Science.gov

Sample records for 03-42-01 conditional release

  1. Designing conditional release systems for insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Griffin, P A; Steadman, H J; Heilbrun, K

    1991-01-01

    Monitored treatment in the community, also known as conditional release, has been described as the most important advance in the treatment of insanity acquittees in the last decade. Despite the importance of the development of conditional release, however, there has been relatively little written about relevant issues and planning principles important in designing and implementing conditional release systems. The present paper discusses important considerations relevant to conditional release that are associated with key decision points within systems for persons found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). Four planning principles, generalizable to all NGRI systems, are then presented in a way that integrates the previous discussion. It is concluded that conditional release plays a crucial role in the treatment of insanity acquittees and that mental health administrators may either proactively modify their systems, in a way that balances public safety with individual rights and treatment needs, or wait for the modification mandate to be forced upon them in the wake of a highly publicized, heinous offense.

  2. Performance of Male Psychopaths Following Conditional Release from Prison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stephen D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Administered Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) to criminals being released from prison on parole or mandatory supervision, then examined official parole supervision files for postrelease behavior. Violation of release conditions, suspensions, and presentation of supervisory problems were directly proportional, and the probability of subjects remaining…

  3. Conditional release: court-ordered outpatient treatment for insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Stafford, K P; Karpawich, J J

    1997-01-01

    Experience with involuntary outpatient treatment of individuals conditionally released to the community after a finding of nt guilty by reason of insanity provides insight into the involuntary treatment of all mental health clients, particularly those considered to be high risk.

  4. Fission product release from irradiated LWR fuel under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Strain, R.V.; Sanecki, J.E.; Osborne, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Fission product release from irradiated LWR fuel is being studied by heating fuel rod segments in flowing steam and an inert carrier gas to simulate accident conditions. Fuels with a range of irradiation histories are being subjected to several steam flow rates over a wide range of temperatures. Fission product release during each test is measured by gamma spectroscopy and by detailed examination of the collection apparatus after the test has been completed. These release results are complemented by a detailed posttest examination of samples of the fuel rod segment. Results of release measurements and fuel rod characterizations for tests at 1400 through 2000/sup 0/C are presented in this paper.

  5. Optimal release conditions for the free throw in men's basketball.

    PubMed

    Tran, Chau M; Silverberg, Larry M

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum release conditions for the free throw in men's basketball. The study used hundreds of thousands of three-dimensional simulations of basketball trajectories. Five release variables were studied: release height, release speed, launch angle, side angle, and back spin. The free throw shooter was assumed to shoot at 70% and to release the ball 2.134 m (7 ft) above the ground. We found that the shooter should place up to 3 Hz of back spin on the ball, should aim the ball towards the back of the ring, and should launch the ball at 52 degrees to the horizontal. We also found that it is desirable to release the ball as high above the ground as possible, as long as this does not adversely affect the player's launch consistency.

  6. Water conditioning and whooping crane survival after release in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Nesbitt, S.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Ellis, D.H.; Olsen, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    About 50% of the whooping cranes (Grus americana) released in Florida die within the first year of release. Most of these deaths and those in subsequent years result from bobcat (Lynx rufus) predation. Choosing release sites in open marshes away from bobcat habitat has improved survival. We hypothesized that exposure to ponds (water conditioning) at the rearing site would encourage birds to roost in deeper water marshes after release and such exposure would thereby reduce bobcat predation. In this study, we moved young birds (ca 50 days of age) to netted pens with large (15-m diameter), deep 30-60 cm) naturally vegetated ponds. We randomly assigned the costume-reared whooping cranes into 2 equal-sized groups at fledging. Some groups were placed in pens with a pond (experimental or ponded groups) and the others we reared without additional water exposure (control groups). All birds in the pens with ponds used the water. At night, they roosted at a depth of 36-46 cm. During the day, the birds used the ponds as well as other areas of the pen. We released 3 pairs of water-conditioned and control cohorts, 1 set in 1995 and 2 in 1996. No obvious behavioral differences were noted between the cohorts released in those years. Controls survived as expected (about 60% first year survival). The water-conditioned birds had much higher survival the first year (85%) and continued to survive better for the next 3 years.

  7. Statewide survey of living arrangements for conditionally released insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Novosad, David; Follansbee, Juliet; Banfe, Shelley; Bloom, Joseph D

    2014-09-01

    There is a large population (n =389) of insanity acquittees on monitored conditional release in Oregon. This article focuses on the living situation for these individuals, which can range from a secure residential treatment facility to independent living. This article will define all the different placement options available and then review the current living situation for all conditionally released insanity acquittees in the state of Oregon on a single day, February 1, 2014. This article shows that the majority of individuals on conditional release live in the most highly structured settings available. The article then ends with a discussion of these findings, including a comparison of current placement options, with previous descriptions in the literature demonstrating that current community options offer more structure and more individuals reside in structured settings than was previously the case. Current findings will be related to inpatient psychiatric bed reduction strategies and the question of possible transinstitutionalization.

  8. Statewide survey of living arrangements for conditionally released insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Novosad, David; Follansbee, Juliet; Banfe, Shelley; Bloom, Joseph D

    2014-09-01

    There is a large population (n =389) of insanity acquittees on monitored conditional release in Oregon. This article focuses on the living situation for these individuals, which can range from a secure residential treatment facility to independent living. This article will define all the different placement options available and then review the current living situation for all conditionally released insanity acquittees in the state of Oregon on a single day, February 1, 2014. This article shows that the majority of individuals on conditional release live in the most highly structured settings available. The article then ends with a discussion of these findings, including a comparison of current placement options, with previous descriptions in the literature demonstrating that current community options offer more structure and more individuals reside in structured settings than was previously the case. Current findings will be related to inpatient psychiatric bed reduction strategies and the question of possible transinstitutionalization. PMID:25328071

  9. Psychosis and Substance Use: Implications for Conditional Release Readiness Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Tabernik, Holly E; Vitacco, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    In Foucha v. Louisiana (1992), the United States Supreme Court ruled that individuals adjudicated not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) could not remain in a forensic hospital if they were no longer mentally ill and dangerous. Since this decision, a variety of important questions have arisen related to the insanity defense and what should happen to insanity acquittees post-adjudication. This article provides an analysis of clinical issues confronting forensic examiners when psychosis as a result of substance abuse is the underlying condition supporting an insanity defense. To accomplish this analysis, this article provides the reader with a review of literature showing the complex relationship between psychosis and substance abuse. Second, this article investigates how substance-induced psychosis may impact both insanity opinions and subsequent conditional release decisions. Third, the article aims to provide research-driven information to assist clinicians in conducting conditional release evaluations. Finally, this paper provides a model for evaluating dangerousness in the context of conditional release evaluations. Given the substantial comorbidity between substance abuse and psychosis, it is critical for researchers and clinicians to consider potential effects of substance abuse when evaluating insanity acquittees for conditional release, especially as substance use relates to future dangerousness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Psychosis and Substance Use: Implications for Conditional Release Readiness Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Tabernik, Holly E; Vitacco, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    In Foucha v. Louisiana (1992), the United States Supreme Court ruled that individuals adjudicated not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) could not remain in a forensic hospital if they were no longer mentally ill and dangerous. Since this decision, a variety of important questions have arisen related to the insanity defense and what should happen to insanity acquittees post-adjudication. This article provides an analysis of clinical issues confronting forensic examiners when psychosis as a result of substance abuse is the underlying condition supporting an insanity defense. To accomplish this analysis, this article provides the reader with a review of literature showing the complex relationship between psychosis and substance abuse. Second, this article investigates how substance-induced psychosis may impact both insanity opinions and subsequent conditional release decisions. Third, the article aims to provide research-driven information to assist clinicians in conducting conditional release evaluations. Finally, this paper provides a model for evaluating dangerousness in the context of conditional release evaluations. Given the substantial comorbidity between substance abuse and psychosis, it is critical for researchers and clinicians to consider potential effects of substance abuse when evaluating insanity acquittees for conditional release, especially as substance use relates to future dangerousness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27021306

  11. Microbial Release from Seeded Beach Sediments during Wave Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Feng, Zhixuan; Vogel, Laura J.; Reniers, Ad J. H. M.; Haus, Brian K.; Enns, Amber A; Zhang, Yifan; Hernandez, David B.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    Beach sands can sustain indigenous and introduced populations of enterococci. The objective of this study was to evaluate wave action in promoting the release of introduced bacteria. To accomplish this objective this study developed a method to assess attachment and identified conditions under which introduced bacteria are integrated into the sand. A new “shearing assay” showed that attachment of the introduced spike mimicked that of the natural sand when the spike was allowed to integrate into the sand for 24 hours at room temperature at a sand moisture content of 20%. Experiments in a wave flume showed that waves were capable of releasing about 60% of the total bacteria added. This suggests that for the range of wave conditions evaluated (height: 1.9-10.5 cm, period:1-2.7 s), waves were incapable of releasing all of the bacteria. Further study is needed to evaluate bacteria attachment mechanisms. PMID:24393380

  12. 28 CFR 2.40 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determines that such condition is necessary to protect the public from further crimes by the releasee and to... participation in a drug-treatment program, the releasee must submit to a drug test before release and to at least two other drug tests, as determined by the supervision officer. A decision not to impose...

  13. 28 CFR 2.40 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determines that such condition is necessary to protect the public from further crimes by the releasee and to... participation in a drug-treatment program, the releasee must submit to a drug test before release and to at least two other drug tests, as determined by the supervision officer. A decision not to impose...

  14. 28 CFR 2.40 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determines that such condition is necessary to protect the public from further crimes by the releasee and to... participation in a drug-treatment program, the releasee must submit to a drug test before release and to at least two other drug tests, as determined by the supervision officer. A decision not to impose...

  15. 28 CFR 2.40 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determines that such condition is necessary to protect the public from further crimes by the releasee and to... participation in a drug-treatment program, the releasee must submit to a drug test before release and to at least two other drug tests, as determined by the supervision officer. A decision not to impose...

  16. 28 CFR 2.40 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determines that such condition is necessary to protect the public from further crimes by the releasee and to... participation in a drug-treatment program, the releasee must submit to a drug test before release and to at least two other drug tests, as determined by the supervision officer. A decision not to impose...

  17. On the role of subsecond dopamine release in conditioned avoidance.

    PubMed

    Oleson, Erik B; Cheer, Joseph F

    2013-01-01

    Using shock avoidance procedures to study conditioned behavioral responses has a rich history within the field of experimental psychology. Such experiments led to the formulation of the general concept of negative reinforcement and specific theories attempting to explain escape and avoidance behavior, or why animals choose to either terminate or prevent the presentation of an aversive event. For example, the two-factor theory of avoidance holds that cues preceding an aversive event begin to evoke conditioned fear responses, and these conditioned fear responses reinforce the instrumental avoidance response. Current neuroscientific advances are providing new perspectives into this historical literature. Due to its well-established role in reinforcement processes and behavioral control, the mesolimbic dopamine system presented itself as a logical starting point in the search for neural correlates of avoidance and escape behavior. We recently demonstrated that phasic dopamine release events are inhibited by stimuli associated with aversive events but increased by stimuli preceding the successful avoidance of the aversive event. The latter observation is inconsistent with the second component of the two-factor theory of avoidance and; therefore, led us propose a new theoretical explanation of conditioned avoidance: (1) fear is initially conditioned to the warning signal and dopamine computes this fear association as a decrease in release, (2) the warning signal, now capable of producing a negative emotional state, suppresses dopamine release and behavior, (3) over repeated trials the warning signal becomes associated with safety rather than fear; dopaminergic neurons already compute safety as an increase in release and begin to encode the warning signal as the earliest predictor of safety (4) the warning signal now promotes conditioned avoidance via dopaminergic modulation of the brain's incentive-motivational circuitry.

  18. On the role of subsecond dopamine release in conditioned avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Erik B.; Cheer, Joseph F.

    2013-01-01

    Using shock avoidance procedures to study conditioned behavioral responses has a rich history within the field of experimental psychology. Such experiments led to the formulation of the general concept of negative reinforcement and specific theories attempting to explain escape and avoidance behavior, or why animals choose to either terminate or prevent the presentation of an aversive event. For example, the two-factor theory of avoidance holds that cues preceding an aversive event begin to evoke conditioned fear responses, and these conditioned fear responses reinforce the instrumental avoidance response. Current neuroscientific advances are providing new perspectives into this historical literature. Due to its well-established role in reinforcement processes and behavioral control, the mesolimbic dopamine system presented itself as a logical starting point in the search for neural correlates of avoidance and escape behavior. We recently demonstrated that phasic dopamine release events are inhibited by stimuli associated with aversive events but increased by stimuli preceding the successful avoidance of the aversive event. The latter observation is inconsistent with the second component of the two-factor theory of avoidance and; therefore, led us propose a new theoretical explanation of conditioned avoidance: (1) fear is initially conditioned to the warning signal and dopamine computes this fear association as a decrease in release, (2) the warning signal, now capable of producing a negative emotional state, suppresses dopamine release and behavior, (3) over repeated trials the warning signal becomes associated with safety rather than fear; dopaminergic neurons already compute safety as an increase in release and begin to encode the warning signal as the earliest predictor of safety (4) the warning signal now promotes conditioned avoidance via dopaminergic modulation of the brain's incentive-motivational circuitry. PMID:23759871

  19. The legal aspects of conditional release in the criminal and civil court system.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Naomi M

    2014-09-01

    This article considers the legal implications of conditional release in both the civil and criminal parts of the law. In the criminal context, conditional release takes the form of probation and parole. It also involves persons who are found to be incompetent to stand trial or not guilty by reason of insanity. In the civil context, conditional release exists for persons with mental illness and sex offenders who face mandatory outpatient treatment. The public policy behind conditional release is to allow certain persons the least restrictive alternative with proper oversight that will prevent the person from recidivating or being re-hospitalized. Conditional release is also used as a cost-saving mechanism in response to the overwhelming costs of incarceration and hospitalization. This article explores the issues of professional liability, third party liability, and individual rights in relation to conditional release. This article also addresses public policy concerns with conditional release and examines conditional release from a therapeutic jurisprudence perspective.

  20. The legal aspects of conditional release in the criminal and civil court system.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Naomi M

    2014-09-01

    This article considers the legal implications of conditional release in both the civil and criminal parts of the law. In the criminal context, conditional release takes the form of probation and parole. It also involves persons who are found to be incompetent to stand trial or not guilty by reason of insanity. In the civil context, conditional release exists for persons with mental illness and sex offenders who face mandatory outpatient treatment. The public policy behind conditional release is to allow certain persons the least restrictive alternative with proper oversight that will prevent the person from recidivating or being re-hospitalized. Conditional release is also used as a cost-saving mechanism in response to the overwhelming costs of incarceration and hospitalization. This article explores the issues of professional liability, third party liability, and individual rights in relation to conditional release. This article also addresses public policy concerns with conditional release and examines conditional release from a therapeutic jurisprudence perspective. PMID:25328072

  1. The Correlation Analysis of Fire Energy Release and Weather Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvetsov, E.

    2012-04-01

    Active fire remote sensing conducted using spaceborne systems, such as MODIS radiometer aboard the EOS Terra and Aqua satellites, allows estimation of wildfire thermal energy release. Such measures of fire radiative power (FRP) can provide information on fireline heat release intensity and on the amount and rate of biomass combustion in the large scale. Biomass combustion rate is strongly related to fuel moisture and therefore to weather conditions. The correlation analysis of fire radiative power and weather fire danger was performed for the territory of Siberia. The measurements of FRP were performed using MODIS instrument and weather fire danger indices were calculated using weather stations data. The analysis was performed for several Siberian regions mostly liable to fires. Weather fire danger was characterized by Russian PV-1 and PV-2 fire danger indices and using Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Only large fires having the final size of more than 500 ha were focused in this study. In general it was rather good relationship between the fire danger indices and the measured fire radiative power for the most of the fires. For the weather stations considered the following weather indices had the highest correlation coefficients with measured FRP values: Russian PV-1 index and Canadian DMC, DC and BUI indices. Finally the ability of weather fire danger indices to predict the changes in fire radiative power was tested. A regression model was formulated to characterize the relationship between wildfire radiative power and fire danger indices. It was shown that the relationships have regional specificity and none of these indices can be considered as universal.

  2. Beyond Recidivism: Measuring Community Adjustments of Conditionally Released Insanity Acquitees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiederanders, Mark A.; Choate, Paul A.

    1994-01-01

    An instrument was developed to assess the community functioning of released insanity acquitees using items from previous scales and some original items. Preliminary results with samples from 254 to 1,187 subjects indicate that the developed questionnaire compares favorably in reliability with existing instruments. (SLD)

  3. Tritium release from SS316 under vacuum condition

    SciTech Connect

    Torikai, Y.; Penzhorn, R.D.

    2015-03-15

    The plasma facing surface of the ITER vacuum vessel, partly made of low carbon austenitic stainless steel type 316L, will incorporate tritium during machine operation. In this paper the kinetics of tritium release from stainless steel type 316 into vacuum and into a noble gas stream are compared and modelled. Type 316 stainless steel specimens loaded with tritium either by exposure to 1.2 kPa HT at 573 K or submersion into liquid HTO at 298 K showed characteristic thin surface layers trapping tritium in concentrations far higher than those determined in the bulk. The evolution of the tritium depth profile in the bulk during heating under vacuum was non-discernible from that of tritium liberated into a stream of argon. Only the relative amount of the two released tritium-species, i.e. HT or HTO, was different. Temperature-dependent depth profiles could be predicted with a one-dimensional diffusion model. Diffusion coefficients derived from fitting of the tritium release into an evacuated vessel or a stream of argon were found to be (1.4 ± 1.0)*10{sup -7} and (1.3 ± 0.9)*10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/s at 573 and 423 K, respectively. Polished surfaces on type SS316 stainless steel inhibit considerably the thermal release rate of tritium.

  4. Stopping (or slowing) the revolving door: factors related to NGRI acquittees' maintenance of a conditional release.

    PubMed

    Monson, C M; Gunnin, D D; Fogel, M H; Kyle, L L

    2001-06-01

    The current study sought to extend the knowledge about factors associated with NGRI acquittees' maintenance of a conditional release after hospital discharge. The medical and forensic records of 125 NGRI acquittees were reviewed to collect a variety of demographic, clinical, criminal, and aftercare factors. A hierarchical survival analysis approach to determining success was compared to data analysis strategies typically employed in the area. Survival analysis, which accounts for both conditional release success status and time on conditional release, revealed that minority status, substance abuse diagnosis, and a prior criminal history were the factors that significantly predicted conditional release revocation. Treatment and policy implications of these results are discussed.

  5. Nitrogen release from rock and soil under simulated field conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloway, J.M.; Dahlgren, R.A.; Casey, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory study was performed to simulate field weathering and nitrogen release from bedrock in a setting where geologic nitrogen has been suspected to be a large local source of nitrate. Two rock types containing nitrogen, slate (1370 mg N kg-1) and greenstone (480 mg N kg-1), were used along with saprolite and BC horizon sand from soils derived from these rock types. The fresh rock and weathered material were used in batch reactors that were leached every 30 days over 6 months to simulate a single wet season. Nitrogen was released from rock and soil materials at rates between 10-20 and 10-19 mo1 N cm-2 s-1. Results from the laboratory dissolution experiments were compared to in situ soil solutions and available mineral nitrogen pools from the BC horizon of both soils. Concentrations of mineral nitrogen (NO3- + NH4+) in soil solutions reached the highest levels at the beginning of the rainy season and progressively decreased with increased leaching. This seasonal pattern was repeated for the available mineral nitrogen pool that was extracted using a KCl solution. Estimates based on these laboratory release rates bracket stream water NO3-N fluxes and changes in the available mineral nitrogen pool over the active leaching period. These results confirm that geologic nitrogen, when present, may be a large and reactive pool that may contribute as a non-point source of nitrate contamination to surface and ground waters. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chromium released from leather – I: exposure conditions that govern the release of chromium(III) and chromium(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Lidén, Carola; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1–3% of the adult population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). A new restriction in REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) based on the ISO 17075 standard has recently been adopted in the EU to limit Cr(VI) in consumer and occupational leather products. Objectives The aim of this study was to critically assess key experimental parameters in this standard on the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) and their relevance for skin exposure. Material and methods Four differently tanned, unfinished, leather samples were systematically investigated for their release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in relation to surface area, key exposure parameters, temperature, ultraviolet irradiation, and time. Results Although the total release of Cr was largely unaffected by all investigated parameters, except exposure duration and temperature, the Cr oxidation state was highly dynamic, with reduced amounts of released Cr(VI) with time, owing to the simultaneous release of reducing agents from the leather. Significantly more Cr(III) than Cr(VI) was released from the Cr-tanned leather for all conditions tested, and it continued to be released in artificial sweat up to at least 1 week of exposure. Conclusions Several parameters were identified that influenced the outcome of the ISO 17075 test. PMID:25653094

  7. 28 CFR 2.204 - Conditions of supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... any applicable sex-offender reporting and registration law. (v) The releasee shall provide a DNA..., exclusive of holidays, to determine whether to order such modification or addition to the conditions...

  8. 28 CFR 2.204 - Conditions of supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... any applicable sex-offender reporting and registration law. (v) The releasee shall provide a DNA..., exclusive of holidays, to determine whether to order such modification or addition to the conditions...

  9. 28 CFR 2.204 - Conditions of supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... any applicable sex-offender reporting and registration law. (v) The releasee shall provide a DNA..., exclusive of holidays, to determine whether to order such modification or addition to the conditions...

  10. 28 CFR 2.204 - Conditions of supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... any applicable sex-offender reporting and registration law. (v) The releasee shall provide a DNA..., exclusive of holidays, to determine whether to order such modification or addition to the conditions...

  11. 28 CFR 2.85 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determines that such condition is necessary to protect the public from further crimes by the releasee and... purposes of this section— (1) The terms supervision officer, domestic violence crime, approved offender-rehabilitation program and firearm, as used in § 2.204, have the meanings given those terms by § 2.204(g);...

  12. 28 CFR 2.85 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determines that such condition is necessary to protect the public from further crimes by the releasee and... purposes of this section— (1) The terms supervision officer, domestic violence crime, approved offender-rehabilitation program and firearm, as used in § 2.204, have the meanings given those terms by § 2.204(g);...

  13. 28 CFR 2.85 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determines that such condition is necessary to protect the public from further crimes by the releasee and... purposes of this section— (1) The terms supervision officer, domestic violence crime, approved offender-rehabilitation program and firearm, as used in § 2.204, have the meanings given those terms by § 2.204(g);...

  14. 28 CFR 2.85 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determines that such condition is necessary to protect the public from further crimes by the releasee and... purposes of this section— (1) The terms supervision officer, domestic violence crime, approved offender-rehabilitation program and firearm, as used in § 2.204, have the meanings given those terms by § 2.204(g);...

  15. 28 CFR 2.85 - Conditions of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determines that such condition is necessary to protect the public from further crimes by the releasee and... purposes of this section— (1) The terms supervision officer, domestic violence crime, approved offender-rehabilitation program and firearm, as used in § 2.204, have the meanings given those terms by § 2.204(g);...

  16. From the psychiatric hospital to the community: integrating conditional release and contingency management.

    PubMed

    Elbogen, E B; Tomkins, A J

    2000-01-01

    Psychiatric hospital recidivism has been and continues to be a persistent problem in treating individuals with chronic mental illness. Conditional release, a form of involuntary outpatient commitment, has been suggested as one possible solution. Guided by therapeutic jurisprudence, this article presents a proposal about conditional release that would maximize convergence of social values and would be empirically testable. Specifically, a scientifically validated treatment intervention for individuals with chronic mental illness, contingency management, is integrated with conditional release. From this proposal, a number of empirical hypotheses and legal questions about discharging psychiatric patients are generated and discussed.

  17. Taurine release in mouse brain stem slices under cell-damaging conditions.

    PubMed

    Saransaari, P; Oja, S S

    2007-01-01

    Taurine has been thought to be essential for the development and survival of neural cells and to protect them under cell-damaging conditions. In the brain stem taurine regulates many vital functions, including cardiovascular control and arterial blood pressure. We have recently characterized the release of taurine in the adult and developing brain stem under normal conditions. Now we studied the properties of preloaded [3H]taurine release under various cell-damaging conditions (hypoxia, hypoglycemia, ischemia, the presence of metabolic poisons and free radicals) in slices prepared from the mouse brain stem from developing (7-day-old) and young adult (3-month-old) mice, using a superfusion system. Taurine release was greatly enhanced under these cell-damaging conditions, the only exception being the presence of free radicals in both age groups. The ischemia-induced release was characterized to consist of both Ca2+-dependent and -independent components. Moreover, the release was mediated by Na+-, Cl--dependent transporters operating outwards, particularly in the immature brain stem. Cl- channel antagonists reduced the release at both ages, indicating that a part of the release occurs through ion channels, and protein kinase C appeared to be involved. The release was also modulated by cyclic GMP second messenger systems, since inhibitors of soluble guanylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterases suppressed ischemic taurine release. The inhibition of phospholipases also reduced taurine release at both ages. This ischemia-induced taurine release could constitute an important mechanism against excitotoxicity, protecting the brain stem under cell-damaging conditions.

  18. Equilibrium and kinetic models for colloid release under transient solution chemistry conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present continuum models to describe colloid release in the subsurface during transient physicochemical conditions. Our modeling approach relates the amount of colloid release to changes in the fraction of the solid surface area that contributes to retention. Equilibrium, kinetic, equilibrium and...

  19. Equilibrium and Kinetic Models for Colloid Release Under Transient Solution Chemistry Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, S. A.; Torkzaban, S.; Leij, F. J.; Simunek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Colloid retention and release is well known to depend on a wide variety of physical, chemical, and microbiological factors that may vary temporally in the subsurface environment. We present equilibrium, kinetic, combined equilibrium and kinetic, and two-site kinetic models of colloid release during transient physicochemical conditions. Our mathematical modeling approach relates colloid release under transient conditions to changes in the fraction of the solid surface area that contributes to retention. The developed models were subsequently applied to experimental colloid release datasets to investigate the influence of variations in ionic strength (IS), pH, cation exchange, colloid size, and water velocity on release. Various combinations of equilibrium and/or kinetic release models were needed to describe the experimental data depending on the transient conditions and colloid type. Release of E. coli D21g was promoted by a decrease in solution IS and an increase in pH, similar to expected trends for a reduction in the secondary minimum and nanoscale chemical heterogeneity, respectively. The retention and release of 20 nm carboxyl modified latex nanoparticles (NPs) were demonstrated to be more sensitive to the presence of Ca2+ than D21g. Specifically, retention of NPs was greater than D21g in the presence of 2 mM CaCl2 solution, and release of NPs only occurred after exchange of Ca2+ by Na+ and then a reduction in the solution IS. These findings highlight the limitations of conventional interaction energy calculations to describe colloid retention and release, and point to the need to consider Born repulsion and nanoscale heterogeneity. Temporal changes in the water velocity did not have a large influence on the release of D21g. This insensitivity was likely due to factors that reduce the applied hydrodynamic torque and/or increase the resisting adhesive torque. Collectively, experimental and modeling results indicate that episodic colloid transport in the

  20. New Frontiers for Conditional Release: Applying Lessons Learned from Other Offenders with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Gowensmith, W Neil; Peters, Amanda J; Lex, Indira A; Heng, Anika K S; Robinson, Kevin P; Huston, Benjamin A

    2016-03-01

    There is relatively little research in the literature on insanity acquittees as compared with the large number of studies focused on the supervision and treatment of probationers and parolees with mental illness. Ideally, the latter literature could be successfully applied to insanity acquittees discharged from an inpatient hospital on "conditional release." This article describes the challenges faced by persons on conditional release as well as the gaps in extant conditional release literature. Then, five evidence-based models for the supervision and/or treatment of probationers and parolees with mental illness are applied to a theoretical conditionally released population (mental health courts, forensic assertive community treatment teams, the risk-need-responsivity model, informed supervision practices, and HOPE probation). Benefits and limitations are noted, and recommendations for such crossover are given. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. New Frontiers for Conditional Release: Applying Lessons Learned from Other Offenders with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Gowensmith, W Neil; Peters, Amanda J; Lex, Indira A; Heng, Anika K S; Robinson, Kevin P; Huston, Benjamin A

    2016-03-01

    There is relatively little research in the literature on insanity acquittees as compared with the large number of studies focused on the supervision and treatment of probationers and parolees with mental illness. Ideally, the latter literature could be successfully applied to insanity acquittees discharged from an inpatient hospital on "conditional release." This article describes the challenges faced by persons on conditional release as well as the gaps in extant conditional release literature. Then, five evidence-based models for the supervision and/or treatment of probationers and parolees with mental illness are applied to a theoretical conditionally released population (mental health courts, forensic assertive community treatment teams, the risk-need-responsivity model, informed supervision practices, and HOPE probation). Benefits and limitations are noted, and recommendations for such crossover are given. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26989858

  2. Subsecond dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens predicts conditioned punishment and its successful avoidance.

    PubMed

    Oleson, Erik B; Gentry, Ronny N; Chioma, Vivian C; Cheer, Joseph F

    2012-10-17

    The mesolimbic dopamine system is believed to be a pathway that processes rewarding information. While previous studies have also implicated a general role for dopamine in punishment and its avoidance, the precise nature of subsecond dopamine release during these phenomena remains unknown. Here, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to investigate whether subsecond dopamine release events in the nucleus accumbens encode cues predicting the avoidance of punishment during behavior maintained in a signaled footshock avoidance procedure. In this task, rats could initiate an avoidance response by pressing a lever within a warning period, preventing footshock. Alternatively, once footshocks commenced, animals could initiate an escape response by pressing the lever, terminating footshock. This design allowed us to assess subsecond dopamine release events during the presentation of a warning signal, safety periods, and two distinct behavioral responses. We found that release consistently increased upon presentation of the warning signal in a manner that reliably predicted successful punishment avoidance. We also observed subsecond dopamine release during the safety period, as occurs following the receipt of reward. Conversely, we observed a decrease in release at the warning signal during escape responses. Because of this finding, we next assessed dopamine release in a conditioned fear model. As seen during escape responses, we observed a time-locked decrease in dopamine release upon presentation of a cue conditioned to inescapable footshock. Together, these data show that subsecond fluctuations in mesolimbic dopamine release predict when rats will successfully avoid punishment and differentially encode cues related to aversive outcomes.

  3. Familiar companions diminish cocaine conditioning and attenuate cocaine-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Cherng, Chian-Fang G; Wang, Shyi-Wu; Yu, Lung

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of companions on the rewarding effects of cocaine. Three cage mates, serving as companions, were housed with each experimental mouse throughout cocaine-place conditioning in a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm using conditioning doses of 10 and 20mg/kg. The presence of companions decreased the magnitude of the CPP. At 20mg/kg, cocaine stimulated dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens as evidenced by a significant decrease in total (spontaneous and electrical stimulation-provoked) DA release in accumbal superfusate samples. The presence of companions prevented this cocaine-stimulated DA release; such a reduction in cocaine-induced DA release may account for the reduction in the magnitude of the CPP in the presence of the companions. Furthermore, cocaine pretreatment (2.5mg/kg) was found to prevent the companion-produced decreases in cocaine (10mg/kg/conditioning)-induced CPP as well as the cocaine (10mg/kg)-stimulated DA release. Moreover, the presence of methamphetamine (MA) (1mg/kg)-treated companions decreased cocaine (20mg/kg/conditioning)-induced CPP and prevented the cocaine (20mg/kg)-stimulated DA release. Finally, the presence of companions decreased the magnitude of the CPP could not seem to be accounted for by cocaine-stimulated corticosterone (CORT) release. Taken together, these results indicate that familiar companions, regardless of their pharmacological status, may exert dampening effects on CPP induced by moderate to high conditioning doses of cocaine, at least in part, by preventing cocaine-stimulated DA release in the nucleus accumbens. PMID:27001454

  4. Products of Leishmania braziliensis glucose catabolism: release of D-lactate and, under anaerobic conditions, glycerol

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, T.N.; Davis, D.G.; London, R.E.; Blum, J.J.

    1987-10-01

    Leishmania braziliensis panamensis promastigotes were incubated with glucose as the sole carbon source. About one-fifth of the glucose consumed under aerobic conditions was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies with (1-/sup 13/C)glucose showed that the other products released were succinate, acetate, alanine, pyruvate, and lactate. Under anaerobic conditions, lactate output increased, glycerol became a major product, and, surprisingly, glucose consumption decreased. Enzymatic assays showed that the lactate formed was D(-)-lactate. The release of alanine during incubation with glucose as the sole carbon source suggested that appreciable proteolysis occurred, consistent with our observation that a large amount of ammonia was released under these conditions. The discoveries that D-lactate is a product of L. braziliensis glucose catabolism, that glycerol is produced under anaerobic conditions, and that the cells exhibit a reverse Pasteur effect open the way for detailed studies of the pathways of glucose metabolism and their regulation in this organism.

  5. Estimate of radionuclide release characteristics into containment under severe accident conditions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1993-11-01

    A detailed review of the available light water reactor source term information is presented as a technical basis for development of updated source terms into the containment under severe accident conditions. Simplified estimates of radionuclide release and transport characteristics are specified for each unique combination of the reactor coolant and containment system combinations. A quantitative uncertainty analysis in the release to the containment using NUREG-1150 methodology is also presented.

  6. Equilibrium and kinetic models for colloid release under transient solution chemistry conditions.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Scott A; Torkzaban, Saeed; Leij, Feike; Simunek, Jiri

    2015-10-01

    We present continuum models to describe colloid release in the subsurface during transient physicochemical conditions. Our modeling approach relates the amount of colloid release to changes in the fraction of the solid surface area that contributes to retention. Equilibrium, kinetic, equilibrium and kinetic, and two-site kinetic models were developed to describe various rates of colloid release. These models were subsequently applied to experimental colloid release datasets to investigate the influence of variations in ionic strength (IS), pH, cation exchange, colloid size, and water velocity on release. Various combinations of equilibrium and/or kinetic release models were needed to describe the experimental data depending on the transient conditions and colloid type. Release of Escherichia coli D21g was promoted by a decrease in solution IS and an increase in pH, similar to expected trends for a reduction in the secondary minimum and nanoscale chemical heterogeneity. The retention and release of 20nm carboxyl modified latex nanoparticles (NPs) were demonstrated to be more sensitive to the presence of Ca(2+) than D21g. Specifically, retention of NPs was greater than D21g in the presence of 2mM CaCl2 solution, and release of NPs only occurred after exchange of Ca(2+) by Na(+) and then a reduction in the solution IS. These findings highlight the limitations of conventional interaction energy calculations to describe colloid retention and release, and point to the need to consider other interactions (e.g., Born, steric, and/or hydration forces) and/or nanoscale heterogeneity. Temporal changes in the water velocity did not have a large influence on the release of D21g for the examined conditions. This insensitivity was likely due to factors that reduce the applied hydrodynamic torque and/or increase the resisting adhesive torque; e.g., macroscopic roughness and grain-grain contacts. Our analysis and models improve our understanding and ability to describe the amounts

  7. Equilibrium and kinetic models for colloid release under transient solution chemistry conditions.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Scott A; Torkzaban, Saeed; Leij, Feike; Simunek, Jiri

    2015-10-01

    We present continuum models to describe colloid release in the subsurface during transient physicochemical conditions. Our modeling approach relates the amount of colloid release to changes in the fraction of the solid surface area that contributes to retention. Equilibrium, kinetic, equilibrium and kinetic, and two-site kinetic models were developed to describe various rates of colloid release. These models were subsequently applied to experimental colloid release datasets to investigate the influence of variations in ionic strength (IS), pH, cation exchange, colloid size, and water velocity on release. Various combinations of equilibrium and/or kinetic release models were needed to describe the experimental data depending on the transient conditions and colloid type. Release of Escherichia coli D21g was promoted by a decrease in solution IS and an increase in pH, similar to expected trends for a reduction in the secondary minimum and nanoscale chemical heterogeneity. The retention and release of 20nm carboxyl modified latex nanoparticles (NPs) were demonstrated to be more sensitive to the presence of Ca(2+) than D21g. Specifically, retention of NPs was greater than D21g in the presence of 2mM CaCl2 solution, and release of NPs only occurred after exchange of Ca(2+) by Na(+) and then a reduction in the solution IS. These findings highlight the limitations of conventional interaction energy calculations to describe colloid retention and release, and point to the need to consider other interactions (e.g., Born, steric, and/or hydration forces) and/or nanoscale heterogeneity. Temporal changes in the water velocity did not have a large influence on the release of D21g for the examined conditions. This insensitivity was likely due to factors that reduce the applied hydrodynamic torque and/or increase the resisting adhesive torque; e.g., macroscopic roughness and grain-grain contacts. Our analysis and models improve our understanding and ability to describe the amounts

  8. Outcomes of assertive community treatment in an NGRI conditional release program.

    PubMed

    Parker, George F

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the five-year outcomes of an assertive community treatment (ACT) program that monitored 83 acquittees found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) placed on conditional release (CR) into the community. Data were collected by retrospective review of court reports and a state computer database. Five arrests and 60 hospitalizations occurred during the study period; overall, the NGRI acquittees were in the community for 83 percent of the time they were eligible for conditional release. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the duration of conditional release was a positive predictor, and paranoid schizophrenia was a negative predictor of hospitalization or arrest. The estimated annual rate (EAR) of hospitalization was 14.0 percent, and the arrest EAR was 1.4 percent. The ACT model for NGRI acquittees on CR yielded a low arrest rate, a moderate hospitalization rate, and good community tenure.

  9. Absence of NMDA receptors in dopamine neurons attenuates dopamine release but not conditioned approach during Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jones G; Zweifel, Larry S; Clark, Jeremy J; Evans, Scott B; Phillips, Paul E M; Palmiter, Richard D

    2010-07-27

    During Pavlovian conditioning, phasic dopamine (DA) responses emerge to reward-predictive stimuli as the subject learns to anticipate reward delivery. This observation has led to the hypothesis that phasic dopamine signaling is important for learning. To assess the ability of mice to develop anticipatory behavior and to characterize the contribution of dopamine, we used a food-reinforced Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. As mice learned the cue-reward association, they increased their head entries to the food receptacle in a pattern that was consistent with conditioned anticipatory behavior. D1-receptor knockout (D1R-KO) mice had impaired acquisition, and systemic administration of a D1R antagonist blocked both the acquisition and expression of conditioned approach in wild-type mice. To assess the specific contribution of phasic dopamine transmission, we tested mice lacking NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) exclusively in dopamine neurons (NR1-KO mice). Surprisingly, NR1-KO mice learned at the same rate as their littermate controls. To evaluate the contribution of NMDARs to phasic dopamine release in this paradigm, we performed fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the nucleus accumbens of awake mice. Despite having significantly attenuated phasic dopamine release following reward delivery, KO mice developed cue-evoked dopamine release at the same rate as controls. We conclude that NMDARs in dopamine neurons enhance but are not critical for phasic dopamine release to behaviorally relevant stimuli; furthermore, their contribution to phasic dopamine signaling is not necessary for the development of cue-evoked dopamine or anticipatory activity in a D1R-dependent Pavlovian conditioning paradigm.

  10. The Effect of Spray Initial Conditions on Heat Release and Emissions in LDI CFD Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Davoudzadeh, Farhad

    2008-01-01

    The mass and velocity distribution of liquid spray has a primary effect on the combustion heat release process. This heat release process then affects emissions like nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO). Computational Fluid Dynamics gives the engineer insight into these processes, but various setup options exist (number of droplet groups, and initial droplet temperature) for spray initial conditions. This paper studies these spray initial condition options using the National Combustion Code (NCC) on a single swirler lean direct injection (LDI) flame tube. Using laminar finite rate chemistry, comparisons are made against experimental data for velocity measurements, temperature, and emissions (NOx, CO).

  11. Differential acetylcholine release in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during pavlovian trace and delay conditioning.

    PubMed

    Flesher, M Melissa; Butt, Allen E; Kinney-Hurd, Brandee L

    2011-09-01

    Pavlovian trace conditioning critically depends on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC), whereas delay conditioning does not depend on these brain structures. Given that the cholinergic basal forebrain system modulates activity in both the mPFC and HPC, it was reasoned that the level of acetylcholine (ACh) release in these regions would show distinct profiles during testing in trace and delay conditioning paradigms. To test this assumption, microdialysis probes were implanted unilaterally into the mPFC and HPC of rats that were pre-trained in appetitive trace and delay conditioning paradigms using different conditional stimuli in the two tasks. On the day of microdialysis testing, dialysate samples were collected during a quiet baseline interval before trials were initiated, and again during performance in separate blocks of trace and delay conditioning trials in each animal. ACh levels were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection techniques. Consistent with our hypothesis, results showed that ACh release in the mPFC was greater during trace conditioning than during delay conditioning. The level of ACh released during trace conditioning in the HPC was also greater than the levels observed during delay conditioning. While ACh efflux in both the mPFC and HPC selectively increased during trace conditioning, ACh levels in the mPFC during trace conditioning testing showed the greatest increases observed. These results demonstrate a dissociation in cholinergic activation of the mPFC and HPC during performance in trace but not delay appetitive conditioning, where this cholinergic activity may contribute to attentional mechanisms, adaptive response timing, or memory consolidation necessary for successful trace conditioning.

  12. Differential Acetylcholine Release in the Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus During Pavlovian Trace and Delay Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Flesher, M. Melissa; Butt, Allen E.; Kinney-Hurd, Brandee L.

    2011-01-01

    Pavlovian trace conditioning critically depends on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC), whereas delay conditioning does not depend on these brain structures. Given that the cholinergic basal forebrain system modulates activity in both the mPFC and HPC, it was reasoned that the level of acetylcholine (ACh) release in these regions would show distinct profiles during testing in trace and delay conditioning paradigms. To test this assumption, microdialysis probes were implanted unilaterally into the mPFC and HPC of rats that were pre-trained in appetitive trace and delay conditioning paradigms using different conditional stimuli in the two tasks. On the day of microdialysis testing, dialysate samples were collected during a quiet baseline interval before trials were initiated, and again during performance in separate blocks of trace and delay conditioning trials in each animal. ACh levels were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection techniques. Consistent with our hypothesis, results showed that ACh release in the mPFC was greater during trace conditioning than during delay conditioning. The level of ACh released during trace conditioning in the HPC was also greater than the levels observed during delay conditioning. While ACh efflux in both the mPFC and HPC selectively increased during trace conditioning, ACh levels in the mPFC during trace conditioning testing showed the greatest increases observed. These results demonstrate a dissociation in cholinergic activation of the mPFC and HPC during performance in trace but not delay appetitive conditioning, where this cholinergic activity may contribute to attentional mechanisms, adaptive response timing, or memory consolidation necessary for successful trace conditioning. PMID:21514394

  13. Phosphorus Release to Floodwater from Calcareous Surface Soils and Their Corresponding Subsurface Soils under Anaerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Jayarathne, P D K D; Kumaragamage, D; Indraratne, S; Flaten, D; Goltz, D

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced phosphorus (P) release from soils to overlying water under flooded, anaerobic conditions has been well documented for noncalcareous and surface soils, but little information is available for calcareous and subsurface soils. We compared the magnitude of P released from 12 calcareous surface soils and corresponding subsurface soils to overlying water under flooded, anaerobic conditions and examined the reasons for the differences. Surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) soils were packed into vessels and flooded for 8 wk. Soil redox potential and concentrations of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and total dissolved Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn in floodwater and pore water were measured weekly. Soil test P was significantly smaller in subsurface soils than in corresponding surface soils; thus, the P release to floodwater from subsurface soils was significantly less than from corresponding surface soils. Under anaerobic conditions, floodwater DRP concentration significantly increased in >80% of calcareous surface soils and in about 40% of subsurface soils. The increase in floodwater DRP concentration was 2- to 17-fold in surface soils but only 4- to 7-fold in subsurface soils. With time of flooding, molar ratios of Ca/P and Mg/P in floodwater increased, whereas Fe/P and Mn/P decreased, suggesting that resorption and/or reprecipitation of P took place involving Fe and Mn. Results indicate that P release to floodwater under anaerobic conditions was enhanced in most calcareous soils. Surface and subsurface calcareous soils in general behaved similarly in releasing P under flooded, anaerobic conditions, with concentrations released mainly governed by initial soil P concentrations. PMID:27380087

  14. Conditional Release Placements of Insanity Acquittees in Oregon: 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Novosad, David; Banfe, Shelley; Britton, Juliet; Bloom, Joseph D

    2016-03-01

    Between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2014, there was a large population (N = 200) of insanity acquittees placed on conditional release (CR) in the state of Oregon. This article looks at the demographic and system characteristics of this large group of individuals. The authors then focus on the initial housing placement and what happens to individuals after their release in relation to their housing placement. In Oregon, insanity acquittees are either conditionally released directly by the court or placed in the hospital prior to potential CR by a supervising board. In general, once CR occurs, individuals tend to stay in their initial placement without moving to less structured levels of care, raising concerns about transinstitutionalization. This is especially true for individuals released to the most structured living arrangement (secure residential treatment facility). Those individuals who are conditionally released to less structured settings have a higher rate of revocation back to the hospital. Those individuals who do move to less structured levels of care usually have longer hospital stays and start off in more structured levels of care to start their CR. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Conditional Release Placements of Insanity Acquittees in Oregon: 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Novosad, David; Banfe, Shelley; Britton, Juliet; Bloom, Joseph D

    2016-03-01

    Between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2014, there was a large population (N = 200) of insanity acquittees placed on conditional release (CR) in the state of Oregon. This article looks at the demographic and system characteristics of this large group of individuals. The authors then focus on the initial housing placement and what happens to individuals after their release in relation to their housing placement. In Oregon, insanity acquittees are either conditionally released directly by the court or placed in the hospital prior to potential CR by a supervising board. In general, once CR occurs, individuals tend to stay in their initial placement without moving to less structured levels of care, raising concerns about transinstitutionalization. This is especially true for individuals released to the most structured living arrangement (secure residential treatment facility). Those individuals who are conditionally released to less structured settings have a higher rate of revocation back to the hospital. Those individuals who do move to less structured levels of care usually have longer hospital stays and start off in more structured levels of care to start their CR. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26969885

  16. Myofascial Release as a Treatment for Orthopaedic Conditions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McKenney, Kristin; Elder, Amanda Sinclair; Elder, Craig; Hutchins, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To critically analyze published literature to determine the effectiveness of myofascial release therapy as a treatment for orthopaedic conditions. Data Sources: We searched the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Library, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), with key words myofascial release, myofascial release therapy, myofascial release treatment, musculoskeletal, and orthopedic. No date limitations were applied to the searches. Study Selection: Articles were selected based upon the use of the term myofascial release in the abstract or key words. Final selection was made by applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria to the full text. Studies were included if they were English-language, peer-reviewed studies on myofascial release for an orthopaedic condition in adult patients. Ten studies were eligible. Data Extraction: Data collected were number of participants, condition being treated, treatment used, control group, outcome measures and results. Studies were analyzed using the PEDro scale and the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine's Levels of Evidence Scale. Data Synthesis: Study scores on the PEDro scale ranged from 6 of 10 to 8 of 10. Based on the Levels of Evidence Scale, the case studies (n = 6) were of lower quality, with a rank of 4. Three of the 4 remaining studies were rated at 2b, and the final study was rated at 1b. Conclusions: The quality of studies was mixed, ranging from higher-quality experimental to lower-quality case studies. Overall, the studies had positive outcomes with myofascial release, but because of the low quality, few conclusions could be drawn. The studies in this review may serve as a good foundation for future randomized controlled trials. PMID:23725488

  17. Monitored conditional release of persons found not guilty by reason of insanity.

    PubMed

    Bloom, J D; Williams, M H; Bigelow, D A

    1991-04-01

    This article reviews the recent literature documenting changes that have taken place in the management and treatment of insanity defense acquittees with the development of conditional release and monitored community treatment. The review demonstrates that conditional release is particularly important as a means of balancing the protection of society with the treatment of insanity defense acquittees in the least restrictive environment. The review also highlights the development of community programs based on treatment models for the chronically mentally ill. In addition, monitored community treatment programs appear cost-effective when compared with hospital-based programs. These factors point to the development in the 1990s of program standards for the release of insanity defense acquittees.

  18. Diffusion modeling of fission product release during depressurized core conduction cooldown conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    A simple model for diffusion through the silicon carbide layer of TRISO particles is applied to the data for accident condition testing of fuel spheres for the High-Temperature Reactor program of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Categorization of sphere release of {sup 137}Cs based on fast neutron fluence permits predictions of release with an accuracy comparable to that of the US/FRG accident condition fuel performance model. Calculations are also performed for {sup 85}Kr, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 110m}Ag. Diffusion of cesium through SiC suggests that models of fuel failure should consider fuel performance during repeated accident condition thermal cycling. Microstructural considerations in models in fission product release are discussed. The neutron-induced segregation of silicon within the SiC structure is postulated as a mechanism for enhanced fission product release during accident conditions. An oxygen-enhanced SiC decomposition mechanism is also discussed. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. 78 FR 40545 - Notice of Intent to Release Certain Properties from All Terms, Conditions, Reservations and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ..., Reservations and Restrictions of a Quitclaim Deed Agreement Between the City of Orlando and the Federal... from the conditions, reservations, and restrictions as contained in a Quitclaim Deed agreement between the FAA and the City of Orlando, dated April 17, 1975. The release of property will allow the City...

  20. 42 CFR 484.11 - Condition of participation: Release of patient identifiable OASIS information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... identifiable OASIS information. 484.11 Section 484.11 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Administration § 484.11 Condition of participation: Release of patient identifiable OASIS information. The HHA... confidentiality of all patient identifiable information contained in the clinical record, including OASIS...

  1. 42 CFR 484.11 - Condition of participation: Release of patient identifiable OASIS information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... identifiable OASIS information. 484.11 Section 484.11 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Administration § 484.11 Condition of participation: Release of patient identifiable OASIS information. The HHA... confidentiality of all patient identifiable information contained in the clinical record, including OASIS...

  2. 42 CFR 484.11 - Condition of participation: Release of patient identifiable OASIS information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... identifiable OASIS information. 484.11 Section 484.11 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Administration § 484.11 Condition of participation: Release of patient identifiable OASIS information. The HHA... confidentiality of all patient identifiable information contained in the clinical record, including OASIS...

  3. 42 CFR 484.11 - Condition of participation: Release of patient identifiable OASIS information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... identifiable OASIS information. 484.11 Section 484.11 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Administration § 484.11 Condition of participation: Release of patient identifiable OASIS information. The HHA... confidentiality of all patient identifiable information contained in the clinical record, including OASIS...

  4. 42 CFR 484.11 - Condition of participation: Release of patient identifiable OASIS information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... identifiable OASIS information. 484.11 Section 484.11 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Administration § 484.11 Condition of participation: Release of patient identifiable OASIS information. The HHA... confidentiality of all patient identifiable information contained in the clinical record, including OASIS...

  5. Release of Pharmaceuticals under Reducing Conditions in a Wastewater-Irrigated Mexican Soil.

    PubMed

    Dalkmann, Philipp; Dresemann, Tim-Fabian; Siebe, Christina; Mansfeldt, Tim; Amelung, Wulf; Siemens, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Wastewater irrigation is often performed by flood irrigation, leading to changes in redox potential (Eh) of irrigated soils. In addition to soil organic matter, Fe-(hydr)oxides are important sorbents for pollutants, and biotransformation of pollutants can be accelerated under reducing conditions. Here, the influence of reducing conditions on the release of sorbed pharmaceuticals from soil and their potential accelerated dissipation was investigated in a microcosm study. Samples of a soil from the Mezquital Valley (Mexico) irrigated for 85 yr with untreated wastewater were incubated under oxidizing (Eh of 500 ± 20 mV), weakly reducing (Eh of 100 ± 20 mV), and moderately reducing (Eh of -100 ± 20 mV) soil conditions for 30 to 31 d. The concentrations of nine pharmaceuticals (bezafibrate, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, enrofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, and naproxen) were extracted via solid-phase extraction from soil slurries and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Low Eh did not lead to a release of formerly sorbed pharmaceuticals from the wastewater irrigated soil. High pH values (>8) of the examined soil resulting from denitrification under reducing conditions prevented the dissolution of Fe-(hydr)oxides and, hence, the potential release of pharmaceuticals. A trend of decreasing concentrations of sulfamethoxazole and bezafibrate with time under moderately reducing conditions supports previous findings of a transformation of these compounds under anaerobic conditions. PMID:25602209

  6. Cisplatin-Conjugated Porous Gelatin Particles: Assessment of Optimal Conditions for Binding and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Shinichi Nitta, Norihisa; Sonoda, Akinaga; Nitta-Seko, Ayumi; Tanaka, Toyohiko; Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2010-08-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the optimal conditions for binding cisplatin and porous gelatin particles (PGPs) and to establish in vivo drug release pharmacokinetics. PGPs were immersed in cisplatin solutions under different conditions: concentration, immersion time, and temperature. Thereafter, PGPs were washed in distilled water to remove uncombined cisplatin and were then freeze-dried. The platinum concentration (PC) in the PGPs was then measured. For the in vivo release test, 50 mg/kg of the cisplatin-conjugated PGPs was implanted subcutaneously in the abdominal region of two rabbits. PCs in the blood were measured at different time intervals. PCs significantly increased in direct proportion to the concentration and immersion time (p < 0.01). Although PC increased at higher solution temperature, it was not a linear progression. For the in vivo release test, platinum was released from cisplatin-conjugated PGPs after 1 day, and the peak PC was confirmed 2 days after implantation. Platinum in the blood was detected until 7 days after implantation in one rabbit and 15 days after administration in the other rabbit. Platinum binding with PGPs increased with a higher concentration of cisplatin solution at a higher temperature over a longer duration of time. Release of cisplatin from cisplatin-conjugated PGPs was confirmed in vivo.

  7. Predicting success on conditional release for insanity acquittees: regionalized versus nonregionalized hospital patients.

    PubMed

    Tellefsen, C; Cohen, M I; Silver, S B; Dougherty, C

    1992-01-01

    This research compared the outcomes of two cohorts of insanity acquittees: one group was treated solely in the maximum security state forensic hospital before their release to the community (nonregionalized) and the other group was treated at the state forensic hospital and transferred for further treatment at less secure state regional hospitals (regionalized). This research describes the outcome of a group of insanity acquittees (regionalized patients) never previously studied. The applicability of a prediction model based on earlier research of insanity acquittees was tested on the patients. Findings on four outcome indicators are reported: rearrests within five years after release, overall functioning in the community five years after release, rehospitalizations for mental illness, and successful completion of the terms of the five-year conditional release (nonrevocation). Discriminant analysis was performed on the four outcome variables. The model was found to accurately predict the four types of outcome from 69 percent to 94 percent accurately for the nonregionalized insanity acquittees and from 87.5 percent to 95.8 percent for the regionalized patients. This model is currently being adapted to classify patients into potential high- and low-risk groups at the time of conditional release for the purpose of determining the intensity of outpatient supervision.

  8. Photoacoustic detection of ethylene released by biological samples under stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Simona M.; Dumitras, Dan C.; Dutu, Doru C. A.

    1998-07-01

    A high sensitive photoacoustic system has been developed to monitor the ethylene released by mature tomatoes and wheat seeds during germination as a response of fast effects of mechanical and thermal stress. Under normal conditions of temperature and pressure, the coronet removal yielded a significant increase of ethylene emission as compared to the local wounding of tomato tissues. To determine the temperature influence on ethylene emission rates, both tomatoes and germinating wheat seeds were investigated at cold treatment (4 degree(s)C) and at room temperature (22 degree(s)C). Early changes in ethylene released after imbibition in connection with the physiological results of germination were also monitored.

  9. Hydrological conditions control in situ DOM retention and release along a Mediterranean river.

    PubMed

    Butturini, A; Guarch, A; Romaní, A M; Freixa, A; Amalfitano, S; Fazi, S; Ejarque, E

    2016-08-01

    Uncertainties exist regarding the magnitude of in situ dissolved organic matter (DOM) processing in lotic systems. In addition, little is known about the effects of extreme hydrological events on in-stream DOM retention or release during downriver transport. This study quantified the net in-stream retention/release efficiencies (η) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and its humic and protein-like fluorescent fractions along a Mediterranean river during drought, baseflow and flood conditions. High performance size exclusion chromatography was used to describe the apparent size distributions of the humic and protein-like DOM moieties. A snapshot mass balance allowed estimating the η values of DOC and humic and protein-like fractions. Significant DOM net retention (η < 0) was detected during the drought condition and the protein-like fraction was more retained than the humic-like fraction and bulk DOC. In addition, small substances were more efficiently retained than larger substances. DOC retention decreased under baseflow conditions, but it remained significant. The humic and protein-like net efficiencies exhibited high variability, but the net retention were not significant. From a longitudinal perspective, the entire fluvial corridor contributed net retention of DOC and humic and protein-like moieties net retention during drought condition. In contrast, net retention/release efficiencies exhibited spatial variability during baseflow condition. The flood preferentially mobilized large size DOM molecules and the fluvial corridor behaved as a homogeneous passive DOM (η = 0) conduit. This research highlights the relevance of hydrological extreme events on the magnitude of DOM retention/release mass balance and emphasizes the need to perform measurements during these conditions to quantify the impact of fluvial corridors on DOM fate and transport. PMID:27132197

  10. Hydrological conditions control in situ DOM retention and release along a Mediterranean river.

    PubMed

    Butturini, A; Guarch, A; Romaní, A M; Freixa, A; Amalfitano, S; Fazi, S; Ejarque, E

    2016-08-01

    Uncertainties exist regarding the magnitude of in situ dissolved organic matter (DOM) processing in lotic systems. In addition, little is known about the effects of extreme hydrological events on in-stream DOM retention or release during downriver transport. This study quantified the net in-stream retention/release efficiencies (η) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and its humic and protein-like fluorescent fractions along a Mediterranean river during drought, baseflow and flood conditions. High performance size exclusion chromatography was used to describe the apparent size distributions of the humic and protein-like DOM moieties. A snapshot mass balance allowed estimating the η values of DOC and humic and protein-like fractions. Significant DOM net retention (η < 0) was detected during the drought condition and the protein-like fraction was more retained than the humic-like fraction and bulk DOC. In addition, small substances were more efficiently retained than larger substances. DOC retention decreased under baseflow conditions, but it remained significant. The humic and protein-like net efficiencies exhibited high variability, but the net retention were not significant. From a longitudinal perspective, the entire fluvial corridor contributed net retention of DOC and humic and protein-like moieties net retention during drought condition. In contrast, net retention/release efficiencies exhibited spatial variability during baseflow condition. The flood preferentially mobilized large size DOM molecules and the fluvial corridor behaved as a homogeneous passive DOM (η = 0) conduit. This research highlights the relevance of hydrological extreme events on the magnitude of DOM retention/release mass balance and emphasizes the need to perform measurements during these conditions to quantify the impact of fluvial corridors on DOM fate and transport.

  11. Controlled release of volatiles under mild reaction conditions: from nature to everyday products.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds serve in nature as semiochemicals for communication between species, and are often used as flavors and fragrances in our everyday life. The quite limited longevity of olfactive perception has led to the development of pro-perfumes or pro-fragrances--ideally nonvolatile and odorless fragrance precursors which release the active volatiles by bond cleavage. Only a limited amount of reaction conditions, such as hydrolysis, temperature changes, as well as the action of light, oxygen, enzymes, or microorganisms, can be used to liberate the many different chemical functionalities. This Review describes the controlled chemical release of fragrances and discusses additional challenges such as precursor stability during product storage as well as some aspects concerning toxicity and biodegradability. As the same systems can be applied in different areas of research, the scope of this Review covers fragrance delivery as well as the controlled release of volatiles in general.

  12. Using Dynamic Risk to Enhance Conditional Release Decisions in Prisoners to Improve Their Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Serin, Ralph C; Gobeil, Renée; Lloyd, Caleb D; Chadwick, Nick; Wardrop, Kaitlyn; Hanby, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Advances in criminal risk assessment have increased sufficiently that inclusion of valid risk measures to anchor assessments is considered a best practice in release decision-making and community supervision by many paroling authorities and probation agencies. This article highlights how decision accuracy at several key stages of the offender's release and supervision process could be further enhanced by the inclusion of dynamic factors. In cases where the timing of release is discretionary and not legislated, the utilization of a validated decision framework can improve transparency and potentially reduce decision errors. In cases where release is by statute, there is still merit in using dynamic risk assessment and case analysis to inform the assignment of release conditions, thereby attending to re-entry and public safety considerations. Finally, preliminary results from a recent study are presented to highlight the fact that community supervision outcomes may be improved by incorporating changes in dynamic risk into case planning and risk management, although this work requires replication with larger populations reflecting diverse groups of offenders. Nonetheless, these decision strategies have implications for both resource allocation and client outcomes, as outlined here. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The review panel process: an algorithm for the conditional release of insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Barbara E; Thompson, John W

    2006-01-01

    The release of insanity acquittees requires making informed decisions regarding both the presence and severity of an individuals' mental illness and the dangerousness of these individuals. This study evaluated the usefulness of employing structured assessments of mental health and violence risk factors in the conditional release decision-making process. All persons found Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity at East Louisiana Mental Health System, Forensic Division who underwent a review panel between July 1, 1997 and July 1, 1999 were included in this study. The Classification and Regression Tree analysis was utilized to arrive at cutpoints that would optimize the predictive ability of the decision tree analysis. The results indicated that the Community Outpatient Treatment Readiness Profile score was the strongest predictor -- all patients receiving a score of 62 or greater on this scale were recommended to remain at the facility. When women were recommended for release, it was to civil facilities and with moderate levels of symptoms. For males with moderate symptoms, low PCL-R scores were associated with recommendations for release, whereas high scores were associated with recommendations for continued commitment. Our data suggests that algorithms may be useful to governing bodies when making release decisions. PMID:16386791

  14. The review panel process: an algorithm for the conditional release of insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Barbara E; Thompson, John W

    2006-01-01

    The release of insanity acquittees requires making informed decisions regarding both the presence and severity of an individuals' mental illness and the dangerousness of these individuals. This study evaluated the usefulness of employing structured assessments of mental health and violence risk factors in the conditional release decision-making process. All persons found Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity at East Louisiana Mental Health System, Forensic Division who underwent a review panel between July 1, 1997 and July 1, 1999 were included in this study. The Classification and Regression Tree analysis was utilized to arrive at cutpoints that would optimize the predictive ability of the decision tree analysis. The results indicated that the Community Outpatient Treatment Readiness Profile score was the strongest predictor -- all patients receiving a score of 62 or greater on this scale were recommended to remain at the facility. When women were recommended for release, it was to civil facilities and with moderate levels of symptoms. For males with moderate symptoms, low PCL-R scores were associated with recommendations for release, whereas high scores were associated with recommendations for continued commitment. Our data suggests that algorithms may be useful to governing bodies when making release decisions.

  15. Evaluating conditional release in not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees: a prospective follow-up study in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Vitacco, Michael J; Vauter, Rebecca; Erickson, Steven K; Ragatz, Laurie

    2014-08-01

    Detailed research on treatment and risk management approaches with not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees (NGRI) during their conditional release is needed as states increasingly use community-based services for these individuals. Grounded in case law, and supported by follow-up studies demonstrating low recidivism rates, states have been encouraged in their efforts to conditionally release NGRI acquittees. The authors evaluated a state-wide sample of 127 NGRI acquittees released into the community after spending a mean of 61.63 months (SD = 76.54) in the hospital. One hundred individuals were committed to the hospital for lengthier treatment (M hospital time = 77.23 months, SD = 79.84), but 27 individuals were released to the community after a relatively short hospital stay (M hospital time = 5.60 months, SD = 3.01). Regarding release, 96 individuals (75.6%) maintained their conditional release. After evaluating a host of demographic and standardized risk data, the following variables predicted revocation on conditional release: previous failure on conditional release, nonadherence with hospital treatment, dangerousness to others, and previous violent charges. A multivariate survival analysis determined criminal behavior and previous failure on conditional release predicted time to revocation. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of considering standardized risk variables in the community-based management of forensic patients. In addition, the data are supportive of continued attempts at moving insanity acquittees from the hospital to the community via conditional release.

  16. Evaluating conditional release in not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees: a prospective follow-up study in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Vitacco, Michael J; Vauter, Rebecca; Erickson, Steven K; Ragatz, Laurie

    2014-08-01

    Detailed research on treatment and risk management approaches with not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees (NGRI) during their conditional release is needed as states increasingly use community-based services for these individuals. Grounded in case law, and supported by follow-up studies demonstrating low recidivism rates, states have been encouraged in their efforts to conditionally release NGRI acquittees. The authors evaluated a state-wide sample of 127 NGRI acquittees released into the community after spending a mean of 61.63 months (SD = 76.54) in the hospital. One hundred individuals were committed to the hospital for lengthier treatment (M hospital time = 77.23 months, SD = 79.84), but 27 individuals were released to the community after a relatively short hospital stay (M hospital time = 5.60 months, SD = 3.01). Regarding release, 96 individuals (75.6%) maintained their conditional release. After evaluating a host of demographic and standardized risk data, the following variables predicted revocation on conditional release: previous failure on conditional release, nonadherence with hospital treatment, dangerousness to others, and previous violent charges. A multivariate survival analysis determined criminal behavior and previous failure on conditional release predicted time to revocation. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of considering standardized risk variables in the community-based management of forensic patients. In addition, the data are supportive of continued attempts at moving insanity acquittees from the hospital to the community via conditional release. PMID:24377912

  17. Music and Methamphetamine: Conditioned Cue-induced Increases in Locomotor Activity and Dopamine Release in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Polston, J.E.; Rubbinaccio, H.Y.; Morra, J.T.; Sell, E.M.; Glick, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between drugs of abuse and cues facilitate the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Although significant research has been done to elucidate the role that simple discriminative or discrete conditioned stimuli (e.g., a tone or a light) play in addiction, less is known about complex environmental cues. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of a musical conditioned stimulus by assessing locomotor activity and in vivo microdialysis. Two groups of rats were given non-contingent injections of methamphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) or vehicle and placed in standard conditioning chambers. During these conditioning sessions both groups were exposed to a continuous conditioned stimulus, in the form of a musical selection (“Four” by Miles Davis) played repeatedly for ninety minutes. After seven consecutive conditioning days subjects were given one day of rest, and subsequently tested for locomotor activity or dopamine release in the absence of drug while the musical conditioned stimulus was continually present. The brain regions examined included the basolateral amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex. The results show that music is an effective contextual conditioned stimulus, significantly increasing locomotor activity after repeated association with methamphetamine. Furthermore, this musical conditioned stimulus significantly increased extracellular dopamine levels in the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens. These findings support other evidence showing the importance of these brain regions in conditioned learning paradigms, and demonstrate that music is an effective conditioned stimulus warranting further investigation. PMID:21145911

  18. Commentary: Biases that affect the decision to conditionally release an insanity acquittee.

    PubMed

    Fox, Patrick K

    2008-01-01

    The care and management of hospitalized insanity acquittees can be quite challenging. As patients progress in treatment, clinicians must invariably address whether the patient is ready to be returned to the community, balancing the liberty interests of the acquittee with the protection of society. The process by which this determination is made is far from simple and involves review of clinical interview and collateral information, identification of indicators of outcome post-discharge, and the use of structured risk assessment instruments. The decision to release an acquittee conditionally is also influenced by an array of factors that emanate from within the clinician, within the institution, the mental health system, the courts, and the broader society. While such biases affect a clinician's objectivity, they are also a natural part of the evaluation process. Their identification is essential so that the degree to which such biases influence the conditional release decision can be more fully understood and addressed.

  19. Impact of the experimental conditions on drug release from parenteral depot systems: From negligible to significant.

    PubMed

    Delplace, C; Kreye, F; Klose, D; Danède, F; Descamps, M; Siepmann, J; Siepmann, F

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the experimental conditions on drug release measurements from parenteral depot systems. Frequently applied setups were used, including agitated and "non-agitated" flasks and tubes, flow-though cells as well as agarose gels. The bulk fluid volumes and flow rates were varied. Lipid implants (prepared by direct compression or melting & casting) as well as PLGA-based microparticles (prepared by O/W or W/O/W or S/O/W solvent extraction/evaporation methods) were studied. Theophylline, lidocaine, prilocaine, propranolol HCl, dexamethasone and ibuprofen were used as model drugs at different initial loadings. In all cases, the release medium was phosphate buffer pH 7.4, kept constant at 37°C. Particle size analysis, SEM, X-ray diffraction, DSC analysis and mathematical modeling were applied to better understand the observed phenomena. Interestingly, the importance of the impact of the experimental conditions ranged from negligible to significant, depending on the specific type of drug delivery system and setup. Both, lipid implants as well as PLGA-based microparticles can exhibit more or less sensitive/robust drug release patterns. The observed differences in sensitivity could partially be explained in a mechanistic way, but in many cases they are not yet fully understood. A thorough understanding of the underlying drug release mechanisms can be very helpful. If the devices are poorly characterized and treated as "black boxes", great care must be taken when drawing conclusions from in vitro drug release measurements.

  20. Knockdown of corticotropin-releasing factor 1 receptors in the ventral tegmental area enhances conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nicola A; Ganella, Despina E; Bathgate, Ross A D; Chen, Alon; Lawrence, Andrew J; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2016-09-01

    The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates the physiological and behavioural responses to stress. CRF receptors are highly expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), an important region for motivated behaviour. Therefore, we examined the role of CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1) in the VTA in conditioned fear, using a viral-mediated RNA interference approach. Following stereotaxic injection of a lentivirus that contained either shCRF-R1 or a control sequence, mice received tone-footshock pairings. Intra-VTA shCRF-R1 did not affect tone-elicited freezing during conditioning. Once conditioned fear was acquired, however, shCRF-R1 mice consistently showed stronger freezing to the tone even after extinction and reinstatement. These results implicate a novel role of VTA CRF-R1 in conditioned fear, and suggest how stress may modulate aversive learning and memory. PMID:27397862

  1. 41 CFR 102-37.465 - May a SASP modify or release any of the terms and conditions of donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... release any of the terms and conditions of donation? 102-37.465 Section 102-37.465 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Agencies, Service... SASP modify or release any of the terms and conditions of donation? You may alter or grant...

  2. 41 CFR 102-37.465 - May a SASP modify or release any of the terms and conditions of donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... release any of the terms and conditions of donation? 102-37.465 Section 102-37.465 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Agencies, Service... SASP modify or release any of the terms and conditions of donation? You may alter or grant...

  3. Freedom in paradise: quality of conditional release reports submitted to the Hawaii judiciary.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Annie H; Acklin, Marvin W; Fuger, Kristen; Gowensmith, W N; Ignacio, Lawrie A

    2011-01-01

    Annually thousands of insanity acquitees are released from mental hospitals when they are no longer determined to be dangerous. This research examined quality of post-acquittal Conditional Release (CR) reports submitted to the Hawaii Judiciary. Hawaii utilizes a "three panel" system for assessing trial felony competency, criminal responsibility, and conditional release, where typically two psychologists (one Department of Health and one community-based) and one community-based psychiatrist submit independent reports to the Court. One hundred fifty CR reports were rated using a 44-item report quality measure. Interrater reliability trials indicated good to excellent agreement between quality ratings. Overall level of report quality was poor regardless of examiners' professional discipline, employer, or board certification status. Concordance rates for CR opinions were poor. Level of agreement between the judicial determination and majority recommendations was also poor. Reasons for the poor quality and level of agreement are discussed with recommendations for report quality improvement, including standardization of procedures and use of forensic risk assessment instruments.

  4. Load release balance test under unstable conditions effectively discriminates between physically active and sedentary young adults.

    PubMed

    Zemková, E; Štefániková, G; Muyor, J M

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates test-retest reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the load release balance test under four varied conditions. Young, early and late middle-aged physically active and sedentary subjects performed the test over 2 testing sessions spaced 1week apart while standing on either (1) a stable or (2) an unstable surface with (3) eyes open (EO) and (4) eyes closed (EC), respectively. Results identified that test-retest reliability of parameters of the load release balance test was good to excellent, with high values of ICC (0.78-0.92) and low SEM (7.1%-10.7%). The peak and the time to peak posterior center of pressure (CoP) displacement were significantly lower in physically active as compared to sedentary young adults (21.6% and 21.0%) and early middle-aged adults (22.0% and 20.9%) while standing on a foam surface with EO, and in late middle-aged adults on both unstable (25.6% and 24.5%) and stable support surfaces with EO (20.4% and 20.0%). The area under the ROC curve >0.80 for these variables indicates good discriminatory accuracy. Thus, these variables of the load release balance test measured under unstable conditions have the ability to differentiate between groups of physically active and sedentary adults as early as from 19years of age. PMID:27203382

  5. Artificial neural network modeling for fission gas release in LWR UO 2 fuel under RIA conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Yang-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Yong; Lee, Byung-Ho; Tahk, Young-Wook; Song, Kun-Woo

    2010-10-01

    A fission gas release (FGR) model was developed by using an artificial neural network method to predict fission gas release in UO 2 fuel under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions. Based on the test data obtained in the CABRI test reactor and nuclear safety research reactor, the model takes into account the effect of the five parameters: pellet average burnup, peak fuel enthalpy, the ratio of peak fuel enthalpy to pulse width, fission gas release during base-irradiation, and grain size of a fuel pellet. The parametric study of the model, producing a physically reasonable trend of FGR for each parameter, shows that the pellet average burnup and the ratio of peak fuel enthalpy to pulse width are two of the most important parameters. Depending on the combination of input values for the five parameters, the application of the model to a fuel rod under typical RIA conditions of light water reactor produces 1.7-14.0% of FGR for the pellet average burnup ranging from 20 to 70 MW d/kg U.

  6. The role of adverse weather conditions in acute releases of hazardous substances, Texas, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Borders, Julie; Villanacci, John; Harris, Richard; Samples-Ruiz, Melissa

    2004-11-11

    High winds, flooding, lightning, and other phenomena associated with adverse weather can cause power failures, equipment damage, and process upsets resulting in chemical releases. Of the 5000 events in Texas that were reported to the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system during 2000-2001, adverse weather conditions contributed to 110 (2%) events. Rain was the most frequent adverse weather condition. Most events to which adverse weather conditions contributed occurred during June or September; these months correspond with the high temperature and hurricane season in Texas. Most events occurred in coastal counties with large numbers of industrial facilities. Three industries reported the majority of events: industrial and miscellaneous chemicals manufacturing; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resin manufacturing. Power failures were associated more often with adverse weather-related events than with nonweather-related events. Releases occurred most commonly from ancillary process equipment and process vessels. Events associated with adverse weather-related conditions involved nine victims. System and process design improvements, such as improved backup power generation and redesigned secondary containment systems, could be explored to reduce the potential negative effects of severe weather.

  7. Chromium Release from a COPR-Contaminated Soil at Varying Water Content and Redox Conditions.

    PubMed

    Matern, Katrin; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Many soils in the region of Kanpur, North India, are heavily affected by the leather industry and its upstream supplier sector, as indicated by elevated chromium (Cr) contents. Under reducing conditions-for instance, at water saturation after monsoon rain or flood irrigation-the dynamic and species distribution of Cr may be affected due to changes in redox potential (E). In this study, the influence of E on the speciation and release of Cr from a contaminated agricultural soil was investigated. A soil sample that was affected by hyperalkaline leachate from chromite ore processing residue, was taken and packed in soil columns, and subjected to a saturation-drainage-saturation cycle. After initial water saturation, the E dropped slowly to minimum values of around ‒100 mV (calculated to pH 7), while E was controlled by CrO/CrO(s), or CrO/(Fe,Cr)OOH redox couples. Soil drainage resulted in a quick return to oxidizing conditions; i.e., E > 300 mV. The Cr species distribution and release showed a clear trend with E. At the beginning of the experiment, under oxidizing and weakly reducing conditions (E range from >100 to 300 mV), Cr(VI) was released in particular. However, under moderately reducing conditions (E range from 100 to -100 mV), Cr was gradually immobilized and irreversible sequestered via reductive precipitation. The results presented in this study provide an improved understanding of the mobility of Cr(VI) in contaminated soils at varying water contents, which is essential for the evaluation of environmental risks in this region. PMID:27380074

  8. Aqueous Dissolution of Silver Iodide and Associated Iodine Release Under Reducing Conditions with Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Yaohiro Inagaki; Toshitaka Imamura; Kazuya Idemitsu; Tatsumi Arima; Osamu Kato; Hidekazu Asano; Tsutomu Nishimura

    2007-07-01

    Aqueous dissolution tests of silver iodide (AgI) were performed in Na{sub 2}S solutions in order to evaluate, empirically, dissolution of AgI to release iodine under reducing conditions with sulfide. The results indicated that AgI dissolves to release iodine being controlled by mainly precipitation of Ag{sub 2}S. However, the dissolution of AgI can be depressed to proceed, and the thermodynamic equilibrium cannot be attained easily. Solid phase analysis for the reacted AgI suggested that a thin layer of solid silver forming at AgI surface may evolve to be protective against transportation of reactant species, which can lead to the depression in the dissolution of AgI. (authors)

  9. Optimised process and formulation conditions for extended release dry polymer powder-coated pellets.

    PubMed

    Terebesi, Ildikó; Bodmeier, Roland

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the film formation and permeability characteristics of extended release ethylcellulose coatings prepared by dry polymer powder coating for the release of drugs of varying solubility. Ethylcellulose (7 and 10 cp viscosity grades) and Eudragit(R) RS were used for dry powder coating of pellets in a fluidised bed ball coater. Pre-plasticised ethylcellulose powder was prepared by spray-drying aqueous ethylcellulose dispersions (Surelease(R) and Aquacoat(R)) or by hot melt extrusion/cryogenic grinding of plasticised ethylcellulose. Chlorpheniramine maleate and theophylline were used as model drugs of different solubilities. The film formation process, polymeric films and coated pellets were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dissolution testing. Film formation and extended drug release was achieved with ethylcellulose, a polymer with a high glass transition temperature (T(g)) without the use of water, which is usually required in dry powder coating. DMA-measurements revealed that plasticised ethylcellulose had a modulus of elasticity (E') similar to the low T(g) Eudragit(R) RS. With increasing plasticiser concentration, the T(g) of ethylcellulose was reduced and the mechanical properties improved, thus facilitating coalescence of the polymer particles. SEM-pictures revealed the formation of a dense, homogeneous film. The lower viscosity grade ethylcellulose (7 cp) resulted in better film formation than the higher viscosity grade (10 cp) and required less stringent curing conditions. Successful extended release ethylcellulose coatings were also obtained by coating with pre-plasticised spray-dried ethylcellulose powders as an alternative to the separate application of pure ethylcellulose powder and plasticiser. The permeability of the extended release coating could be controlled by using powder blends of ethylcellulose with the

  10. Decoupling of arsenic and iron release from ferrihydrite suspension under reducing conditions: a biogeochemical model

    PubMed Central

    Burnol, André; Garrido, Francis; Baranger, Philippe; Joulian, Catherine; Dictor, Marie-Christine; Bodénan, Françoise; Morin, Guillaume; Charlet, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    High levels of arsenic in groundwater and drinking water are a major health problem. Although the processes controlling the release of As are still not well known, the reductive dissolution of As-rich Fe oxyhydroxides has so far been a favorite hypothesis. Decoupling between arsenic and iron redox transformations has been experimentally demonstrated, but not quantitatively interpreted. Here, we report on incubation batch experiments run with As(V) sorbed on, or co-precipitated with, 2-line ferrihydrite. The biotic and abiotic processes of As release were investigated by using wet chemistry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption and genomic techniques. The incubation experiments were carried out with a phosphate-rich growth medium and a community of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria under strict anoxic conditions for two months. During the first month, the release of Fe(II) in the aqueous phase amounted to only 3% to 10% of the total initial solid Fe concentration, whilst the total aqueous As remained almost constant after an initial exchange with phosphate ions. During the second month, the aqueous Fe(II) concentration remained constant, or even decreased, whereas the total quantity of As released to the solution accounted for 14% to 45% of the total initial solid As concentration. At the end of the incubation, the aqueous-phase arsenic was present predominately as As(III) whilst X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated that more than 70% of the solid-phase arsenic was present as As(V). X-ray diffraction revealed vivianite Fe(II)3(PO4)2.8H2O in some of the experiments. A biogeochemical model was then developed to simulate these aqueous- and solid-phase results. The two main conclusions drawn from the model are that (1) As(V) is not reduced during the first incubation month with high Eh values, but rather re-adsorbed onto the ferrihydrite surface, and this state remains until arsenic reduction is energetically more favorable than iron reduction, and (2) the release of As

  11. Measuring the release of organic contaminants from melting snow under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    2006-05-15

    The release of organic contaminants from a melting snowpack may result in temporary concentration peaks in receiving water bodies and respective pulse exposure of aquatic organisms. It is thus of considerable interest to gain a mechanistic and quantitative understanding of the processes determining the dynamic behavior of organic chemicals during snowmelt. Uniformly structured and contaminated snow was produced with the help of a newly designed snow gun and exposed to predetermined temperature conditions in a temperature-controlled cold room. The dry density and liquid water content during four freeze-thaw cycles was recorded continuously at different layers within the snowpack using time domain reflectometry, providing information on meltwater production and propagation as well as snow metamorphism. Fractionated meltwater samples were filtered and the dissolved and particle phase analyzed for five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The distribution of the PAHs between the dissolved and particulate fractions of the meltwater was strongly related to their hydrophobicity. Particle-bound PAHs were released late during the snowmelt, whereas PAHs in the dissolved phase were released uniformly during a two day melting period. Even though conductivity measurements indicated a preferential early elution of ions in the first meltwater fractions, no such "first flush" behavior was observed for soluble PAH. The developed laboratory-based approach opens up for the first time the possibility of reproducible experiments on organic contaminant behavior in snow. Future experiments will explore, in detail, how the properties of organic chemicals, the physical and chemical properties of the snowpack, and the temperature variations before and during the time of melting interact to determine the timing of chemical release from a snowpack. PMID:16749700

  12. Transit losses and traveltimes for water-supply releases Marion Lake during drought conditions, Cottonwood River, east-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, P.R.; Hart, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A streamflow routing model was used to calculate the transit losses and traveltimes. Channel and aquifer characteristics, and the model control parameters, were estimated from available data and then verified to the extent possible by comparing model simulated streamflow to observed streamflow at streamflow gaging stations. Transit losses and traveltimes for varying reservoir release rates and durations then were simulated for two different antecedent streamflow (drought) conditions. For the severe-drought antecedent-streamflow condition, it was assumed that only the downstream water use requirement would be released from the reservoir. For a less severe drought (LSD) antecedent streamflow condition, it was assumed than any releases from Marion Lake for water supply use downstream, would be in addition to a nominal dry weather release of 5 cu ft/sec. Water supply release rates of 10 and 25 cu ft/sec for the severe drought condition and 5, 10, and 25 cu ft/sec for the less severe drought condition were simulated for periods of 28 and 183 days commencing on July 1. Transit losses for the severe drought condition for all reservoir release rates and durations ranged from 12% to 78% of the maximum downstream flow rate and from 27% to 91% of the total volume of reservoir storage released. For the LSD condition, transit losses ranged from 7% to 29% of the maximum downstream flow rate and from 10% to 48% of the total volume of release. The 183-day releases had larger total transit losses, but losses on a percentage basis were less than the losses for the 28-day release period for both antecedent streamflow conditions. Traveltimes to full response (80% of the maximum downstream flow rate), however, showed considerable variation. For the release of 5 cu ft/sec during LSD conditions, base flow exceeded 80% of the maximum flow rate near the confluence; the traveltime to full response was undefined for those simulations. For the releases of 10 and 25 cu ft/sec during the same

  13. [Ammonia volatilization of slow release compound fertilizer in different soils water conditions].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-feng; Wang, Zheng-yin; You, Yuan; Li, Jing-chao

    2010-08-01

    By using venting method incubation experiment, we studied the ammonia volatilization and kinetics characteristics of uncoated slowed release compound fertilizer (SRF) under different soil water conditions and the growth and nitrogen utilization efficiency of rice in pot experiment. Results indicated that the ammonia volatilization of SRF under waterflooding reached the peak ahead of 3-4 days compared to the moist treatment. The peak and accumulation of ammonia volatilization in the waterflooding treatments were higher than those under the moist condition. SRF could significantly reduce total ammonia volatilization compared to the common compound fertilizer (CCF), reduced by 50.6% and 22.8% in the moist treatment and reduced by 24.2% and 10.4% in the waterflooding treatment,but the loss of ammonia volatilization of SRF was higher significantly than that of the coated fertilizer (CRF). Ammonia volatilization increased with the increasing of fertilizer application. The dynamics of ammonia volatilization of SRF could be quantitatively described with three equations: the first order kinetics equation, Elovich equation and parabola equation. Compared to moist condition, the biomass of rice plant in SRF, CCF and SRF treatments increased by 67.86%, 78.25% and 48.75%, and nitrogen utilization efficiency increased by 57.73%, 80.70% and 12.06% under waterflooding condition, respectively. Comparing with CCF, nitrogen utilization efficiency in SRF treatment improved by 59.10% and 10.40% under two soil moisture conditions. SRF could reduce ammonia volatilization and improve biomass and nitrogen utilization efficiency.

  14. Survival, recovery and microcystin release of Microcystis aeruginosa in cold or dark condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi; Gan, Nanqin; Liu, Jin; Zheng, Lingling; Li, Lin; Song, Lirong

    2016-05-01

    Microcystis often dominates phytoplankton in eutrophic lakes and must survive a long period of cold or dark conditions. However, the survival strategies of Microcystis to withstand cold or dark stress are less well known. In this study, we conducted experiments on the responses of two toxic Microcystis aeruginosa strains (FACHB-905 and FACHB-915) and their microcystin release in conditions of low temperature (15°C or 4°C, with illumination) or darkness, and subsequent recovery in standard conditions (25°C with illumination). On exposure to 15°C, a small decrease in cell viability was observed, but the cell number increased gradually, suggesting that M. aeruginosa FACHB-905 and FACHB-915 cells seem in general tolerant in 15°C. Interestingly, our results show that a higher carotenoid content and microcystin release potentially enhance the fi tness of surviving cells at 15°C. M. aeruginosa cells exposed to lower temperature light stress (4°C) did not completely lose viability and retained the ability to reinitiate growth. In darkness, the maximum quantum yield (F v/F m) and the maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax) values and cell viability of M. aeruginosa cells gradually decreased with time. During the recovery period, the photosynthetic effi ciency of M. aeruginosa reverted to the normal level. Additionally, M. aeruginosa FACHB-905 and FACHB-915 exposed to low temperature had increased caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation, which suggests the occurrence of a type of cell death in M. aeruginosa cells under cold stress similar to programmed cell death. Overall, our fi ndings could confer certain advantages on the Microcystis for surviving cold or dark conditions encountered in the annual cycle, and help explain its repeated occurrence in water blooms in large and shallow lakes.

  15. Carbon dioxide and ethanol release from champagne glasses, under standard tasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Beaumont, Fabien; Bourget, Marielle; Pron, Hervé; Parvitte, Bertrand; Zéninari, Virginie; Polidori, Guillaume; Cilindre, Clara

    2012-01-01

    A simple glass of champagne or sparkling wine may seem like the acme of frivolity to most people, but in fact, it may rather be considered as a fantastic playground for any fluid physicist or physicochemist. In this chapter, results obtained concerning various steps where the CO₂ molecule plays a role (from its ingestion in the liquid phase during the fermentation process to its progressive release in the headspace above the tasting glass) are gathered and synthesized to propose a self-consistent and global overview of how gaseous and dissolved CO₂ impact champagne and sparkling wine science. Some recent investigations, conducted through laser tomography techniques, on ascending bubbles and ascending-bubble-driven flow patterns found in champagne glasses are reported, which illustrate the fine interplay between ascending bubbles and the fluid around under standard tasting conditions. The simultaneous monitoring of gaseous CO₂ and ethanol in the headspace of both a flute and a coupe filled with champagne was reported, depending on whether or not the glass shows effervescence. Both gaseous CO₂ and ethanol were found to be enhanced by the presence of ascending bubbles, thus confirming the close link between ascending bubbles, ascending-bubble-driven flow patterns, and the release of gaseous CO₂ and volatile organic compounds. PMID:23034119

  16. Carbon dioxide and ethanol release from champagne glasses, under standard tasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Beaumont, Fabien; Bourget, Marielle; Pron, Hervé; Parvitte, Bertrand; Zéninari, Virginie; Polidori, Guillaume; Cilindre, Clara

    2012-01-01

    A simple glass of champagne or sparkling wine may seem like the acme of frivolity to most people, but in fact, it may rather be considered as a fantastic playground for any fluid physicist or physicochemist. In this chapter, results obtained concerning various steps where the CO₂ molecule plays a role (from its ingestion in the liquid phase during the fermentation process to its progressive release in the headspace above the tasting glass) are gathered and synthesized to propose a self-consistent and global overview of how gaseous and dissolved CO₂ impact champagne and sparkling wine science. Some recent investigations, conducted through laser tomography techniques, on ascending bubbles and ascending-bubble-driven flow patterns found in champagne glasses are reported, which illustrate the fine interplay between ascending bubbles and the fluid around under standard tasting conditions. The simultaneous monitoring of gaseous CO₂ and ethanol in the headspace of both a flute and a coupe filled with champagne was reported, depending on whether or not the glass shows effervescence. Both gaseous CO₂ and ethanol were found to be enhanced by the presence of ascending bubbles, thus confirming the close link between ascending bubbles, ascending-bubble-driven flow patterns, and the release of gaseous CO₂ and volatile organic compounds.

  17. Cellulase activity and dissolved organic carbon release from lignocellulose macrophyte-derived in four trophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Flávia; Cunha-Santino, Marcela Bianchessi; Bianchini, Irineu

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of lignocellulose macrophyte-derived for the energy flux in aquatic ecosystems and the nutrient concentrations as a function of force which influences the decomposition process, this study aims to relate the enzymatic activity and lignocellulose hydrolysis in different trophic statuses. Water samples and two macrophyte species were collected from the littoral zone of a subtropical Brazilian Reservoir. A lignocellulosic matrix was obtained using aqueous extraction of dried plant material (≈40°C). Incubations for decomposition of the lignocellulosic matrix were prepared using lignocelluloses, inoculums and filtered water simulating different trophic statuses with the same N:P ratio. The particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC, respectively) were quantified, the cellulase enzymatic activity was measured by releasing reducing sugars and immobilized carbon was analyzed by filtration. During the cellulose degradation indicated by the cellulase activity, the dissolved organic carbon daily rate and enzyme activity increased. It was related to a fast hydrolysable fraction of cellulose that contributed to short-term carbon immobilization (ca. 10 days). After approximately 20 days, the dissolved organic carbon and enzyme activity were inversely correlated suggesting that the respiration of microorganisms was responsible for carbon mineralization. Cellulose was an important resource in low nutrient conditions (oligotrophic). However, the detritus quality played a major role in the lignocelluloses degradation (i.e., enzyme activity) and carbon release. PMID:26991278

  18. Development of slow release formulations of β-carotene employing amphiphilic polymers and their release kinetics study in water and different pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Braj Bhushan; Shakil, Najam Akhtar; Kumar, Jitendra; Walia, Suresh; Kar, Abhijit

    2015-12-01

    β-carotene, a potent antioxidant, has been encapsulated and slow release (SR) formulations were prepared using laboratory synthesized poly(ethylene glycols) (PEGs) based functionalized amphiphilic copolymers. Encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of the developed formulations were determined which ranged from 22.60 to 28.08 % and 2.2 to 2.8 % respectively. The release kinetics of β-carotene from developed formulations in water revealed increased solubility and prolonged stability of β-carotene. The formulations were further subjected to different pH conditions (viz., 1.8, 6.8 and 7.8) corresponding to human gastrointestinal tract to study the effect of pH on the release of β-carotene. The diffusion exponent (n values) ranged from the 0.1540 to 0.2342 for developed formulation. The results showed that developed slow release formulations were unaffected by the highly acidic conditions referring to the gastric environment of human body. However, the release of β-carotene was high at pH 7.8 and slightly higher at pH 6.8. PMID:26604379

  19. [Ammonia volatilization of slow release compound fertilizer in different soils water conditions].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-feng; Wang, Zheng-yin; You, Yuan; Li, Jing-chao

    2010-08-01

    By using venting method incubation experiment, we studied the ammonia volatilization and kinetics characteristics of uncoated slowed release compound fertilizer (SRF) under different soil water conditions and the growth and nitrogen utilization efficiency of rice in pot experiment. Results indicated that the ammonia volatilization of SRF under waterflooding reached the peak ahead of 3-4 days compared to the moist treatment. The peak and accumulation of ammonia volatilization in the waterflooding treatments were higher than those under the moist condition. SRF could significantly reduce total ammonia volatilization compared to the common compound fertilizer (CCF), reduced by 50.6% and 22.8% in the moist treatment and reduced by 24.2% and 10.4% in the waterflooding treatment,but the loss of ammonia volatilization of SRF was higher significantly than that of the coated fertilizer (CRF). Ammonia volatilization increased with the increasing of fertilizer application. The dynamics of ammonia volatilization of SRF could be quantitatively described with three equations: the first order kinetics equation, Elovich equation and parabola equation. Compared to moist condition, the biomass of rice plant in SRF, CCF and SRF treatments increased by 67.86%, 78.25% and 48.75%, and nitrogen utilization efficiency increased by 57.73%, 80.70% and 12.06% under waterflooding condition, respectively. Comparing with CCF, nitrogen utilization efficiency in SRF treatment improved by 59.10% and 10.40% under two soil moisture conditions. SRF could reduce ammonia volatilization and improve biomass and nitrogen utilization efficiency. PMID:21090317

  20. The Relationship Between Fire Energy Release and Weather Conditions in Russian Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvetsov, E.

    2012-12-01

    Active fire remote sensing performed using spaceborne systems, such as MODIS radiometer aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, provides observations of fire locations, as well as an estimate of the amount of energy released by the fire (Fire Radiative Power). Such measures of fire radiative power (FRP) provide information on fireline heat release intensity and on the amount and rate of biomass combustion in the large scale. Biomass combustion rate is strongly related to fuel moisture and therefore to weather conditions. The correlation analysis of fire radiative power and weather fire danger was performed for the territory of Siberia. The measurements were made during stable anticyclons which lead to severe drought that caused extreme fire behavior. Weather conditions were characterized using weather fire danger indices. The measurements of FRP were performed using MODIS instrument and weather fire danger indices were calculated using weather stations data. The analysis was performed for several Siberian regions mostly liable to fires. Weather fire danger was characterized by Russian fire danger indices and using Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Only large fires having the final size of more than 500 ha were focused in this study. For the most weather stations it was rather good agreement between the fire danger indices and the measured fire radiative power for the most of the fires. For the weather stations considered the following weather indices had the best correlation with measured FRP values: Russian PV-1 index and Canadian DMC, DC and BUI indices. A regression model was formulated to characterize the relationship between wildfire radiative power and fire danger indices.However, it was found that the relationships have regional specificity and none of these indices can be considered as universal.

  1. Mobilization and Release of colloidal Carbon from a Soil Column Under Redox Oscillation Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsar, M. Z.; Jin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM), the most mobile form of carbon (C), strongly influences the cycling, distribution and behavior of C in soil. In wetlands, the reductive dissolution of iron and manganese oxy-hydroxides releases large quantities of DOM into the soil solution. The objective of this study is to quantify the changes in aqueous organic carbon concentration in different sized fractions induced by reduction of iron and increase in pH. Twenty four cm long soil columns were prepared. Columns were run under oxic (as control) and anoxic conditions. Two platinum redox probes were inserted at 10 and 17 cm depths from the soil surface to monitor the redox status of the column. Anoxic and oxic conditions were maintained by flushing with either nitrogen or oxygen gas through the soil. No additional organic sources were added. After 35 days of anoxic environment, column leachate samples were separated by differential centrifugation into five colloidal sized fractions (<450 nm, <220 nm, <100 nm, <50 nm and <2.3 nm). Immediately after the 1st reduction half cycle, the leachate samples were collected inside the glove box and the soil columns were flushed with oxygen to prepare for 2nd reduction half cycle. After 1st reduction half cycle, the pH, ionic strength and aqueous (Fe2+) concentration of the column extracts were increased whereas the Eh value was decreased. The range of pH, Eh, ionic strength and concentration of Fe2+ was 6.38 to 6.91, -219 to -275 mV, 13.74 to 18.84 mM and 1.8 to 3.41 mg L-1, respectively. Following the anoxic incubation, the total desorbed C was increased up to 139 mg L-1. The distribution of C across the five particle size fractions was 3.68-11.73% (> 450 nm), 0.59-5.12% (450-220 nm), 0.45-4.91% (220-100 nm), 0.18-2.91% (100-50 nm), 15.48-35.23% (50 nm - 2.3 nm) and 49.15-63.94% (<2.3 nm). The preliminary results confirmed the release of more nanoparticulate (50-2.3 nm) and truly dissolved (<2.3 nm) organic matter from the anoxic soil column

  2. Radionuclide release from spent fuel under geologic disposal conditions: An overview of experimental and theoretical work through 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, P.W.; Simonson, S.A.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents an overview of experimental and theoretical work on radionuclide release from spent fuel and uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) under geologic disposal conditions. The purpose of the report is to provide a source book of information that can be used to develop models that describe radionuclide release from spent fuel waste packages. Modeling activities of this nature will be conducted within the Waste Package Program (WPP) of the Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP). The topics discussed include experimental methods for investigating radionuclide release, how results have been reported from radionuclide release experiments, theoretical studies of UO/sub 2/ and actinide solubility, results of experimental studies of radionuclide release from spent fuel and UO/sub 2/ (i.e., the effects of different variables on radionuclide release), characteristics of spent fuel pertinent to radionuclide release, and status of modeling of radionuclide release from spent fuel. Appendix A presents tables of data from spent fuel radionuclide release experiments. These data have been digitized from graphs that appear in the literature. An annotated bibliography of literature on spent fuel characterization is provided in Appendix B.

  3. Factors associated with the conditional release of persons acquitted by reason of insanity: a decision tree approach.

    PubMed

    Callahan, L A; Silver, E

    1998-04-01

    Most NGRI (not guilty by reason of insanity) acquitties are hospitalized for some period of time following acquittal, which raises the question of when an individual can be safely released into the community. The conditional release (CR) of persons acquitted by reason of insanity, therefore, provokes the question of public safety. This study examines the CR systems in four states--Connecticut, Maryland, New York, and Ohio. A study sample of 529 persons acquitted as NGRI from 1985 to 1987 was followed up for at least five years to determine who is conditionally released. Following a description of the CR systems, findings suggestive of the role of dangerousness and diagnosis as predictors of CR are presented. Personal characteristics are also significant factors in predicting who will be released. The length of hospitalization for this population and other descriptive factors such as history of hospitalization, arrests, substance abuse, family violence, and living arrangements are also addressed.

  4. What Factors Are Related to Success on Conditional Release/Discharge? Findings from the New Orleans Forensic Aftercare Clinic: 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Manguno-Mire, Gina M.; Coffman, Kelly L.; DeLand, Sarah M.; Thompson, John W.; Myers, Leann

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the empirically based factors that predicted success on conditional release among a sample of individuals conditionally discharged in Louisiana. Not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees and individuals on conditional release/discharge for incompetency to stand trial were included in the study. Success on conditional release was defined as maintenance of conditional release during the study period. Recidivism (arrest on new charges) and incidents were empirically evaluated. Success on conditional release was maintained in over 70% of individuals. Recidivism was low, with only five arrests on new charges. Success on conditional release was predicted by financial resources, not having a personality disorder, and having fewer total incidents in the program. After controlling for the influence of other variables, having an incident on conditional release was predicted by a substance use diagnosis and being released from jail. Individuals conditionally released from jail showed fewer number of days to first incident (67 vs. 575 days) compared with individuals discharged from the hospital. These data provide support for the successful management of forensic patients in the community via conditional release, although they highlight specific factors that should be considered when developing community-based release programming. Conditional release programs should consider empirical factors in the development of risk assessment and risk management approaches to improve successful maintenance of community-based forensic treatment alternatives. PMID:25328070

  5. What factors are related to success on conditional release/discharge? Findings from the New Orleans forensic aftercare clinic: 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Manguno-Mire, Gina M; Coffman, Kelly L; DeLand, Sarah M; Thompson, John W; Myers, Leann

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the empirically based factors that predicted success on conditional release among a sample of individuals conditionally discharged in Louisiana. Not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees and individuals on conditional release/discharge for incompetency to stand trial were included in the study. Success on conditional release was defined as maintenance of conditional release during the study period. Recidivism (arrest on new charges) and incidents were empirically evaluated. Success on conditional release was maintained in over 70% of individuals. Recidivism was low, with only five arrests on new charges. Success on conditional release was predicted by financial resources, not having a personality disorder, and having fewer total incidents in the program. After controlling for the influence of other variables, having an incident on conditional release was predicted by a substance use diagnosis and being released from jail. Individuals conditionally released from jail showed fewer number of days to first incident (67 vs. 575 days) compared with individuals discharged from the hospital. These data provide support for the successful management of forensic patients in the community via conditional release, although they highlight specific factors that should be considered when developing community-based release programming. Conditional release programs should consider empirical factors in the development of risk assessment and risk management approaches to improve successful maintenance of community-based forensic treatment alternatives.

  6. What factors are related to success on conditional release/discharge? Findings from the New Orleans forensic aftercare clinic: 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Manguno-Mire, Gina M; Coffman, Kelly L; DeLand, Sarah M; Thompson, John W; Myers, Leann

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the empirically based factors that predicted success on conditional release among a sample of individuals conditionally discharged in Louisiana. Not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees and individuals on conditional release/discharge for incompetency to stand trial were included in the study. Success on conditional release was defined as maintenance of conditional release during the study period. Recidivism (arrest on new charges) and incidents were empirically evaluated. Success on conditional release was maintained in over 70% of individuals. Recidivism was low, with only five arrests on new charges. Success on conditional release was predicted by financial resources, not having a personality disorder, and having fewer total incidents in the program. After controlling for the influence of other variables, having an incident on conditional release was predicted by a substance use diagnosis and being released from jail. Individuals conditionally released from jail showed fewer number of days to first incident (67 vs. 575 days) compared with individuals discharged from the hospital. These data provide support for the successful management of forensic patients in the community via conditional release, although they highlight specific factors that should be considered when developing community-based release programming. Conditional release programs should consider empirical factors in the development of risk assessment and risk management approaches to improve successful maintenance of community-based forensic treatment alternatives. PMID:25328070

  7. The conditional release of insanity acquittees: three decades of decision-making.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Barbara E; Scott, Charles L; Busse, David; Andrade, Felecia; Zozaya, Michelle; Quanbeck, Cameron D

    2008-01-01

    The problem with the practical application of decision-making regarding release of mentally ill defenders lies in the inherently ambiguous definitions of mental illness and dangerousness, both of which are necessary for the continued commitment of insanity acquittees. In this study, we examined how clinicians make release decisions in a forensic facility, with particular attention paid to how such decision-making may have changed over time. Records were reviewed to determine documented criteria indicating readiness for release. The results indicated that compliance and treatment response were the primary reasons that the patients were judged ready for release. In addition, increasing attention to the use of substances as a risk factor was evident in the records, with substantially more documentation found in the most recent decade. Our data suggest that clinicians view three concerns to be of primary import when making release decisions: responsiveness to and compliance with the treatment, substance use, and risk of violence.

  8. In-situ monitoring of drug release from therapeutic eluting polyelectrolyte multilayers under static and dynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fei; Min, Jouha; Kanka, Jiri; Hammond, Paula T.; Du, Henry

    2015-05-01

    The release profiles of gentamicin sulfate (GS) from [chitosan (CHI)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/GS/PAA]n polyelectrolyte multilayers were investigated in situ using an innovative lab-on-fiber (LOF) optofluidic platform that mimics physiologically relevant fluid flow in a microenvironment. The LOF was constructed by enclosing in a flow-enabled and optically coupled glass capillary a long-period fiber grating both as a substrate for LbL growth of [CHI/PAA/GS/PAA]n and a measurement probe for GS release. We show that the LOF is very robust in monitoring the construction of the [CHI/PAA/GS/PAA]n multilayers at monolayer resolution as well as evaluating the rate of GS release with high sensitivity. The release processes in the LOF under static and a range of dynamic conditions are evaluated, showing a faster release under dynamic condition than that under static condition due to the varying circumstance of GS concentration gradient and the effect of flow-induced shear at the medium-multilayer interface. The LOF platform has the potential to be a powerful test bed to facilitate the design and evaluation of drug-eluting polyelectrolyte thin films for their clinical insertion as part of patient care strategy.

  9. Influences of increased daily repeated upstream releases and varying meteorological conditions on temperature distributions in a river-reservoir system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Fang, X.

    2016-08-01

    Temperature distribution in a river-reservoir system was simulated using a calibrated three-dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code model under various hypothetical weather conditions and daily repeated large releases (DRLRs) from the upstream boundary. Both DRLRs and weather conditions affect and control the formation and spread of density currents and then affect the bottom-layer temperatures. The DRLRs with longer durations (e.g., 6 or 8 hours) can relatively quickly push cooler release water to the Gorgas upstream monitoring station (GOUS) and the river intake. With the air temperature drops in the first 6 days, simulated bottom temperatures at GOUS for 6- and 8-hr DRLRs are lower than one under 4-hr DRLR, but relatively larger bottom-layer temperature drops only primarily occur during the air-temperature drop and rise period. The release with larger flow rate can also maintain the cooler water temperature downstream. Releasing the same amounts of water, with different release durations and flow rates, has a very similar effect on the downstream water temperatures.

  10. Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 1: Laboratory measurements at different conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, K.; Vakkilainen, E. ); Hupa, M. . Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-05-01

    Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis is high. There is only minor release during the drying stage. Ammonia is the main fixed nitrogen species formed. The rate of fixed nitrogen release increases with increasing temperature. The level of fixed nitrogen released by birch liquor is almost twice the level for pine liquor. Assuming complete conversion to NO, fixed nitrogen yields gave NO concentrations near typically measured values for flue gases in full scale recovery boilers. The purpose of this work was to gain more detailed information about the behavior of the fuel nitrogen in black liquor combustion. The work focused on the pyrolysis or devolatilization of the combustion process. Devolatilization is the stage at which the majority (typically 50--80%) of the liquor organics release from a fuel particle or droplet as gaseous species due to the rapid destruction of the organic macromolecules in the liquor. In this paper, the authors use the terms devolatilization and pyrolysis interchangeably with no difference in their meaning.

  11. Effect of boundary conditions on the kinetics of helium release from structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaluzhnyi, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    Gaseous products of nuclear reactions (specifically, helium) play a significant part in altering the material properties upon irradiation. It is known that atoms of inert gases promote the generation and growth of pores in irradiated materials and affect phenomena such as swelling, high-temperature irradiation embrittlement, etc. Therefore, a study of the behavior of helium (its production, accumulation, retention, and release) within structural materials is fairly topical. In order to validate the methods of express imitation of accumulation and retention of helium within structural materials under reactor irradiation, we perform a comparative analysis of the spectra of the rate of gas release from samples of austenitic steel 0Kh16N15M3B that were saturated with helium in different ways, i.e., through irradiation in a cyclotron, a magnetic massseparation setup, the IRT-2000 reactor, the BOR-60 reactor, and using the so-called tritium trick technique. The effect of the presence of dislocations and grain boundaries on the release of helium from materials is evaluated. The results of the research conducted show that the kinetics of helium release from samples saturated with helium through the bombardment with alpha particles of different energies, which ensures the simultaneous introduction of helium and radiation defects (in wide ranges of helium concentration and radiation damage) into the material lattice, is similar to the kinetics of helium release from samples irradiated in reactors.

  12. Release of colloids from primary minimum contact under unfavorable conditions by perturbations in ionic strength and flow rate.

    PubMed

    Pazmino, Eddy; Trauscht, Jacob; Johnson, William P

    2014-08-19

    Colloid release from surfaces in response to ionic strength and flow perturbations has been mechanistically simulated. However, these models do not address the mechanism by which colloid attachment occurs, at least in the presence of bulk colloid-collector repulsion (unfavorable conditions), which is a prevalent environmental condition. We test whether a mechanistic model that predicts colloid attachment under unfavorable conditions also predicts colloid release in response to reduced ionic strength (IS) and increased fluid velocity (conditions thought prevalent for mobilization of environmental colloids). The model trades in mean-field colloid-collector interaction for discrete representation of surface heterogeneity, which accounts for a combination of attractive and repulsive interactions simultaneously, and results in an attached colloid population (in primary minimum contact with the surface) having a distribution of strengths of attraction. The model moderates equilibrium separation distance by inclusion of steric interactions. By using the same model parameters to quantitatively predict attachment under unfavorable conditions, simulated release of colloids (for all three sizes) from primary minimum attachment in response to perturbations qualitatively matched experimental results, demonstrating that both attachment and detachment were mechanistically simulated.

  13. Tension neuropathy of the superficial peroneal nerve: associated conditions and results of release.

    PubMed

    Johnston, E C; Howell, S J

    1999-09-01

    We reviewed eight patients who sustained superficial peroneal nerve neuralgia after an inversion ankle sprain. Surgical exploration found anatomic abnormalities that tethered the nerve from movement during plantarflexion and inversion of the ankle. Most patients' pain improved dramatically after release and anterior transposition of the nerve. Seven joints also underwent arthroscopy, which showed intra-articular disease that was consistent with the original trauma. Five patients had reflex sympathetic dystrophy, three of which resolved after nerve release. Nerve conduction studies were not helpful. Careful physical examination and local nerve blocks were most important in making the diagnosis and prescribing treatment. All conservative measures should be exhausted before surgery is considered.

  14. Effect Of Imposed Anaerobic Conditions On Metals Release From Acid-Mine Drainage Contaminated Streambed Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of streams influenced by mine-drainage may require removal and burial of metal-containing bed sediments. Burial of aerobic sediments into an anaerobic environment may release metals, such as through reductive dissolution of metal oxyhydroxides. Mining-impacted aerob...

  15. PRELIMINARY RESULTS: RELEASE OF METALS FROM ACID-MINE DRAINAGE CONTAMINATED STREAMBED SEDIMENTS UNDER ANOXIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many miles of streams are contaminated with acid-mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned metal mines in the western U.S. Treatment of these streams may include dredging of the existing sediments, with subsequent burial. Burial of previously toxic sediments may result in release of met...

  16. Sublethal effects of catch-and-release fishing: measuring capture stress, fish impairment, and predation risk using a condition index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Matthew D.; Patino, Reynaldo; Tolan, J.M.; Strauss, R.E.; Diamond, S.

    2009-01-01

    The sublethal effects of simulated capture of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) were analysed using physiological responses, condition indexing, and performance variables. Simulated catch-and-release fishing included combinations of depth of capture and thermocline exposure reflective of environmental conditions experienced in the Gulf of Mexico. Frequency of occurrence of barotrauma and lack of reflex response exhibited considerable individual variation. When combined into a single condition or impairment index, individual variation was reduced, and impairment showed significant increases as depth increased and with the addition of thermocline exposure. Performance variables, such as burst swimming speed (BSS) and simulated predator approach distance (AD), were also significantly different by depth. BSSs and predator ADs decreased with increasing depth, were lowest immediately after release, and were affected for up to 15 min, with longer recovery times required as depth increased. The impairment score developed was positively correlated with cortisol concentration and negatively correlated with both BSS and simulated predator AD. The impairment index proved to be an efficient method to estimate the overall impairment of red snapper in the laboratory simulations of capture and shows promise for use in field conditions, to estimate release mortality and vulnerability to predation.

  17. Release from ISOLDE molten metal targets under pulsed proton beam conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettry, J.; Catherall, R.; Cyvoct, G.; Evensen, A. H. M.; Lindroos, M.; Jonsson, O. C.; Kugler, E.; Schindl, K.; Ravn, H.; Wildner, E.; Drumm, P.; Obert, J.; Putaux, J. C.; Sauvage, J.

    1996-04-01

    By moving the ISOLDE mass separators from the 600 MeV Synchrocyclotron (SC) to the 1 GeV Proton-Synchrotron-Booster (PS) the instantaneous energy density of the proton beam went up by 3 orders of magnitude. The developments of the molten metal target units and the optimization of the PS proton beam to cope with the effects of the thermal shocks induced by the proton beam are described. The energy density of the PS proton beam was reduced by spatial defocusing and time staggered extraction of the four PS-accelerators. The release from lanthanum, lead and tin targets is discussed for different settings of the proton beam and compared to the release observed at ISOLDE-SC. The yields of Hg isotopes are presented.

  18. Conditions inside Water Pooled in a Failed Nuclear Waste Container and its Effect on Radionuclide Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, L. K.; Walton, J. C.; Woocay, A.

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear power use is expected to expand in the future, as part of the global clean energy initiative, to meet the world’s surging energy demand, and attenuate greenhouse gas emissions, which are mainly caused by fossil fuels. As a result, it is estimated that hundreds of thousands of metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will accumulate. SNF disposal has major environmental (radiation exposure) and security (nuclear proliferation) concerns. Storage in unsaturated zone geological repositories is a reasonable solution for dealing with SNF. One of the key factors that determine the performance of the geological repository is the release of radionuclides from the engineered barrier system. Over time, the nuclear waste containers are expected to fail gradually due to general and localized corrosions and eventually infiltrating water will have access to the nuclear waste. Once radionuclides are released, they will be transported by water, and make their way to the accessible environment. Physical and chemical disturbances in the environment over the container will lead to different corrosion rates, causing different times and locations of penetration. One possible scenario for waste packages failure is the bathtub model, where penetrations occur on the top of the waste package and water pools inside it. In this paper the bathtub-type failed waste container is considered. We shed some light on chemical and physical processes that take place in the pooled water inside a partially failed waste container (bathtub category), and the effects of these processes on radionuclide release. Our study considers two possibilities: temperature stratification of the pooled water versus mixing process. Our calculations show that temperature stratification of the pooled water is expected when the waste package is half (or less) filled with water. On the other hand, when the waste package is fully filled (or above half) there will be mixing in the upper part of water. The effect of

  19. Intracellular release of doxorubicin from core-crosslinked polypeptide micelles triggered by both pH and reduction conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liangliang; Zou, Yan; Deng, Chao; Cheng, Ru; Meng, Fenghua; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2013-07-01

    Reduction and pH dual-sensitive reversibly core-crosslinked polypeptide micelles were developed from lipoic acid (LA) and cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid (CCA) decorated poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-P(LL-CCA/LA)) block copolymers for active loading and triggered intracellular release of doxorubicin (DOX). PEG-P(LL18-CCA4/LA14) and PEG-P(LL18-CCA8/LA10) (M(n PEG) = 5.0 kg/mol) formed nano-sized micelles that were readily crosslinked in the presence of a catalytic amount of dithiothreitol (DTT) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, 10 mM). PEG-P(LL18-CCA4/LA14) micelles displayed an elevated DOX loading over PEG-P(LL14-LA14) controls likely due to presence of ionic interactions between DOX and CCA. These core-crosslinked polypeptide micelles while exhibiting high stability against extensive dilution and high salt concentration were quickly dissociated into unimers in the presence of 10 mM DTT. The in vitro release studies showed that DOX release from PEG-P(LL18-CCA4/LA14) micelles at pH 7.4 and 37 °C was significantly inhibited by crosslinking (i.e. less than 20% release in 24 h). The release of DOX was, however, doubled under endosomal pH of 5.0, possibly triggered by cleavage of the acid-labile amide bonds of CCA. In particular, rapid DOX release was observed under a reductive condition containing 10 mm glutathione (GSH), in which 86.0% and 96.7% of DOX were released in 24 h at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, under otherwise the same conditions. MTT assays demonstrated that these core-crosslinked polypeptide micelles were practically non-toxic up to a tested concentration of 1.0 mg/mL, while DOX-loaded micelles caused pronounced cytotoxic effects to HeLa and HepG2 tumor cells with IC50 (inhibitory concentration to produce 50% cell death) of ca. 12.5 μg DOX equiv/mL following 48 h incubation. Confocal microscopy observations revealed that DOX-loaded crosslinked PEG-P(LL18-CCA4/LA14) micelles more efficiently delivered and released DOX into the nuclei of

  20. Intracellular release of doxorubicin from core-crosslinked polypeptide micelles triggered by both pH and reduction conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liangliang; Zou, Yan; Deng, Chao; Cheng, Ru; Meng, Fenghua; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2013-07-01

    Reduction and pH dual-sensitive reversibly core-crosslinked polypeptide micelles were developed from lipoic acid (LA) and cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid (CCA) decorated poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-P(LL-CCA/LA)) block copolymers for active loading and triggered intracellular release of doxorubicin (DOX). PEG-P(LL18-CCA4/LA14) and PEG-P(LL18-CCA8/LA10) (M(n PEG) = 5.0 kg/mol) formed nano-sized micelles that were readily crosslinked in the presence of a catalytic amount of dithiothreitol (DTT) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, 10 mM). PEG-P(LL18-CCA4/LA14) micelles displayed an elevated DOX loading over PEG-P(LL14-LA14) controls likely due to presence of ionic interactions between DOX and CCA. These core-crosslinked polypeptide micelles while exhibiting high stability against extensive dilution and high salt concentration were quickly dissociated into unimers in the presence of 10 mM DTT. The in vitro release studies showed that DOX release from PEG-P(LL18-CCA4/LA14) micelles at pH 7.4 and 37 °C was significantly inhibited by crosslinking (i.e. less than 20% release in 24 h). The release of DOX was, however, doubled under endosomal pH of 5.0, possibly triggered by cleavage of the acid-labile amide bonds of CCA. In particular, rapid DOX release was observed under a reductive condition containing 10 mm glutathione (GSH), in which 86.0% and 96.7% of DOX were released in 24 h at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, under otherwise the same conditions. MTT assays demonstrated that these core-crosslinked polypeptide micelles were practically non-toxic up to a tested concentration of 1.0 mg/mL, while DOX-loaded micelles caused pronounced cytotoxic effects to HeLa and HepG2 tumor cells with IC50 (inhibitory concentration to produce 50% cell death) of ca. 12.5 μg DOX equiv/mL following 48 h incubation. Confocal microscopy observations revealed that DOX-loaded crosslinked PEG-P(LL18-CCA4/LA14) micelles more efficiently delivered and released DOX into the nuclei of

  1. Understanding the role of saliva in aroma release from wine by using static and dynamic headspace conditions.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Feron, Gilles; Guichard, Elisabeth; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J José; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-08-20

    The aim of this work was to determine the role of saliva in wine aroma release by using static and dynamic headspace conditions. In the latter conditions, two different sampling points (t = 0 and t = 10 min) corresponding with oral (25.5 °C) and postoral phases (36 °C) were monitored. Both methodologies were applied to reconstituted dearomatized white and red wines with different nonvolatile wine matrix compositions and a synthetic wine (without matrix effect). All of the wines had the same ethanol concentration and were spiked with a mixture of 45 aroma compounds covering a wide range of physicochemical characteristics at typical wine concentrations. Two types of saliva (human and artificial) or control samples (water) were added to the wines. The adequacy of the two headspace methodologies for the purposes of the study (repeatability, linear ranges, determination coefficients, etc.) was previously determined. After application of different chemometric analysis (ANOVA, LSD, PCA), results showed a significant effect of saliva on aroma release dependent on saliva type (differences between artificial and human) and on wine matrix using static headspace conditions. Red wines were more affected than white and synthetic wines by saliva, specifically human saliva, which provoked a reduction in aroma release for most of the assayed aroma compounds independent of their chemical structure. The application of dynamic headspace conditions using a saliva bioreactor at the two different sampling points (t = 0 and t = 10 min) showed a lesser but significant effect of saliva than matrix composition and a high influence of temperature (oral and postoral phases) on aroma release.

  2. A novel endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase releases specific N-glycans depending on different reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Le Parc, Annabelle; Karav, Sercan; Bell, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega De Moura; Frese, Steven A; Liu, Yan; Mills, David A; Block, David E; Barile, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Milk glycoproteins are involved in different functions and contribute to different cellular processes, including adhesion and signaling, and shape the development of the infant microbiome. Methods have been developed to study the complexities of milk protein glycosylation and understand the role of N-glycans in protein functionality. Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (EndoBI-1) isolated from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 is a recently isolated heat-stable enzyme that cleaves the N-N'-diacetyl chitobiose moiety found in the N-glycan core. The effects of different processing conditions (pH, temperature, reaction time, and enzyme/protein ratio) were evaluated for their ability to change EndoBI-1 activity on bovine colostrum whey glycoproteins using advanced mass spectrometry. This study shows that EndoBI-1 is able to cleave a high diversity of N-glycan structures. Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS data also revealed that different reaction conditions resulted in different N-glycan compositions released, thus modifying the relative abundance of N-glycan types. In general, more sialylated N-glycans were released at lower temperatures and pH values. These results demonstrated that EndoBI-1 is able to release a wide variety of N-glycans, whose compositions can be selectively manipulated using different processing conditions. PMID:26101185

  3. Diagnosing physical conditions near the flare energy-release sites from observations of solar microwave type III bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bao-Lin; Karlický, Marian; Mészárosová, Hana; Huang, Guang-Li

    2016-05-01

    In the physics of solar flares, it is crucial to diagnose the physical conditions near the flare energy-release sites. However, so far it is unclear how to diagnose these physical conditions. A solar microwave type III burst is believed to be a sensitive signature of primary energy release and electron accelerations in solar flares. This work takes into account the effect of the magnetic field on the plasma density and develops a set of formulas which can be used to estimate the plasma density, temperature, magnetic field near the magnetic reconnection site and particle acceleration region, and the velocity and energy of electron beams. We apply these formulas to three groups of microwave type III pairs in an X-class flare, and obtained some reasonable and interesting results. This method can be applied to other microwave type III bursts to diagnose the physical conditions of source regions, and provide some basic information to understand the intrinsic nature and fundamental processes occurring near the flare energy-release sites.

  4. A Novel Endo-β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase Releases Specific N-Glycans Depending on Different Reaction Conditions

    PubMed Central

    De Moura Bell, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega; Frese, Steven A.; Liu, Yan; Mills, David A.; Block, David E.; Barile, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Milk glycoproteins are involved in different functions and contribute to different cellular processes, including adhesion and signaling, and shape the development of the infant micro-biome. Methods have been developed to study the complexities of milk protein glycosylation and understand the role of N-glycans in protein functionality. Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (EndoBI-1) isolated from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 is a recently isolated heat-stable enzyme that cleaves the N-N′-diacetyl chitobiose moiety found in the N-glycan core. The effects of different processing conditions (pH, temperature, reaction time, and enzyme/protein ratio) were evaluated for their ability to change EndoBI-1 activity on bovine colostrum whey glycoproteins using advanced mass spectrometry. This study shows that EndoBI-1 is able to cleave a high diversity of N-glycan structures. Nano-LC-Chip–Q-TOF MS data also revealed that different reaction conditions resulted in different N-glycan compositions released, thus modifying the relative abundance of N-glycan types. In general, more sialylated N-glycans were released at lower temperatures and pH values. These results demonstrated that EndoBI-1 is able to release a wide variety of N-glycans, whose compositions can be selectively manipulated using different processing conditions. PMID:26101185

  5. Angiotensin type 1a receptors on corticotropin-releasing factor neurons contribute to the expression of conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Hurt, R C; Garrett, J C; Keifer, O P; Linares, A; Couling, L; Speth, R C; Ressler, K J; Marvar, P J

    2015-09-01

    Although generally associated with cardiovascular regulation, angiotensin II receptor type 1a (AT1a R) blockade in mouse models and humans has also been associated with enhanced fear extinction and decreased post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, respectively. The mechanisms mediating these effects remain unknown, but may involve alterations in the activities of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing cells, which are known to be involved in fear regulation. To test the hypothesis that AT1a R signaling in CRFergic neurons is involved in conditioned fear expression, we generated and characterized a conditional knockout mouse strain with a deletion of the AT1a R gene from its CRF-releasing cells (CRF-AT1a R((-/-)) ). These mice exhibit normal baseline heart rate, blood pressure, anxiety and locomotion, and freeze at normal levels during acquisition of auditory fear conditioning. However, CRF-AT1a R((-/-)) mice exhibit less freezing than wild-type mice during tests of conditioned fear expression-an effect that may be caused by a decrease in the consolidation of fear memory. These results suggest that central AT1a R activity in CRF-expressing cells plays a role in the expression of conditioned fear, and identify CRFergic cells as a population on which AT1 R antagonists may act to modulate fear extinction.

  6. Angiotensin Type 1a Receptors on Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Neurons Contribute to the Expression of Conditioned Fear

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Robert C.; Garrett, Jacob C.; Keifer, Orion P.; Linares, Andrea; Couling, Leena; Speth, Robert C.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Marvar, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Although generally associated with cardiovascular regulation, angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1aR) blockade in mouse models and humans has also been associated with enhanced fear extinction and decreased post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, respectively. The mechanisms mediating these effects remain unknown, but may involve alterations in the activities of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing cells, which are known to be involved in fear regulation. To test the hypothesis that AT1aR signaling in CRFergic neurons is involved in conditioned fear expression, we generated and characterized a conditional knockout mouse strain with a deletion of the AT1aR gene from its CRF-releasing cells (CRF-AT1aR(−/−)). These mice exhibit normal baseline heart rate, blood pressure, anxiety, and locomotion, and freeze at normal levels during acquisition of auditory fear conditioning. However, CRF-AT1aR(−/−) mice exhibit less freezing than wild type mice during tests of conditioned fear expression—an effect that may be caused by a decrease in the consolidation of fear memory. These results suggest that central AT1R activity in CRF-expressing cells plays a role in the expression of conditioned fear, and identify CRFergic cells as a population on which AT1R antagonists may act to modulate fear extinction. PMID:26257395

  7. Effect of preparation conditions on release of selected volatiles in tea headspace.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jonathan; Wulfert, Florian; Hort, Joanne; Taylor, Andrew J

    2007-02-21

    The release of volatile compounds from infused tea was monitored using on-line atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry. Assignment of the APCI ions to particular compounds was achieved using gas chromatography of tea headspace with dual electron ionization and APCI-MS detectors. Six ions in the APCI spectrum could be assigned to individual compounds, five ions were associated with isobaric compounds (e.g., 2- and 3-methylbutanal and pentanal) or stereoisomers (e.g., heptenals or heptadienals), and a further four ions monitored were identified compounds but with some unknown impurities. Reproducibility of infusion preparation and the analytical system was good with percentage variation values generally below 5%. The analysis was used to study the effect of infusion and holding temperatures on the volatile profile of tea headspace samples, and this was found to be compound-dependent. Both the extraction of volatiles from leaf tea and the release of volatiles into the headspace play a role in creating the aroma profile that the consumer experiences. PMID:17261012

  8. [Oxidation of mercury by CuBr2 decomposition under controlled-release membrane catalysis condition].

    PubMed

    Hu, Lin-Gang; Qu, Zan; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Guo, Yong-Fu; Xie, Jiang-Kun; Jia, Jin-Ping

    2014-02-01

    CuBr2 in the multi-porous ceramic membrane can release Br2 at high temperature, which was employed as the oxidant for Hg0 oxidation. Hg0 oxidation efficiency was studied by a membrane catalysis device. Meanwhile, a reaction and in situ monitoring device was designed to avoid the impact of Br2 on the downstream pipe. The result showed that the MnO(x)/alpha-Al2O3 catalysis membrane had a considerable "controlled-release" effect on Br2 produced by CuBr2 decomposition. The adsorption and reaction of Hg0 and Br2 on the surface of catalysis membrane obeyed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with the rising of Br2 concentration. However, when Br2 reached a certain concentration, the removal efficiency was limited by adsorption rate and reaction rate of Hg0 and Br2 on the catalysis membrane. From 473 K to 573 K, the variation of Hg0 oxidation efficiency was relatively stable. SO2 in flue gas inhibited the oxidation of Hg0 while NO displayed no obvious effect.

  9. Antimony retention and release from drained and waterlogged shooting range soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Hockmann, Kerstin; Tandy, Susan; Lenz, Markus; Reiser, René; Conesa, Héctor M; Keller, Martin; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Many soils polluted by antimony (Sb) are subject to fluctuating waterlogging conditions; yet, little is known about how these affect the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. Here, we compared Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and waterlogged conditions using four large outdoor lysimeters. After monitoring the leachate samples taken at bi-weekly intervals for >1.5 years under drained conditions, two of the lysimeters were subjected to waterlogging with a water table fluctuating according to natural rainfall water infiltration. Antimony leachate concentrations under drained conditions showed a strong seasonal fluctuation between 110 μg L(-1) in summer and <40 μg L(-1) in winter, which closely correlated with fluctuations in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. With the development of anaerobic conditions upon waterlogging, Sb in leachate decreased to 2-5 μg L(-1) Sb and remained stable at this level. Antimony speciation measurements in soil solution indicated that this decrease in Sb(V) concentrations was attributable to the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) and the stronger sorption affinity of the latter to iron (Fe) (hydr)oxide phases. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering seasonal and waterlogging effects in the assessment of the risks from Sb-contaminated sites.

  10. Subsonic vortex motion of a gas under conditions of intense energy release in an optical plasmatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raizer, Iu. P.; Silantev, A. Iu.; Surzhikov, S. T.

    1986-02-01

    The paper presents preliminary results of the numerical modeling of a two-dimensional process in an optical plasmatron, involving a continuous optical discharge in a gas flow. Calculations were carried out for air at atmospheric pressure, an initial power of 6 kW, a laser-beam diameter of 4 cm, and a lens focus of 20 cm. Results indicate that the oncoming flow encounters a vortex in the rear part of the hot region, and flows around it as it would a solid body. The vortex flow removes heat from the hot zone laterally, releases it, and (having been cooled) is sucked back into the discharge, thus intensifying the heat transfer.

  11. Understanding hydrogen sulfide storage: probing conditions for sulfide release from hydrodisulfides.

    PubMed

    Bailey, T Spencer; Zakharov, Lev N; Pluth, Michael D

    2014-07-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important biological signaling agent that exerts action on numerous (patho)physiological processes. Once generated, H2S can be oxidized to generate reductant-labile sulfane sulfur pools, which include hydrodisulfides/persulfides. Despite the importance of hydrodisulfides in H2S storage and signaling, little is known about the physical properties or chemical reactivity of these compounds. We report here the synthesis, isolation, and characterization (NMR, IR, Raman, HRMS, X-ray) of a small-molecule hydrodisulfide and highlight its reactivity with reductants, nucleophiles, electrophiles, acids, and bases. Our experimental results establish that hydrodisulfides release H2S upon reduction and that deprotonation results in disproportionation to the parent thiol and S(0), thus providing a mechanism for transsulfuration in the sulfane sulfur pool. PMID:25010540

  12. Speciation and Release Kinetics of Cadmium in an Alkaline Paddy Soil Under Various Flooding Periods and Draining Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    S Khaokaew; R Chaney; G Landrot; M Ginder-Vogel; D Sparks

    2011-12-31

    This study determined Cd speciation and release kinetics in a Cd-Zn cocontaminated alkaline paddy soil, under various flooding periods and draining conditions, by employing synchrotron-based techniques, and a stirred-flow kinetic method. Results revealed that varying flooding periods and draining conditions affected Cd speciation and its release kinetics. Linear least-squares fitting (LLSF) of bulk X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of the air-dried, and the 1 day-flooded soil samples, showed that at least 50% of Cd was bound to humic acid. Cadmium carbonates were found as the major species at most flooding periods, while a small amount of cadmium sulfide was found after the soils were flooded for longer periods. Under all flooding and draining conditions, at least 14 mg/kg Cd was desorbed from the soil after a 2-hour desorption experiment. The results obtained by micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) spectroscopy showed that Cd was less associated with Zn than Ca, in most soil samples. Therefore, it is more likely that Cd and Ca will be present in the same mineral phases rather than Cd and Zn, although the source of these two latter elements may originate from the same surrounding Zn mines in the Mae Sot district.

  13. Enhancing the stability and ecological safety of mass-reared transgenic strains for field release by redundant conditional lethality systems.

    PubMed

    Handler, Alfred M

    2016-04-01

    The genetic manipulation of agriculturally important insects now allows the development of genetic sexing and male sterility systems for more highly efficient biologically-based population control programs, most notably the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), for both plant and animal insect pests. Tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) conditional lethal systems may function together so that transgenic strains will be viable and fertile on a tetracycline-containing diet, but female-lethal and male sterile in tetracycline-free conditions. This would allow their most efficacious use in a unified system for sterile male-only production for SIT. A critical consideration for the field release of such transgenic insect strains, however, is a determination of the frequency and genetic basis of lethality revertant survival. This will provide knowledge essential to evaluating the genetic stability of the lethality system, its environmental safety, and provide the basis for modifications ensuring optimal efficacy. For Tet-off lethal survival determinations, development of large-scale screening protocols should also allow the testing of these modifications, and test the ability of other conditional lethal systems to fully suppress propagation of rare Tet-off survivors. If a dominant temperature sensitive (DTS) pupal lethality system proves efficient for secondary lethality in Drosophila, it may provide the safeguard needed to support the release of sexing/sterility strains, and potentially, the release of unisex lethality strains as a form of genetic male sterility. Should the DTS Prosβ2(1) mutation prove effective for redundant lethality, its high level of structural and functional conservation should allow host-specific cognates to be created for a wide range of insect species.

  14. The Effects of Feeding Unpredictability and Classical Conditioning on Pre-Release Training of White-Lipped Peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Selene S. C.; Abreu, Shauana A.; Peregrino, Helderes; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L. G.

    2014-01-01

    Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3) and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled). The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2) than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3). The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1) and the following control phase (C2) than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2), also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild. PMID:24475072

  15. The effects of feeding unpredictability and classical conditioning on pre-release training of white-lipped peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Selene S C; Abreu, Shauana A; Peregrino, Helderes; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L G

    2014-01-01

    Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3) and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled). The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2) than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3). The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1) and the following control phase (C2) than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2), also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild. PMID:24475072

  16. The effects of feeding unpredictability and classical conditioning on pre-release training of white-lipped peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Selene S C; Abreu, Shauana A; Peregrino, Helderes; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L G

    2014-01-01

    Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3) and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled). The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2) than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3). The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1) and the following control phase (C2) than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2), also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild.

  17. The ongoing risk assessment in the treatment of forensic patients on conditional release status.

    PubMed

    Wack, R C

    1993-01-01

    In New York State, patients who have been found not criminally responsible by reason of mental disease or defect, eventually become outpatients while still under the supervision of the courts. The treatment of these patients on outpatient orders of condition poses special problems. Treatment needs to center on the issues related to patient's potential for harmful/violent behavior. Therefore, outpatient clinicians need to conduct periodic risk assessments and must continuously monitor identified risk indicators. The author outlines steps for information gathering and evaluation necessary for risk assessment. Treatment of these patients is conceptualized as ongoing clinical risk identification and management. It is framed by a treatment contract that integrates mandates of the Orders of Conditions with information gathered through ongoing risk assessments and spells out legal and other consequences that may arise from non-compliance.

  18. Analysis of toxic effluents released from PVC carpet under different fire conditions.

    PubMed

    Stec, A A; Readman, J; Blomqvist, P; Gylestam, D; Karlsson, D; Wojtalewicz, D; Dlugogorski, B Z

    2013-01-01

    A large number of investigations have been reported on minimising the PAH and PCDD/F yields during controlled combustion, such as incineration. This study is an attempt to quantify acute and chronic toxicants including PAH and PCDD/F in conditions relating to unwanted fires. This paper investigates distribution patterns of fire effluents between gas and aerosol phase, and the different particle size-ranges produced under different fire conditions. PVC carpet was selected as the fuel as a precursor for both PAH and PCDD/F. In order to generate fire effluents under controlled fire conditions, the steady-state tube furnace, was chosen as the physical fire model. Fire scenarios included oxidative pyrolysis, well-ventilated and under-ventilated fires. Fire effluent measurements included: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans and soot. The distribution patterns between gas and particle phase, and the size-ranges of the particles produced in these fires together with their chemical composition is also reported. Significant quantities of respirable submicron particles were detected, together with a range of PAHs. Lower levels of halogenated dioxins were detected in the fire residue compared with those found in other studies. Nevertheless, the findings do have implications for the health and safety of fire and rescue personnel, fire investigators, and other individuals exposed to the residue from unwanted fires. PMID:22960058

  19. Analysis of toxic effluents released from PVC carpet under different fire conditions.

    PubMed

    Stec, A A; Readman, J; Blomqvist, P; Gylestam, D; Karlsson, D; Wojtalewicz, D; Dlugogorski, B Z

    2013-01-01

    A large number of investigations have been reported on minimising the PAH and PCDD/F yields during controlled combustion, such as incineration. This study is an attempt to quantify acute and chronic toxicants including PAH and PCDD/F in conditions relating to unwanted fires. This paper investigates distribution patterns of fire effluents between gas and aerosol phase, and the different particle size-ranges produced under different fire conditions. PVC carpet was selected as the fuel as a precursor for both PAH and PCDD/F. In order to generate fire effluents under controlled fire conditions, the steady-state tube furnace, was chosen as the physical fire model. Fire scenarios included oxidative pyrolysis, well-ventilated and under-ventilated fires. Fire effluent measurements included: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans and soot. The distribution patterns between gas and particle phase, and the size-ranges of the particles produced in these fires together with their chemical composition is also reported. Significant quantities of respirable submicron particles were detected, together with a range of PAHs. Lower levels of halogenated dioxins were detected in the fire residue compared with those found in other studies. Nevertheless, the findings do have implications for the health and safety of fire and rescue personnel, fire investigators, and other individuals exposed to the residue from unwanted fires.

  20. Behavior and Release of Nitrogen at Mines and Quarries in Nordic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Teemu; Neitola, Raisa; Jermakka, Johannes; Merta, Elina; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija

    2015-04-01

    The increased extraction of mineral resources and mining activities creates added pressure on the environmental issues and a proper water management in mining areas in Finland. Among others, nitrogen compounds released from explosives or from mining processes can have a detrimental effect on the environment. Thus, this project aimed at comprehensive understanding on the nitrogen issue in the extractive industry. The project collected essential data on nitrogen compounds present in the environments of mines and quarries, and generated better understanding of the discharge and behaviour of nitrogen compounds in mining areas. The sources and balances of explosives-originated nitrogen compounds at mines and quarries of different sizes were investigated and compared. Additionally, the focus was in 'nitrogen smudging' problem of waste rocks and the intensity, as well as evolution and chemical characteristics of their nitrogen contamination. According to the results, the total load of potential nitrogen to the environment depends on the scale and type of the activity as well as the type of explosives used. The main emission sources of nitrogen are process and dewatering waters. A lysimeter study showed that the explosives originated nitrogen content of left over stones from natural stone quarrying is relatively low and ca. half of the nitrogen is leached within the first weeks after detonation. The "nitrogen smudging" of natural stone quarrying left over stones is relatively low to begin with and enhanced by the rapid flushing by rainwater, thus the residues of explosives should not be considered to prevent the utilization of otherwise mineralogically inert waste rocks of good technical quality. The overall nitrogen management should take into account the background concentrations and sensitivity of the local ecosystem. The research project "Solution for Control of Nitrogen Discharges at Mines and Quarries, (MINIMAN)" was realized during years 2012-2014 as a cooperative

  1. Microstructure, mechanical property and metal release of As-SLM CoCrW alloy under different solution treatment conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanjin; Wu, Songquan; Gan, Yiliang; Zhang, Shuyuan; Guo, Sai; Lin, Junjie; Lin, Jinxin

    2015-03-01

    In the study, the microstructure, mechanical property and metal release behavior of selective laser melted CoCrW alloys under different solution treatment conditions were systemically investigated to assess their potential use in orthopedic implants. The effects of the solution treatment on the microstructure, mechanical properties and metal release were systematically studied by OM, SEM, XRD, tensile test, and ICP-AES, respectively. The XRD indicated that during the solution treatment the alloy underwent the transformation of γ-fcc to ε-hcp phase; the ε-hcp phase nearly dominated in the alloy when treated at 1200°C following the water quenching; the results from OM, SEM showed that the microstructural change was occurred under different solution treatments; solution at 1150°C with furnace cooling contributed to the formation of larger precipitates at the grain boundary regions, while the size and number of the precipitates was decreased as heated above 1100°C with the water quenching; moreover, the diamond-like structure was invisible at higher solution temperature over 1150°C following water quenching; compared with the furnace cooling, the alloy quenched by water showed excellent mechanical properties and low amount of metal release; as the alloy heated at 1200°C, the mechanical properties of the alloy reached their optimum combination at UTS=1113.6MPa, 0.2%YS=639.5MPa, and E%=20.1%, whilst showed the lower total quantity of metal release. It is suggested that a proper solution treatment is an efficient strategy for improving the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of As-SLM CoCrW alloy that show acceptable tensile ductility.

  2. Microstructure, mechanical property and metal release of As-SLM CoCrW alloy under different solution treatment conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanjin; Wu, Songquan; Gan, Yiliang; Zhang, Shuyuan; Guo, Sai; Lin, Junjie; Lin, Jinxin

    2015-03-01

    In the study, the microstructure, mechanical property and metal release behavior of selective laser melted CoCrW alloys under different solution treatment conditions were systemically investigated to assess their potential use in orthopedic implants. The effects of the solution treatment on the microstructure, mechanical properties and metal release were systematically studied by OM, SEM, XRD, tensile test, and ICP-AES, respectively. The XRD indicated that during the solution treatment the alloy underwent the transformation of γ-fcc to ε-hcp phase; the ε-hcp phase nearly dominated in the alloy when treated at 1200°C following the water quenching; the results from OM, SEM showed that the microstructural change was occurred under different solution treatments; solution at 1150°C with furnace cooling contributed to the formation of larger precipitates at the grain boundary regions, while the size and number of the precipitates was decreased as heated above 1100°C with the water quenching; moreover, the diamond-like structure was invisible at higher solution temperature over 1150°C following water quenching; compared with the furnace cooling, the alloy quenched by water showed excellent mechanical properties and low amount of metal release; as the alloy heated at 1200°C, the mechanical properties of the alloy reached their optimum combination at UTS=1113.6MPa, 0.2%YS=639.5MPa, and E%=20.1%, whilst showed the lower total quantity of metal release. It is suggested that a proper solution treatment is an efficient strategy for improving the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of As-SLM CoCrW alloy that show acceptable tensile ductility. PMID:26590910

  3. Antibacterial Action of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Chitosan Oligosaccharides against Pseudomonas aeruginosa under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Reighard, Katelyn P.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharides were modified with N-diazeniumdiolates to yield biocompatible nitric oxide (NO) donor scaffolds. The minimum bactericidal concentrations and MICs of the NO donors against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were compared under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Differential antibacterial activities were primarily the result of NO scavenging by oxygen under aerobic environments and not changes in bacterial physiology. Bacterial killing was also tested against nonmucoid and mucoid biofilms and compared to that of tobramycin. Smaller NO payloads were required to eradicate P. aeruginosa biofilms under anaerobic versus aerobic conditions. Under oxygen-free environments, the NO treatment was 10-fold more effective at killing biofilms than tobramycin. These results demonstrate the potential utility of NO-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides under both aerobic and anaerobic environments. PMID:26239983

  4. Radioactive particulate release associated with the DOT specification 6M container under hypothetical accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.M.; Raney, P.J.

    1986-02-01

    A testing program was conducted to determine the leakage of depleted uranium dioxide powder (DUO) from the inner containment components of the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) specification 6M container under hypothetical accident conditions. Depleted uranium dioxide was selected as a surrogate for plutonium oxide because of the similarities in the powder characteristics, density and particle size, and because of the special handling and special facilities required for plutonium oxide. The DUO was packaged inside food pack cans in three different configurations inside the 2R vessel of the 6M container. The amount of DUO powder leakage ranged from none detectable (<2 x 10/sup -7/ g) to a high of 1 x 10/sup -3/ g. The combination of gravity, vibration and pressure produced the highest leakage of DUO. Containers that had hermetic seals (leak rates <6 x 10/sup -4/ atm cc/min) did not leak any detectable amount (<2 x 10/sup -7/ g) of DUO under the test conditions. Impact forces had no effect on the leakage of particles with the packaging configurations used. 23 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Amendment of biochar reduces the release of toxic elements under dynamic redox conditions in a contaminated floodplain soil.

    PubMed

    Rinklebe, Jörg; Shaheen, Sabry M; Frohne, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) can be used to remediate soils contaminated with potential toxic elements (PTEs). However, the efficiency of BC to immobilize PTEs in highly contaminated floodplain soils under dynamic redox conditions has not been studied up to date. Thus, we have (i) quantified the impact of pre-definite redox conditions on the release dynamics of dissolved aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in a highly contaminated soil (CS) (non-treated) and in the same soil treated with 10 g kg(-1) biochar based material (CS+BC), and (ii) assessed the efficacy of the material to reduce the concentrations of PTEs in soil solution under dynamic redox conditions using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The impact of redox potential (EH), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and sulfate (SO4(2-)) on dynamics of PTEs was also determined. The EH was lowered to +68 mV and afterwards increased stepwise to +535 mV. Significant negative correlation between EH and pH in CS and CS+BC was detected. The systematic increase of EH along with decrease of pH favors the mobilization of PTEs in CS and CS+BC. The material addition seems to have little effect on redox processes because pattern of EH/pH and release dynamics of PTEs was basically similar in CS and CS+BC. However, concentrations of dissolved PTEs were considerably lower in CS+BC than in CS which demonstrates that BC is able to decrease concentrations of dissolved PTEs even under dynamic redox conditions. PMID:25900116

  6. Amendment of biochar reduces the release of toxic elements under dynamic redox conditions in a contaminated floodplain soil.

    PubMed

    Rinklebe, Jörg; Shaheen, Sabry M; Frohne, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) can be used to remediate soils contaminated with potential toxic elements (PTEs). However, the efficiency of BC to immobilize PTEs in highly contaminated floodplain soils under dynamic redox conditions has not been studied up to date. Thus, we have (i) quantified the impact of pre-definite redox conditions on the release dynamics of dissolved aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in a highly contaminated soil (CS) (non-treated) and in the same soil treated with 10 g kg(-1) biochar based material (CS+BC), and (ii) assessed the efficacy of the material to reduce the concentrations of PTEs in soil solution under dynamic redox conditions using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The impact of redox potential (EH), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and sulfate (SO4(2-)) on dynamics of PTEs was also determined. The EH was lowered to +68 mV and afterwards increased stepwise to +535 mV. Significant negative correlation between EH and pH in CS and CS+BC was detected. The systematic increase of EH along with decrease of pH favors the mobilization of PTEs in CS and CS+BC. The material addition seems to have little effect on redox processes because pattern of EH/pH and release dynamics of PTEs was basically similar in CS and CS+BC. However, concentrations of dissolved PTEs were considerably lower in CS+BC than in CS which demonstrates that BC is able to decrease concentrations of dissolved PTEs even under dynamic redox conditions.

  7. The release of As, Cr and Cu from contaminated soil stabilized with APC residues under landfill conditions.

    PubMed

    Travar, I; Kihl, A; Kumpiene, J

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of As, Cr and Cu in contaminated soil treated with air pollution control residues under landfill conditions. The influence of landfill gas and temperature on the release of trace elements from stabilized soil was simulated using a diffusion test. The air pollution control residues immobilized As through the precipitation of Ca-As minerals (calcium arsenate (Ca5H2(AsO4)3 × 5H2O), weilite (CaAsO4) and johnbaumite (Ca5(AsO4)3(OH)), incorporation of As into ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 × 26H2O) and adsorption by calcite (CaCO3). The air pollution control residues generally showed a high resistance to pH reduction, indicating high buffer capacity and stability of immobilized As in a landfill over time. Generation of heat in a landfill might increase the release of trace elements. The release of As from stabilized soil was diffusion-controlled at 60 °C, while surface wash-off, dissolution, and depletion prevailed at 20 °C. The air pollution control residues from the incineration of municipal solid waste immobilized Cr, indicating its stability in a landfill. The treatment of soil with air pollution control residues was not effective in immobilization of Cu. Contaminated soils treated with air pollution control residues will probably have a low impact on overall leachate quality from a landfill. PMID:25528268

  8. Biodegradable nanoparticles for protein delivery: analysis of preparation conditions on particle morphology and protein loading, activity and sustained release properties.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jason; Lowman, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    PLGA particles have been extensively used as a sustained drug-delivery system, but there are multiple drawbacks when delivering proteins. The focus of this work is to address the most significant disadvantages to the W/O/W double emulsion procedure and demonstrate that simple changes to this procedure can have significant changes to particle size and dispersity and considerable improvements to protein loading, activity and sustained active protein release. A systematic approach was taken to analyze the effects of the following variables: solvent miscibility (dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, acetone), homogenization speed (10 000-25 000 rpm), PLGA concentration (10-30 mg/ml) and additives in both the organic (sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB)) and aqueous (bovine serum albumin (BSA)) phases. Increasing solvent miscibility decreased particle size, dispersity and protein denaturation, while maintaining adequate protein loading. Increasing solvent miscibility also lowered the impact of homogenization on particle size and dispersity and protein activity. Changes to PLGA concentration demonstrated a minimum impact on particle size and dispersity, but showed an inverse relationship between protein encapsulation efficiency and particle protein weight percent. Most particles tested provided sustained release of active protein over 60 days. Increasing solvent miscibility resulted in increases in the percent of active protein released. When subjected to synthesis conditions with DCM as the solvent, BSA as a stabilizer resulted in the maximum stabilization of protein at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. At this concentration, BSA allowed for increases in the total amount of active protein delivered for all three solvents. The benefit of SAIB was primarily increased protein loading.

  9. Changes of the corrosion potential of iron in stagnation and flow conditions and their relationship with metal release.

    PubMed

    Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Korshin, Gregory V

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the behavior of corrosion potential (Ecorr) of iron exposed to drinking water during episodes of stagnation and flow. These measurements showed that during stagnation episodes, Ecorr values decrease prominently and consistently. This decrease is initially rapid but it becomes slower as the stagnation time increases. During flow episodes, the Ecorr values increase and reach a quasi-steady state. Experiments with varying concentrations of dissolved oxygen showed that the decrease of Ecorr values characteristic for stagnation is likely to be associated with the consumption of dissolved oxygen by the exposed metal. The corrosion potential of iron and its changes during stagnation were sensitive to the concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. Measurements of iron release showed that both the absolute values of Ecorr measured prior to or after stagnation episodes were well correlated with the logarithms of concentrations of total iron. The slope of this dependence showed that the observed correlations between Ecorr values and Fe concentrations corresponded to the coupling between the oxidant consumption and changes of Fe redox status. These results demonstrate that in situ Ecorr measurements can be a sensitive method with which to ascertain effects of hydrodynamic conditions and short-term variations of water chemistry on metal release and corrosion in drinking water. This approach is valuable practically because Ecorr measurements are precise, can be carried out in situ with any desired time resolution, do not affect the state of exposed surface in any extent and can be carried out with readily available equipment.

  10. Reagent-release capillary array-isoelectric focusing device as a rapid screening device for IEF condition optimization.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Masaki; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Henares, Terence G; Kawamura, Kunio; Yao, Toshio; Hisamoto, Hideaki

    2010-12-21

    This report describes the fabrication and characterization of a simple and disposable capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) device containing a reagent-release capillary (RRC) array and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) platform, which allows rapid (within 10 min) screening of cIEF conditions by introducing a sample solution into plural RRCs by capillary action followed by electric field application. To prepare the RRC, covalent immobilization of poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) was conducted to suppress electro-osmotic flow (EOF), followed by physical adsorption of the mixture of carrier ampholyte (CA), surfactant, labeling reagent (LR), and other additives to the PDMA surface to construct a two-layer structure inside a square glass capillary. When the sample solution containing proteins was introduced into the RRC, physically adsorbed CA, surfactant, and LR can be dissolved and released into the sample solution. Then, complexation of LR with proteins, mixing with CA and surfactant, and exposure of the PDMA surface spontaneously occurs for the IEF experiments. Here, three different RRCs that immobilize different CAs were prepared, and simultaneous cIEF experiments involving hemoglobin AFSC mixtures for choosing the best CA demonstrated the proof of concept.

  11. Pavlovian conditioning of corticotropin-releasing factor-induced increase of blood pressure and corticosterone secretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kreutz, M; Hellhammer, D; Murison, R; Vetter, H; Krause, U; Lehnert, H

    1992-05-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is clearly involved in the central regulation of the pituitary-adrenal axis and, moreover, of autonomic nervous system functions. Enhanced sympathetic activity with subsequent increases in blood pressure and heart rate and attenuation of the baroreceptor reflex results from the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of CRF. Additionally, the peptide has a variety of potent effects on behavioural responses in animals similar to those observed after an experimentally evoked stress. It was therefore of obvious interest to examine whether CRF is a possible mediator of the learning processes associated with physiological stress reaction patterns. This report clearly demonstrates a classical conditioning of the endocrine (i.e. corticosterone secretion) and haemodynamic (i.e. blood pressure) sequelae following central CRF application and thus indicates that this mechanism is of physiological significance for learned stress responses.

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 481: Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-11-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 481 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard. CAU 481 is located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 12-42-05, Housekeeping Waste. CAU 481 closure activities were conducted by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency from August 2007 through July 2008 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites. Closure activities included removal and disposal of construction debris and low-level waste. Drained fluids, steel, and lead was recycled as appropriate. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed.

  13. An Experimental Field Dataset with Buoyant, Neutral, and Dense Gas Atmospheric Releases and Model Comparisons in Low-Wind Speed (Diffusion) Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica E. Wannberg, Gustavious Williams, Patrick Sawyer, and Richard Venedam

    2010-09-01

    Aunique field dataset from a series of low–wind speed experiments, modeling efforts using three commonly used models to replicate these releases, and statistical analysis of how well these models were able to predict the plume concentrations is presented. The experiment was designed to generate a dataset to describe the behavior of gaseous plumes under low-wind conditions and the ability of current, commonly used models to predict these movements. The dataset documents the release and transport of three gases: ammonia (buoyant), ethylene (neutral), and propylene (dense) in low–wind speed (diffusion) conditions. Release rates ranged from 1 to 20 kg h21. Ammonia and ethylene had five 5-min releases each to represent puff releases and five 20-min releases each to represent plume releases. Propylene had five 5-min puffs, six 20-min plumes, and a single 30-min plume. Thirty-two separate releases ranging from 6 to 47 min were conducted, of which only 30 releases generated useful data. The data collected included release rates, atmospheric concentrations to 100 m from the release point, and local meteorological conditions. The diagnostics included nine meteorological stations on 100-m centers and 36 photoionization detectors in a radial pattern. Three current stateof- the-practice models, Aerial locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA), Emergency Prediction Information code (EPIcode), and Second-Order Closure Integrated Puff (SCIPUFF), were used to try to duplicate the measured field results. Low wind speeds are difficult to model, and all of the models had difficulty replicating the field measurements. However, the work does show that these models, if used correctly, are conservative (overpredict concentrations) and can be used for safety and emergency planning.

  14. Metal release from contaminated coastal sediments under changing pH conditions: Implications for metal mobilization in acidified oceans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaosheng; Wang, Yushao; Zhao, Peihong; Chen, Liuqin; Yan, Changzhou; Yan, Yijun; Chi, Qiaoqiao

    2015-12-30

    To investigate the impacts and processes of CO2-induced acidification on metal mobilization, laboratory-scale experiments were performed, simulating the scenarios where carbon dioxide was injected into sediment-seawater layers inside non-pressurized chambers. Coastal sediments were sampled from two sites with different contamination levels and subjected to pre-determined pH conditions. Sediment samples and overlying water were collected for metal analysis after 10-days. The results indicated that CO2-induced ocean acidification would provoke increased metal mobilization causing adverse side-effects on water quality. The mobility of metals from sediment to the overlying seawater was correlated with the reduction in pH. Results of sequential extractions of sediments illustrated that exchangeable metal forms were the dominant source of mobile metals. Collectively, our data revealed that high metal concentrations in overlying seawater released from contaminated sediments under acidic conditions may strengthen the existing contamination gradients in Maluan Bay and represent a potential risk to ecosystem health in coastal environments.

  15. Encapsulation of R. planticola Rs-2 from alginate-starch-bentonite and its controlled release and swelling behavior under simulated soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhansheng; Guo, Lina; Qin, Shaohua; Li, Chun

    2012-02-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) Raoultella planticola Rs-2 was encapsulated with the various blends of alginate, starch, and bentonite for development of controlled-release formulations. The stability and release characteristics of these different capsule formulations were evaluated. The entrapment efficiency of Rs-2 in the beads (capsules) was more than 99%. The diameter of dry beads ranged from 0.98 to 1.41 mm. The bacteria release efficiency, swelling ratio, and biodegradability of the different bead formulations were enhanced by increasing the starch or alginate contents, but were impeded by higher bentonite content. The release kinetics of viable cells from capsules and the swelling ratio of capsules were studied in simulated soil media of varying temperature, moisture, pH, and salt content. The release of loaded Rs-2 cells and swelling of capsules are greatly affected by moisture, temperature, pH and salt content of the release medium. The release of viable Rs-2 cells from capsules was positively associated with the swelling properties of the capsules. The release of Rs-2 cells occurred through a Case II diffusion mechanism. In summary, this work indicates that alginate-starch-bentonite blends are a viable option for the development of efficient controlled-release formulations of Rs-2 biofertilizer, and which could have a promising application in natural field conditions. PMID:21879356

  16. Encapsulation of R. planticola Rs-2 from alginate-starch-bentonite and its controlled release and swelling behavior under simulated soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhansheng; Guo, Lina; Qin, Shaohua; Li, Chun

    2012-02-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) Raoultella planticola Rs-2 was encapsulated with the various blends of alginate, starch, and bentonite for development of controlled-release formulations. The stability and release characteristics of these different capsule formulations were evaluated. The entrapment efficiency of Rs-2 in the beads (capsules) was more than 99%. The diameter of dry beads ranged from 0.98 to 1.41 mm. The bacteria release efficiency, swelling ratio, and biodegradability of the different bead formulations were enhanced by increasing the starch or alginate contents, but were impeded by higher bentonite content. The release kinetics of viable cells from capsules and the swelling ratio of capsules were studied in simulated soil media of varying temperature, moisture, pH, and salt content. The release of loaded Rs-2 cells and swelling of capsules are greatly affected by moisture, temperature, pH and salt content of the release medium. The release of viable Rs-2 cells from capsules was positively associated with the swelling properties of the capsules. The release of Rs-2 cells occurred through a Case II diffusion mechanism. In summary, this work indicates that alginate-starch-bentonite blends are a viable option for the development of efficient controlled-release formulations of Rs-2 biofertilizer, and which could have a promising application in natural field conditions.

  17. Release of DEFB126 from macaque sperm and completion of capacitation are triggered by conditions that simulate periovulatory oviductal fluid.

    PubMed

    Tollner, Theodore L; Vandevoort, Catherine A; Yudin, Ashley I; Treece, Cathy A; Overstreet, James W; Cherr, Gary N

    2009-05-01

    Capacitation of macaque sperm in vitro has been achieved efficiently only with the addition of both cyclic nucleotides and methylxanthines. The use of these exogenous sperm activators clouds an understanding of the normal mechanisms underlying capacitation and may slow early embryo development following in vitro fertilization (IVF). We demonstrate that culture medium which simulates periovulatory oviductal fluid with respect to bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) and glucose concentration induces capacitation in a high percentage of macaque sperm as determined by the ability of sperm to undergo both the release of coating protein DEFB126 and the zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction (AR). Few sperm were able to undergo the AR following 6 hr incubation in medium containing either 35 mM HCO(3)(-) (approximately 7.2 pH) or 90 mM HCO(3)(-) (approximately pH 7.8) with 5 mM glucose. When glucose concentration was lowered to 0.5 mM to match levels reported for women at midcycle, the AR rate increased significantly in sperm incubated in both levels of HCO(3)(-), indicating that glucose interferes with sperm responsiveness to increasing HCO(3)(-) concentration observed in the primate oviduct during ovulation. Even greater synchronization of capacitation could be achieved with nonphysiologic extremes of alkalinity or energy substrate deprivation. In the latter case, sperm achieved high rates of IVF. A shift in pH from 7.2 to 7.8 in a HEPES-buffered medium was sufficient to remove DEFB126 from the surface of most sperm after only 3 hr. The loss of DEFB126 from sperm under periovulaory fluid conditions has implications for the timing of release of sperm from the oviductal reservoir.

  18. Release of Escherichia coli from Foreshore Sand and Pore Water during Intensified Wave Conditions at a Recreational Beach.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Laura J; O'Carroll, Denis M; Edge, Thomas A; Robinson, Clare E

    2016-06-01

    Foreshore beach sands and pore water may act as a reservoir and nonpoint source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to surface waters. This paper presents data collected at a fine sand beach on Lake Huron, Canada over three field events. The data show that foreshore sand erosion as wave height increases results in elevated Escherichia coli concentrations in surface water, as well as depletion of E. coli from the foreshore sand and pore water. E. coli initially attached to foreshore sand rather than initially residing in the pore water was found to be the main contributor to elevated surface water concentrations. Surface water E. coli concentrations were a function of not only wave height (and associated sand erosion) but also the time elapsed since a preceding period of high wave intensity. This finding is important for statistical regression models used to predict beach advisories. While calculations suggest that foreshore sand erosion may be the dominant mechanism for releasing E. coli to surface water during intensified wave conditions at a fine sand beach, comparative characterization of the E. coli distribution at a coarse sand-cobble beach suggests that interstitial pore water flow and discharge may be more important for coarser sand beaches.

  19. Release of Escherichia coli from Foreshore Sand and Pore Water during Intensified Wave Conditions at a Recreational Beach.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Laura J; O'Carroll, Denis M; Edge, Thomas A; Robinson, Clare E

    2016-06-01

    Foreshore beach sands and pore water may act as a reservoir and nonpoint source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to surface waters. This paper presents data collected at a fine sand beach on Lake Huron, Canada over three field events. The data show that foreshore sand erosion as wave height increases results in elevated Escherichia coli concentrations in surface water, as well as depletion of E. coli from the foreshore sand and pore water. E. coli initially attached to foreshore sand rather than initially residing in the pore water was found to be the main contributor to elevated surface water concentrations. Surface water E. coli concentrations were a function of not only wave height (and associated sand erosion) but also the time elapsed since a preceding period of high wave intensity. This finding is important for statistical regression models used to predict beach advisories. While calculations suggest that foreshore sand erosion may be the dominant mechanism for releasing E. coli to surface water during intensified wave conditions at a fine sand beach, comparative characterization of the E. coli distribution at a coarse sand-cobble beach suggests that interstitial pore water flow and discharge may be more important for coarser sand beaches. PMID:27120087

  20. A protocol to assess the enzymatic release of dissolved organic phosphorus species in waters under environmentally relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Monbet, Phil; McKelvie, Ian D; Saefumillah, Asep; Worsfold, Paul J

    2007-11-01

    A protocol to assess the potential release of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) by enzymatic hydrolysis of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in waters (sediment porewater and sewage liquors in this study) under environmental conditions is presented. This protocol enables the quantification of different classes of DOP compounds using a variety of phosphatase enzymes, i.e., alkaline phosphatase, phosphodiesterase, and phytase. All experiments were carried out within the pH range of most natural waters, i.e., at neutral (pH 7) or slightly alkaline pH (pH 9). Tri-sodium citrate and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were used in the assays to prevent interferences due to adsorption processes in the presence of multivalent metallic cations and to minimize protein binding. Applying this protocol revealed that labile phosphate monoesters always represented the largest fraction of enzymatically hydrolyzed P in sewage liquors and sediment porewater. Total enzymatically hydrolyzable P (EHP) represented only 16% of the TDP in the sediment porewater but up to 43% in sewage liquors. Because most of the enzymes used in this study are likely to exist in aquatic ecosystems, the EHP fraction might represent a source of potentially bioavailable P of similar magnitude to DRP. PMID:18044529

  1. RESUSPENSION OF CONTAMINATED FIELD AND FORMULATED REFERENCE SEDIMENTS PART 1: EVALUATION OF METAL RELEASE UNDER CONTROLLED LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In aquatic systems where metal-contaminated sediments are present, the potential exists for metals to be released to the water column when sediment resuspension occurs. The release and partitioning behavior of sediment-bound, toxic heavy metals is not well understood during res...

  2. Different assay conditions for detecting the production and release of heat-labile and heat-stable toxins in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Letícia B; Ozaki, Christiane Y; Horton, Denise S P Q; Menezes, Caroline A; Silva, Anderson; Fernandes, Irene; Magnoli, Fabio C; Vaz, Tania M I; Guth, Beatriz E C; Piazza, Roxane M F

    2013-12-02

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable enterotoxins (ST). Despite that, the mechanism of action of both toxins are well known, there is great controversy in the literature concerning the in vitro production and release of LT and, for ST, no major concerns have been discussed. Furthermore, the majority of published papers describe the use of only one or a few ETEC isolates to define the production and release of these toxins, which hinders the detection of ETEC by phenotypic approaches. Thus, the present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of ST and LT toxin production and release under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, a collection of 90 LT-, ST-, and ST/LT-producing ETEC isolates was used to determine a protocol for toxin production and release aimed at ETEC detection. For this, we used previously raised anti-LT antibodies and the anti-ST monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies described herein. The presence of bile salts and the use of certain antibiotics improved ETEC toxin production/release. Triton X-100, as chemical treatment, proved to be an alternative method for toxin release. Consequently, a common protocol that can increase the production and release of LT and ST toxins could facilitate and enhance the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for ETEC using the raised and described antibodies in the present work.

  3. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin on silver surfaces enhances the release of silver at pH neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Herting, G; Wallinder, I Odnevall; Blomberg, E

    2015-07-28

    Metallic biomaterials are widely used to replace and/or restore the function of damaged bodily parts. The use of silver as antibacterial coatings onto implants has recently gained large interest in medical applications. The extent of silver that can be released into different biological fluids from such coatings is, except for the surface characteristics of the coating, governed by parameters such as protein characteristics, adsorbed layer properties, formation of silver-protein complexes as well as concentrations of proteins in the solution. This study aims to relate the structure of adsorbed net negatively charged bovine serum albumin (BSA), which is the most abundant protein in serum, to the release of silver from metallic silver surfaces in order to elucidate if the net charge of the protein has any effect of the silver release. Simultaneous adsorption measurements were performed in real time on the very same surface using combined ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measurements to provide a more comprehensive understanding on adsorption kinetics and layer structures. The amount of released silver into solution was measured by means of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS). The structure of the adsorbed BSA layer largely influenced the amount of released silver, an enhancement that increased with BSA concentration. These observations are in complete contrast to the effect of net positively charged lysozyme (LSZ) adsorbed on silver, previously studied by the authors, for which a complete surface coverage suppressed the possibility for silver release. The underlying mechanisms behind the enhanced release of silver in the presence of BSA were mainly attributed to surface complexation between BSA and silver followed by an enhanced exchange rate of these surface complexes with BSA molecules in the solution, which in turn increase the amount of released silver in solution. PMID:26111372

  4. FASTGRASS: A mechanistic model for the prediction of Xe, I, Cs, Te, Ba, and Sr release from nuclear fuel under normal and severe-accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, J.; Zawadzki, S.A. )

    1992-09-01

    The primary physical/chemical models that form the basis of the FASTGRASS mechanistic computer model for calculating fission-product release from nuclear fuel are described. Calculated results are compared with test data and the major mechanisms affecting the transport of fission products during steady-state and accident conditions are identified.

  5. Examination of fabrication conditions of acrylate-based hydrogel formulations for doxorubicin release and efficacy test for hepatocellular carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Gozen, Damla; Ersoy, Gozde; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Akcali, K Can; Arica, M Yakup

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate-co-polyethylene methacrylate [p(HPMA-co-PEG-MEMA)] hydrogels that are able to efficiently entrap doxorubicin for the application of loco-regional control of the cancer disease. Systemic chemotherapy provides low clinical benefit while localized chemotherapy might provide a therapeutic advantage. In this study, effects of hydrogel properties such as PEG chains length, cross-linking density, biocompatibility, drug loading efficiency, and drug release kinetics were evaluated in vitro for targeted and controlled drug delivery. In addition, the characterization of the hydrogel formulations was conducted with swelling experiments, permeability tests, Fourier transform infrared, SEM, and contact angle studies. In these drug-hydrogel systems, doxorubicin contains amine group that can be expected a strong Lewis acid-base interaction between drug and polar groups of PEG chains, thus the drug was released in a timely fashion with an electrostatic interaction mechanism. It was observed that doxorubicin release from the hydrogel formulations decreased when the density of cross-linking, and drug/polymer ratio were increased while an increase in the PEG chains length of the macro-monomer (i.e. PEG-MEMA) in the hydrogel system was associated with an increase in water content and doxorubicin release. The biocompatibility of the hydrogel formulations has been investigated using two measures: cytotoxicity test (using lactate dehydrogenase assay) and major serum proteins adsorption studies. Antitumor activity of the released doxorubicin was assessed using a human SNU398 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. It was observed that doxorubicin released from all of our hydrogel formulations which remained biologically active and had the capability to kill the tested cancer cells. PMID:24580096

  6. Determination of fission gas release of spent nuclear fuel in puncturing test and in leaching experiments under anoxic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Robles, E.; Metz, V.; Wegen, D. H.; Herm, M.; Papaioannou, D.; Bohnert, E.; Gretter, R.; Müller, N.; Nasyrow, R.; de Weerd, W.; Wiss, T.; Kienzler, B.

    2016-10-01

    During reactor operation the fission gases Kr and Xe are formed within the UO2 matrix of nuclear fuel. Their quantification is important to evaluate their impact on critical parameters regarding the fuel behaviour during irradiation and (long-term) interim storage, such as internal pressure of the fuel rod and fuel swelling. Moreover the content of Kr and Xe in the plenum of a fuel rod and their content in the UO2 fuel itself are widely used as indicators for the release properties of 129I, 137Cs, and other safety relevant radionuclides with respect to final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The present study deals with the fission gas release from spent nuclear fuel exposed to simulated groundwater in comparison with the fission gas previously released to the fuel rod plenum during irradiation in reactor. In a unique approach we determined both the Kr and Xe inventories in the plenum by means of a puncturing test and in leaching experiments with a cladded fuel pellet and fuel fragments in bicarbonate water under 3.2 bar H2 overpressure. The fractional inventory of the fission gases released during irradiation into the plenum was (8.3 ± 0.9) %. The fraction of inventory of fission gases released during the leaching experiments was (17 ± 2) % after 333 days of leaching of the cladded pellet and (25 ± 2) % after 447 days of leaching of the fuel fragments, respectively. The relatively high release of fission gases in the experiment with fuel fragments was caused by the increased accessibility of water to the Kr and Xe occluded in the fuel.

  7. Licensing topical report: the measurement and modelling of time-dependent fission product release from failed HTGR fuel particles under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.; Morrissey, R.E.

    1980-04-01

    The release of fission products from failed fuel particles was measured under simulated accident (core heatup) conditions. A generic model and specific model parameters that describe delayed fission product release from the kernels of failed HTGR fuel particles were developed from the experimental results. The release of fission products was measured from laser-failed BISO ThO/sub 2/ and highly enriched (HEU) TRISO UC/sub 2/ particles that had been irradiated to a range of kernel burnups. The burnups were 0.25, 1.4, and 15.7% FIMA for ThO/sub 2/ particles and 23.5 and 74% FIMA for UC/sub 2/ particles. The fission products measured were nuclides of xenon, iodine, krypton, tellurium, and cesium.

  8. Version 3 of the historical-clinical-risk management-20 (HCR-20V3): relevance to violence risk assessment and management in forensic conditional release contexts.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Kevin S

    2014-09-01

    The conditional release of insanity acquittees requires decisions both about community risk level and the contextual factors that may mitigate or aggravate risk. This article discusses the potential role of the newly revised Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20 (HCR-20, Version 3) within the conditional release context. A brief review of the structured professional judgment (SPJ) approach to violence risk assessment and management is provided. Version 2 of the HCR-20, which has been broadly adopted and evaluated, is briefly described. New features of Version 3 of the HCR-20 with particular relevance to conditional release decision-making are reviewed, including: item indicators; ratings of the relevance of risk factors to an individual's violence; risk formulation; scenario planning; and risk management planning. Version 3 of the HCR-20 includes a number of features that should assist evaluators and decision-makers to determine risk level, as well as to anticipate and specify community conditions and contexts that may mitigate or aggravate risk. Research on the HCR-20 Version 3 using approximately 800 participants across three settings (forensic psychiatric, civil psychiatric, correctional) and eight countries is reviewed.

  9. Version 3 of the historical-clinical-risk management-20 (HCR-20V3): relevance to violence risk assessment and management in forensic conditional release contexts.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Kevin S

    2014-09-01

    The conditional release of insanity acquittees requires decisions both about community risk level and the contextual factors that may mitigate or aggravate risk. This article discusses the potential role of the newly revised Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20 (HCR-20, Version 3) within the conditional release context. A brief review of the structured professional judgment (SPJ) approach to violence risk assessment and management is provided. Version 2 of the HCR-20, which has been broadly adopted and evaluated, is briefly described. New features of Version 3 of the HCR-20 with particular relevance to conditional release decision-making are reviewed, including: item indicators; ratings of the relevance of risk factors to an individual's violence; risk formulation; scenario planning; and risk management planning. Version 3 of the HCR-20 includes a number of features that should assist evaluators and decision-makers to determine risk level, as well as to anticipate and specify community conditions and contexts that may mitigate or aggravate risk. Research on the HCR-20 Version 3 using approximately 800 participants across three settings (forensic psychiatric, civil psychiatric, correctional) and eight countries is reviewed. PMID:25278316

  10. Prenatal L-DOPA exposure produces lasting changes in brain dopamine content, cocaine-induced dopamine release and cocaine conditioned place preference

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jia-Qian; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Zhihui; McCarthy, Deirdre; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M.; Tropea, Thomas F.; Kosofsky, Barry E.; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine, its receptors and transporter are present in the brain beginning from early in the embryonic period. Dopamine receptor activation can influence developmental events including neurogenesis, neuronal migration and differentiation raising the possibility that dopamine imbalance in the fetal brain can alter development of the brain and behavior. We examined whether elevated dopamine levels during gestation can produce persisting changes in brain dopamine content and dopamine-mediated behaviors. We administered L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) in drinking water to timed-pregnant CD1 mice from the 11th day of gestation until the day of parturition. The prenatal L-DOPA exposure led to significantly lower cocaine conditioned place preference, a behavioral test of reward, at postnatal day 60 (P60). However, in vivo microdialysis measurements showed significant increases in cocaine-induced dopamine release in the caudate putamen of P26 and P60 mice exposed to L-DOPA prenatally, ruling out attenuated dopamine release in the caudate putamen as a contributor to decreased conditioned place preference. Although dopamine release was induced in the nucleus accumbens of prenatally L-DOPA exposed mice at P60 by cocaine, the dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens was not significantly different between the L-DOPA and control groups. However, basal dopamine release was significantly higher in the prenatally L-DOPA exposed mice at P60 suggesting that the L-DOPA exposed mice may require a higher dose of cocaine for induction of cocaine place preference than the controls. The prenatal L-DOPA exposure did not alter cocaine-induced locomotor response, suggesting dissociation between the effects of prenatal L-DOPA exposure on conditioned place preference and locomotor activity. Tissue concentration of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum and ventral midbrain were significantly affected by the L-DOPA exposure as well as by developmental changes over the P14 to P60

  11. CFD analysis of the influence of meteorological conditions on motion of gas ammonia in the case of emergency release in urban development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavila, O.; Bojko, M.; Kozubková, M.; Danihelka, P.; Maléřová, L.

    2013-10-01

    Ammonia in all physical states is a toxic substance that can endanger people's health. It is used in various industrial technologies, including freezing of ice surfaces in ice stadiums. There exist advanced ammonia-free technologies but in many places liquid ammonia is still used in large volumes. It is no exception that objects using ammonia cooling and freezing technologies are placed in densely populated urban areas or in their immediate vicinities. An accidental ammonia release can pose a risk to health and lives of humans located in the release source immediate vicinity. The article presents the results of a numerical CFD model of gas ammonia plume motion and dispersion after an accidental release from a real ice stadium situated in an urban area. The CFD analysis was performed using the ANSYS Fluent 14.0 for two seasons and eight wind directions. Sixteen tasks emerged, the results of which can define the influence of meteorological conditions (wind direction, wind speed, temperature, etc.) and surrounding buildings on the motion and dispersion of pollutant plume. The simulation was performed with real local meteorological data. The numerical model had been verified by tasks performed in a low-speed wind tunnel. The results show that the influence of meteorological conditions, especially the influence of calendar seasons, on the pollutant plume propagation can be very pronounced. Principles and conclusions drawn from this and similar analyses may have great benefits for emergency planning in complex urban areas.

  12. A ketone/alcohol polymer for cycle of electrolytic hydrogen-fixing with water and releasing under mild conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Ryo; Yoshimasa, Keisuke; Egashira, Tatsuya; Oya, Takahiro; Oyaizu, Kenichi; Nishide, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Finding a safe and efficient carrier of hydrogen is a major challenge. Recently, hydrogenated organic compounds have been studied as hydrogen storage materials because of their ability to stably and reversibly store hydrogen by forming chemical bonds; however, these compounds often suffer from safety issues and are usually hydrogenated with hydrogen at high pressure and/or temperature. Here we present a ketone (fluorenone) polymer that can be moulded as a plastic sheet and fixes hydrogen via a simple electrolytic hydrogenation at -1.5 V (versus Ag/AgCl) in water at room temperature. The hydrogenated alcohol derivative (the fluorenol polymer) reversibly releases hydrogen by heating (80 °C) in the presence of an aqueous iridium catalyst. Both the use of a ketone polymer and the efficient hydrogen fixing with water as a proton source are completely different from other (de)hydrogenated compounds and hydrogenation processes. The easy handling and mouldable polymers could suggest a pocketable hydrogen carrier.

  13. mTOR ensures increased release and reduced uptake of the organic osmolyte taurine under hypoosmotic conditions in mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Jensen, Jane Vendelbo; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that modulates translation in response to growth factors and alterations in nutrient availability following hypoxia and DNA damage. Here we demonstrate that mTOR activity in Ehrlich Lettré ascites (ELA) cells is transiently increased within minutes following osmotic cell swelling and that inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphatase (PTEN) counteracts the upstream phosphatidylinositol kinase and potentiates mTOR activity. PTEN inhibition concomitantly potentiates swelling-induced taurine release via the volume-sensitive transporter for organic osmolytes and anion channels (VSOAC) and enhances swelling-induced inhibition of taurine uptake via the taurine-specific transporter (TauT). Chronic osmotic stress, i.e., exposure to hypotonic or hypertonic media for 24 h, reduces and increases mTOR activity in ELA cells, respectively. Using rapamycin, we demonstrate that mTOR inhibition is accompanied by reduction in TauT activity and increase in VSOAC activity in cells expressing high (NIH3T3 fibroblasts) or low (ELA) amounts of mTOR protein. The effect of mTOR inhibition on TauT activity reflects reduced TauT mRNA, TauT protein abundance, and an overall reduction in protein synthesis, whereas the effect on VSOAC is mimicked by catalase inhibition and correlates with reduced catalase mRNA abundance. Hence, mTOR activity favors loss of taurine following hypoosmotic cell swelling, i.e., release via VSOAC and uptake via TauT during acute hypotonic exposure is potentiated and reduced, respectively, by phosphorylation involving mTOR and/or the kinases upstream to mTOR. Decrease in TauT activity during chronic hypotonic exposure, on the other hand, involves reduction in expression/activity of TauT and enzymes in antioxidative defense. PMID:24696147

  14. Modelling the impact of climatic conditions and plant species on the nitrogen release from mulch of legumes at the soil surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudinat, Germain; Lorin, Mathieu; Valantin-morison, Muriel; Garnier, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Cover crops provide multiple services to the agro ecosystem. Among them, the use of legumes as cover crop is one of the solutions for limiting the use of herbicides, mineral fertilizers, and insecticides. However, the dynamic of mineralization is difficult to understand because of the difficulty of measuring nitrogen release from mulch in field. Indeed, residues are degraded at the soil surface as mulch, while the nitrogen uptake by the main crop occurred simultaneously in the soil. This work aims to study the dynamics of nitrogen mineralization from legume residues through i) the use of a model able to describe the physical and biological dynamic of mulch and ii) a data set from a field experiment of intercropping systems "oilseed rape-legumes" from different species (grass pea, lentil, Berseem clover, field pea, vetch). The objective of the simulations is to identify the variations of expected quantities of nitrogen from different legumes. The soil-plant model of mulch decomposition PASTIS-Mulch was used to determine the nitrogen supply from mulch available for rapeseed. These simulation results were compared to the data collected in the experimental field of Grignon (France). We performed analyzes of biochemical and physical characteristics of legume residues and monitored the evolution of mulches (moisture, density, cover surface, biomass) in fields. PASTIS simulations of soil temperature, soil moisture, mulch humidity and mulch decomposition were close to the experimental results. The PASTIS model was suitable to simulate the dynamic of legume mulches in the case of "rape - legume" associations. The model simulated nitrogen restitution of aerial and root parts. We found a more rapid nitrogen release by grass pea than other species. Vetch released less nitrogen than the other species. The scenarios for climate conditions were : i) a freezing in December that causes the destruction of plants, or a destruction by herbicide in March, ii) a strong or a weak rainy

  15. Enhancing the stability and ecological safety of mass-reared transgenic strains for field release by redundant conditional lethality systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in the genetic manipulation of agriculturally important insects now allows the development of genetic sexing and male sterility systems for more highly efficient biologically-based population control programs, most notably SIT, in fruit pests throughout the world. Potentially, these condit...

  16. Valproic acid inhibits excess dopamine release in response to a fear-conditioned stimulus in the basolateral complex of the amygdala of methamphetamine-sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Junko; Oshibuchi, Hidehiro; Kasai, Akiko; Inada, Ken; Ishigooka, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Valproic acid, an established antiepileptic and antimanic drug, has recently emerged as a promising emotion-stabilizing agent for patients with psychosis. Although dopamine transmission in the amygdala plays a key role in emotional processing, there has been no direct evidence about how valproic acid acts on the dopaminergic system in the brain during emotional processing. In the present study, we tested the effect of valproic acid on a trait marker of vulnerability to emotional stress in psychosis, which is excess dopamine release in response to a fear-conditioned stimulus (CS) in the basolateral complex of the amygdala of methamphetamine-sensitized rats. Extracellular dopamine was collected from the amygdala of freely moving methamphetamine-sensitized rats by in vivo microdialysis and was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. During microdialysis, valproic acid was intraperitoneally injected followed by CS exposure. Valproic acid treatment decreased baseline levels of dopamine and also attenuated the excess dopamine release in response to the CS in the amygdala of methamphetamine-sensitized rats. The results prove that valproic acid inhibits spontaneous dopamine release and also attenuates excess dopaminergic signaling in response to emotional stress in the amygdala. These findings suggest that the mechanisms of the emotion-stabilizing effect of valproic acid in psychosis involve modulation of dopaminergic transmission in emotional processing.

  17. Validation of a numerical code for the simulation of a short-term CO2 release in an open environment: effect of wind conditions and obstacles.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, E; Heitsch, M; Baraldi, D

    2011-06-15

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of the possible mitigation measures to reduce the CO(2) emissions produced from anthropogenic sources and thus help address the issue of global warming. Accidental CO(2) releases may occur at any of the CCS stages, having potentially harmful consequences on the people who work in the CCS facilities, the general public in their vicinity and the environment. CFD is an increasingly used tool to investigate the behavior of released substances and predict the consequences of hazardous scenarios. This information aids the development of mitigation methods to minimize the consequences of an accident. The validation of numerical codes and models is a necessary preliminary step before their application to safety and risk assessment analysis. In this context, numerical simulations of CO(2) release and dispersion field experiments were performed with a CFD code. The experimental data were taken from the Kit Fox CO(2) gas field experiments which were designed to investigate the effect of ground roughness of industrial process plants and of meteorological conditions on the formation and extent of the CO(2) gas cloud. This study presents a comparison between the simulation results and the experimental measurements in order to assess the accuracy of the code with different modeling approaches.

  18. Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part II: effect of operational conditions on contaminant release.

    PubMed

    Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the evolution profile of tar in the product gas during cedar biomass gasification. We also discuss the evolution of other contaminants (H(2)S, COS, NH(3), HCN, and HCl). The cedar wood was gasified under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Tar levels in the product gas were significantly affected by the operating conditions used. At a gasification temperature of 923 K, there was no clear relation between the evolution of phenolic tar in the product gas as a function of residence time. The evolution of PAH tar at a low gasification temperature was lower than the evolution of phenolic tar. With increasing temperature, the proportion of PAH tar content became significant. At a gasification temperature of 1223 K, increasing the residence time reduced the content of PAH tar owing to a catalytic effect associated with ash generation at high temperatures. Increasing the steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratio under thermal conditions had a slight effect on PAH conversion. However, increasing the equivalence ratio (ER) effectively reduced the tar levels. The conversion of fuel-sulfur and fuel-nitrogen to volatile-sulfur and volatile-nitrogen, respectively, increased with increasing S/C ratio and ER. The evolutions of COS and HCN gases were much smaller than the evolution of H(2)S and NH(3). The evolution of HCl in the product gas decreased slightly with increasing ER. Increasing the S/C ratio decreased the HCl levels in the product gas. The effect of temperature on contaminant levels could not be fully understood due to limited availability of experimental data at various temperatures. We also compare our findings with data in the literature.

  19. Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part II: effect of operational conditions on contaminant release.

    PubMed

    Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the evolution profile of tar in the product gas during cedar biomass gasification. We also discuss the evolution of other contaminants (H(2)S, COS, NH(3), HCN, and HCl). The cedar wood was gasified under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Tar levels in the product gas were significantly affected by the operating conditions used. At a gasification temperature of 923 K, there was no clear relation between the evolution of phenolic tar in the product gas as a function of residence time. The evolution of PAH tar at a low gasification temperature was lower than the evolution of phenolic tar. With increasing temperature, the proportion of PAH tar content became significant. At a gasification temperature of 1223 K, increasing the residence time reduced the content of PAH tar owing to a catalytic effect associated with ash generation at high temperatures. Increasing the steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratio under thermal conditions had a slight effect on PAH conversion. However, increasing the equivalence ratio (ER) effectively reduced the tar levels. The conversion of fuel-sulfur and fuel-nitrogen to volatile-sulfur and volatile-nitrogen, respectively, increased with increasing S/C ratio and ER. The evolutions of COS and HCN gases were much smaller than the evolution of H(2)S and NH(3). The evolution of HCl in the product gas decreased slightly with increasing ER. Increasing the S/C ratio decreased the HCl levels in the product gas. The effect of temperature on contaminant levels could not be fully understood due to limited availability of experimental data at various temperatures. We also compare our findings with data in the literature. PMID:22980959

  20. Proteome analysis of dormancy-released seeds of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. in response to re-dehydration under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Di; Shen, Hailong; Li, Yuhua; Nie, Yuzhe

    2015-03-02

    Desiccation tolerance is the ability of orthodox seeds to achieve equilibrium with atmospheric relative humidity and to survive in this state. Understanding how orthodox seeds respond to dehydration is important for improving quality and long-term storage of seeds under low temperature and drought stress conditions. Long-term storage of seeds is an artificial situation, because in most natural situations a seed that has been shed may not remain in a desiccated state for very long, and if dormant it may undergo repeated cycles of hydration. Different types of seeds are differentially sensitive to desiccation and this directly affects long-term storage. For these reasons, many researchers are investigating loss of desiccation tolerance during orthodox seed development to understand how it is acquired. In this study, the orthodox seed proteome response of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. to dehydration (to a relative water content of 10%, which mimics seed dehydration) was investigated under four different conditions viz. 20 °C; 20 °C with silica gel; 1 °C; and 1 °C after pretreatment with Ca2+. Proteins from seeds dehydrated under different conditions were extracted and separated by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). A total of 2919 protein spots were detected, and high-resolution 2D-DIGE indicated there were 27 differentially expressed. Seven of these were identified using MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Inferences from bioinformatics annotations of these proteins established the possible involvement of detoxifying enzymes, transport proteins, and nucleotide metabolism enzymes in response to dehydration. Of the seven differentially abundant proteins, the amounts of six were down-regulated and one was up-regulated. Also, a putative acyl-coenzyme A oxidase of the glyoxylate cycle increased in abundance. In particular, the presence of kinesin-1, a protein important for regulation and cargo interaction, was up-regulated in seeds exposed to low

  1. Proteome analysis of dormancy-released seeds of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. in response to re-dehydration under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Di; Shen, Hailong; Li, Yuhua; Nie, Yuzhe

    2015-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance is the ability of orthodox seeds to achieve equilibrium with atmospheric relative humidity and to survive in this state. Understanding how orthodox seeds respond to dehydration is important for improving quality and long-term storage of seeds under low temperature and drought stress conditions. Long-term storage of seeds is an artificial situation, because in most natural situations a seed that has been shed may not remain in a desiccated state for very long, and if dormant it may undergo repeated cycles of hydration. Different types of seeds are differentially sensitive to desiccation and this directly affects long-term storage. For these reasons, many researchers are investigating loss of desiccation tolerance during orthodox seed development to understand how it is acquired. In this study, the orthodox seed proteome response of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. to dehydration (to a relative water content of 10%, which mimics seed dehydration) was investigated under four different conditions viz. 20 °C; 20 °C with silica gel; 1 °C; and 1 °C after pretreatment with Ca2+. Proteins from seeds dehydrated under different conditions were extracted and separated by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). A total of 2919 protein spots were detected, and high-resolution 2D-DIGE indicated there were 27 differentially expressed. Seven of these were identified using MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Inferences from bioinformatics annotations of these proteins established the possible involvement of detoxifying enzymes, transport proteins, and nucleotide metabolism enzymes in response to dehydration. Of the seven differentially abundant proteins, the amounts of six were down-regulated and one was up-regulated. Also, a putative acyl-coenzyme A oxidase of the glyoxylate cycle increased in abundance. In particular, the presence of kinesin-1, a protein important for regulation and cargo interaction, was up-regulated in seeds exposed to low

  2. The response of abyssal organisms to low pH conditions during a series of CO2-release experiments simulating deep-sea carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, J. P.; Buck, K. R.; Lovera, C.; Brewer, P. G.; Seibel, B. A.; Drazen, J. C.; Tamburri, M. N.; Whaling, P. J.; Kuhnz, L.; Pane, E. F.

    2013-08-01

    The effects of low-pH, high-pCO2 conditions on deep-sea organisms were examined during four deep-sea CO2 release experiments simulating deep-ocean C sequestration by the direct injection of CO2 into the deep sea. We examined the survival of common deep-sea, benthic organisms (microbes; macrofauna, dominated by Polychaeta, Nematoda, Crustacea, Mollusca; megafauna, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Pisces) exposed to low-pH waters emanating as a dissolution plume from pools of liquid carbon dioxide released on the seabed during four abyssal CO2-release experiments. Microbial abundance in deep-sea sediments was unchanged in one experiment, but increased under environmental hypercapnia during another, where the microbial assemblage may have benefited indirectly from the negative impact of low-pH conditions on other taxa. Lower abyssal metazoans exhibited low survival rates near CO2 pools. No urchins or holothurians survived during 30-42 days of exposure to episodic, but severe environmental hypercapnia during one experiment (E1; pH reduced by as much as ca. 1.4 units). These large pH reductions also caused 75% mortality for the deep-sea amphipod, Haploops lodo, near CO2 pools. Survival under smaller pH reductions (ΔpH<0.4 units) in other experiments (E2, E3, E5) was higher for all taxa, including echinoderms. Gastropods, cephalopods, and fish were more tolerant than most other taxa. The gastropod Retimohnia sp. and octopus Benthoctopus sp. survived exposure to pH reductions that episodically reached -0.3 pH units. Ninety percent of abyssal zoarcids (Pachycara bulbiceps) survived exposure to pH changes reaching ca. -0.3 pH units during 30-42 day-long experiments.

  3. Decomposition of 14C containing organic molecules released from radioactive waste by gamma-radiolysis under repository conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kani, Yuko; Noshita, Kenji; Kawasaki, Toru; Nasu, Yuji; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Sakuragi, Tomofumi; Asano, Hidekazu

    2008-04-01

    Decomposition of 14C containing organic molecules into an inorganic compound has been investigated by γ-ray irradiation experiments under simulated repository conditions for radioactive waste. Lower molecular weight organic acids, alcohols, and aldehydes leached from metallic waste are reacted with OH radicals to give carbonic acid. A decomposition efficiency that expresses consumption of OH radicals by decomposition reaction of organic molecules is proposed. Decomposition efficiency increases with increasing concentration of organic molecules (1×10 -6-1×10 -3 mol dm -3) and is not dependent on dose rate (10-1000 Gy h -1). Observed dependence indicates that decomposition efficiency is determined by reaction probability of OH radicals with organic molecules.

  4. Basalt Weathering, Nutrient Uptake, And Carbon Release By An Exotic And A Native Arizona Grass Species Under Different Temperature Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallas, G.; Dontsova, K.; Chorover, J.; Hunt, E.; Ravi, S.

    2010-12-01

    During this past summer, the National Science Foundation funded a 10-week Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program “Environmental and Earth Systems Research at Biosphere 2”. This program provides undergraduates with an opportunity to conduct guided research in environmental and Earth systems science and has resulted in this work. Biosphere 2 allows for the exploration of complex questions in Earth sciences because of its large scale and the precise control allowed over many experimental elements. The goal of this study was to observe plant-mediated weathering of granular basalt under two temperature conditions. Two grass species were studied, one native to Arizona: Tanglehead, Heteropogan contortus, and one exotic to Arizona: Buffelgrass, Pennisetum ciliar. The grasses were grown in pots located in the Desert and the Savannah Biomes in the Biosphere 2 to take advantage of a 4° C temperature difference. Understanding differences in how native and invasive grasses weather soil and take up nutrients may explain the mechanism behind current invasion of Sonoran Desert by exotic species and help predict response of native and invasive vegetation to expected increase in temperatures. Each biome also contained three replicate “control” pots without vegetation, and mixtures of the two grass species to observe possible competition between the species. Three factors were compared in this study: 1. Temperature: the same species of grass under two different temperature conditions 2. Species: Native Arizonan species vs. a species exotic to Arizona 3. Temporal: How the grasses use resources differently as they grow Leachate samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, inorganic carbon by high temperature combustion coupled with infrared gas analysis; F-, Cl-, Br-, NO3-, NO2-, SO42-, and PO43- by ion chromatography; and cations and metals by ICP-MS. The data trends indicate that plants enhanced

  5. Short and long term release mechanisms of arsenic, selenium and boron from a tunnel-excavated sedimentary rock under in situ conditions.

    PubMed

    Tamoto, Shuichi; Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Ito, Mayumi; Hiroyoshi, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks of marine origin excavated from tunnel construction projects usually contain background levels of hazardous trace elements, but when exposed to the environment, they generate leachates with concentrations of arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and boron (B) exceeding the WHO guideline for drinking water. In this study, the leaching of As, Se and B was evaluated under in situ conditions at various flow patterns, particle size distributions and column thicknesses. The results showed that these trace elements were leached out of the rock via short and long term mechanisms. In the short term, all three elements were rapidly and simultaneously released due to the dissolution of soluble evaporite salts formed from entrapped sea water of the Cretaceous. After their rapid release, however, these trace elements behaved differently as a result of their contrasting adsorption affinities onto minerals like clays and Fe-oxyhydroxides, which were further influenced by the pH, presence of coexisting ions and speciation of the trace elements. Selenium was quickly and easily transported out of the columns because it was mostly present as the very mobile selenate ion (Se[VI]). In comparison, the migration of As and B was hindered by adsorption reactions onto mineral phases of the rock. Boron was initially the least mobile among the three because of its preferential adsorption onto clay minerals that was further enhanced by the slightly alkaline pH and high concentrations of Ca(2+) and Na(+). However, it was gradually re-mobilized in the latter part of the experiments because it was only weakly adsorbed via outer sphere complexation reactions. In the long term, the rock continued to release substantial amounts of As, Se and B via pyrite oxidation and adsorption/desorption reactions, which were regulated by the temperature and rainfall intensity/frequency on site.

  6. Short and long term release mechanisms of arsenic, selenium and boron from a tunnel-excavated sedimentary rock under in situ conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamoto, Shuichi; Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Ito, Mayumi; Hiroyoshi, Naoki

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary rocks of marine origin excavated from tunnel construction projects usually contain background levels of hazardous trace elements, but when exposed to the environment, they generate leachates with concentrations of arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and boron (B) exceeding the WHO guideline for drinking water. In this study, the leaching of As, Se and B was evaluated under in situ conditions at various flow patterns, particle size distributions and column thicknesses. The results showed that these trace elements were leached out of the rock via short and long term mechanisms. In the short term, all three elements were rapidly and simultaneously released due to the dissolution of soluble evaporite salts formed from entrapped sea water of the Cretaceous. After their rapid release, however, these trace elements behaved differently as a result of their contrasting adsorption affinities onto minerals like clays and Fe-oxyhydroxides, which were further influenced by the pH, presence of coexisting ions and speciation of the trace elements. Selenium was quickly and easily transported out of the columns because it was mostly present as the very mobile selenate ion (Se[VI]). In comparison, the migration of As and B was hindered by adsorption reactions onto mineral phases of the rock. Boron was initially the least mobile among the three because of its preferential adsorption onto clay minerals that was further enhanced by the slightly alkaline pH and high concentrations of Ca2 + and Na+. However, it was gradually re-mobilized in the latter part of the experiments because it was only weakly adsorbed via outer sphere complexation reactions. In the long term, the rock continued to release substantial amounts of As, Se and B via pyrite oxidation and adsorption/desorption reactions, which were regulated by the temperature and rainfall intensity/frequency on site.

  7. Short and long term release mechanisms of arsenic, selenium and boron from a tunnel-excavated sedimentary rock under in situ conditions.

    PubMed

    Tamoto, Shuichi; Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Ito, Mayumi; Hiroyoshi, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks of marine origin excavated from tunnel construction projects usually contain background levels of hazardous trace elements, but when exposed to the environment, they generate leachates with concentrations of arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and boron (B) exceeding the WHO guideline for drinking water. In this study, the leaching of As, Se and B was evaluated under in situ conditions at various flow patterns, particle size distributions and column thicknesses. The results showed that these trace elements were leached out of the rock via short and long term mechanisms. In the short term, all three elements were rapidly and simultaneously released due to the dissolution of soluble evaporite salts formed from entrapped sea water of the Cretaceous. After their rapid release, however, these trace elements behaved differently as a result of their contrasting adsorption affinities onto minerals like clays and Fe-oxyhydroxides, which were further influenced by the pH, presence of coexisting ions and speciation of the trace elements. Selenium was quickly and easily transported out of the columns because it was mostly present as the very mobile selenate ion (Se[VI]). In comparison, the migration of As and B was hindered by adsorption reactions onto mineral phases of the rock. Boron was initially the least mobile among the three because of its preferential adsorption onto clay minerals that was further enhanced by the slightly alkaline pH and high concentrations of Ca(2+) and Na(+). However, it was gradually re-mobilized in the latter part of the experiments because it was only weakly adsorbed via outer sphere complexation reactions. In the long term, the rock continued to release substantial amounts of As, Se and B via pyrite oxidation and adsorption/desorption reactions, which were regulated by the temperature and rainfall intensity/frequency on site. PMID:25747140

  8. 26 CFR 301.6343-1 - Requirement to release levy and notice of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions in paragraph (b) of this section (conditions requiring release) exist. The director must make a determination whether any of the conditions requiring release exist if a taxpayer submits a request for release... release exists. (b) Conditions requiring release. The director must release the levy upon all or a part...

  9. Increased belowground C release during initial plant development of Populus deltoides x nigra grown under light and C reserve limited conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, Mirjam S.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Abiven, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Plants might be a key factor for the long-term stabilisation of carbon (C) in the soil, e.g. through enhanced physical protection of root-derived C against microbial decomposition in soil aggregates. On the other hand C released by the plants into the soil might promote the decomposition of native soil organic matter (SOM) through the stimulation of microbial activity. We measured the C budget of developing plant-soil systems (Populus deltoides x nigra, Cambisol soil) in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. In order to distinguish plant-derived from native C in the SOM and the soil CO2 efflux, we labelled the poplar shoots continuously with 13C-CO2 from first emergence of leaves (sprouting from stem cuttings). Throughout the experiment the CO2 fluxes (photosynthetic assimilation, dark respiratory loss, soil CO2 efflux) were measured frequently (every 30 min) and the 13C was traced in the soil CO2 efflux (1-2 times a week). After 10 weeks the plant-soil systems were destructively harvested and the distribution of the 13C distribution was analysed. The plants developed slowly (compared to previous experiments), most likely due to limitation in C reserves (long term cutting storage) and C supply (low light intensities). The amount of 13C recovered in the roots, microbial biomass and soil CO2 efflux was directly correlated with the leaf area of the different plant individuals. After 3-4 weeks of plant development we observed a high peak in the total soil CO2 efflux. During this time the relative belowground C release was increased massively over the basal rate of 17 % of net C assimilated, whereby the variability between the plant individuals was large. The smallest plants, i.e. the plants that were most resource limited, obtained the highest belowground C release accounting at the peak time for up to 57 % of net assimilated C. We hypothesize that the plants released specific compounds, which either directly (enzymatically) or indirectly (priming

  10. Release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter from biomass combustion in a wood-fired boiler under varying boiler conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bignal, Keeley L.; Langridge, Sam; Zhou, John L.

    Particulate matter, CO and NO as well as 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in both gaseous and particulate phases were measured in the stack of a woodchip-fired 50 kW boiler used for domestic heating. The concentrations of ΣPAHs in both gas and particle phases varied from 1.3 to 1631.7 μg m -3. Mean CO and NO concentrations varied from 96 to 6002 ppm and from 28 to 359 ppm, respectively. The effects of fuel parameters (moisture content (MC) and tree species) and boiler operating conditions on pollutant concentrations were investigated. A relationship was established between ΣPAHs in gaseous and particulate phases and CO concentrations. The species of tree used for woodchip was less important than MC and boiler operating conditions in affecting pollutant concentrations. It is recommended that in order to minimise PAH release woodchip fuel should have a low MC, and the boiler should be operated with a load demand (high/moderate heat requirement). Slumber modes when the boiler has no load demand and is effectively a smouldering flame should be avoided. This can be achieved by increasing automatic operation capability of wood-fired boilers, for example, by automatically varying fire rates and having auto-start capabilities. The PAH data obtained from this study is particularly useful in contributing to emissions inventories, modelling, and predictions of ambient air quality.

  11. The Anorexigenic Peptide Neuromedin U (NMU) Attenuates Amphetamine-Induced Locomotor Stimulation, Accumbal Dopamine Release and Expression of Conditioned Place Preference in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vallöf, Daniel; Vestlund, Jesper; Engel, Jörgen A.; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamine dependence, besides its substantial economical consequence, is a serious cause of mortality and morbidity. By investigations of the neurochemical correlates through which addictive drugs, such as amphetamine, activate the mesoaccumbal dopamine system unique targets for treatment of drug addiction can be identified. This reward link consists of a dopamine projection from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) suggesting that these brain areas are important for reward. The physiological function of gut-brain peptides has expanded beyond food intake modulation and involves regulation of drug reinforcement. A novel candidate for reward regulation is the anorexigenic peptide neuromedin U (NMU). We therefore investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of NMU on amphetamine’s well-documented effects on the mesoaccumbal dopamine system, i.e. locomotor stimulation and accumbal dopamine release in mice. In addition, the effect of accumbal NMU administration on locomotor activity was examined. The effect of NMU, icv or intra-NAc, on the expression of conditioned place preference (CPP) was elucidated. Firstly, we showed that icv administration of NMU attenuate the amphetamine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release and expression of CPP in mice. Secondly, we found that a lower dose of NMU (icv) reduce the amphetamine-induced locomotor stimulation in mice. Thirdly, we demonstrated that NMU administration into the NAc block the ability of amphetamine to cause a locomotor stimulation in mice. However, accumbal NMU administration did not attenuate the amphetamine-induced expression of CPP in mice. Our novel data suggest that central NMU signalling is involved in development of amphetamine dependence. PMID:27139195

  12. Preparation of pH sensitive insulin-loaded nano hydrogels and evaluation of insulin releasing in different pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Karnoosh-Yamchi, Jalil; Mobasseri, Majid; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Davaran, Soodabeh; Ostad-Rahimi, Ali Reza; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Salehi, Roya; Bahmani, Zahra; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Darbin, Akbar; Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    In the recent years, temperature and pH-sensitive hydrogels were developed as suitable carriers for drug delivery. In this study, four different pH-sensitive nanohydrogels were designed for an oral insulin delivery modeling. NIPAAm-MAA-HEM copolymers were synthesized by radical chain reaction with 80:8:12 ratios respectively. Reactions were carried out in four conditions including 1,4-dioxan and water as two distinct solution under nitrogen gas-flow. The copolymers were characterized with FT-IR, SEM and TEM. Copolymers were loaded with regular insulin by modified double emulsion method with ratio of 1:10. Release study carried out in pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 at 37 °C. For pH 6.8 and pH 1.2, 2 mg of the insulin loaded nanohydrogels was float in a beaker containing 100 mL of PBS with pH 6.8 and 100 mL of HCl solution with pH 1.2, respectively. Sample collection was done in different times and HPLC was used for analysis of samples using water/acetonitrile (65/35) as the mobile phase. Nanohydrogels synthesis reaction yield was 95 %, HPLC results showed that loading in 1,4-dioxan without cross-linker nanohydrogels was more than others, also indicated that the insulin release of 1,4-dioxan without cross-linker nanohydrogels at acidic pH is less, but in pH 6.8 is the most. Results showed that by opting suitable polymerization method and selecting the best nanohydrogels, we could obtain a suitable insulin loaded nanohydrogels for oral administration. PMID:24996289

  13. Manipulation of reproductive performance of lactating buffaloes using melatonin and controlled internal drug release device treatment during out-of-breeding season under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, T A; Sharma, R K; Phulia, S K; Balhara, A K; Ghuman, S S; Singh, I

    2016-09-01

    Twelve lactating Murrah buffalo, divided into control and treatment group of six animals each, were used to study the effect of melatonin and controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device treatment on the resumption of ovarian activity during out-of-breeding season (summer solstice). Treated group implanted with melatonin (18-mg melatonin/50-kg body weight) for 45 days and then animals of both groups received CIDR for 9 days. All animals received intramuscular 500 IU eCG, at day before CIDR removal, and 10-μg GnRH at day after CIDR withdrawal. All animals were subjected to estrus detection daily. Blood samples in conjunction with transrectal ultrasonography were performed once a week to determine serum concentrations of melatonin, progesterone, and antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as to monitor the ovarian activity. Melatonin treatment resulted in an increase (P < 0.01) in the overall mean superoxide dismutase activity. Melatonin and CIDR increased the diameter of CL (P < 0.01) and plasma progesterone concentration (P < 0.05). In addition, melatonin and CIDR exhibited superior ability to maintain presence of CL at Day 21 and Day 30 after artificial insemination and achieved higher percentage of conception rate than control. In conclusion, the CIDR treatment preceded by melatonin improved the reproductive performance in lactating buffaloes during out-of-breeding season under tropical conditions. PMID:27125696

  14. Passageway: A Novel Approach to Success of Conditional Release - Principles and Constructs of the Model Residential Program for the Forensic Mentally III Patient.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Ilan

    2016-03-01

    With the advent of psychotropic medications and with the deinstitutionalization of psychiatry starting in 1968, patients were prematurely discharged from forensic state hospitals. Due to lack of resources, psychiatric forensic patients ended up in the correctional system or homeless with the reduction of psychiatric beds in forensic and civil state hospitals. Lacking proper training and medication management, the recidivism rate of this population was close to 10% for rearrest and about 35% for revocation of conditional release (CR; Manguno-Mire et al., ). A new treatment modality was created to successfully transition patients from the forensic state hospital system to the community. This article describes and analyzes the principles and constructs of Passageway, a model residential program for patients found not guilty by reason of insanity or those incompetent to proceed to CR. The CR allows for a program like Passageway to be successful in transitioning patients back into the community. This is accomplished with minimal government funding, and since 1982 has resulted in a 0% recidivism rate, for any known arrests or convictions and for recommittal of a felony, defined in the state of Florida as, "any criminal offense that is punishable under the laws of this state, or that would be punishable, if committed in this state, by death or imprisonment in a state penitentiary. " (Fla. Stat. § 775.08). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Passageway: A Novel Approach to Success of Conditional Release - Principles and Constructs of the Model Residential Program for the Forensic Mentally III Patient.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Ilan

    2016-03-01

    With the advent of psychotropic medications and with the deinstitutionalization of psychiatry starting in 1968, patients were prematurely discharged from forensic state hospitals. Due to lack of resources, psychiatric forensic patients ended up in the correctional system or homeless with the reduction of psychiatric beds in forensic and civil state hospitals. Lacking proper training and medication management, the recidivism rate of this population was close to 10% for rearrest and about 35% for revocation of conditional release (CR; Manguno-Mire et al., ). A new treatment modality was created to successfully transition patients from the forensic state hospital system to the community. This article describes and analyzes the principles and constructs of Passageway, a model residential program for patients found not guilty by reason of insanity or those incompetent to proceed to CR. The CR allows for a program like Passageway to be successful in transitioning patients back into the community. This is accomplished with minimal government funding, and since 1982 has resulted in a 0% recidivism rate, for any known arrests or convictions and for recommittal of a felony, defined in the state of Florida as, "any criminal offense that is punishable under the laws of this state, or that would be punishable, if committed in this state, by death or imprisonment in a state penitentiary. " (Fla. Stat. § 775.08). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27097984

  16. Effectiveness and safety of a long-acting, once-daily, two-phase release formulation of methylphenidate (Ritalin ® LA) in school children under daily practice conditions.

    PubMed

    Haertling, Fabian; Mueller, Beate; Bilke-Hentsch, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Long-acting (LA) preparations of methylphenidate allow for once-daily dosing; however, pharmacokinetics may vary and depend on food intake. The objective was to evaluate effectiveness of a two-phase release formulation (Ritalin(®) LA) under daily practice conditions. This was a prospective, multicenter, observational study in Germany. Eligibility and dosing were determined by the physician based on the drug label. Outcomes included changes over 3 months of treatment in assessments of effect duration, clinical global impression (CGI), and quality of life (ILK). In 101 sites, 262 patients (197 boys, 63 girls, and two unknown) with a mean age of 10.9 years were enrolled; 50 were treated for the first time; 212 switched medication to Ritalin(®) LA. After 3 months, CGI improved in 59.4 % of patients, and well-being overall was rated as good by 61.0 % of parents and 63.7 % of children. Based on parents' assessment, the proportion of children suffering from strong disease burden decreased from 40.7 to 15.1 %. In 123 insufficient responders to previous ADHD medications, benefit from Ritalin(®) LA was above average and effect duration was significantly prolonged as compared to pretreatment. Overall, 28 patients (10.7 %) had treatment-related adverse events with one case being serious; 23 patients (8.8 %) discontinued therapy, 7 (2.7 %) due to poor treatment response; and 212 patients (81 %) continued treatment beyond the study. In line with clinical trial data, Ritalin(®) LA provides significant benefit also under routine practice conditions.

  17. Development of Novel Delivery System for Cardiovascular Drug Molsidomine: Influence of Synthesis Method and Conditions on Molsidomine Release From Its Composites With Hydrophilic Silica In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Dolinina, Ekaterina S; Parfenyuk, Elena V

    2016-06-01

    Composites of cardiovascular drug molsidomine with silica materials (unmodified and mercaptopropyl modified) were prepared by 2 methods, adsorption and sol-gel technology. The effects of sol pH and release medium pH (1.6 and 7.4) as well as molsidomine loading on the drug release kinetics were also investigated. Mechanisms of molsidomine release from all the synthesized composites were elucidated. The obtained results showed that different principles of the composites formation (adsorption or sol-gel) lead to their different release behavior because the composites obtained by the indicated methods differ by distribution of the drug over the silica matrixes and their capability to degradation. The drug release from the composites prepared by adsorption is characterized by a high burst effect, sustained release up to 36 h irrespective of release medium pH. The release behavior of sol-gel composites depends on the amount of the loaded drug and release medium pH. These effects were explained by different stability of the sol-gel composites with high and low loading in acidic and neutral media. In general case, the ascertained effects are independent on chemistry of the silica surface organic groups.

  18. Release of copper from sintered tungsten-bronze shot under different pH conditions and its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Vernon G; Santore, Robert C; McGill, Ian

    2007-03-01

    Sintered tungsten-bronze is a new substitute for lead shot, and is about to be deposited in and around the wetlands of North America. This material contains copper in the alloyed form of bronze. This in vitro study was performed according to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria to determine the dissolution rate of copper from the shot, and to assess the toxic risk that it may present to aquatic organisms. The dissolution of copper from tungsten-bronze shot, pure copper shot, and glass beads was measured in a buffered, moderately hard, synthetic water of pH 5.5, 6.6, and 7.8 over a 28-day period. The dissolution of copper from both the control copper shot and the tungsten-bronze shot was affected significantly by the pH of the water and the duration of dissolution (all p values<0.000). The rate of copper release from tungsten bronze shot was 30 to 50 times lower than that from the copper shot, depending on pH (p<0.0000). The observed expected environmental concentration of copper released from tungsten-bronze shot after 28 days was 0.02 microg/L at pH 7.8, and 0.4 microg/L at pH 5.6, using a loading and exposure scenario specific in a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protocol. Ratio Quotient values derived from the highest EEC observed in this study (0.4 microg/L), and the copper toxic effect levels for all aquatic species listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ambient water quality criteria database, were all far less than the 0.1 criterion value. Given the conditions stipulated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, heavy loading from discharged tungsten-bronze shot would not pose a toxic risk to potable water, or to soil. Consequently, it would appear that no toxic risks to aquatic organisms will attend the use of tungsten-bronze shot of the approved composition. Given the likelihood that sintered tungsten-bronze of the same formula will be used for fishing weights, bullets, and wheel balance weights, it

  19. [Effect of external condition on the static migration and release of dibutylphthalate in the soil of the fluctuating zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir to the overlying water].

    PubMed

    Song, Jiao-yan; Mu, Zhi-jian; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Zhi-dan; Wang, Fa

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the environmental behavior of the organic pollutants Dibutyl-phthalate (DBP) in fluctuating zone soil, the migration and release processes of DBP in the fluctuating zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir to the overlying water and the impacts of temperature, light, coexistence phthalate-bis (2-ethylhexyl)-ester (DEHP), microbial activity on the process were studied using static flooding method. The results showed that DBP migrated from the soil to the overlying water in the early days after flooding, and the release process of DBP was divided into two phases: one was the quick release with a relatively short releasing time and a rapid releasing rate; the other was the slow release with a relatively long releasing time and a slow releasing rate. The slow release was a major speed control step, which could be well fitted by two-compartment first-order kinetics. In the interim (12 d) after flooding, the capacity of release reached a maximum, the DBP released from the soil into the water migrated from the water to the soil again after continued flooding, and eventually the content of DBP in soil and water reached equilibrium in the later period after flooding. The intensity of DBP releasing into the overlying water and the rapid releasing rate increased, while the slow releasing rate decreased when the temperature increased. The concentrations of DBP released into the water were different with different light sources. The concentration of DBP in the overlying water with treatment of natural light was higher than those with treatment of ultraviolet light UVB, UVA. After the amount of DBP in the overlying water reached the maximum, the content of DBP in the overlying water decreased relatively faster under the ultraviolet light than under the natural light. The largest release content of DBP and the time reached the largest release content were different with different oxygen content in the overlying water. Overall, the higher oxygen content in the

  20. A qualitative study of the retention and release of volatile gases in JSC-1A lunar soil simulant at room temperature under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Edward L.; Mandt, K. E.; Escobedo, S. M.; Winters, G. S.; Mitchell, J. N.; Teolis, B. D.

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to simulate the flux of volatile gases expected to occur at the lunar surface due to cometary impact or lunar outgassing events. A small sample cell containing 8.8 g of JSC-1A lunar soil simulant in a vacuum system with a base pressure of 1.5 × 10-8 Torr was exposed to various gases using dynamic pressure dosing at room temperature to observe any retention of those gases as a function of the exposure times, temperatures and pressures used. Gases included pure argon, a five-component gas mixture (H2, He, Ne, N2, Ar), a simulated Mars atmospheric mixture (CO2, N2, Ar, CO, O2), and a simulated Titan mixture (N2, CH4). Results at exposure pressures of approximately 1.5 × 10-8 Torr above background showed no observable retention of rare gases, slight retention of molecular gases, but surface retention of the triatomic gas CO2 occurred at room temperature with a time to reach equilibrium of greater than 10 min, which was an unanticipated result. Despite several bakeouts and months under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions, trace levels of atmospheric gases continued to evolve from the simulant. Mechanical and optical probing of the simulant surface increased this latent gas evolution, particularly for CO2 and CO, with some evidence also for the release of CH4. We assert our results are, by analogy, applicable to protocols and instrumentation needed for conducting analytical chemistry aboard future landed lunar missions.

  1. Effect of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazon on the glutamate release from rat brain nerve terminals under altered gravity conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, T.; Krisanova, N.

    L-glutamate acts within the mammalian central nervous system as the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter and as a potent neurotoxin The balance between these physiological and pathological actions of glutamate is thought to be kept in check by the rapid removal of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft The majority of uptake is mediated by the high-affinity Na -dependent glutamate transporters Depolarization leads to stimulation of glutamate efflux mediated by reversal of the high-affinity glutamate transporters The effects of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazon FCCP on the glutamate release from isolated nerve terminals rat brain synaptosomes were investigated in control and after centrifuge-induced hypergravity rats were rotated in a long-arm centrifuge at ten-G during one-hour period The treatment of synaptosomes with 1 mu M FCCP during 11 min resulted in the increase in L- 14 C glutamate release by 23 0 pm 2 3 of total accumulated synaptosomal label in control animals and 24 0 pm 2 3 animals subjected to hypergravity FCCP evoked release of L- 14 C glutamate from synaptosomes was not altered in animals exposed to hypergravity as compared to control Glutamate transport is of electrogenic nature and thus depends on the membrane potential The high-KCl stimulated L- 14 C glutamate release in Ca 2 -free media occurred due to reversal of the glutamate transporters Carrier --mediated release of L- 14 C glutamate 6 min slightly increased as a result of

  2. Multicomponent Implant Releasing Dexamethasone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Several inflammatory conditions are usually treated with corticosteroids. There are various problems like side effects with traditional applications of steroids, e.g. topical, or systemic routes. Local drug delivery systems have been studied and developed to gain more efficient administration with fewer side effects. Earlier, we reported on developing Dexamethasone (DX) releasing biodegradable fibers. However, their drug release properties were not satisfactory in terms of onset of drug release. Thus, we assessed the development of multicomponent (MC) implant to enhance earlier drug release from such biodegradable fibers. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and 2 wt-% and 8 wt-% DX were compounded and extruded with twin-screw extruder to form of fibers. Some of the fibers were sterilized to obtain a change in drug release properties. Four different fiber classes were studied: 2 wt-%, 8 wt-%, sterilized 2 wt-%, and sterilized 8 wt-%. 3×4 different DX-releasing fibers were then heat-pressed to form one multicomponent rod. Half of the rods where sterilized. Drug release was measured from initial fibers and multicomponent rods using a UV/VIS spectrometer. Shear strength and changes in viscosity were also measured. Drug release studies showed that drug release commenced earlier from multicomponent rods than from component fibers. Drug release from multicomponent rods lasted from day 30 to day 70. The release period of sterilized rods extended from day 23 to day 57. When compared to the original component fibers, the drug release from MC rods commenced earlier. The initial shear strength of MC rods was 135 MPa and decreased to 105 MPa during four weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer solution. Accordingly, heat pressing has a positive effect on drug release. After four weeks in hydrolysis, no disintegration was observed.

  3. Effect of inflammatory conditions and H2O2 on bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V surfaces: Corrosion behavior, metal ion release and Ca-P formation under long-term immersion in DMEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, Sarah; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2015-12-01

    The surface oxide film and calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) formation on Ti-6Al-4V during long-term immersion in biological environments play a decisive role for the biocompatibility of the implant. Hence, the aim of the study was to evaluate the corrosion resistance, metal ion release and Ca-P formation in DMEM under physiological conditions at pH values of 7.4 and in comparison under simulated inflammatory conditions with pH 5 and in presence of H2O2. Furthermore, the influence of the immersion conditions was investigated on different surface treatments: on bare Ti-6Al-4V, after anodization, and for TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) and hydroxyapatite (HA)-incorporated TiO2-NP coatings. In the absence of H2O2, the impedance response indicated a stable thin oxide film and Ca-P formation after 28 days or 56 days depending on the coating, while under inflammatory conditions the Ca-P formation on the surface is time-delayed and dissolution of the anodized oxide layer as well as selective etching of the β-phase and phase boundaries in case of the bare alloy occur. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), however, indicates a good general corrosion behavior in all cases. The quantities of Ti, Al and V released from the bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloy markedly increased with decreasing pH (pH ≤ 5). Although the rapid increase of metal release was observed for all samples at pH 5, the quantities were significantly higher for the bare and anodized alloy than after coating with TiO2-NP or HA.

  4. Keratinocyte-releasable factors increased the expression of MMP1 and MMP3 in co-cultured fibroblasts under both 2D and 3D culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Moeen Rezakhanlou, Alireza; Chavez-Munoz, Claudia; Lai, Amy; Ghahary, Aziz

    2009-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key elements in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and scar remodeling during the wound-healing process. Our previous data revealed that keratinocyte-releasable factors significantly increased the expression of fibroblast MMPs in monolayer-cultured fibroblasts. In this study, we analyzed the differences in the MMP expressions of fibroblasts in a three-dimensional fibroblast-populated collagen gel (3D FPCG) from that in a two-dimensional monolayer-cultured fibroblasts when both co-cultured with keratinocytes. Differential mRNA and protein expression of fibroblasts were examined by microarray, RT-PCR, and western blot. Our results showed that fibroblasts co-cultured with keratinocytes in a 3D FPCG expressed significantly higher MMP1 and MMP3 at the gene and protein levels. Due to the physiological advantages of a 3D FPCG model to a 2D system, we concluded that the 3D FPCG model may provide a better means of understanding the fibroblast-keratinocyte cross-talk during the wound-healing process. PMID:19521668

  5. Extracellular vesicles released from cells exposed to reactive oxygen species increase annexin A2 expression and survival of target cells exposed to the same conditions.

    PubMed

    Grindheim, Ann Kari; Vedeler, Anni

    2016-01-01

    Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is present in multiple cellular compartments and interacts with numerous ligands including calcium, proteins, cholesterol, negatively charged phospholipids and RNA. These interactions are tightly regulated by its post-translational modifications. The levels of AnxA2 and its Tyr23 phosphorylated form (pTyr23AnxA2) are increased in many cancers and the protein is involved in malignant cell transformation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Our previous studies of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce rapid, simultaneous and transient dephosphorylation of nuclear AnxA2, most likely associating with PML bodies, while AnxA2 associated with F-actin at the cell cortex undergoes Tyr23 phosphorylation. The pTyr23AnxA2 in the periphery of the cells is incorporated into intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes and subsequently released to the extracellular space. We show here that extracellular vesicles (EVs) from cells exposed to ROS prime untreated PC12 cells to better tolerate subsequent oxidative stress, thus enhancing their survival. There is an increase in the levels of pTyr23AnxA2 and AnxA2 in the primed cells, suggesting that AnxA2 is involved in their survival. This increase is due to an upregulation of AnxA2 expression both at the transcriptional and translational levels after relatively short term (2 h) exposure to primed EVs. PMID:27574537

  6. Toggle release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas Joseph (Inventor); Yang, Robert Alexander (Inventor); Brown, Christopher William (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a pyrotechnic actuated release mechanism which is mechanically two fault tolerant for effecting release. It is particularly well suited for releasably connecting structures to be used in the space environment or in other aerospace applications. The device comprises a fastener plate and fastener body, each attachable to either one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate and the body are fastenable by a toggle supported at one end on the fastener plate and mounted for universal pivotal movement thereon. At its other end, which is received in a central opening in the fastener body and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein, the toggle is restrained by three retractable latching pins. Each pin is individually retractable by combustion of a pyrotechnic charge. While retraction of all three pins releases the toggle, the fastener is mechanically two fault tolerant since the failure of any single or pair of the latch pins to retract results in an asymmetrical loading on the toggle and its pivotal movement to effect a release. An annular bolt is mounted on the fastener plate as a support for the socket mounting of the toggle whereby its selective axial movement provides a means for pre-loading the toggle.

  7. Source of released carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for the release of carbon fibers from aircraft crashes/fires is addressed. Simulation of the conditions of aircraft crash fires in order to predict the quantities and forms of fibrous materials which might be released from civilian aircraft crashes/fires is considered. Figures are presented which describe some typical fiber release test activities together with some very preliminary results of those activities. The state of the art of carbon fiber release is summarized as well as some of the uncertainties concerning accidental fiber release.

  8. Dissolution experiments of commercial PWR (52 MWd/kgU) and BWR (53 MWd/kgU) spent nuclear fuel cladded segments in bicarbonate water under oxidizing conditions. Experimental determination of matrix and instant release fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Robles, E.; Serrano-Purroy, D.; Sureda, R.; Casas, I.; de Pablo, J.

    2015-10-01

    The denominated instant release fraction (IRF) is considered in performance assessment (PA) exercises to govern the dose that could arise from the repository. A conservative definition of IRF comprises the total inventory of radionuclides located in the gap, fractures, and the grain boundaries and, if present, in the high burn-up structure (HBS). The values calculated from this theoretical approach correspond to an upper limit that likely does not correspond to what it will be expected to be instantaneously released in the real system. Trying to ascertain this IRF from an experimental point of view, static leaching experiments have been carried out with two commercial UO2 spent nuclear fuels (SNF): one from a pressurized water reactor (PWR), labelled PWR, with an average burn-up (BU) of 52 MWd/kgU and fission gas release (FGR) of 23.1%, and one from a boiling water reactor (BWR), labelled BWR, with an average BU of and 53 MWd/kgU and FGR of 3.9%. One sample of each SNF, consisting of fuel and cladding, has been leached in bicarbonate water during one year under oxidizing conditions at room temperature (25 ± 5)°C. The behaviour of the concentration measured in solution can be divided in two according to the release rate. All radionuclides presented an initial release rate that after some days levels down to a slower second one, which remains constant until the end of the experiment. Cumulative fraction of inventory in aqueous phase (FIAPc) values has been calculated. Results show faster release in the case of the PWR SNF. In both cases Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Y, Tc, La and Nd dissolve congruently with U, while dissolution of Zr, Ru and Rh is slower. Rb, Sr, Cs and Mo, dissolve faster than U. The IRF of Cs at 10 and 200 days has been calculated, being (3.10 ± 0.62) and (3.66 ± 0.73) for PWR fuel, and (0.35 ± 0.07) and (0.51 ± 0.10) for BWR fuel.

  9. Toggle release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas J. (Inventor); Yang, Robert A. (Inventor); Brown, Christopher W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A pyrotechnic actuated structural release device 10 which is mechanically two fault tolerant for release. The device 10 comprises a fastener plate 11 and fastener body 12, each attachable to a different one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate 11 and body 12 are fastenable by a toggle 13 supported at one end on the fastener plate and mounted for universal pivotal movement thereon. At its other end which is received in a central opening in the fastener body 12 and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein the toggle 13 is restrained by three retractable latching pins 61 symmetrically disposed in equiangular spacing about the axis of the toggle 13 and positionable in latching engagement with an end fitting on the toggle. Each pin 61 is individually retractable by combustion of a pyrotechnic charge 77, the expanding gases of which are applied to a pressure receiving face 67 on the latch pin 61 to effect its retraction from the toggle. While retraction of all three pins 62 releases the toggle, the fastener is mechanically two fault tolerant since the failure of any single one or pair of the latch pins to retract results in an asymmetrical loading on the toggle and its pivotal movement to effect a release. An annular bolt 18 is mounted on the fastener plate 11 as a support for the socket mounting 30, 37 of the toggle whereby its selective axial movement provides a means for preloading the toggle.

  10. Mapping Planetary Volcanic Deposits: Identifying Vents and Distingushing between Effects of Eruption Conditions and Local Lava Storage and Release on Flow Field Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Eppler, D. B.; Skinner, J. A.; Evans, C. A.; Feng, W.; Gruener, J. E.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Whitson, P.; Janoiko, B.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial geologic mapping techniques are regularly used for "photogeologic" mapping of other planets, but these approaches are complicated by the diverse type, areal coverage, and spatial resolution of available data sets. When available, spatially-limited in-situ human and/or robotic surface observations can sometimes introduce a level of detail that is difficult to integrate with regional or global interpretations. To assess best practices for utilizing observations acquired from orbit and on the surface, our team conducted a comparative study of geologic mapping and interpretation techniques. We compared maps generated for the same area in the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF) in northern Arizona using 1) data collected for reconnaissance before and during the 2010 Desert Research And Technology Studies campaign, and 2) during a traditional, terrestrial field geology study. The operations, related results, and direct mapping comparisons are discussed in companion LPSC abstracts [1-3]. Here we present new geologic interpretations for a volcanic cone and related lava flows as derived from all approaches involved in this study. Mapping results indicate a need for caution when interpreting past eruption conditions on other planetary surfaces from orbital data alone.

  11. Mapping Planetary Volcanic Deposits: Identifying Vents and Distinguishing between Effects of Eruption Conditions and Local Storage and Release on Flow Field Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Eppler, D. B.; Skinner, J. A.; Evans, C. A.; Feng, W.; Gruener, J. E.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Whitson, P.; Janoiko, B.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial geologic mapping techniques are regularly used for "photogeologic" mapping of other planets, but these approaches are complicated by the diverse type, areal coverage, and spatial resolution of available data sets. When available, spatially-limited in-situ human and/or robotic surface observations can sometimes introduce a level of detail that is difficult to integrate with regional or global interpretations. To assess best practices for utilizing observations acquired from orbit and on the surface, our team conducted a comparative study of geologic mapping and interpretation techniques. We compared maps generated for the same area in the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF) in northern Arizona using 1) data collected for reconnaissance before and during the 2010 Desert Research And Technology Studies campaign, and 2) during a traditional, terrestrial field geology study. The operations, related results, and direct mapping comparisons are discussed in companion LPSC abstracts. Here we present new geologic interpretations for a volcanic cone and related lava flows as derived from all approaches involved in this study. Mapping results indicate a need for caution when interpreting past eruption conditions on other planetary surfaces from orbital data alone.

  12. Corticotropin-releasing factor 1 receptor mediates the activity of the reward system evoked by morphine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Lasheras, M Carmen; Laorden, M Luisa; Milanés, M Victoria; Núñez, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Different neurotransmitter systems are involved in behavioural and molecular responses to morphine. The brain stress system is activated by acute administration of drugs of abuse, being CRF the main neuropeptide of this circuitry. In this study we have studied the role of CRF1R in the rewarding effects of morphine using the CPP paradigm. For that, animals were treated with a CRF1R antagonist (CP-154,526) or vehicle during 6 days. Thirty min after receiving the antagonist, mice were injected with morphine on the same days that CP-154,526 was administered; another group received saline on the same days that vehicle was administered, and both groups were immediately conditioned. Control animals received vehicle and saline every day. On day 7, animals were tested for morphine-induced CPP. c-Fos, TH and OXA immunohistochemistry, NA turnover (HPLC), and corticosterone plasma concentration (RIA) were evaluated. Administration of a CRF1R antagonist CP-154,526 blocked the morphine-induced CPP and the increased NA turnover in the NAc in morphine-paired mice. CP-154-526 antagonised the enhancement in c-Fos expression evoked by morphine-induced CPP in the VTA and NAc, and the activation of the orexinergic neurons in the LLH. Present work demonstrates that morphine-induced CPP activates different brain areas involved in reward, and points out a critical role of CRF1R in molecular changes involved in morphine-conducted behaviours. Thus, our study supports a therapeutic potential of CRF1R antagonists in addictive disorders. PMID:25556110

  13. Corticotropin-releasing factor 1 receptor mediates the activity of the reward system evoked by morphine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Lasheras, M Carmen; Laorden, M Luisa; Milanés, M Victoria; Núñez, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Different neurotransmitter systems are involved in behavioural and molecular responses to morphine. The brain stress system is activated by acute administration of drugs of abuse, being CRF the main neuropeptide of this circuitry. In this study we have studied the role of CRF1R in the rewarding effects of morphine using the CPP paradigm. For that, animals were treated with a CRF1R antagonist (CP-154,526) or vehicle during 6 days. Thirty min after receiving the antagonist, mice were injected with morphine on the same days that CP-154,526 was administered; another group received saline on the same days that vehicle was administered, and both groups were immediately conditioned. Control animals received vehicle and saline every day. On day 7, animals were tested for morphine-induced CPP. c-Fos, TH and OXA immunohistochemistry, NA turnover (HPLC), and corticosterone plasma concentration (RIA) were evaluated. Administration of a CRF1R antagonist CP-154,526 blocked the morphine-induced CPP and the increased NA turnover in the NAc in morphine-paired mice. CP-154-526 antagonised the enhancement in c-Fos expression evoked by morphine-induced CPP in the VTA and NAc, and the activation of the orexinergic neurons in the LLH. Present work demonstrates that morphine-induced CPP activates different brain areas involved in reward, and points out a critical role of CRF1R in molecular changes involved in morphine-conducted behaviours. Thus, our study supports a therapeutic potential of CRF1R antagonists in addictive disorders.

  14. 7 CFR 996.2 - Conditional release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.2...

  15. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS... of parole is conditioned upon the approval of release plans by the Regional Commissioner. In general... reasonable plan for payment shall, where feasible, be included in the parole release plan....

  16. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release plans. 2.33 Section 2.33 Judicial..., AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.33 Release plans. (a) A grant of parole is conditioned upon the approval of release plans by the Regional Commissioner. In...

  17. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release plans. 2.33 Section 2.33 Judicial..., AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.33 Release plans. (a) A grant of parole is conditioned upon the approval of release plans by the Regional Commissioner. In...

  18. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    PubMed

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng

    2016-05-18

    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed.

  19. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    PubMed

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng

    2016-05-18

    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed. PMID:26952168

  20. Contact: Releasing the news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  1. Reusable Release Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, J. W.; Ritchie, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Slider release mechanism reusable. Bears heavy loads while latched, yet gives smooth release motion. Release effected by explosively driving perpendicular slider out of engagement with load-bearing shank. Device has potential industrial applications such as emergency release of lifting cables from helicopters, cranes and hoists.

  2. 28 CFR 2.203 - Certificate of supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....203 Certificate of supervised release. When an offender who has been released from prison to serve a... officer shall deliver to the releasee a certificate listing the conditions of supervised release imposed by the Commission and shall explain the conditions to the releasee....

  3. 28 CFR 2.203 - Certificate of supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....203 Certificate of supervised release. When an offender who has been released from prison to serve a... officer shall deliver to the releasee a certificate listing the conditions of supervised release imposed by the Commission and shall explain the conditions to the releasee....

  4. 28 CFR 2.203 - Certificate of supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....203 Certificate of supervised release. When an offender who has been released from prison to serve a... officer shall deliver to the releasee a certificate listing the conditions of supervised release imposed by the Commission and shall explain the conditions to the releasee....

  5. 28 CFR 2.203 - Certificate of supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....203 Certificate of supervised release. When an offender who has been released from prison to serve a... officer shall deliver to the releasee a certificate listing the conditions of supervised release imposed by the Commission and shall explain the conditions to the releasee....

  6. 48 CFR 2905.404 - Release procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... release long-range acquisition estimates under the conditions in FAR 5.404-1. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release procedures. 2905.404 Section 2905.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION...

  7. Sand release apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.D.

    1991-05-28

    This patent describes a sand release apparatus for enabling the release of a pump. It comprises first and second telescoped tubular sleeves; a first restricting means; sleeve located drain opening means and means for enabling controlled separation of the pump from the apparatus at a specified joint. This patent also describes a method for releasing a pump determined to be sand locked. It comprises applying an upward force on the sucker rod string to break a shear pin restricting relative axial extension of telescoped sleeve members connected in the well below the pump; extending the telescoped sleeve members to expose drain openings to permit sand to flow away from the annular space; and disconnecting from the tubing string below the pump to pull the pump free of the sand locked condition.

  8. A single-dose, 3-way crossover pharmacokinetic comparison between immediate-release oxycodone hydrochloride with aversion technology (IRO-A, Oxecta), IRO-a with Niacin, and Oxycodone Hydrochloride (Roxicodone) in healthy adults under fasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Mark T; Zamora, Cynthia A; Brzeczko, Albert W; Stark, Jeffrey G

    2014-01-01

    Snorting and intravenous use are common routes of administration for advanced opioid abusers. A tablet form of immediate-release oxycodone (IRO) developed using Aversion Technology combines immediate release (IR) oxycodone HCl with inactive functional excipients that are intended to discourage tampering associated with intranasal and intravenous abuse (IRO-A; Oxecta, Pfizer). The purpose of this single-dose, open-label, randomized, 3-period, 3-treatment crossover study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of IRO-A to the marketed immediate-release oxycodone HCl (IRO; Roxicodone, Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals Inc., Newport, KY). IRO-A was also compared with IRO-A with niacin, a product previously developed containing the same functional excipients plus niacin as an aversive agent to discourage oral overconsumption. Healthy adults (N = 40) aged 18-55 years received single 15-mg doses of IRO-A, IRO-A with niacin (60 mg), or IRO after fasting overnight. Naltrexone was administered to diminish opioid effects. Doses were separated by a ≥7-day washout. Plasma samples taken at designated time points were analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean ratios for ln-transformed parameters for IRO-A and IRO were 92%, 104%, and 104% for Cmax, AUClast (AUC is area under the concentration-time curve), and AUCinf; 90% confidence intervals were within the accepted 80%-125% range. IRO-A was also bioequivalent to IRO-A with niacin. Adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity and typical of opioid therapy (nausea, headache, vomiting). Flushing only occurred when the subjects received the IRO-A with niacin treatment (9/37 subjects). The results demonstrated that IRO-A is bioequivalent to IRO and IRO-A with niacin. With features designed to discourage tampering associated with common forms of abuse, IRO-A may provide an alternative to conventional immediate-release oxycodone formulations.

  9. Helium release during shale deformation: Experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-01

    This work describes initial experimental results of helium tracer release monitoring during deformation of shale. Naturally occurring radiogenic 4He is present in high concentration in most shales. During rock deformation, accumulated helium could be released as fractures are created and new transport pathways are created. We present the results of an experimental study in which confined reservoir shale samples, cored parallel and perpendicular to bedding, which were initially saturated with helium to simulate reservoir conditions, are subjected to triaxial compressive deformation. During the deformation experiment, differential stress, axial, and radial strains are systematically tracked. Release of helium is dynamically measured using a helium mass spectrometer leak detector. Helium released during deformation is observable at the laboratory scale and the release is tightly coupled to the shale deformation. These first measurements of dynamic helium release from rocks undergoing deformation show that helium provides information on the evolution of microstructure as a function of changes in stress and strain.

  10. ELECTROMAGNETIC RELEASE MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Michelson, C.

    1960-09-13

    An electromagnetic release mechanism is offered that may be used, for example, for supporting a safety rod for a nuclear reactor. The release mechanism is designed to have a large excess holding force and a rapid, uniform, and dependable release. The fast release is accomplished by providing the electromagnet with slotttd polts separated by an insulating potting resin, and by constructing the poles with a ferro-nickel alloy. The combination of these two features materially reduces the eddy current power density whenever the magnetic field changes during a release operation. In addition to these features, the design of the armature is such as to provide ready entrance of fluid into any void that might tend to form during release of the armature. This also improves the release time for the mechanism. The large holding force for the mechanism is accomplished by providing a small, selected, uniform air gap between the inner pole piece and the armature.

  11. 42 CFR 431.306 - Release of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release of information. 431.306 Section 431.306... Information on Applicants and Recipients § 431.306 Release of information. (a) The agency must have criteria specifying the conditions for release and use of information about applicants and recipients. (b) Access...

  12. Quantification of Energy Release in Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Energy release rate is usually suggested as a quantifier for assessing structural damage tolerance. Computational prediction of energy release rate is based on composite mechanics with micro-stress level damage assessment, finite element structural analysis and damage progression tracking modules. This report examines several issues associated with energy release rates in composite structures as follows: Chapter I demonstrates computational simulation of an adhesively bonded composite joint and validates the computed energy release rates by comparison with acoustic emission signals in the overall sense. Chapter II investigates the effect of crack plane orientation with respect to fiber direction on the energy release rates. Chapter III quantifies the effects of contiguous constraint plies on the residual stiffness of a 90 deg ply subjected to transverse tensile fractures. Chapter IV compares ICAN and ICAN/JAVA solutions of composites. Chapter V examines the effects of composite structural geometry and boundary conditions on damage progression characteristics.

  13. Quantification of Energy Release in Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon

    2003-01-01

    Energy release rate is usually suggested as a quantifier for assessing structural damage tolerance. Computational prediction of energy release rate is based on composite mechanics with micro-stress level damage assessment, finite element structural analysis and damage progression tracking modules. This report examines several issues associated with energy release rates in composite structures as follows: Chapter I demonstrates computational simulation of an adhesively bonded composite joint and validates the computed energy release rates by comparison with acoustic emission signals in the overall sense. Chapter II investigates the effect of crack plane orientation with respect to fiber direction on the energy release rates. Chapter III quantifies the effects of contiguous constraint plies on the residual stiffness of a 90 ply subjected to transverse tensile fractures. Chapter IV compares ICAN and ICAN/JAVA solutions of composites. Chapter V examines the effects of composite structural geometry and boundary conditions on damage progression characteristics.

  14. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... unless the weather conditions at an alternate airport that was specified in the flight release are... specified in § 125.375 or § 125.377. (c) No person may change an original destination or alternate...

  15. Analysis of release kinetics of ocular therapeutics from drug releasing contact lenses: Best methods and practices to advance the field.

    PubMed

    Tieppo, Arianna; Boggs, Aarika C; Pourjavad, Payam; Byrne, Mark E

    2014-08-01

    Several methods have been proposed to achieve an extended and controlled release of ocular therapeutics via contact lenses; however, the experimental conditions used to study the drug release vary greatly and significantly influence the release kinetics. In this paper, we examine variations in the release conditions and their effect on the release of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs (ketotifen fumarate, diclofenac sodium, timolol maleate and dexamethasone) from conventional hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses. Drug release was studied under different conditions, varying volume, mixing rates, and temperature. Volume had the biggest effect on the release profile, which ironically is the least consistent variable throughout the literature. When a small volume (2-30 mL) was used with no forced mixing and solvent exchange every 24 h, equilibrium was reached promptly much earlier than solvent exchange, significantly damping the drug release rate and artificially extending the release duration, leading to false conclusions. Using a large volume (200-400 mL) with a 30 rpm mixing rate and no solvent exchange, the release rate and total mass released was significantly increased. In general, the release performed in small volumes with no force mixing exhibited cumulative mass release amounts of 3-12 times less than the cumulative release amounts in large volumes with mixing. Increases in mixing rate and temperature resulted in relatively small increases of 1.4 and 1.2 times, respectively in fractional mass released. These results strongly demonstrate the necessity of proper and thorough analysis of release data to assure that equilibrium is not affecting release kinetics. This is paramount for comparison of various controlled drug release methods of therapeutic contact lenses, validation of the potential of lenses as an efficient and effective means of drug delivery, as well as increasing the likelihood of only the most promising methods reaching in vivo studies. PMID

  16. Large scientific releases

    SciTech Connect

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for active experiments in space is considered, taking into account the use of active techniques to obtain a better understanding of the natural space environment, the utilization of the advantages of space as a laboratory to study fundamental plasma physics, and the employment of active techniques to determine the magnitude, degree, and consequences of artificial modification of the space environment. It is pointed out that mass-injection experiments in space plasmas began about twenty years ago with the Project Firefly releases. Attention is given to mass-release techniques and diagnostics, operational aspects of mass release active experiments, the active observation of mass release experiments, active perturbation mass release experiments, simulating an artificial modification of the space environment, and active experiments to study fundamental plasma physics.

  17. First update of the International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--Chapter 3: Porcine islet product manufacturing and release testing criteria.

    PubMed

    Rayat, Gina R; Gazda, Lawrence S; Hawthorne, Wayne J; Hering, Bernhard J; Hosking, Peter; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Rajotte, Ray V

    2016-01-01

    In the 2009 IXA consensus, the requirements for the quality and control of manufacturing of porcine islet products were based on the U.S. regulatory framework where the porcine islet products fall within the definition of somatic cell therapy under the statutory authority of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, porcine islet products require pre-market approval as a biologic product under the Public Health Services Act and they meet the definition of a drug under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). Thus, they are subject to applicable provisions of the law and as such, control of manufacturing as well as reproducibility and consistency of porcine islet products, safety of porcine islet products, and characterization of porcine islet products must be met before proceeding to clinical trials. In terms of control of manufacturing as well as reproducibility and consistency of porcine islet products, the manufacturing facility must be in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines appropriate for the initiation of Phase 1/2 clinical trials. Sponsors intending to conduct a Phase 1/2 trial of islet xenotransplantation products must be able to demonstrate the safety of the product through the establishment of particular quality assurance and quality control procedures. All materials (including animal source and pancreas) used in the manufacturing process of the porcine islet products must be free of adventitious agents. The final porcine islet product must undergo tests for the presence of these adventitious agents including sterility, mycoplasma (if they are cultured), and endotoxin. Assessments of the final product must include the safety specifications mentioned above even if the results are not available until after release as these data would be useful for patient diagnosis and treatment if necessary. In addition, a plan of action must be in place for patient notification and treatment in case the

  18. First update of the International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--Chapter 3: Porcine islet product manufacturing and release testing criteria.

    PubMed

    Rayat, Gina R; Gazda, Lawrence S; Hawthorne, Wayne J; Hering, Bernhard J; Hosking, Peter; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Rajotte, Ray V

    2016-01-01

    In the 2009 IXA consensus, the requirements for the quality and control of manufacturing of porcine islet products were based on the U.S. regulatory framework where the porcine islet products fall within the definition of somatic cell therapy under the statutory authority of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, porcine islet products require pre-market approval as a biologic product under the Public Health Services Act and they meet the definition of a drug under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). Thus, they are subject to applicable provisions of the law and as such, control of manufacturing as well as reproducibility and consistency of porcine islet products, safety of porcine islet products, and characterization of porcine islet products must be met before proceeding to clinical trials. In terms of control of manufacturing as well as reproducibility and consistency of porcine islet products, the manufacturing facility must be in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines appropriate for the initiation of Phase 1/2 clinical trials. Sponsors intending to conduct a Phase 1/2 trial of islet xenotransplantation products must be able to demonstrate the safety of the product through the establishment of particular quality assurance and quality control procedures. All materials (including animal source and pancreas) used in the manufacturing process of the porcine islet products must be free of adventitious agents. The final porcine islet product must undergo tests for the presence of these adventitious agents including sterility, mycoplasma (if they are cultured), and endotoxin. Assessments of the final product must include the safety specifications mentioned above even if the results are not available until after release as these data would be useful for patient diagnosis and treatment if necessary. In addition, a plan of action must be in place for patient notification and treatment in case the

  19. Oxidant activity in hyperarid soils from Atacama Desert in southern Peru, under conditions of the labeled release and thermal evolved gas analysis experiments: Implications for the search of organic matter on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Chris

    Thermal evolved gas analysis (TEGA), one of several instruments on board of the Phoenix Lander, is a combination of a high temperature furnace and a mass spectrometer that was used to analyze Mars soil samples heated at a programmed ramp rate up to 1000 ° C. The evolved gases generated during the process were analyzed with the evolved gas analyzer (a mass spectrometer) in order to determine the composition of gases released as a function of temperature. In other hand, labeled release experiment (LR), one of the Viking biology anal-ysis used on Mars, monitored the radioactive gas evolution after the addition of a 14C-labeled aqueous organic substrate into a sealed test cell that contained a Martian surface sample. This experiment was designed to test Martian surface samples for the presence of life by measuring metabolic activity and distinguishing it from physical or chemical activity. The interpretation of the Viking LR experiment was that the tested soils were chemically reactive and not biolog-ically active, and that at least two oxidative processes with different kinetics were required to explain the observed decomposition of organics, while TEGA experiment of the Phoenix mis-sion apparently didn't detect organic matter on the surface of Mars. Both of these experiments showed little possibility of the presence of organics, and therefore the presence of life. Here we examine the evolved gas properties of hyperarid soils from the Pampas de La Joya, which is considered as a new analogue to Mars, in order to investigate the effect of the soil matrix on the TEGA response, and additionally, we conducted experiments under Viking LR protocol to test the decomposition kinetics of organic compounds in aqueous solution added to these soils. Our TEGA results indicate that native or added organics present in these samples were oxidized to CO2 during thermal process, suggesting the existence in these soils of a thermolabile oxidant which is highly oxidative and other

  20. Controlled drug release from hydrogel nanoparticle networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang; Gao, Jun; Hu, Zhibing; St John, John V; Ponder, Bill C; Moro, Dan

    2004-02-10

    Monodisperse nanoparticles of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-allylamine (PNIPAM-co-allylamine) and PNIPAM-co-acrylic acid (PNIPAM-co-AA) were synthesized. The close-packed PNIPAM-co-allylamine and PNIPAM-co-AA nanoparticles were converted to three-dimensional gel networks by covalently crosslinking neighboring particles at room temperature and neutral pH using glutaric dialdehyde and adipic acid dihydrazide, respectively. Controlled release studies were conducted using dextran markers of various molecular weights as model macromolecular drugs. Release was quantified under various physical conditions, including a range of temperatures and dextran molecular weights. Dextran, entrapped in cavities in the nanoparticle network, was released with a rate regulated by their molecular weights and cavity size. No release from a conventional bulk PNIPAM gel, with high crosslinking density, was observed. The rate of release from the PNIPAM-co-allylamine network was temperature-dependent, being much faster at room temperature than that at human body temperature. In contrast, release of low molecular weight dextrans from the PNIPAM-co-AA network showed a temperature-independent release profile. These nanoparticle networks have several advantages over conventional bulk gels for controlling the release of high molecular weight biomolecules. PMID:14744482

  1. Dissolution experiments of commercial PWR (52 MWd/kgU) and BWR (53 MWd/kgU) spent nuclear fuel cladded segments in bicarbonate water under oxidizing conditions. Experimental determination of matrix and instant release fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Robles, E.; Serrano-Purroy, D.; Sureda, R.; Casas, I.; de Pablo, J.

    2015-10-01

    The denominated instant release fraction (IRF) is considered in performance assessment (PA) exercises to govern the dose that could arise from the repository. A conservative definition of IRF comprises the total inventory of radionuclides located in the gap, fractures, and the grain boundaries and, if present, in the high burn-up structure (HBS). The values calculated from this theoretical approach correspond to an upper limit that likely does not correspond to what it will be expected to be instantaneously released in the real system. Trying to ascertain this IRF from an experimental point of view, static leaching experiments have been carried out with two commercial UO2 spent nuclear fuels (SNF): one from a pressurized water reactor (PWR), labelled PWR, with an average burn-up (BU) of 52 MWd/kgU and fission gas release (FGR) of 23.1%, and one from a boiling water reactor (BWR), labelled BWR, with an average BU of and 53 MWd/kgU and FGR of 3.9%. One sample of each SNF, consisting of fuel and cladding, has been leached in bicarbonate water during one year under oxidizing conditions at room temperature (25 ± 5)°C. The behaviour of the concentration measured in solution can be divided in two according to the release rate. All radionuclides presented an initial release rate that after some days levels down to a slower second one, which remains constant until the end of the experiment. Cumulative fraction of inventory in aqueous phase (FIAPc) values has been calculated. Results show faster release in the case of the PWR SNF. In both cases Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Y, Tc, La and Nd dissolve congruently with U, while dissolution of Zr, Ru and Rh is slower. Rb, Sr, Cs and Mo, dissolve faster than U. The IRF of Cs at 10 and 200 days has been calculated, being (3.10 ± 0.62) and (3.66 ± 0.73) for PWR fuel, and (0.35 ± 0.07) and (0.51 ± 0.10) for BWR fuel.

  2. Rad-Release

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  3. Rad-Release

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  4. Nanoparticle release from dental composites.

    PubMed

    Van Landuyt, K L; Hellack, B; Van Meerbeek, B; Peumans, M; Hoet, P; Wiemann, M; Kuhlbusch, T A J; Asbach, C

    2014-01-01

    Dental composites typically contain high amounts (up to 60 vol.%) of nanosized filler particles. There is a current concern that dental personnel (and patients) may inhale nanosized dust particles (<100 nm) during abrasive procedures to shape, finish or remove restorations but, so far, whether airborne nanoparticles are released has never been investigated. In this study, composite dust was analyzed in real work conditions. Exposure measurements of dust in a dental clinic revealed high peak concentrations of nanoparticles in the breathing zone of both dentist and patient, especially during aesthetic treatments or treatments of worn teeth with composite build-ups. Further laboratory assessment confirmed that all tested composites released very high concentrations of airborne particles in the nanorange (>10(6)cm(-3)). The median diameter of airborne composite dust varied between 38 and 70 nm. Electron microscopic and energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed that the airborne particles originated from the composite, and revealed that the dust particles consisted of filler particles or resin or both. Though composite dust exhibited no significant oxidative reactivity, more toxicological research is needed. To conclude, on manipulation with the bur, dental composites release high concentrations of nanoparticles that may enter deeply into the lungs.

  5. Advanced release technologies program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdy, Bill

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the ARTS program was to develop lighter and less expensive spacecraft ordnance and release systems that answer to the requirements of a wide variety of spacecraft applications. These improvements were to be evaluated at the spacecraft system level, as it was determined that there were substantial system-level costs associated with the present ordnance and release subsystems. New, better devices were to be developed, then flight qualified, then integrated into a flight experiment in order to prove the reliability required for their subsequent use on high-reliability spacecraft. The secondary goal of the program was to quantify the system-level benefits of these new subsystems based upon the development program results. Three non-explosive release mechanisms and one laser-diode-based ordnance system were qualified under the program. The release devices being developed were required to release high preloads because it is easier to scale down a release mechanism than to scale it up. The laser initiator developed was required to be a direct replacement for NASA Standard Initiators, since these are the most common initiator in use presently. The program began in October, 1991, with completion of the flight experiment scheduled for February, 1994. This paper provides an overview of the ARTS program, discusses the benefits of using the ARTS components, introduces the new components, compares them with conventional systems and each other, and provides recommendations on how best to implement them.

  6. 14 CFR 121.631 - Original dispatch or flight release, redispatch or amendment of dispatch or flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this section, the weather conditions at each ETOPS Alternate Airport required by § 121.624 are forecast... dispatched or released unless the weather conditions at an alternate airport that was specified in the dispatch or flight release are forecast to be at or above the alternate minimums specified in...

  7. Post-release survival and feeding in reared turbot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrevohn, Claus R.; Støttrup, Josianne G.

    2007-02-01

    As part of the Danish restocking program, an experiment was carried out with four groups of turbot Psetta maxima released on two different occasions at the same location in Århus Bay, Denmark. One objective was to analyse the duration of post-release mortality and the magnitude of this mortality. In 2003 a group called Large turbot (17.1 cm total length (L T)) and a group called Intermediate (L T = 11.8 cm) were released, and in 2004 two similar-sized groups called Naive and Conditioned (L T = 9.8 cm) were released. The Conditioned differed from the Naive turbot by being transferred to enclosures at the release location six days prior to the actual release. This experiment was performed to investigate whether such a conditioning period had a positive effect on the survival and hence the success of the stocking. All the groups released were monitored daily until day 8, using a juvenile flatfish-trawl to recapture the fish. The catches were analyzed on the basis of a normal distribution approximation method, founded in diffusion theory, from which daily abundance of the released fish and hence post-release mortality could be estimated. The group of Large turbot suffered negligible post-release mortality, but for the Conditioned, Naive and Intermediate groups the loss varied between 34 and 66% d - 1 . The mortality for the Conditioned group was found to be half that of the Naive turbot released simultaneously. The period of high post-release mortality was estimated to be restricted to three days after release. The only active predators observed in the area were birds. Besides estimating mortality the diffusion model provides an estimate on the catchability of the released turbot when fished with a juvenile flatfish-trawl. Catchabilities varied between 38 and 52% for all releases except for the 17 cm sized turbot released, where catchability was only 12%. The feeding performance of the released fish was also analysed and compared with that of wild fish caught at the

  8. Fluid operated quick release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Gas operated release mechanism releases load by fluid pressure to provide positive action quick release. Method can be used with large loads and is useful in repetitive cycling functions where shear pins and similar devices would be cumbersome.

  9. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Corrosion Tests of LWR Fuels - Nuclide Release

    SciTech Connect

    P.A. Finn; Y. Tsai; J.C. Cunnane

    2001-12-14

    Two BWR fuels [64 and 71 (MWd)/kgU], one of which contained 2% Gd, and two PWR fuels [30 and 45 (MWd)/kgU], are tested by dripping groundwater on the fuels under oxidizing and hydrologically unsaturated conditions for times ranging from 2.4 to 8.2 yr at 90 C. The {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 97}Mo, and {sup 90}Sr releases are presented to show the effects of long reaction times and of gadolinium on nuclide release. This investigation showed that the five nuclides at long reaction times have similar fractional release rates and that the presence of 2% Gd reduced the {sup 99}Tc cumulative release fraction by about an order of magnitude over that of a fuel with a similar burnup.

  11. Altitude release mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kulhanek, Frank C.

    1977-01-01

    An altitude release mechanism for releasing a radiosonde or other measuring instrument from a balloon carrying it up into the atmosphere includes a bottle partially filled with water, a tube sealed into the bottle having one end submerged in the water in the bottle and the free end extending above the top of the bottle and a strip of water-disintegrable paper held within the free end of the tube linking the balloon to the remainder of the package. As the balloon ascends, the lowered atmospheric air pressure causes the air in the bottle to expand, forcing the water in the bottle up the tubing to wet and disintegrate the paper, releasing the package from the balloon.

  12. Controlled-release microchips.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sadhana; Nijdam, A Jasper; Sinha, Piyush M; Walczak, Robbie J; Liu, Xuewu; Cheng, Mark M-C; Ferrari, Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Efficient drug delivery remains an important challenge in medicine: continuous release of therapeutic agents over extended time periods in accordance with a predetermined temporal profile; local delivery at a constant rate to the tumour microenvironment to overcome much of the systemic toxicity and to improve antitumour efficacy; improved ease of administration, and increasing patient compliance required are some of the unmet needs of the present drug delivery technology. Microfabrication technology has enabled the development of novel controlled-release microchips with capabilities not present in the current treatment modalities. In this review, the current status and future prospects of different types of controlled-release microchips are summarised and analysed with reference to microneedle-based microchips, as well as providing an in-depth focus on microreservoir-based and nanoporous microchips.

  13. Benzene release. status report

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.; Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1997-11-04

    Scoping benzene release measurements were conducted on 4 wt percent KTPB `DEMO` formulation slurry using a round, flat bottomed 100-mL flask containing 75 mL slurry. The slurry was agitated with a magnetic stirrer bar to keep the surface refreshed without creating a vortex. Benzene release measurements were made by purging the vapor space at a constant rate and analyzing for benzene by gas chromatography with automatic data acquisition. Some of the data have been rounded or simplified in view of the scoping nature of this study.

  14. The Financial Resources of Released Prisoners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenihan, Kenneth J.

    This report examines the financial condition of men when they are released from state prisons. To what extent are they any better off than when they went in? With few exceptions, the author finds very little difference: they leave prison as they entered, still poor, with few employable skills and little work experience. The little money men do…

  15. DSCOVR Public Release Statement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-04

    ... Book .    NOAA will release data from the space weather instruments on July 27 th . The data, as well as space weather forecasts with a 30-45 minute lead-time will be available via the Space ...

  16. Release of OLe peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  17. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for fibrous asbestos structures that are present in a material or on a solid surface to become airborne when the source is disturbed by human activities or natural forces. In turn, the magnitude of the airborne concentra...

  18. DSCOVR Public Release Statement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-09-26

    ... Data and Information Wednesday, July 20, 2016 The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) is a NOAA/NASA mission located near the ... Format Control Book. NOAA will release data from the space weather instruments on July 27th. The data, as well as space weather ...

  19. Release the Prisoners Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…

  20. Release Fraction Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Glissmeyer, John A.

    2004-01-01

    This document presents results of experiments conducted to measure release fractions during certain tank retrieval processes. The tests were performed in a 1/4 scale model of a waste storage tank. The retrieval processes simulated were: (1) Discharging liquid or slurry from the mouth of a vertically oriented two-in. Schedule 40 pipe. The discharging material was in free-fall from the mouth of the pipe near the top of the tank into a liquid or slurry pool at the bottom of the tank. (2) The jet from a 9/16-in.-diameter nozzle transferring liquid or slurry waste from one side of the tank to the other. The discharging liquid was aimed at the opposite side of the tank from the nozzle and either impacted the tank wall or fell into a liquid or slurry pool in the bottom of the tank. (3) A high pressure fan jet of liquid striking a steel plate or simulated waste from a stand-off distance of a few inches. For each process, a water-soluble fluorescent dye was added to the liquid fraction as a tracer. Kaolin clay was used to represent the solids. The tank was covered and there was no forced ventilation in the tank during the tests. Six air samples were collected during each test. The air samples were collected at fixed positions in the tank. The air sample filters were dried and weighed to determine the solids collection. The fluorescent dye was then leached from each filter and quantified with a fluorometer to determine the collection of liquid. Samples of the slurry and liquid simulants were also collected to determine the quantities of simulant used in each test. To calculate the release fraction, the quantity collected on each air sample was adjusted for the fraction of the tank volume sampled and divided by the quantity of material exposed in the simulation. The method was not as sensitive for the solids content as it was for the liquid content, but in those instances where a solids release fraction was determined, it was in relatively good agreement with that of the

  1. Releasable locking mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq (Inventor); Wingate, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    In the aerospace field spacecraft components are held together by separation systems until a specific time when they must be separated or deployed. Customarily a threaded joining bolt engages one of the components to be joined, and a threaded nut is placed on that bolt against the other component so they can be drawn together by a releasable locking assembly. The releasable locking assembly herein includes a plunger having one end coupled to one end of a plunger bolt. The other end is flanged to abut and compress a coil spring when the plunger is advanced toward the interface plane between the two components. When the plunger is so advanced toward the interface plane, the end of the plunger bolt can be connected to the joining bolt. Thus during retraction the joining bolt is drawn to one side of the interface plane by the force of the expanding spring.

  2. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

  3. Releasable Locking Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq (Inventor); Wingate, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    In the aerospace field spacecraft components are held together by separation systems until a specific time when they must be separated or deployed. Customarily a threaded joining bolt engages one of the components to be joined, and a threaded nut is placed on that bolt against the other component so they can be drawn together by a releasable locking assembly. The releasable locking assembly herein includes a plunger having one end coupled to one end of a plunger bolt. The other end is flanged to abut and compress a coil spring when the plunger is advanced toward the interface plane between the two components. When the plunger is so advanced toward the interface plane, the end of the plunger bolt can be connected to the joining bolt. Thus during retraction the joining bolt is drawn to one side of the interface plane by the force of the expanding spring.

  4. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, D. C. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  5. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  6. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  7. Clinton releases oceans report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. President Bill Clinton is trying to beat the clock on the January 20 close of his administration by maintaining a flurry of activity on resource and conservation issues.During a December 4 speech in Washington, D.C., he released a broad-ranging report by the Presidents Panel on Ocean Exploration, entitled “Discovering Earth's Final Frontier: A U.S. Strategy for Ocean Exploration.”

  8. EIA new releases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration. It contains news releases on items of interest to the petroleum, coal, nuclear, electric and alternate fuels industries ranging from economic outlooks to environmental concerns. There is also a listing of reports by industry and an energy education resource listing containing sources for free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for educators and primary and secondary students.

  9. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    1992-10-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  10. Preload release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generoli, Robert M. (Inventor); Young, Harry J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a preload release mechanism comprising a preload spring assembly adapted to apply a preload to a first connector member which is mounted on a support structure and adapted for connection with a second connector member on an object. The assembly comprises telescoped bushings and a preload spring. A tubular shaft extends through the spring assembly and openings in the first connector member and support structure, on which it is clamped. A plunger rod in the shaft is provided with a tip end and a recess in the rod near the other end thereof. A retainer precludes passage of the rod through the shaft in one direction and an end cap closes the bore of the shaft at the other end and provides a shoulder which extends radially of the shaft. A plunger return spring biases the plunger rod against the plunger retainer with the plunger tip protruding from the shaft and a spring assembly return spring engages at its ends the shoulder of the end cap and one end of the spring assembly. Detents received in lateral openings in the tubular shaft are held captive by the plunger rod and one end of the spring assembly to lock the spring assembly on the tubular shaft and apply a preload to the first connector member. Upon completion of the connection, detents and spring assembly are released by plunger contact with the object to be connected, thereby releasing the preload while the connection is maintained.

  11. 28 CFR 2.204 - Conditions of supervised release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... any applicable sex-offender reporting and registration law. (v) The releasee shall provide a DNA sample, as directed by the supervision officer, if collection of such sample is authorized by the...

  12. Determining drug release rates of hydrophobic compounds from nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    D'Addio, Suzanne M; Bukari, Abdallah A; Dawoud, Mohammed; Bunjes, Heike; Rinaldi, Carlos; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2016-07-28

    Obtaining meaningful drug release profiles for drug formulations is essential prior to in vivo testing and for ensuring consistent quality. The release kinetics of hydrophobic drugs from nanocarriers (NCs) are not well understood because the standard protocols for maintaining sink conditions and sampling are not valid owing to mass transfer and solubility limitations. In this work, a new in vitroassay protocol based on 'lipid sinks' and magnetic separation produces release conditions that mimic the concentrations of lipid membranes and lipoproteins in vivo, facilitates separation, and thus allows determination of intrinsic release rates of drugs from NCs. The assay protocol is validated by (i) determining the magnetic separation efficiency, (ii) demonstrating that sink condition requirements are met, and (iii) accounting for drug by completing a mass balance. NCs of itraconazole and cyclosporine A (CsA) were prepared and the drug release profiles were determined. This release protocol has been used to compare the drug release from a polymer stabilized NC of CsA to a solid drug NP of CsA alone. These data have led to the finding that stabilizing block copolymer layers have a retarding effect on drug release from NCs, reducing the rate of CsA release fourfold compared with the nanoparticle without a polymer coating.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'.

  13. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  14. Modeling of Fission Gas Release in UO2

    SciTech Connect

    MH Krohn

    2006-01-23

    A two-stage gas release model was examined to determine if it could provide a physically realistic and accurate model for fission gas release under Prometheus conditions. The single-stage Booth model [1], which is often used to calculate fission gas release, is considered to be oversimplified and not representative of the mechanisms that occur during fission gas release. Two-stage gas release models require saturation at the grain boundaries before gas is release, leading to a time delay in release of gases generated in the fuel. Two versions of a two-stage model developed by Forsberg and Massih [2] were implemented using Mathcad [3]. The original Forsbers and Massih model [2] and a modified version of the Forsberg and Massih model that is used in a commercially available fuel performance code (FRAPCON-3) [4] were examined. After an examination of these models, it is apparent that without further development and validation neither of these models should be used to calculate fission gas release under Prometheus-type conditions. There is too much uncertainty in the input parameters used in the models. In addition. the data used to tune the modified Forsberg and Massih model (FRAPCON-3) was collected under commercial reactor conditions, which will have higher fission rates relative to Prometheus conditions [4].

  15. Printing Tablets with Fully Customizable Release Profiles for Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yajuan; Soh, Siowling

    2015-12-16

    Personalizing the release profiles of drugs is important for different people with different medical and biological conditions. A technically simple and low-cost method to fabricate fully customizable tablets that can deliver drugs with any type of release profile is described. The customization is intuitively straightforward: the desired profile can simply be "drawn" and printed by a 3D printer.

  16. Chemical conditioning of sludge.

    PubMed

    Novak, J T; Park, C

    2004-01-01

    With all the advances made in understanding the structure and composition of sewage sludges, chemical conditioning remains a trial and error process, both with regard to the type and dose of conditioner needed. Recent studies at Virginia Tech have found that biological floc consists of two types of biopolymer, material associated with iron and aluminium and material associated with calcium and magnesium. These materials behave differently when sludges undergo digestion. This results in very different material being released into solution during digestion and very different conditioning requirements. This study shows that the primary materials released during anaerobic digestion are proteins and coagulation of the colloidal protein fraction in solution is the primary mechanism for conditioning. For aerobically digested sludges, both proteins and polysaccharides make up the colloid fraction, which interferes with dewatering. This research also shows that the effectiveness of the digestion process as characterized by volatile solids destruction is directly related to the chemical dose required for conditioning. That is, as the solids destruction increases, the conditioning chemical requirement also increases. Well digested sludges dewater more poorly and require more conditioning chemical than those with less volatile solids destruction. PMID:15259940

  17. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  18. Sustained-release, extended-release, and other time-release formulations in neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-08-01

    Pills and capsules may release their contents within minutes of ingestion; these are immediate-release formulations. Pills and capsules may also release their contents after a time lag, or a little at a time, or in some other predetermined way; these are time-release formulations. Many drugs in psychiatry have been time-release formulated to reduce their local adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract, to reduce adverse effects associated with peak blood levels, or to artificially extend their half-life. Time-release formulations are associated with the added advantages of convenience of dosing, improved compliance, and less fluctuation in blood levels across the course of the day. A disadvantage of time-release formulations is that they may be incompletely absorbed; this is a serious issue in patients with acute or chronic intestinal hurry disorders, such as gastroenteritis or irritable bowel syndrome. Time-release formulations may also be more expensive than immediate-release formulations.

  19. Multiplexed programmable release of captured DNA.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Darling, Julia; Holden, Matthew T; Shortreed, Michael R; Smith, Lloyd M

    2014-11-01

    Nucleic-acid hybridization is widely used for the specific capture of complementary sequences from complex samples. It is useful for both analytical methodologies, such as array hybridization (e.g. transcriptome analysis, genetic-variation analysis), and preparative strategies such as exome sequencing and sequence-specific proteome capture and analysis (PICh, HyCCAPP). It has not generally been possible to selectively elute particular captured subsequences, however, as the conditions employed for disruption of a duplex can lack the specificity needed to discriminate between different sequences. We show here that it is possible to bind and selectively release multiple sets of sequences by using toehold-mediated DNA branch migration. The strategy is illustrated for simple mixtures of oligonucleotides, for the sequence-specific capture and specific release of crosslinked yeast chromatin, and for the specific release of oligonucleotides hybridized to DNA microarrays. PMID:25157426

  20. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  1. Riola release report

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-08-04

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables.

  2. Birth control - slow release methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries from releasing an egg. Releasing egg during menstrual cycle is called ovulation. They do this by changing ... implants are likely to get pregnant. Your regular menstrual cycles should return within 3 to 4 weeks after ...

  3. A controlled-release microchip.

    PubMed

    Santini, J T; Cima, M J; Langer, R

    1999-01-28

    Much previous work in methods of achieving complex drug-release patterns has focused on pulsatile release from polymeric materials in response to specific stimuli, such as electric or magnetic fields, exposure to ultrasound, light or enzymes, and changes in pH or temperature. An alternative method for achieving pulsatile release involves using microfabrication technology to develop active devices that incorporate micrometre-scale pumps, valves and flow channels to deliver liquid solutions. Here we report a solid-state silicon microchip that can provide controlled release of single or multiple chemical substances on demand. The release mechanism is based on the electrochemical dissolution of thin anode membranes covering microreservoirs filled with chemicals in solid, liquid or gel form. We have conducted proof-of-principle release studies with a prototype microchip using gold and saline solution as a model electrode material and release medium, and we have demonstrated controlled, pulsatile release of chemical substances with this device.

  4. Hydrogen release behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Keller, Jay O.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Houf, William G.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.; Ruggles, A.; Zhang, J.

    2010-04-01

    The summary of this presentation is: (1) Barrier walls are used to reduce setbacks by factor of 2; (2) We found no ignition-timing vs. over-pressure sensitivities for jet flow obstructed by barrier walls; (3) Cryogenic vapor cloud model indicates hazard length scales exceed the room-temperature release; validation experiments are required to confirm; (4) Light-up maps developed for lean limit ignition; flammability factor model provides good indication of ignition probability; and (5) Auto-ignition is enhanced by blunt-body obstructions - increases gas temperature and promotes fuel/air mixing.

  5. Arthroscopic Posteromedial Capsular Release.

    PubMed

    Dean, Chase S; Chahla, Jorge; Mikula, Jacob D; Mitchell, Justin J; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Post-traumatic or postsurgical flexion contractures of the knee can significantly limit function and lead to gait abnormalities. In this setting, interventions to regain full extension may include bracing, physical therapy, and open or arthroscopic surgery. Open surgical approaches to restore full motion often demand extensive recovery and promote further adhesions and loss of motion, which has led to the advent of arthroscopic techniques to address these pathologies. We present a safe, effective, and reproducible arthroscopic technique for posteromedial capsular release to address knee flexion contractures. PMID:27656368

  6. Hemichannel-mediated release of lactate

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Anastassios; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Hadjihambi, Anna; Hosford, Patrick S; Kasparov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    In the central nervous system lactate contributes to the extracellular pool of readily available energy substrates and may also function as a signaling molecule which mediates communication between glial cells and neurons. Monocarboxylate transporters are believed to provide the main pathway for lactate transport across the membranes. Here we tested the hypothesis that lactate could also be released via opening of pannexin and/or functional connexin hemichannels. In acute slices prepared from the brainstem, hippocampus, hypothalamus and cortex of adult rats, enzymatic amperometric biosensors detected significant tonic lactate release inhibited by compounds, which block pannexin/connexin hemichannels and facilitated by lowering extracellular [Ca2+] or increased PCO2. Enhanced lactate release triggered by hypoxia was reduced by ∼50% by either connexin or monocarboxylate transporter blockers. Stimulation of Schaffer collateral fibers triggered lactate release in CA1 area of the hippocampus, which was facilitated in conditions of low extracellular [Ca2+], markedly reduced by blockade of connexin hemichannels and abolished by lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor oxamate. These results indicate that lactate transport across the membranes may occur via mechanisms other than monocarboxylate transporters. In the central nervous system, hemichannels may function as a conduit of lactate release, and this mechanism is recruited during hypoxia and periods of enhanced neuronal activity. PMID:26661210

  7. SkyMapper Early Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Christian; Onken, Christopher; Schmidt, Brian; Bessell, Michael; Da Costa, Gary; Luvaul, Lance; Mackey, Dougal; Murphy, Simon; White, Marc; SkyMapper Team

    2016-05-01

    The SkyMapper Early Data Release (EDR) is the initial data release from the SkyMapper Southern Survey, which aims to create a deep, multi-epoch, multi-band photometric data set for the entire southern sky. EDR covers approximately 6700 sq. deg. (one-third) of the southern sky as obtained by the Short Survey component of the project. All included fields have at least two visits in good conditions in all six SkyMapper filters (uvgriz). Object catalogues are complete to magnitude 17-18, depending on filter. IVOA-complaint table access protocol (TAP), cone search and simple image access protocol (SIAP) services are available from the SkyMapper website (http://skymapper.anu.edu.au/), as well as through tools such as TOPCAT. Data are restricted to Australian astronomers and their collaborators for twelve months from the release date. Further details on the reduction of SkyMapper data, along with data quality improvements, will be released in late 2016 as part of SkyMapper Data Release 1 (DR1).

  8. 14 CFR 121.631 - Original dispatch or flight release, redispatch or amendment of dispatch or flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dispatched or released unless the weather conditions at an alternate airport that was specified in the... this section, the weather conditions at each ETOPS Alternate Airport required by § 121.624 are forecast... advised of any changes in conditions that have occurred since dispatch. (d) If paragraph (c)(1) of...

  9. Assembly of Bio-Nanoparticles for Double Controlled Drug Release

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jianfei; Dorn, Harry C.; Zhang, Chenming

    2013-01-01

    A critical limiting factor of chemotherapy is the unacceptably high toxicity. The use of nanoparticle based drug carriers has significantly reduced the side effects and facilitated the delivery of drugs. Source of the remaining side effect includes (1) the broad final in vivo distribution of the administrated nanoparticles, and (2) strong basal drug release from nanoparticles before they could reach the tumor. Despite the advances in pH-triggered release, undesirable basal drug release has been a constant challenge under in vivo conditions. In this study, functionalized single walled carbon nanohorn supported immunoliposomes were assembled for paclitaxel delivery. The immunoliposomes were formulated with polyethylene glycol, thermal stable and pH sensitive phospholipids. Each nanohorn was found to be encapsulated within one immunoliposome. Results showed a highly pH dependent release of paclitaxel in the presence of serum at body temperature with minimal basal release under physiological conditions. Upon acidification, paclitaxel was released at a steady rate over 30 days with a cumulative release of 90% of the loaded drug. The drug release results proved our hypothesized double controlled release mechanism from the nanoparticles. Other results showed the nanoparticles have doubled loading capacity compared to that of traditional liposomes and higher affinity to breast cancer cells overexpressing Her2 receptors. Internalized nanoparticles were found in lysosomes. PMID:24040316

  10. Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    1996-05-01

    A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

  11. MERCURY RELEASE FROM DISTURBED ANOXIC SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroslav Solc; Bethany A. Bolles

    2001-07-16

    The primary objectives of experiments conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) were to provide information on the secondary release of mercury from contaminated anoxic sediments to an aqueous environment after disturbance/change of in situ physical conditions and to evaluate its migration and partitioning under controlled conditions, including implications of these processes for treatment of contaminated soils. Experimental work included (1) characterization of the mercury-contaminated sediment; (2) field bench-scale dredging simulation; (3) laboratory column study to evaluate a longer-term response to sediment disturbance; (4) mercury volatilization from sediment during controlled drying; (5) resaturation experiments to evaluate the potential for secondary release of residual mercury after disturbance, transport, drying, and resaturation, which simulate a typical scenario during soil excavation and transport to waste disposal facilities; and (6) mercury speciation and potential for methylation during column incubation experiments.

  12. Draft Wetlands Rule Released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers released on 28 March a draft of a new rule to guide compensatory mitigation for when wetlands are unavoidably lost due to development. However, whether the rule is successful in preventing a net loss in wetlands will depend largely on its implementation, according to two wetlands scientists who evaluated the issue for the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) in 2001. Under the federal Clean Water Act, developers who seek to build on wetlands must compensate for any wetlands loss if they are unable to avoid or minimize the loss. Such compensation is covered under the newly proposed compensatory mitigation rule. Benjamin Grumbles, EPA assistant administrator for water, called the rule an ``innovative new standard that will accelerate the pace of wetlands conservation and restoration.''

  13. Quick release engine cylinder

    DOEpatents

    Sunnarborg, Duane A.

    2000-01-01

    A quick release engine cylinder allows optical access to an essentially unaltered combustion chamber, is suitable for use with actual combustion processes, and is amenable to rapid and repeated disassembly and cleaning. A cylinder member, adapted to constrain a piston to a defined path through the cylinder member, sealingly engages a cylinder head to provide a production-like combustion chamber. A support member mounts with the cylinder member. The support-to-cylinder mounting allows two relationships therebetween. In the first mounting relationship, the support engages the cylinder member and restrains the cylinder against the head. In the second mounting relationship, the cylinder member can pass through the support member, moving away from the head and providing access to the piston-top and head.

  14. Attentional priming releases crowding.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Arni; Heimisson, Pétur Rúnar; Róbertsson, Gunnar Freyr; Whitney, David

    2013-10-01

    Views of natural scenes unfold over time, and objects of interest that were present a moment ago tend to remain present. While visual crowding places a fundamental limit on object recognition in cluttered scenes, most studies of crowding have suffered from the limitation that they typically involved static scenes. The role of temporal continuity in crowding has therefore been unaddressed. We investigated intertrial effects upon crowding in visual scenes, showing that crowding is considerably diminished when objects remain constant on consecutive visual search trials. Repetition of both the target and distractors decreases the critical distance for crowding from flankers. More generally, our results show how object continuity through between-trial priming releases objects that would otherwise be unidentifiable due to crowding. Crowding, although it is a significant bottleneck on object recognition, can be mitigated by statistically likely temporal continuity of the objects. Crowding therefore depends not only on what is momentarily present, but also on what was previously attended.

  15. QUICK RELEASABLE DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1958-07-01

    A quick releasable mechanical drive system suitable for use in a nuclear reactor is described. A small reversible motor positions a control rod by means of a worm and gear speed reducer, a magnetic torque clutch, and a bell crank. As the control rod is raised to the operating position, a heavy coil spring is compressed. In the event of an emergency indicated by either a''scram'' signal or a power failure, the current to the magnetic clutch is cut off, thereby freeing the coil spring and the bell crank positioner from the motor and speed reduction gearing. The coil spring will immediately act upon the bell crank to cause the insertion of the control rod. This arrangement will allow the slow, accurate positioning of the control rod during reactor operation, while providing an independent force to rapidly insert the rod in the event of an emergency.

  16. Representative Atmospheric Plume Development for Elevated Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Prichard, Andrew W.

    2014-02-01

    An atmospheric explosion of a low-yield nuclear device will produce a large number of radioactive isotopes, some of which can be measured with airborne detection systems. However, properly equipped aircraft may not arrive in the region where an explosion occurred for a number of hours after the event. Atmospheric conditions will have caused the radioactive plume to move and diffuse before the aircraft arrives. The science behind predicting atmospheric plume movement has advanced enough that the location of the maximum concentrations in the plume can be determined reasonably accurately in real time, or near real time. Given the assumption that an aircraft can follow a plume, this study addresses the amount of atmospheric dilution expected to occur in a representative plume as a function of time past the release event. The approach models atmospheric transport of hypothetical releases from a single location for every day in a year using the publically available HYSPLIT code. The effective dilution factors for the point of maximum concentration in an elevated plume based on a release of a non-decaying, non-depositing tracer can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the day of the release, even for the same number of hours after the release event. However, the median of the dilution factors based on releases for 365 consecutive days at one site follows a power law relationship in time, as shown in Figure S-1. The relationship is good enough to provide a general rule of thumb for estimating typical future dilution factors in a plume starting at the same point. However, the coefficients of the power law function may vary for different release point locations. Radioactive decay causes the effective dilution factors to decrease more quickly with the time past the release event than the dilution factors based on a non-decaying tracer. An analytical expression for the dilution factors of isotopes with different half-lives can be developed given the power law expression

  17. Arsenic release during managed aquifer recharge (MAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, T.; Lazareva, O.; Druschel, G.

    2013-12-01

    The mobilization and addition of geogenic trace metals to groundwater is typically caused by anthropogenic perturbations of the physicochemical conditions in the aquifer. This can add dangerously high levels of toxins to groundwater, thus compromising its use as a source of drinking water. In several regions world-wide, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), a form of managed aquifer recharge (MAR), faces the problem of arsenic release due to the injection of oxygenated storage water. To better understand this process we coupled geochemical reactive transport modeling to bench-scale leaching experiments to investigate and verify the mobilization of geogenic arsenic (As) under a range of redox conditions from an arsenic-rich pyrite bearing limestone aquifer in Central Florida. Modeling and experimental observations showed similar results and confirmed the following: (1) native groundwater and aquifer matrix, including pyrite, were in chemical equilibrium, thus preventing the release of As due to pyrite dissolution under ambient conditions; (2) mixing of oxygen-rich surface water with oxygen-depleted native groundwater changed the redox conditions and promoted the dissolution of pyrite, and (3) the behavior of As along a flow path was controlled by a complex series of interconnected reactions. This included the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and simultaneous sorption of As onto neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), followed by the reductive dissolution of HFO and secondary release of adsorbed As under reducing conditions. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in these systems is thus controlled by the re-equilibration of the system to more reducing conditions rather than a purely oxidative process.

  18. Engineered therapeutic-releasing nanoporous anodic alumina-aluminum wires with extended release of therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel; Kumeria, Tushar; Losic, Dusan

    2015-02-18

    In this study, we present a nanoengineered therapeutic-releasing system based on aluminum wires featuring nanoporous anodic alumina layers and chitosan coatings. Nanoporous anodic alumina layers are produced on the surface of aluminum wires by electrochemical anodization. These nanoporous layers with precisely engineered nanopore geometry are used as nanocontainers for bovine serum albumin molecules labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA-FITC), which is selected as a model drug. The surface of these therapeutic-releasing implants is coated with a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, chitosan, in order to achieve a sustained release of protein over extended periods of time. The performance of this therapeutic-releasing device is systematically assessed through a series of experiments under static and dynamic flow conditions. In these experiments, the effect of such parameters as the number of layers of chitosan coating and the temperature and pH of the eluting medium is established. The obtained results reveal that the proposed therapeutic-releasing system based on nanoporous aluminum wires can be engineered with sustained release performance for up to 6.5 weeks, which is a critical factor for medical treatments using sensitive therapeutics such as proteins and genes when a localized delivery is desired.

  19. Controlled release formulations of acephate: water and soil release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Keyath; Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Walia, Suresh; Parmar, Balraj S

    2009-08-01

    Controlled release formulations of insecticide acephate (O,S-dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate) have been prepared using commercially available polyvinyl chloride, carboxy methyl cellulose and carboxy methyl cellulose with kaolinite. Kinetics of acephate release in soil and water from the different formulations was studied in comparison with the commercially available formulation 75 DF. Release from the commercial formulation was faster than the new controlled pesticide release (CR) formulations. Addition of clay in the carboxy methyl cellulose matrix reduced the rate of release. The diffusion exponent (n value) of acephate in water and soil ranged from 0.462 to 0.875 and 0.420 to 0.547 respectively in the tested formulations. The release was diffusion controlled with a half release time (T(1/2)) of 2.97 to 52.41 days in water and 2.98 to 76.38 days in soil from different matrices. The maximum release of acephate in water and soil from controlled released formulations occurred between 6.33 to 36.34 and 12.49 to 29.09 days respectively. The results suggest that depending upon the polymer matrix used, the application rate of acephate can be optimized to achieve insect control at the desired level and period. PMID:20183059

  20. Release of bisphenol A from polycarbonate: a review.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Eddo J; Simoneau, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The release of Bisphenol A (BPA) from polycarbonate baby bottles into food and food simulants is reviewed in the perspective of the current intensive discussions on the risks of this substance. Potential factors that have been reported to influence the release of BPA are reviewed. Unlike most polymers polycarbonate is hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions by scale formation, residual alkaline detergents and boiled water. Data suggest that brushing of the bottle did not raise the release of BPA. Claims that used bottles release more BPA than new bottles and that mineral composition of the aqueous food simulant affect release could not be substantiated. There are indications that aminolysis of polycarbonate by milk and ethanolysis of polycarbonate by 50% ethanol might take place under relevant test conditions. The relatively few migration data following the test conditions of European food contact material legislation, comply with the specific migration limit. Two test conditions were identified that reflect real use and exposure, and might cause higher release of BPA compared to the test conditions of European food contact material legislation. Further detailed studies are necessary to verify whether these two exposure scenarios are more severe.

  1. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 166 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 166 consists of the following CASs: (1) CAS 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) CAS 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 166 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007).

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2007-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996). The corrective action sites (CASs) are located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 166 is comprised of the following CASs: • 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North • 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South • 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area • 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard • 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum • 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank • 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the seven CASs within CAU 166. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 31, 2006, through February 28, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 166 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2006).

  3. Optogenetic control of ATP release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matthew A.; Joshi, Bipin; Gu, Ling; Feranchak, Andrew; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Controlled release of ATP can be used for understanding extracellular purinergic signaling. While coarse mechanical forces and hypotonic stimulation have been utilized in the past to initiate ATP release from cells, these methods are neither spatially accurate nor temporally precise. Further, these methods cannot be utilized in a highly effective cell-specific manner. To mitigate the uncertainties regarding cellular-specificity and spatio-temporal release of ATP, we herein demonstrate use of optogenetics for ATP release. ATP release in response to optogenetic stimulation was monitored by Luciferin-Luciferase assay (North American firefly, photinus pyralis) using luminometer as well as mesoscopic bioluminescence imaging. Our result demonstrates repetitive release of ATP subsequent to optogenetic stimulation. It is thus feasible that purinergic signaling can be directly detected via imaging if the stimulus can be confined to single cell or in a spatially-defined group of cells. This study opens up new avenue to interrogate the mechanisms of purinergic signaling.

  4. Uranium release from sediment to groundwater: influence of water chemistry and insights into release mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Samrat; Cheng, Tao

    2014-08-01

    Uranium (U) contamination in groundwater often results from natural geochemical processes such as mineral dissolution and desorption of adsorbed U from mineral surface. Although U adsorption and U mineral dissolution have been extensively studied, current knowledge of minerals and water chemistry conditions that control U release in uncontaminated soil and aquifers is still limited. Identification of these minerals and the knowledge of how water chemistry conditions influence U release is critical to better understand, predict, and manage geogenic U contamination in soil and groundwater. The objective of this study is to determine the extent and mechanisms of U release from a heterogeneous natural sediment under water chemistry conditions relevant to natural soil water and groundwater. A sediment sample was collected and characterized by XRD, SEM-EDX and extraction methods, and examined using laboratory leaching experiments. Our results show that Fe-Mn (oxy)hydroxides and silicate minerals are the major U hosting minerals, and a substantial fraction of U exists as adsorbed ions on minerals. We also found that U release is controlled by a number of interactive processes including dissolution of U-bearing minerals, U desorption from mineral surface, formation of aqueous U complexes, and reductive precipitation of U. Results from this study shed light on the important geochemical reactions that need be considered for developing a conceptual model that predicts U contamination in subsurface environment.

  5. Inhibition of arachidonate release from rat peritoneal macrophage by biflavonoids.

    PubMed

    Lee, S J; Son, K H; Chang, H W; Kang, S S; Kim, H P

    1997-12-01

    Biflavonoid is one of unique classes of naturally-occurring bioflavonoid. Previously, certain biflavonoids were found to possess the inhibitory effects on phospholipase A(2) activity and lymphocytes proliferation(1) suggesting their anti-inflammatory/immunoregulatory potential. In this study, effects of several biflavonoids on arachidonic acid release from rat peritoneal macrophages were investigated, because arachidonic acid released from the activated macrophages is one of the indices of inflammatory conditions. When resident peritoneal macrophages labeled with [(3)H]arachidonic acid were activated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or calcium ionophore, A23187, radioactivity released in the medium was increased approximately 4.1 approximately 7.3 fold after 120 min incubation compared to the spontaneous release in the control incubation. In this condition, biflavonoids (10 uM) such as ochnaflavone, ginkgetin and isoginkgetin, showed inhibition of arachidonate release from macrophages activated by PMA (32.5 approximately 40.0% inhibition) or A23187 (21.7 approximately 41.7% inhibition). Amentoflavone showed protection only against PMA-induced arachidonate release, while apigenin, a monomer of these biflavonoids, did not show the significant inhibition up to 10 uM. Staurosporin (1 uM), a protein kinase C inhibitor, showed an inhibitory effect only against PMA-induced arachidonate release (96.8% inhibition). Inhibition of arachidonate release from the activated macrophages may contribute to an anti-inflammatory potential of biflavonoidsin vivo.

  6. Electrosprayed nanoparticle delivery system for controlled release.

    PubMed

    Eltayeb, Megdi; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Harker, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    This study utilises an electrohydrodynamic technique to prepare core-shell lipid nanoparticles with a tunable size and high active ingredient loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency and controlled release. Using stearic acid and ethylvanillin as model shell and active ingredients respectively, we identify the processing conditions and ratios of lipid:ethylvanillin required to form nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a mean size ranging from 60 to 70nm at the rate of 1.37×10(9) nanoparticles per minute were prepared with different lipid:ethylvanillin ratios. The polydispersity index was ≈21% and the encapsulation efficiency ≈70%. It was found that the rate of ethylvanillin release was a function of the nanoparticle size, and lipid:ethylvanillin ratio. The internal structure of the lipid nanoparticles was studied by transmission electron microscopy which confirmed that the ethylvanillin was encapsulated within a stearic acid shell. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that the ethylvanillin had not been affected. Extensive analysis of the release of ethylvanillin was performed using several existing models and a new diffusive release model incorporating a tanh function. The results were consistent with a core-shell structure. PMID:27207047

  7. Floodplain Hyporheic Response under Dam Release Hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T.; Ward, A. S.; O'Connor, B. L.; Endreny, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Hydropower operations cause altered hydrograph patterns downstream of dams, which regulates the direction and magnitude of floodplain and riverbed hyporheic flux. Periodic adjustments in river stage changes temporal and spatial patterns in hydraulic pressure, initiates propagation of lateral and vertical hyporheic flux, and affects the riparian ecological system by changing the hyporheic penetration distance, hyporheic flux rate, and thermal conditions in river banks. While this issue has been largely neglected by watershed scientists and managers, there is the potential to use hyporheic metrics in setting dam release rules and restoring downstream river reaches. In order to evaluate the hyporheic feedbacks of various dam release patterns, this study applied a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate the interaction of open water hydrographs on porous media lateral hyporheic exchange for the Green River, Utah, downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam. The CFD initially represented the river as a straight channel with a thick porous media extending from the channel banks and bottom. The dam release hydrographs changed the patterns of hyporheic flux at the river banks, the penetration distance of the hyporheic flux, the subsurface thermal patterns, and the residence time of water in the subsurface. The results suggest the undulating river stage downstream of dam releases can initiate patterns of hyporheic exchange similar to those induced by restoration of river bed morphology.

  8. Predicting red wolf release success in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Manen, Frank T.; Crawford, Barron A.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2000-01-01

    Although the red wolf (Canis rufus) was once found throughout the southeastern United States, indiscriminate killing and habitat destruction reduced its range to a small section of coastal Texas and Louisiana. Wolves trapped from 1973 to 1980 were taken to establish a captive breeding program that was used to repatriate 2 mainland and 3 island red wolf populations. We collected data from 320 red wolf releases in these areas and classified each as a success or failure based on survival and reproductive criteria, and whether recaptures were necessary to resolve conflicts with humans. We evaluated the relations between release success and conditions at the release sites, characteristics of released wolves, and release procedures. Although <44% of the variation in release success was explained, model performance based on jackknife tests indicated a 72-80% correct prediction rate for the 4 operational models we developed. The models indicated that success was associated with human influences on the landscape and the level of wolf habituation to humans prior to release. We applied the models to 31 prospective areas for wolf repatriation and calculated an index of release success for each area. Decision-makers can use these models to objectively rank prospective release areas and compare strengths and weaknesses of each.

  9. Comparison of sequential drug release in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sundararaj, Sharath C; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Rabek, Cheryl L; Dziubla, Thomas D; Thomas, Mark V; Puleo, David A

    2016-10-01

    Development of drug-delivery devices typically involves characterizing in vitro release performance with the inherent assumption that this will closely approximate in vivo performance. Yet, as delivery devices become more complex, for instance with a sequential drug release pattern, it is important to confirm that in vivo properties correlate with the expected "programming" achieved in vitro. In this work, a systematic comparison between in vitro and in vivo biomaterial erosion and sequential release was performed for a multilayered association polymer system comprising cellulose acetate phthalate and Pluronic F-127. After assessing the materials during incubation in phosphate-buffered saline, devices were implanted supracalvarially in rats. Devices with two different doses and with different erosion rates were harvested at increasing times post-implantation, and the in vivo thickness loss, mass loss, and the drug release profiles were compared with their in vitro counterparts. The sequential release of four different drugs observed in vitro was successfully translated to in vivo conditions. Results suggest, however, that the total erosion time of the devices was longer and that release rates of the four drugs were different, with drugs initially released more quickly and then more slowly in vivo. Many comparative studies of in vitro and in vivo drug release from biodegradable polymers involved a single drug, whereas this research demonstrated that sequential release of four drugs can be maintained following implantation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1302-1310, 2016.

  10. Proretinal nanoparticles: stability, release, efficacy, and irritation.

    PubMed

    Pisetpackdeekul, Pimolphan; Supmuang, Piyapan; Pan-In, Porntip; Banlunara, Wijit; Limcharoen, Benchaphorn; Kokpol, Chayada; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2016-01-01

    Despite many potent biological activities, retinoids such as retinoic acid (RA) and retinal possess dose-related broad side effects. In this study, we show that this problem, which has been unsolvable for a long time, can be tackled through a controlled release strategy in which retinal is continuously delivered to the skin via sustained release from proretinal nanoparticles. The water dispersible proretinal nanoparticles are stable when kept in water at neutral pH and at room temperature for 8 months under light-proof conditions, and show sustained release of retinal into human synthetic sebum at a pH of 5. In the daily topical application tests performed for 4 weeks on rats' skin, the nanoparticles showed superior ability to increase epidermal thickness compared to RA and retinal, with no skin irritation observed for the proretinal particles, but severe skin irritation observed for RA and free retinal. When tested under occlusion conditions in human volunteers, insignificant skin irritation was observed for the proretinal nanoparticles. The 12-week, double-blind, split-face study on human volunteers indicates better antiaging efficacy of the particles as compared to the free RA. PMID:27499622

  11. Proretinal nanoparticles: stability, release, efficacy, and irritation

    PubMed Central

    Pisetpackdeekul, Pimolphan; Supmuang, Piyapan; Pan-In, Porntip; Banlunara, Wijit; Limcharoen, Benchaphorn; Kokpol, Chayada; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2016-01-01

    Despite many potent biological activities, retinoids such as retinoic acid (RA) and retinal possess dose-related broad side effects. In this study, we show that this problem, which has been unsolvable for a long time, can be tackled through a controlled release strategy in which retinal is continuously delivered to the skin via sustained release from proretinal nanoparticles. The water dispersible proretinal nanoparticles are stable when kept in water at neutral pH and at room temperature for 8 months under light-proof conditions, and show sustained release of retinal into human synthetic sebum at a pH of 5. In the daily topical application tests performed for 4 weeks on rats’ skin, the nanoparticles showed superior ability to increase epidermal thickness compared to RA and retinal, with no skin irritation observed for the proretinal particles, but severe skin irritation observed for RA and free retinal. When tested under occlusion conditions in human volunteers, insignificant skin irritation was observed for the proretinal nanoparticles. The 12-week, double-blind, split-face study on human volunteers indicates better antiaging efficacy of the particles as compared to the free RA. PMID:27499622

  12. Design of controlled release system with multi-layers of powder.

    PubMed

    Shimono, Norihito; Ueda, Masumi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko

    2002-09-01

    Pellets containing active ingredients were coated with water-insoluble powders, i.e. hydrogenated caster oil (Lubliwax (WAX)) and magnesium stearate (Mg-St). The influences of the structural difference of the sustained release layer and curing conditions on the drug release rate were investigated. Sodium valproate (VP-Na) was used as a highly water-soluble model drug. Drug release profiles were influenced by the combination of the WAX layer and the Mg-St layer. Even if the formula of sustained release layers were the same, drug release rate could be affected by the structural difference of the controlled release layer. The Mg-St layer was more effective in prolonging drug release than the WAX layer. Compared with single and double layer types, the triple layer (sandwich) type was most effective in obtaining a long sustained drug release. Heat-treatment retarded drug release mainly by increasing the density of the sustained release layer of the WAX. The Mg-St was effective in protecting the agglomeration between particles during heat-treatment. Optimal heat-treatment conditions were found to exist. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that heat-treatment caused the WAX to melt, formed a film-like structure and made the release layer dense. Furthermore, heat-treatment changed the release pattern of VP-Na from sustained release pellets with a multi-layer of powder, leading to zero-order release.

  13. Controlled Release Applications of Organometals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, John S.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews two classes of controlled release organometals: (1) distributional, to distribute bioactive materials to control a certain target organism; and (2) protective, to protect surface or interior of some structure from attach by organisms. Specific examples are given including a discussion of controlled release for schistosomiasis. (SK)

  14. Partial site release at a power reactor facility.

    PubMed

    Darman, Joseph; Whitney, Michael; Dubiel, Richard

    2004-01-01

    U.S. NRC licensed facilities undergoing decommissioning may wish to remove portions of their site from the jurisdiction of their license, prior to final license termination. The method of partial site release, relevant to radiological conditions, described herein employs NUREG-1505 methodology for demonstrating indistinguishability from background. The partial site release process was also informed by NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2000-19 "Partial Release of Reactor Site for Unrestricted Use Before NRC Approval of the License Termination Plan." However, the focus of this discussion is the radiological aspects of partial site release, relevant to the implementation of NUREG-1505 methodology for demonstrating indistinguishability from background, based on the 137Cs concentrations at the site and a suitable background reference area. This type of approach was found acceptable by the NRC, and the partial site release was granted. PMID:14695009

  15. Factors affecting the release of flavor encapsulated in carbohydrate matrixes.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Y M; Gunning, P A; Kemsley, E K; Parker, R; Ring, S G; Wilson, R H; Blake, A

    1999-12-01

    The effects of water content and temperature variation on the release of flavor components into the headspace over flavors, encapsulated by an extrusion process, in low water content carbohydrate matrixes is studied. The largest amounts of release occurred when the matrix was above its glass transition temperature, whether this was due to increased water content or elevated temperature. Under these conditions up to 70% of the sucrose in the matrix crystallized over a period of 10 days, as quantified using Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. Smaller amounts of headspace release occurred when the water content of the encapsulated flavor system was decreased from 3. 5 to 3.1% w/w. Small amounts of release occurred from the "as prepared" materials, which were associated with the presence of small amounts of unencapsulated flavor oil with direct access to the headspace. It was concluded that release due to matrix permeability was relatively slow as compared with the above mechanisms.

  16. Liberation of lithium from sustained release preparations. A comparison of seven registered brands.

    PubMed

    Heim, W; Oelschläger, H; Kreuter, J; Müller-Oerlinghausen, B

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the rate of release of seven commercial lithium preparations designated as sustained-release preparations and available in Europe and the USA. The examined products release lithium completely within four hours. The rate of liberation from three drugs resembles that of nonsustained-release preparations, three of which were tested under the same conditions. In one case, the comparison between two batches of sustained-release preparations reveals marked differences in quality. Physicians should be aware that some drugs available on the market and designated as sustained-release preparations do not comply with the international standard for this type of formulation. PMID:8159780

  17. Analysis of Peptidoglycan Fragment Release.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Ryan E; Lenz, Jonathan D; Dillard, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria break down a significant portion of their cell wall peptidoglycan during each round of growth and cell division. This process generates peptidoglycan fragments of various sizes that can either be imported back into the cytoplasm for recycling or released from the cell. Released fragments have been shown to act as microbe-associated molecular patterns for the initiation of immune responses, as triggers for the initiation of mutualistic host-microbe relationships, and as signals for cell-cell communication in bacteria. Characterizing these released peptidoglycan fragments can, therefore, be considered an important step in understanding how microbes communicate with other organisms in their environments. In this chapter, we describe methods for labeling cell wall peptidoglycan, calculating the rate at which peptidoglycan is turned over, and collecting released peptidoglycan to determine the abundance and species of released fragments. Methods are described for both the separation of peptidoglycan fragments by size-exclusion chromatography and further detailed analysis by HPLC.

  18. Kepler Data Release 4 Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Cleve, Jeffrey (Editor); Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Doug; Allen, Christopher L.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Clarke, Bruce D.; Cote, Miles T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Gilliland, Ron; Girouard, Forrest; Haas, Michael R.; Hall, Jennifer; Ibrahim, Khadeejah; Klaus, Todd; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Li, Jie; McCauliff, Sean D.; Middour, Christopher K.; Pletcher, David L.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Tenenbaum, Peter G.; Twicken, Joe; Uddin, Akm Kamal

    2010-01-01

    The Data Analysis Working Group have released long and short cadence materials, including FFIs and Dropped Targets for the Public. The Kepler Science Office considers Data Release 4 to provide "browse quality" data. These notes have been prepared to give Kepler users of the Multimission Archive at STScl (MAST) a summary of how the data were collected and prepared, and how well the data processing pipeline is functioning on flight data. They will be updated for each release of data to the public archive and placed on MAST along with other Kepler documentation, at http://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/documents.html. Data release 3 is meant to give users the opportunity to examine the data for possibly interesting science and to involve the users in improving the pipeline for future data releases. To perform the latter service, users are encouraged to notice and document artifacts, either in the raw or processed data, and report them to the Science Office.

  19. Post-release monitoring of Antillean manatees: an assessment of the Brazilian rehabilitation and release programme

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normande, Iran C.; Malhado, Ana C. M.; Reid, James P.; Viana Junior, P.C.; Savaget, P. V. S.; Correia, R. A.; Luna, F. O.; R. J. Ladle,

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian reintroduction programmes frequently aim to reconnect isolated sub-populations and restore population viability. However, these long-term objectives are rarely evaluated due to the inadequacy of post-release monitoring. Here, we report the results of a unique long term telemetry-based monitoring programme for rehabilitated Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) reintroduced into selected sites in northeast Brazil with the aim of reconnecting isolated relict populations. Twenty-one satellite-tagged rehabilitated manatees, 13 males and 8 females, were released into the wild from two sites between November 2008 and June 2013. Individual accumulation curves were plotted and home ranges were calculated through the fixed kernel method using 95% of the utilization distribution. The number and size of the Centres of Activity (COAs) were calculated using 50% of the utilization distribution. Manatees displayed a dichotomous pattern of movement, with individuals either characterized by sedentary habits or by much more extensive movements. Moreover, home range size was not significantly influenced by gender, age at release or release site. COAs were strongly associated with sheltered conditions within reefs and estuaries, and also by the presence of freshwater and feeding sites. Our data confirm that manatee reintroductions in Brazil have the potential to reconnect distant sub-populations. However, pre-release identification of potential long-distance migrants is currently unfeasible, and further analysis would be required to confirm genetic mixing of distant sub-populations.

  20. Nitrogen release during coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.; Mitchell, R.E.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.

    1995-02-01

    Experiments in entrained flow reactors at combustion temperatures are performed to resolve the rank dependence of nitrogen release on an elemental basis for a suite of 15 U.S. coals ranging from lignite to low-volatile bituminous. Data were obtained as a function of particle conversion, with overall mass loss up to 99% on a dry, ash-free basis. Nitrogen release rates are presented relative to both carbon loss and overall mass loss. During devolatilization, fractional nitrogen release from low-rank coals is much slower than fractional mass release and noticeably slower than fractional carbon release. As coal rank increases, fractional nitrogen release rate relative to that of carbon and mass increases, with fractional nitrogen release rates exceeding fractional mass and fractional carbon release rates during devolatilization for high-rank (low-volatile bituminous) coals. At the onset of combustion, nitrogen release rates increase significantly. For all coals investigated, cumulative fractional nitrogen loss rates relative to those of mass and carbon passes through a maximum during the earliest stages of oxidation. The mechanism for generating this maximum is postulated to involve nascent thermal rupture of nitrogen-containing compounds and possible preferential oxidation of nitrogen sites. During later stages of oxidation, the cumulative fractional loss of nitrogen approaches that of carbon for all coals. Changes in the relative release rates of nitrogen compared to those of both overall mass and carbon during all stages of combustion are attributed to a combination of the chemical structure of coals, temperature histories during combustion, and char chemistry.

  1. Preparation and release of ibuprofen from polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M D; Rogers, J A; Mehvar, R; Vudathala, G K

    1999-03-01

    The conditions of preparation of polyacrylamide (polyAC) gels, the incorporation of ibuprofen (IB), and the kinetics of IB release under various conditions have been evaluated. Transparent, opaque, or elastic gels were prepared depending on the concentration of acrylamide (AC) and the cross-linking agent, N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS). Release studies in media below pH 5.0 resulted in opaque gels. The kinetics of IB release was a function of the AC, BIS, and the pH of the medium, but the optimum composition, in terms of gel integrity and release characteristics, was 7% AC cross-linked with BIS at a 50:1 ratio. Modulation of the release rate was possible with the incorporation of 10% of certain polymers. The amount of IB that could be incorporated per gram of transparent gel was a function of the amount of polymer initiator N,N,N',N'-tetramethylene diamine (TEMED) used per gram of gel. More than 200 mg of IB could be incorporated per gram of transparent gel by using 100 microliters of TEMED. The release of IB obeyed matrix/swelling-controlled kinetics and 70-80% of the IB was released from gels containing 10 to 40 mg IB per gram of gel in 5 hr at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C.

  2. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-11-15

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-..gamma.., tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin l..cap alpha.. or 1..beta... The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes.

  3. Toxics Release Inventory indicates big increases in releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 4 billion pounds of tracked toxic chemicals were released into the environment throughout the United States during 2010, according to an analysis by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), the agency announced on 5 January. This is a 16% increase above 2009. The agency said the increase is mainly due to changes in the metal-mining sector, where differences in the chemical composition of ore being mined can result in significant changes in the amount of toxic chemicals. The chemical and primary metals industries were other sectors with increases in toxic releases in 2010, the latest year for which data collection is complete. EPA also noted that although releases in 2010 were higher than during the previous 2 years, they were lower than in 2007 and in prior years.

  4. Controlled Release of Imidacloprid from Poly Styrene-Diacetone - Nanoformulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Kun; Guo, Yanzhen; He, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoids insecticide, which is important for the cash crops such as tomato, rape and so on. The conventional formulation does not only increase the loss of pesticide but also leads to environmental pollution. Controlled-release formulations of pesticide are highly desirable not only for attaining the most effective utilization of the pesticide, but also for reducing environmental pollution. Pesticide imidacloprid was incorporated in poly (styrene-diacetone crylamide)-based formulation to obtain controlled release properties, and the imidacloprid nanocontrolled release formulation was characterized by infrared (IR) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Factors related to loading efficiency, swelling and release behaviors of the formulation were investigated. It showed that the loading efficiency could reach about 40% (w/w). The values for the diffusion exponent "n" were in the range of 0.31-0.58, which indicated that the release of imidacloprid was diffusion-controlled. The time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, T50, was also calculated for the comparison of formulations in different conditions. The results showed that the formulation with higher temperature and more diacetone crylamide had lower value of T50, which means a quicker release of the active ingredient. This study highlighted some pieces of evidence that improved pesticide incorporation and slower release were linked to potential interactions between the pesticide and the polymer.

  5. Estimating the dose from atmospheric releases of HT

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1990-11-13

    Measurements of uptake of tritium by humans and laboratory animals following exposure to tritiated hydrogen gas, HT, suggest that the radiotoxicity of HT is four orders of magnitude less than that of tritiated water, HTO. However, this analysis does not take into account the conversion of HT into HTO following release into the environment. Experimental releases of HT have demonstrated that HT release to the environment is converted to HTO by soil microorganisms. In this report two methods are used to estimate the effect of HT to HTO conversion on the inhalation dose of individuals exposed to tritium downwind of a release of HT. From this analysis it is predicted that the ratio of dose from inhalation of tritium following an atmospheric release of HT, as compared to inhalation of HTO, is closer to 0.01 than the 0.0001 attributed to simple HT inhalation. Under meteorologic conditions which keep the HT release near the surface and promote optimum soil microbial activity, the analysis suggests that the ratio of dose from an atmospheric HT release could be as high as 25% of that from an atmospheric HTO release.

  6. In vitro peptide release from liquid crystalline buccal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kellaway, I W

    2000-02-15

    Swelling and [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]enkephalin (DADLE) release from the lamellar and cubic liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) were studied using two in vitro methods, a total immersion method and a Franz cell method. The swelling of the lamellar phase and glyceryl monooleate (0% w/w water content) and DADLE release from the liquid crystalline phases were temperature dependent. The swelling ratio was greater at 20 degrees C than 37 degrees C while DADLE release increased at 37 degrees C compared to 20 degrees C for both the lamellar and cubic phases. The water uptake increased dramatically with decreasing initial water content of the liquid crystalline phases. However, DADLE release increased with increasing initial water content, which corresponded to increased viscosity. The swelling and DADLE release profiles obtained using a Franz cell method with a moist nylon membrane to mimic buccal drug release conditions were slower than the total immersion method. These results show that the swelling and DADLE release strongly depended on temperature, the initial water content of the liquid crystalline matrix and the methodology employed for determining the swelling and DADLE release.

  7. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  8. Controlled release liquid dosage formulation

    DOEpatents

    Benton, Ben F.; Gardner, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid dual coated dosage formulation sustained release pharmaceutic having substantial shelf life prior to ingestion is disclosed. A dual coating is applied over controlled release cores to form dosage forms and the coatings comprise fats melting at less than approximately 101.degree. F. overcoated with cellulose acetate phthalate or zein. The dual coated dosage forms are dispersed in a sugar based acidic liquid carrier such as high fructose corn syrup and display a shelf life of up to approximately at least 45 days while still retaining their release profiles following ingestion. Cellulose acetate phthalate coated dosage form cores can in addition be dispersed in aqueous liquids of pH <5.

  9. Estimating emissions from accidental releases

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    The Clean Air Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have an objective sources of air emissions through programs such as Title III, which is aimed at reducing hazardous air pollutant emissions. However, under Section 112(r) of the CAAA of 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has also developed requirements for owners and operators of facilities regulated for hazardous substances to implement accidental release prevention programs for non-continuous emissions. Provisions of 112(r) include programs for release prevention, emergency planning and risk management. This paper examines methodologies available to regulated facilities for estimating accidental release emissions and determining off-site impacts.

  10. EFFECTS OF FRESHWATER RELEASES AND SEASON ON OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) IN CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of freshwater releases and season on disease prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus marinus, condition index, gonadal condition, recruitment potential, and growth of oysters was examined monthly at five locations along the Caloosahatchee estuary, Florida. Temperature...

  11. SELF-RELEASING GRAPPLING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, D.A. Sr.

    1963-11-01

    >A self-releasing grappling device that lifts by virtue of engagement between clamping jaws and the undercut lower side of a conical head of a lifting lug attached to the object to be lifted and employs a releasing sleeve on the lug to free the jaws from the lug is presented. When the jaws are to be released, they are dropped over the releasing sleeve, which is located well below lug head. When the jaws are lifted, they engage a conical surface on the sleeve and lift it up to the head of the lifting lug. In this position of the sleeve, the lower side of the lug head is covered by the sleeve and so cannot be engaged by the jaws, which move past before clearing the sleeve. (AEC)

  12. Best practices for code release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, I want to describe what I think are the best practices for releasing code and having it adopted by end users. Make sure your code is licensed, so users will know how the software can be used and modified, and place your code in a public repository that (and make sure that you follow institutional policies in doing this). Yet licensing and releasing code are not enough: the code must be organized and documented so users can understand what it does, what its limitations are, and how to build and use it. I will describe what I think are best practices in developing the content to support release, including tutorials, design documents, specifications of interfaces and so on. Much of what I have learned on based on ten years of experience in supporting releases of the Montage Image Mosaic Engine.

  13. Tyrosine - Effects on catecholamine release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acworth, Ian N.; During, Matthew J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Tyrosine administration elevates striatal levels of dopamine metabolites in animals given treatments that accelerate nigrostriatal firing, but not in untreated rats. We examined the possibility that the amino acid might actually enhance dopamine release in untreated animals, but that the technique of measuring striatal dopamine metabolism was too insensitive to demonstrate such an effect. Dopamine release was assessed directly, using brain microdialysis of striatal extracellular fluid. Tyrosine administration (50-200 mg/kg IP) did indeed cause a dose related increase in extracellular fluid dopamine levels with minor elevations in levels of DOPAC and HVA, its major metabolites, which were not dose-related. The rise in dopamine was short-lived, suggesting that receptor-mediated feedback mechanisms responded to the increased dopamine release by diminishing neuronal firing or sensitivity to tyrosine. These observations indicate that measurement of changes in striatal DOPAC and HVA, if negative, need not rule out increases in nigrostriatal dopamine release.

  14. Energy release in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John C.; Correia, Emilia; Farnik, Frantisek; Garcia, Howard; Henoux, Jean-Claude; La Rosa, Ted N.; Machado, Marcos E. (Compiler); Nakajima, Hiroshi; Priest, Eric R.

    1994-01-01

    Team 2 of the Ottawa Flares 22 Workshop dealt with observational and theoretical aspects of the characteristics and processes of energy release in flares. Main results summarized in this article stress the global character of the flaring phenomenon in active regions, the importance of discontinuities in magnetic connectivity, the role of field-aligned currents in free energy storage, and the fragmentation of energy release in time and space.

  15. Bisphosphonate release profiles from magnetite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Inoue, Tatsuya; Shirosaki, Yuki; Kawashita, Masakazu; Matsubara, Takao; Matsumine, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    Hyperthermia has been suggested as a novel, minimally invasive cancer treatment method. After implantation of magnetic nano- or microparticles around a tumour through blood vessels, irradiation with alternating magnetic fields facilitates the efficient in situ hyperthermia even for deep-seated tumours. On the basis of this idea, if the microspheres are capable of delivering drugs, they could be promising multifunctional biomaterials effective for chemotherapy as well as hyperthermia. In the present study, magnetite microspheres were prepared by aggregation of the iron oxide colloid in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion. The release behaviour of alendronate, a typical bisphosphonate, from the microspheres was examined in vitro as a model of the bone tumour prevention and treatment system. The alendronate was successfully incorporated onto the porous magnetite microspheres in vacuum conditions. The drug-loaded microspheres maintained their original spherical shapes even after shaking in ultrapure water for 3 days, suggesting that they have sufficient mechanical integrity for clinical use. It was attributed to high aggregation capability of the magnetite nanoparticles through van der Waals and weak magnetic attractions. The microspheres showed slow release of the alendronate in vitro, resulting from tight covalent or ionic interaction between the magnetite and the alendronate. The release rate was diffusion-controlled type and well controlled by the alendronate concentration in drug incorporation to the microspheres.

  16. Bisphosphonate release profiles from magnetite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Inoue, Tatsuya; Shirosaki, Yuki; Kawashita, Masakazu; Matsubara, Takao; Matsumine, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    Hyperthermia has been suggested as a novel, minimally invasive cancer treatment method. After implantation of magnetic nano- or microparticles around a tumour through blood vessels, irradiation with alternating magnetic fields facilitates the efficient in situ hyperthermia even for deep-seated tumours. On the basis of this idea, if the microspheres are capable of delivering drugs, they could be promising multifunctional biomaterials effective for chemotherapy as well as hyperthermia. In the present study, magnetite microspheres were prepared by aggregation of the iron oxide colloid in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion. The release behaviour of alendronate, a typical bisphosphonate, from the microspheres was examined in vitro as a model of the bone tumour prevention and treatment system. The alendronate was successfully incorporated onto the porous magnetite microspheres in vacuum conditions. The drug-loaded microspheres maintained their original spherical shapes even after shaking in ultrapure water for 3 days, suggesting that they have sufficient mechanical integrity for clinical use. It was attributed to high aggregation capability of the magnetite nanoparticles through van der Waals and weak magnetic attractions. The microspheres showed slow release of the alendronate in vitro, resulting from tight covalent or ionic interaction between the magnetite and the alendronate. The release rate was diffusion-controlled type and well controlled by the alendronate concentration in drug incorporation to the microspheres. PMID:24854985

  17. 19 CFR 142.41 - Line Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Line Release. 142.41 Section 142.41 Customs Duties... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.41 Line Release. Line Release is an automated system designed to... importers of merchandise which CBP deems to be repetitive and high volume. Line Release may be used only...

  18. 19 CFR 142.41 - Line Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line Release. 142.41 Section 142.41 Customs Duties... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.41 Line Release. Line Release is an automated system designed to... importers of merchandise which Customs deems to be repetitive and high volume. Line Release may be used...

  19. Characteristics of nitrogen release from synthetic zeolite Na-P1 occluding NH4NO3.

    PubMed

    Park, Man; Kim, Jong Su; Choi, Choong Lyeal; Kim, Jang-Eok; Heo, Nam Ho; Komarneni, Sridhar; Choi, Jyung

    2005-08-18

    Zeolites can accommodate a considerable amount of occluded salt such as NH4NO3, which can serve as a good source of slow-release plant nutrient. This study evaluates the kinetics of ion release from NH4NO3-occluded Na-P1 (N-NaP) using a simulated soil solution and deionized water as leaching solutions. The patterns of ion releases were examined as a function of leaching time under both static and continuous-flow conditions for more than one month. Releases of both NH4+ and NO3- from N-NaP were found to be slow and steady under both the above conditions. The soil solution affected the release of NH4+ and NO3- differently, while deionized water released nearly the same equivalents of these ions. This clearly indicates that ion release from salt-occluded zeolite involves two different reactions, cation exchange and dissolution. The kinetics of ion release from occluded NH4NO3 under static condition was best described by the standard Elovich model while the power function model best expressed these under continuous-flow condition. The initial ion release patterns under both conditions exhibited considerable deviation from the simulated models, probably as a result of the presence of hydrated occluded NH4NO3. Flow condition and the presence of electrolytes in leaching solution affected the release kinetics significantly. Release of occluded NH4NO3 was delayed by the presence of the NH4NO3 coated on zeolite crystals. These results indicate that the ion release property of occluded salt could be predicted and controlled. This study clearly shows that NH4NO3-occluded zeolites could be developed as slow release fertilizers. PMID:15963593

  20. Characteristics of nitrogen release from synthetic zeolite Na-P1 occluding NH4NO3.

    PubMed

    Park, Man; Kim, Jong Su; Choi, Choong Lyeal; Kim, Jang-Eok; Heo, Nam Ho; Komarneni, Sridhar; Choi, Jyung

    2005-08-18

    Zeolites can accommodate a considerable amount of occluded salt such as NH4NO3, which can serve as a good source of slow-release plant nutrient. This study evaluates the kinetics of ion release from NH4NO3-occluded Na-P1 (N-NaP) using a simulated soil solution and deionized water as leaching solutions. The patterns of ion releases were examined as a function of leaching time under both static and continuous-flow conditions for more than one month. Releases of both NH4+ and NO3- from N-NaP were found to be slow and steady under both the above conditions. The soil solution affected the release of NH4+ and NO3- differently, while deionized water released nearly the same equivalents of these ions. This clearly indicates that ion release from salt-occluded zeolite involves two different reactions, cation exchange and dissolution. The kinetics of ion release from occluded NH4NO3 under static condition was best described by the standard Elovich model while the power function model best expressed these under continuous-flow condition. The initial ion release patterns under both conditions exhibited considerable deviation from the simulated models, probably as a result of the presence of hydrated occluded NH4NO3. Flow condition and the presence of electrolytes in leaching solution affected the release kinetics significantly. Release of occluded NH4NO3 was delayed by the presence of the NH4NO3 coated on zeolite crystals. These results indicate that the ion release property of occluded salt could be predicted and controlled. This study clearly shows that NH4NO3-occluded zeolites could be developed as slow release fertilizers.

  1. Optimization of release from magnetically controlled polymeric drug release devices.

    PubMed

    Edelman, E R; Langer, R

    1993-07-01

    Release rates from drug:polymer matrices embedded with small magnets increase in the presence of oscillating magnetic fields. Previous studies of these systems have defined those parameters that determine the extent of the increase in release, and implied that not only was the force generated within the matrix an important determinant of the extent of modulation but also that the greater the amount of matrix actually displaced, the greater the observed modulation. We investigated this possibility in the magnetic system and developed a model taking into account the intersection of the volume of a cylindrical polymer-drug magnet embedded matrix with an imaginary sphere representing the upper limit of matrix deformation by the magnet. The intersection correlated in a linear fashion with the increase in release (slope = 1.16 +/- 0.26, R = 0.864, P = 0.003, s.e.e. = 1.38). Magnet orientation alone was insufficient to explain the data. It appears that a modulated system is optimized when the modulating force overlaps precisely with the maximum amount of matrix drug that can be released. If the size of the matrix, position of the magnet, force generated on the matrix by the magnet, viscoelastic properties of the matrix, etc. are not matched then modulation is inefficient. These results should provide further insight into and a means of optimization for externally regulated controlled release systems.

  2. Added release time in diffusion/dissolution coupled release.

    PubMed

    Nuxoll, Eric

    2015-10-15

    While increasingly sophisticated models have been developed to more accurately predict dispersed solute release from complex systems, distillation of their results into quantitative trends has been difficult. Here, the numerically calculated release profiles of coupled diffusion/dissolution systems are quantified by their cumulative release time (CRT) and compared against corresponding diffusion-controlled limits. The increase in CRT due to a finite dissolution rate was found to vary inversely with the second Damköhler number across several orders of magnitude, and also vary linearly with the amount of solid drug loaded in the system. The analytical nature of the relationship provides new physical insights into the system and appears to be indifferent to the form of the secondary rate-limiting step. This work provides a simple analytical expression with which one can not only predict the mean release time for a given set of parameter values, but understand precisely how each parameter value will affect it. The simplicity of the correlation and the lack of apparent limits to its validity also suggest the existence of an analytical pathway for its derivation, which may yield additional insights into the effect of secondary rate processes on controlled release. PMID:26276252

  3. Added release time in diffusion/dissolution coupled release.

    PubMed

    Nuxoll, Eric

    2015-10-15

    While increasingly sophisticated models have been developed to more accurately predict dispersed solute release from complex systems, distillation of their results into quantitative trends has been difficult. Here, the numerically calculated release profiles of coupled diffusion/dissolution systems are quantified by their cumulative release time (CRT) and compared against corresponding diffusion-controlled limits. The increase in CRT due to a finite dissolution rate was found to vary inversely with the second Damköhler number across several orders of magnitude, and also vary linearly with the amount of solid drug loaded in the system. The analytical nature of the relationship provides new physical insights into the system and appears to be indifferent to the form of the secondary rate-limiting step. This work provides a simple analytical expression with which one can not only predict the mean release time for a given set of parameter values, but understand precisely how each parameter value will affect it. The simplicity of the correlation and the lack of apparent limits to its validity also suggest the existence of an analytical pathway for its derivation, which may yield additional insights into the effect of secondary rate processes on controlled release.

  4. Release of ATP induced by hypertonic solutions in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Aleu, Jordi; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Navarro, Piedad; de Lara, Ivanna Pérez; Bahima, Laia; Marsal, Jordi; Solsona, Carles

    2003-01-01

    ATP mediates intercellular communication. Mechanical stress and changes in cell volume induce ATP release from various cell types, both secretory and non-secretory. In the present study, we stressed Xenopus oocytes with a hypertonic solution enriched in mannitol (300 mm). We measured simultaneously ATP release and ionic currents from a single oocyte. A decrease in cell volume, the activation of an inward current and ATP release were coincident. We found two components of ATP release: the first was associated with granule or vesicle exocytosis, because it was inhibited by tetanus neurotoxin, and the second was related to the inward current. A single exponential described the correlation between ATP release and the hypertonic-activated current. Gadolinium ions, which block mechanically activated ionic channels, inhibited the ATP release and the inward current but did not affect the decrease in volume. Oocytes expressing CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator) released ATP under hypertonic shock, but ATP release was significantly inhibited in the first component: that related to granule exocytosis. Since the ATP measured is the balance between ATP release and ATP degradation by ecto-enzymes, we measured the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity of the oocyte surface during osmotic stress, as the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of ATP, which was inhibited by more than 50 % in hypertonic conditions. The best-characterized membrane protein showing NTPDase activity is CD39. Oocytes injected with an antisense oligonucleotide complementary to CD39 mRNA released less ATP and showed a lower amplitude in the inward current than those oocytes injected with water. PMID:12562935

  5. Controlled release niosome embedded chitosan system: effect of crosslink mesh dimensions on drug release.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eva Christabel; Toomey, Ryan; Alcantar, Norma

    2012-12-01

    We report on a model chemotherapy drug delivery system comprising nonionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) packaged within a temperature-sensitive chitosan network. This smart packaging, or package-within-a package system, provides two distinct advantages. First, the gel prevents circulation of the niosomes and maintains delivery in the vicinity of a tumor. Second, the chitosan network protects the niosomes against fluctuations in tonicity, which affects delivery rates. Tonicity is the sum of the concentrations of the solutes which have the capacity to exert an osmotic force across the membrane. All release rate experiments were conducted with 5,6-carboxyfluorescein, a fluorescent dye. Release rates were monitored from both bare niosomes alone and niosome-embedded, chitosan networks. It was observed that chitosan networks prolonged delivery from 100 h to 55 days in low ionic strength environment and pH conditions similar to a tumor site. The primary effect of chitosan is to add control on release time and dosage, and stabilize the niosomes through a high ionic strength surrounding that prevents uncontrolled bursting of the niosomes. Secondary factors include crosslink density of the chitosan network, molecular weight of the individual chitosan polymers, dye concentration within the niosomes, and the number density of niosomes packaged within the chitosan network. Each of these factors can be altered to fine-tune release rates. PMID:22733611

  6. Pheromonal stimulation of spawning release of gametes by gonadotropin releasing hormone in the chiton, Mopalia sp.

    PubMed

    Gorbman, Aubrey; Whiteley, Arthur; Kavanaugh, Scott

    2003-03-01

    The chiton Mopalia sp., a mollusc, was exposed to various dilutions of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in sea water to determine whether this peptide is capable of acting as a pheromone that could stimulate release of ripe gametes (spawning). Two of the peptides, lamprey GnRH-1 and tunicate GnRH-2, had this action at a higher concentration (1.0 mg/L) but dilutions to 50 microg/L no longer were effective. Three other GnRHs: lamprey GnRH-3, tunicate GnRH-1, and a modified chicken GnRH-2, had no such action under the same test conditions. Since the spawning response could be produced by some GnRHs and not by others, it would appear that some kind of molecular recognition is involved, possibly by specific binding to a receptor. In earlier preliminary experiments tunicate GnRH-2 rapidly stimulated gamete release in a hemichordate, Saccoglossus. Thus it is suggested that GnRHs, in at least some invertebrates, may function as pheromones, serving to stimulate simultaneous spawning of individuals in a population of animals, and in this way assure more successful fertilization in species that must release their gametes into the water in which they live.

  7. Bioerodible System for Sequential Release of Multiple Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaj, Sharath C.; Thomas, Mark V.; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Puleo, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Because many complex physiological processes are controlled by multiple biomolecules, comprehensive treatment of certain disease conditions may be more effectively achieved by administration of more than one type of drug. Thus, the objective of the present research was to develop a multilayered, polymer-based system for sequential delivery of multiple drugs. The polymers used were cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) complexed with Pluronic F-127 (P). After evaluating morphology of the resulting CAPP system, in vitro release of small molecule drugs and a model protein was studied from both single and multilayered devices. Drug release from single-layered CAPP films followed zero-order kinetics related to surface erosion of the association polymer. Release studies from multilayered CAPP devices showed the possibility of achieving intermittent release of one type of drug as well as sequential release of more than one type of drug. Mathematical modeling accurately predicted the release profiles for both single layer and multilayered devices. The present CAPP association polymer-based multilayer devices can be used for localized, sequential delivery of multiple drugs for the possible treatment of complex disease conditions, and perhaps for tissue engineering applications, that require delivery of more than one type of biomolecule. PMID:24096151

  8. Bioerodible system for sequential release of multiple drugs.

    PubMed

    Sundararaj, Sharath C; Thomas, Mark V; Dziubla, Thomas D; Puleo, David A

    2014-01-01

    Because many complex physiological processes are controlled by multiple biomolecules, comprehensive treatment of certain disease conditions may be more effectively achieved by administration of more than one type of drug. Thus, the objective of the present research was to develop a multilayered, polymer-based system for sequential delivery of multiple drugs. The polymers used were cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) complexed with Pluronic F-127 (P). After evaluating morphology of the resulting CAPP system, in vitro release of small molecule drugs and a model protein was studied from both single and multilayered devices. Drug release from single-layered CAPP films followed zero-order kinetics related to surface erosion of the association polymer. Release studies from multilayered CAPP devices showed the possibility of achieving intermittent release of one type of drug as well as sequential release of more than one type of drug. Mathematical modeling accurately predicted the release profiles for both single layer and multilayered devices. The present CAPP association polymer-based multilayer devices can be used for localized, sequential delivery of multiple drugs for the possible treatment of complex disease conditions, and perhaps for tissue engineering applications, that require delivery of more than one type of biomolecule. PMID:24096151

  9. Winning Conditions?

    PubMed

    Green, Esther; Moody, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the paper, "The Patient Experience in Ontario 2020: What is Possible?", framed both the current state as well as the future of what patient experience might look like in five years. To ensure intention is catalyzed into meaningful change to improve experience and outcomes, we suggest four winning conditions. The first is to change the language; patients are people too, irrespective of their disease or illness; person-centred is inclusive language and ought to be the focus. The second condition is focused on leaders who play a critical role to establish, build and embed person-centred within the organization. The third and fourth winning conditions are building the evidence base and using effective and meaningful engagement, moving beyond advice, to partnership, respectively. Person-centred care is not the flavour of the month, it is here to stay. Ontarians are important actors in the system not only as users of the system but owners as well. To those who might argue that it is costly to do this work, what are the costs to not engage? Are we satisfied not only as administrators, and clinicians, but as patients at some point, to maintain the status quo? PMID:26888319

  10. Impact of variable reservoir releases on management of downstream water temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carron, John C.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2001-06-01

    A coupled unsteady flow and heat transport model is used to determine the impacts of fluctuating reservoir releases on downstream water temperatures. Maintenance of stream temperatures is one of the most common reasons cited for imposition of minimum flow requirements in regulated (reservoir controlled) rivers. Minimum flow constraints for temperature control are typically developed using worst-case scenarios (i.e., maximum air temperature, clear sky, etc.) of atmospheric conditions. We show that short- term modifications to reservoir releases based on local meteorological conditions can reduce the volume of water released, while still meeting temperature objectives. A case study of the Green River below Flaming Gorge Dam shows that for certain sets of temperature objectives and atmospheric conditions, a diurnally varying release may be the only way to meet multiple temperature objectives at different downstream locations. In the examples discussed, savings of nearly 20% in total release volume could be realized by using variable releases.

  11. Radar investigation of barium releases over Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djuth, Frank T.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) El Coqui rocket campaign was successfully carried out in Puerto Rico during the period 18 May through 12 July 1992. This report describes five chemical release experiments in the upper ionosphere supported by Geospace Research, Inc. during the El Coqui campaign. Additional spin-off science is also discussed. The El Coqui releases are designated AA-1 (rocket 36-082), AA-2 (rocket 36-081), AA-3b (rocket 36-064), AA-4 (rocket 36-065), and AA-7 (rocket 36-083). Particular attention is paid to releases AA-2 and AA-4. These two experiments involved the illumination of ionospheric release regions with powerful high-frequency (HF) radio waves transmitted from the Arecibo HF facility. In the AA-2 experiment, microinstabilities excited by the HF wave in a Ba(+) plasma were examined. This release yielded a smooth plasma cloud that helped clarify several fundamental issues regarding the physics of wave plasma instabilities. During AA-2 extremely strong HF-induced Langmuir turbulence was detected with the Arecibo 430 MHz radar. CF3Br was released in the AA-4 study to create an ionospheric hole that focused the HF beam. This experiment successfully explored wave-plasma coupling in an O(+) ionosphere under conditions of very high HF electric field strengths.

  12. Wetting mechanisms of gel-based controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Shavit, U; Reiss, M; Shaviv, A

    2003-02-14

    The release mechanism of gel-based controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) involves water penetration into dry mixtures of fertilizers and gel forming polymers. Water penetration provides an upper limit to the whole release process. Where wetting prediction is often based on models that describe the flow of the liquid phase, vapor motion may become significant when a sharp wetting front exists. In this study we examine the role of vapor and fluid flows in the wetting process of CRFs consisting of urea or KNO(3) mixed with polyacrylamide (PAM). Vapor adsorption isotherms were obtained for typical fertilizer-PAM mixtures. Wetting and release experiments were conducted by dividing the CRFs into regions alternately filled with a pure fertilizer and mixtures of PAM and fertilizer. The experiments were designed in such a way that when the wetting front reaches a mixtures interface, its motion depends on the gradient imposed by the difference in osmotic potential (OP). The coupled equations of vapor and liquid flow in initially dry conditions were solved numerically to demonstrate the conceptual understanding gained by the experiments. The results show that wetting front motion is affected by transport and adsorption of vapor. It was also shown that the release rate is different when wetting is governed by vapor flow or by liquid flow. The release pattern from a multi-regions device was consistent with the wetting pattern, demonstrating the possibility to tailor the release according to periods of peak demand. PMID:12586505

  13. Wetting mechanisms of gel-based controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Shavit, U; Reiss, M; Shaviv, A

    2003-02-14

    The release mechanism of gel-based controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) involves water penetration into dry mixtures of fertilizers and gel forming polymers. Water penetration provides an upper limit to the whole release process. Where wetting prediction is often based on models that describe the flow of the liquid phase, vapor motion may become significant when a sharp wetting front exists. In this study we examine the role of vapor and fluid flows in the wetting process of CRFs consisting of urea or KNO(3) mixed with polyacrylamide (PAM). Vapor adsorption isotherms were obtained for typical fertilizer-PAM mixtures. Wetting and release experiments were conducted by dividing the CRFs into regions alternately filled with a pure fertilizer and mixtures of PAM and fertilizer. The experiments were designed in such a way that when the wetting front reaches a mixtures interface, its motion depends on the gradient imposed by the difference in osmotic potential (OP). The coupled equations of vapor and liquid flow in initially dry conditions were solved numerically to demonstrate the conceptual understanding gained by the experiments. The results show that wetting front motion is affected by transport and adsorption of vapor. It was also shown that the release rate is different when wetting is governed by vapor flow or by liquid flow. The release pattern from a multi-regions device was consistent with the wetting pattern, demonstrating the possibility to tailor the release according to periods of peak demand.

  14. Preparation, characterization and optimization of glipizide controlled release nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Emami, J.; Boushehri, M.S. Shetab; Varshosaz, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop glipizide controlled release nanoparticles using alginate and chitosan thorough ionotropic controlled gelation method. Glipizide is a frequently prescribed second generation sulfonylurea which lowers the blood glucose in type-two diabetics. Quick absorption of the drug from the gastrointestinal tract along with short half- life of elimination makes it a good candidate for controlled release formulations. Alginate-chitosan nanoparticles (ACNP) are convenient controlled delivery systems for glipizide, due to both the release limiting properties of the system, and the bioadhesive nature of the polymers. In the present study, glipizide loaded alginate-chitosan nanoparticles (GlACNP) were prepared, and the particle characteristics including particle size (PS), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE%), loading percent (LP), and mean release time (MRT), as well as the morphology of the nanoparticles, the drug-excipient compatibility, and the release kinetics along with the drug diffusion mechanism were evaluated. The results suggested that ionotropic controlled gelation method offers the possibility of preparing the nanoparticles in mild conditions in an aqueous environment, and can lead to the preparation of particles with favorable size, controlled release characteristics, and high entrapment efficiency, serving as a convenient delivery system for glipizide. The particle and release characteristics can be efficiently optimized using the Box-Behnken design. Based on the findings of the present study, it is expected that this novel formulation be a superior therapeutic alternative to the currently available glipizide delivery systems. PMID:25657802

  15. Preparation and evaluation of sustained release loxoprofen loaded microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, P.; Manavalan, R.; Valliappan, K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate the loxoprofen loaded Sustained release microspheres by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Ethylcellulose, a biocompatible polymer is used as the retardant material. The effects of process conditions such as drug loading, polymer type and solvent type on the characteristics of microspheres were investigated. The prepared microspheres were characterized for their particle size and drug loading and drug release. The in-vitro release studies were carried out in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The prepared microspheres were white, free flowing and spherical in shape. The drug-loaded microspheres showed 71.2% of entrapment and the in-vitro release studies showed that Loxoprofen microspheres of 1:3 ratios showed better sustained effect over a period of 8 hours PMID:24826017

  16. Composite chitosan hydrogels for extended release of hydrophobic drugs.

    PubMed

    Delmar, Keren; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2016-01-20

    A composite chitosan hydrogel durable in physiological conditions intended for sustained release of hydrophobic drugs was investigated. The design is based on chitosan crosslinked with genipin with embedded biocompatible non-ionic microemulsion (ME). A prolonged release period of 48 h in water, and of 24h in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) of pH 7.4 was demonstrated for Nile red and curcumin. The differences in release patterns in water and PBS were attributed to distinct dissimilarities in the swelling behaviors; in water, the hydrogels swell enormously, while in PBS they expel water and shrink. The release mechanism dominating this system is complex due to intermolecular bonding between the oil droplets and the polymeric network, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) experiments. This is the first time that oil in water microemulsions were introduced into a chitosan hydrogels for the creation of a hydrophobic drug delivery system. PMID:26572389

  17. Granzyme M and K release in human experimental endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Wensink, Annette C; Wiewel, Maryse A; Jongeneel, Lieneke H; Boes, Marianne; van der Poll, Tom; Hack, C Erik; Bovenschen, Niels

    2016-07-01

    Granzymes are serine proteases involved in killing of tumor cells and virally infected cells. However, granzymes are also upregulated in blood under inflammatory conditions and contribute to cytokine release and processing. Here, we show that granzyme M (GrM) and to a lesser extent GrK are transiently elevated in the circulation following LPS administration in humans. GrM is released upon stimulation of whole blood with LPS or the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli BL21, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Neisseria meningitidis. GrK is only released upon stimulation with P. aeruginosa. Thus, GrM and GrK are differentially released in response to LPS and gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26928607

  18. Granzyme M and K release in human experimental endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Wensink, Annette C; Wiewel, Maryse A; Jongeneel, Lieneke H; Boes, Marianne; van der Poll, Tom; Hack, C Erik; Bovenschen, Niels

    2016-07-01

    Granzymes are serine proteases involved in killing of tumor cells and virally infected cells. However, granzymes are also upregulated in blood under inflammatory conditions and contribute to cytokine release and processing. Here, we show that granzyme M (GrM) and to a lesser extent GrK are transiently elevated in the circulation following LPS administration in humans. GrM is released upon stimulation of whole blood with LPS or the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli BL21, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Neisseria meningitidis. GrK is only released upon stimulation with P. aeruginosa. Thus, GrM and GrK are differentially released in response to LPS and gram-negative bacteria.

  19. ISOPAR L RELEASE RATES FROM SALTSTONE USING SIMULATED SALT SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J; Michael Bronikowski, M; Alex Cozzi, A; Russell Eibling, R; Charles Nash, C

    2008-07-31

    tests at 95 C with solvent containing all components (Isopar{reg_sign} L, suppressor trioctylamine (TOA), and modifier Cs-7SB) except the BOBCalixC6 extractant released less Isopar{reg_sign} L than the tests run with Isopar{reg_sign} L/TOA. Based on these scoping tests, the Isopar{reg_sign} L releases reported herein are conservative. Isopar{reg_sign} L release was studied for a two-month period and average cumulative release rates were determined from three sets of tests each at 95 and 75 C and at ambient conditions. The overall average releases at were estimated for each temperature. For the 95 and 75 C data, at a 5% significance level, the hypothesis that the three test sets at each temperature had the same average percent release can be rejected, suggesting that there was a statistically significant difference among the three averages seen in the three experimental tests conducted. An upper confidence limit on the mean percent release required incorporation of variation from two sources: test-to-test variation as well as the variation within a test. An analysis of variance that relies on a random effects model was used to estimate the two variance components. The test-to-test variance and the within test (or residual) variance were both calculated. There is no indication of a statistically significant linear correlation between the percent Isopar{reg_sign} L release and the Isopar{reg_sign} L initial concentration. From the analysis of variance, upper confidence limits at confidences of 80-95% were calculated for the data at 95 and 75 C. The mean Isopar{reg_sign} L percent releases were 67.33% and 13.17% at 95 and 75 C, respectively.

  20. Controlled release from recombinant polymers.

    PubMed

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-09-28

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed.

  1. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  2. Payload holddown and release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Dale; Visconti, Mark; Edwards, Michael; Moran, Tom

    1994-01-01

    A payload holddown and release mechanism, designated the Model 1172, was designed and built at G&H Technology during the winter of 1992/1993. The mechanism is able to restrain and release a 45-pound payload with minimal tipoff. The payload is held in place by a stainless steel band and released using electrically triggered non-explosive actuators. These actuators provide reliable operation with negligible shock and no special handling requirements. The performance of the mechanism was demonstrated in two flight tests. Data showed pitch and yaw tipoff rates of less than 0.07 radian (4 degree) per second. The Model 1172 design is an efficient replacement for conventional payload deployment devices, especially where low transmitted shock is required.

  3. Effect of in vitro inorganic lead on dopamine release from superfused rat striatal synaptosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Minnema, D.J.; Greenland, R.D.; Michaelson, I.A.

    1986-06-30

    The effect of inorganic lead in vitro in several aspects of (/sup 3/H)dopamine release from superfused rat striatal synaptosomes was examined. Under conditions of spontaneous release, lead (1-30 microM) induced dopamine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The onset of the lead-induced release was delayed by approximately 15-30 sec. The magnitude of dopamine release induced by lead was increased when calcium was removed from the superfusing buffer. Lead-induced release was unaffected in the presence of putative calcium, sodium, and/or potassium channel blockers (nickel, tetrodotoxin, tetraethylammonium, respectively). Depolarization-evoked dopamine release, produced by a 1-sec exposure to 61 mM potassium, was diminished at calcium concentrations below 0.254 mM. The onset of depolarization-evoked release was essentially immediate following exposure of the synaptosomes to high potassium. The combination of lead (3 or 10 microM) with high potassium reduced the magnitude of depolarization-evoked dopamine release. This depression of depolarization-evoked release by lead was greater in the presence of 0.25 mM than 2.54 mM calcium in the superfusing buffer. These findings demonstrate multiple actions of lead on synaptosomal dopamine release. Lead can induce dopamine release by yet unidentified neuronal mechanisms independent of external calcium. Lead can also reduce depolarization-evoked dopamine release by apparent competition with calcium influx at the neuronal membrane calcium channel.

  4. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  5. Hydrocarbon release investigations in Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Fels, J.B.

    1996-09-01

    Hydrocarbon releases are among the most common environmental problems in Missouri, as well as across the country. Old, unprotected underground storage tanks and buried piping from the tanks to pumps are notorious sources of petroleum contamination at LUST (leaking underground storage tank) sites. Missouri has an estimated 5000 LUST sites across the state with the majority being simple spills into clay-rich soils or into a shallow perched water system. However, in the southern half of the state, where residual soils and karst bedrock are not conducive to trapping such releases, significant groundwater supplies are at risk. This article discusses the process used to identify the source of contamination.

  6. Operant Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Staddon, J. E. R.; Cerutti, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    Operant behavior is behavior “controlled” by its consequences. In practice, operant conditioning is the study of reversible behavior maintained by reinforcement schedules. We review empirical studies and theoretical approaches to two large classes of operant behavior: interval timing and choice. We discuss cognitive versus behavioral approaches to timing, the “gap” experiment and its implications, proportional timing and Weber's law, temporal dynamics and linear waiting, and the problem of simple chain-interval schedules. We review the long history of research on operant choice: the matching law, its extensions and problems, concurrent chain schedules, and self-control. We point out how linear waiting may be involved in timing, choice, and reinforcement schedules generally. There are prospects for a unified approach to all these areas. PMID:12415075

  7. Kinetics of drug release from ointments: Role of transient-boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Rahman, Ziyaur; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-10-15

    In the current work, an in vitro release testing method suitable for ointment formulations was developed using acyclovir as a model drug. Release studies were carried out using enhancer cells on acyclovir ointments prepared with oleaginous, absorption, and water-soluble bases. Kinetics and mechanism of drug release was found to be highly dependent on the type of ointment bases. In oleaginous bases, drug release followed a unique logarithmic-time dependent profile; in both absorption and water-soluble bases, drug release exhibited linearity with respect to square root of time (Higuchi model) albeit differences in the overall release profile. To help understand the underlying cause of logarithmic-time dependency of drug release, a novel transient-boundary hypothesis was proposed, verified, and compared to Higuchi theory. Furthermore, impact of drug solubility (under various pH conditions) and temperature on drug release were assessed. Additionally, conditions under which deviations from logarithmic-time drug release kinetics occur were determined using in situ UV fiber-optics. Overall, the results suggest that for oleaginous ointments containing dispersed drug particles, kinetics and mechanism of drug release is controlled by expansion of transient boundary layer, and drug release increases linearly with respect to logarithmic time.

  8. In Praise of Education as a Time-Release Capsule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The modern era of accountability--"Show me what you do matters, and do it quickly"--may discount it, but, according to this author, much of an education worthy of the name acts on "time release." Many of education's effects are gradual; they are also erratic, unpredictable, conditional, circumstantial, and, ultimately, subject to too many matters…

  9. Bioinspired, releasable quorum sensing modulators.

    PubMed

    Gomes, José; Grunau, Alexander; Lawrence, Adrien K; Eberl, Leo; Gademann, Karl

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis and immobilization of natural product hybrids featuring an acyl-homoserine lactone and a nitrodopamine onto biocompatible TiO(2) surfaces through an operationally simple dip-and-rinse procedure. The resulting immobilized hybrids were shown to be powerful quorum sensing (QS) activators in Pseudomonas strains acting by slow release from the surface. PMID:23169441

  10. 2014 Pee Dee germplasm releases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PD 05035, PD 05041, PD 05064, PD 05069, PD 05070, PD 05071, PD 06001, and PD 06078 are noncommercial breeding lines of cotton jointly released by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Clemson University Experiment Station, and Cotton Incorporated in 2014. These ...

  11. Photodegradable Polyesters for Triggered Release

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Cong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Peng; Tang, Xinjing

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradable polyesters were synthesized with a photolabile monomer 2-nitrophenylethylene glycol and dioyl chlorides with different lengths. These polymers can be assembled to form polymeric particles with encapsulation of target substances. Light activation can degrade these particles and release payloads in both aqueous solutions and RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:23208376

  12. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  13. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  14. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  15. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  16. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  17. Index to NASA News Releases 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the index to NASA News Releases contains a listing of news releases distributed by the Office of Public Affairs, NASA Headquarters, during 1995. The index is arranged in six sections: Subject index, Personal name index, News release number index, Accession number index, Speeches, and News releases.

  18. Kepler Data Release 3 Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    2010-01-01

    This describes the collection of data and the processing done on it so when researchers around the world get the Kepler data sets (which are a set of pixels from the telescope of a particular target (star, galaxy or whatever) over a 3 month period) they can adjust their algorithms fro things that were done (like subtracting all of one particular wavelength for example). This is used to calibrate their own algorithms so that they know what it is they are starting with. It is posted so that whoever is accessing the publicly available data (not all of it is made public) can understand it .. (most of the Kepler data is under restriction for 1 - 4 years and is not available, but the handbook is for everyone (public and restricted) The Data Analysis Working Group have released long and short cadence materials, including FFls and Dropped Targets for the Public. The Kepler Science Office considers Data Release 3 to provide "browse quality" data. These notes have been prepared to give Kepler users of the Multimission Archive at STScl (MAST) a summary of how the data were collected and prepared, and how well the data processing pipeline is functioning on flight data. They will be updated for each release of data to the public archive and placed on MAST along with other Kepler documentation, at http:// archive.stsci.edu/kepler/documents.html .Data release 3 is meant to give users the opportunity to examine the data for possibly interesting science and to involve the users in improving the pipeline for future data releases. To perform the latter service, users are encouraged to notice and document artifacts, either in the raw or processed data, and report them to the Science Office.

  19. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  20. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis.

  1. Controlled release of vancomycin from biodegradable microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Ozalp, Y; Ozdemir, N; Kocagöz, S; Hasirci, V

    2001-01-01

    Poly D,L-lactic acid (PLA) and its copolymers with glycolide PLGA 90:10 and 70:30 were polymerized under various conditions to yield polymers in the molecular weight range 12000-40000 daltons, as determined by gel permeation chromatography. Vancomycin hydrochloride was the hydrophilic drug of choice for the treatment of methicillin resistant Staphyloccoccal infections. It was microencapsulated in the synthesized polymers using water-oil-water (w/o/w) double emulsion and solvent evaporation. The influence of microcapsule preparation medium on product properties was investigated. An increase in polymer-to-drug ratio from 1:1 to 3:1 caused an increase in the encapsulation efficiency (i.e. from 44-97% with PLGA). An increase in the emulsifier (PVA) molecular weight from 14-72 kD caused an increase in encapsulation efficiency and microcapsule size. The in vitro release of vancomycin from microcapsules in phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4) was found to be dependent on molecular weight and copolymer type. The kinetic behaviour was controlled by both diffusion and degradation. Sterilization with 60Co (2.5 Mrad) also affected the degradation rate and release profiles. Degradation of microcapsules could be seen by scanning electron microscopy, by the increase in the release rate from PLA and by the decrease in the Tg values of microcapsules. In vitro bactericidal effects of the microcapsule formulations on S. aureus were determined with a special diffusion cell after the preparations had been sterilized, and were found to have bactericidal effects lasting for 4 days. PMID:11201344

  2. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  3. [Static Migration and Release of Dibutyl-Phthalate in the Fluctuating Zone of Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fa; Wang, Qiang; Mu, Zhi-jian; Yang, Zhi-dan; Song, Jiao-yan

    2015-07-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have received increasing attention in recent years due to their widespread use and hazards to human health and fertility in the environment. In order to understand the migration and release processes of organic pollutants in huge fluctuating zone soil, Dibutyl-phthalate(DBP) was chosen as a typical substance, and its migration and release characteristics in the fluctuating zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir to overlying water and the impacts of DBP concentration in the soil, ionic strength and the concentration of organic mater in overlying water on the process were studied using static flooding method. The results showed that DBP migrated from the soil to the overlying water in the early days after flooding, and the release process of DBP was divided into two phases: one was quick release with a relatively short releasing time and a rapid releasing rate; the other was slow release with a relatively long releasing time and a slow releasing rate. The migration and release processes were well fitted by two-compartment first-order kinetics. After different concentrations DBP were added into soil, the rate of quick release increased with the increasing DBP concentrations in soil while the percent of quick release decreased with the increasing DBP concentrations. The results of rate of slow release and the percent of slow release were on the contrary. The water conditions of overlying water could impact the migration and releasing process of DBP when the soil in fluctuating zone was flooded. The amount of DBP released into the overlying water would increase when the ionic strength in the water increased. At the same time, when the ionic strength increased, in spite of the decreasing quick release rate, the percent of quick release increased. The higher concentration of organic matter in overlying water, the more the amount of DBP released into the overlying water. At the same time, all of the rates of quick release, slow release and the

  4. Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Sengul, Hatice

    2010-04-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck an area dense with industry, causing numerous releases of petroleum and hazardous materials. This study integrates information from a number of sources to describe the frequency, causes, and effects of these releases in order to inform analysis of risk from future hurricanes. Over 200 onshore releases of hazardous chemicals, petroleum, or natural gas were reported. Storm surge was responsible for the majority of petroleum releases and failure of storage tanks was the most common mechanism of release. Of the smaller number of hazardous chemical releases reported, many were associated with flaring from plant startup, shutdown, or process upset. In areas impacted by storm surge, 10% of the facilities within the Risk Management Plan (RMP) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) databases and 28% of SIC 1311 facilities experienced accidental releases. In areas subject only to hurricane strength winds, a lower fraction (1% of RMP and TRI and 10% of SIC 1311 facilities) experienced a release while 1% of all facility types reported a release in areas that experienced tropical storm strength winds. Of industrial facilities surveyed, more experienced indirect disruptions such as displacement of workers, loss of electricity and communication systems, and difficulty acquiring supplies and contractors for operations or reconstruction (55%), than experienced releases. To reduce the risk of hazardous material releases and speed the return to normal operations under these difficult conditions, greater attention should be devoted to risk-based facility design and improved prevention and response planning.

  5. Ultrasound stimulated release of mimosa medicine from cellulose hydrogel matrix.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huixin; Tovar-Carrillo, Karla; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound (US) drug release system using cellulose based hydrogel films was developed as triggered to mimosa. Here, the mimosa, a fascinating drug to cure injured skin, was employed as the loading drug in cellulose hydrogel films prepared with phase inversion method. The mimosa hydrogels were fabricated from dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/LiCl solution in the presence of mimosa, when the solution was exposed to ethanol vapor. The US triggered release of the mimosa from the hydrogel matrix was carried out under following conditions of US powers (0-30W) and frequencies (23, 43 and 96kHz) for different mimosa hydrogel matrix from 0.5wt% to 2wt% cellulose solution. To release the drug by US trigger from the matrix, the better medicine release was observed in the matrix prepared from the 0.5wt% cellulose solution when the 43kHz US was exposed to the aqueous solution with the hydrogel matrix. The release efficiency increased with the increase of the US power from 5 to 30W at 43kHz. Viscoelasticity of the hydrogel matrix showed that the hydrogel became somewhat rigid after the US exposure. FT-IR analysis of the mimosa hydrogel matrixes showed that during the US exposure, hydrogen bonds in the structure of mimosa-water and mimosa-cellulose were broken. This suggested that the enhancement of the mimosa release was caused by the US exposure.

  6. Controlled release of alendronate from nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon

    DOE PAGES

    Saha, Dipendu; Spurri, Amanda; Chen, Jihua; Hensley, Dale K.

    2016-04-13

    With this study, we have synthesized a nitrogen doped mesoporous carbon with the BET surface area of 1066 m2/g, total pore volume 0.6 cm3/g and nitrogen content of 0.5%. Total alendronate adsorption in this carbon was ~5%. The release experiments were designed in four different media with sequential pH values of 1.2, 4.5, 6.8 and 7.4 for 3, 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively and at 37 °C to imitate the physiological conditions of stomach, duodenum, small intestine and colon, respectively. Release of the drug demonstrated a controlled fashion; only 20% of the drug was released in the media withmore » pH = 1.2, whereas 64% of the drug was released in pH = 7.4. This is in contrary to pure alendronate that was completely dissolved within 30 min in the first release media (pH = 1.2) only. The relatively larger uptake of alendronate in this carbon and its sustained fashion of release can be attributed to the hydrogen bonding between the drug and the nitrogen functionalities on carbon surface. Based on this result, it can be inferred that this formulation may lower the side effects of oral delivery of alendronate.« less

  7. Controlled-release scale inhibitor for use in fracturing treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.J.; Gdanski, R.D.; McCabe, M.A.; Buster, D.C.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes results of laboratory and field testing of a solid, controlled-release scale inhibitor for use in fracturing treatments. Laboratory testing with a continuous flow apparatus has yielded inhibitor release rates under dynamic conditions. The inhibitor was tested to determine the minimum inhibitor concentration required to inhibit the formation of CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 4}, and BaSO{sub 4} scales in a brine. A model to predict the long-term release rate of the inhibitor was developed from data collected on the continuous flow apparatus. Data from treated wells will be compared with predictions of the model. Inhibitor release-rate testing in a continuous-flow apparatus shows that a solid, calcium-magnesium polyphosphate inhibitor has a sustained release profile. Release-rate testing shows that the inhibitor can be used up to 175 F. The inhibitor is compatible with both borate and zirconium crosslinked fracturing fluids and foamed fluids. The effective lifetime of the scale treatment can be predicted based on a model developed from laboratory data. The input variables required for the prediction include: temperature, water production, amount of inhibitor, minimum effective concentration of inhibitor for the specific brine. The model can be used to aid in the design of the scale inhibitor treatment.

  8. Experimental Study of Contaminant Release from Reducing Grout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabalan, R. T.; Alexander, G. W.; Waiting, D. J.; Barr, C. S.

    2013-07-01

    A column experiment was conducted to study the release behavior of technetium, uranium, and selenium initially sequestered in reducing grout similar in composition to Savannah River Site (SRS) saltstone, a cementitious waste form made by mixing salt solution from SRS liquid waste storage tanks with a dry mix containing blast furnace slag, fly ash, and Portland cement. The data suggest that uranium was retained in the grout possibly as a CaUO4 phase, whereas most of the selenium was released. Technetium release initially was relatively constant, and then increased significantly after 26 pore volumes. The increase in technetium release was slightly delayed relative to the observed Eh increase. The system Eh-pH started under conditions in which technetium solubility is low, constrained by Tc3O4 solubility, but eventually transitioned into the stability field of the pertechnetate ion. The delay in technetium release relative to the Eh increase was possibly due to slow oxidation of technetium at depth within the grout particles, which in turn was likely controlled by O2 diffusion into the particles. In contrast to technetium and uranium, selenium release was not solubility limited and selenium likely was present in the pore solution initially as a HSe- species.

  9. The release of iron during coal combustion. Milestone report

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-06-01

    Iron plays an important role in the formation of both fly ash and deposits in many pulverized-coal-fired boilers. Several authors indicate that iron content is a significant indicator of the slagging propensity of a majority of US bituminous coals, in particular eastern bituminous coals. The pyritic iron content of these coals is shown to be a particularly relevant consideration. A series of investigations of iron release during combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile bituminous coal under combustion conditions ranging from oxidizing to inert. Experimental measurements are described in which, under selected conditions, major fractions of the iron in the coal are released within a 25 ms period immediately following coal devolatilization. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that the iron is released as a consequence of oxygen attack on porous pyrrhotite particles. Experimental testing of the proposed mechanism reveals that the release is dependent on the presence of both pyrite in the raw coal and oxygen in the gas phase, that slow preoxidation (weathering) of the pyrite significantly inhibits the iron release, and that iron loss increases as oxygen penetration of the particle increases. Each observation is consistent with the postulated mechanism.

  10. Modeling of the radionuclide release from an initially defective canister

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1999-07-01

    To investigate the effect of geochemical conditions of the repository on the release rate of radionuclides from an initially defective canister, a mathematical model is proposed. The model is based on the concept that ligands diffuse through the damage into the canister and form complexes with uranium, increasing its solubility. The complexes then diffuse out to the surroundings. Accordingly, the model combines a chemical equilibrium model for the solubility of uranium under strongly oxidizing conditions, and a transport model for the release rate of uranium. The transport model takes into account the diffusion resistance in the damage as well as in the surrounding compacted bentonite clay and the water flow in the rock. Using this model, the sensitivity of the release rate of aqueous uranium species to the concentrations of various groundwater component species, to the diffusion coefficient and to other parameters is systematically investigated. The results show that, the concentrations of carbonate, phosphate, silicate and calcium species in deep groundwaters play the most important role in determining the release rate of radionuclides. The results help identify the key diffusion coefficients that are needed to obtain more reliable estimates of the release rate.

  11. A comparative study on cell disruption methods for release of aspartase from E. coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Singh, R S

    2013-11-01

    Applicability of different mechanical cell disruption techniques namely sonication, bead milling and French press for the release of aspartase from E. coli K-12 was compared. Various operating parameters of each technique were optimized to obtain maximum aspartase release. The efficiency of aspartase release and cell disruption by all the methods was also compared under optimal conditions. The maximum release of aspartase (98.22%) and maximum cell breakage (84.25%) was observed using French press, while 92% of aspartase release was obtained by both sonication and bead milling. The order of cell disruption constant (k) for aspartase release by these methods was French press > bead milling > sonication. Disruption of cells using French press also demonstrated maximum protein release (14.12 mg/mL). The crude enzyme preparations can be further used for purification and its applications.

  12. A framework for incorporating ecological releases in single reservoir operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Brill, Earl D.; Ranjithan, Ranji S.; Sankarasubramanian, A.

    2015-04-01

    Most reservoir operation practices consider downstream environmental flow as a constraint to meet a minimum release. The resulting flow regime may not necessarily provide downstream aquatic conditions to support healthy ecosystems. These effects can be quantified in terms of changes in values of parameters that represent the flow regimes. Numerous studies have focused on determining the ecological response to hydrological alteration caused by reservoir operation. To mitigate hydrological alteration and restore the natural flow regime as much as possible, a reservoir operation framework is proposed to explicitly incorporate ecological flow requirements. A general optimization-based decision model is presented to consider simultaneously the multiple anthropogenic uses of the reservoir and desirable ecological releases represented by parameters that capture the flow regime. Multiple uses of the reservoir, including water supply, hydropower generation, etc., are modeled as a mixed integer programming problem. Hydropower generation, which is represented by a nonlinear function that usually depends on head and water flow, is linearized using a two-dimensional function. Investigations using a reservoir in Virginia, located in the southeastern United States, demonstrate that compared to standard releases based on current operation practice, releases simulated using this framework perform better in mimicking pre-development flows. The tradeoff between anthropogenic use and ecological releases is investigated. The framework is first demonstrated for instances with perfect stream flow information. To examine the flexibility of this framework in reservoir release management, monthly flow forecasts and disaggregated daily flow conditions are incorporated. Retrospective monthly flow forecasts are obtained through regression models that use gridded precipitation forecasts and gridded soil moisture estimates as predictors. A nonparametric method is chosen to disaggregate monthly

  13. Platelet serotonin release by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes stimulated by cotton dust bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Holt, P. G.; Holt, Barbara J.; Beijer, Lena; Rylander, R.

    1983-01-01

    The release of serotonin from platelets was examined using polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) from normal volunteers. The stimulating agents emplyed were zymosan and heat-killed bacteria from Enterobacter agglomerans, which is commonly found in cotton dust. Optimal conditions for release were established. Both zymosan and E. agglomerans yielded a release of serotonin of an equal magnitude. The data are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of respiratory disease associated with occupational exposure to cotton dust. PMID:6831770

  14. Atmospheric Dispersion Code System for Evaluating Accidental Radioactivity Releases from Nuclear Power Stations.

    1983-06-28

    Version: 00 PAVAN estimates down-wind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Options can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features.

  15. Neutron-absorber release device

    DOEpatents

    VAN Erp, Jan B.; Kimont, Edward L.

    1976-01-01

    A resettable device is provided for supporting an object, sensing when an environment reaches a critical temperature and releasing the object when the critical temperature is reached. It includes a flexible container having a material inside with a melting point at the critical temperature. The object's weight is supported by the solid material which gives rigidity to the container until the critical temperature is reached at which point the material in the container melts. The flexible container with the now fluid material inside has insufficient strength to support the object which is thereby released. Biasing means forces the container back to its original shape so that when the temperature falls below the melting temperature the material again solidifies, and the object may again be supported by the device.

  16. Neural control of renin release.

    PubMed

    Stella, A; Golin, R; Zanchetti, A

    1989-02-01

    Among the major mechanisms controlling the renal release of renin, renal nerves are known to exert a direct stimulating action on juxtaglomerular cells that is mediated by beta-adrenoceptors. Activation of the renal nerves also exerts an important permissive role in order to amplify and possibly accelerate responses to stimuli affecting the vascular and macula densa mechanisms. Reduction of renal perfusion pressure, intravenous infusion of furosemide, and captopril administration cause a greater increase in renin release from innervated kidneys than from denervated kidneys. A complex interaction between neural and non-neural mechanisms in the control of renin secretion is suggested. Efferent renal nerve activity controlling the renin secretion rate is mainly under the inhibitory influence of vagal afferent fibers originating from the cardiopulmonary region. Recent experiments have demonstrated that a similar reflex tonic inhibition of renin secretion is also exerted by renal afferent fibers.

  17. Modeling and measurement of vesicle pools at the cone ribbon synapse: Changes in release probability are solely responsible for voltage-dependent changes in release.

    PubMed

    Thoreson, Wallace B; Van Hook, Matthew J; Parmelee, Caitlyn; Curto, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Postsynaptic responses are a product of quantal amplitude (Q), size of the releasable vesicle pool (N), and release probability (P). Voltage-dependent changes in presynaptic Ca(2+) entry alter postsynaptic responses primarily by changing P but have also been shown to influence N. With simultaneous whole cell recordings from cone photoreceptors and horizontal cells in tiger salamander retinal slices, we measured N and P at cone ribbon synapses by using a train of depolarizing pulses to stimulate release and deplete the pool. We developed an analytical model that calculates the total pool size contributing to release under different stimulus conditions by taking into account the prior history of release and empirically determined properties of replenishment. The model provided a formula that calculates vesicle pool size from measurements of the initial postsynaptic response and limiting rate of release evoked by a train of pulses, the fraction of release sites available for replenishment, and the time constant for replenishment. Results of the model showed that weak and strong depolarizing stimuli evoked release with differing probabilities but the same size vesicle pool. Enhancing intraterminal Ca(2+) spread by lowering Ca(2+) buffering or applying BayK8644 did not increase PSCs evoked with strong test steps, showing there is a fixed upper limit to pool size. Together, these results suggest that light-evoked changes in cone membrane potential alter synaptic release solely by changing release probability. PMID:26541100

  18. Can erythrocytes release biologically active NO?

    PubMed

    Benz, Peter M; Fleming, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, endothelial cells and the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) are the main source of NO in the cardiovascular system. However, several other cell types have also been implicated in the NO-dependent regulation of cell function, including erythrocytes. NO derived from red blood cells has been proposed to regulate erythrocyte membrane fluidity, inhibit platelet activation and induce vasodilation in hypoxic areas, but these proposals are highly controversial. In the current issue of Cell Communication and Signaling, an elegant study by Gambaryan et al., assayed NO production by erythrocytes by monitoring the activation of the platelet intracellular NO receptor, soluble guanylyl cyclase, and its downstream kinase protein kinase G. After systematically testing different combinations of erythrocyte/platelet suspensions, the authors found no evidence for platelet soluble guanylyl cyclase/protein kinase G activation by erythrocytes and conclude that erythrocytes do not release biologically active NO to inhibit platelet activation. PMID:27639852

  19. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Flight Release Rules § 125.373 Original flight release or amendment of flight release. (a) A...

  20. Nucleotide release by airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Sesma, Juliana I; Seminario, Lucia; Esther, Charles R; Kreda, Silvia M

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic events regulating the airways' innate defenses are initiated by the release of purines from the epithelium, which occurs constitutively and is enhanced by chemical or mechanical stimulation. While the external triggers have been reviewed exhaustively, this chapter focuses on current knowledge of the receptors and signaling cascades mediating nucleotide release. The list of secreted purines now includes ATP, ADP, AMP and nucleotide sugars, and involves at least three distinct mechanisms reflecting the complexity of airway epithelia. First, the constitutive mechanism involves ATP translocation to the ER/Golgi complex as energy source for protein folding, and fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles with the plasma membrane. Second, goblet cells package ATP with mucins into granules, which are discharged in response to P2Y(2)R activation and Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways. Finally, non-mucous cells support a regulated mechanism of ATP release involving protease activated receptor (PAR)-elicited G(12/13) activation, leading to the RhoGEF-mediated exchange of GDP for GTP on RhoA, and cytoskeleton rearrangement. Together, these pathways provide fine tuning of epithelial responses regulated by purinergic signaling events. PMID:21560042

  1. Dopamine release in rat striatum - Physiological coupling to tyrosine supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    During, Matthew J.; Acworth, Ian N.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    Intracerebral microdialysis was used to monitor dopamine release in rat striatal extracellular fluid following the intraperitoneal administration of dopamine's precursor amino acid, L-tyrosine. Dopamine concentrations in dialysates increased transiently after tyrosine (50-100 mg/kg) administration. Pretreatment with haloperidol or the partial lesioning of nigrostriatal neurons enhanced the effect of tyrosine on dopamine release, and haloperidol also prolonged this effect. These data suggest that nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are responsive to changes in precursor availability under basal conditions, but that receptor-mediated feedback mechanisms limit the magnitude and duration of this effect.

  2. Ultrasound-Assisted Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release.

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, Hiroshi; Hattori, Soichi; Shinga, Kotaro; Ichikawa, Ken; Yamada, Shin

    2016-06-01

    Various surgical procedures for carpal tunnel syndrome exist, such as open release, ultrasound-guided percutaneous release, and endoscopic release. Postoperative pain, scarring, and slow recovery to normal function are reported complications of open release. Damage to vessels and the median nerve and its branches underlying the transverse carpal ligament is a reported complication of ultrasound-guided percutaneous release. Damage to the superficial palmar arch and incomplete release are reported complications of endoscopic release. By performing endoscopic carpal tunnel release with ultrasound assistance, we could visualize neurovascular structures directly with the endoscope and also indirectly with ultrasound to minimize complications. We could also evaluate the morphologic changes of the median nerve dynamically before and after the release. We discuss the technique for this procedure and outline pearls and pitfalls for success. PMID:27656366

  3. Slow Release of Permanganate from Injectable Fumed Silica Gel: Rheological Properties and Release Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Li, G.

    2014-12-01

    ISCO (In Situ Chemical Oxidation) has been proved to be a useful remediation technology in destroying most prevalent aqueous organic contaminants. For permanganate (MnO4-) in particular, the chemistry of degradative oxidation is well established for cleaning up groundwater containing trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE). However the long-term effectiveness of the application of this oxidant has been questioned due to the observed post remediation rebound of contaminant concentrations. To improve the efficiency of ISCO using MnO4-under specific site conditions, the technology of emplacing slow-releasing permanganate in an aquifer has been studied. We have developed an injectable slow-release permanganate slurry/gel (ISRPG) by mixing KMnO4 with fumed silica in water. Ideally, the slurry/gel forms would release low concentration of MnO4- by diffusion to maintain a desired concentration level of the agent within the chemically active zone. We have investigated the properties and tested the application of this ISRPG in laboratory studies. Rheological study indicated ISRPG has high viscosity and shear thinning property. The viscosity of silica gel could be lowered by mechanical mixing thus making it easy for subsurface injection. Batch tests revealed that MnO4- was diffused from ISRPG and the gel did not disperse but maintained its initial shape. In column experiments we showed that permanganate release covered 6 times more effluent pore volumes when ISRPG was injected compared to MnO4- solution injection. We also observed TCE degradation by released MnO4-, and the remedial performance occurred over a much longer timeframe with ISRPG compared to MnO4- solution injection. In 2-D flow cell tests we demonstrated that water flows around the injected gel, carrying MnO4- diffused out from the gel and forming a downstream oxidant plume, while the gel was stationary. ISRPG slowly released low concentrations of permanganate to maintain a predetermined level of the

  4. Equation of state measurement of shock-released carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Katerina; Benage, John; Watt, Robert; Montgomery, David; Williams, James; Schmidt, Derek; Gamboa, Eliseo; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R.; McCoy, Chad; Boehly, Tom; P-24 Team; Drake Research Lab Team; LaboratoryLaser Energetics Team

    2013-06-01

    We present results of equation of state (EOS) measurement of carbon at a range of conditions falling into the warm dense matter (WDM) regime, solid density at temperatures ~ 1 - 10 eV. These conditions were created within diamond and graphite targets at the Omega laser facility. We employed a novel technique of laser driven shock and release, which produces different conditions from the Hugoniot states typically studied at high power laser facilities. These experiments take advantage of precise equation of state (EOS) measurements of shocked low density SiO2 aerogel foam used as pressure standard, which will also be presented. A simultaneous measurements of density, temperature and ionization state within the release wave were obtained from spatially resolved x-ray Thomson scattering, while the density and temperature measurements were bracketed by independent diagnostics including velocity interferometry, optical pyrometry and radiography, providing a full EOS measurement. Results will be compared with EOS models.

  5. Hormone release from isolated nerve endings of the rat neurohypophysis.

    PubMed Central

    Cazalis, M; Dayanithi, G; Nordmann, J J

    1987-01-01

    1. Isolated neurosecretory nerve endings were prepared from rat neurohypophyses. The amount of vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin released was measured by radioimmunoassay. 2. The amount of hormone release under resting conditions was not affected by external calcium (Ca2+o). Secretion decreased by ca. 50% when external sodium (Na+o) was replaced by choline or sucrose. 3. Ouabain did not modify the basal AVP release. 4. The Na+ ionophore monensin increased the release of AVP only in the presence of Na+o. This increase was maintained during prolonged exposure to the ionophore and occurred in the presence of Ca2+o only. 5. In the presence of Ca2+o, the amount of evoked hormone release was dependent on the external K+ concentration. Half-maximal activation was achieved with ca. 40 mM-K+. The K+-induced secretion was potentiated in Na+-free solution. 6. Prolonged 100 mM-K+-induced depolarization in the presence of Ca2+o gave rise to a large increase in hormone secretion which decreased with time (t1/2 = 2.5 min). The release could be reactivated after permeabilization of the nerve terminals in the presence of micromolar concentrations of Ca2+. 7. A stepwise paradigm in which Ko+ is incrementally increased to 25, 50, 75 and then 100 mM released more AVP than a prolonged exposure to 100 mM-K+. 8. Veratridine increased the amount of AVP released. This effect was considerably reduced in the absence of Nao+ and abolished in the presence of D600. 9. The depolarization-induced AVP release was blocked by different Ca2+-antagonists. Their effectiveness was nitrendipine = nicardipine greater than Cd2+ greater than Gd3+ greater than Co2+ = Mn2+. 10. The dihydropyridine Bay K 8644 potentiated both the basal and the K+-evoked AVP release. Its maximal effect was obtained with 25-50 mM-Ko+. 11. In conclusion, the isolated neurohypophysial terminals which have both Na+ and Ca2+ channels and release AVP and oxytocin upon depolarization might be an excellent system to study further the

  6. Prion protein facilitates synaptic vesicle release by enhancing release probability.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Susan W; Nugent, Marie L; Dinsdale, David; Steinert, Joern R

    2014-09-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases as a result of protein misfolding. In humans, prion disease occurs typically with a sporadic origin where uncharacterized mechanisms induce spontaneous PrP(C) misfolding leading to neurotoxic PrP-scrapie formation (PrP(SC)). The consequences of misfolded PrP(C) signalling are well characterized but little is known about the physiological roles of PrP(C) and its involvement in disease. Here we investigated wild-type PrP(C) signalling in synaptic function as well as the effects of a disease-relevant mutation within PrP(C) (proline-to-leucine mutation at codon 101). Expression of wild-type PrP(C) at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction leads to enhanced synaptic responses as detected in larger miniature synaptic currents which are caused by enlarged presynaptic vesicles. The expression of the mutated PrP(C) leads to reduction of both parameters compared with wild-type PrP(C). Wild-type PrP(C) enhances synaptic release probability and quantal content but reduces the size of the ready-releasable vesicle pool. Partially, these changes are not detectable following expression of the mutant PrP(C). A behavioural test revealed that expression of either protein caused an increase in locomotor activities consistent with enhanced synaptic release and stronger muscle contractions. Both proteins were sensitive to proteinase digestion. These data uncover new functions of wild-type PrP(C) at the synapse with a disease-relevant mutation in PrP(C) leading to diminished functional phenotypes. Thus, our data present essential new information possibly related to prion pathogenesis in which a functional synaptic role of PrP(C) is compromised due to its advanced conversion into PrP(SC) thereby creating a lack-of-function scenario.

  7. Controlled Release Formulations of Auxinic Herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Witold J.; Siłowiecki, Andrzej.; Romanowska, Iwona; Glazek, Mariola; Bajor, Justyna; Cieciwa, Katarzyna; Rychter, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    ingredient in the HBA oligomers was chemically bound to the oligomer matrix and a controlled release followed in concert with the hydrolysis of ester bonds in the oligomer systems. Due to the high volatility and high water solubility of the DMA salts, significant amounts of active ingredients were predisposed to be dispersed in the environment. On the other hand, the HBA oligomers exhibit low volatility and low solubility in water, so they tend to exhibit lover migrating rates from the target site. The obtained plots suggested that in the case of the HBA oligomers the effectiveness were delayed in time when compared with the DMA salts. The integral effectiveness of the studied HBA oligomers was practically equivalent to the conventional DMA salts, but the release of the HBA herbicides was delayed in time vs. DMA salts. The mixtures of oligo (R,S)-3-hydroxybutyric acid containing chemically bonded 2,4-D, Dicamba and MCPA (HBA) were proposed as carriers of active ingredients that could be released to control the sensitive weeds. The synthesized HBA oligomers could be particularly useful in a number of practical applications, because they release the herbicide to plants at a controlled rate and in amounts required over a specified period of time, their degradation products are identical to metabolites formed in plant cells, the physicochemical and operational parameters of the carrier oligomers might be optimized by fine-tuning of synthesis conditions. The decreased vapor pressure and increased lipophilicity of the studied materials could reduce the risk exposure of the operational personnel, as well as, a decrease the environmental pollution. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education for supporting this work through the grant No. NN 310 303039. References [1] S. Dubey, V. Jhelum, P.K. Patanjali, Controlled release agrochemical formulations: A review, J. Scientific &Industrial Research (India) 70 (2011) 105-112. [2] W. J

  8. 10 CFR 20.2003 - Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage. 20.2003... Disposal § 20.2003 Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage. (a) A licensee may discharge licensed material into sanitary sewerage if each of the following conditions is satisfied: (1) The material...

  9. 77 FR 3031 - Release of Airport Property: Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ...The FAA hereby provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties, approximately 3.407 acres, at the Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL from the conditions, reservations, and restrictions as contained in federal grant assurances. The release of property will allow the Hillsborough County Aviation Authority to dispose of the property for other than aeronautical purposes. The......

  10. Kinetics of piroxicam release from low-methylated pectin/zein hydrogel microspheres

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kinetics of a model drug (piroxicam) release from pectin/zein hydrogel microspheres was studied under conditions simulating the gastrointestinal tract. It is established that the rate-limiting step in the release mechanism is drug diffusion out of the microspheres rather than its dissolution. ...

  11. 19 CFR 141.113 - Recall of merchandise released from Customs and Border Protection custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Release of... the merchandise involved. (c) Food, drugs, devices, cosmetics, and tobacco products—(1) Conditional release period. For purposes of determining the admissibility of any food, drug, device, cosmetic,...

  12. Accelerated in vitro release testing of implantable PLGA microsphere/PVA hydrogel composite coatings

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J.

    2011-01-01

    Dexamethasone loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere/PVA hydrogel composites have been investigated as an outer drug-eluting coating for implantable devices such as glucose sensors to counter negative tissue responses to implants. The objective of this study was to develop a discriminatory, accelerated in vitro release testing method for this drug-eluting coating using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 4. Polymer degradation and drug release kinetics were investigated under “real-time” and accelerated conditions (i.e. extreme pH, hydro-alcoholic solutions and elevated temperatures). Compared to “real-time” conditions, the initial burst and lag phases were similar using hydro-alcoholic solutions and extreme pH conditions, while the secondary apparent zero-order release phase was slightly accelerated. Elevated temperatures resulted in a significant acceleration of dexamethasone release. The accelerated release data were able to predict “real-time” release when applying the Arrhenius equation. Microsphere batches with faster and slower release profiles were investigated under “real-time” and elevated temperature (60°C) conditions to determine the discriminatory ability of the method. The results demonstrated both the feasibility and the discriminatory ability of this USP apparatus 4 method for in vitro release testing of drug loaded PLGA microsphere/PVA hydrogel composites. This method may be appropriate for similar drug/device combination products and drug delivery systems. PMID:22016033

  13. Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid from Biodegradable Cross-Linked Polyesters.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Queeny; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a family of cross-linked poly(xylitol adipate salicylate)s with a wide range of tunable release properties for delivering pharmacologically active salicylic acid. The synthesis parameters and release conditions were varied to modulate polyester properties and to understand the mechanism of release. Varying release rates were obtained upon longer curing (35% in the noncured polymer to 10% in the cured polymer in 7 days). Differential salicylic acid loading led to the synthesis of polymers with variable cross-linking and the release could be tuned (100% release for the lowest loading to 30% in the highest loading). Controlled release was monitored by changing various factors, and the release profiles were dependent on the stoichiometric composition, pH, curing time, and presence of enzyme. The polymer released a combination of salicylic acid and disalicylic acid, and the released products were found to be nontoxic. Minimal hemolysis and platelet activation indicated good blood compatibility. These polymers qualify as "bioactive" and "resorbable" and can, therefore, find applications as immunomodulatory resorbable biomaterials with tunable release properties.

  14. Synapsins differentially control dopamine and serotonin release.

    PubMed

    Kile, Brian M; Guillot, Thomas S; Venton, B Jill; Wetsel, William C; Augustine, George J; Wightman, R Mark

    2010-07-21

    Synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle proteins that are important for neurotransmitter release. Here we have used triple knock-out (TKO) mice lacking all three synapsin genes to determine the roles of synapsins in the release of two monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. Serotonin release evoked by electrical stimulation was identical in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices prepared from TKO and wild-type mice. In contrast, release of dopamine in response to electrical stimulation was approximately doubled in striatum of TKO mice, both in vivo and in striatal slices, in comparison to wild-type controls. This was due to loss of synapsin III, because deletion of synapsin III alone was sufficient to increase dopamine release. Deletion of synapsins also increased the sensitivity of dopamine release to extracellular calcium ions. Although cocaine did not affect the release of serotonin from nigral tissue, this drug did enhance dopamine release. Cocaine-induced facilitation of dopamine release was a function of external calcium, an effect that was reduced in TKO mice. We conclude that synapsins play different roles in the control of release of dopamine and serotonin, with release of dopamine being negatively regulated by synapsins, specifically synapsin III, while serotonin release appears to be relatively independent of synapsins. These results provide further support for the concept that synapsin function in presynaptic terminals varies according to the neurotransmitter being released. PMID:20660258

  15. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  16. Gastrin-releasing peptide stimulates glycoconjugate release from feline trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, J.D.; Baraniuk, J.N.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Kaliner, M.A.; Shelhamer, J.H. )

    1990-02-01

    The effect of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) on respiratory glycoconjugate (RGC) secretion was investigated in a feline tracheal organ culture model. RGC secretion was stimulated by GRP in a dose-dependent fashion at concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-5) M (range 15-38% increase above control) with a peak effect within 0.5-1 h of incubation. GRP-(14-27), the receptor binding portion of GRP, and the related molecule, bombesin, also stimulated RGC secretion by approximately 20% above control. Acetyl-GRP-(20-27) stimulated RGC release by 10%, whereas GRP-(1-16) was inactive. Autoradiographic studies with 125I-GRP revealed that specific binding was restricted to the submucosal glands and the surface epithelium. A specific radioimmunoassay showed the content of GRP in feline trachea after extraction with ethanol-acetic acid to be 156 +/- 91 fmol/g wet wt. Indirect immunohistochemistry indicated that ganglion cells located just outside the cartilage contained GRP-immunoreactive materials. GRP is a novel mucus secretagogue that may participate in regulating airway mucosal gland secretion.

  17. CRRES: The combined release and radiation effects satellite program directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, Laura D.; Miller, George P.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of natural processes, plasma clouds are often injected into the magnetosphere. These chemical releases can be used to study many aspects of such injections. When a dense plasma is injected into the inner magnetosphere, it is expected to take up the motion of the ambient plasma. However, it has been observed in previous releases at moderate altitudes that the cloud preserved its momentum for some time following the release and that parts of the cloud peeled off from the main cloud presumable due to the action of an instability. As one moves outward into the magnetosphere, the mirror force becomes less dominant and the initial conditions following a release are dominated by the formation of a diamagnetic cavity since the initial plasma pressure from the injected Ba ions is greater than the magnetic field energy density. A previous high-altitude release (31,300 km) showed this to be the case initially, but at later times there was evidence for acceleration of the Ba plasma to velocities corresponding to 60,000 K. This effect is not explained. This series of experiments is therefore designed to inject plasma clouds into the magnetosphere under widely varying conditions of magnetic field strength and ambient plasma density. In this way the coupling of injected clouds to the ambient plasma and magnetic field, the formation of striations due to instabilities, and possible heating and acceleration of the injected Ba plasma can be studied over a wide range of magnetosphere parameters. Adding to the scientific yield will be the availability of measurements for the DOD/SPACERAD instruments which can monitor plasma parameters, electric and magnetic fields, and waves before, during and after the releases.

  18. Controlled antibody release from gelatin for on-chip sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xichen; Wasserberg, Dorothee; Breukers, Christian; Terstappen, Leon W M M; Beck, Markus

    2016-05-10

    A practical way to realize on-chip sample preparation for point-of-care diagnostics is to store the required reagents on a microfluidic device and release them in a controlled manner upon contact with the sample. For the development of such diagnostic devices, a fundamental understanding of the release kinetics of reagents from suitable materials in microfluidic chips is therefore essential. Here, we study the release kinetics of fluorophore-conjugated antibodies from (sub-) μm thick gelatin layers and several ways to control the release time. The observed antibody release is well-described by a diffusion model. Release times ranging from ∼20 s to ∼650 s were determined for layers with thicknesses (in the dry state) between 0.25 μm and 1.5 μm, corresponding to a diffusivity of 0.65 μm(2) s(-1) (in the swollen state) for our standard layer preparation conditions. By modifying the preparation conditions, we can influence the properties of gelatin to realize faster or slower release. Faster drying at increased temperatures leads to shorter release times, whereas slower drying at increased humidity yields slower release. As expected in a diffusive process, the release time increases with the size of the antibody. Moreover, the ionic strength of the release medium has a significant impact on the release kinetics. Applying these findings to cell counting chambers with on-chip sample preparation, we can tune the release to control the antibody distribution after inflow of blood in order to achieve homogeneous cell staining.

  19. 14 CFR 125.361 - Flight release under IFR or over-the-top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... release an airplane for operations under IFR or over-the-top unless appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination thereof, indicate that the weather conditions will be at or above...

  20. Hysteresis of Colloid Retention and Release in Saturated Porous Media During Transients in Solution Chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saturated packed column and micromodel transport studies wereconducted to gain insightonmechanismsof colloid retention and release under unfavorable attachment conditions. The initial deposition of colloids in porous media was found to be a strongly coupled process that depended on solution chemistr...

  1. Confirmatory Survey for the Partial Site Release at the ABB Inc. CE Winsor Site, Windsor, CT

    SciTech Connect

    W.C. Adams

    2008-06-27

    The objectives of the confirmatory surveys were to confirm that remedial actions had been effective in meeting established release criteria and that documentation accurately and adequately describes the final radiological conditions of the PSR Impacted Areas.

  2. DNA release dynamics from bioreducible layer-by-layer films

    PubMed Central

    Blacklock, Jenifer; Mao, Guangzhao; Oupický, David; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2010-01-01

    DNA release dynamics from layer-by-layer (LbL) films is an important aspect to consider with regards to localized gene delivery systems. The rate of DNA release and the condensation state of DNA during release are of particular interest in the field of gene delivery. A hyperbranched poly(amido amine) (RHB) containing bioreducible disulfide bonds is used to form interpolyelectrolyte complexes with DNA during LbL film assembly. During films disassembly, DNA is released in physiologic conditions due to the reducing nature of the RHB. Uncondensed DNA deposited on the surface was compared to DNA condensed by RHB in polyplex form by using two types of LbL films, RHB/DNA/RHB and polyplex terminated films, RHB/DNA/polyplex. LbL films with up to three layers are used in order to facilitate high-resolution AFM imaging. X-ray reflectivity, ellipsometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are also used. The film disassembly, rearrangement and release of molecules from the surface due to thiol-disulfide exchange is conducted in reducing dithiothreitol (DTT) solutions. Salt is found to accelerate the overall rate of film disassembly. Additionally, it was found that the polyplex layer disassembles faster than the DNA layer. The predominant intermediate structure is the toroid structure for the polyplex layer and the fiber bundle structure for the DNA layer during film disassembly. This study offers a simple means to modulate DNA release from LbL films by utilizing both condensed and uncondensed DNA in different layers. The study highlights nanostructures, toroids and bundles, as dominant intermediate DNA structures during the DNA release from LbL films. PMID:20131916

  3. Releasing captive-reared masked bobwhite for population recovery: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gall, S.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P.; Gee, G.; Brennan, L.A.; Palmer, W.E.; Burger, L.W.; Pruden, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts to re-establish the endangered masked bobwhite (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi) to it's former southern Arizona range have been ongoing since establishment of the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge in 1986. Pre-release conditioning techniques developed prior to Refuge establishment continued to be utilized in an effort to improve post-release survival of captive-reared masked bobwhite chicks. Foremost among these techniques was the use of wild Texas bobwhite (C. v. texanus) males as foster parents which were paired with all broods released on the Refuge. The efficacy of this technique was evaluated using radio telemetry in 1994, and the results indicated that the use of foster Texas males was not as effective as had been presumed because post-release chick survival was poor. Therefore, in 1995 pre-release conditioning protocol were modified in an effort to improve post-release survival. The primary intent of these modifications was to emphasize wild behavior among chicks prior to release. Modifications to established protocol included imprinting chicks to adult bobwhites immediately after eggs hatched and exposing 1-to-2 day old chicks to natural foods (insects and seeds) while they were in brooder units. Foster parents and their respective broods were then placed in flight pens that mimicked the natural conditions that would confront broods upon release. Family groups were held in flight pens for several weeks for acclimatization purposes and then transported to temporary enclosures erected at release sites where they were held for a week and then released. Finally all releases were conducted during fall after covey formation was apparent to ensure that foster parents and released chicks remained with a group of birds. Preliminary results indicated that post-release chick survival was higher than what was observed in 1994. Pre-conditioning research will continue in an effort to further quantify post-release survival of masked bobwhite chicks. Although the

  4. Radio-synthesized polyacrylamide hydrogels for proteins release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, Caroline C.; Varca, Gustavo H. C.; Lopes, Patricia S.; Mathor, Monica B.; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2014-01-01

    The use of hydrogels for biomedical purposes has been extensively investigated. Pharmaceutical proteins correspond to highly active substances which may be applied for distinct purposes. This work concerns the development of radio-synthesized hydrogel for protein release, using papain and bovine serum albumin as model proteins. The polymer was solubilized (1% w/v) in water and lyophilized. The proteins were incorporated into the lyophilized polymer and the hydrogels were produced by simultaneous crosslinking and sterilization using γ-radiation under frozen conditions. The produced systems were characterized in terms of swelling degree, gel fraction, crosslinking density and evaluated according to protein release, bioactivity and cytotoxicity. The hydrogels developed presented different properties as a function of polymer concentration and the optimized results were found for the samples containing 4-5% (w/v) polyacrylamide. Protein release was controlled by the electrostatic affinity of acrylic moieties and proteins. This selection was based on the release of the proteins during the experiment period (up to 50 h), maintenance of enzyme activity and the nanostructure developed. The system was suitable for protein loading and release and according to the cytotoxic assay it was also adequate for biomedical purposes, however this method was not able to generate a matrix with controlled pore sizes.

  5. Binaural release from informational masking in a speech identification task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallun, Frederick J.; Mason, Christine R.; Kidd, Gerald

    2005-09-01

    Binaural release from informational masking (IM) was examined in a speech identification task. Target and masker sentences were processed into mutually exclusive frequency bands, thus limiting energetic masking (EM), and presented over headphones. In a baseline condition, both were presented monotically to the same ear (TmMm). Despite minimal frequency overlap between target and masker, the presence of the masker resulted in reduced performance, or IM. Presenting the target monotically and the masker diotically (TmM0) resulted in a release from IM. Release was also obtained by imposing interaural differences in level (ILDs) and in time (ITDs) on the maskers (TmMILD,TmMITD). Any masker with a perceived lateral position that differed from that of a truly monaural stimulus resulted in a similar amount of release from IM relative to TmMm. For binaural targets and maskers (T0MILD,T0MITD), release was seen whenever ITDs or ILDs differed between target and masker. These results suggest that binaural cues can be very effective in reducing IM. Because mechanisms based on differences in perceived location make predictions that are similar to those of nonlocation-based binaural mechanisms, a variant of the equalization-cancellation model is also considered.

  6. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications.

    PubMed

    Yassine, Omar; Zaher, Amir; Li, Er Qiang; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Perez, Jose E; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Contreras, Maria F; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Khashab, Niveen M; Kosel, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads. PMID:27335342

  7. Changes in parasite transmission stage excretion after pheasant release.

    PubMed

    Villanúa, D; Acevedo, P; Höfle, U; Rodríguez, O; Gortázar, C

    2006-09-01

    The production of parasite transmission stages was investigated in the faeces of 77 farm-bred ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Coccidian oocysts (Eimeria sp.), and nematode eggs (Heterakis sp., and Capillaria-like eggs) were recovered before and after release but all birds were treated prior to release. Treatment with fenbendazole significantly reduced the abundance of transmission-stage excretion for all parasites, and reduced the prevalence in the case of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. Nonetheless, a significant increase in the excretion abundance for all parasites and in the prevalence of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. was found after release. Eggs of Ascaridia sp. were found only after releasing, suggesting infection ocurred in the wild. A negative relationship was found between the pheasant body condition and Heterakis excretion abundance and a higher abundance of Capillaria sp. eggs in female birds. No significant relationship was found between parasite excretion abundance and pheasant survival. Despite this, results suggest that an increase in the excretion of parasite transmission stages follows the release of captive pheasants into the wild. This can in part explain restocking failures, but also means that autochtonous free-living birds may become exposed to new and potentially harmful pathogens. To avoid these risks it is proposed that improved prophylactic measures should be taken.

  8. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassine, Omar; Zaher, Amir; Li, Er Qiang; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Perez, Jose E.; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Contreras, Maria F.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.; Khashab, Niveen M.; Kosel, Jurgen

    2016-06-01

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads.

  9. Microbial Mineral Weathering for Nutrient Acquisition Releases Arsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, B. J.; Alexandrova, E.; Keimowitz, A.; Wovkulich, K.; Freyer, G.; Stolz, J.; Kenna, T.; Pichler, T.; Polizzotto, M.; Dong, H.; Radloff, K. A.; van Geen, A.

    2008-12-01

    Tens of millions of people in Southeast Asia drink groundwater contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic. The process of arsenic release from the sediment to the groundwater remains poorly understood. Experiments were performed to determine if microbial mineral weathering for nutrient acquisition can serve as a potential mechanism for arsenic mobilization. We performed microcosm experiments with Burkholderia fungorum, phosphate free artificial groundwater, and natural apatite. Controls included incubations with no cells and with killed cells. Additionally, samples were treated with two spikes - an arsenic spike, to show that arsenic release is independent of the initial arsenic concentration, and a phosphate spike to determine whether release occurs at field relevant phosphate conditions. We show in laboratory experiments that phosphate-limited cells of Burkholderia fungorum mobilize ancillary arsenic from apatite as a by-product of mineral weathering for nutrient acquisition. The released arsenic does not undergo a redox transformation but appears to be solubilized from the apatite mineral lattice as arsenate during weathering. Apatite has been shown to be commonly present in sediment samples from Bangladesh aquifers. Analysis of apatite purified from the Ganges, Brahamputra, Meghna drainage basin shows 210 mg/kg of arsenic, which is higher than the average crustal level. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of the microbial phenotype that releases arsenic from apatite in Bangladesh sediments. These results suggest that microbial weathering for nutrient acquisition could be an important mechanism for arsenic mobilization.

  10. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yassine, Omar; Zaher, Amir; Li, Er Qiang; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Perez, Jose E.; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Contreras, Maria F.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.; Khashab, Niveen M.; Kosel, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads. PMID:27335342

  11. DNA Release Dynamics from Reducible Polyplexes by AFM

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Lei; Manickam, Devika S.; Oupický, David; Mao, Guangzhao

    2010-01-01

    Controlled intracellular disassembly of polyelectrolyte complexes of polycations and DNA (polyplexes) is a crucial step for the success of non-viral gene delivery. Motivated by our previous observation of different gene delivery performance among multiblock reducible copolypeptide vectors [Bioconjugate Chem. 2006, 17, 1395], atomic force microscopy is used to visualize plasmid DNA in various decondensed states from reducible polypeptide polyplexes under simulated physiological reducing conditions. DNA decondensation is triggered by reductive degradation of disulfide-containing cationic polypeptides. Striking differences in DNA release dynamics between polyplexes based on polypeptides of histidine-rich peptide HRP (CKHHHKHHHKC) and nuclear localization signal NLS (CGAGPKKKRKVC) peptide are presented. The HRP and NLS polyplexes are similar to each other in their initial morphology with a majority of them containing only one DNA plasmid. Upon reductive degradation by dithiothreitol, DNA is released from NLS abruptly regardless of the initial polyplex morphology, while DNA release from HRP polyplexes displays a gradual decondensation that is dependent on the size of polyplexes. The release rate is higher for larger HRP polyplexes. The smaller HRP polyplexes become unstable when they are in contact with expanding chains nearby. The results reveal potentially rich DNA release dynamics that can be controlled by subtle variation in multivalent counterion binding to DNA as well as the cellular matrix. PMID:18839970

  12. Evaluation of tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, T.; Ochiai, K.; Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.

    2015-03-15

    Demonstration power plant (DEMO) fusion reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) advanced tritium breeders with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) are stable in a reducing atmosphere at high temperatures. Although the tritium release properties of tritium breeders are documented in databases for DEMO blanket design, no in situ examination under fusion neutron (DT neutron) irradiation has been performed. In this study, a preliminary examination of the tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders was performed, and DT neutron irradiation experiments were performed at the fusion neutronics source (FNS) facility in JAEA. Considering the tritium release characteristics, the optimum grain size after sintering is <5 μm. From the results of the optimization of granulation conditions, prototype Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles with optimum grain size (<5 μm) were successfully fabricated. The Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties similar to the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. In particular, the released amount of HT gas for easier tritium handling was higher than that of HTO water. (authors)

  13. Infuence of Microstructure in Drug Release Behavior of Silica Nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    Zoltan, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Meso- and nanoporous structures are adequate matrices for controlled drug delivery systems, due to their large surface areas and to their bioactive and biocompatibility properties. Mesoporous materials of type SBA-15, synthesized under different pH conditions, and zeolite beta were studied in order to compare the different intrinsic morphological characteristics as pore size, pore connectivity, and pore geometry on the drug loading and release process. These materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and calorimetric measurements. Ibuprofen (IBU) was chosen as a model drug for the formulation of controlled-release dosage forms; it was impregnated into these two types of materials by a soaking procedure during different periods. Drug loading and release studies were followed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. All nano- and mesostructured materials showed a similar loading behavior. It was found that the pore size and Al content strongly influenced the release process. These results suggest that the framework structure and architecture affect the drug adsorption and release properties of these materials. Both materials offer a good potential for a controlled delivery system of ibuprofen. PMID:23986870

  14. Infuence of microstructure in drug release behavior of silica nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Gema; Sagarzazu, Amaya; Zoltan, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Meso- and nanoporous structures are adequate matrices for controlled drug delivery systems, due to their large surface areas and to their bioactive and biocompatibility properties. Mesoporous materials of type SBA-15, synthesized under different pH conditions, and zeolite beta were studied in order to compare the different intrinsic morphological characteristics as pore size, pore connectivity, and pore geometry on the drug loading and release process. These materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and calorimetric measurements. Ibuprofen (IBU) was chosen as a model drug for the formulation of controlled-release dosage forms; it was impregnated into these two types of materials by a soaking procedure during different periods. Drug loading and release studies were followed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. All nano- and mesostructured materials showed a similar loading behavior. It was found that the pore size and Al content strongly influenced the release process. These results suggest that the framework structure and architecture affect the drug adsorption and release properties of these materials. Both materials offer a good potential for a controlled delivery system of ibuprofen. PMID:23986870

  15. Controlling the release of peptide antimicrobial agents from surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anita; Fleming, Kathleen E; Chuang, Helen F; Chau, Tanguy M; Loose, Christopher R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory N; Hammond, Paula T

    2010-03-01

    Medical conditions are often exacerbated by the onset of infection caused by hospital dwelling bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. Antibiotics taken orally or intravenously can require large and frequent doses, further contributing to the sharp rise in resistant bacteria observed over the past several decades. These existing antibiotics are also often ineffective in preventing biofilm formation, a common cause of medical device failure. Local delivery of new therapeutic agents that do not allow bacterial resistance to occur, such as antimicrobial peptides, could alleviate many of the problems associated with current antibacterial treatments. By taking advantage of the versatility of layer-by-layer assembly of polymer thin films, ponericin G1, an antimicrobial peptide known to be highly active against S. aureus, was incorporated into a hydrolytically degradable polyelectrolyte multilayer film. Several film architectures were examined to obtain various drug loadings that ranged from 20 to 150 microg/cm2. Release was observed over approximately ten days, with varying release profiles, including burst as well as linear release. Results indicated that film-released peptide did not suffer any loss in activity against S. aureus and was able to inhibit bacteria attachment, a necessary step in preventing biofilm formation. Additionally, all films were found to be biocompatible with the relevant wound healing cells, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These films provide the level of control over drug loading and release kinetics required in medically relevant applications including coatings for implant materials and bandages, while eliminating susceptibility to bacterial resistance.

  16. Controlled release of ethylene via polymeric films for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Roberto; Bazzano, Marco; Capozzi, Luigi Carlo; Ferri, Ada; Sangermano, Marco

    2015-12-01

    In modern fruit supply chain a common method to trigger ripening is to keep fruits inside special chambers and initiate the ripening process through administration of ethylene. Ethylene is usually administered through cylinders with inadequate control of its final concentration in the chamber. The aim of this study is the development of a new technology to accurately regulate ethylene concentration in the atmosphere where fruits are preserved: a polymeric film, containing an inclusion complex of α-cyclodextrin with ethylene, was developed. The complex was prepared by molecular encapsulation which allows the entrapment of ethylene into the cavity of α-cyclodextrin. After encapsulation, ethylene can be gradually released from the inclusion complex and its release rate can be regulated by temperature and humidity. The inclusion complex was dispersed into a thin polymeric film produced by UV-curing. This method was used because is solvent-free and involves low operating temperature; both conditions are necessary to prevent rapid release of ethylene from the film. The polymeric films were characterized with respect to thermal behaviour, crystalline structure and kinetics of ethylene release, showing that can effectively control the release of ethylene within confined volume.

  17. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  18. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  19. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  20. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  1. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  2. 40 CFR 302.8 - Continuous releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 355, which require initial telephone and written notifications of continuous releases to be... schools, hospitals, retirement communities, or wetlands). (iv) For each hazardous substance release...) The environmental medium(a) affected by the release: (1) If surface water, the name of the...

  3. CHANGING RELEASE CRITERIA FROM PAST TO PRESENT

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, A.; Valencia, L.

    2003-02-27

    Beginning with the decommissioning of nuclear power plants the release, criteria for radioactive materials has gained importance significantly. After decommissioning and dismantling, most of the residues need not be treated as radioactive waste, since they contain only small amounts of radioactivity. The Karlsruhe Research Center already dismantled two research reactors completely (the Karlstein Super Heated Steam Reactor and the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant), while several additional decommissioning projects are currently in progress. About 70 % of the total waste mass within each project can be released from the area of atomic regulations and licenses. At the Niederaichbach and Karlstein sites the release procedures and the release criteria were determined in the decommissioning license, where issues such as controlling and release values were fixed. Additionally, each step of the release process has to be coordinated with the regulator. Today the general release criteria are contained in the atomic act. Depending on the nature of the material to be released (e.g. building structures or metallic waste), and depending on the further use of the material, such as unrestricted reuse or waste disposal, release values for each nuclide are established. To prepare the release of materials, a release plan including the release measurement results is sent to the regulator, who has to officially approve the concept.

  4. 40 CFR 302.8 - Continuous releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 355, which require initial telephone and written notifications of continuous releases to be... release data, engineering estimates, knowledge of operating procedures, or best professional judgment to... requirements of this section, the person in charge may rely on recent release data, engineering estimates,...

  5. Individualized optimal release angles in discus throwing.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steve; Liu, Hui; Hubbard, Mont; Yu, Bing

    2010-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine individualized optimal release angles for elite discus throwers. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained for at least 10 competitive trials for each subject. Regression relationships between release speed and release angle, and between aerodynamic distance and release angle were determined for each subject. These relationships were linear with subject-specific characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between release speed and release angle may be due to subjects' technical and physical characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between aerodynamic distance and release angle may be due to interactions between the release angle, the angle of attack, and the aerodynamic distance. Optimal release angles were estimated for each subject using the regression relationships and equations of projectile motion. The estimated optimal release angle was different for different subjects, and ranged from 35 degrees to 44 degrees . The results of this study demonstrate that the optimal release angle for discus throwing is thrower-specific. The release angles used by elite discus throwers in competition are not necessarily optimal for all discus throwers, or even themselves. The results of this study provide significant information for understanding the biomechanics of discus throwing techniques.

  6. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release plans. 2.33 Section 2.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.33 Release plans. (a) A...

  7. Fully redundant mechanical release actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucy, Melvin H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A system is described for performing a mechanical release function exhibiting low shock. This system includes two pyrotechnic detents fixed mounted in opposing axial alignment within a cylindrical housing having two mechanical bellows. Two mechanical bellow assemblies, each having one end hermetically bonded to the housing and the other to the respective actuator pin extending from either end of the housing, ensure that all outgassing and contamination from the operation of the pyrotechnic devices will be contained within the housing and bellows. The pin on one end of the assembly is fixed mounted and supported, via a bolt or ball-and-socket joint so that when the charge corresponding to that pin ignites, the entire assembly will exhibit rectilinear movement, including the opposing pin providing the unlatching motion. The release detent pin is supported by a linear bearing and when its corresponding pyrotechnic charge ignites the pin is retracted within the housing producing the same unlatching motion without movement of the entire assembly, thus providing complete mechanical, electrical and pyrotechnic redundancy for the unlatching pin.

  8. ATP release through pannexon channels.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gerhard

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) serves as a signal for diverse physiological functions, including spread of calcium waves between astrocytes, control of vascular oxygen supply and control of ciliary beat in the airways. ATP can be released from cells by various mechanisms. This review focuses on channel-mediated ATP release and its main enabler, Pannexin1 (Panx1). Six subunits of Panx1 form a plasma membrane channel termed 'pannexon'. Depending on the mode of stimulation, the pannexon has large conductance (500 pS) and unselective permeability to molecules less than 1.5 kD or is a small (50 pS), chloride-selective channel. Most physiological and pathological stimuli induce the large channel conformation, whereas the small conformation so far has only been observed with exclusive voltage activation of the channel. The interaction between pannexons and ATP is intimate. The pannexon is not only the conduit for ATP, permitting ATP efflux from cells down its concentration gradient, but the pannexon is also modulated by ATP. The channel can be activated by ATP through both ionotropic P2X as well as metabotropic P2Y purinergic receptors. In the absence of a control mechanism, this positive feedback loop would lead to cell death owing to the linkage of purinergic receptors with apoptotic processes. A control mechanism preventing excessive activation of the purinergic receptors is provided by ATP binding (with low affinity) to the Panx1 protein and gating the channel shut. PMID:26009770

  9. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting 230,232Th and 235,238U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for 230,232Th and 235,238U are around 0.7-0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  10. Nitric oxide releasing acetaminophen (nitroacetaminophen).

    PubMed

    Moore, P K; Marshall, M

    2003-05-01

    The nitric oxide releasing derivative of acetaminophen (nitroacetaminophen) exhibits potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity in a variety of animal models. On a mol for mol basis nitroacetaminophen is some 3-20 times more potent than acetaminophen. Nitroacetaminophen exhibits little or no hepatotoxicity following administration in rat or mouse and indeed protects against the hepatotoxic activity of acetaminophen. Nitroacetaminophen does not affect blood pressure or heart rate of anaesthetised rats but has similar potency to acetaminophen as an anti-pyretic agent. The enhanced anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of nitroacetaminophen and the reduced hepatotoxicity in these animal models is likely to be secondary to the slow release of nitric oxide from the molecule. As yet the precise molecular mechanism(s) underlying these actions of nitroacetaminophen are not clear. Evidence for inhibition of cytokine-directed formation of pro-inflammatory molecule production (e.g. COX-2, iNOS) by an effect on the NF-kappaB transduction system and/or nitrosylation (and thence inhibition) of caspase enzyme activity has been reported. Data described in this review indicate that the profile of pharmacological activity of nitroacetaminophen and acetaminophen are markedly different. The possibility that nitroacetaminophen could be an attractive alternative to acetaminophen in the clinic is discussed. PMID:12846444

  11. Foamy Virus Budding and Release

    PubMed Central

    Hütter, Sylvia; Zurnic, Irena; Lindemann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Like all other viruses, a successful egress of functional particles from infected cells is a prerequisite for foamy virus (FV) spread within the host. The budding process of FVs involves steps, which are shared by other retroviruses, such as interaction of the capsid protein with components of cellular vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) machinery via late domains identified in some FV capsid proteins. Additionally, there are features of the FV budding strategy quite unique to the spumaretroviruses. This includes secretion of non-infectious subviral particles and a strict dependence on capsid-glycoprotein interaction for release of infectious virions from the cells. Virus-like particle release is not possible since FV capsid proteins lack a membrane-targeting signal. It is noteworthy that in experimental systems, the important capsid-glycoprotein interaction could be bypassed by fusing heterologous membrane-targeting signals to the capsid protein, thus enabling glycoprotein-independent egress. Aside from that, other systems have been developed to enable envelopment of FV capsids by heterologous Env proteins. In this review article, we will summarize the current knowledge on FV budding, the viral components and their domains involved as well as alternative and artificial ways to promote budding of FV particle structures, a feature important for alteration of target tissue tropism of FV-based gene transfer systems. PMID:23575110

  12. A Comparison of Three Algorithms for Orion Drogue Parachute Release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matz, Daniel A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is susceptible to ipping apex forward between drogue parachute release and main parachute in ation. A smart drogue release algorithm is required to select a drogue release condition that will not result in an apex forward main parachute deployment. The baseline algorithm is simple and elegant, but does not perform as well as desired in drogue failure cases. A simple modi cation to the baseline algorithm can improve performance, but can also sometimes fail to identify a good release condition. A new algorithm employing simpli ed rotational dynamics and a numeric predictor to minimize a rotational energy metric is proposed. A Monte Carlo analysis of a drogue failure scenario is used to compare the performance of the algorithms. The numeric predictor prevents more of the cases from ipping apex forward, and also results in an improvement in the capsule attitude at main bag extraction. The sensitivity of the numeric predictor to aerodynamic dispersions, errors in the navigated state, and execution rate is investigated, showing little degradation in performance.

  13. Membrane perturbations of erythrocyte ghosts by spectrin release.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takeo; Ozaki, Shinnosuke; Shimomura, Taiji; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2007-05-01

    The cytoskeleton plays an important role in the stability and function of the membrane. Spectrin release from erythrocyte ghosts makes the membrane more fragile. However, the detail of membrane fragility has remained unclear. In the present study, the effects of incubation temperatures and polyamines on the membrane structure of ghosts under hypotonic conditions have been examined. Upon exposure of ghosts to a hypotonic buffer at 0-37 degrees C, reduction of ghost volume, spectrin release and decrease of band 3-cytoskeleton interactions were clearly observed above 30 degrees C. However, such changes were completely inhibited by spermine and spermidine. Interestingly, conformational changes of spectrin induced at 37 degrees C or 49 degrees C were not suppressed by both polyamines. Flow cytometry of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled ghosts exposed to 37 degrees C demonstrated the two peaks corresponding to ghosts with normal spectrin content and decreased one. Taken together, these results indicate that the degree of spectrin release from the membrane under hypotonic conditions is not same in all ghosts, and that polyamines inhibit the spectrin release followed by changes in the membrane structure, but not conformational changes of spectrin.

  14. Controlled release of an anti-cancer drug from DNA structured nano-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Younghyun; Lee, Jong Bum; Hong, Jinkee

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate the generation of systemically releasable anti-cancer drugs from multilayer nanofilms. Nanofilms designed to drug release profiles in programmable fashion are promising new and alternative way for drug delivery. For the nanofilm structure, we synthesized various unique 3-dimensional anti cancer drug incorporated DNA origami structures (hairpin, Y, and X shaped) and assembled with peptide via layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition method. The key to the successful application of these nanofilms requires a novel approach of the influence of DNA architecture for the drug release from functional nano-sized surface. Herein, we have taken first steps in building and controlling the drug incorporated DNA origami based multilayered nanostructure. Our finding highlights the novel and unique drug release character of LbL systems in serum condition taken full advantages of DNA origami structure. This multilayer thin film dramatically affects not only the release profiles but also the structure stability in protein rich serum condition.

  15. In-situ generation of oxygen-releasing metal peroxides

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2007-01-09

    A method for remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater is disclosed. The method generates oxygen releasing solids in groundwater or soil by injecting an aqueous energetic oxidant solution containing free radicals, oxidative conditions can be created within or ahead of a contaminant plume. Some contaminants may be remediated directly by reaction with the free radicals. Additionally and more importantly, the free radicals create an oxidative condition whereby native or injected materials, especially metals, are converted to peroxides. These peroxides provide a long-term oxygen reservoir, releasing oxygen relatively slowly over time. The oxygen can enhance microbial metabolism to remediate contaminants, can react with contaminant metals either to form immobile precipitants or to mobilize other metals to permit remediation through leaching techniques. Various injection strategies for injecting the energetic oxidant solution are also disclosed.

  16. Controlled Drug Release from Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhyun Hannah; Yeo, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers providing spatiotemporal control of drug release contribute to reducing toxicity and improving therapeutic efficacy of a drug. On the other hand, nanocarriers face unique challenges in controlling drug release kinetics, due to the large surface area per volume ratio and the short diffusion distance. To develop nanocarriers with desirable release kinetics for target applications, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which a carrier retains and releases a drug, the effects of composition and morphology of the carrier on the drug release kinetics, and current techniques for preparation and modification of nanocarriers. This review provides an overview of drug release mechanisms and various nanocarriers with a specific emphasis on approaches to control the drug release kinetics. PMID:25684779

  17. A rapid technique for prediction of nutrient release from controlled release fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient release from soluble granular fertilizers can be modified by polymer coating to extend the total duration nutrient release up to 3 to 9 months and rate of release to match the nutrient requirement of the plant during the growing period. Hence these products are termed as “Controlled Release...

  18. Assessment of nanoparticle release and associated health effect of polymer-silicon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Irfan, A.; Sachse, S.; Njuguna, J.

    2012-09-01

    Little information is currently available on possible release of nanomaterials or/and nanoparticles (NP) from conventional and novel products and associated health effect. This study aimed to assess the possible release of NP during the application stage of conventional and nanoproducts. NP release was monitored during physical processing of polymer-silicon composites, and the toxicity of both the released NP and the raw silica nanomaterials that were used as fillers in the nanocomposites was assessed in vitro using human lung epithelial A549 cells. This study suggests that 1) NP can be released from the conventional and novel polymer-silicon composites under certain application scenario; 2) the level of NP release from polymer composites could be altered by different reinforcement materials; e.g. nanostructured MMT could reduce the release while SiO2 NP could increase the release; 3) working with polymer composites under certain conditions could risk inhalation of high level of polymer NP; 4) raw nanomaterials appeared to be toxic in the chosen in vitro system. Further study of the effect of novel filler materials on NP release from final polymer products and the effect of released NP on environment and human health will inform design of safe materials and minimization of negative impact on the environment and human health.

  19. Impact of treatment on Pb release from full and partially replaced harvested Lead Service Lines (LSLs).

    PubMed

    Cartier, Clément; Doré, Evelyne; Laroche, Laurent; Nour, Shokoufeh; Edwards, Marc; Prévost, Michèle

    2013-02-01

    Release of lead from 80% partially replaced service lines was compared to full lead service lines using harvested-stabilized lead pipes and field brass connectors. After more than a year of stabilization, lead release was consistent with field samples. Over the relatively short duration partial replacement of lead pipe by copper pipe (3 months), generated high lead release, attributed to galvanic corrosion, resulting in a final outcome for lead release that was even worse than for a full lead pipe. Increased lead release was especially evident at higher flow rates. Orthophosphate reduced lead release from full lead pipes by 64%. For partially replaced samples with copper, lead concentrations were unchanged by phosphate dosing at moderate flow (103 ± 265 vs 169 ± 349 μg/L) and were increased to very high levels when sampled at high flow rates (1001 ± 1808 vs 257 ± 224 μg/L). The increase lead release was in the form of particulate lead (>90%). In comparison to the condition without treatment, increased sulfate treatment had little impact on lead release from 100%-Pb rigs but reduced lead release from partially replaced lead pipes with copper. Our results also raise questions concerning protocols based on short 30 min stagnation (as those used in Canada) due to their incapacity to consider particulate lead release generated mostly after longer stagnation. PMID:23174535

  20. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  1. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  2. Screw-released roller brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

  3. The Condition of STEM 2015. National

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2015

    2015-01-01

    ACT has been a leader in measuring college and career readiness trends since 1959. Each August, ACT releases The Condition of College & Career Readiness (www.act.org/newsroom/data/2015), an annual report on the progress of the ACT-tested graduating class relative to college readiness. Nationally, a record 59% of the 2015 graduating class took…

  4. The Condition of STEM 2014. National

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    ACT has been a leader in measuring college and career readiness trends since 1959. Each August, they release "The Condition of College & Career Readiness" (www.act.org/newsroom/data/2014), their annual report on the progress of the ACT-tested graduating class relative to college readiness. Nationally, 57% of the 2014 graduating class…

  5. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... of the type and quantity of waste (in activity in curies of each radionuclide) released or...

  6. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... of the type and quantity of waste (in activity in curies of each radionuclide) released or...

  7. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... of the type and quantity of waste (in activity in curies of each radionuclide) released or...

  8. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... of the type and quantity of waste (in activity in curies of each radionuclide) released or...

  9. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... of the type and quantity of waste (in activity in curies of each radionuclide) released or...

  10. 19 CFR 145.42 - Proof for conditionally free merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proof for conditionally free merchandise. 145.42... conditionally free merchandise. The port director may, at his discretion, require appropriate proof of duty-free status before releasing conditionally free merchandise. This proof may be obtained by either of...

  11. 19 CFR 145.42 - Proof for conditionally free merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proof for conditionally free merchandise. 145.42... conditionally free merchandise. The port director may, at his discretion, require appropriate proof of duty-free status before releasing conditionally free merchandise. This proof may be obtained by either of...

  12. 19 CFR 145.42 - Proof for conditionally free merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proof for conditionally free merchandise. 145.42... conditionally free merchandise. The port director may, at his discretion, require appropriate proof of duty-free status before releasing conditionally free merchandise. This proof may be obtained by either of...

  13. 19 CFR 145.42 - Proof for conditionally free merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Proof for conditionally free merchandise. 145.42... conditionally free merchandise. The port director may, at his discretion, require appropriate proof of duty-free status before releasing conditionally free merchandise. This proof may be obtained by either of...

  14. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  15. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  16. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  17. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  18. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  19. Release Data Package for Hanford Site Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Engel, David W.

    2006-07-01

    Beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support a Hanford assessment. This report describes the data compiled in FY 2003 through 2005 to support the Release Module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) for the updated composite analysis. This work was completed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, part of the Remediation and Closure Science Project, the Hanford Assessments Project, and the Characterization of Systems Project managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Related characterization activities and data packages for the vadose zone and groundwater are being developed under the remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The Release Module applies release models to waste inventory data from the Inventory Module and accounts for site remediation activities as a function of time. The resulting releases to the vadose zone, expressed as time profiles of annual rates, become source terms for the Vadose Zone Module. Radioactive decay is accounted for in all inputs and outputs of the Release Module. The Release Module is implemented as the VADER (Vadose zone Environmental Release) computer code. Key components of the Release Module are numerical models (i.e., liquid, soil-debris, cement, saltcake, and reactor block) that simulate contaminant release from the different waste source types found at the Hanford Site. The Release Module also handles remediation transfers to onsite and offsite repositories.

  20. Kinetics of nutrient and metal release from decomposing lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matisoff, Gerald; Fisher, J. Berton; McCall, Peter L.

    1981-12-01

    Rates of anaerobic decomposition of Lake Erie sediments were determined for seven depth intervals at three temperatures. Sealed sediment sections were incubated under anoxic conditions and the interstitial waters were serially sampled over a period of approximately 200 days. Concentration increases of bicarbonate, phosphate, ammonium, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn in pore water within any given depth interval followed zero order kinetics over the sampling period and exhibited Arrhenius temperature dependency. Rates of release to the pore waters were proportional to the concentrations in the solid phases, indicating first order kinetics overall. The rates and temperature dependencies of these fermentation reactions were only slightly less than those reported from sediments undergoing sulfate reduction. The observed release rates decreased exponentially with depth in the sediment due to a corresponding decrease in the amount of metabolizable organic matter and acid hydrolyzable mineral phases. A stoichiometric model was constructed utilizing the observed release rates and assumed chemical reactions to predict the stoichiometry of the decomposing organic matter and the nature of the hydrogen buffer. The modeling indicates that 60% of the observed bicarbonate release is the direct result of organic decomposition, that 20% of the release is from the dissolution of calcium carbonate mineral phases, and that the remaining 20% of the release is from the dissolution of magnesium, iron und manganese carbonate mineral phases. Kinetic modeling of the observed production rates accurately predicts the vertical profiles of Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn, but cannot quantitatively account for all the concentration differences of the nutrient elements C, N and P. This implies that in addition to decomposition, increased depositional flux also accounts for the significant changes in concentrations of the nutrient elements in the near surface sediments.

  1. Cannabinoid receptor activation shifts temporally engendered patterns of dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Oleson, Erik B; Cachope, Roger; Fitoussi, Aurelie; Tsutsui, Kimberly; Wu, Sharon; Gallegos, Jacqueline A; Cheer, Joseph F

    2014-05-01

    The ability to discern temporally pertinent environmental events is essential for the generation of adaptive behavior in conventional tasks, and our overall survival. Cannabinoids are thought to disrupt temporally controlled behaviors by interfering with dedicated brain timing networks. Cannabinoids also increase dopamine release within the mesolimbic system, a neural pathway generally implicated in timing behavior. Timing can be assessed using fixed-interval (FI) schedules, which reinforce behavior on the basis of time. To date, it remains unknown how cannabinoids modulate dopamine release when responding under FI conditions, and for that matter, how subsecond dopamine release is related to time in these tasks. In the present study, we hypothesized that cannabinoids would accelerate timing behavior in an FI task while concurrently augmenting a temporally relevant pattern of dopamine release. To assess this possibility, we measured subsecond dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens while mice responded for food under the influence of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in an FI task. Our data reveal that accumbal dopamine concentrations decrease proportionally to interval duration--suggesting that dopamine encodes time in FI tasks. We further demonstrate that WIN 55,212-2 dose-dependently increases dopamine release and accelerates a temporal behavioral response pattern in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner--suggesting that cannabinoid receptor activation modifies timing behavior, in part, by augmenting time-engendered patterns of dopamine release. Additional investigation uncovered a specific role for endogenous cannabinoid tone in timing behavior, as elevations in 2-arachidonoylglycerol, but not anandamide, significantly accelerated the temporal response pattern in a manner akin to WIN 55,212-2. PMID:24345819

  2. Helium release from 238PuO2 fuel particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2000-01-01

    Coated plutonia fuel particles have recently been proposed for potential use in future space exploration missions that employ radioisotope power systems and/or radioisotope heater units (RHUs). The design of this fuel form calls for full retention of the helium generated by the natural radioactive decay of 238Pu, with the aid of a strong zirconium carbide coating. This paper reviews the potential release mechanisms of helium in small-grain (7-40 μm) plutonia pellets currently being used in the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules and RHUs, during both steady-state and transient heating conditions. The applicability of these mechanisms to large-grain and polycrystalline 238PuO2 fuel kernels is examined and estimates of helium release during a re-entry heating pulse up to 1723 K are presented. These estimates are based on the reported data for fission gas release from granular and monocrystal UO2 fuel particles irradiated at isothermal conditions up to 6.4 at.% burnup and 2030 K. It is concluded that the helium release fraction from large-grain (>=300 μm) plutonia fuel kernels heated up to 1723 K could be less than 7%, compared to ~80% from small-grain (7-40 μm) fuel. The helium release fraction from polycrystalline plutonia kernels fabricated using Sol-Gel techniques could be even lower. Sol-Gel fabrication processes are favored over powder metallurgy, because of their high precision and excellent reproducibility and the absence of a radioactive dust waste stream, significantly reducing the fabrication and post-fabrication clean-up costs. .

  3. RELEASE OF CARTILAGE MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDE-DEGRADING NEUTRAL PROTEASE FROM HUMAN LEUKOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Oronsky, A.; Ignarro, L.; Perper, R.

    1973-01-01

    The granule fraction of human leukocytes contains neutral protease capable of degrading the noncollagenous protein mucopolysaccharide matrix of cartilage at neutral pH in physiological salt solution. Cartilage degradation was monitored by quantitating the release of 35S from labeled rabbit ear cartilage. Degradation of cartilage matrix occurs when intact viable human leukocytes are incubated with cartilage opsonized with aggregated human gamma globulin (AHGG). During a similar 4 h incubation period cells did not degrade uncoated cartilage or cartilage coated with nonaggregated gamma globulin. Cells remain viable during the enzyme release process as evidenced by the absence of a cytoplasmic enzyme marker (lactic dehydrogenase) in the supernatant and dye exclusion studies. The release of 35S from labeled cartilage by human leukocytes in the presence of cartilage coated with AHGG (nonphagocytic enzyme release) was compared with the cartilage degrading activity of the supernatant from the same number of cells preincubated with a suspension of AHGG (phagocytic enzyme release). Nonphagocytic enzyme release by 5 x 106 cells provoked two to four times more 35S and β-glucuronidase (β-G) release from cartilage than phagocytic enzyme release conditions. β-glucuronidase was used as an indicator of the release of lysosomal granule enzymes. By the use of selected pharmacological agents it was possible to dissociate the enzyme release process from intrinsic enzyme (neutral protease) activity. Neutral protease and β-G release by human cells in the presence of AHGG-coated cartilage was inhibited by 10–5M colchicine, whereas the protease activity, but not the release process, was inhibited by 10–6M gold thiomalate and 10% human serum. It is suggested that the release of a cartilage degrading neutral protease by viable human cells when exposed to AHGG might be a relevant model for the study of cartilage destruction as it occurs in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:4124211

  4. A critical review of engineered nanomaterial release data: Are current data useful for material flow modeling?

    PubMed

    Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Nowack, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    Material flow analysis (MFA) is a useful tool to predict the flows of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) to the environment. The quantification of release factors is a crucial part of MFA modeling. In the last years an increasing amount of literature on release of ENM from materials and products has been published. The purpose of this review is to analyze the strategies implemented by MFA models to include these release data, in particular to derive transfer coefficients (TC). Our scope was focused on those articles that analyzed the release from applications readily available in the market in settings that resemble average use conditions. Current MFA studies rely to a large extent on extrapolations, authors' assumptions, expert opinions and other informal sources of data to parameterize the models. We were able to qualitatively assess the following aspects of the release literature: (i) the initial characterization of ENM provided, (ii) quantitative information on the mass of ENM released and its characterization, (iii) description of transformation reactions and (iv) assessment of the factors determining release. Although the literature on ENM release is growing, coverage of exposure scenarios is still limited; only 20% of the ENMs used industrially and 36% of the product categories involved have been investigated in release studies and only few relevant release scenarios have been described. Furthermore, the information provided is rather incomplete concerning descriptions and characterizations of ENMs and the released materials. Our results show that both the development of methods to define the TCs and of protocols to enhance assessment of ENM release from nano-applications will contribute to increase the exploitability of the data provided for MFA models. The suggestions we provide in this article will likely contribute to an improved exposure modeling by providing ENM release estimates closer to reality.

  5. The fate of released histamine: reception, response and termination.

    PubMed Central

    Rangachari, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    Histamine released from ECL cells elicits responses from a variety of cellular targets in the vicinity. Three sets of receptors are involved (H1, H2 and H3). Receptor occupation is promptly transduced into cellular responses. The responses, in turn, are terminated by diverse mechanisms: enzymatic inactivation, cellular uptake and desensitization at the receptor level. Under specific pathological conditions, histamine effects could be exaggerated by the presence of derivatives that may be of marginal relevance under physiological conditions. Images Figure 2 PMID:10461350

  6. Drug release kinetic analysis and prediction of release data via polymer molecular weight in sustained release diltiazem matrices.

    PubMed

    Adibkia, K; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Mohammadi, G; Khiavi, H Z; Sabzevari, A; Barzegar-Jalali, M

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of HPMC (K4M and K100M) as well as tragacanth on the drug release rate of diltiazem (DLTZ) from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression method.Mechanism of drug transport through the matrices was studied by fitting the release data to the 10 kinetic models. 3 model independent parameters; i. e., mean dissolution time (MDT), mean release rate (MRR) and release rate efficacy (RE) as well as 5 time point approaches were established to compare the dissolution profiles. To find correlation between fraction of drug released and polymer's molecular weight, dissolution data were fitted into two proposed equations.All polymers could sustain drug release up to 10 h. The release data were fitted best to Peppas and Higuchi square root kinetic models considering squared correlation coefficient and mean percent error (MPE). RE and MRR were decreased when polymer to drug ratio was increased. Conversely, t60% was increased with raising polymer /drug ratio. The fractions of drug released from the formulations prepared with tragacanth were more than those formulated using the same amount of HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M.Preparation of DLTZ matrices applying HPMCK4M, HPMC K100M and tragacanth could effectively extend the drug release. PMID:23986307

  7. Injectable silica-permanganate gel as a slow-release MnO4(-) source for groundwater remediation: rheological properties and release dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Oostrom, M; Truex, M J; Li, G; Zhong, L

    2016-02-01

    Injectable slow-release permanganate gels (ISRPGs), formed by mixing aqueous KMnO4 solution with fumed silica powders, may have potential applications in remediating chlorinated solvent plumes in groundwater. A series of batch, column, and two-dimensional (2-D) flow cell experiments has been completed to characterize the ISRPG and study the release of permanganate (MnO4(-)) under a variety of conditions. The experiments have provided information on ISRPG rheology, MnO4(-) release dynamics and distribution in porous media, and trichloroethene (TCE) destruction by the ISRPG-released oxidant. The gel possesses shear thinning characteristics, resulting in a relatively low viscosity during mixing, and facilitating subsurface injection and distribution. Batch tests clearly showed that MnO4(-) diffused out from the ISRPG into water. During this process, the gel did not dissolve or disperse into water, but rather maintained its initial shape. Column experiments demonstrated that MnO4(-) release from the ISRPG lasted considerably longer than that from an aqueous solution. In addition, due to the longer release duration, TCE destruction by ISRPG-released MnO4(-) was considerably more effective than that when MnO4(-) was delivered using aqueous solution injection. In the 2-D flow cell experiments, it was demonstrated that ISRPGs released a long-lasting, low-concentration MnO4(-) plume potentially sufficient for sustainable remediation in aquifers. PMID:26766607

  8. Injectable silica-permanganate gel as a slow-release MnO4(-) source for groundwater remediation: rheological properties and release dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Oostrom, M; Truex, M J; Li, G; Zhong, L

    2016-02-01

    Injectable slow-release permanganate gels (ISRPGs), formed by mixing aqueous KMnO4 solution with fumed silica powders, may have potential applications in remediating chlorinated solvent plumes in groundwater. A series of batch, column, and two-dimensional (2-D) flow cell experiments has been completed to characterize the ISRPG and study the release of permanganate (MnO4(-)) under a variety of conditions. The experiments have provided information on ISRPG rheology, MnO4(-) release dynamics and distribution in porous media, and trichloroethene (TCE) destruction by the ISRPG-released oxidant. The gel possesses shear thinning characteristics, resulting in a relatively low viscosity during mixing, and facilitating subsurface injection and distribution. Batch tests clearly showed that MnO4(-) diffused out from the ISRPG into water. During this process, the gel did not dissolve or disperse into water, but rather maintained its initial shape. Column experiments demonstrated that MnO4(-) release from the ISRPG lasted considerably longer than that from an aqueous solution. In addition, due to the longer release duration, TCE destruction by ISRPG-released MnO4(-) was considerably more effective than that when MnO4(-) was delivered using aqueous solution injection. In the 2-D flow cell experiments, it was demonstrated that ISRPGs released a long-lasting, low-concentration MnO4(-) plume potentially sufficient for sustainable remediation in aquifers.

  9. Characteristics of pollutant gas releases from swine, dairy, beef, and layer manure, and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Rong; Saha, Chayan Kumer; Ni, Ji-Qin; Heber, Albert J; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Dunn, James L

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about characteristics of gas releases from various types of organic wastes can assist in developing gas pollution reduction technologies and establishing environmental regulations. Five different organic wastes, i.e., four types of animal manure (swine, beef, dairy, and layer hen) and municipal wastewater, were studied for their characteristics of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) releases for 38 or 43 days in reactors under laboratory conditions. Weekly waste additions and continuous reactor headspace ventilation were supplied to simulate waste storage conditions. Results demonstrated that among the five waste types, layer hen manure and municipal wastewater had the highest and lowest NH3 release potentials, respectively. Layer manure had the highest and dairy manure had the lowest CO2 release potentials. Dairy manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest H2S release potentials, respectively. Beef manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest SO2 releases, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the different types of wastes, especially the total nitrogen, total ammoniacal nitrogen, dry matter, and pH, had strong influence on the releases of the four gases. Even for the same type of waste, the variation in physicochemical characteristics affected the gas releases remarkably. PMID:25794466

  10. Toothbrushing causes elemental release from dental casting alloys over extended intervals.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Lockwood, Petra E; Mettenburg, Donald; Bouillaguet, Serge

    2003-04-15

    The release of elements from dental alloys has been linked to alloy biocompatibility. Much of the research measuring elemental release has been done in vitro under passive conditions. The current study supplements a previous report that measured elemental release from dental alloys during and after the equivalent of 1 week of toothbrushing. In the current study, toothbrushing times were extended to the equivalent of 2 years, and elemental release was measured during and after brushing, with and without toothpaste. The results showed that for the major classes of dental alloys, brushing alone caused no significant elemental release during the brushing, and only minor increases after brushing. Brushing with toothpaste caused significant increases in elemental release for all elements of all alloys, but the largest increases were for the two nickel-based alloys. Nickel released during brushing with toothpaste reached 600-800 microg/cm(2) of alloy surface. Both beryllium-containing and non-beryllium-containing nickel-based alloys behaved similarly, refuting claims that non-beryllium alloys are superior in this regard. Thus, brushing with toothpaste under these extended in vitro conditions appears to increase the biological liabilities from elemental release for all alloys, but primarily for nickel-based alloys. PMID:12632388

  11. Second-Generation Tunable pH-Sensitive Phosphoramidate-Based Linkers for Controlled Release.

    PubMed

    Choy, Cindy J; Ley, Corinne R; Davis, Austen L; Backer, Brian S; Geruntho, Jonathan J; Clowers, Brian H; Berkman, Clifford E

    2016-09-21

    We developed a second generation of tunable pH-sensitive linkers based on our phosphoramidate scaffold to release amine-containing drugs under acidic conditions. The pH-triggered phosphoramidate-based linkers are responsive to pH and do not require intracellular enzymatic action to initiate drug release. On the basis of the model scaffolds examined, phosphoramidate-based linkers were selected for particular properties for controlled release applications such as amine type, stability under physiological conditions, or release rates at various pH values such as intracellular endosomal conditions. Key to the pH-triggered amine release from these linker is a proximal carboxylic acid to promote hydrolysis of the phosphoramidate P-N bond, presumably through an intramolecular general acid-type mechanism. Phosphoramidate hydrolysis is largely governed by the pKa of the leaving amine. However, the proximity of the neighboring carboxylic acid attenuates the stability of the P-N bond to hydrolysis, thus allowing for control over the release of an amine from the phosphoramidate center. In addition, we observed that the Thorpe-Ingold effect and rigidification of the scaffold could further enhance the rate of release. Esterification of the neighboring carboxylic acid was found to protect the scaffold from rapid release at low pH. This latter observation is particularly noteworthy as it suggests that the phosphoramidate-based drug-conjugate scaffold can be protected as an ester prodrug for oral administration. While the tunability phosphoramidate linkers is attractive for applications in intracellular trafficking studies in which pH changes can trigger release of turn-on dyes, antibody drug conjugates, small-molecule drug conjugates, and drug eluting stents (DES), the promise of oral delivery of drug conjugates is expected to have broad impact in controlled release applications. PMID:27562353

  12. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-11-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1979 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1979 release data are compared with previous year's releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  13. Environmental releases for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-07-31

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1996 from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (formerly the Westinghouse Hanford Company) and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated provides effluent monitoring services for Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  14. Environmental releases for calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1995 from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). WHC provides effluent monitoring services for BHI, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate,comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  15. Social vocalizations can release oxytocin in humans

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Leslie J.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2010-01-01

    Vocalizations are important components of social behaviour in many vertebrate species, including our own. Less well-understood are the hormonal mechanisms involved in response to vocal cues, and how these systems may influence the course of behavioural evolution. The neurohormone oxytocin (OT) partly governs a number of biological and social processes critical to fitness, such as attachment between mothers and their young, and suppression of the stress response after contact with trusted conspecfics. Rodent studies suggest that OT's release is contingent upon direct tactile contact with such individuals, but we hypothesized that vocalizations might be capable of producing the same effect. To test our hypothesis, we chose human mother–daughter dyads and applied a social stressor to the children, following which we randomly assigned participants into complete contact, speech-only or no-contact conditions. Children receiving a full complement of comfort including physical, vocal and non-verbal contact showed the highest levels of OT and the swiftest return to baseline of a biological marker of stress (salivary cortisol), but a strikingly similar hormonal profile emerged in children comforted solely by their mother's voice. Our results suggest that vocalizations may be as important as touch to the neuroendocrine regulation of social bonding in our species. PMID:20462908

  16. Social vocalizations can release oxytocin in humans.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Leslie J; Ziegler, Toni E; Pollak, Seth D

    2010-09-01

    Vocalizations are important components of social behaviour in many vertebrate species, including our own. Less well-understood are the hormonal mechanisms involved in response to vocal cues, and how these systems may influence the course of behavioural evolution. The neurohormone oxytocin (OT) partly governs a number of biological and social processes critical to fitness, such as attachment between mothers and their young, and suppression of the stress response after contact with trusted conspecfics. Rodent studies suggest that OT's release is contingent upon direct tactile contact with such individuals, but we hypothesized that vocalizations might be capable of producing the same effect. To test our hypothesis, we chose human mother-daughter dyads and applied a social stressor to the children, following which we randomly assigned participants into complete contact, speech-only or no-contact conditions. Children receiving a full complement of comfort including physical, vocal and non-verbal contact showed the highest levels of OT and the swiftest return to baseline of a biological marker of stress (salivary cortisol), but a strikingly similar hormonal profile emerged in children comforted solely by their mother's voice. Our results suggest that vocalizations may be as important as touch to the neuroendocrine regulation of social bonding in our species.

  17. Quick-release medical tape

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Bryan; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Medical tape that provides secure fixation of life-sustaining and -monitoring devices with quick, easy, damage-free removal represents a longstanding unmet medical need in neonatal care. During removal of current medical tapes, crack propagation occurs at the adhesive–skin interface, which is also the interface responsible for device fixation. By designing quick-release medical tape to undergo crack propagation between the backing and adhesive layers, we decouple removal and device fixation, enabling dual functionality. We created an ordered adhesive/antiadhesive composite intermediary layer between the medical tape backing and adhesive for which we achieve tunable peel removal force, while maintaining high shear adhesion to secure medical devices. We elucidate the relationship between the spatial ordering of adhesive and antiadhesive regions to create a fully tunable system that achieves strong device fixation and quick, easy, damage-free device removal. We also described ways of neutralizing the residual adhesive on the skin and have observed that thick continuous films of adhesive are easier to remove than the thin islands associated with residual adhesive left by current medical tapes. PMID:23112196

  18. pH-dependent release property of alginate beads containing calcium carbonate particles.

    PubMed

    Han, M R; Kwon, M C; Lee, H Y; Kim, J C; Kim, J D; Yoo, S K; Sin, I S; Kim, S M

    2007-12-01

    Alginate bead containing calcium carbonate particle were prepared by dropping the suspension of alginate/calcium carbonate (4/1, w/w) into aqueous solution of CaCl(2) (0.1 M). The pH-dependent release property of the bead was observed for 12 h using blue dextran as a model drug. The release increased up to 4 h in a saturation manner. When no calcium carbonate was contained, the release exhibited no marked variation with pH and the values were 27-39%. On the other hand, in case calcium carbonate was included in the matrix of alginate beads, intensive release(40-50%) was achieved in acidic and neutral conditions and the degrees of release were suppressed in alkali conditions and the values were approximately 20%. The pH-sensitive release property is possibly because the particles of calcium carbonate embedded in the matrix of beads were leached out in acidic and neutral conditions, leaving cavities in the matrix. The cavities are likely to be main pathways for the release of blue dextran.

  19. Data summary report for fission product release test VI-5

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Travis, J.R.; Webster, C.S.; Collins, J.L. )

    1991-10-01

    Test VI-5, the fifth in a series of high-temperature fission product release tests in a vertical test apparatus, was conducted in a flowing mixture of hydrogen and helium. The test specimen was a 15.2-cm-long section of a fuel rod from the BR3 reactor in Belgium which had been irradiated to a burnup of {approximately}42 MWd/kg. Using a hot cell-mounted test apparatus, the fuel rod was heated in an induction furnace under simulated LWR accident conditions to two test temperatures, 2000 K for 20 min and then 2700 K for an additional 20 min. The released fission products were collected in three sequentially operated collection trains on components designed to measure fission product transport characteristics and facilitate sampling and analysis. The results from this test were compared with those obtained in previous tests in this series and with the CORSOR-M and ORNL diffusion release models for fission product release. 21 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. General Chemoselective and Redox-Responsive Ligation and Release Strategy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a switchable redox click and cleave reaction strategy for conjugating and releasing a range of molecules on demand. This chemoselective redox-responsive ligation (CRRL) and release strategy is based on a redox switchable oxime linkage that is controlled by mild chemical or electrochemical redox signals and can be performed at physiological conditions without the use of a catalyst. Both conjugation and release reactions are kinetically well behaved and quantitative. The CRRL strategy is synthetically modular and easily monitored and characterized by routine analytical techniques. We demonstrate how the CRRL strategy can be used for the dynamic generation of cyclic peptides and the ligation of two different peptides that are stable but can be selectively cleaved upon changes in the redox environment. We also demonstrate a new redox based delivery of cargoes to live cells strategy via the CRRL methodology by synthesizing a FRET redox-responsive probe that is selectively activated within a cellular environment. We believe the ease of the CRRL strategy should find wide use in a range of applications in biology, tissue engineering, nanoscience, synthetic chemistry, and material science and will expand the suite of current conjugation and release strategies. PMID:24559434