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  1. USGS 1-min Dst index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance index, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This index is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the index uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst index. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.

  2. Changes to MFRSRCLDOD1MIN Datastream

    SciTech Connect

    S McFarlane and Y Shi

    2012-05-23

    Significant updates were made to the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) cloud optical depth (MFRSRCLDOD) value-added product (VAP) in 2011. The original intent of the update was to add quality control (QC) flags and to update the VAP to use the improved retrievals of liquid water path (LWP) from the Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) VAP rather than the statistical retrievals of LWP from the Microwave Radiometer Line of Sight (MWRLOS) datastream. Although this was originally intended to be a straightforward update of the code, it became more complicated due to the following factors: (1) a new developer and translator team were working with the code; (2) numerous small changes had to be made to the code to consistently implement the QC flags; and (3) ARM standards have changed over the years since the code was originally developed.

  3. C2 domain protein MIN1 promotes eyespot organization in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Mittelmeier, Telsa M; Berthold, Peter; Danon, Avihai; Lamb, Mary Rose; Levitan, Alexander; Rice, Michael E; Dieckmann, Carol L

    2008-12-01

    Assembly and asymmetric localization of the photosensory eyespot in the biflagellate, unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires coordinated organization of photoreceptors in the plasma membrane and pigment granule/thylakoid membrane layers in the chloroplast. min1 (mini-eyed) mutant cells contain abnormally small, disorganized eyespots in which the chloroplast envelope and plasma membrane are no longer apposed. The MIN1 gene, identified here by phenotypic rescue, encodes a protein with an N-terminal C2 domain and a C-terminal LysM domain separated by a transmembrane sequence. This novel domain architecture led to the hypothesis that MIN1 is in the plasma membrane or the chloroplast envelope, where membrane association of the C2 domain promotes proper eyespot organization. Mutation of conserved C2 domain loop residues disrupted association of the MIN1 C2 domain with the chloroplast envelope in moss cells but did not abolish eyespot assembly in Chlamydomonas. In min1 null cells, channelrhodopsin-1 (ChR1) photoreceptor levels were reduced, indicating a role for MIN1 in ChR1 expression and/or stability. However, ChR1 localization was only minimally disturbed during photoautotrophic growth of min1 cells, conditions under which the pigment granule layers are disorganized. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that neither MIN1 nor proper organization of the plastidic components of the eyespot is essential for localization of ChR1. PMID:18849467

  4. Rain rate modeling of 1-min from various integration times in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sujan; Park, Jung-Jin; Choi, Dong-You

    2016-01-01

    Rain plays a major impairment factor for propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere for systems operating at frequencies above 10 GHz. Several effects are noted such as depolarization, scintillation, interference due to scattering and extra attenuation which seems to increase with frequency. To mitigate its effect in satellite communication, knowledge of local rainfall statistics is necessary which act as milestone for design of radio link. Rain attenuation is best visualize by the 1-min rainfall rate statistic but the measurement of this rain rate distribution is rare on a worldwide basis and observation of rain rate are done with longer integration times typically 30 min or more. In this paper, efforts have been made to develop model that can convert rain rate complementary cumulative distribution function to shorter integration times. The average relative error margin of about 5, 14, 43, 71 and 115 % are noted for 5 to 1-, 10 to 1-, 20 to 1, 30 to 1- and 60 to 1-min respectively from ITU-R P.837-6 method which have been analyzed in further section of this article. The empirical natures of conversion methods as such Segal method, Burgueno's method, Chebil and Rahman method and Logarithmic model are studied along with the proposed new model that seems to be applicable in derivation of 1-min rain rate of the South Korea rain rate statistics. International Telecommunication Union-Radio communication Sector (ITU-R) has developed a recommendation ITU-R P.837-6 that enables the user to estimate the local 1-min rainfall rate statistical distribution which is compared with calculated 1-min rain rate distribution from experimental 1-min rainfall accumulation. Unfortunately, ITU-R P.837-6 estimated 1-min values show greater error percentages. In order to get better approximation of local 1-min rain rate estimation, a novel method is proposed and it's efficiency have been compared with rainfall rate statistics obtained from nine different locations in the South

  5. Rain rate modeling of 1-min from various integration times in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sujan; Park, Jung-Jin; Choi, Dong-You

    2016-01-01

    Rain plays a major impairment factor for propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere for systems operating at frequencies above 10 GHz. Several effects are noted such as depolarization, scintillation, interference due to scattering and extra attenuation which seems to increase with frequency. To mitigate its effect in satellite communication, knowledge of local rainfall statistics is necessary which act as milestone for design of radio link. Rain attenuation is best visualize by the 1-min rainfall rate statistic but the measurement of this rain rate distribution is rare on a worldwide basis and observation of rain rate are done with longer integration times typically 30 min or more. In this paper, efforts have been made to develop model that can convert rain rate complementary cumulative distribution function to shorter integration times. The average relative error margin of about 5, 14, 43, 71 and 115 % are noted for 5 to 1-, 10 to 1-, 20 to 1, 30 to 1- and 60 to 1-min respectively from ITU-R P.837-6 method which have been analyzed in further section of this article. The empirical natures of conversion methods as such Segal method, Burgueno's method, Chebil and Rahman method and Logarithmic model are studied along with the proposed new model that seems to be applicable in derivation of 1-min rain rate of the South Korea rain rate statistics. International Telecommunication Union-Radio communication Sector (ITU-R) has developed a recommendation ITU-R P.837-6 that enables the user to estimate the local 1-min rainfall rate statistical distribution which is compared with calculated 1-min rain rate distribution from experimental 1-min rainfall accumulation. Unfortunately, ITU-R P.837-6 estimated 1-min values show greater error percentages. In order to get better approximation of local 1-min rain rate estimation, a novel method is proposed and it's efficiency have been compared with rainfall rate statistics obtained from nine different locations in the South

  6. Serpine1 Mediates Porphyromonas gingivalis Induced Insulin Secretion in the Pancreatic Beta Cell Line MIN6

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Uppoor G.; Watanabe, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of gingiva and alveolar bone caused by an exuberant host immunological response to periodontal pathogens. Results from a number of epidemiological studies indicate a close association between diabetes and periodontitis. Results from cross-sectional studies indicate that subjects with periodontitis have a higher odds ratio of developing insulin resistance (IR). However, the mechanisms by which periodontitis influences the development of diabetes are not known. Results from our previous studies using an animal model of periodontitis suggest that periodontitis accelerates the onset of hyperinsulinemia and IR. In addition, LPS from a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), stimulates Serpine1 expression in the pancreatic beta cell line MIN6. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that a periodontal pathogen induces hyperinsulinemia and Serpine1 may be involved in this process. To test this hypothesis, we co-incubated Pg with the pancreatic beta cell line MIN6 and measured the effect on insulin secretion by MIN6 cells. We further determined the involvement of Serpine1 in insulin secretion by downregulating Serpine1 expression. Our results indicated that Pg stimulated insulin secretion by approximately 3.0 fold under normoglycemic conditions. In a hyperglycemic state, Pg increased insulin secretion by 1.5 fold. Pg significantly upregulated expression of the Serpine1 gene and this was associated with increased secretion of insulin by MIN6 cells. However, cells with downregulated Serpine1 expression were resistant to Pg stimulated insulin secretion under normoglycemic conditions. We conclude that the periodontal pathogen, Pg, induced insulin secretion by MIN6 cells and this induction was, in part, Serpine1 dependent. Thus, Serpine1 may play a pivotal role in insulin secretion during the accelerated development of hyperinsulinemia and the resulting IR in the setting of periodontitis. PMID

  7. MinION Analysis and Reference Consortium: Phase 1 data release and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, David A.; Zalunin, Vadim; Urban, John M.; Piazza, Paolo; Bowden, Rory J.; Paten, Benedict; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Batty, Elizabeth M.; Simpson, Jared T.; Snutch, Terrance P.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of a miniaturized DNA sequencing device with a high-throughput contextual sequencing capability embodies the next generation of large scale sequencing tools. The MinION™ Access Programme (MAP) was initiated by Oxford Nanopore Technologies™ in April 2014, giving public access to their USB-attached miniature sequencing device. The MinION Analysis and Reference Consortium (MARC) was formed by a subset of MAP participants, with the aim of evaluating and providing standard protocols and reference data to the community. Envisaged as a multi-phased project, this study provides the global community with the Phase 1 data from MARC, where the reproducibility of the performance of the MinION was evaluated at multiple sites. Five laboratories on two continents generated data using a control strain of Escherichia coli K-12, preparing and sequencing samples according to a revised ONT protocol. Here, we provide the details of the protocol used, along with a preliminary analysis of the characteristics of typical runs including the consistency, rate, volume and quality of data produced. Further analysis of the Phase 1 data presented here, and additional experiments in Phase 2 of E. coli from MARC are already underway to identify ways to improve and enhance MinION performance. PMID:26834992

  8. MinION Analysis and Reference Consortium: Phase 1 data release and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ip, Camilla L C; Loose, Matthew; Tyson, John R; de Cesare, Mariateresa; Brown, Bonnie L; Jain, Miten; Leggett, Richard M; Eccles, David A; Zalunin, Vadim; Urban, John M; Piazza, Paolo; Bowden, Rory J; Paten, Benedict; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Batty, Elizabeth M; Simpson, Jared T; Snutch, Terrance P; Birney, Ewan; Buck, David; Goodwin, Sara; Jansen, Hans J; O'Grady, Justin; Olsen, Hugh E

    2015-01-01

    The advent of a miniaturized DNA sequencing device with a high-throughput contextual sequencing capability embodies the next generation of large scale sequencing tools. The MinION™ Access Programme (MAP) was initiated by Oxford Nanopore Technologies™ in April 2014, giving public access to their USB-attached miniature sequencing device. The MinION Analysis and Reference Consortium (MARC) was formed by a subset of MAP participants, with the aim of evaluating and providing standard protocols and reference data to the community. Envisaged as a multi-phased project, this study provides the global community with the Phase 1 data from MARC, where the reproducibility of the performance of the MinION was evaluated at multiple sites. Five laboratories on two continents generated data using a control strain of Escherichia coli K-12, preparing and sequencing samples according to a revised ONT protocol. Here, we provide the details of the protocol used, along with a preliminary analysis of the characteristics of typical runs including the consistency, rate, volume and quality of data produced. Further analysis of the Phase 1 data presented here, and additional experiments in Phase 2 of E. coli from MARC are already underway to identify ways to improve and enhance MinION performance. PMID:26834992

  9. Novel I1-Imidazoline Agonist S43126 Augment Insulin Secretion in Min6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tesfai, Jerusalem; Crane, Louis; Baziard-Mouysset, Genevieve; Edwards, Lincoln P.

    2016-01-01

    The I1-imidazoline receptor is a novel drug target for hypertension and insulin resistance which are major disorders associated with Type II diabetes. In the present study, we examined the effects of a novel imidazoline agonist S43126 on calcium fluxes and insulin secretion from Min6 β-cells. We also examined the effects of S43126 on the induction of IRAS, and phosphorylation of components in the I1-imidazoline signaling pathways, namely ERK and PKB. Min6 β-cells were treated with varying doses of S43126 [10−8M to 10−5M] for various time (5–60mins). S43126 at higher dose [10−5M] stimulated insulin secretion under elevated glucose concentration compared to basal. In addition, insulin secretion and Ca2+ influx mediated by S43126 [10−5M] were decreased following co-treatment with efaroxan (I1-antagonist) and nifedipine (L-type voltage-gated Ca2+-channel blocker) at various times (5–60mins). Furthermore, S43126 at [10−5M] increased Ca2+ oscillation, [Ca2+] and 45Ca2+ uptake in a time and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, Western blot analysis of treated samples showed that S43126 caused an increased protein expression of IRAS as well as phosphorylation of both ERK1/2 and PKB in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that S43126 exerts its insulinotropic effect in a glucose dependent manner by a mechanism involving L-type calcium channels and imidazoline I1-receptors. PMID:27429837

  10. [The mutation site analysis on CAPN1 gene of Wild boar, Min pig and Yorkshire].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-Qin; Liu, Hui; Guo, Li-Juan; Xu, Yao; Liu, Di

    2007-05-01

    In order to further evaluate the relationship between the variations of CAPN1 gene and meat tenderness, the CAPN1 genomic sequences were cloned and sequenced, its CDS was analyzed with PCR-SSCP, and the genotype analyses covered 109 individuals from Wild boar, Min pig and Yorkshire. Fifteen of total 21 introns were cloned. Five pairs polymorphic primers for PCR-SSCP analysis were designed based on the CDS of CAPN1 from GenBank and the cloned introns. Eight SNPs, resulting from single point mutation G to C, C to T, T to C, G to A, G to A, G to A, C to T and C to T at the base position 161 in exon2, 60 in exon5, 96 in exon5, 119 in exon5, 270 in intron8, 83 in exon10, 126 in exon13 and 138 in exon13 respectively, were identified, and 3 of which are missense mutations resulting to amino acid substitutions of S/T, G/E, V/I at the amino acid position of 54, 192 and 363 respectively. chi2 analysis showed that the distribution of genotypes among Yorkshire, Min pig and Wild boar are extremely significant difference, while there are no significant difference be-tween Min pig and Wild boar except in the S1 primer. The polymorphic sites may be used as molecular markers for meat tenderness and pork quality.

  11. Statistical properties of superflares on solar-type stars based on 1-min cadence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Hiroyuki; Shibayama, Takuya; Notsu, Yuta; Notsu, Shota; Honda, Satoshi; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-04-01

    We searched for superflares on solar-type stars using Kepler data with 1-min sampling in order to detect superflares with a short duration. We found 187 superflares on 23 solar-type stars whose bolometric energy ranges from the order of 1032 to 1036 erg. Some superflares show multiple peaks with the peak separation of the order of 100 to 1,000 s which is comparable to the periods of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares. Using these new data combined with the results from the data with 30-min sampling, we found that the occurrence frequency (dN/dE) of superflares as a function of flare energy ( E) shows the power-law distribution (dN/dE∝ E - α ) with α˜-1.5 for 1033< E<1036 erg which is consistent with the previous results. The average occurrence rate of superflares with the energy of 1033 erg which is equivalent to X100 solar flares is about once in 500 to 600 years. The upper limit of energy released by superflares is basically comparable to a fraction of the magnetic energy stored near starspots which is estimated from the photometry. We also found that the duration of superflares ( τ) increases with the flare energy ( E) as τ∝ E 0.39 ± 0.03. This can be explained if we assume the time scale of flares is determined by the Alfvén time.

  12. A Protocol to Enhance INS1E and MIN6 Functionality—The Use of Theophylline

    PubMed Central

    Groot Nibbelink, Milou; Marchioli, Giulia; Moroni, Lorenzo; Karperien, Marcel; Van Apeldoorn, Aart

    2016-01-01

    In vitro research in the field of type I diabetes is frequently limited by the availability of a functional model for islets of Langerhans. This method shows that by the addition of theophylline to the glucose buffers, mouse insulinoma MIN6 and rat insulinoma INS1E pseudo-islets can serve as a model for islets of Langerhans for in vitro research. The effect of theophylline is dose- and cell line-dependent, resulting in a minimal stimulation index of five followed by a rapid return to baseline insulin secretion by reducing glucose concentrations after a first high glucose stimulation. This protocol solves issues concerning in vitro research for type I diabetes as donors and the availability of primary islets of Langerhans are limited. To avoid the limitations of using human donor material, cell lines represent a valid alternative. Many different β cell lines have been reported, but the lack of reproducible responsiveness to glucose stimulation remains a challenge. PMID:27626415

  13. A Protocol to Enhance INS1E and MIN6 Functionality-The Use of Theophylline.

    PubMed

    Groot Nibbelink, Milou; Marchioli, Giulia; Moroni, Lorenzo; Karperien, Marcel; Van Apeldoorn, Aart

    2016-01-01

    In vitro research in the field of type I diabetes is frequently limited by the availability of a functional model for islets of Langerhans. This method shows that by the addition of theophylline to the glucose buffers, mouse insulinoma MIN6 and rat insulinoma INS1E pseudo-islets can serve as a model for islets of Langerhans for in vitro research. The effect of theophylline is dose- and cell line-dependent, resulting in a minimal stimulation index of five followed by a rapid return to baseline insulin secretion by reducing glucose concentrations after a first high glucose stimulation. This protocol solves issues concerning in vitro research for type I diabetes as donors and the availability of primary islets of Langerhans are limited. To avoid the limitations of using human donor material, cell lines represent a valid alternative. Many different β cell lines have been reported, but the lack of reproducible responsiveness to glucose stimulation remains a challenge. PMID:27626415

  14. The intronic minisatellite OsMin1 within a serine protease gene in the Chinese caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Jie; Hou, Jun-Xiu; Zhang, Shu; Hausner, Georg; Liu, Xing-Zhong; Li, Wen-Jia

    2016-04-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences make up a significant portion of all genomes and may occur in intergenic, regulatory, coding, or even intronic regions. Partial sequences of a serine protease gene csp1 was previously used as a population genetic marker of the Chinese caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis, but its first intron region was excluded due to ambiguous alignment. Here in this study, we report the presence of a minisatellite OsMin1 within this intron, where a 20(19)-bp repeat motif is duplicated two to six times in different isolates. Fourteen intron alleles and 13 OsMin1 alleles were identified among 125 O. sinensis samples distributed broadly on the Tibetan Plateau. Two OsMin1 alleles were prevalent, corresponding to either two or five repeats of the core sequence motif. OsMin1 appears to be a single locus marker in the O. sinensis genome, but its origin is undetermined. Abundant recombination signals were detected between upstream and downstream flanking regions of OsMin1, suggesting that OsMin1 mutate by unequal crossing over. Geographic distribution, fungal phylogeny, and host insect phylogeny all significantly affected intron distribution patterns but with the greatest influence noted for fungal genotypes and the least for geography. As far as we know, OsMin1 is the first minisatellite found in O. sinensis and the second found in fungal introns. OsMin1 may be useful in designing an efficient protocol to discriminate authentic O. sinensis from counterfeits. PMID:26754819

  15. The assembly of the FtsZ ring at the mid-chloroplast division site depends on a balance between the activities of AtMinE1 and ARC11/AtMinD1.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Makoto T; Hashimoto, Haruki; Kazama, Yusuke; Abe, Tomoko; Yoshida, Shigeo; Sato, Naoki; Itoh, Ryuuichi D

    2008-03-01

    Chloroplast division comprises a sequence of events that facilitate symmetric binary fission and that involve prokaryotic-like stromal division factors such as tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ and the division site regulator MinD. In Arabidopsis, a nuclear-encoded prokaryotic MinE homolog, AtMinE1, has been characterized in terms of its effects on a dividing or terminal chloroplast state in a limited series of leaf tissues. However, the relationship between AtMinE1 expression and chloroplast phenotype remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that a T-DNA insertion mutation in AtMinE1 results in a severe inhibition of chloroplast division, producing motile dots and short filaments of FtsZ. In AtMinE1 sense (overexpressor) plants, dividing chloroplasts possess either single or multiple FtsZ rings located at random intervals and showing constriction depth, mainly along the chloroplast polarity axis. The AtMinE1 sense plants displayed equivalent chloroplast phenotypes to arc11, a loss-of-function mutant of AtMinD1 which forms replicating mini-chloroplasts. Furthermore, a certain population of FtsZ rings formed within developing chloroplasts failed to initiate or progress the membrane constriction of chloroplasts and consequentially to complete chloroplast fission in both AtMinE1 sense and arc11/atminD1 plants. Our present data thus demonstrate that the chloroplast division site placement involves a balance between the opposing activities of AtMinE1 and AtMinD1, which acts to prevent FtsZ ring formation anywhere outside of the mid-chloroplast. In addition, the imbalance caused by an AtMinE1 dominance causes multiple, non-synchronous division events at the single chloroplast level, as well as division arrest, which becomes apparent as the chloroplasts mature, in spite of the presence of FtsZ rings. PMID:18204083

  16. Dietary fat overcomes the protective activity of thrombospondin-1 signaling in the Apc(Min/+) model of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Soto-Pantoja, D R; Sipes, J M; Martin-Manso, G; Westwood, B; Morris, N L; Ghosh, A; Emenaker, N J; Roberts, D D

    2016-01-01

    Thrombospondin 1 is a glycoprotein that regulates cellular phenotype through interactions with its cellular receptors and extracellular matrix-binding partners. Thrombospondin 1 locally regulates angiogenesis and inflammatory responses that contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice. The ability of thrombospondin 1 to regulate responses of cells and tissues to a variety of stresses suggested that loss of thrombospondin 1 may also have broader systemic effects on metabolism to modulate carcinogenesis. Apc(Min/+):Thbs1(-/-) mice exhibited decreased survival and higher tumor multiplicities in the small and large intestine relative to Apc(Min/+) mice when fed a low (5%) fat western diet. However, the protective effect of endogenous thrombospondin 1 was lost when the mice were fed a western diet containing 21% fat. Biochemical profiles of liver tissue identified systemic metabolic changes accompanying the effects of thrombospondin 1 and dietary lipid intake on tumorigenesis. A high-fat western diet differentially regulated elements of amino acid, energy and lipid metabolism in Apc(Min/+):Thbs1(-/-) mice relative to Apc(Min/+):Thbs1(+/+)mice. Metabolic changes in ketone body and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates indicate functional interactions between Apc and thrombospondin 1 signaling that control mitochondrial function. The cumulative diet-dependent differential changes observed in Apc(Min/+):Thbs1(-/-) versus Apc(Min/+) mice include altered amino acid and lipid metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, eicosanoids and ketone body formation. This metabolic profile suggests that the protective role of thrombospondin 1 to decrease adenoma formation in Apc(Min/+) mice results in part from improved mitochondrial function. PMID:27239962

  17. The Arabidopsis minE mutation causes new plastid and FtsZ1 localization phenotypes in the leaf epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Makoto T.; Kojo, Kei H.; Kazama, Yusuke; Sasaki, Shun; Abe, Tomoko; Itoh, Ryuuichi D.

    2015-01-01

    Plastids in the leaf epidermal cells of plants are regarded as immature chloroplasts that, like mesophyll chloroplasts, undergo binary fission. While mesophyll chloroplasts have generally been used to study plastid division, recent studies have suggested the presence of tissue- or plastid type-dependent regulation of plastid division. Here, we report the detailed morphology of plastids and their stromules, and the intraplastidic localization of the chloroplast division-related protein AtFtsZ1-1, in the leaf epidermis of an Arabidopsis mutant that harbors a mutation in the chloroplast division site determinant gene AtMinE1. In atminE1, the size and shape of epidermal plastids varied widely, which contrasts with the plastid phenotype observed in atminE1 mesophyll cells. In particular, atminE1 epidermal plastids occasionally displayed grape-like morphology, a novel phenotype induced by a plastid division mutation. Observation of an atminE1 transgenic line harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::AtMinE1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion gene confirmed the expression and plastidic localization of AtMinE1 in the leaf epidermis. Further examination revealed that constriction of plastids and stromules mediated by the FtsZ1 ring contributed to the plastid pleomorphism in the atminE1 epidermis. These results illustrate that a single plastid division mutation can have dramatic consequences for epidermal plastid morphology, thereby implying that plastid division and morphogenesis are differentially regulated in epidermal and mesophyll plastids. PMID:26500667

  18. The Arabidopsis minE mutation causes new plastid and FtsZ1 localization phenotypes in the leaf epidermis.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Makoto T; Kojo, Kei H; Kazama, Yusuke; Sasaki, Shun; Abe, Tomoko; Itoh, Ryuuichi D

    2015-01-01

    Plastids in the leaf epidermal cells of plants are regarded as immature chloroplasts that, like mesophyll chloroplasts, undergo binary fission. While mesophyll chloroplasts have generally been used to study plastid division, recent studies have suggested the presence of tissue- or plastid type-dependent regulation of plastid division. Here, we report the detailed morphology of plastids and their stromules, and the intraplastidic localization of the chloroplast division-related protein AtFtsZ1-1, in the leaf epidermis of an Arabidopsis mutant that harbors a mutation in the chloroplast division site determinant gene AtMinE1. In atminE1, the size and shape of epidermal plastids varied widely, which contrasts with the plastid phenotype observed in atminE1 mesophyll cells. In particular, atminE1 epidermal plastids occasionally displayed grape-like morphology, a novel phenotype induced by a plastid division mutation. Observation of an atminE1 transgenic line harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::AtMinE1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion gene confirmed the expression and plastidic localization of AtMinE1 in the leaf epidermis. Further examination revealed that constriction of plastids and stromules mediated by the FtsZ1 ring contributed to the plastid pleomorphism in the atminE1 epidermis. These results illustrate that a single plastid division mutation can have dramatic consequences for epidermal plastid morphology, thereby implying that plastid division and morphogenesis are differentially regulated in epidermal and mesophyll plastids. PMID:26500667

  19. Sustained AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylations in human skeletal muscle 30 min after a single bout of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vendelbo, M. H.; Møller, A. B.; Treebak, J. T.; Gormsen, L. C.; Goodyear, L. J.; Wojtaszewski, J. F. P.; Jørgensen, J. O. L.; Møller, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: phosphorylation of AS160 and TBC1D1 plays an important role for GLUT4 mobilization to the cell surface. The phosphorylation of AS160 and TBC1D1 in humans in response to acute exercise is not fully characterized. Objective: to study AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle after aerobic exercise followed by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Design: eight healthy men were studied on two occasions: 1) in the resting state and 2) in the hours after a 1-h bout of ergometer cycling. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was initiated 240 min after exercise and in a time-matched nonexercised control condition. We obtained muscle biopsies 30 min after exercise and in a time-matched nonexercised control condition (t = 30) and after 30 min of insulin stimulation (t = 270) and investigated site-specific phosphorylation of AS160 and TBC1D1. Results: phosphorylation on AS160 and TBC1D1 was increased 30 min after the exercise bout, whereas phosphorylation of the putative upstream kinases, Akt and AMPK, was unchanged compared with resting control condition. Exercise augmented insulin-stimulated phosphorylation on AS160 at Ser341 and Ser704 270 min after exercise. No additional exercise effects were observed on insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Thr642 and Ser588 on AS160 or Ser237 and Thr596 on TBC1D1. Conclusions: AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylations were evident 30 min after exercise without simultaneously increased Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. Unlike TBC1D1, insulin-stimulated site-specific AS160 phosphorylation is modified by prior exercise, but these sites do not include Thr642 and Ser588. Together, these data provide new insights into phosphorylation of key regulators of glucose transport in human skeletal muscle. PMID:24876356

  20. Development and testing of 100 kW/1 min Li-ion battery systems for energy storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, N. H.; Doughty, D. H.

    Two 100 kW min -1 (1.67 kW h -1) Li-ion battery energy storage systems (BESS) are described. The systems include a high-power Li-ion battery and a 100 kW power conditioning system (PCS). The battery consists of 12 modules of 12 series-connected Saft Li-ion VL30P cells. The stored energy of the battery ranges from 1.67 to 14 kW h -1 and has an operating voltage window of 515-405 V (dc). Two complete systems were designed, built and successfully passed factory acceptance testing after which each was deployed in a field demonstration. The first demonstration used the system to supplement distributed microturbine generation and to provide load following capability. The system was run at its rated power level for 3 min, which exceeded the battery design goal by a factor of 3. The second demonstration used another system as a stand-alone uninterrupted power supply (UPS). The system was available (online) for 1146 h and ran for over 2 min.

  1. Transcription of TIR1-Controlled Genes Can be Regulated within 10 Min by an Auxin-Induced Process. Can TIR1 be the Receptor?

    PubMed Central

    Labusch, Corinna; Effendi, Yunus; Fulda, Martin; Scherer, Günther F. E.

    2016-01-01

    ABP1 and TIR1/AFBs are known as auxin receptors. ABP1 is linked to auxin responses several of which are faster than 10 min. TIR1 regulates auxin-induced transcription of early auxin genes also within minutes. We use transcription of such TIR1-dependent genes as indicator of TIR1 activity to show the rapid regulation of TIR1 by exogenous auxin. To this end, we used quantification of transcription of a set of fifteen early auxin-induced reporter genes at t = 10 and t = 30 min to measure this as a TIR1-dependent auxin response. We conducted this study in 22 mutants of auxin transporters (pin5, abcb1, abcb19, and aux1/lax3), protein kinases and phosphatases (ibr5, npr1, cpk3, CPK3-OX, d6pk1, d6pkl1-1, d6pkl3-2, d6pkl1-1/d6pkl2-2, and d6pkl1-1/d6pkl3-2), of fatty acid metabolism (fad2-1, fad6-1, ssi2, lacs4, lacs9, and lacs4/lacs9) and receptors (tir1, tir1/afb2, and tir1/afb3) and compared them to the wild type. After 10 min auxin application, in 18 out of 22 mutants mis-regulated expression of at least one reporter was found, and in 15 mutants transcription of two-to-three out of five selected auxin reporter genes was mis-regulated. After 30 min of auxin application to mutant plants, mis-regulation of reporter genes ranged from one to 13 out of 15 tested reporter genes. Those genes chosen as mutants were themselves not regulated in their expression by auxin for at least 1 h, excluding an influence of TIR1/AFBs on their transcription. The expression of TIR1/AFB genes was also not modulated by auxin for up to 3 h. Together, this excludes a feedback or feedforward of these mutant genes/proteins on TIR1/AFBs output of transcription in this auxin-induced response. However, an auxin-induced response needed an as yet unknown auxin receptor. We suggest that the auxin receptor necessary for the fast auxin-induced transcription modulation could be, instead, ABP1. The alternative hypothesis would be that auxin-induced expression of a protein, initiated by TIR1/AFBs receptors

  2. Transcription of TIR1-Controlled Genes Can be Regulated within 10 Min by an Auxin-Induced Process. Can TIR1 be the Receptor?

    PubMed

    Labusch, Corinna; Effendi, Yunus; Fulda, Martin; Scherer, Günther F E

    2016-01-01

    ABP1 and TIR1/AFBs are known as auxin receptors. ABP1 is linked to auxin responses several of which are faster than 10 min. TIR1 regulates auxin-induced transcription of early auxin genes also within minutes. We use transcription of such TIR1-dependent genes as indicator of TIR1 activity to show the rapid regulation of TIR1 by exogenous auxin. To this end, we used quantification of transcription of a set of fifteen early auxin-induced reporter genes at t = 10 and t = 30 min to measure this as a TIR1-dependent auxin response. We conducted this study in 22 mutants of auxin transporters (pin5, abcb1, abcb19, and aux1/lax3), protein kinases and phosphatases (ibr5, npr1, cpk3, CPK3-OX, d6pk1, d6pkl1-1, d6pkl3-2, d6pkl1-1/d6pkl2-2, and d6pkl1-1/d6pkl3-2), of fatty acid metabolism (fad2-1, fad6-1, ssi2, lacs4, lacs9, and lacs4/lacs9) and receptors (tir1, tir1/afb2, and tir1/afb3) and compared them to the wild type. After 10 min auxin application, in 18 out of 22 mutants mis-regulated expression of at least one reporter was found, and in 15 mutants transcription of two-to-three out of five selected auxin reporter genes was mis-regulated. After 30 min of auxin application to mutant plants, mis-regulation of reporter genes ranged from one to 13 out of 15 tested reporter genes. Those genes chosen as mutants were themselves not regulated in their expression by auxin for at least 1 h, excluding an influence of TIR1/AFBs on their transcription. The expression of TIR1/AFB genes was also not modulated by auxin for up to 3 h. Together, this excludes a feedback or feedforward of these mutant genes/proteins on TIR1/AFBs output of transcription in this auxin-induced response. However, an auxin-induced response needed an as yet unknown auxin receptor. We suggest that the auxin receptor necessary for the fast auxin-induced transcription modulation could be, instead, ABP1. The alternative hypothesis would be that auxin-induced expression of a protein, initiated by TIR1/AFBs receptors

  3. Agrobacterium ParA/MinD-like VirC1 spatially coordinates early conjugative DNA transfer reactions

    PubMed Central

    Atmakuri, Krishnamohan; Cascales, Eric; Burton, Oliver T; Banta, Lois M; Christie, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens translocates T-DNA through a polar VirB/D4 type IV secretion (T4S) system. VirC1, a factor required for efficient T-DNA transfer, bears a deviant Walker A and other sequence motifs characteristic of ParA and MinD ATPases. Here, we show that VirC1 promotes conjugative T-DNA transfer by stimulating generation of multiple copies per cell of the T-DNA substrate (T-complex) through pairwise interactions with the processing factors VirD2 relaxase, VirC2, and VirD1. VirC1 also associates with the polar membrane and recruits T-complexes to cell poles, the site of VirB/D4 T4S machine assembly. VirC1 Walker A mutations abrogate T-complex generation and polar recruitment, whereas the native protein recruits T-complexes to cell poles independently of other polar processing factors (VirC2, VirD1) or T4S components (VirD4 substrate receptor, VirB channel subunits). We propose that A. tumefaciens has appropriated a progenitor ParA/MinD-like ATPase to promote conjugative DNA transfer by: (i) nucleating relaxosome assembly at oriT-like T-DNA border sequences and (ii) spatially positioning the transfer intermediate at the cell pole to coordinate substrate—T4S channel docking. PMID:17505518

  4. Joint min-max distribution and Edwards-Anderson's order parameter of the circular 1/f-noise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiangyu; Le Doussal, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the joint min-max distribution and the Edwards-Anderson's order parameter for the circular model of 1/f-noise. Both quantities, as well as generalisations, are obtained exactly by combining the freezing-duality conjecture and Jack-polynomial techniques. Numerical checks come with significantly improved control of finite-size effects in the glassy phase, and the results convincingly validate the freezing-duality conjecture. Application to diffusive dynamics is discussed. We also provide a formula for the pre-factor ratio of the joint/marginal Carpentier-Le Doussal tail for minimum/maximum which applies to any logarithmic random energy model.

  5. Uncertainty analysis of gas flow measurements using clearance-sealed piston provers in the range from 0.0012 g min-1 to 60 g min-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobovnik, G.; Kutin, J.; Bajsić, I.

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with an uncertainty analysis of gas flow measurements using a compact, high-speed, clearance-sealed realization of a piston prover. A detailed methodology for the uncertainty analysis, covering the components due to the gas density, dimensional and time measurements, the leakage flow, the density correction factor and the repeatability, is presented. The paper also deals with the selection of the isothermal and adiabatic measurement models, the treatment of the leakage flow and discusses the need for averaging multiple consecutive readings of the piston prover. The analysis is prepared for the flow range (50 000:1) covered by the three interchangeable flow cells. The results show that using the adiabatic measurement model and averaging the multiple readings, the estimated expanded measurement uncertainty of the gas mass flow rate is less than 0.15% in the flow range above 0.012 g min-1, whereas it increases for lower mass flow rates due to the leakage flow related effects. At the upper end of the measuring range, using the adiabatic instead of the isothermal measurement model, as well as averaging multiple readings, proves important.

  6. Statistical properties of superflares on solar-type stars based on the Kepler 1-min cadence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Hiroyuki; Shibayama, Takuya; Notsu, Yuta; Notsu, Shota; Honda, Satoshi; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-08-01

    We searched for superflares on solar-type stars using the Kepler short-cadence (1-min sampling) data in order to detect superflares with short duration. We found 187 superflares on 23 solar-type stars whose bolometric energy ranges from the order of 1032 erg to 1036 erg. Some superflares show multiple peaks with the peak separation of the order of 100-1000 seconds which is comparable to the periods of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares. Using these new data combined with the results from the data with 30 min sampling, we found the occurrence frequency (dN/dE) of superflares as a function of flare energy (E) shows the power-law distribution (dN/dE ∝ E-α) with α=1.5 for 1033

  7. Dietary soy sphingolipids suppress tumorigenesis and gene expression in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated CF1 mice and ApcMin/+ mice.

    PubMed

    Symolon, Holly; Schmelz, Eva M; Dillehay, Dirck L; Merrill, Alfred H

    2004-05-01

    Dietary supplementation with milk sphingolipids inhibits colon tumorigenesis in CF1 mice treated with a colon carcinogen [1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)] and in multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mice, which develop intestinal tumors spontaneously. Plant sphingolipids differ structurally from those of mammals [soy glucosylceramide (GlcCer) consists predominantly of a 4,8-sphingadiene backbone and alpha-hydroxy-palmitic acid], which might affect their bioactivity. Soy GlcCer was added to the AIN-76A diet (which contains <0.005% sphingolipid) to investigate whether it would also suppress tumorigenesis in these mouse models. Soy GlcCer reduced colonic cell proliferation in the upper half of the crypts in mice treated with DMH by 50 and 56% (P < 0.05) at 0.025 and 0.1% of the diet (wt/wt), respectively, and reduced the number of aberrant colonic crypt foci (an early marker of colon carcinogenesis) by 38 and 52% (P < 0.05). Min mice fed diets containing 0.025 and 0.1% (wt/wt) soy GlcCer developed 22 and 37% fewer adenomas (P < 0.05), respectively. The effects of dietary sphingolipids on gene expression in the intestinal mucosal cells of Min mice were analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays. Soy GlcCer affected the expression of 96 genes by > or = 2-fold in a dose-dependent manner, increasing 32 and decreasing 64. Decreases in the mRNA expression of two transcription factors associated with cancer, hypoxia-induced factor 1 alpha (HIF1 alpha) and transcription factor 4 (TCF4), were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In conclusion, soy GlcCer suppressed colon tumorigenesis in two mouse models; hence, plant sphingolipids warrant further investigation as inhibitors of colon cancer. Because soy contains relatively high amounts of GlcCer, sphingolipids may partially account for the anticancer benefits attributed to soy-based foods.

  8. Monitoring of 1-min personal particulate matter exposures in relation to voice-recorded time-activity data.

    PubMed

    Quintana, P J; Valenzia, J R; Delfino, R J; Liu, L J

    2001-12-01

    Recent studies on the association between exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) and disease have identified short-term peaks in PM exposures as posing especial health threats. Lightweight personal instruments are needed to characterize short-term exposures to PM and to identify the most important sources of high PM excursions. In this study, we measured exposure to fine PM using a small personal nephelometer (pDR; MIE, Inc) to investigate the utility of this instrument in identifying activities and microenvironments most associated with high PM exposures and the magnitude and duration of peaks in PM exposures. Ten adult volunteers wore a pDR recording PM concentrations at 1-min time intervals for 1 week each. PM concentrations were measured by the pDR in units of microg/m(3) based on light scatter. The use of a time-stamped voice recorder enabled activity and location to be continuously documented in real time. In addition, a small, inexpensive light intensity logger was affixed to the pDR to evaluate the potential of this instrument to assist in verifying wearer- recorded data. For each person, patterns of PM exposure were remarkably consistent over daily activities and showed large excursions associated with specific indoor and outdoor microenvironments and activities, such as cooking. When the magnitude and duration of excursions in PM were analyzed, we found that high PM levels occurred in relatively few of the minutes measured but comprised a substantial fraction of the total exposure to PM. Fifteen-minute averaged PM levels were found to be as much as 10 times the daily average. When the data were analyzed with a generalized estimating equation model to account for effects of autocorrelation and clustering, PM exposure was significantly higher during subject-reported events including barbeque, yard work, being near pets or construction activities, cooking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure, as compared with periods with no pollution events

  9. Critical power derived from a 3-min all-out test predicts 16.1-km road time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    Black, Matthew I; Durant, Jacob; Jones, Andrew M; Vanhatalo, Anni

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that the critical power (CP) in cycling estimated using a novel 3-min all-out protocol is reliable and closely matches the CP derived from conventional procedures. The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive validity of the all-out test CP estimate. We hypothesised that the all-out test CP would be significantly correlated with 16.1-km road time-trial (TT) performance and more strongly correlated with performance than the gas exchange threshold (GET), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and VO2 max. Ten club-level male cyclists (mean±SD: age 33.8±8.2 y, body mass 73.8±4.3 kg, VO2 max 60±4 ml·kg(-1min(-1)) performed a 10-mile road TT, a ramp incremental test to exhaustion, and two 3-min all-out tests, the first of which served as familiarisation. The 16.1-km TT performance (27.1±1.2 min) was significantly correlated with the CP (309±34 W; r = -0.83, P<0.01) and total work done during the all-out test (70.9±6.5 kJ; r = -0.86, P<0.01), the ramp incremental test peak power (433±30 W; r = -0.75, P<0.05) and the RCP (315±29 W; r = -0.68, P<0.05), but not with GET (151±32 W; r = -0.21) or the VO2 max (4.41±0.25 L·min(-1); r = -0.60). These data provide evidence for the predictive validity and practical performance relevance of the 3-min all-out test. The 3-min all-out test CP may represent a useful addition to the battery of tests employed by applied sport physiologists or coaches to track fitness and predict performance in atheletes.

  10. Curcumin attenuates palmitate-induced apoptosis in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells through PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 and mitochondrial survival pathways.

    PubMed

    Hao, Feng; Kang, Jinsen; Cao, Yajun; Fan, Shengjun; Yang, Haopeng; An, Yu; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Li, Xuejun

    2015-11-01

    Lipotoxicity plays a vital role in development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Prolonged elevation of free fatty acids especially the palmitate leads to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol from the curry spice turmeric, is considered to be a broadly cytoprotective agent. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of curcumin on palmitate-induced apoptosis in β-cells and investigate underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that curcumin improved cell viability and enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretory function in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells. Palmitate incubation evoked chromatin condensation, DNA nick end labeling and activation of caspase-3 and -9. Curcumin treatment inhibited palmitate-induced apoptosis, relieved mitochondrial depolarization and up-regulated Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Palmitate induced the generation of reactive oxygen species and inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes, which could be neutralized by curcumin treatment. Moreover, curcumin could promote rapid phosphorylation of Akt and nuclear exclusion of FoxO1 in MIN6 cells under lipotoxic condition. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt specific inhibitors abolished the anti-lipotoxic effect of curcumin and stimulated FoxO1 nuclear translocation. These findings suggested that curcumin protected MIN6 pancreatic β-Cells against apoptosis through activation of Akt, inhibition of nuclear translocation of FoxO1 and mitochondrial survival pathway.

  11. Id1 Deficiency Protects against Tumor Formation in Apc(Min/+) Mice but Not in a Mouse Model of Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Chin, Yvette; Benezra, Robert; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    Different mechanisms contribute to the development of sporadic, hereditary and colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation (Id) proteins act as dominant-negative antagonists of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Id1 is a promising target for cancer therapy, but little is known about its role in the development of colon cancer. We used immunohistochemistry to demonstrate that Id1 is overexpressed in human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, whether sporadic or syndromic. Furthermore, elevated Id1 levels were found in dysplasia and colon cancer arising in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Because levels of PGE2 are also elevated in both colitis and colorectal neoplasia, we determined whether PGE2 could induce Id1. PGE2 via EP4 stimulated protein kinase A activity resulting in enhanced pCREB-mediated Id1 transcription in human colonocytes. To determine the role of Id1 in carcinogenesis, two mouse models were used. Consistent with the findings in humans, Id1 was overexpressed in tumors arising in both Apc(Min) (/+) mice, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis, and in experimental colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia. Id1 deficiency led to significant decrease in the number of intestinal tumors in Apc(Min) (/+) mice and prolonged survival. In contrast, Id1 deficiency did not affect the number or size of tumors in the model of colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia, likely due to exacerbation of colitis associated with Id1 loss. Collectively, these results suggest that Id1 plays a role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Our findings also highlight the need for different strategies to reduce the risk of colitis-associated colorectal cancer compared with sporadic or hereditary colorectal cancer.

  12. A sample introduction system for an inductively coupled plasma operating on an argon carrier gas flow of 0.1 l/min

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripson, P. A. M.; de Galan, L.

    A sample introduction system is described for use with a water-cooled ICP torch described previously [ Anal. Chem.51, 2378 (1979)]. It consists of a narrow bore (100 μm) stainless steel Babington nebulizer operating on 0.05 to 0.2 l/min argon inserted into a small (10 ml) nebulizer chamber. The solvent is force-fed continuously by gas pressure or with a peristaltic pump. Liquid samples can be supplied continuously or in discrete quantities using a sample loop between the pump and the nebulizer. In the latter case only 25 s are required for sample change. The nebulization efficiency for water and organic solvents is comparable to that of conventional pneumatic nebulizers operating on 1 l/min argon.

  13. Flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using ≈4 mL min(-1) gas flows.

    PubMed

    Franchina, Flavio A; Maimone, Mariarosa; Tranchida, Peter Q; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of the herein described research was focused on performing satisfactory flow modulation (FM), in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS), using an MS-compatible second-dimension gas flow of approx. 4 mL min(-1). The FM model used was based on that initially proposed by Seeley et al. [3]. The use of limited gas flows was enabled through fine tuning of the FM parameters, in particular the duration of the re-injection (or flushing) process. Specifically, the application of a long re-injection period (i.e., 700 ms) enabled efficient accumulation-loop flushing with gas flows of about 4 mL min(-1). It was possible to apply such extended re-injection periods by using different restrictor lengths in the connections linking the modulator to the auxiliary pressure source. FM GC×GC-MS applications were performed on a mixture containing C9-10 alkanes, and on a sample of essential oil. GC×GC-MS sensitivity was compared with that attained by using conventional GC-MS analysis, in essential oil applications. It was observed that signal intensities were, in general, considerably higher in the FM GC×GC-MS experiments.

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-1 mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ and stimulates mitochondrial ATP synthesis in pancreatic MIN6 beta-cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Takashi; da Silva Xavier, Gabriela; Holz, George G; Jouaville, Laurence S; Thomas, Andrew P; Rutter, Guy A

    2003-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent regulator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion whose mechanisms of action are only partly understood. In the present paper, we show that at low (3 mM) glucose concentrations, GLP-1 increases the free intramitochondrial concentrations of both Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](m)), and ATP ([ATP](m)) in clonal MIN6 beta-cells. Suggesting that cAMP-mediated release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores is responsible for these effects, increases in [ATP](m) that were induced by GLP-1 were completely blocked by the Rp isomer of adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate (Rp-cAMPS), or by chelation of intracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, inhibition of Ins(1,4,5) P (3) (IP(3)) receptors with xestospongin C, or application of ryanodine, partially inhibited GLP-1-induced [ATP](m) increases, and the simultaneous blockade of both IP(3) and ryanodine receptors (RyR) completely eliminated the rise in [ATP](m). GLP-1 appeared to prompt Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release through IP(3) receptors via a protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation event, since ryanodine-insensitive [ATP](m) increases were abrogated with the PKA inhibitor, H89. In contrast, the effects of GLP-1 on RyR-mediated [ATP](m) increases were apparently mediated by the cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor cAMP-GEFII, since xestospongin C-insensitive [ATP](m) increases were blocked by a dominant-negative form of cAMP-GEFII (G114E,G422D). Taken together, these results demonstrate that GLP-1 potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin release in part via the mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+), and the stimulation of mitochondrial ATP synthesis. PMID:12410638

  15. Reduction of Argon Consumption to Less than 2 L min(-1) by Gas Recycling in Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tirk, Paul; Wolfgang, Matthias; Wiltsche, Helmar

    2016-07-19

    An innovative interface between the torch and the entrance optics for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) is proposed. This system is capable of collecting all argon which was initially supplied to the torch, cooling and cleaning it and feeding most of the argon back to the outer gas port of the torch. Thereby, the total argon consumption could be reduced from 14 to 1.4 L min(-1) using a standard torch and without restricting the rf power. The excitation- and rotational temperature of the plasma were identical when comparing the traditional setup with the enclosed plasma interface. However, the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of 27 elements investigated were degraded about 5-fold, though this fact can be expected to stem from a change of the observed zone in the plasma caused by the slight overpressure of 2000 Pa within the interface. Though the enclosed plasma interface was located close to the load coil, the rf power coupled to the interface was well below 1 W and no rf arcing was observed for two different rf generator designs.

  16. Reduction of Argon Consumption to Less than 2 L min(-1) by Gas Recycling in Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tirk, Paul; Wolfgang, Matthias; Wiltsche, Helmar

    2016-07-19

    An innovative interface between the torch and the entrance optics for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) is proposed. This system is capable of collecting all argon which was initially supplied to the torch, cooling and cleaning it and feeding most of the argon back to the outer gas port of the torch. Thereby, the total argon consumption could be reduced from 14 to 1.4 L min(-1) using a standard torch and without restricting the rf power. The excitation- and rotational temperature of the plasma were identical when comparing the traditional setup with the enclosed plasma interface. However, the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of 27 elements investigated were degraded about 5-fold, though this fact can be expected to stem from a change of the observed zone in the plasma caused by the slight overpressure of 2000 Pa within the interface. Though the enclosed plasma interface was located close to the load coil, the rf power coupled to the interface was well below 1 W and no rf arcing was observed for two different rf generator designs. PMID:27306111

  17. A postoperative 1-Year eGFR of More Than 45 ml/min May be the Cutoff Level for a Favorable Long-Term Prognosis in Renal Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Baek, Chung Hee; Kim, Hyosang; Yang, Won Seok; Han, Duck Jong; Park, Su-Kil

    2016-07-15

    BACKGROUND One-year renal function after kidney transplantation (KT) classified by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) chronic kidney disease (CKD) staging has been reported to be associated with graft survival. However, the outcomes of KT are improving. Therefore, the distribution and prognostic value of 1-year estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in recently performed transplants were re-evaluated in this study. MATERIAL AND METHODS We reviewed all patients who received KT between 2008 and 2011 at our institution, and followed them until June 2015. The distribution of 1-year eGFR, graft survival according to CKD staging, the cutoff level for a favorable prognosis, and the occurrence of rejection and infection were analyzed. RESULTS A total of 758 patients were included in this study. Unlike previous studies, most patients (56.2%) were in the CKD stage 2 (eGFR 60-89) rather than stage 3 (eGFR 30-59). In addition, the CKD stage 3a (eGFR 45-59) group showed better graft survival than the CKD stage 3b (eGFR 30-44) group. However, CKD stage 2 and CKD stage 3a groups did not show significant differences in graft survival. Patients with postoperative 1-year eGFR ≥45 ml/min showed a more favorable outcome compared with those with postoperative 1-year eGFR <45 ml/min. One-year eGFR<45 ml/min, acute cellular rejection, antibody-mediated rejection, and CMV infection after 1 year were adjusted risk factors for graft failure. CONCLUSIONS A 1-year eGFR ≥45 ml/min may be the appropriate cutoff level for predicting favorable outcomes in KT. In addition, KDIGO CKD staging may no longer be useful in recently performed KT.

  18. Association of Pulse Pressure, Arterial Elasticity, and Endothelial Function With Kidney Function Decline Among Adults With Estimated GFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Peralta, Carmen A.; Jacobs, David R.; Katz, Ronit; Ix, Joachim H.; Madero, Magdalena; Duprez, Daniel A.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Criqui, Michael H.; Kramer, Holly J.; Palmas, Walter; Herrington, David; Shlipak, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of subclinical vascular disease and early declines in kidney function has not been well studied. Study Design Prospective cohort study Setting & Participants MESA participants with eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 with follow-up of 5 years Predictors Pulse pressure (pulse pressure), small and large arterial elasticity (SAE, LAE), and flow mediated dilation. Outcomes kidney function decline Measurements SAE and LAE were measured by pulse contour analysis of the radial artery. Kidney function was measured by serum creatinine- and cystatin C-based eGFR. Results Among 4,853 adults, higher pulse pressure and lower SAE and LAE had independent and linear associations with faster rates of kidney function decline. Compared to persons with pulse pressure 40–50mmHg, eGFRSCysC decline was 0.29 (p=0.006), 0.56 (p<0.001), and 0.91 (p<0.001) ml/min/1.73m2/year faster among persons with pulse pressure 50–60, 60–70, and >70mmHg, respectively. Compared to the highest quartile of SAE (most elastic), eGFRSCysC decline was 0.26 (p=0.009), 0.35 (p=0.001), and 0.70 (p<0.001) ml/min/1.73m2/year faster for the second, third and fourth quartiles respectively. For LAE, compared to the highest quartile, eGFRSCysC decline was 0.28 (p=0.004), 0.58 (p<0.001), and 0.83 (p<0.001) ml/min/1.73m2/year faster for each decreasing quartile of LAE. Findings were similar with creatinine-based eGFR. In contrast, among 2,997 adults with flow-mediated dilation and kidney function measures, flow-mediated dilation was not significantly associated with kidney function decline. For every 1-SD greater flow-mediated dilation, eGFRSCysC and eGFRSCr changed by 0.05 ml/min/1.73m2/year (p=0.3) and 0.06 ml/min/1.73m2/year (p=0.04), respectively. Limitations We had no direct measure of GFR, in common with nearly all large population based studies. Conclusions Higher pulse pressure and lower arterial elasticity, but not flow-mediated dilation, were linearly and independently associated with

  19. Effects of 100MeV protons delivered at 0.5 or 1cGy/min on the in vivo induction of early and delayed chromosomal damage.

    PubMed

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Honikel, Louise M; Reungpatthanaphong, Paiboon; Tungjai, Montree; Golightly, Marc; Whorton, Elbert B

    2013-08-30

    Little is known about in vivo cytogenetic effects of protons delivered at the dose and dose rates encountered in space. We determined the effects of 100MeV protons, one of the most abundant type of protons produced during solar particle events (SPE), on the induction of chromosome aberrations (CAs) in bone marrow (BM) cells collected at early (3 and 24h) and late (6 months) time-points from groups of BALB/cJ mice (a known radiosensitive strain) exposed whole-body to 0 (sham-controls), 0.5, or 1.0Gy of 100MeV protons, delivered at 0.5 or 1.0cGy/min. These doses and dose-rates are comparable to those produced during SPE events. Additionally, groups of mice were exposed to 0 or 1Gy of (137)Cs γ rays (delivered at 1cGy/min) as a reference radiation. The kinetics of formation/reduction of gamma-histone 2-AX (γH2AX) were determined in BM cells collected at 1.5, 3, and 24h post-irradiation to assess the early-response. There were five mice per treatment-group per harvest-time. Our data indicated that the kinetics of γH2AX formation/reduction differed, depending on the dose and dose rate of protons. Highly significant numbers of abnormal cells and chromatid breaks (p<0.01), related to those in sham-control groups, were detected in BM cells collected at each time-point, regardless of dose or dose-rate. The finding of significant increases in the frequencies of delayed non-clonal and clonal CAs in BM cells collected at a late time-point from exposed mice suggested that 0.5 or 1Gy of 100MeV protons is capable of inducing genomic instability in BM cells. However, the extent of effects induced by these two low dose rates was comparable. Further, the results showed that the in vivo cytogenetic effects induced by 1Gy of 100MeV protons or (137)Cs γ rays (delivered at 1cGy/min) were similar.

  20. The Thermal Breadth of Nylanderia fulva (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Is Narrower Than That of Solenopsis invicta at Three Thermal Ramping Rates: 1.0, 0.12, and 0.06°C min-1.

    PubMed

    Bentley, M T; Hahn, D A; Oi, F M

    2016-08-01

    Determining the upper (CTmax) and lower (CTmin) critical thermal limits of invasive ants provides insight into how temperature could shape their distribution, seasonality, and daily activity. Understanding the potential distribution of invasive ants is imperative to improving quarantine and management efforts. Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) (tawny crazy ant) and Solenopsis invicta (Buren) (red imported fire ant) are invasive ants that are established throughout the southeastern United States. Recent studies have found that body size and thermal ramping rate can affect the estimation of critical thermal limits. However, the effects of both variables and their interactions on the thermal limits of N. fulva and S. invicta have not previously been described. Thus, we evaluated the impacts of body size and ramping rate on the critical thermal limits of N. fulva and S. invicta Overall, N. fulva had a narrower thermal breadth than S. invicta (Nf CTmin = 7.3°C and Nf CTmax = 41.3°C vs. Si CTmin = 4.1°C and Si CTmax = 45.3°C). For both species, slower ramping rates resulted in lower CTmax values and ants with smaller head capsules had a narrower thermal breadth than ants with larger head capsules. These data improve our understanding of the critical thermal limits of both species and could be useful for developing predictive models that estimate the future spread of these invasive ants in nonnative ranges.

  1. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 03 / 013 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,1,1 - TRICHLOROETHANE ( CAS No . 71 - 55 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 2007 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has bee

  2. MI1AENG1

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-03

    MI1AENG1 MISR Level 1A Engineering Data File Type 1: Reformatted Annotated Level 1A product for the camera engineering data, which represents indicators of sampled measurements. ... Status Production Report Read Software Files :  Data Product Specification Versioning ...

  3. SSCA1-K1

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Matthew

    2015-11-06

    SSCA1-K1 is a parallel implementation of kernel 1 of the SSCA1 benchmark suite released by the DARPA HPCS program. This kernel is able to run in parallel on a distributed shared memory system at extreme scales using OpenSHMEM.

  4. 1,1-Carboboration.

    PubMed

    Kehr, Gerald; Erker, Gerhard

    2012-02-11

    The use of very electrophilic boranes RB(C(6)F(5))(2) widens the scope of the 1,1-carboboration reaction substantially. Simple terminal alkynes HC≡CR undergo this reaction with the RB(C(6)F(5))(2) reagents rapidly under mild conditions to give high yields of very useful new alkenylborane products. Even internal alkynes RC≡CR undergo 1,1-carboboration with the RB(C(6)F(5))(2) reagents to provide a novel way of carbon-carbon σ-bond activation. Variants of these reactions involving phosphorus substituted alkynes and more complex bisalkynyl main group and transition metal substrates give rise to the formation of very interesting functionalized metallacyclic products upon treatment with RB(C(6)F(5))(2) reagents by means of reaction sequences involving selective 1,1-carboboration steps. PMID:22116402

  5. 1,1-Difluoroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1 - Difluoroethane ; CASRN 75 - 37 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  6. 1,1-Dichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1 - Dichloroethane ; CASRN 75 - 34 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  7. 1 CFR 1.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Definitions. 1.1 Section 1.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL DEFINITIONS § 1.1 Definitions. As used in this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise— Administrative Committee means the Administrative Committee of...

  8. 1 CFR 1.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 1.1 Section 1.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL DEFINITIONS § 1.1 Definitions. As used in this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise— Administrative Committee means the Administrative Committee of...

  9. 1 CFR 1.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Definitions. 1.1 Section 1.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL DEFINITIONS § 1.1 Definitions. As used in this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise— Administrative Committee means the Administrative Committee of...

  10. 1 CFR 1.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.1 Section 1.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL DEFINITIONS § 1.1 Definitions. As used in this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise— Administrative Committee means the Administrative Committee of...

  11. 1 CFR 1.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 1.1 Section 1.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL DEFINITIONS § 1.1 Definitions. As used in this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise— Administrative Committee means the Administrative Committee of...

  12. Thoughts on Why (-1)(-1) = +1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapke, Tina

    2008-01-01

    This article considers why (-1)(-1) = +1 and how and why a teacher might go about explaining this concept to high school students without using pseudoreasoning. Furthermore, it provides a precise explanation, through the use of the distributive property, as to why (-1)(-1) = +1. (Contains 1 figure.)

  13. 1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1 - Chloro - 1,1 - difluoroethane ; CASRN 75 - 68 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  14. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrafluoroethane ; CASRN 811 - 97 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  15. 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 630 - 20 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  16. Hawking's A Briefer History of Time's No-God-Universe disproven by primordial ^218Po halos embedded in granite rocks, which proves their rapid creation due to ^218Po's 3 min t1/2, something only the God of Genesis could have done

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Quotes from my Science (184, 62, 1974) report, Radiohalos in Radiochronological and Cosmological Perspective, show why primordial polonium halos earlier commanded attention for creation," It is also apparent that Po halos do pose contradictions to currently held views of Earth history" "For example, there is first the problem of how isotopic separation of several Po isotopes [or their β-decay precursors could have occurred naturally. Second, a straightforward explanation of ^218Po halos implies that the 1-μm radiocenters of very dark halos of this type initially contained as many as 5 x 10^9 atoms (a concentration of more than 50 percent) of the isotope ^218Po (half-life, 3 minutes), a problem that almost defies reason. A further necessary consequence, that such Po halos could have formed only if the host rocks underwent a rapid crystallization, renders exceedingly difficult, in my estimation, the prospect of explaining these halos by physical laws as presently understood." In 1977 E. P. Wigner, G. N. Flerov (Dubna), Ed Anders, E. Segre, F. Dyson, and John Wheeler all commented on these results (see alphacosmos.net). Also, ^14N detection in dwarf radiohalos may be of cosmological significance in implying a superheavy element origin from ^14C emission.

  17. 1,1-Dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1 - Dichloroethylene ( 1,1 - DCE ) ; CASRN 75 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  18. MInOSS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Alvise; Gottardi, M.; Lee, P.; Maloberti, F.; O'Leary, Paul; Simoni, A.; Torelli, Guido

    1996-12-01

    The main goal of the ESPRIT project 'microintegrated intelligent optical sensor systems' (MInOSS) was to investigate a design methodology for optical sensor systems. The methodology was applied to the design of a library of modules and general building blocks in a standard CMOS technology aimed at easing the design of future optical sensors. A set of demonstrators was developed, including a linear array of sensors for spectrophotometry and a number of 2D sensor arrays for use in 'intelligent' digital cameras. The main results of the project to be reviewed in this paper include a library photodiode arrays and charge amplifiers; three-step flash and algorithmic analog-to- digital converters for on-chip conversion; the architectures of the linear and 2D intelligent sensors which were developed; and guidelines for the practical design of photosensors and pixel arrays in a mixed analogue/digital/optical environment.

  19. Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) 1.1 and 1.1A, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebells, Clarence A.

    1988-01-01

    This final test report presents the results obtained during the static hot firing and cold-gas high Q tests of the first Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) 1.1. The TPTA consisted of field test joints A and B, which were the original RSRM J-insulation configuration, with a metal capture feature. It also consisted of a flight configuration nozzle-to-case test joint (Joint D) with shorter vent slots. Fluorocarbon O-rings were used in all the test joints. The purpose of the TPTA tests is to evaluate and characterize the RSMR field and nozzle-to-case joints under the influence of ignition and strut loads during liftoff anf high Q. All objectives of the cold-gas high Q (TPTA 1.1A) test were met and all measurements were close to predicted values. During the static hot-firing test (TPTA 1.1), the motor was inadvertently plugged by the quench injector plug, making it a more severe test, although no strut loads were applied. The motor was depressurized after approximately 11 min using an auxiliary system, and no anomalies were noted. In the static hot-firing test, pressure was incident on the insulation and the test joint gaps were within the predicted range. During the static hot-firing test, no strut loads were applied because the loading system malfunctioned. For this test, all measurements were within range of similar tests performed without strut loads.

  20. MinC/MinD copolymers are not required for Min function.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Tae; Du, Shishen; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2015-12-01

    In Escherichia coli, precise placement of the cytokinetic Z ring at midcell requires the concerted action of the three Min proteins. MinD activates MinC, an inhibitor of FtsZ, at least in part, by recruiting it to the membrane and targeting it to the Z ring, while MinE stimulates the MinD ATPase inducing an oscillation that directs MinC/MinD activity away from midcell. Recently, MinC and MinD were shown to form copolymers of alternating dimers of MinC and MinD, and it was suggested that these copolymers are the active form of MinC/MinD. Here, we use MinD mutants defective in binding MinC to generate heterodimers with wild-type MinD that are unable to form MinC/MinD copolymers. Similarly, MinC mutants defective in binding to MinD were used to generate heterodimers with wild-type MinC that are unable to form copolymers. Such heterodimers are active and in the case of MinC were shown to mediate spatial regulation of the Z ring demonstrating that MinC/MinD copolymer formation is not required. Our results are consistent with a model in which a membrane anchored MinC/MinD complex is targeted to the Z ring through the conserved carboxy tail of FtsZ leading to breakage of FtsZ filaments.

  1. The bacterial Min system.

    PubMed

    Rowlett, Veronica Wells; Margolin, William

    2013-07-01

    A mother cell giving rise to offspring usually needs to choose the site of cytokinesis carefully, as this will determine the size and shape of the daughter cells. Rod-shaped bacteria that divide by binary fission, such as Escherichia coli, often mark their cell division sites at their cell midpoint so that daughter cells are roughly equivalent in size and shape. So how does E. coli know where its middle is? Its cell poles are defined by the previous cell division, but, because E. coli grows by incorporating new cell wall and membrane uniformly along its length, the future cell division site at mid-cell is newly made and has no known pre-existing markers. One way to select the new mid-cell site would be to measure the distance from the two opposing cell poles, using a system that could recognize markers at those poles and define the spot furthest from both markers. This would require that both polar markers act negatively on cell division at equivalent intensities. The result would be a concentration gradient, with the lowest concentration of the negative regulator at the cell midpoint, the greatest distance from both cell poles. It turns out that E. coli and some other rod-shaped bacteria select their cell midpoint using such a negatively acting morphogen gradient, set up by the Min system, which is the focus of this Primer. As is true for many fascinating molecular mechanisms, the first inkling came from the behavior of cells in which this system was broken. PMID:23845239

  2. Gbf1

    PubMed Central

    Claude, Alejandro; Zhao, Bao-Ping; Kuziemsky, Craig E.; Dahan, Sophie; Berger, Scott J.; Yan, Jian-Ping; Armold, Adrian D.; Sullivan, Eric M.; Melançon, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Expression cloning from a cDNA library prepared from a mutant CHO cell line with Golgi-specific resistance to Brefeldin A (BFA) identified a novel 206-kD protein with a Sec7 domain termed GBF1 for Golgi BFA resistance factor 1. Overexpression of GBF1 allowed transfected cells to maintain normal Golgi morphology and grow in the presence of BFA. Golgi- enriched membrane fractions from such transfected cells displayed normal levels of ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) activation and coat protein recruitment that were, however, BFA resistant. Hexahistidine-tagged–GBF1 exhibited BFA-resistant guanine nucleotide exchange activity that appears specific towards ARF5 at physiological Mg2+concentration. Characterization of cDNAs recovered from the mutant and wild-type parental lines established that transcripts in these cells had identical sequence and, therefore, that GBF1 was naturally BFA resistant. GBF1 was primarily cytosolic but a significant pool colocalized to a perinuclear structure with the β-subunit of COPI. Immunogold labeling showed highest density of GBF1 over Golgi cisternae and significant labeling over pleiomorphic smooth vesiculotubular structures. The BFA-resistant nature of GBF1 suggests involvement in retrograde traffic. PMID:10402461

  3. Neurofibromatosis-1

    MedlinePlus

    ... family who have the same NF1 gene change. "Coffee-with-milk" ( cafe-au-lait ) spots are the ... Call your health care provider if: You notice coffee-with-milk colored spots on your child's skin ...

  4. GTM-1

    2007-02-08

    GTM-1 was developed for the assessment of radionuclide transport by the ground-water through geoligic formations whose properties can change along the pathway. The program was developed for specific use within Probabilistic System Assessment (PSA) Monte Carlo codes.

  5. 1,1,2-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 598 - 77 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  6. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 00 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  7. 26 CFR 1.1-1 - Income tax on individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Income tax on individuals. 1.1-1 Section 1.1-1... and Surtaxes § 1.1-1 Income tax on individuals. (a) General rule. (1) Section 1 of the Code imposes an... taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970) see section 3. The tax imposed is upon taxable......

  8. 26 CFR 1.1-1 - Income tax on individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income tax on individuals. 1.1-1 Section 1.1-1... and Surtaxes § 1.1-1 Income tax on individuals. (a) General rule. (1) Section 1 of the Code imposes an... taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970) see section 3. The tax imposed is upon taxable......

  9. 1/N

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, S.

    1980-03-01

    There exist families of field theories with symmetry group SO(N) (or SU(N)) that become simpler as N becomes larger. More precisely, the solutions to these theories possess an expansion in powers of 1/N. This expansion is the subject of these lectures. The 1/N expansion can be used to analyze model field theories. The 1/N expansion is developed for phi/sup 4/ theory and applied to two two-dimensional models with similar combinatoric structures, the Gross-Neveu model and the CP/sup N-1/ model. These models display (in the leading 1/N approximation) such interesting phenomena as asymptotic freedom, dynamical symmetry breaking, dimensional transmutation, and non-perturbative confinement. It is possible that the 1/N expansion, with N the number of colors, might fruitfully be applied to quantum chromodynamics. Unfortunately, it is not possible to make a decisive test of the approximation, because no one knows how to compute even the first term in the expansion in closed form. However, it is possible to argue that this first term, whatever its detailed form, has many properties that are also shared by the real world, and which are otherwise underived from field theory. These include the saturation of scattering amplitudes by an infinite number of narrow resonances, the essential feature of dual-resonance models. (RWR)

  10. TRPC1.

    PubMed

    Nesin, Vasyl; Tsiokas, Leonidas

    2014-01-01

    The TRPC1 ion channel was the first mammalian TRP channel to be cloned. In humans, it is encoded by the TRPC1 gene located in chromosome 3. The protein is predicted to consist of six transmembrane segments with the N- and C-termini located in the cytoplasm. The extracellular loop connecting transmembrane segments 5 and 6 participates in the formation of the ionic pore region. Inside the cell, TRPC1 is present in the endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, intracellular vesicles, and primary cilium, an antenna-like sensory organelle functioning as a signaling platform. In human and rodent tissues, it shows an almost ubiquitous expression. TRPC1 interacts with a diverse group of proteins including ion channel subunits, receptors, and cytosolic proteins to mediate its effect on Ca(2+) signaling. It primarily functions as a cation nonselective channel within pathways controlling Ca(2+) entry in response to cell surface receptor activation. Through these pathways, it affects basic cell functions, such as proliferation and survival, differentiation, secretion, and cell migration, as well as cell type-specific functions such as chemotropic turning of neuronal growth cones and myoblast fusion. The biological role of TRPC1 has been studied in genetically engineered mice where the Trpc1 gene has been experimentally ablated. Although these mice live to adulthood, they show defects in several organs and tissues, such as the cardiovascular, central nervous, skeletal and muscular, and immune systems. Genetic and functional studies have implicated TRPC1 in diabetic nephropathy, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, cancer, seizures, and Darier-White skin disease. PMID:24756701

  11. 26 CFR 1.1-1 - Income tax on individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Income tax on individuals. 1.1-1 Section 1.1-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.1-1 Income tax on individuals. (a) General rule. (1) Section 1 of the Code imposes...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1-1 - Income tax on individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Income tax on individuals. 1.1-1 Section 1.1-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.1-1 Income tax on individuals. (a) General rule. (1) Section 1 of the Code imposes...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1-1 - Income tax on individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Income tax on individuals. 1.1-1 Section 1.1-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.1-1 Income tax on individuals. (a) General rule. (1) Section 1 of the Code imposes...

  14. 1-Chlorobutane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1 - Chlorobutane ; CASRN 109 - 69 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  15. Mystery #1

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... is approximately 380 kilometers wide. Choose any reference material you like and see if you can answer these questions: 1.   This ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  16. Maxie 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, William L.; Voss, Henry D.; Chinn, Victor

    1987-12-01

    The satellite flight of the MAXIE-1 (Magnetospheric Atmospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment) instrument is being implemented under ONR (the Office of Naval Research) sponsorship. The MAXIE-1 instrument is being developed as a joint activity of Lockheed, the Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Bergen; much of the Lockheed development has been done under the Independent Research Program. Under ONR sponsorship that institution is responsible for managing the program, for providing spacecraft interface requirements, for providing interface activities undertaken in the last three months. Interactions have continued with co-investigators at the Aerospace Corp. and at the University of Bergen. NASTRAN model calculations, thermal analyses and an updated MAXIE assembly drawing and other drawings have been provided to RCA.

  17. S1PR1 Tyr143 phosphorylation downregulates endothelial cell surface S1PR1 expression and responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Alejandra; Schmidt, Tracy Thennes; Yazbeck, Pascal; Rajput, Charu; Desai, Bhushan; Sukriti, Sukriti; Giantsos-Adams, Kristina; Knezevic, Nebojsa; Malik, Asrar B.; Mehta, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Activation of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) plays a key role in repairing endothelial barrier function. We addressed the role of phosphorylation of the three intracellular tyrosine residues of S1PR1 in endothelial cells in regulating the receptor responsiveness and endothelial barrier function regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated activation of S1PR1. We demonstrated that phosphorylation of only Y143 site was required for S1PR1 internalization in response to S1P. Maximal S1PR1 internalization was seen in 20 min but S1PR1 returned to the cell surface within 1 h accompanied by Y143-dephosphorylation. Cell surface S1PR1 loss paralleled defective endothelial barrier enhancement induced by S1P. Expression of phospho-defective (Y143F) or phospho-mimicking (Y143D) mutants, respectively, failed to internalize or showed unusually high receptor internalization, consistent with the requirement of Y143 in regulating cell surface S1PR1 expression. Phosphorylation of the five S1PR1 C-terminal serine residues did not affect the role of Y143 phosphorylation in signaling S1PR1 internalization. Thus, rapid reduction of endothelial cell surface expression of S1PR1 subsequent to Y143 phosphorylation is a crucial mechanism of modulating S1PR1 signaling, and hence the endothelial barrier repair function of S1P. PMID:25588843

  18. SPITFIRE-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryntz, Edward F.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this effort is to develop low-cost rapid forming superplastic aluminum that will be evaluated in pilot production trials for automotive SPF components. The alloy development study conducted under SPITFIRE-1 showed that the addition of CU or Mn to the base 5083 aluminum alloy refined the grain size, leading to enhanced superplastic properties. In SPITFIRE-2, these alloy variants will be further refined and studied to meet the target properties established earlier in the program. Mechanical properties, component forming and post-forming properties will be evaluated. Also, the alloy production process, including thermomechanical processing (TMP) optimization to reduce production cost, will be investigated during SPITFIRE-2. After identifying preferred compositions and production processing, the most promising alloy will be manufactured into production coils for verification during SPITFIRE-3. Components will be produced from these coils in SPITFIRE-4, and the process and component performance will be assessed.

  19. 26 CFR 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 Section 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations §§ 1.7872-11.7872-4...

  20. 26 CFR 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 Section 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations §§ 1.7872-11.7872-4...

  1. 26 CFR 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 Section 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations §§ 1.7872-11.7872-4...

  2. 26 CFR 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 Section 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations §§ 1.7872-11.7872-4...

  3. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  4. 26 CFR 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 Section 1.7872-1-1.7872-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations §§ 1.7872-11.7872-4...

  5. Methane dissociation on Pt(1 1 1), Ir(1 1 1) and PtIr(1 1 1) surface: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Qiuhong; Wang, Xiujun; Chen, Li; Li, Baitao

    2013-11-01

    A periodic density functional theory (DFT) was utilized to calculate the dissociation process of methane (CH4) on Pt(1 1 1), Ir(1 1 1) and PtIr(1 1 1) surfaces. As compared to the adsorption energy, the most stable configurations of methane, methane dissociation species and co-adsorption of CHx (x = 0-3) with H were obtained. The kinetic results of the CH4 dissociation indicated that the dissociating of CH4 into CH3 and H is the rate-limiting step on the PtIr(1 1 1) and Ir(1 1 1) surfaces. CH was the most abundant species that was difficult to dehydrogenate into C and H. Particularly, the activation barrier for CH3 → CH2 + H and CH2 → CH + H on the Pt(1 1 1) surface is 3.5 and 1.4 times, respectively, higher than that on the PtIr(1 1 1) surface. According to the thermodynamics principles, the successive dehydrogenation of CH4 preferred to take place on the PtIr surface.

  6. RAP1GA1: A candidate tumor suppressor locus in 1p36.1

    SciTech Connect

    Ranade, K.; Hussussian, C.J.; Higgins, P.

    1994-09-01

    The rap1/Krev-1 gene (RAP1A) encodes a p21-related protein that suppresses transformation by activated p21{sup ras}. The GTPase activating protein (GAP) gene for p21{sup rap1A} (RAP1GA1) has recently been assigned to chromosome 1p36.1-p35, a region of the genome that is frequently involved in deletions and rearrangements in several different tumors including breast, colon and hepatocellular carcinomas, melanoma, and neuroblastoma. GAP genes negatively regulate the activity of p21 proteins by catalyzing the conversion of the active GTP-bound forms to the inactive GDP-bound forms. The physiological function of p21{sup rap1A}-GAP makes it a strong candidate as a tumor suppressor gene that may have a role in the development of one or more of these malignancies. We have refined the localization of RAP1GA1 by linkage analysis with a highly informative (CA){sub n} repeat contained within the gene, and demonstrated that it is within the minimal deleted region for breast and colon carcinomas, and that it is excluded from the minimally deleted region in melanoma and neuroblastoma. Genetic mapping in the mouse demonstrated that Rap1ga1 is located {approximately}10 cM proximal to Pnd and therefore maps within the interval containing the modifier of Min gene (Mom-1) and the plasmocytoma susceptibility locus (Pcts). The human RAP1GA1 gene contains at least 27 exons. The coding region contains 22 exons, and there are at least five 5{prime}-UT exons that are assembled in a complex pattern of alternative splicing in different tissues. The localization of RAP1GA1 makes it a very strong candidate for a role as a modifier gene involved in the common secondary abnormalities involving 1p36 in several different carcinomas. The potential role of RAP1GA1 in these malignancies is currently being investigated by sequence analysis of breast and colon carcinomas with loss of heterozygosity in 1p36.

  7. Timing matters: negative emotion elicited 5 min but not 30 min or 45 min after learning enhances consolidation of internal-monitoring source memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Bukuan, Sun

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments examined the time-dependent effects of negative emotion on consolidation of item and internal-monitoring source memory. In Experiment 1, participants (n=121) learned a list of words. They were asked to read aloud half of the words and to think about the remaining half. They were instructed to memorize each word and its associative cognitive operation ("reading" versus "thinking"). Immediately following learning they conducted free recall and then watched a 3-min either neutral or negative video clip when 5 min, 30 min or 45 min had elapsed after learning. Twenty-four hours later they returned to take surprise tests for item and source memory. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants, without conducting an immediate test of free recall, took tests of source memory for all encoded words both immediately and 24 h after learning. Experiment 1 showed that negative emotion enhanced consolidation of item memory (as measured by retention ratio of free recall) regardless of delay of emotion elicitation and that negative emotion enhanced consolidation of source memory when it was elicited at a 5 min delay but reduced consolidation of source memory when it was elicited at a 30 min delay; when elicited at a 45 min delay, negative emotion had little effect. Furthermore, Experiment 2 replicated the enhancement effect on source memory in the 5 min delay even when participants were tested on all the encoded words. The current study partially replicated prior studies on item memory and extends the literature by providing evidence for a time-dependent effect of negative emotion on consolidation of source memory based on internal monitoring.

  8. Theoretical study of NH3 decomposition on Pd-Cu (1 1 1) and Cu-Pd (1 1 1) surfaces: A comparison with clean Pd (1 1 1) and Cu (1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao; Qin, Pei; Fang, Tao

    2016-05-01

    The adsorption and successive dehydrogenation mechanisms of NH3 on Pd-Cu (1 1 1) and Cu-Pd (1 1 1) surfaces (the Pd atoms substitution of the first and second layers of Cu (1 1 1) surfaces) have been systematically investigated by density functional theory (DFT) method with a periodic slab model. All possible adsorption configurations of relevant intermediates on Pd-Cu (1 1 1) and Cu-Pd (1 1 1) surfaces are identified. It is revealed that the adsorption configurations and corresponding adsorption energies of adsorbates are slightly changed on Pd-Cu (1 1 1) and Cu-Pd (1 1 1) surfaces. The adsorption energies of NHx(x = 0-3) species exhibit the following trend: NH3 < NH2 < NH < N. Then, the minimum energy path for the complete dehydrogenation of NH3 into adsorbed N and H is identified to explore the dehydrogenation mechanisms on different surfaces. The highest energy barrier and reaction energy on Pd-Cu (1 1 1) surface are greatly reduced to 1.56 and 0.99 eV, implying that the complete dehydrogenation of NH3 on Pd-Cu (1 1 1) surface is favorable both kinetically and thermodynamically, namely, the doped-Pd atoms in the first layer are the reaction active center. Compared to that on clean Pd (1 1 1) and Cu (1 1 1) surfaces, it is found that the synergistic effect exits in different layers of catalyst surfaces. The calculated results show that the layer-substituted Pd atoms on the surface of Cu catalysts exhibit a better catalytic activity for NH3 dehydrogenation compared to the clean Cu (1 1 1) surface.

  9. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -22 deg through -30 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 s and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  10. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  11. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  12. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  13. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  14. 31 CFR 1.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General. 1.1 Section 1.1 Money and... § 1.1 General. (a) Purpose and scope. (1) This subpart contains the regulations of the Department of... legal counsel to the components listed in paragraphs (a)(1)(i)(W), (a)(1)(i)(X), (a)(1)(i)(Y), and...

  15. 41 CFR 51-1.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 51-1.1 Section 51-1.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL § 51-1.1 Policy. (a) It...

  16. 41 CFR 51-1.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy. 51-1.1 Section 51-1.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL § 51-1.1 Policy. (a) It is...

  17. 41 CFR 51-1.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Policy. 51-1.1 Section 51-1.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL § 51-1.1 Policy. (a) It is...

  18. 26 CFR 1.316-1 - Dividends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... an example of the treatment of the distribution to Corporation P see paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of § 1.562... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dividends. 1.316-1 Section 1.316-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Definitions; Constructive Ownership of Stock § 1.316-1 Dividends. (a)(1) The...

  19. 26 CFR 1.316-1 - Dividends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... an example of the treatment of the distribution to Corporation P see paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of § 1.562... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dividends. 1.316-1 Section 1.316-1 Internal... TAXES (Continued) Definitions; Constructive Ownership of Stock § 1.316-1 Dividends. (a)(1) The...

  20. 24 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part 1 is to effectuate...

  1. 16 CFR 1.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1.1 Section 1.1 Commercial Practices... Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.1 Policy. (a) Any person, partnership, or corporation may request advice... Commission's views, where practicable, under the following circumstances. (1) The matter involves...

  2. 24 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part 1 is to effectuate...

  3. 16 CFR 1.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 1.1 Section 1.1 Commercial Practices... Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.1 Policy. (a) Any person, partnership, or corporation may request advice... Commission's views, where practicable, under the following circumstances. (1) The matter involves...

  4. 21 CFR 1.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General. 1.1 Section 1.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... General Provisions § 1.1 General. (a) The provisions of regulations promulgated under the Federal Food... terms when used in regulations promulgated under that act. (c) The definition of package in § 1.20...

  5. 16 CFR 1.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 1.1 Section 1.1 Commercial Practices... Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.1 Policy. (a) Any person, partnership, or corporation may request advice... Commission's views, where practicable, under the following circumstances. (1) The matter involves...

  6. 24 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part 1 is to effectuate...

  7. 41 CFR 51-1.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Policy. 51-1.1 Section 51-1.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL § 51-1.1 Policy. (a) It is...

  8. 41 CFR 51-1.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 51-1.1 Section 51-1.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL § 51-1.1 Policy. (a) It...

  9. Multifaceted [36]octaphyrin(1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1): deprotonation-induced switching among nonaromatic, Möbius aromatic, and Hückel antiaromatic species.

    PubMed

    Cha, Won-Young; Soya, Takanori; Tanaka, Takayuki; Mori, Hirotaka; Hong, Yongseok; Lee, Sangsu; Park, Kyu Hyung; Osuka, Atsuhiro; Kim, Dongho

    2016-05-01

    Deprotonation of nonaromatic octakis-(pentafluorophenyl)-substituted [36]octaphyrin(1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1) with tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) afforded monoanionic twisted Möbius aromatic species and dianinonic square Hückel antiaromatic species, depending upon the amount of TBAF. PMID:27067645

  10. 16 CFR 1.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 1.1 Section 1.1 Commercial Practices... Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.1 Policy. (a) Any person, partnership, or corporation may request advice... Commission's views, where practicable, under the following circumstances. (1) The matter involves...

  11. 24 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part 1 is to effectuate...

  12. 8 CFR 1.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.1 Section 1.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.1 Definitions. As used in this... Service means the Immigration and Naturalization Service, as it existed prior to March 1, 2003....

  13. 24 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part 1 is to effectuate...

  14. 16 CFR 1.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1.1 Section 1.1 Commercial Practices... Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.1 Policy. (a) Any person, partnership, or corporation may request advice... Commission's views, where practicable, under the following circumstances. (1) The matter involves...

  15. Cyp1b1 exerts opposing effects on intestinal tumorigenesis via exogenous and endogenous substrates

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, Richard B.; Larsen, Michele Campaigne; Elmergreen, Tammy L.; Ko, Alex Y.; Irving, Amy A.; Clipson, Linda; Jefcoate, Colin R.

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (Cyp1b1) metabolism contributes to physiological functions during embryogenesis, but also to carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). We generated Cyp1b1-deficient mice carrying the Min allele of the Adenomatous polyposis coli gene. These Cyp1b1-deficient Min mice developed twice as many tumors as Min controls, which, however, remained similar in size and histology. Tumors from older (130 day) Cyp1b1-deficient Min mice exhibited focal areas of nuclear atypia associated with less organized epithelia. The metabolism of endogenous substrates by Cyp1b1, therefore, suppresses tumor initiation, but also affects progression. Treatment of Min mice with 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) doubled both tumor multiplicity and size within 20 days, but not when mice lacked Cyp1b1. This was paralleled by an abnormal staining of crypts with β catenin, phospho-IKK, and ReIA, which may represent an early stage of tumorigenesis similar to aberrant crypt formation. Cyp1b1 deletion did not affect circulating DMBA and metabolites. Cyp1b1 expression was higher in the tumors compared to normal small intestines. Increased tumorigenesis may, therefore, arise from generation of DMBA metabolites by Cyp1b1 in the developing tumors. Benzo(a)pyrene (BP), which is similarly activated by Cyp1b1 in vitro, did not affect tumorigenesis in Min mice. By contrast, BP and DMBA each suppressed tumor multiplicity in absence of Cyp1b1. Cyp1b1 metabolism of DMBA and endogenous oxygenation products may each impact a tumor promoting NF-κB. activation, whereas Ah receptor activation by PAH effects suppression. Tumorigenesis may, therefore, depend on activation of PAH by Cyp1b1, and on off-setting suppression by Cyp1b1 of endogenous tumor-enhancing substrates. PMID:18794127

  16. 43 CFR 1784.1-1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishment. 1784.1-1 Section 1784.1-1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.1-1... Secretary has— (1) Determined as a matter of formal record, after consultation with the General...

  17. 43 CFR 2563.1-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application. 2563.1-1 Section 2563.1-1... § 2563.1-1 Application. (a) Form and contents of applications. Applications under the Act of March 3... facts: (1) The age and citizenship of applicant. (2) The actual use and occupancy of the land for...

  18. 43 CFR 2563.1-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application. 2563.1-1 Section 2563.1-1... § 2563.1-1 Application. (a) Form and contents of applications. Applications under the Act of March 3... facts: (1) The age and citizenship of applicant. (2) The actual use and occupancy of the land for...

  19. 43 CFR 1784.1-1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishment. 1784.1-1 Section 1784.1-1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.1-1... Secretary has— (1) Determined as a matter of formal record, after consultation with the General...

  20. 43 CFR 9180.1-1 - Meridians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Meridians. 9180.1-1 Section 9180.1-1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) CADASTRAL SURVEY Cadastral Surveys; General § 9180.1-1... production, in accordance with section 1 of the Act of August 24, 1912 (37 Stat. 497), as amended (5...

  1. 26 CFR 2.1-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 2.1-1 Section 2.1-1 Internal... CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUND § 2.1-1 Definitions. (a) As used in the regulations in this part, except as otherwise expressly provided— (1) Act means the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 U.S.C. 27). (2)...

  2. 43 CFR 2563.1-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application. 2563.1-1 Section 2563.1-1... § 2563.1-1 Application. (a) Form and contents of applications. Applications under the Act of March 3... facts: (1) The age and citizenship of applicant. (2) The actual use and occupancy of the land for...

  3. 43 CFR 1784.1-1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishment. 1784.1-1 Section 1784.1-1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.1-1... Secretary has— (1) Determined as a matter of formal record, after consultation with the General...

  4. 15 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce THE SEAL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to describe the seal of the Department of Commerce and to...

  5. 23 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to implement and carry out the provisions of Federal...

  6. 17 CFR 1.1 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1.1 Section 1.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.1...

  7. 25 CFR 1.1 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 1.1 Section 1.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPLICABILITY OF RULES OF THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS § 1.1...

  8. 36 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.1 Purpose. (a) The regulations in this chapter provide for the proper use, management,...

  9. 27 CFR 1.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General. 1.1 Section 1.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Scope § 1.1 General....

  10. 8 CFR 1.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability. 1.1 Section 1.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.1 Applicability. This part further defines some of the terms already described in section 101 and other sections of the...

  11. 30 CFR 1.1 - Official emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Official emblem. 1.1 Section 1.1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICIAL EMBLEM AND OMB CONTROL NUMBERS... OFFICIAL EMBLEM § 1.1 Official emblem. The following emblem is established and shall be used as...

  12. 17 CFR 1.1 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 1.1 Section 1.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.1...

  13. 17 CFR 1.1 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 1.1 Section 1.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.1...

  14. 23 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to implement and carry out the provisions of Federal...

  15. 15 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce THE SEAL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to describe the seal of the Department of Commerce and to...

  16. 8 CFR 1.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability. 1.1 Section 1.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.1 Applicability. This part further defines some of the terms already described in section 101 and other sections of the...

  17. 43 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 1.1 Purpose. This part governs the participation of individuals in proceedings, both formal and informal,...

  18. 25 CFR 1.1 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 1.1 Section 1.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPLICABILITY OF RULES OF THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS § 1.1...

  19. 43 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 1.1 Purpose. This part governs the participation of individuals in proceedings, both formal and informal,...

  20. 44 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... implementation of paragraph (a) is contained in 44 CFR part 5, subpart B. (c) This part contains policies and... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1... GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.1 Purpose. (a) This part contains the basic...

  1. 15 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce THE SEAL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to describe the seal of the Department of Commerce and to...

  2. 8 CFR 1.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability. 1.1 Section 1.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.1 Applicability. This part further defines some of the terms already described in section 101 and other sections of the...

  3. 30 CFR 1.1 - Official emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Official emblem. 1.1 Section 1.1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICIAL EMBLEM AND OMB CONTROL NUMBERS... OFFICIAL EMBLEM § 1.1 Official emblem. The following emblem is established and shall be used as...

  4. 49 CFR 1.1 - Overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Overview. 1.1 Section 1.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES General § 1.1 Overview. This part describes the organization of the United States Department of Transportation...

  5. 25 CFR 1.1 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true 1.1 Section 1.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPLICABILITY OF RULES OF THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS § 1.1...

  6. 30 CFR 1.1 - Official emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Official emblem. 1.1 Section 1.1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICIAL EMBLEM AND OMB CONTROL NUMBERS... OFFICIAL EMBLEM § 1.1 Official emblem. The following emblem is established and shall be used as...

  7. 27 CFR 1.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General. 1.1 Section 1.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Scope § 1.1 General....

  8. 49 CFR 1.1 - Overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Overview. 1.1 Section 1.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES General § 1.1 Overview. This part describes the organization of the United States Department of Transportation...

  9. 44 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... implementation of paragraph (a) is contained in 44 CFR part 5, subpart B. (c) This part contains policies and... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1... GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.1 Purpose. (a) This part contains the basic...

  10. 43 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 1.1 Purpose. This part governs the participation of individuals in proceedings, both formal and informal,...

  11. 36 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.1 Purpose. (a) The regulations in this chapter provide for the proper use, management,...

  12. 27 CFR 1.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General. 1.1 Section 1.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Scope § 1.1 General....

  13. 49 CFR 1.1 - Overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Overview. 1.1 Section 1.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES General § 1.1 Overview. This part describes the organization of the United States Department of Transportation...

  14. 44 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... implementation of paragraph (a) is contained in 44 CFR part 5, subpart B. (c) This part contains policies and... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1... GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.1 Purpose. (a) This part contains the basic...

  15. 36 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.1 Purpose. (a) The regulations in this chapter provide for the proper use, management,...

  16. 23 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to implement and carry out the provisions of Federal...

  17. 43 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 1.1 Purpose. This part governs the participation of individuals in proceedings, both formal and informal,...

  18. 36 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.1 Purpose. (a) The regulations in this chapter provide for the proper use, management,...

  19. 15 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce THE SEAL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to describe the seal of the Department of Commerce and to...

  20. 44 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... implementation of paragraph (a) is contained in 44 CFR part 5, subpart B. (c) This part contains policies and... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1... GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.1 Purpose. (a) This part contains the basic...

  1. 8 CFR 1.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 1.1 Section 1.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.1 Definitions. As used in this...) The term Service means the Immigration and Naturalization Service, as it existed prior to March...

  2. 36 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.1 Purpose. (a) The regulations in this chapter provide for the proper use, management,...

  3. 27 CFR 1.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General. 1.1 Section 1.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Scope § 1.1 General....

  4. 27 CFR 1.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General. 1.1 Section 1.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Scope § 1.1 General....

  5. 30 CFR 1.1 - Official emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official emblem. 1.1 Section 1.1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICIAL EMBLEM AND OMB CONTROL NUMBERS... OFFICIAL EMBLEM § 1.1 Official emblem. The following emblem is established and shall be used as...

  6. 17 CFR 1.1 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1.1 Section 1.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.1...

  7. 23 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to implement and carry out the provisions of Federal...

  8. 30 CFR 1.1 - Official emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Official emblem. 1.1 Section 1.1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICIAL EMBLEM AND OMB CONTROL NUMBERS... OFFICIAL EMBLEM § 1.1 Official emblem. The following emblem is established and shall be used as...

  9. 43 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 1.1 Purpose. This part governs the participation of individuals in proceedings, both formal and informal,...

  10. 15 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce THE SEAL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to describe the seal of the Department of Commerce and to...

  11. 49 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES General § 1.1 Purpose. This part describes the organization of the Department of Transportation and provides for...

  12. 49 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES General § 1.1 Purpose. This part describes the organization of the Department of Transportation and provides for...

  13. 23 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to implement and carry out the provisions of Federal...

  14. 25 CFR 1.1 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1.1 Section 1.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPLICABILITY OF RULES OF THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS § 1.1...

  15. 25 CFR 1.1 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1.1 Section 1.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPLICABILITY OF RULES OF THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS § 1.1...

  16. 21 CFR 1.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General. 1.1 Section 1.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... General Provisions § 1.1 General. (a) The provisions of regulations promulgated under the Federal Food... in §§ 101.1, 201.60, 501.1, 701.10 and 801.60 of this chapter; and the requirements pertaining...

  17. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a... pipelines, electric utilities and hydroelectric projects....

  18. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a... pipelines, electric utilities and hydroelectric projects....

  19. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a... pipelines, electric utilities and hydroelectric projects....

  20. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a... pipelines, electric utilities and hydroelectric projects....

  1. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a... pipelines, electric utilities and hydroelectric projects....

  2. Metabolism of 1-fluoro-1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane, and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane.

    PubMed

    Yin, H; Jones, J P; Anders, M W

    1995-03-01

    1-Fluoro-1,1,2-trichloroethane (HCFC-131a), 1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-132b), and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane (HCFC-133a) were chosen as models for comparative metabolism studies on 1,1,1,2-tetrahaloethanes, which are under consideration as replacements for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Male Fischer 344 rats were given 10 mmol/kg ip HCFC-131a or HCFC-132b or exposed by inhalation to 1% HCFC-133a for 2 h. Urine collected in the first 24 h after exposure was analyzed by 19F NMR and GC/MS and with a fluoride-selective ion electrode for the formation of fluorine-containing metabolites. Metabolites of HCFC-131a included 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl glucuronide, 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl sulfate, dichlorofluoroacetic acid, and inorganic fluoride. Metabolites of HCFC-132b were characterized as 2-chloro-2,2-difluoroethyl glucuronide, 2-chloro-2,2-difluoroethyl sulfate, chlorodifluoroacetic acid, chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde hydrate, chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde-urea adduct, and inorganic fluoride. HCFC-133a was metabolized to 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl glucuronide, trifluoroacetic acid, trifluoroacetaldehyde hydrate, trifluoroacetaldehyde-urea adduct, inorganic fluoride, and a minor, unidentified metabolite. With HCFC-131a and HCFC-132b, glucuronide conjugates of 2,2,2-trihaloethanols were the major urinary metabolites, whereas with HCFC-133a, a trifluoroacetaldehyde-urea adduct was the major urinary metabolite. Analysis of metabolite distribution in vivo indicated that aldehydic metabolites increased as fluorine substitution increased in the order HCFC-131a < HCFC-132b < HCFC-133a. With NADPH-fortified rat liver microsomes, HCFC-133a and HCFC-132b were biotransformed to trifluoroacetaldehyde and chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde, respectively, whereas HCFC-131a was converted to dichlorofluoroacetic acid. No covalently bound metabolites were detected by 19F NMR spectroscopy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7766810

  3. Safety in the Laboratory: 1,1,1-Trichloroethane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothchild, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Discusses use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane as a substitute for carbon tetrachloride. Provides information on additives to commercially supplied sources in relation to possible reaction interferences. Warns of toxicity and possible carcinogenic action. (JM)

  4. 21 CFR 1.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General. 1.1 Section 1.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... General Provisions § 1.1 General. (a) The provisions of regulations promulgated under the Federal Food... promulgated under that act. (c) The definition of package in § 1.20 and of principal display panel in §§...

  5. 43 CFR 2812.1-1 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filing. 2812.1-1 Section 2812.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-1 Filing. (a) An application for a permit for a right-of-way over the...

  6. 43 CFR 3452.1-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General. 3452.1-1 Section 3452.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT..., and Termination § 3452.1-1 General. The lessee may surrender the entire lease, a legal...

  7. 45 CFR 1216.1-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1216.1-1 Section 1216.1-1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-1 Purpose. This...

  8. 45 CFR 1210.1-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1210.1-1 Section 1210.1-1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES General § 1210.1-1 Purpose. This...

  9. 43 CFR 3440.1-1 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forms. 3440.1-1 Section 3440.1-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LICENSES TO MINE Licenses to Mine § 3440.1-1 Forms. (a... Bureau of Land Management State Office having jurisdiction over the lands involved (43 CFR subpart...

  10. 43 CFR 2812.1-1 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filing. 2812.1-1 Section 2812.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-1 Filing. (a) An application for a permit for a right-of-way over the...

  11. 45 CFR 1220.1-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 1220.1-1 Section 1220.1-1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES General § 1220.1-1 Introduction. Section 419 of the Domestic...

  12. 45 CFR 1220.1-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Introduction. 1220.1-1 Section 1220.1-1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES General § 1220.1-1 Introduction. Section 419 of the Domestic...

  13. 43 CFR 2812.1-1 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filing. 2812.1-1 Section 2812.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-1 Filing. (a) An application for a permit for a right-of-way over the...

  14. 43 CFR 3191.1-1 - Petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Petition. 3191.1-1 Section 3191.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... CONTRACTS FOR OIL AND GAS INSPECTION Delegation of Authority § 3191.1-1 Petition. The Governor or...

  15. IRIS Update Batch 1, Group 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Update the following IRIS chemical dose-response assessments: Barium (cancer, RfC), o-Cresol (RfD, cancer), carbon disulfied (RfD, RfC), 1,1-Dichloroethane (cancer), 2,4-Dimethylphenol (RfD), 1,4-Dibromobenzene (RfD), 1-chloro-1,1-difluroelfane (RfC, Acetyl chloride (cancer),2,4...

  16. 26 CFR 1.875-1 - Partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partnerships. 1.875-1 Section 1.875-1 Internal... TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.875-1 Partnerships. Whether a nonresident alien individual who is a member of a partnership is taxable in accordance with subsection (a), (b), or (c)...

  17. 45 CFR 1211.1-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 1211.1-1 Section 1211.1-1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-1 Purpose. This part establishes procedures under which certain...

  18. 45 CFR 1211.1-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1211.1-1 Section 1211.1-1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-1 Purpose. This part establishes procedures under which certain...

  19. 26 CFR 1.581-1 - Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Banks. 1.581-1 Section 1.581-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.581-1 Banks. (a) In order to be a bank as defined in section 581,...

  20. 43 CFR 3452.1-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General. 3452.1-1 Section 3452.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT..., and Termination § 3452.1-1 General. The lessee may surrender the entire lease, a legal...

  1. 43 CFR 3440.1-1 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Forms. 3440.1-1 Section 3440.1-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LICENSES TO MINE Licenses to Mine § 3440.1-1 Forms. (a... Bureau of Land Management State Office having jurisdiction over the lands involved (43 CFR subpart...

  2. 43 CFR 3191.1-1 - Petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Petition. 3191.1-1 Section 3191.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... CONTRACTS FOR OIL AND GAS INSPECTION Delegation of Authority § 3191.1-1 Petition. The Governor or...

  3. 26 CFR 1.936-1 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elections. 1.936-1 Section 1.936-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.936-1 Elections. (a) Making an election. A domestic corporation shall make an election under section 936(e), for any taxable year beginning...

  4. 26 CFR 1.936-1 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elections. 1.936-1 Section 1.936-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.936-1 Elections. (a) Making an election. A domestic corporation shall make an election under section 936(e), for any taxable year beginning...

  5. 26 CFR 1.936-1 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elections. 1.936-1 Section 1.936-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.936-1 Elections. (a) Making an election. A domestic corporation shall make an election under section 936(e), for any taxable year beginning...

  6. 26 CFR 1.936-1 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Elections. 1.936-1 Section 1.936-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.936-1 Elections. (a) Making an election. A domestic corporation shall make an election under section 936(e), for any taxable year beginning...

  7. 26 CFR 1.936-1 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elections. 1.936-1 Section 1.936-1 Internal... TAXES Possessions of the United States § 1.936-1 Elections. (a) Making an election. A domestic corporation shall make an election under section 936(e), for any taxable year beginning after December...

  8. 26 CFR 1.581-1 - Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Banks. 1.581-1 Section 1.581-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.581-1 Banks. (a) In order to be a bank as defined in section 581,...

  9. 26 CFR 1.581-1 - Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Banks. 1.581-1 Section 1.581-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.581-1 Banks. (a) In order to be a bank as defined in section 581,...

  10. 26 CFR 1.581-1 - Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Banks. 1.581-1 Section 1.581-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.581-1 Banks. (a) In order to be a bank as defined in section 581,...

  11. 43 CFR 9185.1-1 - Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surveys. 9185.1-1 Section 9185.1-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) CADASTRAL SURVEY Instructions and Methods § 9185.1-1 Surveys. (a) Original surveys. Application for the original extension of the rectangular system of...

  12. 43 CFR 9185.1-1 - Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surveys. 9185.1-1 Section 9185.1-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) CADASTRAL SURVEY Instructions and Methods § 9185.1-1 Surveys. (a) Original surveys. Application for the original extension of the rectangular system of...

  13. 43 CFR 9185.1-1 - Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surveys. 9185.1-1 Section 9185.1-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) CADASTRAL SURVEY Instructions and Methods § 9185.1-1 Surveys. (a) Original surveys. Application for the original extension of the rectangular system of...

  14. 1 CFR 16.1 - Designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Designation. 16.1 Section 16.1 General... DOCUMENTS AGENCY REPRESENTATIVES § 16.1 Designation. (a) Each agency shall designate, from its officers or...: (1) A liaison officer and an alternate. (2) A certifying officer and an alternate. (3) An...

  15. 1 CFR 20.1 - Liaison officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Liaison officers. 20.1 Section 20.1 General... DOCUMENTS HANDLING OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL STATEMENTS § 20.1 Liaison officers. (a) Each of... United States Government Manual: (1) Agencies of the legislative and judicial branches. (2)...

  16. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  17. 1 CFR 19.1 - Form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Form. 19.1 Section 19.1 General Provisions... ORDERS AND PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATIONS § 19.1 Form. Proposed Executive orders and proclamations shall be... Tracts of Land for Use in Executive Orders and Proclamations,”1 prepared by the Bureau of Land...

  18. 1 CFR 16.1 - Designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designation. 16.1 Section 16.1 General... DOCUMENTS AGENCY REPRESENTATIVES § 16.1 Designation. (a) Each agency shall designate, from its officers or...: (1) A liaison officer and an alternate. (2) A certifying officer and an alternate. (3) An...

  19. 1 CFR 20.1 - Liaison officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Liaison officers. 20.1 Section 20.1 General... DOCUMENTS HANDLING OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL STATEMENTS § 20.1 Liaison officers. (a) Each of... United States Government Manual: (1) Agencies of the legislative and judicial branches. (2)...

  20. 1 CFR 19.1 - Form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Form. 19.1 Section 19.1 General Provisions... ORDERS AND PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATIONS § 19.1 Form. Proposed Executive orders and proclamations shall be... Tracts of Land for Use in Executive Orders and Proclamations,”1 prepared by the Bureau of Land...

  1. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  2. 1 CFR 19.1 - Form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Form. 19.1 Section 19.1 General Provisions... ORDERS AND PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATIONS § 19.1 Form. Proposed Executive orders and proclamations shall be... Tracts of Land for Use in Executive Orders and Proclamations,”1 prepared by the Bureau of Land...

  3. 1 CFR 20.1 - Liaison officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liaison officers. 20.1 Section 20.1 General... DOCUMENTS HANDLING OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL STATEMENTS § 20.1 Liaison officers. (a) Each of... United States Government Manual: (1) Agencies of the legislative and judicial branches. (2)...

  4. 1 CFR 16.1 - Designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Designation. 16.1 Section 16.1 General... DOCUMENTS AGENCY REPRESENTATIVES § 16.1 Designation. (a) Each agency shall designate, from its officers or...: (1) A liaison officer and an alternate. (2) A certifying officer and an alternate. (3) An...

  5. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  6. 26 CFR 1.581-1 - Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Banks. 1.581-1 Section 1.581-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.581-1 Banks. (a) In order to be a bank as defined in section 581,...

  7. 45 CFR 1210.1-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 1210.1-1 Section 1210.1-1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES General § 1210.1-1 Purpose. This...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1481-1 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 1.1481-1 Section 1.1481-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mitigation of Effect of Renegotiation of Government Contracts § 1.1481-1 Tax on Transfers...

  9. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  10. 1 CFR 16.1 - Designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation. 16.1 Section 16.1 General... DOCUMENTS AGENCY REPRESENTATIVES § 16.1 Designation. (a) Each agency shall designate, from its officers or...: (1) A liaison officer and an alternate. (2) A certifying officer and an alternate. (3) An...

  11. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  12. 1 CFR 20.1 - Liaison officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liaison officers. 20.1 Section 20.1 General... DOCUMENTS HANDLING OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL STATEMENTS § 20.1 Liaison officers. (a) Each of... United States Government Manual: (1) Agencies of the legislative and judicial branches. (2)...

  13. 1 CFR 19.1 - Form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form. 19.1 Section 19.1 General Provisions... ORDERS AND PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATIONS § 19.1 Form. Proposed Executive orders and proclamations shall be... Tracts of Land for Use in Executive Orders and Proclamations,”1 prepared by the Bureau of Land...

  14. 1 CFR 20.1 - Liaison officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liaison officers. 20.1 Section 20.1 General... DOCUMENTS HANDLING OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL STATEMENTS § 20.1 Liaison officers. (a) Each of... United States Government Manual: (1) Agencies of the legislative and judicial branches. (2)...

  15. 1 CFR 19.1 - Form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Form. 19.1 Section 19.1 General Provisions... ORDERS AND PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATIONS § 19.1 Form. Proposed Executive orders and proclamations shall be... Tracts of Land for Use in Executive Orders and Proclamations,”1 prepared by the Bureau of Land...

  16. 1 CFR 16.1 - Designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation. 16.1 Section 16.1 General... DOCUMENTS AGENCY REPRESENTATIVES § 16.1 Designation. (a) Each agency shall designate, from its officers or...: (1) A liaison officer and an alternate. (2) A certifying officer and an alternate. (3) An...

  17. 26 CFR 1.535-1 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition. 1.535-1 Section 1.535-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Corporations Used to Avoid Income Tax on Shareholders § 1.535-1 Definition. (a)...

  18. 43 CFR 3135.1-1 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transfers. 3135.1-1 Section 3135.1-1... Transfers, Extensions, Consolidations, and Suspensions § 3135.1-1 Transfers. (a) Subject to approval of the... subdivision, to anyone qualified under §§ 3130.1 and 3132.4 of this title to hold a lease. (b) Any...

  19. 43 CFR 3135.1-1 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transfers. 3135.1-1 Section 3135.1-1... Transfers, Extensions, Consolidations, and Suspensions § 3135.1-1 Transfers. (a) Subject to approval of the... subdivision, to anyone qualified under §§ 3130.1 and 3132.4 of this title to hold a lease. (b) Any...

  20. 43 CFR 3135.1-1 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transfers. 3135.1-1 Section 3135.1-1... Transfers, Extensions, Consolidations, and Suspensions § 3135.1-1 Transfers. (a) Subject to approval of the... subdivision, to anyone qualified under §§ 3130.1 and 3132.4 of this title to hold a lease. (b) Any...

  1. Vapor-liquid equilibria for the systems composed of 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane at 50.1 C

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.W.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1996-03-01

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for the three binary systems 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + 1,1,1-trichloroethane and the ternary system 1-chloro-1,1-difluoromethane + 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + 1,1,1-trichloroethane have been measured at 50.1 C. The experimental data for the binary systems are correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state, and the relevant parameters are presented. The predicted results for the ternary system were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Voice range profiles for tonal dialect of Min.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng Hwa

    2008-01-01

    The influence of frequency and intensity in Min dialect on maximum vocal performance has not been investigated. The purposes of this study are (1) to investigate the physiological frequency and intensity ranges of the tonal dialect of Min, and (2) to compare the physiological frequency and intensity ranges of Min to those of nontonal languages. The subjects were 40 normal Taiwanese adults. All subjects were native Min speakers. The lowest frequency, the highest frequency, the maximum range of vowel frequency change (MRVFC), soft voice, loud voice, and the dynamic intensity range were obtained from voice range profiles. The independent t test was used to find the statistical significance of all frequency and intensity variables between female and male speakers in vocal range profiles. The results revealed that female speakers had significantly greater lowest frequency and highest frequency than male speakers. Male speakers had a significantly greater MRVFC than female speakers. Moreover, Min speakers had a greater MRVFC and dynamic intensity range than most of nontonal language speakers. The data provide an assessment tool of vocal function for Min speakers.

  3. 1 CFR 51.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Register Act (1 CFR Ch. I); and (4) The acts which require publication in the Federal Register (See CFR volume entitled “CFR Index and Finding Aids.”) (c) The Director will assume in carrying out the... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 51.1 Section 51.1 General...

  4. 9 CFR 1.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... term includes carnivals, circuses, animal acts, zoos, and educational exhibits, exhibiting such animals... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.1 Section 1.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. 9 CFR 1.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... term includes carnivals, circuses, animal acts, zoos, and educational exhibits, exhibiting such animals... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 1.1 Section 1.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. 9 CFR 1.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... term includes carnivals, circuses, animal acts, zoos, and educational exhibits, exhibiting such animals... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 1.1 Section 1.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. 9 CFR 1.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... term includes carnivals, circuses, animal acts, zoos, and educational exhibits, exhibiting such animals... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 1.1 Section 1.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. 9 CFR 1.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... term includes carnivals, circuses, animal acts, zoos, and educational exhibits, exhibiting such animals... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 1.1 Section 1.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  9. 48 CFR 1.602-1 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority. 1.602-1 Section 1.602-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities...

  10. 1 CFR 3.1 - Information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information services. 3.1 Section 3.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL SERVICES TO THE PUBLIC § 3.1 Information services. Except in cases where the time required would be excessive, information concerning...

  11. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the daily... Federal Register Index and LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) are included with each Federal Register... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1...

  12. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the daily... Federal Register Index and LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) are included with each Federal Register... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1...

  13. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the daily... Federal Register Index and LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) are included with each Federal Register... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1...

  14. 48 CFR 1.602-1 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authority. 1.602-1 Section 1.602-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities...

  15. 1 CFR 8.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 8.1 Section 8.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.1 Policy. (a) Pursuant to chapter 15 of title 44, United States Code, the Director of...

  16. 1 CFR 3.1 - Information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Information services. 3.1 Section 3.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL SERVICES TO THE PUBLIC § 3.1 Information services. Except in cases where the time required would be excessive, information concerning...

  17. 1 CFR 3.1 - Information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Information services. 3.1 Section 3.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL SERVICES TO THE PUBLIC § 3.1 Information services. Except in cases where the time required would be excessive, information concerning...

  18. 1 CFR 10.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publication required. 10.1 Section 10.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Regular Publication § 10.1 Publication required. The Director publishes a special...

  19. 1 CFR 3.1 - Information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Information services. 3.1 Section 3.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL SERVICES TO THE PUBLIC § 3.1 Information services. Except in cases where the time required would be excessive, information concerning...

  20. 1 CFR 21.1 - Drafting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Drafting. 21.1 Section 21.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General § 21.1 Drafting. (a) Each agency that prepares...

  1. 1 CFR 304.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General provisions. 304.1 Section 304.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 304.1 General provisions. (a) This...

  2. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  3. 1 CFR 10.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication required. 10.1 Section 10.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Regular Publication § 10.1 Publication required. The Director publishes a special...

  4. 1 CFR 15.1 - Cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Cooperation. 15.1 Section 15.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.1 Cooperation. The Director of the Federal...

  5. 1 CFR 304.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true General provisions. 304.1 Section 304.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 304.1 General provisions. (a) This...

  6. 1 CFR 9.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication required. 9.1 Section 9.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL § 9.1 Publication required. (a) The Director publishes a special...

  7. 1 CFR 51.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Register Act (1 CFR Ch. I); and (4) The acts which require publication in the Federal Register (See CFR volume entitled “CFR Index and Finding Aids.”) (c) The Director will assume in carrying out the... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Policy. 51.1 Section 51.1 General...

  8. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  9. 1 CFR 21.1 - Drafting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Drafting. 21.1 Section 21.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General § 21.1 Drafting. (a) Each agency that prepares...

  10. 1 CFR 21.1 - Drafting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drafting. 21.1 Section 21.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General § 21.1 Drafting. (a) Each agency that prepares...

  11. 1 CFR 8.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Policy. 8.1 Section 8.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.1 Policy. (a) Pursuant to chapter 15 of title 44, United States Code, the Director of...

  12. 1 CFR 10.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication required. 10.1 Section 10.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Regular Publication § 10.1 Publication required. The Director publishes a special...

  13. 1 CFR 8.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Policy. 8.1 Section 8.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.1 Policy. (a) Pursuant to chapter 15 of title 44, United States Code, the Director of...

  14. 1 CFR 51.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Register Act (1 CFR Ch. I); and (4) The acts which require publication in the Federal Register (See CFR volume entitled “CFR Index and Finding Aids.”) (c) The Director will assume in carrying out the... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Policy. 51.1 Section 51.1 General...

  15. 1 CFR 15.1 - Cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Cooperation. 15.1 Section 15.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.1 Cooperation. The Director of the Federal...

  16. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  17. 1 CFR 15.1 - Cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperation. 15.1 Section 15.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.1 Cooperation. The Director of the Federal...

  18. 1 CFR 9.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publication required. 9.1 Section 9.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL § 9.1 Publication required. (a) The Director publishes a special...

  19. 1 CFR 9.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication required. 9.1 Section 9.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL § 9.1 Publication required. (a) The Director publishes a special...

  20. 1 CFR 304.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true General provisions. 304.1 Section 304.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 304.1 General provisions. (a) This...

  1. 1 CFR 10.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Publication required. 10.1 Section 10.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Regular Publication § 10.1 Publication required. The Director publishes a special...

  2. 1 CFR 8.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 8.1 Section 8.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.1 Policy. (a) Pursuant to chapter 15 of title 44, United States Code, the Director of...

  3. 1 CFR 15.1 - Cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperation. 15.1 Section 15.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.1 Cooperation. The Director of the Federal...

  4. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  5. 1 CFR 51.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Register Act (1 CFR Ch. I); and (4) The acts which require publication in the Federal Register (See CFR volume entitled “CFR Index and Finding Aids.”) (c) The Director will assume in carrying out the... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 51.1 Section 51.1 General...

  6. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Register Index and LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) are included with each Federal Register... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1 General... PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the...

  7. 1 CFR 21.1 - Drafting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drafting. 21.1 Section 21.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General § 21.1 Drafting. (a) Each agency that prepares...

  8. 1 CFR 9.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Publication required. 9.1 Section 9.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL § 9.1 Publication required. The Director of the Federal Register...

  9. 1 CFR 21.1 - Drafting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drafting. 21.1 Section 21.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General § 21.1 Drafting. (a) Each agency that prepares...

  10. 1 CFR 15.1 - Cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperation. 15.1 Section 15.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.1 Cooperation. The Director of the Federal...

  11. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  12. 1 CFR 51.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Register Act (1 CFR Ch. I); and (4) The acts which require publication in the Federal Register (See CFR volume entitled “CFR Index and Finding Aids.”) (c) The Director will assume in carrying out the... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 51.1 Section 51.1 General...

  13. 1 CFR 10.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication required. 10.1 Section 10.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Regular Publication § 10.1 Publication required. The Director publishes a special...

  14. 1 CFR 9.1 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication required. 9.1 Section 9.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL § 9.1 Publication required. The Director of the Federal Register...

  15. 1 CFR 3.1 - Information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Information services. 3.1 Section 3.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL SERVICES TO THE PUBLIC § 3.1 Information services. Except in cases where the time required would be excessive, information concerning...

  16. 1 CFR 8.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 8.1 Section 8.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.1 Policy. (a) Pursuant to chapter 15 of title 44, United States Code, the Director of...

  17. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Register Index and LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) are included with each Federal Register... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1 General... PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the...

  18. Synthesis and acid-catalyzed transformations of 1-(1,6,6-trimethylbicyclo(2. 1. 1)hex-5-yl)-1-alkanones and 1-(1,6,6-trimethylbicyclo-(2. 1. 1)hex-5-yl)-1-alken-1-ones

    SciTech Connect

    Volkova, O.O.; Cherkaev, G.V.; Novikov, N.A.; Erman, M.B.; Aul'chenko, I.S.; Mochalin, V.B.

    1988-06-20

    The reaction of 1,6,6-trimethylbicyclo(2.1.1)hexane-5-carbaldehyde (photocitral B) with Grignard reagents followed by oxidation of the obtained alcohols gave 1-(1,6,6-trimethylbicyclo(2.1.1)hex-5-yl)-1-alkanones and 1-(1,6,6-trimethylbicyclo(2.1.1)hex-5-yl)-1-alken-1-ones, which isomerize to 1-(2,3,3-trimethyl-1-cyclopentenyl)-2-alkanones when heated in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid. It was shown that the intermediate compounds in this reaction are 1-(2,2,3-trimethyl-3-cyclopentenyl)-2-alkanones. Underanalogous conditions photocitral B isomerizes to /alpha/-campholenaldehyde.

  19. Exsanguination cardiac arrest in rats treated by 60 min, but not 75 min, emergency preservation and delayed resuscitation is associated with intact outcome.

    PubMed

    Drabek, Tomas; Stezoski, Jason; Garman, Robert H; Han, Fei; Henchir, Jeremy; Tisherman, Samuel A; Stezoski, S William; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2007-10-01

    Emergency preservation and resuscitation (EPR) is a new approach for resuscitation of exsanguination cardiac arrest (CA) victims to buy time for surgical hemostasis. EPR uses a cold aortic flush to induce deep hypothermic preservation, followed by resuscitation with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We previously reported that 20 min of EPR was feasible with intact outcome. In this report, we tested the limits for EPR in rats. Adult male isoflurane-anesthetized rats were subjected to rapid hemorrhage (12.5 ml over 5 min), followed by esmolol/KCl-induced CA and 1 min of no-flow. EPR was then induced by perfusion with 270 ml of ice-cold Plasma-Lyte to decrease body temperature to 15 degrees C. After 60 min (n=7) or 75 min (n=7) of EPR, resuscitation was attempted with CPB over 60 min, blood transfusion, correction of acid-base balance and electrolyte disturbances, and mechanical ventilation for 2h. Survival, overall performance category (OPC: 1=normal, 5=death), neurological deficit score (NDS), and histological damage score (HDS) were assessed in survivors on day 3. While all rats after 60 min EPR survived, only two out of seven rats after 75 min EPR survived (p<0.05). All rats after 60 min EPR achieved OPC 1 and normal NDS by day 3. Survivors after 75 min EPR achieved best OPC 3 (p<0.05 vs. 60 min EPR). HDS of either brain or individual viscera was not statistically different after 60 versus 75 min EPR, except for kidneys (0+/-0 vs. 1.9+/-1.3, respectively; p<0.05), with a strong trend toward greater injury in all extracerebral organs in the 75-min EPR group (p<0.06). Histological findings were dominated by cardiac lesions observed in both groups and acute renal tubular and liver necrosis in the 75-min EPR group. In conclusion, we have shown that 60 min of EPR after exsanguination CA is associated with survival and favorable neurological outcome, while 75 min of EPR results in significant mortality and neurological damage in survivors. Surprisingly, extracerebral

  20. 43 CFR 3109.1-1 - Generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Generally. 3109.1-1 Section 3109.1-1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Leasing Under Special Acts § 3109.1-1 Generally. The Act of May 21, 1930 (30 U.S.C. 301-306), authorizes either the leasing of oil...

  1. 43 CFR 3109.1-1 - Generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Generally. 3109.1-1 Section 3109.1-1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Leasing Under Special Acts § 3109.1-1 Generally. The Act of May 21, 1930 (30 U.S.C. 301-306), authorizes either the leasing of oil...

  2. 43 CFR 3109.1-1 - Generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Generally. 3109.1-1 Section 3109.1-1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Leasing Under Special Acts § 3109.1-1 Generally. The Act of May 21, 1930 (30 U.S.C. 301-306), authorizes either the leasing of oil...

  3. Highly selective and potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Vachal, Petr; Toth, Leslie M; Hale, Jeffrey J; Yan, Lin; Mills, Sander G; Chrebet, Gary L; Koehane, Carol A; Hajdu, Richard; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Mandala, Suzanne

    2006-07-15

    Novel series of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists were developed through a systematic SAR aimed to achieve high selectivity for a single member of the S1P family of receptors, S1P1. The optimized structure represents a highly S1P1-selective and efficacious agonist: S1P1/S1P2, S1P1/S1P3, S1P1/S1P4>10,000-fold, S1P1/S1P5>600-fold, while EC50 (S1P1) <0.2 nM. In vivo experiments are consistent with S1P1 receptor agonism alone being sufficient for achieving desired lymphocyte-lowering effect.

  4. 48 CFR 1.603-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.603-1 General... procurement career management program and a system for the selection, appointment, and termination...

  5. APE1/Ref-1: versatility in progress.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Irani, Kaikobad

    2009-03-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in base excision DNA repair and in transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Over the past decade and a half, knowledge of the biological functions, interactions, mechanisms of action, and regulation of the protein APE1/Ref-1 has grown exponentially. The multifunctional nature of APE1/Ref-1 is uncovering and has been extensively studied in the cellular response against oxidative stress. Recent evidence shows a biological role of APE1/Ref-1 can be modulated by the different post-translational modification. Because of APE1/Ref-1 importance to genomic stability and cell survival, APE1/Ref-1 is focused as the leading therapeutic target molecule for the oxidative stress condition or pathologic conditions such as cancer. This forum, dedicated to APE1/Ref-1, provides ample testimony that even though we have learned a great deal about APE1/Ref-1 over the past 15-plus years, our knowledge still constitutes the tip of the iceberg when it comes to understanding this versatile protein.

  6. 48 CFR 1.603-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.603-1 General... procurement career management program and a system for the selection, appointment, and termination...

  7. Min and Max Exponential Extreme Interval Values and Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha; Thomopoulos, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The extreme interval values and statistics (expected value, median, mode, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation) for the smallest (min) and largest (max) values of exponentially distributed variables with parameter ? = 1 are examined for different observation (sample) sizes. An extreme interval value g[subscript a] is defined as a…

  8. Inhibited 1,1,1-trichloroethane replaces trichloroethylene for degreasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, F. T.

    1970-01-01

    In fight against air pollution inhibited TCE /1,1,1-trichloroethane/ is effective substitute for trichloroethylene in degreasing plants. This chemical has only slight photochemical activity and causes little eye irritation. TCE is less toxic than trichloroethylene and can withstand production loads and conditions, or long term storage, without degradation.

  9. 2016 SPD: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors note: This week were in Boulder, Colorado at the 47th meeting of the AAS Solar Physics Division (SPD). Follow along to catch some of the latest news from the field of solar physics!The 2016 SPD meeting was launched this morning from the University of Colorado Boulder campus. Two of the hot topics at this years meeting include celebration of the recent move of the National Solar Observatorys headquarters to Boulder, and discussion of the future Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST). DKIST, planned for a 2019 completion in Hawaii, is the next big telescope on the horizon for solar physics.Todays press conference had an interesting focus: instruments providing new high-energy observations of the Sun. Representatives from four different instruments were here to talk about some of the latest X-ray solar observations.GRIPSThe GRIPS payload flew at 130,000 ft over Antarctica on a giant balloon in January 2016. [NASA/Albert Shih]First up, Albert Shih (NASA Goddard) described the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares, or GRIPS. GRIPS is a balloon-borne instrument designed to detect X-rays and gamma rays emitted during solar flares. Up to tens of a percent of the energy in solar flares is emitted in the form of accelerated particles, but the physics behind this process is not well understood. GRIPS observes where the highest-energy particles are accelerated, in an effort to learn more about the process.GRIPS was launched on 19 January, 2016 and flew for roughly 12 days gathering ~1 million seconds of data! The logistics of this instruments flight are especially interesting, since it was launched from Antarctica and carried by a balloon at a whopping elevation of 130,000 ft (to get high enough that the atmosphere doesnt absorb all the photons GRIPS is trying to observe). Though the data from the mission has been retrieved, the bulk of the hardware remains where it landed at the end of January. It must

  10. 43 CFR 9185.1-1 - Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surveys. 9185.1-1 Section 9185.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) CADASTRAL SURVEY Instructions and Methods §...

  11. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOEpatents

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2011-05-31

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  12. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOEpatents

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2008-12-02

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  13. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOEpatents

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2012-08-07

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  14. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOEpatents

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2011-08-16

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  15. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2014-03-18

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  16. Variant humicola grisea CBH1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Edmund, Larenas

    2014-09-09

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  17. 43 CFR 2812.1-1 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filing. 2812.1-1 Section 2812.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and...

  18. Superconformal SU(1, 1|n) mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galajinsky, Anton; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    Recent years have seen an upsurge of interest in dynamical realizations of the superconformal group SU(1, 1|2) in mechanics. Remarking that SU(1, 1|2) is a particular member of a chain of supergroups SU(1, 1| n) parametrized by an integer n, here we begin a systematic study of SU(1, 1| n) multi-particle mechanics. A representation of the superconformal algebra su(1, 1| n) is constructed on the phase space spanned by m copies of the (1, 2 n, 2 n-1) supermultiplet. We show that the dynamics is governed by two prepotentials V and F, and the Witten-Dijkgraaf-Verlinde-Verlinde equation for F shows up as a consequence of a more general fourth-order equation. All solutions to the latter in terms of root systems reveal decoupled models only. An extension of the dynamical content of the (1, 2 n, 2 n-1) supermultiplet by angular variables in a way similar to the SU(1, 1|2) case is problematic.

  19. 7 CFR 301.1-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 301.1-1 Section 301.1-1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Preemption and Special Need Requests §...

  20. 7 CFR 301.1-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 301.1-1 Section 301.1-1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Preemption and Special Need Requests §...

  1. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Goedegeburr, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2013-02-19

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  2. Get Ready for 1:1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Darcy

    2009-01-01

    Good planning can make or break a successful 1:1 program. The author, a long-time deputy principal with extensive EdTech experience, shares his insights on how to get the most out of 1:1. Read these tips before getting started or improving an existing program.

  3. The Min Oscillator Uses MinD-Dependent Conformational Changes in MinE to Spatially Regulate Cytokinesis.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kyung-Tase; Wu, Wei; Battaile, Kevin P.; Lovell, Scott; Holyoak, Todd; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2011-09-16

    In E. coli, MinD recruits MinE to the membrane, leading to a coupled oscillation required for spatial regulation of the cytokinetic Z ring. How these proteins interact, however, is not clear because the MinD-binding regions of MinE are sequestered within a six-stranded {beta} sheet and masked by N-terminal helices. minE mutations that restore interaction between some MinD and MinE mutants were isolated. These mutations alter the MinE structure leading to release of the MinD-binding regions and the N-terminal helices that bind the membrane. Crystallization of MinD-MinE complexes revealed a four-stranded {beta} sheet MinE dimer with the released {beta} strands (MinD-binding regions) converted to {alpha} helices bound to MinD dimers. These results identify the MinD-dependent conformational changes in MinE that convert it from a latent to an active form and lead to a model of how MinE persists at the MinD-membrane surface.

  4. [Local fractal analysis of noise-like time series by all permutations method for 1-115 min periods].

    PubMed

    Panchelyuga, V A; Panchelyuga, M S

    2015-01-01

    Results of local fractal analysis of 329-per-day time series of 239Pu alpha-decay rate fluctuations by means of all permutations method (APM) are presented. The APM-analysis reveals in the time series some steady frequency set. The coincidence of the frequency set with the Earth natural oscillations was demonstrated. A short review of works by different authors who analyzed the time series of fluctuations in processes of different nature is given. We have shown that the periods observed in those works correspond to the periods revealed in our study. It points to a common mechanism of the phenomenon observed. PMID:26016038

  5. Experimental capabilities of 0.4 PW, 1 shot/min Scarlet laser facility for high energy density science.

    PubMed

    Poole, P L; Willis, C; Daskalova, R L; George, K M; Feister, S; Jiang, S; Snyder, J; Marketon, J; Schumacher, D W; Akli, K U; Van Woerkom, L; Freeman, R R; Chowdhury, E A

    2016-06-10

    We report on the recently completed 400 TW upgrade to the Scarlet laser at The Ohio State University. Scarlet is a Ti:sapphire-based ultrashort pulse system that delivers >10  J in 30 fs pulses to a 2 μm full width at half-maximum focal spot, resulting in intensities exceeding 5×1021  W/cm2. The laser fires at a repetition rate of once per minute and is equipped with a suite of on-demand and on-shot diagnostics detailed here, allowing for rapid collection of experimental statistics. As part of the upgrade, the entire laser system has been redesigned to facilitate consistent, characterized high intensity data collection at high repetition rates. The design and functionality of the laser and target chambers are described along with initial data from commissioning experimental shots. PMID:27409030

  6. [Local fractal analysis of noise-like time series by all permutations method for 1-115 min periods].

    PubMed

    Panchelyuga, V A; Panchelyuga, M S

    2015-01-01

    Results of local fractal analysis of 329-per-day time series of 239Pu alpha-decay rate fluctuations by means of all permutations method (APM) are presented. The APM-analysis reveals in the time series some steady frequency set. The coincidence of the frequency set with the Earth natural oscillations was demonstrated. A short review of works by different authors who analyzed the time series of fluctuations in processes of different nature is given. We have shown that the periods observed in those works correspond to the periods revealed in our study. It points to a common mechanism of the phenomenon observed.

  7. Experimental capabilities of 0.4 PW, 1 shot/min Scarlet laser facility for high energy density science.

    PubMed

    Poole, P L; Willis, C; Daskalova, R L; George, K M; Feister, S; Jiang, S; Snyder, J; Marketon, J; Schumacher, D W; Akli, K U; Van Woerkom, L; Freeman, R R; Chowdhury, E A

    2016-06-10

    We report on the recently completed 400 TW upgrade to the Scarlet laser at The Ohio State University. Scarlet is a Ti:sapphire-based ultrashort pulse system that delivers >10  J in 30 fs pulses to a 2 μm full width at half-maximum focal spot, resulting in intensities exceeding 5×1021  W/cm2. The laser fires at a repetition rate of once per minute and is equipped with a suite of on-demand and on-shot diagnostics detailed here, allowing for rapid collection of experimental statistics. As part of the upgrade, the entire laser system has been redesigned to facilitate consistent, characterized high intensity data collection at high repetition rates. The design and functionality of the laser and target chambers are described along with initial data from commissioning experimental shots.

  8. Analytic cross sections for 1 1S, to 1 1S to 2 1S, 1 1S to 2 1P transitions in helium by electron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukumar, C. V.; Faisal, F. H. M.

    1971-01-01

    The 1 1s yields 1 1s elastic and 1 1s yields 2 1s and 1 1s yields 2 excitation cross sections of Helium atoms by collision with a charged particle are obtained as analytic functions of incident velocity. The first order time dependent scattering theory is used. Numerical values of electron -He cross sections are obtained for incident energies in the range 30 eV to 800 eV and compared with earlier Born approximation calculations and with available experimental data. It is found that at 100 eV and above, the present results are in good agreement with the experimental results. They are also closer to the experimental results than the corresponding Born calculations.

  9. Dapiprazole clinical efficiency for counteracting tropicamide 1%.

    PubMed

    Molinari, J F; Johnson, M E; Carter, J

    1994-05-01

    We evaluated the clinical usefulness of dapiprazole in reversing the effects of tropicamide 1.0%. Our study was random, masked with placebo, and used one eye of each subject as a control. Thirty subjects were given dapiprazole as directed by the manufacturer 30 min after being dilated by one drop each of proparacaine 0.5%, tropicamide 1.0%, and then 5 min later another drop of tropicamide 1.0%. Pupil diameter, amplitude of accommodation, conjunctival injection, and intraocular pressure were evaluated. Each of these variables was measured: (1) before instillation of the diagnostic agents; (2) before the instillation of dapiprazole; and (3) at 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after the final instillation of dapiprazole. The average pupillary recovery time for dapiprazole-treated eyes was significantly less than for nontreated eyes. Accommodation also showed faster recovery. Comfortable reading ability returned after approximately 43 min with dapiprazole vs. 66 min without dapiprazole. All of our subjects exhibited conjunctival hyperemia after the administration of dapiprazole. This persisted throughout the 180 min observation period after its administration.

  10. Physiological responses to 90 min of simulated dinghy sailing.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, M

    1994-08-01

    A dinghy sailing race protocol was developed from video analysis of elite Laser class sailors competing in fairly windy (> 12 knots) national level races. A dinghy sailing ergometer was constructed for use with a 90 min protocol. Subjects watched a video of a Laser dinghy skipper sailing (on-water) according to the protocol while themselves hiking (leaning out) from the ergometer and simulating their normal on-water movements in tandem with the video. This simulation was used to examine physiological responses to dinghy sailing and factors correlated with hiking performance in 10 of Australia's top 30 Laser dinghy sailors. Simulated dinghy sailing elicited a large blood pressure response but a low rate of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. During the 20 min upwind legs, the mean (+/- S.E.M.) systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 172 +/- 18 and 100 +/- 14 mmHg respectively, and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was 123 +/- 14 mmHg. Oxygen uptake during the simulated upwind legs was 1.12 +/- 0.22 1 min-1. Both blood pressure and VO2 were significantly lower during the 12 min reaching legs. The mean of the blood lactate concentrations measured 1 min following each of the upwind legs was 2.32 +/- 0.81 mM. Isometric knee extension strength (at 130 degrees) and the length to which subjects set the hiking strap on the ergometer were moderately related to upwind hiking performance (knee extension strength and upwind hiking strap tension, r = 0.62; hiking strap length and upwind righting moment, r = 0.66; both P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Angle-resolved photoemission study of Ag(1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edamoto, K.; Miyazaki, E.; Shimokoshi, K.; Kato, H.

    1990-01-01

    The (1 1 1) face of Ag has been studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy utilizing synchrotron radiation as the excitation source (25 <= hv <= 50eV). The overlapping Ag 4d bands were deconvolved by the modified FIRO method. The peak positions thus determined are used to map the dispersion curves along the lang1 1 1rang (Γ-L) direction. The results show general agreement with calculated band structure, so far as the energy levels and symmetries are concerned. However, it is found that the density of state effect is dominant in the spectra obtained in the present photon energy region. The emission from the Ag 5s, p bands is observed to be broadened due to the indirect transition process.

  12. Gompertz type dechanneling functions for protons in <1 0 0>, <1 1 0> and <1 1 1> Si crystal channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, S.; Erić, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Nešković, N.

    2007-03-01

    In this work the energy dependences of the Gompertz type sigmoidal dechanneling function parameters for protons in <1 0 0>, <1 1 0> and <1 1 1> Si crystal channels is investigated theoretically. The proton energy range considered is between 1 and 10 MeV. The original dechanneling functions are generated using a realistic Monte Carlo computer simulation code. We show that the Gompertz type dechanneling function, having two parameters, lc and k, representing the dechanneling range and rate, respectively, approximate accurately the original dechanneling function. It is also shown that the energy dependences of parameters lc and k can be approximated by a linear function and a sum of two exponential functions, respectively. The results obtained can be used for accurate reproduction of experimental proton channeling spectra recorded in the backscattering geometry.

  13. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... regular (seasonal) flu vaccine. You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from eating pork or any other food, drinking ... pools, or using hot tubs or saunas. Any flu virus can spread from person to person when: Someone ...

  14. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Information > Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Explore this section to learn more about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including a description of the disorder ...

  15. 26 CFR 1.316-1 - Dividends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Definitions; Constructive Ownership of Stock § 1.316-1 Dividends. (a)(1) The term dividend for the... income tax law, was under the applicable law a personal holding company, the term dividend, in...

  16. From 1:1 to 1 to Won

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Don

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses on the emphasis of how 1:1 computing program transforms classroom and education experience for students. Moreover, the author stresses that with this type of program, they have created vision where the culture, curriculum, and chores were designed to meet the needs of the digital age students in terms of rigor…

  17. CHARICE version 1.1 update.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jean-Paul

    2008-10-01

    CHARICE (CHARacteristics-based inverse analysis of Isentropic Compression Experiments) is a computer application, previously documented in SAND2007-4948, that analyzes velocity waveform data from ramp-wave experiments to determine a material's quasi-isentropic loading response in stress and density using an iterative characteristics-based approach. This short report documents only the changes in CHARICE release version 1.1 relative to release version 1.0, and is not intended to stand alone. CHARICE version 1.1 corrects an error in the algorithm of the method, fixes several bugs, improves robustness and performance, provides more useful error descriptions, and adds a number of minor features.

  18. ATF3 inhibits PDX-1-stimulated transactivation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Ho; Jang, Min Kyung; Kim, Choi Hee; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2011-11-01

    Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to β-cell failure via reduction of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) activity, which contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, the exact mechanisms by which ER stress reduces PDX-1 activity in pancreatic β-cells are unclear. Previously, we showed that ATF3 downregulates PDX-1 gene expression in MIN6N8 pancreatic β-cells. Here, we investigated another role of ATF3 on the regulation of PDX-1 activity. ATF3 significantly inhibited PDX-1-stimulated transactivation of reporter plasmid containing promoters for PDX-1 binding element and the PDX-1 target gene glucokinase, which is dependent on C-terminal domain of ATF3. ATF3 interacted with PDX-1, and effectively inhibited p300-mediated transcriptional coactivation of the PBE-containing promoter, whereas C-terminal domain-deleted ATF3 did not inhibit the transcoactivation of p300. ATF3 decreased the interaction of p300 with PDX-1 in MIN6N8 cells coexpressing PDX-1 and ATF3. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that both tunicamycin treatment and ATF3 overexpression inhibited the recruitment of p300 to PDX-1 on the insulin promoter in MIN6N8 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that ATF3 inhibits PDX-1-mediated transactivation through the inhibition of p300-stimulated coactivation, which may lead to β-cell dysfunction by ER stress.

  19. Chapter 1: Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M; West, Nancy A; Lawrence, Jean M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis This chapter describes the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) around the world and across the lifespan. Epidemiologic patterns of T1D by demographic, geographic, biologic, cultural and other factors in populations are presented to gain insight about the etiology, natural history, risks, and complications of T1D. Data from large epidemiologic studies worldwide indicate that the incidence of T1D has been increasing by 2–5% worldwide and that the prevalence of T1D is approximately 1 in 300 in the US by 18 years of age. Research on risk factors for T1D is an active area of research to identify genetic and environmental triggers that could potentially be targeted for intervention. While significant advances have been made in the clinical care of T1D with resultant improvements in quality of life and clinical outcomes, much more needs to be done to improve care of, and ultimately find a cure for T1D. Epidemiologic studies have an important on-going role to investigate the complex causes, clinical care, prevention, and cure of T1D. PMID:20723815

  20. First-principles phonon calculation for Al-(Re,Mn)-Si 1/1-1/1-1/1 approximants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasako, N.; Asahi, R.; Takeuchi, T.

    2006-03-01

    A very low thermal conductivity (˜1 W/Km) and a relatively large Seebeck coefficient in Al-based Mackay-type icosahedral quasicrystal have attracted much interest aiming for thermoelectric applications. We performed first-principles phonon calculations for the Al-(Re,Mn)-Si 1/1-1/1-1/1 approximants [1] to elucidate mechanism of their low thermal conductivity. The total energy and atomic force were calculated for a modeled Al17(Re,Mn)4Si2 unit cell containing 138 atoms using the projector augmented wave method implemented in VASP code [2], and were then utilized for obtaining a phonon dispersion by the direct method [3]. The calculated lattice specific heat showed very good agreement with experiment, confirming validity of the present calculations. We found localized optical modes with a relatively low frequency (˜2 THz) in the phonon dispersion. We discuss the low thermal conductivity in comparison between the Al-Re-Si and Al-Mn-Si systems via averaged group velocity and umklapp phonon scattering related to these optical modes. [1] Takeuchi et al., Phys. Rev. B70, 144202 (2004). [2] G. Kresse, J. Furthmuller, Phys. Rev. B54, 11169 (1996). [3] MedeA-Phonon, Materials Design, Inc. (2003) based on K. Parlinski, Phonon 3.11 (2002).

  1. PDX-1 (pancreatic/duodenal homeobox-1 protein 1).

    PubMed

    Pedica, F; Beccari, S; Pedron, S; Montagna, L; Piccoli, P; Doglioni, C; Chilosi, M

    2014-12-01

    The homeodomain-containing transcription factor pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1) plays a key role in pancreatic development and β-cell function. It is a major regulator of transcription in pancreatic cells, and transactivates the insulin gene by binding to a specific DNA motif in its promoter region. Glucose also regulates insulin gene transcription through PDX-1. It has been shown that PDX-1 is required for maintaining pancreatic islet functions by activating gene expression and has a dual role in pancreatic development. It initially contributes to pancreatic formation during embryogenesis and subsequently regulates the pancreatic islet cell physiology in mature islet cells. Because of this key role in the embryologic development of the pancreas, PDX-1 expression has been investigated in pancreatic cancer cell lines and human tumors. Moreover, a few reports have described expression of PDX-1 in other human neoplasms and have investigated its potential role in differential diagnosis, but data on normal human tissues are lacking. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of pancreas formation, and especially the function of PDX-1, may contribute to the improved treatment and prevention of debilitating diseases such as diabetes, insulinomas and pancreatic carcinomas. Nevertheless, further studies are needed concerning its possible application in routine practice.

  2. SealSim Version 1.1

    2005-05-16

    SealSim 1.1 is a state-of-the-art, Microsoft Windows based computer program developed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Aspen Research Corporation with Contracted support from TNO TPD. It is intended to be used by manufacturers, engineers, educators, students, architects, and others to help determine the relative durability of Insulating Glass Units (IGU). As a function of time, SealSim 1.1 simulates the behaviour of an Insulating Glass Unit, exposed to realistic or user-defined weather climates. Stressesmore » and strains in the IGU are calculated as a function of time, together with temperature distributions, gas permeation effects (gas loss, desiccant loading), dew point temperature, U-factor, etc. The current version of SealSim 1.1 supports double-glazing Units. where the spacer system is either a Thermo Plastic Spacer (TPS) or Box type spacer. For the determination of solar properties of glazing systems, SealSim 1.1 uses the Tntemational Glazing Database of LBNL, which is also used by OPTICS and WINDOW. The goal of the SealSim 1.1 simulations is to predict the IGU’s average lifetime, expressed in terms of the "Durability Index", together with the associated failure mechanisms. The Durability Index of a particular IGU and its most probable failure mechanism can be compared with other IGU’s. How the predicted Durability Index relates to the actual durability of an IGU is not known, simply because sufficient experimental data is lacking for describing the behaviour of IG Units over extended periods of time together with a lack of knowledge of the conditions it is subjected to and initial state of the CU at the time of manufacturing. In order to simulate the IGU behaviour in time, the conditions of the IGU must be defined; together with the weather and or climate that the IGU is subjected to. Using physical models of the IGU, SealSim 1.1 calculates tte response of the CU in time. These physical models are described in more detail in separate documents

  3. SealSim Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-16

    SealSim 1.1 is a state-of-the-art, Microsoft Windows based computer program developed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Aspen Research Corporation with Contracted support from TNO TPD. It is intended to be used by manufacturers, engineers, educators, students, architects, and others to help determine the relative durability of Insulating Glass Units (IGU). As a function of time, SealSim 1.1 simulates the behaviour of an Insulating Glass Unit, exposed to realistic or user-defined weather climates. Stresses and strains in the IGU are calculated as a function of time, together with temperature distributions, gas permeation effects (gas loss, desiccant loading), dew point temperature, U-factor, etc. The current version of SealSim 1.1 supports double-glazing Units. where the spacer system is either a Thermo Plastic Spacer (TPS) or Box type spacer. For the determination of solar properties of glazing systems, SealSim 1.1 uses the Tntemational Glazing Database of LBNL, which is also used by OPTICS and WINDOW. The goal of the SealSim 1.1 simulations is to predict the IGU’s average lifetime, expressed in terms of the "Durability Index", together with the associated failure mechanisms. The Durability Index of a particular IGU and its most probable failure mechanism can be compared with other IGU’s. How the predicted Durability Index relates to the actual durability of an IGU is not known, simply because sufficient experimental data is lacking for describing the behaviour of IG Units over extended periods of time together with a lack of knowledge of the conditions it is subjected to and initial state of the CU at the time of manufacturing. In order to simulate the IGU behaviour in time, the conditions of the IGU must be defined; together with the weather and or climate that the IGU is subjected to. Using physical models of the IGU, SealSim 1.1 calculates tte response of the CU in time. These physical models are described in more detail in separate documents provided with

  4. Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) an intestinal sterol transporter.

    PubMed

    Davis, Harry R; Altmann, Scott W

    2009-07-01

    Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) has been identified and characterized as an essential protein in the intestinal cholesterol absorption process. NPC1L1 localizes to the brush border membrane of absorptive enterocytes in the small intestine. Intestinal expression of NPC1L1 is down regulated by diets containing high levels of cholesterol. While otherwise phenotypically normal, Npc1l1 null mice exhibit a significant reduction in the intestinal uptake and absorption of cholesterol and phytosterols. Characterization of the NPC1L1 pathway revealed that cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe specifically binds to an extracellular loop of NPC1L1 and inhibits its sterol transport function. Npc1l1 null mice are resistant to diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, and when crossed with apo E null mice, are completely resistant to the development of atherosclerosis. Intestinal gene expression studies in Npc1l1 null mice indicated that no exogenous cholesterol was entering enterocytes lacking NPC1L1, which resulted in an upregulation of intestinal and hepatic LDL receptor and cholesterol biosynthetic gene expression. Polymorphisms in the human NPC1L1 gene have been found to influence cholesterol absorption and plasma low density lipoprotein levels. Therefore, NPC1L1 is a critical intestinal sterol uptake transporter which influences whole body cholesterol homeostasis.

  5. Aryl morpholino triazenes inhibit cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel; Perez, Pedro; Jackson, William; Chin, Taylor; Galbreath, Michael; Fronczek, Frank R; Isovitsch, Ralph; Iimoto, Devin S

    2016-07-15

    Many cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1 (CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) inhibitors, such as resveratrol, have planar, hydrophobic, aromatic rings in their structure and exhibit anti-cancer activity. Aryl morpholino triazenes have similar structural features and in addition contain a triazene unit consisting of three consecutive, conjugated nitrogen atoms. Several aryl morpholino triazenes, including 4-[(E)-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)diazenyl]-morpholine (2), were prepared from a reaction involving morpholine and a diazonium ion produced from different aniline derivatives, such as 3,4,5-trimethoxyaniline. The aryl morpholino triazenes were then screened at 100μM for their ability to inhibit CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 using ethoxyresorufin as the substrate. Triazenes that inhibited the enzymes to less than 80% of the uninhibited enzyme activity were assayed to determine their IC50 value. Compound 2 was the only triazene to inhibit both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 to the same degree as resveratrol with IC50 values of 10μM and 18μM, respectively. Compounds 3 and 6 selectively inhibited CYP1B1 over CYP1A1 with IC values of 2μM and 7μM, respectively. Thus, aryl morpholino triazenes are a new class of compounds that can inhibit CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and potentially prevent cancer. PMID:27265259

  6. 3-Quaternary ammonium 1-carba-1-dethiacephems.

    PubMed

    Cook, G K; McDonald, J H; Alborn, W; Boyd, D B; Eudaly, J A; Indelicato, J M; Johnson, R; Kasher, J S; Pasini, C E; Preston, D A

    1989-11-01

    A series of structurally unique 1-carba-1-dethiacephems is described. The structural stability of the 1-carba-1-dethiacephem nucleus was essential for the preparation of this series of 3-quaternary ammonium carbacephems. The known p-nitrobenzyl 7 beta-(phenoxyacetamido)- 3-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]oxy]-1-carba-1-dethia-3-cephem- 4-carboxylate served as both a quaternization substrate as well as a precursor to derivatives such as allyl 7 beta-[[2-[allyloxy)carbonyl]amino-4- thiazoly] (methoxyimino)acetyl]amino]-3-[(trifluoromethyl) sulfonyl] oxy]-1-carba-1-dethia-3-cephem-4-carboxylate. Quaternization of these enol triflates was accomplished either by dissolution in acetonitrile containing the base or by dissolution in the base, with or without warning to 50 degrees C. Bases nucleophilic enough to displace the triflate include a variety of substituted pyridines and N-methylimidazole. Deprotection then produced a very active series of 1-[7 beta-[(2-amino- 4-thiazolyl)(methoxyimino)acetyl]amino]-2-carboxy-8-oxo- 1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-en-3-yl] quaternary ammonium hydroxide inner salts. These compounds were extremely potent antibacterials against a broad range of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria including constitutive cephalosporinase producers, such as Enterobacter cloacae. The compounds exhibit similar hydrolysis kinetics and pharmacokinetics to the analogous cephalosporin-3'-quaternary ammonium salts.

  7. Construction of HEK293 cells stably expressing wild-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1*1a) and variant OATP1B1*1b and OATP1B1*15.

    PubMed

    Chen, M; Qu, B X; Chen, X L; Hu, H H; Jiang, H D; Yu, L S; Zhou, Q; Zeng, S

    2016-06-01

    A transgenic cell line stably expressing the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1) was established. Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cell line stably expressing OATP1B1*1a sequence was amplified through PCR with the extracted total RNA as templates from human liver, then subcloned into the plasmid pMD19-T and verified by sequencing. OATP1B1*1b/OATP1B1*15 mutant sequences were obtained by site-directed mutation PCR with pMD19-T/ OATP1B1*1a as templates. The plasmids pcDNA3.1(+)/OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 were constructed and transfected into HEK293 cell line using Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent. Several stable transfected clones were obtained after selection with G418. Using rosuvastatin as a probe substrate of OATP1B1, the intracellular rosuvastatin accumulation in HEK293 and HEK-OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 monoclone cells were validated by a ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OATP1B1 mRNA and protein expression were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results from RT-PCR, rosuvastatin uptake and Western blot assay indicated that human OATP1B1 was highly expressed in transfected cells compared with controls. The HEK-293 cell lines stably expressing human OATP1B1-wild and variant (HEK-OATP1B1, *1b and *15) are potential models to study drug transport in vitro. PMID:27455553

  8. Construction of HEK293 cells stably expressing wild-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1*1a) and variant OATP1B1*1b and OATP1B1*15.

    PubMed

    Chen, M; Qu, B X; Chen, X L; Hu, H H; Jiang, H D; Yu, L S; Zhou, Q; Zeng, S

    2016-06-01

    A transgenic cell line stably expressing the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1) was established. Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cell line stably expressing OATP1B1*1a sequence was amplified through PCR with the extracted total RNA as templates from human liver, then subcloned into the plasmid pMD19-T and verified by sequencing. OATP1B1*1b/OATP1B1*15 mutant sequences were obtained by site-directed mutation PCR with pMD19-T/ OATP1B1*1a as templates. The plasmids pcDNA3.1(+)/OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 were constructed and transfected into HEK293 cell line using Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent. Several stable transfected clones were obtained after selection with G418. Using rosuvastatin as a probe substrate of OATP1B1, the intracellular rosuvastatin accumulation in HEK293 and HEK-OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 monoclone cells were validated by a ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OATP1B1 mRNA and protein expression were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results from RT-PCR, rosuvastatin uptake and Western blot assay indicated that human OATP1B1 was highly expressed in transfected cells compared with controls. The HEK-293 cell lines stably expressing human OATP1B1-wild and variant (HEK-OATP1B1, *1b and *15) are potential models to study drug transport in vitro.

  9. High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of [1.1.1] Propellane

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, Robynne W.; Masiello, Tony; Jariyasopit, Narumol; Weber, Alfons; Nibler, Joseph W.; Maki, Arthur; Blake, Thomas A.; Hubler, Timothy L.

    2008-01-08

    The infrared spectrum of [1.1.1]propellane has been recorded at high resolution (0.002 cm-1) with individual rovibrational lines resolved for the first time. This initial report presents the ground state constants for this molecule determined from the analysis of five of the eight infrared-allowed fundamentals v9(e'), v10(e'), v12(e'), v14(a2''), v15(a2''), as well as of several combination bands. In nearly all cases it was found that the upper states of the transitions exhibit some degree of perturbation but, by use of the combination difference method, the assigned frequencies provided over 4000 consistent ground state difference values. Analysis of these gave for the parameters of the ground state the following values, in cm-1: B0 = 0.28755833(14), DJ = 1.1313(5)x10-7, DJK = -1.2633(7)x10-7, HJ = 0.72(4)x10-13, HJK = -2.24(13)x10-13, and HKJ = 2.25(15)x10-13, where the numbers in parentheses indicate twice the uncertainties in the last quoted digit(s) of the parameters. Gaussian ab initio calculations, especially with the computed anharmonic corrections to some of the spectroscopic parameters, assisted in the assignments of the bands and also provided information on the electron distribution in the bridge-head carbon-carbon bond.

  10. Thermal decomposition of 1,1,1-trifluoroethane revisited.

    PubMed

    Matsugi, Akira; Yasunaga, Kenji; Shiina, Hiroumi

    2014-12-18

    1,1,1-Trifluoroethane (CH3CF3) has been frequently used as a chemical thermometer or an internal standard in shock tube studies to determine relative rates of chemical reactions. The rate constants for the thermal decomposition of CH3CF3 were recently reported to have anomalous pressure dependence in the high-temperature falloff region. In the present study, the kinetics of the CH3CF3 decomposition were reinvestigated using shock tube/laser absorption (ST/LA) spectroscopy and single-pulse shock tube (SPST) methods over the temperature range 1163-1831 K at pressures from 95 to 290 kPa. The present rate constants are 2-3 times smaller than those reported in previous single-pulse experiments performed at near high-pressure limit conditions. The recommended rate constant expression, k = 5.71 × 10(46)T(-9.341) exp(-47073 K/T) s(-1), was obtained over the temperature range 1000-1600 K with uncertainties of ±40% at temperatures below 1300 K and ±32% at 1600 K. The rate constants at the high-temperature region showed clear falloff behavior and were in good agreement with recent high-temperature experiments. The falloff rate constants could not be reproduced by a standard RRKM/master-equation model; this study provides additional evidence for the unusual pressure dependence previously reported for this reaction. Additionally, the rate constants for the decomposition of 1,1-difluoroethylene (CH2CF2) were determined over the temperature range 1650-2059 K at pressures of 100 and 205 kPa, and were reproduced by the RRKM/master-equation calculation with an average downward energy transfer of 900 cm(-1).

  11. Growth of monocrystalline Cu(1 1 1) films on MgO(1 1 1) by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aweke, F.; Antoni, F.; Hulik, J.; Morvan, G.; Speisser, C.; Veis, P.; Le Normand, F.

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) films with a minimal thickness of 300 nm were grown on MgO(1 1 1) substrates in high vacuum by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at various temperatures to achieve a single crystal Cu film with flat terraces without grain boundaries. We investigated the effect of the substrate temperature, the pulse repetition rate, the deposition time and the laser fluence. A temperature threshold is observed above which the growth mode is changed from a uniform flat mode to a three dimensional mode. A combined process involving a germination step at moderate temperature followed by a growth step at higher temperature yields a 450 nm almost continuous film.

  12. 26 CFR 1.165-1 - Losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adjusted basis for determining the loss from the sale or other disposition of the property involved. In the... recognized upon the sale or exchange of property shall be determined for purposes of section 165(a) in accordance with § 1.1002-1. (3) A loss from the sale or exchange of a capital asset shall be allowed as...

  13. Ciencias 1. (Science 1). [Student's Workbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raposo, Lucilia

    Ciencias 1 is the first in a series of science books designed for elementary Portuguese-speaking students. The book contains five sections divided into 43 lessons. The five sections are (1) Matter, (2) The Human Body, (3) Weather, (4) Solids, Liquids, and Gases, and (5) Living Things. Pictorial presentations and picture exercises are included for…

  14. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 34 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  15. 26 CFR 1.801-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reserves (as defined in section 801). An insurance company writing only noncancellable life, health, or... premium” means the amount which will cover the cost of carrying the insurance risk for the period for... TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-1 Definitions. (a) Life insurance company. The...

  16. 26 CFR 1.801-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reserves (as defined in section 801). An insurance company writing only noncancellable life, health, or... premium” means the amount which will cover the cost of carrying the insurance risk for the period for... TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-1 Definitions. (a) Life insurance company. The...

  17. 26 CFR 1.801-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reserves (as defined in section 801). An insurance company writing only noncancellable life, health, or... premium” means the amount which will cover the cost of carrying the insurance risk for the period for... TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-1 Definitions. (a) Life insurance company. The...

  18. General Relativity in (1 + 1) Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boozer, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a theory of gravity in (1 + 1) dimensions that can be thought of as a toy model of general relativity. The theory should be a useful pedagogical tool, because it is mathematically much simpler than general relativity but shares much of the same conceptual structure; in particular, it gives a simple illustration of how gravity arises…

  19. 33 CFR 1.08-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... criminal penalty procedures under subpart 1.07 of this part: (1) 46 CFR 25.05 whistles or other sound producing devices; (2) 33 CFR part 175, subpart B and 46 CFR subpart 25.25, Personal Flotation Devices. (3) 46 CFR 25.35 backfire flame control; (4) 46 CFR 25.40 ventilation; (5) 33 CFR part 173 numbering;...

  20. 33 CFR 1.08-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... criminal penalty procedures under subpart 1.07 of this part: (1) 46 CFR 25.05 whistles or other sound producing devices; (2) 33 CFR part 175, subpart B and 46 CFR subpart 25.25, Personal Flotation Devices. (3) 46 CFR 25.35 backfire flame control; (4) 46 CFR 25.40 ventilation; (5) 33 CFR part 173 numbering;...

  1. 33 CFR 1.08-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... criminal penalty procedures under subpart 1.07 of this part: (1) 46 CFR 25.05 whistles or other sound producing devices; (2) 33 CFR part 175, subpart B and 46 CFR subpart 25.25, Personal Flotation Devices. (3) 46 CFR 25.35 backfire flame control; (4) 46 CFR 25.40 ventilation; (5) 33 CFR part 173 numbering;...

  2. 33 CFR 1.08-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... criminal penalty procedures under subpart 1.07 of this part: (1) 46 CFR 25.05 whistles or other sound producing devices; (2) 33 CFR part 175, subpart B and 46 CFR subpart 25.25, Personal Flotation Devices. (3) 46 CFR 25.35 backfire flame control; (4) 46 CFR 25.40 ventilation; (5) 33 CFR part 173 numbering;...

  3. 33 CFR 1.08-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... criminal penalty procedures under subpart 1.07 of this part: (1) 46 CFR 25.05 whistles or other sound producing devices; (2) 33 CFR part 175, subpart B and 46 CFR subpart 25.25, Personal Flotation Devices. (3) 46 CFR 25.35 backfire flame control; (4) 46 CFR 25.40 ventilation; (5) 33 CFR part 173 numbering;...

  4. 45 CFR 1216.1-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-1 Purpose. This part... otherwise be performed by employed workers and which will not supplant the hiring of, or result in the displacement of, employed workers or impair existing contracts for service. It implements section 404(a) of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.150-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... certificate of indebtedness issued by the United States Treasury pursuant to the Demand Deposit State and Local Government Series program described in 31 CFR part 344. Working capital expenditure means any cost... TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.150-1 Definitions. (a)...

  6. 26 CFR 1.150-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... certificate of indebtedness issued by the United States Treasury pursuant to the Demand Deposit State and Local Government Series program described in 31 CFR part 344. Working capital expenditure means any cost... TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.150-1 Definitions. (a)...

  7. 26 CFR 303.1-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES UNDER THE TRADING WITH THE ENEMY ACT § 303.1-1 Definitions. (a) General. When used in this part... Custodian whose functions were transferred to the Attorney General pursuant to Executive Order 9788 (3 CFR... the Enemy Act. The term “Trading With the Enemy Act” includes all amendments of such Act, and...

  8. 26 CFR 1.801-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-1 Definitions. (a) Life insurance company. The term life... determining whether a company is a “life insurance company” within the meaning of that term as used in section... whether an insurance company is a life insurance company, the life insurance reserves (as defined......

  9. 26 CFR 1.508-1 - Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... case of medical research organizations, 6 months after the date on which corrective and clarifying... (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.508-1 Notices. (a) New organizations must notify the Commissioner that... subparagraph (3) of this paragraph, an organization that is organized after October 9, 1969, will not...

  10. Expect Surprises with 1-to-1 Laptops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusch, Erich G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, prior to the launch of their 1-to-1 laptop program, the superintendent expressed some anxiety about the prospect of radically changing teaching and learning by issuing a laptop computer to every student and teacher. Although the concept was exciting, it carried big risks and would take time and thorough planning to execute well. Even with…

  11. 43 CFR 3191.1-1 - Petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY, COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS AND CONTRACTS FOR OIL AND GAS INSPECTION Delegation of Authority § 3191.1-1 Petition. The Governor or...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1083-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exchanges in Obedience to S.e.c. Orders § 1.1083-1 Definitions. (a) Order of the... (52 Stat. 447)), and must be issued under the authority of section 11(b) or 11(e) of the...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1083-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exchanges in Obedience to S.e.c. Orders § 1.1083-1 Definitions. (a) Order of the... (52 Stat. 447)), and must be issued under the authority of section 11(b) or 11(e) of the...

  14. EPA PMF 1.1 USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This user's manual is designed to guide a user through the use of the software EPA PMF 1.1 for a receptor modeling application. The manual covers details about what the user should do to operate the software, but it intentionally does not include guidance on how to interpret the...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1275-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... rules regarding adjustments to adjusted issue price on a pro rata prepayment. (2) Bond issuance premium... States persons. (i) (j) Life annuity exception under section 1275(a)(1)(B)(i)—(1) Purpose. Section 1275(a... the contract and the contract depends (in whole or in substantial part) on the life expectancy of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1275-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rules regarding adjustments to adjusted issue price on a pro rata prepayment. (2) Bond issuance premium... States persons. (i) (j) Life annuity exception under section 1275(a)(1)(B)(i)—(1) Purpose. Section 1275(a... the contract and the contract depends (in whole or in substantial part) on the life expectancy of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1275-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rules regarding adjustments to adjusted issue price on a pro rata prepayment. (2) Bond issuance premium... States persons. (i) (j) Life annuity exception under section 1275(a)(1)(B)(i)—(1) Purpose. Section 1275(a... the contract and the contract depends (in whole or in substantial part) on the life expectancy of...

  18. Consort 1 sounding rocket flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Maybee, George W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a payload of six experiments developed for a 7-min microgravity flight aboard a sounding rocket Consort 1, in order to investigate the effects of low gravity on certain material processes. The experiments in question were designed to test the effect of microgravity on the demixing of aqueous polymer two-phase systems, the electrodeposition process, the production of elastomer-modified epoxy resins, the foam formation process and the characteristics of foam, the material dispersion, and metal sintering. The apparatuses designed for these experiments are examined, and the rocket-payload integration and operations are discussed.

  19. [1+1+1] Cyclotrimerization for the Synthesis of Cyclopropanes

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Srimanta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of small rings by functionalization of C(sp3)−H bonds remains a great challenge. We report for the first time a copper‐catalyzed [1+1+1] cyclotrimerization of acetophenone derivatives under mild reaction conditions. The reaction has a broad scope for the stereoselective synthesis of cyclopropanes by trimerization of acetophenone. The developed transformation is based on an extraordinary copper‐catalyzed cascade process that allows saturated carbocycles to be obtained for the first time by cyclotrimerization through functionalization of C(sp3)−H bonds. The cascade of sixfold C(sp3)−H bond functionalization allows the synthesis of cyclopropanes in a highly stereoselective approach. PMID:26997466

  20. Douglas BTD-1 Destroyer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Douglas BTD-1 Destroyer: The single-seat Douglas BTD-1 Destroyer torpedo-bomber was developed from the two-seat XSB2D-1 scout-bomber. Although not put into full production, the BTD-1 lessons learned with the Destroyer were incorporated into the Douglas Skyraider's predecessor, the BT2D-1.

  1. Grumman JF-1 Duck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Grumman JF-1 Duck: The Grumman JF-1 Duck was in service with the NACA at Langley during the summer of 1934. The JF-1 was notably different from the later J2F Duck in that the JF-1 had a shorter central float. The NACA used the JF-1 in part as a propeller testbed aircraft.

  2. 1,1,1-trichloroethane: report of a fatal intoxication.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Y H; Backer, R C; Whitaker, J Q

    1976-01-01

    TCE was indicated in the accidental death of a woman cleaning up a paint spill in an enclosed, poorly ventilated room. Blood and tissue concentrations of TCE were measured by head-space gas chromatography. The concentrations found were compared with previously reported concentrations concluding that the demonstrable presence of TCE in blood at a concentration above 1.0 to 1.5 mg/100 ml would be consistent with death. However, the rapid dissipation of TCE from blood dictates that its presence in post mortem samples at any concentration must be considered as a factor in determining the cause of death. PMID:1277770

  3. IL-1 Blockade in Autoinflammatory Syndromes1

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Adriana A.; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2014-01-01

    Monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes present with excessive systemic inflammation including fever, rashes, arthritis, and organ-specific inflammation and are caused by defects in single genes encoding proteins that regulate innate inflammatory pathways. Pathogenic variants in two interleukin-1 (IL-1)–regulating genes, NLRP3 and IL1RN, cause two severe and early-onset autoinflammatory syndromes, CAPS (cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes) and DIRA (deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist). The discovery of the mutations that cause CAPS and DIRA led to clinical and basic research that uncovered the key role of IL-1 in an extended spectrum of immune dysregulatory conditions. NLRP3 encodes cryopyrin, an intracellular “molecular sensor” that forms a multimolecular platform, the NLRP3 inflammasome, which links “danger recognition” to the activation of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. The success and safety profile of drugs targeting IL-1 in the treatment of CAPS and DIRA have encouraged their wider use in other autoinflammatory syndromes including the classic hereditary periodic fever syndromes (familial Mediterranean fever, TNF receptor–associated periodic syndrome, and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with periodic fever syndrome) and additional immune dysregulatory conditions that are not genetically well defined, including Still’s, Behcet’s, and Schnitzler diseases. The fact that the accumulation of metabolic substrates such as monosodium urate, ceramide, cholesterol, and glucose can trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome connects metabolic stress to IL-1β-mediated inflammation and provides a rationale for therapeutically targeting IL-1 in prevalent diseases such as gout, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. PMID:24422572

  4. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (an-tee-TRIP-sin) deficiency, or AAT ... as it relates to lung disease. Overview Alpha-1 antitrypsin, also called AAT, is a protein made ...

  5. Nucleobindin-1 encodes a nesfatin-1-like peptide that stimulates insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Naresh; Mohan, Haneesha; Unniappan, Suraj

    2015-05-15

    Nesfatin-1 (82 amino acid) is an anorexigenic and insulinotropic peptide encoded in a secreted precursor, nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). Nucleobindin-1 (NUCB1) is a protein with very high sequence similarity to NUCB2. We hypothesized that a nesfatin-1 like peptide (NLP) is encoded in NUCB1, and this peptide is biologically active. In silico analysis found a signal peptide cleavage site at position 25 (Arginine) and 26 (Valine) preceding the NLP region in NUCB1 sequence, and potential proprotein convertase cleavage sites at Lys-Arg (KR), forming a 77 amino acid NLP. RT-PCR studies found NUCB1 mRNA in both pancreas and MIN6 cells. NUCB1-like immunoreactivity was detected in mouse insulinoma (MIN6) cells, and pancreatic islet beta cells of mice. In order to determine the biological activity of NLP, MIN6 cells were incubated with synthetic rat NLP. NLP (10nM and 100nM) upregulated preproinsulin mRNA expression and insulin secretion at 1h post-incubation. In identical experiments using MIN6 cells, a scrambled peptide based on the NLP sequence did not elicit any effects on preproinsulin mRNA expression or insulin secretion. From this result, it is clear that an intact NLP sequence is required for its biological activity. NLP appears as another endogenous insulinotropic peptide encoded in NUCB1.

  6. SPARK Version 1. 1 user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenburger, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    This manual describes the input required to use Version 1.1 of the SPARK computer code. SPARK 1.1 is a library of FORTRAN main programs and subprograms designed to calculate eddy currents on conducting surfaces where current flow is assumed zero in the direction normal to the surface. Surfaces are modeled with triangular and/or quadrilateral elements. Lorentz forces produced by the interaction of eddy currents with background magnetic fields can be output at element nodes in a form compatible with most structural analysis codes. In addition, magnetic fields due to eddy currents can be determined at points off the surface. Version 1.1 features eddy current streamline plotting with optional hidden-surface-removal graphics and topological enhancements that allow essentially any orientable surface to be modeled. SPARK also has extensive symmetry specification options. In order to make the manual as self-contained as possible, six appendices are included that present summaries of the symmetry options, topological options, coil options and code algorithms, with input and output examples. An edition of SPARK 1.1 is available on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center at Livermore, California. Another more generic edition is operational on the VAX computers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and is available on magnetic tape by request. The generic edition requires either the GKS or PLOT10 graphics package and the IMSL or NAG mathematical package. Requests from outside the United States will be subject to applicable federal regulations regarding dissemination of computer programs. 22 refs.

  7. Spatial heterogeneity of surface roughness during different erosive stages of tilled loess slopes under a rainfall intensity of 1.5 mm min-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The loess tilled slope is the main place for soil erosion in Chinese Loess Plateau, and studies about its spatial heterogeneity (SH) of surface roughness (SR) has been one of the most important problems in the field of soil erosion. The objective of this study was to reveal the SH of SR of 4 typical...

  8. Geometric modeling of homoepitaxial CVD diamond growth: I. The {1 0 0}{1 1 1}{1 1 0}{1 1 3} system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F.; Bonnin, X.; Achard, J.; Brinza, O.; Michau, A.; Gicquel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Plasma-assisted CVD homoepitaxial diamond growth is a process that must satisfy many stringent requirements to meet industrial applications, particularly in high-power electronics. Purity control and crystalline quality of the obtained samples are of paramount importance and their optimization is a subject of active research. In the process of such studies, we have obtained high purity CVD diamond monocrystals with unusual morphologies, namely with apparent {1 1 3} stable faces. This phenomenon has led us to examine the process of CVD diamond growth and build up a 3D geometrical model, presented here, describing the film growth as a function of time. The model has been able to successfully describe the morphology of our obtained crystals and can be used as a predictive tool to predetermine the shape and size of a diamond crystal grown in a given process configuration. This renders accessible control of desirable properties such as largest usable diamond surface area and/or film thickness, before the cutting and polishing manufacture steps take place. The two latter steps are more sensitive to the geometry of the growth sectors, which will be addressed in a companion paper. Our model, applicable to the growth of any cubic lattice material, establishes a complete mapping of the final morphology state of growing diamond, as a function of the growth rates of the crystalline planes considered, namely {1 0 0}, {1 1 1}, {1 1 0}, and {1 1 3} planes, all of which have been observed experimentally in diamond films. The model makes no claim as to the stability of the obtained faces, such as the occurrence of non-epitaxial crystallites or twinning. It is also possible to deduce transient behavior of the crystal morphology as growth time is increased. The model conclusions are presented in the form of a series of diagrams, which trace the existence (and dominance) boundaries of each face type, in presence of the others, and where each boundary crossing represent a topology

  9. 1; '" ~i.im~

    Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

    ... t ~ .. I:~ ~, r1 " )íJ .( l\\ ,# f ~ .; , r 1I1§~.OGlP.~.mi .. !II .. 0 . .... t- !!,. i:qrzrr -19~,i;!;¡ $ i'' is il Il '\\ii II ~ w "' =~ &2L;;&Æ__ II .. i: Ci.)ill.ii.iill~~~1I ~ . . .. ...

  10. Cold Sores (HSV-1)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cold Sores (HSV-1) KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold Sores (HSV-1) Print A A A Text Size What's in ... person's lips, are caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) . But they don't just show ...

  11. New fluorinated agonists for targeting the sphingosin-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P(1)).

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rizwan S; Keul, Petra; Schäfers, Michael; Levkau, Bodo; Haufe, Günter

    2015-11-15

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P1) is involved in fundamental biological processes such as regulation of immune cell trafficking, vascular barrier function and angiogenesis. This Letter presents multistep syntheses of various fluorine substituted 12-aryl analogues of the drug fingolimod (FTY720) and a seven-steps route to 2-amino-17,17-difluoro-2-(hydroxymethyl)heptadecan-1-ol. In vitro and in vivo tests proved all these compounds as potent S1P1 receptor agonists.

  12. Cardiomyopathy from 1,1-Difluoroethane Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suwen; Joginpally, Tejaswini; Kim, David; Yadava, Mrinal; Norgais, Konchok; Laird-Fick, Heather S

    2016-10-01

    Consumer aerosol products can be inhaled for their psychoactive effects, but with attendant adverse health effects including "sudden sniffing death." Cardiomyopathy has rarely been described in association with 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE), a common aerosol propellant. We report a 33-year-old male who developed acute myocardial injury and global hypokinesis along with rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, and fulminant hepatitis after 2 days' nearly continuous huffing. Workup for other causes, including underlying coronary artery disease, was negative. His cardiac function improved over time. The exact mechanism of DFE's effects is uncertain but may include catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy, coronary vasospasm, or direct cellular toxicity.

  13. Cardiomyopathy from 1,1-Difluoroethane Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suwen; Joginpally, Tejaswini; Kim, David; Yadava, Mrinal; Norgais, Konchok; Laird-Fick, Heather S

    2016-10-01

    Consumer aerosol products can be inhaled for their psychoactive effects, but with attendant adverse health effects including "sudden sniffing death." Cardiomyopathy has rarely been described in association with 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE), a common aerosol propellant. We report a 33-year-old male who developed acute myocardial injury and global hypokinesis along with rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, and fulminant hepatitis after 2 days' nearly continuous huffing. Workup for other causes, including underlying coronary artery disease, was negative. His cardiac function improved over time. The exact mechanism of DFE's effects is uncertain but may include catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy, coronary vasospasm, or direct cellular toxicity. PMID:26613951

  14. New synthesis of 1-substituted-1H-indazoles via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of in situ generated nitrile imines and benzyne.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Christian; Keeling, Steve; Moses, John E

    2010-08-01

    A new synthesis of 1-substituted-1H-indazoles via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile imines to benzyne is described. The reaction is completed within 5 min, affording the corresponding N(1)-C(3) disubstituted indazoles in moderate to excellent yields.

  15. 26 CFR 1.1083-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Corporation subject to a mortgage of $100,000. (2) Short-term obligations (including notes, drafts, bills of... nonexempt property within the meaning of section 1083(e) (1), (2), or (3). (5) Money, and the right to... section 1083 (e) (2) or (3). The term the right to receive money includes, among other items,...

  16. 14 CFR 1.1 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings. Airport means an area of land or water that is... that is producible from sea level to an established higher altitude. Amateur rocket means an unmanned rocket that: (1) Is propelled by a motor or motors having a combined total impulse of 889,600...

  17. 14 CFR 1.1 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings. Airport means an area of land or water that is... that is producible from sea level to an established higher altitude. Amateur rocket means an unmanned rocket that: (1) Is propelled by a motor or motors having a combined total impulse of 889,600...

  18. 14 CFR 1.1 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings. Airport means an area of land or water that is... that is producible from sea level to an established higher altitude. Amateur rocket means an unmanned rocket that: (1) Is propelled by a motor or motors having a combined total impulse of 889,600...

  19. 26 CFR 1.165-1 - Losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... basis of $10,000 is completely destroyed by fire in 1961, and if the taxpayer's only claim for... the loss (see § 1.165-8, relating to theft losses). However, if in the year of discovery there exists... not incurred in any transaction entered into for profit, if such losses arise from fire,...

  20. 26 CFR 1.508-1 - Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... them, under section 508, see the special rules under § 1.170A-9(e). (vi) A foreign organization shall... March 22, 1973, whichever comes later. See paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section, for rules pertaining... Form 4653 need be completed only if the organization is, or thinks it might be, described in...

  1. Ribonucleic acid synthesis by Escherichia coli C3000/L after infection by the ribonucleic acid coliphage ZIK/1, and properties of coliphage-ZIK/1 ribonucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D H

    1965-10-01

    1. A method is described for the preparation and purification of the RNA from the RNA coliphage ZIK/1. 2. Some of the physical characteristics and infective properties of coliphage-ZIK/1 RNA were examined. 3. A method is also described for examining the type and quantity of RNA synthesized after bacteriophage infection. 4. Ribosome synthesis was decreased 15min. after bacteriophage adsorption, bacteriophage RNA was synthesized from 15min. to 120min. after adsorption and intracellular bacteriophages appeared 40min. after adsorption. Cell lysis commenced 60min. after adsorption, and was half complete 20min. later and 90-95% complete 120min. after adsorption. 5. Cell division continued until 40min. after bacteriophage adsorption. 6. Bacterial ribosomes were conserved during the infective process. 7. Intracellular bacteriophage RNA has sedimentation coefficient 28s but after cell lysis it has sedimentation coefficient 10-5s.

  2. LOX-1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Hermonat, Paul L; Zhu, Hongqing; Cao, Maohua; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2011-10-01

    The importance of the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1) gene in cardiovascular and other diseases is slowly being revealed. LOX-1 gene expression appears to be a "canary in a coal mine" for atherogenesis, being strongly up-regulated early on in a number of cell types when they are activated, and predicting the sites of future disease. From this early time point the LOX-1 protein often participates in the disease process itself. While gene/protein expression can be regulated on a multiplicity of levels, the most basic and important mode of regulation is usually transcriptional. There are very few studies on the transcriptional regulation of the human LOX-1 promoter; fewer still on definitive mapping of the transcription factors involved. It is known that a wide variety of stimuli up-regulate LOX-1, usually/probably on the transcriptional level. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is one important regulator of renin-angiotensin system and stimulator LOX-1. Ang II is known to up-regulate LOX-1 transcription through an NF-kB motif located at nt -2158. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is another important cardiovascular regulator, particularly of atherosclerotic disease, and a strong stimulator of LOX-1. Ox-LDL is known to up-regulate LOX-1 transcription through an Oct-1 motif located at nt -1556. The subsequent enhanced LOX-1 receptor numbers and their binding by ox-LDL ligand triggers a positive feedback loop, increasing further LOX-1 expression, with a presently unknown regulatory governor. The Oct-1 gene also has its own Oct-1-driven positive feedback loop, which likely also contributes to LOX-1 up-regulation. There is also data which suggests the involvement of the transcription factor AP-1 during stimulation with Phorbol 12-myristate acetate. While the importance of NF-κB as a transcriptional regulator of cardiovascular-relevant genes is well known, the importance of Oct-1 is not. Data suggests that Oct-1-mediated up-regulation of transcription is an early

  3. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... measures the level of the protein AAT in blood. Alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotype testing evaluates the amount and type of AAT being produced and compares it to normal patterns. Alpha-1 antitrypsin genotype testing ( DNA testing) can ...

  4. Alpha-1 antitrypsin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003715.htm Alpha-1 antitrypsin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a laboratory test to measure the ...

  5. CCF Experiment #1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Images from CCF camera during Experiment #1, or EU#1, square groove geometry operations. The free surface, or gas/liquid interface, assumes a curved shape under subcritical flow conditions as its m...

  6. MIL1A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-03

    ... MISR Level 1A camera charge-coupled device (CCD) Science Data: Reformatted Annotated Level 1A product of the CCD science data. ... Files:  Processing Status Production Report Read Software Files :  Data Product ...

  7. A1C test

    MedlinePlus

    HbA1C test; Glycated hemoglobin test; Glycosylated hemoglobin test; Hemoglobin glycosylated test; Glycohemoglobin test ... have recently eaten does not affect the A1C test, so you do not need to fast to ...

  8. α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hatipoğlu, Umur; Stoller, James K

    2016-09-01

    α1-Antitrypsin deficiency is an autosomal codominant condition that predisposes to emphysema and cirrhosis. The condition is common but grossly under-recognized. Identifying patients' α1-antitrypsin deficiency has important management implications (ie, smoking cessation, genetic and occupational counseling, and specific treatment with the infusion of pooled human plasma α1-antitrypsin). The weight of evidence suggests that augmentation therapy slows the progression of emphysema in individuals with severe α1-antitrypsin deficiency. PMID:27514595

  9. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101830, and TBD).

  10. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830).

  11. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. A larger image is available without labels (No. 0101755).

  12. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  13. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  14. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  15. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Here the transparent furnace is extracted for servicing. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  16. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, and TBD). This composite is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  17. Microhydropower Handbook, Volume 1, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the “Microhydropower Handbook, Volume 1, Part 1” is to provide a mechanically proficient lay person with sufficient information to evaluate microhydropower site potential, lay out a site, select and install equipment, and finally, operate and maintain the completed system. The actual construction details of the site are not included; rather, pointers are given as to what help an individual should expect from a construction contractor, and general guidelines on construction details are provided. In addition, information about obtaining financing and permits is provided. To help offset cost, the person performing the work, referred to as the “developer,” is encouraged to do as much of the work as possible. However, developers with major areas of uncertainty should consider professional assistance.

  18. Psychoneuroimmunology and HIV-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoni, Michael H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents evidence describing benefits of behavioral interventions such as aerobic exercise training on both psychological and immunological functioning among high risk human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) seronegative and very early stage seropositive homosexual men. HIV-1 infection is cast as chronic disease for which early…

  19. MI1ANAV

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-03

    MI1ANAV MISR Level 1A Navigation Data: Reformatted Annotated Level 1A Product for the Navigation Data, which contains samples of the Terra Platform position and ... Specification Versioning History:  Engineering, Navigation SCAR-B Block:  SCAR-B ...

  20. Horizontally separated 1-in-1 crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    Previous to this workshop, realistic lattices have been developed for vertically separated l-in-l (e.g., D.E. Johnson, A.A. Garren) and 2-in-1 (e.g., S. Heifets) magnets as well as for horizontally separated 2-in-l magnets (e.g., SSC RDS). Bringing together the widely separated ({approximately}60-70 cm) beams in a reasonable length of tunnel and keeping the dispersion zero at the interaction point has been difficult in the vertical l-in-l case. Most designs have required spacial 2-in-1 quadrupoles near the interaction point where the beams are separated by 15 cm or less. It is not clear that such magnets, as dictated by some of these lattice designs, can easily be built. The purpose of this exercise is to provide a crossing insertion for a realistic lattice which involves horizontally separated l-in-l magnets. The following horizontal crossing insertions, which incorporate the dispersion suppressors and phase trombones into the major arcs, need no special 2-in-1 magnets near the interaction point. The dispersion at the IP created by the horizontal crossing can be cancelled by the dispersion suppressor and one set of triplets.

  1. C57BL/KsJ-db/db-ApcMin/+ Mice Exhibit an Increased Incidence of Intestinal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Kazuya; Kubota, Masaya; Shimizu, Masahito; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Kuno, Toshiya; Tanaka, Takuji; Hara, Akira; Hirose, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    The numbers of obese people and diabetic patients are ever increasing. Obesity and diabetes are high-risk conditions for chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model in order to clarify the pathobiology of CRC development in obese and diabetic patients. We developed an animal model of obesity and colorectal cancer by breeding the C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mouse, an animal model of obesity and type II diabetes, and the C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ (Min/+) mouse, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis. At 15 weeks of age, the N9 backcross generation of C57BL/KsJ-db/db-ApcMin/+ (db/db-Min/+) mice developed an increased incidence and multiplicity of adenomas in the intestinal tract when compared to the db/m-Min/+ and m/m-Min/+ mice. Blood biochemical profile showed significant increases in insulin (8.3-fold to 11.7-fold), cholesterol (1.2-fold to 1.7-fold), and triglyceride (1.2-fold to 1.3-fold) in the db/db-Min/+ mice, when compared to those of the db/m-Min/+ and m/m-Min/+ mice. Increases (1.4-fold to 2.6-fold) in RNA levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IRF-1R, and IGF-2 were also observed in the db/db- Min/+ mice. These results suggested that the IGFs, as well as hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia, promoted adenoma formation in the db/db-Min/+ mice. Our results thus suggested that the db/db-Min/+ mice should be invaluable for studies on the pathogenesis of CRC in obese and diabetes patients and the therapy and prevention of CRC in these patients. PMID:22174655

  2. The motivational properties of schedule-induced polydipsia1

    PubMed Central

    Falk, John L.

    1966-01-01

    Schedule-induced polydipsia occurred during initial magazine training to Noyes pellets (45 mg), disappeared when lever-pressing was acquired on a continuous reinforcement schedule (CRF), and reappeared when the food contingency was changed to a 1-min variable interval schedule (VI 1 min). Polydipsia also developed under a VI 1 min food schedule when water was concurrently available on various fixed ratios (FR), rather than being freely available. The level of the polydipsia and its motivating properties allow it to be classified as a form of adjunctive behavior. PMID:5903953

  3. Melaminium nitrate–melamine–water (1/1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Farook; Lin, Sek Kei; Hello, Kasim Mohammed; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2010-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title salt, C3H7N6 +·NO3 −·C3H6N6·H2O, the asymmetric unit consists of two neutral melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) mol­ecules, two melaminium cations, two nitrate anions and two solvent water mol­ecules. One of the nitrate anions is disordered over two sets of positions, with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.909 (3):0.091 (3). The cations and neutral mol­ecules are approximately planar, with maximum deviations of 0.018 (2), 0.024 (2), 0.019 (2) and 0.007 (2) Å for each, respectively. In the crystal structure, melaminium cations and netural melamine mol­ecules self-assemble via N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds to form a supra­molecular hexa­gonal-shaped motif. In addition, the nitrate anions and water mol­ecules are connected by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional network. PMID:21589188

  4. Human safety and pharmacokinetics of the CFC alternative propellants HFC 134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and HFC 227 (1,1,1,2,3,3, 3-heptafluoropropane) following whole-body exposure.

    PubMed

    Emmen, H H; Hoogendijk, E M; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W A; Muijser, H; Duistermaat, E; Ravensberg, J C; Alexander, D J; Borkhataria, D; Rusch, G M; Schmit, B

    2000-08-01

    HFC 134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and HFC 227 (1,1,1,2,3,3, 3-heptafluoropropane) are used to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigerant and aerosol applications, including medical use in metered-dose inhalers. Production and consumption of CFCs are being phased out under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The safety and pharmacokinetics of HFC 134a and HFC 227 were assessed in two separate double-blind studies. Each HFC (hydrofluorocarbon) was administered via whole-body exposure as a vapor to eight (four male and four female) healthy volunteers. Volunteers were exposed, once weekly for 1 h, first to air and then to ascending concentrations of HFC (1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 parts per million (ppm)), interspersed with a second air exposure and two CFC 12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) exposures (1000 and 4000 ppm). Comparison of either HFC 134a or HFC 227 to CFC 12 or air gave no clinically significant results for any of the measured laboratory parameters. There were no notable adverse events, there was no evidence of effects on the central nervous system, and there were no symptoms of upper respiratory tract irritation. HFC 134a, HFC 227, and CFC 12 blood concentrations increased rapidly and in an exposure-concentration-dependent manner, although not strictly proportionally, and approached steady state. Maximum blood concentrations (C(max)) tended to be higher in males than females; in the HFC 227 study, these were statistically significantly (P < 0. 05) higher in males for each HFC 227 and CFC 12 exposure level. In the HFC 134a study, the gender difference in C(max) was only statistically significant (P < 0.05) for CFC 12 at 4000 ppm and HFC 134a at 8000 ppm. Following the end of exposure, blood concentrations declined rapidly, predominantly biphasically and independent of exposure concentration. For the HFC 134a study, the t(1/2)alpha (alpha elimination half-life) was short for both CFC 12 and HFC 134a (<11 min). The t(1

  5. The E1 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Bergvall, Monika; Melendy, Thomas; Archambault, Jacques

    2013-10-15

    E1, an ATP-dependent DNA helicase, is the only enzyme encoded by papillomaviruses (PVs). It is essential for replication and amplification of the viral episome in the nucleus of infected cells. To do so, E1 assembles into a double-hexamer at the viral origin, unwinds DNA at the origin and ahead of the replication fork and interacts with cellular DNA replication factors. Biochemical and structural studies have revealed the assembly pathway of E1 at the origin and how the enzyme unwinds DNA using a spiral escalator mechanism. E1 is tightly regulated in vivo, in particular by post-translational modifications that restrict its accumulation in the nucleus. Here we review how different functional domains of E1 orchestrate viral DNA replication, with an emphasis on their interactions with substrate DNA, host DNA replication factors and modifying enzymes. These studies have made E1 one of the best characterized helicases and provided unique insights on how PVs usurp different host-cell machineries to replicate and amplify their genome in a tightly controlled manner. - Highlights: • The papillomavirus E1 helicase orchestrates replication of the viral DNA genome. • E1 assembles into a double-hexamer at the viral origin with the help of E2. • E1 interacts with cellular DNA replication factors. • E1 unwinds DNA using a spiral escalator mechanism. • Nuclear accumulation of E1 is regulated by post-translational modifications.

  6. [DAX-1 abnormality].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Ei-ichi

    2002-02-01

    DAX-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that plays a key role in the development and function of the adrenal gland and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Absence of DAX-1 results in X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita, a human inherited disorder characterized by adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The DAX-1 gene may be responsible for a male-to-female sex reversal syndrome, referred to as dosage sensitive sex reversal(DSS), due to the duplication of a small region of human chromosome Xp21. Dax-1 and Sry have been shown to act antagonistically in the mouse system, where over-expression of Dax-1 leads to female development and increasing activity of Sry to male development. Although these data strongly implicate Dax-1 in sex determination, there is no evidence that DAX-1 is equivalent to DSS in human.

  7. Early cardiology assessment and intervention reduces mortality following myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS)

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Alina; Pattenden, Holly; Leung, Maria; Davies, Simon; George, David A.; Raubenheimer, Hilgardt; Niwaz, Zakiyah

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) is defined as troponin elevation of ≥0.03 ng/mL associated with 3.87-fold increase in early mortality. We sought to determine the impact of cardiology intervention on mortality in patients who developed MINS after general thoracic surgery. Methods A retrospective review was performed in patients over 5 years. Troponin was routinely measured and levels ≥0.04 ng/mL classified as positive. Data acquisition and mortality status was obtained via medical records and NHS tracing systems. Thirty-day mortality was compared on MINS cohort using Fisher’s exact square testing and logistic regression analysis. Results Troponin levels were measured in 491 (96%) of 511 patients. Eighty (16%) patients fulfilled the MINS criteria. Sixty-one (76%) received early cardiology consult and “myocardial infarction” stated in four (5%) patients. Risk assessment (for AMI) was undertaken; 20 (25%) patients were commenced on aspirin, four (5%) on β-blockers and one (1%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Forty-nine (61%) patients received primary risk factor modifications and 26 (33%) had outpatient follow-up. There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients who died within 30 days post-operatively in the MINS group of 2.6% compared to the non-MINS group of 1.6% (P=0.625). The odds ratio for 30-day mortality in the MINS group was 1.69 (95% CI: 0.34 to 8.57, P=0.522). Conclusions MINS is common after general thoracic surgery. Early cardiology intervention reduced the expected hazard ratio of early death from 3.87 to an odds ratio of 1.69 with no significant difference in 30-day mortality for patients who developed MINS. PMID:27162667

  8. Prokineticin1 and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Alfaidy, Nadia

    2016-06-01

    Prokineticin 1 (PROK1), also called EG-VEGF, is a peptide of 86 amino acids with multiple biological functions. PROK1 acts via two G-protein coupled receptors: PROKR1 PROKR2. PROK1 is highly expressed in the placenta. This article reports the expression and the role of PROK1 during normal and pathological pregnancies: (i) during early pregnancy, PROK1 exhibits a peak of placental expression shortly before the establishment of the feto-maternal circulation; (ii) its receptors, PROKR1 PROKR2 are highly expressed in human placenta; (iii) its expression is increased by hypoxia; (iv) PROK1 inhibits extravillous trophoblasts migration and invasion and increases their proliferation and survival; (v) PROK1 is also a pro-angiogenic placental factor that increases microvascular placental endothelial cells proliferation, migration, invasion, and permeability. Circulating PROK1 levels are five times higher in pregnant women during the first trimester compared to the second and third trimesters. Also, its serum levels are higher in patients with preeclampsia (PE) and in patients with isolated intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). In mice, maintaining high level of PROK1 beyond its normal period of production (>10.5dpc) reproduces symptoms of PE. To date, our results demonstrated that PROK1 is a central factor of human placentation with direct roles both in the control of trophoblast invasion and villous growth. Thus, a failure in the expression of PROK1 and/or its receptor during pregnancy may contribute to the development of PE and/or IUGR. Besides theses original findings, we also report a direct role of this factor in parturition. PMID:27172869

  9. Miyun 232 MHz survey 1: Fields centered at: alpha:00(h)41(m), delta:41 deg 12 min and alpha: 07(h)00(m),delta:35 deg 00 min

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Xiz-Hen; Zheng, Yi-Jia; Chen, Hong-Sheng; Wang, Shou-Guan

    1992-01-01

    A new meter-wave survey of sky region north of declination +30 deg is carried out with the Miyun 232 MHz Synthesis Radio Telescope (MSRT). The instrument, observation, and method of data reduction are briefly described. A preliminary catalog, first of a series, for two 8 deg. x 8 deg. regions centered respectively at 35 deg. is presented. On the average 4 - 5 sources per square degree are recorded with position accuracy of 5 sec. / S(Jy). BGPW scale is adopted for the flux density calibration. The accuracy of flux determination is limited by background fluctuation which is about 30 mJy. The catalog is complete for sources with flux larger than 0.25 Jy. The total number of sources listed in the paper amounts to 687. Several extended sources, sources with convex spectra, and one GPS source were found. Spectra of sources with flux larger than 0.5 Jy were also given.

  10. SAF1. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y

    1997-06-01

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  11. Expression of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1 (UGT1) and Glucuronidation Activity toward Endogenous Substances in Humanized UGT1 Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kutsuno, Yuki; Hirashima, Rika; Sakamoto, Masaya; Ushikubo, Hiroko; Michimae, Hirofumi; Itoh, Tomoo; Tukey, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Although UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are important phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes, they are also involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds. Certain substrates of UGTs, such as serotonin and estradiol, play important roles in the brain. However, the expression of UGTs in the human brain has not been fully clarified. Recently, humanized UGT1 mice (hUGT1 mice) in which the original Ugt1 locus was disrupted and replaced with the human UGT1 locus have been developed. In the present study, the expression pattern of UGT1As in brains from humans and hUGT1 mice was examined. We found that UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A6, and 1A10 were expressed in human brains. The expression pattern of UGT1As in hUGT1 mouse brains was similar to that in human brains. In addition, we examined the expression of UGT1A1 and 1A6 in the cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex of hUGT1 mice. UGT1A1 in all brain regions and UGT1A6 in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of 6-month-old hUGT1 mice were expressed at a significantly higher rate than those of 2-week-old hUGT1 mice. A difference in expression levels between brain regions was also observed. Brain microsomes exhibited glucuronidation activities toward estradiol and serotonin, with mean values of 0.13 and 5.17 pmol/min/mg, respectively. In conclusion, UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 might play an important role in function regulation of endogenous compounds in a region- and age-dependent manner. Humanized UGT1 mice might be useful to study the importance of brain UGTs in vivo. PMID:25953521

  12. α1-Antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Greene, Catherine M; Marciniak, Stefan J; Teckman, Jeffrey; Ferrarotti, Ilaria; Brantly, Mark L; Lomas, David A; Stoller, James K; McElvaney, Noel G

    2016-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in SERPINA1, leading to liver and lung disease. It is not a rare disorder but frequently goes underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or cryptogenic liver disease. The most frequent disease-associated mutations include the S allele and the Z allele of SERPINA1, which lead to the accumulation of misfolded α1-antitrypsin in hepatocytes, endoplasmic reticulum stress, low circulating levels of α1-antitrypsin and liver disease. Currently, there is no cure for severe liver disease and the only management option is liver transplantation when liver failure is life-threatening. A1ATD-associated lung disease predominately occurs in adults and is caused principally by inadequate protease inhibition. Treatment of A1ATD-associated lung disease includes standard therapies that are also used for the treatment of COPD, in addition to the use of augmentation therapy (that is, infusions of human plasma-derived, purified α1-antitrypsin). New therapies that target the misfolded α1-antitrypsin or attempt to correct the underlying genetic mutation are currently under development. PMID:27465791

  13. The NLRP1 inflammasomes.

    PubMed

    Chavarría-Smith, Joseph; Vance, Russell E

    2015-05-01

    Inflammasomes are cytosolic protein complexes that serve as platforms for the recruitment and activation of the pro-inflammatory CASPASE-1 protease. CASPASE-1 activation leads to processing and maturation of the cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 and a lytic form of cell death termed pyroptosis. Inflammasome assembly is initiated by cytosolic sensors in response to microbial infections. Many of these sensors, including NLRP1 (NLR family, pyrin domain containing 1), are described to form an inflammasome, but until recently, the mechanism of inflammasome activation and its physiological functions in host defense have remained unclear. In the last few years, important advances in our understanding of NLRP1 biology have been achieved. In this review, we discuss the activation of NLRP1 by various stimuli, including Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin, Toxoplasma gondii, muramyl dipeptide, and host intracellular ATP depletion. The role NLRP1 plays in pathogen recognition and resistance during infection is also discussed, as is the regulation of NLRP1 by host and viral proteins. We conclude by discussing the unexpected differences in the mechanism of NLRP1 inflammasome activation, as compared to the activation of other inflammasomes, such as the NAIP (NLR family, apoptosis inhibitory protein)/NLRC4 inflammasomes. PMID:25879281

  14. Electronic structure of octane on Cu(1 1 1) and Ni(1 1 1) studied by near edge X-ray absorption fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, Manabu; Entani, Shiro; Ikeda, Susumu; Yoshikawa, Genki; Nakai, Ikuyo; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Ohta, Toshiaki; Saiki, Koichiro

    2007-09-01

    The electronic structure of an octane film grown on Cu(1 1 1) and Ni(1 1 1) was studied using C K-edge near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). A pre-peak was observed on the bulk edge onset for the 1 ML thick octane films on the metal substrates. The pre-peak originated from metal induced gap states (MIGS) in the band gap of octane. The intensity of the pre-peak for octane/Ni(1 1 1) was the same as that of octane/Cu(1 1 1), suggesting that there was little difference in the density of unoccupied MIGS between the octane film on Ni(1 1 1) and Cu(1 1 1). We discuss the metal dependence of the density of unoccupied MIGS on the band structure of the metals.

  15. Event generation with SHERPA 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, T.; Hoche, Stefan.; Krauss, F.; Schoenherr, M.; Schumann, S.; Siegert, F.; Winter, J.

    2008-12-18

    In this paper the current release of the Monte Carlo event generator Sherpa, version 1.1, is presented. Sherpa is a general-purpose tool for the simulation of particle collisions at high-energy colliders. It contains a very flexible tree-level matrix-element generator for the calculation of hard scattering processes within the Standard Model and various new physics models. The emission of additional QCD partons off the initial and final states is described through a parton-shower model. To consistently combine multi-parton matrix elements with the QCD parton cascades the approach of Catani, Krauss, Kuhn and Webber is employed. A simple model of multiple interactions is used to account for underlying events in hadron-hadron collisions. The fragmentation of partons into primary hadrons is described using a phenomenological cluster-hadronization model. A comprehensive library for simulating tau-lepton and hadron decays is provided. Where available form-factor models and matrix elements are used, allowing for the inclusion of spin correlations; effects of virtual and real QED corrections are included using the approach of Yennie, Frautschi and Suura.

  16. Pandemic H1N1 influenza

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus that has targeted not only those with chronic medical illness, the very young and old, but also a large segment of the patient population that has previously been afforded relative protection - those who are young, generally healthy, and immune naive. The illness is mild in most, but results in hospitalization and severe ARDS in an important minority. Among those who become critically ill, 20-40% will die, predominantly of severe hypoxic respiratory failure. However, and potentially in part due to the young age of those affected, intensive care with aggressive oxygenation support will allow most people to recover. The volume of patients infected and with critical illness placed substantial strain on the capacity of the health care system and critical care most specifically. Despite this, the 2009 pandemic has engaged our specialty and highlighted its importance like no other. Thus far, the national and global critical care response has been brisk, collaborative and helpful - not only for this pandemic, but for subsequent challenges in years ahead. PMID:22263101

  17. X-1 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-1 (#46-062) in flight. The shock wave pattern in the exhaust plume is visible. The X-1 series aircraft were air-launched from a modified Boeing B-29 or a B-50 Superfortress bombers. The X-1-1 was painted a bright orange by Bell Aircraft. It was thought that the aircraft would be more visable to those doing the tracking during a flight. When NACA received the airplanes they were painted white, which was an easier color to find in the skies over Muroc Air Field in California. This particular craft was nicknamed 'Glamorous Glennis' by Chuck Yeager in honor of his wife, and is now on permanent display in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all

  18. Min-protein oscillations in round bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2004-12-01

    In rod-shaped Escherichia coli cells, the Min proteins, which are involved in division-site selection, oscillate from pole-to-pole. The homologs of the Min proteins from the round bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae also form a spatial oscillator when expressed in wild-type and round, rodA- mutants of E. coli, suggesting that the Min proteins form an oscillator in N. gonorrhoeae. Here we report that a numerical model for Min-protein oscillations in rod-shaped cells also produces oscillations in round cells (cocci). Our numerical results explain why the MinE-protein rings found in wild-type E. coli are absent in round mutants. In addition, we find that for round cells there is a minimum radius below which oscillations do not occur, and a maximum radius above which oscillations become mislocalized. Finally, we demonstrate that Min-protein oscillations can select the long axis in nearly round cells based solely on geometry, a potentially important factor in division-plane selection in cocci.

  19. TBC1D1 reduces palmitate oxidation by inhibiting β-HAD activity in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Maher, A C; McFarlan, J; Lally, J; Snook, L A; Bonen, A

    2014-11-01

    In skeletal muscle the Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has been implicated in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation by an unknown mechanism. We determined whether TBC1D1 altered fatty acid utilization via changes in protein-mediated fatty acid transport and/or selected enzymes regulating mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We also determined the effects of TBC1D1 on glucose transport and oxidation. Electrotransfection of mouse soleus muscles with TBC1D1 cDNA increased TBC1D1 protein after 2 wk (P<0.05), without altering its paralog AS160. TBC1D1 overexpression decreased basal palmitate oxidation (-22%) while blunting 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR)-stimulated palmitate oxidation (-18%). There was a tendency to increase fatty acid esterification (+10 nmol·g(-1)·60 min(-1), P=0.07), which reflected the reduction in fatty acid oxidation (-12 nmol·g(-1)·60 min(-1)). Concomitantly, basal (+21%) and AICAR-stimulated glucose oxidation (+8%) were increased in TBC1D1-transfected muscles relative to their respective controls (P<0.05), independent of changes in GLUT4 and glucose transport. The reductions in TBC1D1-mediated fatty acid oxidation could not be attributed to changes in the transporter FAT/CD36, muscle mitochondrial content, CPT1 expression or the expression and phosphorylation of AS160, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, or AMPK. However, TBC1D1 overexpression reduced β-HAD enzyme activity (-18%, P<0.05). In conclusion, TBC1D1-mediated reduction of muscle fatty acid oxidation appears to occur via inhibition of β-HAD activity.

  20. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal... Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax imposed by section 1 (whether by subsection (a) or subsection...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal... Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax imposed by section 1 (whether by subsection (a) or subsection...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal... Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax imposed by section 1 (whether by subsection (a) or subsection...

  3. X-1 on display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    A Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1 series aircraft on display at an Open House at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit or High-Speed Flight Research Station hangar on South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California. (The precise date of the photo is uncertain, but it is probably before 1948.) The instrumentation that was carried aboard the aircraft to gather data is on display. The aircraft data was recorded on oscillograph film that was read, calibrated, and converted into meaningful parameters for the engineers to evaluate from each research flight. In the background of the photo are several early U.S. jets. These include several Lockheed P-80 Shooting Stars, which were used as chase planes on X-1 flights; two Bell P-59 Airacomets, the first U.S. jet pursuit aircraft (fighter in later parlance); and a prototype Republic XP-84 Thunderjet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for eXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant

  4. HMGB1 loves company.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Marco E

    2009-09-01

    HMGB1, outside of a cell, is a trigger of inflammation and a stimulus for tissue reconstruction; the balance may depend on the complexes it forms with other molecules. HMGB1 is the prime example of a danger signal that originates from the damaged self rather than from invading pathogens. HMGB1 is released by cells that die traumatically and is secreted by cells destined to die and by activated cells of the innate immunity system. As a danger signal, HMGB1 is expected to trigger inflammation, but recent reports indicate that pure recombinant HMGB1 has no proinflammatory activity and only acts as a chemoattractant and a mitogen. However, HMGB1 forms highly inflammatory complexes with ssDNA, LPS, IL-1beta, and nucleosomes, which interact with TLR9, TLR4, IL-1R, and TLR2 receptors, respectively. Thus, HMGB1 has dual activities, solo or in company; I speculate that this may serve our body's necessity to sacrifice or reconstruct tissues as required by the presence or absence of pathogens.

  5. Identification of Dehalobacter reductive dehalogenases that catalyse dechlorination of chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,1-dichloroethane

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shuiquan; Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Two novel reductive dehalogenases (RDases) that are highly similar to each other but catalyse distinct dechlorination reactions were identified from Dehalobacter-containing mixed cultures. These two RDases were partially purified from crude protein extracts of anaerobic dechlorinating enrichment cultures using blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel slices were assayed for dechlorinating activity, and associated proteins were identified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with the metagenome of the parent culture as the reference database. The two RDases identified, annotated as CfrA and DcrA, share an amino acid identity of 95.2 per cent, but use different substrates: CfrA dechlorinates chloroform (CF) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), but not 1,1-dichloroethane; DcrA dechlorinates 1,1-dichloroethane, but not CF or 1,1,1-TCA. These two novel RDases share no more than 40 per cent amino acid identity to any other known or putative RDases, but both have a twin-arginine motif and two iron–sulfur binding motifs conserved in most RDases. Peptides specific to two putative membrane anchor proteins, annotated as CfrB and DcrB, were also detected in gel slices. PMID:23479748

  6. The RAP1GA1 locus for human Rap1-GTPase activating protein 1 maps to chromosome 1p36.1-->p35.

    PubMed

    Weiss, J; Rubinfeld, B; Polakis, P G; McCormick, F; Cavenee, W K; Arden, K C

    1994-01-01

    Using a panel of somatic cell hybrids we have mapped the locus for Rap1-GTPase activating protein 1 (RAP1GA1) to human chromosome 1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments independently confirmed the chromosomal localization and refined it to 1p36.1-->p35.

  7. Arginase-1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sin, Yuan Yan; Baron, Garrett; Schulze, Andreas; Funk, Colin D

    2015-12-01

    Arginase-1 (ARG1) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the liver-based urea cycle, leading to impaired ureagenesis. This genetic disorder is caused by 40+ mutations found fairly uniformly spread throughout the ARG1 gene, resulting in partial or complete loss of enzyme function, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. ARG1-deficient patients exhibit hyperargininemia with spastic paraparesis, progressive neurological and intellectual impairment, persistent growth retardation, and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia, a clinical pattern that differs strikingly from other urea cycle disorders. This review briefly highlights the current understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of ARG1 deficiency derived from clinical case reports and therapeutic strategies stretching over several decades and reports on several exciting new developments regarding the pathophysiology of the disorder using ARG1 global and inducible knockout mouse models. Gene transfer studies in these mice are revealing potential therapeutic options that can be exploited in the future. However, caution is advised in extrapolating results since the lethal disease phenotype in mice is much more severe than in humans indicating that the mouse models may not precisely recapitulate human disease etiology. Finally, some of the functions and implications of ARG1 in non-urea cycle activities are considered. Lingering questions and future areas to be addressed relating to the clinical manifestations of ARG1 deficiency in liver and brain are also presented. Hopefully, this review will spark invigorated research efforts that lead to treatments with better clinical outcomes. PMID:26467175

  8. 1,4-Dioxane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dioxane ; CASRN 123 - 91 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  9. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 50 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  10. 1,3-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 541 - 73 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  11. Diabetes Type 1

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  12. MAP3K1

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Trang T.; Angus, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    MAP3K1 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family of serine/threonine kinases. MAP3K1 regulates JNK activation and is unique among human kinases in that it also encodes an E3 ligase domain that ubiquitylates c-Jun and ERK1/2. Full length MAP3K1 regulates cell migration and contributes to pro-survival signaling while its caspase 3-mediated cleavage generates a C-terminal kinase domain that promotes apoptosis. The critical function of MAP3K1 in cell fate decisions suggests that it may be a target for deregulation in cancer. Recent large-scale genomic studies have revealed that MAP3K1 copy number loss and somatic missense or nonsense mutations are observed in a significant number of different cancers, being most prominent in luminal breast cancer. The alteration of MAP3K1 in diverse cancer types demonstrates the importance of defining phenotypes for possible therapeutic targeting of tumor cell vulnerabilities created when MAP3K1 function is lost or gained. PMID:24386504

  13. A1C

    MedlinePlus

    A1C is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 ... A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the ...

  14. MR1 discovery.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Keiichiro

    2016-08-01

    The moment of MR1 discovery is described. The MR1 gene is the first and the last reported human MHC-related gene intentionally isolated from the human genome composed of three billion base pairs. Evolutionary considerations formed the basis of its isolation. Some details surrounding the moment and some retrospective descriptions with various kinds of encounters are also included.

  15. Oxidation of trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and chloroform by toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; Barbieri, P; Wood, T K

    1998-08-01

    Toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1, which oxidizes toluene and o-xylene, was examined for its ability to degrade the environmental pollutants trichloroethylene (TCE), 1, 1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), cis-1,2-DCE, trans-1,2-DCE, chloroform, dichloromethane, phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol, and 2,3,4,5, 6-pentachlorophenol. Escherichia coli JM109 that expressed ToMO from genes on plasmid pBZ1260 under control of the lac promoter degraded TCE (3.3 microM), 1,1-DCE (1.25 microM), and chloroform (6.3 microM) at initial rates of 3.1, 3.6, and 1.6 nmol/(min x mg of protein), respectively. Stoichiometric amounts of chloride release were seen, indicating mineralization (2.6, 1.5, and 2.3 Cl- atoms per molecule of TCE, 1,1-DCE, and chloroform, respectively). Thus, the substrate range of ToMO is extended to include aliphatic chlorinated compounds. PMID:9687467

  16. Quantum Max-flow/Min-cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Freedman, Michael H.; Sattath, Or; Stong, Richard; Minton, Greg

    2016-06-01

    The classical max-flow min-cut theorem describes transport through certain idealized classical networks. We consider the quantum analog for tensor networks. By associating an integral capacity to each edge and a tensor to each vertex in a flow network, we can also interpret it as a tensor network and, more specifically, as a linear map from the input space to the output space. The quantum max-flow is defined to be the maximal rank of this linear map over all choices of tensors. The quantum min-cut is defined to be the minimum product of the capacities of edges over all cuts of the tensor network. We show that unlike the classical case, the quantum max-flow=min-cut conjecture is not true in general. Under certain conditions, e.g., when the capacity on each edge is some power of a fixed integer, the quantum max-flow is proved to equal the quantum min-cut. However, concrete examples are also provided where the equality does not hold. We also found connections of quantum max-flow/min-cut with entropy of entanglement and the quantum satisfiability problem. We speculate that the phenomena revealed may be of interest both in spin systems in condensed matter and in quantum gravity.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10435 - Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10435 Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3... chemical substance identified as phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)- (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10435 - Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10435 Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3... chemical substance identified as phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)- (PMN...

  19. 26 CFR 1.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... §§ 1.704-1T(b)(1)(ii)(b)(1) and 1.704-1T(b)(4)(xi) as in effect prior to October 19, 2006 (see 26 CFR..., see §§ 1.704-1T(b)(1)(ii)(b)(1) and 1.704-1T(b)(4)(xi) as in effect prior to October 19, 2006 (26...

  20. 26 CFR 1.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... §§ 1.704-1T(b)(1)(ii)(b)(1) and 1.704-1T(b)(4)(xi) as in effect prior to October 19, 2006 (see 26 CFR..., see §§ 1.704-1T(b)(1)(ii)(b)(1) and 1.704-1T(b)(4)(xi) as in effect prior to October 19, 2006 (26...

  1. Adsorption of dichlorodifluoromethane, chlorodifluoromethane, chloropentafluoroethane, 1,1-difluoroethane, and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane on silica gel

    SciTech Connect

    Frere, M.; Berlier, K.; Bougard, J.; Jadot, R. . Service de Thermodynamique)

    1994-10-01

    The CFC's (chlorofluorocarbons) are used as working refrigerants fluids. The most commonly used are R12, R22, and R502 (48.8% R22 and 51.2% R115). Recent concerns of the effects of CFC's on the ozone layer require the development of efficient recovery methods. One technique is to adsorb the fluids onto a porous medium such as silica gel. Thermodynamic data on the adsorption of dichlorodifluoromethane (R12), chlorodifluoromethane (R22), chloropentafluoroethane (R115), 1,1-difluoroethane (R152a), and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) on silica gel are required for the design of recovery units. The results are presented here.

  2. 26 CFR 1.6109-1 - Identifying numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., see 26 CFR § 1.6109-1 (revised as of April 1, 1973). ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Identifying numbers. 1.6109-1 Section 1.6109-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.6109-1 Identifying numbers. (a) Information to...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6109-1 - Identifying numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., see 26 CFR § 1.6109-1 (revised as of April 1, 1973). ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identifying numbers. 1.6109-1 Section 1.6109-1...) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.6109-1 Identifying numbers. (a) Information to be...

  4. Fentanyl pharmacokinetics is not dependent on hepatic uptake by organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 in human beings.

