Science.gov

Sample records for 1 mpc scales

  1. Local dark matter and dark energy as estimated on a scale of ~1 Mpc in a self-consistent way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Dark energy was first detected from large distances on gigaparsec scales. If it is vacuum energy (or Einstein's Λ), it should also exist in very local space. Here we discuss its measurement on megaparsec scales of the Local Group. Aims: We combine the modified Kahn-Woltjer method for the Milky Way-M 31 binary and the HST observations of the expansion flow around the Local Group in order to study in a self-consistent way and simultaneously the local density of dark energy and the dark matter mass contained within the Local Group. Methods: A theoretical model is used that accounts for the dynamical effects of dark energy on a scale of ~1 Mpc. Results: The local dark energy density is put into the range 0.8-3.7ρv (ρv is the globally measured density), and the Local Group mass lies within 3.1-5.8×1012 M⊙. The lower limit of the local dark energy density, about 4/5× the global value, is determined by the natural binding condition for the group binary and the maximal zero-gravity radius. The near coincidence of two values measured with independent methods on scales differing by ~1000 times is remarkable. The mass ~4×1012 M⊙ and the local dark energy density ~ρv are also consistent with the expansion flow close to the Local Group, within the standard cosmological model. Conclusions: One should take into account the dark energy in dynamical mass estimation methods for galaxy groups, including the virial theorem. Our analysis gives new strong evidence in favor of Einstein's idea of the universal antigravity described by the cosmological constant.

  2. Cosmic bulk flows on 50 h-1 Mpc scales: a Bayesian hyper-parameter method and multishell likelihood analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yin-Zhe; Scott, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued recently that the galaxy peculiar velocity field provides evidence of excessive power on scales of 50 h-1 Mpc, which seems to be inconsistent with the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model. We discuss several assumptions and conventions used in studies of the large-scale bulk flow to check whether this claim is robust under a variety of conditions. Rather than using a composite catalogue we select samples from the SN, ENEAR, Spiral Field I-band Survey (SFI++) and First Amendment Supernovae (A1SN) catalogues, and correct for Malmquist bias in each according to the IRAS PSCz density field. We also use slightly different assumptions about the small-scale velocity dispersion and the parametrization of the matter power spectrum when calculating the variance of the bulk flow. By combining the likelihood of individual catalogues using a Bayesian hyper-parameter method, we find that the joint likelihood of the amplitude parameter gives σ8 = 0.65+ 0.47- 0.35 (68 per cent confidence region), which is entirely consistent with the ΛCDM model. In addition, the bulk flow magnitude, v ˜ 310 km s-1, and direction, (l, b) ˜ (280° ± 8°, 5.1° ± 6°), found by each of the catalogues are all consistent with each other, and with the bulk flow results from most previous studies. Furthermore, the bulk flow velocities in different shells of the surveys constrain (σ8, Ωm) to be (1.01+ 0.26- 0.20, 0.31+ 0.28- 0.14) for SFI++ and (1.04+ 0.32- 0.24, 0.28+ 0.30- 0.14) for ENEAR, which are consistent with the 7-year Wilkinson and Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) best-fitting values. We finally discuss the differences between our conclusions and those of the studies claiming the largest bulk flows.

  3. A large sample of binary quasars: Does quasar bias tracks from Mpc scale to kpc scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam D.; Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Graham, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    We present the most precise estimate to date of the bias of quasars on very small scales, based on a measurement of the clustering of 47 spectroscopically confirmed binary quasars with proper transverse separations of ~25 h^{-1} kpc. The quasars in our sample, which is an order-of-magnitude larger than previous samples, are targeted using a Kernel Density Estimation technique (KDE) applied to Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging over most of the SDSS area. Our sample is "complete," in that all possible pairs of binary quasars across our area of interest have been spectroscopically confirmed from a combination of previous surveys and our own long-slit observational campaign. We determine the projected correlation function of quasars (\\bar W_p) in four bins of proper transverse scale over the range 17.0 \\lesssim R_{prop} \\lesssim 36.2 h^{-1} kpc. Due to our large sample size, our measured projected correlation function in each of these four bins of scale is more than twice as precise as any previous measurement made over our {\\em full} range of scales. We also measure the bias of our quasar sample in four slices of redshift across the range 0.43 \\le z \\le 2.26 and compare our results to similar measurements of how quasar bias evolves on Mpc-scales. This measurement addresses the question of whether it is reasonable to assume that quasar bias evolves with redshift in a similar fashion on both Mpc and kpc scales. Our results can meaningfully constrain the one-halo term of the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) of quasars and how it evolves with redshift. This work was partially supported by NSF grant 1515404.

  4. COSMOLOGICAL DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS ON 100 Mpc SCALES AND THEIR ISW EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Papai, Peter; Szapudi, Istvan

    2010-12-20

    We measure the matter probability distribution function (PDF) via counts in cells in a volume-limited subsample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Luminous Red Galaxy Catalog on scales from 30 h {sup -1} Mpc to 150 h {sup -1} Mpc and estimate the linear Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect produced by supervoids and superclusters in the tail of the PDF. We characterize the PDF by the variance, S{sub 3}, and S{sub 4}, and study in simulations the systematic effects due to finite volume, survey shape, and redshift distortion. We compare our measurement to the prediction of {Lambda}CDM with linear bias and find a good agreement. We use the moments to approximate the tail of the PDF with analytic functions. A simple Gaussian model for the superstructures appears to be consistent with the claim by Granett et al. that density fluctuations on 100 h {sup -1} Mpc scales produce hot and cold spots with {Delta}T {approx} 10 {mu}K on the cosmic microwave background.

  5. AN X-RAY WHIM METAL ABSORBER FROM A Mpc-SCALE EMPTY REGION OF SPACE

    SciTech Connect

    Zappacosta, L.; Nicastro, F.; Krongold, Y.; Maiolino, R.

    2012-07-10

    We report a detection of an absorption line at {approx}44.8 A in a >500 ks Chandra HRC-S/LETG X-ray grating spectrum of the blazar H 2356-309. This line can be identified as intervening C V-K{alpha} absorption, at z Almost-Equal-To 0.112, produced by a warm (log T = 5.1 K) intergalactic absorber. The feature is significant at a 2.9{sigma} level (accounting for the number of independent redshift trials). We estimate an equivalent hydrogen column density of log N{sub H} 19.05(Z/Z{sub Sun }){sup -1} cm{sup -2}. Unlike other previously reported FUV/X-ray metal detections of warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), this C V absorber lies in a region with locally low galaxy density, at {approx}2.2 Mpc from the closest galaxy at that redshift, and therefore is unlikely to be associated with an extended galactic halo. We instead tentatively identify this absorber with an intervening WHIM filament possibly permeating a large-scale, 30 Mpc extended, structure of galaxies whose redshift centroid, within a cylinder of 7.5 Mpc radius centered on the line of sight to H 2356-309, is marginally consistent (at a 1.8{sigma} level) with the redshift of the absorber.

  6. Mpc-scale diffuse radio emission in two massive cool-core clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Martin W.; Basu, Kaustuv; Intema, Huib; Pacaud, Florian; Bonafede, