mission ''to involve stakeholders in the protection and restoration of the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Kootenai River Basin waters''. The KRN operates with funding from donations, membership dues, private, state and federal grants, and with funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a Focus Watershed Coordinator Program. The Focus Watershed Program is administered to KRN as of October 2001, through a Memorandum of Understanding. Katie Randall resigned her position as Watershed Coordinator in late January 2003 and Munson Consulting was contracted to fill that position through the BPA contract period ending May 30, 2003. To improve communications with in the Kootenai River watershed, the board and staff engaged watershed stakeholders in a full day KRN watershed conference on May 15 and 16 in Bonners Ferry, Idaho. This Annual General Meeting was a tremendous success with over 75 participants representing over 40 citizen groups, tribes and state/provincial/federal agencies from throughout northern Montana and Idaho as well as British Columbia and Alberta. Membership in the KRN increased during the course of the BPA 02/03 grant period. The board of directors grew in numbers during this same time frame and an Advisory Council was formed to assist in transboundary efforts while developing two reorganized KRN committees (Habitat/Restoration/Monitoring (HRM) and Communication/Education/Outreach (CEO)). These committees will serve pivotal roles in communications, outreach, and education about watershed issues, as well as habitat restoration work being accomplished throughout the entire watershed. During this BPA grant period, the KRN has capitalized on the transboundary interest in the Kootenai River watershed. Jim and Laura Duncan of Kimberley, British Columbia, have been instrumental volunteers who have acted as Canadian liaisons to the KRN. As a