    PubMed

    Ziesenitz, Victoria C; König, Sonja K; Mahlke, Nina; Jantos, Ricarda; Skopp, Gisela; Weiss, Johanna; Haefeli, Walter E; Mikus, Gerd

    2013-07-01

    A recent study investigating the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in Sprague-Dawley rats suggested fentanyl to be a substrate of rat organic anion-transporting polypeptide Oatp. In human beings, the most important OATP for the pharmacokinetics of many drugs is OATP1B1. Therefore, genetic variants of OATP1B1 (SLCO1B1) might modulate fentanyl pharmacokinetics and efficacy in human beings. Sixteen healthy male and female volunteers, homozygous for SLCO1B1*1a (genetic wild-type) (n = 11) or *15 (deficient haplotype carrying the single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs2306283 and rs4149056 and exhibiting altered transport activity; n = 5), were included in this randomized crossover study. The participants received fentanyl (5 μg/kg) intravenously alone or with the OATP inhibitor rifampicin (600 mg single oral dose). The pharmacokinetics of fentanyl and norfentanyl were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In addition, fentanyl uptake in vitro was evaluated in OATP1B1 overexpressing HEK293 cells and compared to a mock-transfected cell line. In the clinical trial, fentanyl clearance was 18.8 ± 8.2 mL/min. kg in SLCO1B1*1a and 19.5 ± 1.8 mL/min/kg in SLCO1B1*15 carriers and not significantly different between the genotypes. During rifampicin, fentanyl clearance was 15.0 ± 4.4 mL/min/kg in SLCO1B1*1a and 16.7 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg in SLCO1B1*15 carriers (p > 0.5). In addition, in vitro data also indicate that fentanyl is not transported by OATP1B1. In conclusion, our data indicate that OATP1B1 has no impact on fentanyl pharmacokinetics in human beings.

  5. Epidural blood flow during prostaglandin E1 or trimethaphan induced hypotension.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Kakiuchi, M; Shimada, Y

    1993-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) or trimethaphan (TMP) induced hypotension on epidural blood flow (EBF) during spinal surgery, EBF was measured using the heat clearance method in 30 patients who underwent postero-lateral interbody fusion under isoflurane anaesthesia. An initial dose of 0.1 microgram.kg-1.min-1 of PGE1 (15 patients), or 10 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 of TMP (15 patients) was administered intravenously after the dural opening and the dose was adjusted to maintain the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) at about 60 mmHg. The hypotensive drug was discontinued at the completion of the operative procedure. After starting PGE1 or TMP, MAP and rate pressure product (RPP) decreased significantly compared with preinfusion values (P < 0.01), and the degree of hypotension due to PGE1 remained constant until 60 min after its discontinuation. Heart rate (HR) did not change in either group. EBFF did not change during PGE1 infusion whereas in the TMP group, EBF decreased significantly at 30 and 60 min after the start of TMP (preinfusion: 45.9 +/- 13.9 ml/100g/min. 30 min: 32.3 +/- 9.9 ml/100 g/min (P < 0.05). 60 min: 30 +/- 7.5 ml/100 g/min (P < 0.05)). These results suggest that PGE1 may be preferable to TMP for hypotensive anaesthesia in spinal surgery because TMP decreased EBF.

  6. MinFinder v2.0: An improved version of MinFinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

    2008-10-01

    A new version of the "MinFinder" program is presented that offers an augmented linking procedure for Fortran-77 subprograms, two additional stopping rules and a new start-point rejection mechanism that saves a significant portion of gradient and function evaluations. The method is applied on a set of standard test functions and the results are reported. New version program summaryProgram title: MinFinder v2.0 Catalogue identifier: ADWU_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWU_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC Licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14 150 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 218 144 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language used: GNU C++, GNU FORTRAN, GNU C Computer: The program is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Operating system: Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD RAM: 200 000 bytes Classification: 4.9 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWU_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Computer Physics Communications 174 (2006) 166-179 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques can be trapped in any local minimum. Global optimization is then the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions, i.e. they are far from zero. Solution method: Using a uniform pdf, points are sampled from a rectangular domain. A clustering technique, based on a typical distance

  7. Learnability of min-max pattern classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping-Fai; Maragos, Petros

    1991-11-01

    This paper introduces the class of thresholded min-max functions and studies their learning under the probably approximately correct (PAC) model introduced by Valiant. These functions can be used as pattern classifiers of both real-valued and binary-valued feature vectors. They are a lattice-theoretic generalization of Boolean functions and are also related to three-layer perceptrons and morphological signal operators. Several subclasses of the thresholded min- max functions are shown to be learnable under the PAC model.

  8. Spacelab Life Sciences-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Jahns, Gary; Meylor, John; Hawes, Nikki; Fast, Tom N.; Zarow, Greg

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an historical overview of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission along with the resultant biomaintenance data and investigators' findings. Only the nonhuman elements, developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) researchers, are addressed herein. The STS-40 flight of SLS-1, in June 1991, was the first spacelab flown after 'return to orbit', it was also the first spacelab mission specifically designated as a Life Sciences Spacelab. The experiments performed provided baseline data for both hardware and rodents used in succeeding missions.

  9. 1-Benzyl-4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento-Sánchez, Juan I.; Aguirre, Gerardo; Rivero, Ignacio A.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C19H15N3, the benzyl group is almost perpendicular to the triazole ring [dihedral angle = 80.64 (8)°], while the napthyl group makes an angle of 30.27 (12)° with the plane of the triazole ring. This conformation is different from the 1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole analogue, which has the benzyl ring system at an angle of 87.94° and the phenyl group at an angle of 3.35° to the plane of the triazole ring. PMID:21837221

  10. The dehydrogenation of CH4 on Rh(1 1 1), Rh(1 1 0) and Rh(1 0 0) surfaces: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baojun; Song, Luzhi; Zhang, Riguang

    2012-02-01

    CH4 dehydrogenation on Rh(1 1 1), Rh(1 1 0) and Rh(1 0 0) surfaces has been investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) slab calculations. On the basis of energy analysis, the preferred adsorption sites of CHx (x = 0-4) and H species on Rh(1 1 1), Rh(1 1 0) and Rh(1 0 0) surfaces are located, respectively. Then, the stable co-adsorption configurations of CHx (x = 0-3) and H are obtained. Further, the kinetic results of CH4 dehydrogenation show that on Rh(1 1 1) and Rh(1 0 0) surfaces, CH is the most abundant species for CH4 dissociation; on Rh(1 1 0) surface, CH2 is the most abundant species, our results suggest that Rh catalyst can resist the carbon deposition in the CH4 dehydrogenation. Finally, results of thermodynamic and kinetic show that CH4 dehydrogenation on Rh(1 0 0) surface is the most preferable reaction pathway in comparison with that on Rh(1 1 1) and Rh(1 1 0) surfaces.

  11. Thiomethylstilbenes as inhibitors of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 activities.

    PubMed

    Mikstacka, Renata; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda; Wieczorek, Marcin; Sobiak, Stanislaw

    2008-06-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural stilbene derivative occurring in grapes, peanuts and red wine. Its chemopreventive action has been established in studies on animal models. Recently, numerous classes of compounds with stilbene backbone have been investigated for their biological activity concerning cancer prevention; e. g. resveratrol methyl ethers appeared to be specific and potent inhibitors of cytochromes P450 (CYP) family 1 involved in the activation of procarcinogens. Since the replacement of the 4'-hydroxyl with a thiomethyl group is supposed to reduce toxicity of stilbene derivatives, the purpose of this study was the synthesis and evaluation of a series of 4-thiomethyl-trans-stilbene derivatives differing in a number and position of additional methoxy groups. Their inhibitory potency toward human recombinant CYPs: CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 have been studied and compared with the effect of resveratrol and its analogues. Among compounds tested, 2-methoxy-4'-thiomethyl-trans-stilbene and 3-methoxy-4'-thiomethyl-trans-stilbene demonstrated the most potent and selective inhibitory effect on CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 activities. The results of our study indicate that modification of stilbene derivatives with thiomethyl group may influence the selectivity and inhibitory potency of these compounds toward P450 isozymes. Thus, it should be considered in developing new chemopreventive agents based on their mechanism of action.

  12. DAX-1 (NR0B1) and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) in human disease.

    PubMed

    Suntharalingham, Jenifer P; Buonocore, Federica; Duncan, Andrew J; Achermann, John C

    2015-08-01

    DAX-1 (NR0B1) and SF-1 (NR5A1) are two nuclear receptor transcription factors that play a key role in human adrenal and reproductive development. Loss of DAX-1 function is classically associated with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita. This condition typically affects boys and presents as primary adrenal insufficiency in early infancy or childhood, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism at puberty and impaired spermatogenesis. Late onset forms of this condition and variant phenotypes are increasingly recognized. In contrast, disruption of SF-1 only rarely causes adrenal insufficiency, usually in combination with testicular dysgenesis. Variants in SF-1/NR5A1 more commonly cause a spectrum of reproductive phenotypes ranging from 46,XY DSD (partial testicular dysgenesis or reduced androgen production) and hypospadias to male factor infertility or primary ovarian insufficiency. Making a specific diagnosis of DAX-1 or SF-1 associated conditions is important for long-term monitoring of endocrine and reproductive function, appropriate genetic counselling for family members, and for providing appropriate informed support for young people. PMID:26303087

  13. Liquid-liquid equilibria for hydrogen fluoride + 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane at {minus}20 and 20 C

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.W.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1995-03-01

    1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane is presently under consideration as a replacement for trichlorofluoromethane, which is widely used as a foam blowing agent. 1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane is the major raw material for the production of poly(vinylidene fluoride). These two materials are normally manufactured by the fluorination of 1,1,1-trichloroethane or vinylidene chloride with hydrogen fluoride. A phase separator is normally used to retrieve hydrogen fluoride from the product stream. To design the phase separator, liquid-liquid equilibrium data are required. Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary system (hydrogen fluoride + 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane) have been measured at {minus}20 and 20 C. The results are correlated with the NRTL model, and the relevant parameters are presented.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10373 - 1H-Imidazole, 1-(1-methylethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 1-(1-methylethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10373 1H-Imidazole, 1-(1-methylethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1H-imidazole, 1-(1-methylethyl)- (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10373 - 1H-Imidazole, 1-(1-methylethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 1-(1-methylethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10373 1H-Imidazole, 1-(1-methylethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1H-imidazole, 1-(1-methylethyl)- (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10373 - 1H-Imidazole, 1-(1-methylethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 1-(1-methylethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10373 1H-Imidazole, 1-(1-methylethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1H-imidazole, 1-(1-methylethyl)- (PMN...

  17. Substituted 1,1,1-Triaryl-2,2,2-Trifluoroethanes and processes for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Synthetic procedures are described for tetraalkyls, tetraacids and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane; (2) 1,1-bis(dicarboxyaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane; or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2,-trifluoroethanes.

  18. PBT-1 Prana Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Huckle, Richard

    2005-01-01

    PBT-1 (clioquinol), is undergoing phase II clinical trials by Prana Biotechnology Ltd for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease. By October 2004, the company had planned phase III trials for the first half of 2005. PMID:15675609

  19. IML-1 Logo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide and a virus. More than 200 scientists from 16 countries participated in the investigations. This is the logo or emblem that was designed to represent the IML-1 payload.

  20. Vitamin B1

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flash 6 » Sound: No High score: Yes Credits » Chicken Farm Game - Why do we need vitamin B1? - ... save lives. You have one minute to feed chickens suffering from beriberi with the correct food to ...

  1. A1C Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to minimize the complications caused by chronically elevated glucose levels, such as progressive damage to body organs like the kidneys, eyes, cardiovascular system, and nerves. The A1c test result ...

  2. Type 1 diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... your diabetes. But, you are the most important person in managing your diabetes. You should know the basic steps ... to your doctor before starting any exercise program. People with type 1 ... MANAGING YOUR BLOOD SUGAR Checking your blood sugar level ...

  3. Interferon Alfacon-1 Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... ordered interferon alfacon-1 to help treat your hepatitis C infection. The drug will be injected under your ... a synthetic interferon that helps to prevent the hepatitis C virus from growing inside your body. This medication ...

  4. Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark A; Eisenbarth, George S; Michels, Aaron W

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of type 1 diabetes has grown substantially, particularly with regard to disease prediction and heterogeneity, pancreatic pathology, and epidemiology. Technological improvements in insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors help patients with type 1 diabetes manage the challenge of lifelong insulin administration. Agents that show promise for averting debilitating disease-associated complications have also been identified. However, despite broad organisational, intellectual, and fiscal investments, no means for preventing or curing type 1 diabetes exists, and, globally, the quality of diabetes management remains uneven. This Seminar discusses current progress in epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes, and prospects for an improved future for individuals with this disease. PMID:23890997

  5. Chapter 1: Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    This report describes analysis undertaken by EERE to better understand the extent to which the technologies and market improvements funded by its fiscal year (FY) 2006 Budget Request1 will make energy more affordable, cleaner, and more reliable.

  6. X1 Exoskeleton

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Ironman-Like Exoskeleton Could Give Astronauts, Paraplegics Improved Mobility and Strength. While NASA's X1 robotic exoskeleton can't do what you see in the movies, the latest robotic, space...

  7. Child with NF1

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder. Such discoveries have already resulted in new methods of diagnosis. The likelihood of finding effective treatments for NF1, in the years ahead, is promising. Scientists are actively researching the disorder at centers throughout ...

  8. Probability 1/e

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Reginald; Jones, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    Quite a number of interesting problems in probability feature an event with probability equal to 1/e. This article discusses three such problems and attempts to explain why this probability occurs with such frequency.

  9. PDZK1 and NHERF1 Regulate the Function of Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) by Modulating Its Subcellular Trafficking and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian; Chan, Ting; Cheung, Florence Shin Gee; Zhu, Ling; Murray, Michael; Zhou, Fanfan

    2014-01-01

    The human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) is an important membrane protein that mediates the cellular influx of various substances including drugs. Previous studies have shown that PDZ-domain containing proteins, especially PDZK1 and NHERF1, regulate the function of related membrane transporters in other mammalian species. This study investigated the role of PDZK1 and NHERF1 in the regulation of OATP1A2 in an in vitro cell model. Transporter function and protein expression were assessed in OATP1A2-transfected HEK-293 cells that co-expressed PDZK1 or NHERF1. Substrate (estrone-3-sulfate) uptake by OATP1A2 was significantly increased to ∼1.6- (PDZK1) and ∼1.8- (NHERF1) fold of control; this was dependent on the putative PDZ-binding domain within the C-terminus of OATP1A2. The functional increase of OATP1A2 following PDZK1 or NHERF1 over-expression was associated with increased transporter expression at the plasma membrane and in the whole cell, and was reflected by an increase in the apparent maximal velocity of estrone-3-sulfate uptake (Vmax: 138.9±4.1 (PDZK1) and 181.4±16.7 (NHERF1) versus 55.5±3.2 pmol*(µg*4 min)−1 in control; P<0.01). Co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that the regulatory actions of PDZK1 and NHERF1 were mediated by direct interaction with OATP1A2 protein. In further experiments PDZK1 and NHERF1 modulated OATP1A2 expression by decreasing its internalization in a clathrin-dependent (but caveolin-independent) manner. Additionally, PDZK1 and NHERF1 enhanced the stability of OATP1A2 protein in HEK-293 cells. The present findings indicated that PDZK1 and NHERF1 regulate the transport function of OATP1A2 by modulating protein internalization via a clathrin-dependent pathway and by enhancing protein stability. PMID:24728453

  10. A chloroplast protein homologous to the eubacterial topological specificity factor minE plays a role in chloroplast division.

    PubMed

    Itoh, R; Fujiwara, M; Nagata, N; Yoshida, S

    2001-12-01

    We report the identification of a nucleus-encoded minE gene, designated AtMinE1, of Arabidopsis. The encoded AtMinE1 protein possesses both N- and C-terminal extensions, relative to the eubacterial and algal chloroplast-encoded MinE proteins. The N-terminal extension functioned as a chloroplast-targeting transit peptide, as revealed by a transient expression assay using an N terminus:green fluorescent protein fusion. Histochemical beta-glucuronidase staining of transgenic Arabidopsis lines harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::uidA reporter fusion unveiled specific activation of the promoter in green tissues, especially at the shoot apex, which suggests a requirement for cell division-associated AtMinE1 expression for proplastid division in green tissues. In addition, we generated transgenic plants overexpressing a full-length AtMinE1 cDNA and examined the subcellular structures of those plants. Giant heteromorphic chloroplasts were observed in transgenic plants, with a reduced number per cell, whereas mitochondrial morphology remained similar to that of wild-type plants. Taken together, these observations suggest that MinE is the third conserved component involved in chloroplast division.

  11. CSF-1 signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J A

    1997-08-01

    Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) or macrophage-CSF (M-CSF) is a growth factor involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and activation of cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Its receptor is the homodimeric, tyrosine kinase product of the c-fms proto-oncogene, which contains a so-called kinase insert domain. This review focuses mainly on recent studies of signal transduction events that are initiated on interaction of CSF-1 and its receptor. A summary is given of the tyrosine autophosphorylation sites on c-Fms identified to date, including their interaction with various substrates and their possible significance for signal transduction and cellular function. In addition, the signal transduction pathways that have been identified to lie downstream of activated c-Fms are reviewed. Although it is apparent that there have been many recent significant developments in our understanding of CSF-1 signaling, a number of examples are mentioned of significant discrepancies in the literature, some possible reasons for which can sometimes be offered. It is also apparent that any particular biochemical response or signal transduction pathway, even though widespread in other ligand receptor/cellular systems, including those with similar receptor structures to c-Fms, may not be relevant to CSF-1 signaling. The relevance of any potentially important molecular signaling pathway activated by CSF-1 in cells in vitro will ultimately have to be related to the functions of monocytes/macrophages in vivo.

  12. Antipyretic actions of human recombinant lipocortin-1.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J; Flower, R J; Milton, A S; Peers, S H; Rotondo, D

    1991-01-01

    The effect of human recombinant lipocortin-1 (hrLC-1) on the pyrogenic actions of the synthetic polyribonucleotide polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) has been studied in conscious rabbits. Poly I:C (2.5 micrograms kg-1) given i.v. produced a biphasic fever with a first peak after 90-105 min and a second peak between 225-240 min. hrLC-1 (50 micrograms kg-1) given i.v. simultaneously with the poly I:C produced a significant reduction in the febrile response but without complete suppression. The thermal response index over 5 h (TRI5) was 4.69 +/- 0.51 for poly I:C given with saline and the TRI5 for poly I:C given with hrLC-1 was 2.66 +/- 0.45 (values are for n = 5 +/- s.e. mean, P less than 0.05). hrLC-1 administered alone had no effect on body temperature and its antipyretic activity was lost on heating. In a separate series of experiments 1 h pretreatment with dexamethasone (1 mg kg-1) given i.v. reduced the pyrogenic response (TRI5) to poly I:C (2.5 micrograms kg-1) from 4.87 +/- 0.54 without dexamethasone to 2.00 +/- 0.25 (n = 5, P less than 0.05) and dexamethasone given alone had no effect on body temperature. These data demonstrate that LC-1 possesses antipyretic actions and raises the possibility that the antipyretic actions of dexamethasone are mediated through the induction of LC-1.

  13. Glucuronidation of OTS167 in Humans Is Catalyzed by UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Jacqueline; Mirkov, Snezana; House, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    OTS167 is a potent maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase inhibitor undergoing clinical testing as antineoplastic agent. We aimed to identify the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) involved in OTS167 metabolism, study the relationship between UGT genetic polymorphisms and hepatic OTS167 glucuronidation, and investigate the inhibitory potential of OTS167 on UGTs. Formation of a single OTS167-glucuronide (OTS167-G) was observed in pooled human liver (HLM) (Km = 3.4 ± 0.2 µM), intestinal microsomes (HIM) (Km = 1.7 ± 0.1 µM), and UGTs. UGT1A1 (64 µl/min/mg) and UGT1A8 (72 µl/min/mg) exhibited the highest intrinsic clearances (CLint) for OTS167, followed by UGT1A3 (51 µl/min/mg) and UGT1A10 (47 µl/min/mg); UGT1A9 was a minor contributor. OTS167 glucuronidation in HLM was highly correlated with thyroxine glucuronidation (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001), SN-38 glucuronidation (r = 0.79, P < 0.0001), and UGT1A1 mRNA (r = 0.72, P < 0.0001). Nilotinib (UGT1A1 inhibitor) and emodin (UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 inhibitor) exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on OTS167-G formation in HLM (68%) and HIM (47%). We hypothesize that OTS167-G is an N-glucuronide according to mass spectrometry. A significant association was found between rs6706232 and reduced OTS167-G formation (P = 0.03). No or weak UGT inhibition (range: 0–21%) was observed using clinically relevant OTS167 concentrations (0.4–2 µM). We conclude that UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 are the main UGTs responsible for hepatic formation of OTS167-G. Intestinal UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 may contribute to first-pass OTS167 metabolism after oral administration. PMID:25870101

  14. Polymorphisms of UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27 & UGT1A1*28 in three major ethnic groups from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Teh, L. K.; Hashim, H.; Zakaria, Z. A.; Salleh, M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Genetic polymorphisms of uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) have been associated with a wide variation of responses among patients prescribed with irinotecan. Lack of this enzyme is known to be associated with a high incidence of severe toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of three different variants of UGT1A1 (UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27 and UGT1A1*28), which are associated with reduced enzyme activity and increased irinotecan toxicity, in the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malays, Chinese and Indians). Methods: A total of 306 healthy unrelated volunteers were screened for UGT1A1*28, UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*27. Blood samples (5 ml) were obtained from each subject and DNA was extracted. PCR based methods were designed and validated for detection of UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27 and UGT1A1*28. Direct DNA sequencing was performed to validate the results of randomly selected samples. Results: Malays and Indian have two-fold higher frequency of homozygous of UGT1A1*28 (7TA/7TA) which was 8 and 8.8 per cent, respectively compared to the Chinese (4.9%). However, the distribution of UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*27 showed no significant differences among them. UGT1A1*27 which has not been detected in Caucasian and African American population, was found in the Malaysian Malays (3.33%) and Malaysian Chinese (2.0%). Interpretation & conclusions: There was interethnic variability in the frequency of UGT1A1*28 in the Malaysian population. Our results suggest that genotyping of UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1*27 need to be performed before patients are prescribed with irinotecan due to their high prevalence of allelic variant which could lead to adverse drug reaction. PMID:22960892

  15. Thermal chemistry of 2-halo-1-propanols on Ni(1 1 1) and Cu(1 1 1) surfaces: A UBI-QEP energetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzanejad, Amir

    2015-12-01

    The effect of β-halogen substitutions on the thermal chemistry of 1-propanol over Ni(1 1 1) and Cu(1 1 1) single-crystal surfaces was investigated using the method of unity bond index-quadratic exponential potential (UBI-QEP). This method was employed to investigate the energetics of the catalytic conversion routes of the ad-molecule mainly at the zero-coverage limit by calculating activation barriers and enthalpy changes for surface reactions. The alcohol molecule can be oxidized partially and totally over the Ni surface, however, the molecule is rather inactive on Cu. The β-halogen substitution makes extensive conversion of the alcohol possible on the Cu surface and changes conversion pathways on the Ni surface. It was found that halogen substitution as well as hydrogen bonding can affect the reactivity and conversion routes of the molecules on Ni and Cu surfaces. On account of energetic criteria, the predicted routes for decompositions and the TPD patterns for the surface species are in accord with the available experimental observations.

  16. An APC/C-Cdh1 Biosensor Reveals the Dynamics of Cdh1 Inactivation at the G1/S Transition

    PubMed Central

    Ondracka, Andrej; Robbins, Jonathan A.; Cross, Frederick R.

    2016-01-01

    B-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity must be turned off for mitotic exit and G1 stabilization. B-type cyclin degradation is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); during and after mitotic exit, APC/C is dependent on Cdh1. Cdh1 is in turn phosphorylated and inactivated by cyclin-CDK at the Start transition of the new cell cycle. We developed a biosensor to assess the cell cycle dynamics of APC/C-Cdh1. Nuclear exit of the G1 transcriptional repressor Whi5 is a known marker of Start; APC/C-Cdh1 is inactivated 12 min after Whi5 nuclear exit with little measurable cell-to-cell timing variability. Multiple phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 act in a redundant manner to repress its activity. Reducing the number of phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 can to some extent be tolerated for cell viability, but it increases variability in timing of APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation. Mutants with minimal subsets of phosphorylation sites required for viability exhibit striking stochasticity in multiple responses including budding, nuclear division, and APC/C-Cdh1 activity itself. Multiple cyclin-CDK complexes, as well as the stoichiometric inhibitor Acm1, contribute to APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation; this redundant control is likely to promote rapid and reliable APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation immediately following the Start transition. PMID:27410035

  17. An APC/C-Cdh1 Biosensor Reveals the Dynamics of Cdh1 Inactivation at the G1/S Transition.

    PubMed

    Ondracka, Andrej; Robbins, Jonathan A; Cross, Frederick R

    2016-01-01

    B-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity must be turned off for mitotic exit and G1 stabilization. B-type cyclin degradation is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); during and after mitotic exit, APC/C is dependent on Cdh1. Cdh1 is in turn phosphorylated and inactivated by cyclin-CDK at the Start transition of the new cell cycle. We developed a biosensor to assess the cell cycle dynamics of APC/C-Cdh1. Nuclear exit of the G1 transcriptional repressor Whi5 is a known marker of Start; APC/C-Cdh1 is inactivated 12 min after Whi5 nuclear exit with little measurable cell-to-cell timing variability. Multiple phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 act in a redundant manner to repress its activity. Reducing the number of phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 can to some extent be tolerated for cell viability, but it increases variability in timing of APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation. Mutants with minimal subsets of phosphorylation sites required for viability exhibit striking stochasticity in multiple responses including budding, nuclear division, and APC/C-Cdh1 activity itself. Multiple cyclin-CDK complexes, as well as the stoichiometric inhibitor Acm1, contribute to APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation; this redundant control is likely to promote rapid and reliable APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation immediately following the Start transition.

  18. PDZK1 and NHERF1 regulate the function of human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) by modulating its subcellular trafficking and stability.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Chan, Ting; Cheung, Florence Shin Gee; Zhu, Ling; Murray, Michael; Zhou, Fanfan

    2014-01-01

    The human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) is an important membrane protein that mediates the cellular influx of various substances including drugs. Previous studies have shown that PDZ-domain containing proteins, especially PDZK1 and NHERF1, regulate the function of related membrane transporters in other mammalian species. This study investigated the role of PDZK1 and NHERF1 in the regulation of OATP1A2 in an in vitro cell model. Transporter function and protein expression were assessed in OATP1A2-transfected HEK-293 cells that co-expressed PDZK1 or NHERF1. Substrate (estrone-3-sulfate) uptake by OATP1A2 was significantly increased to ∼1.6- (PDZK1) and ∼1.8- (NHERF1) fold of control; this was dependent on the putative PDZ-binding domain within the C-terminus of OATP1A2. The functional increase of OATP1A2 following PDZK1 or NHERF1 over-expression was associated with increased transporter expression at the plasma membrane and in the whole cell, and was reflected by an increase in the apparent maximal velocity of estrone-3-sulfate uptake (V(max): 138.9±4.1 (PDZK1) and 181.4±16.7 (NHERF1) versus 55.5±3.2 pmol*(µg*4 min)⁻¹ in control; P<0.01). Co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that the regulatory actions of PDZK1 and NHERF1 were mediated by direct interaction with OATP1A2 protein. In further experiments PDZK1 and NHERF1 modulated OATP1A2 expression by decreasing its internalization in a clathrin-dependent (but caveolin-independent) manner. Additionally, PDZK1 and NHERF1 enhanced the stability of OATP1A2 protein in HEK-293 cells. The present findings indicated that PDZK1 and NHERF1 regulate the transport function of OATP1A2 by modulating protein internalization via a clathrin-dependent pathway and by enhancing protein stability.

  19. Ion channel TRPV1-dependent activation of PTP1B suppresses EGFR-associated intestinal tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Petrus R.; Takahashi, Naoki; Harris, Alexandra R.; Lee, Jihyung; Bertin, Samuel; Jeffries, James; Jung, Michael; Duong, Jen; Triano, Amy I.; Lee, Jongdae; Niv, Yaron; Herdman, David S.; Taniguchi, Koji; Kim, Chang-Whan; Dong, Hui; Eckmann, Lars; Stanford, Stephanie M.; Bottini, Nunzio; Corr, Maripat; Raz, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has a high rate of turnover, and dysregulation of pathways that regulate regeneration can lead to tumor development; however, the negative regulators of oncogenic events in the intestinal epithelium are not fully understood. Here we identified a feedback loop between the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a known mediator of proliferation, and the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1), in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We found that TRPV1 was expressed by IECs and was intrinsically activated upon EGFR stimulation. Subsequently, TRPV1 activation inhibited EGFR-induced epithelial cell proliferation via activation of Ca2+/calpain and resulting activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). In a murine model of multiple intestinal neoplasia (ApcMin/+ mice), TRPV1 deficiency increased adenoma formation, and treatment of these animals with an EGFR kinase inhibitor reversed protumorigenic phenotypes, supporting a functional association between TRPV1 and EGFR signaling in IECs. Administration of a TRPV1 agonist suppressed intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice, similar to — as well as in conjunction with — a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, which suggests that targeting both TRPV1 and COX-2 has potential as a therapeutic approach for tumor prevention. Our findings implicate TRPV1 as a regulator of growth factor signaling in the intestinal epithelium through activation of PTP1B and subsequent suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:25083990

  20. [Sorption Characteristics of Phenanthrene and 1, 1-Dichloroethene onto Reed Straw Biochar in Aquatic Solutions].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing-wen; Meng, Liang; Zhang, Zhi-hao; Luo, Qi-shi; Yang, Jie

    2016-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sorption characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) and 1, 1-dichloroethene (1, 1-DCE) onto reed straw biochar at 500 degrees C in aquatic solutions. The sorption mechanisms and effects of solution pH and biochar mass on sorption intensity were discussed. The results showed that the time required to reach sorption equilibrium was 60 min and 480 min for PHE and 1, 1-DCE, respectively, with maximum removal rates of 81, 87% and 90.18%. The sorption kinetics of both PHE and 1, 1-DCE fitted the pseudo-second-order model well, but the pseudo-second-order reaction rate of PHE was higher than that of 1, 1-DCE. Furthermore, the sorption processes were controlled by both membrane diffusion and intra-particle diffusion, and the latter was found to be the rate-controlling step. Sorption isotherms of the two organic pollutants fitted well with the Freundlich equation, and the sorption affinity of 1, 1-DCE onto biochar was greater than that of PHE. The total sorption mechanism of biochar was the combination of partition and adsorption, and dominated by adsorption. The adsorption capacity of 1, 1-DCE was greater than that of PHE, but its partition capacity was much smaller, indicating that pollutants' molecular volume and relative polarity would mainly affect the total sorption. Analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrated that oxygen- and hydrogen-containing functional groups and pi--pi interaction were important for PHE and 1, 1-DCE sorption onto biochar. The solution pH value had no significant effect on the sorption intensity of PHE and 1, 1-DCE, however, with biochar mass increasing from 5 mg to 50 mg, the equilibrium sorption amount of PHE and 1, 1-DCE decreased by 6.78 times and 2.18 times, and the removal rate increased by 20.21% and 15.78%, respectively. PMID:27363160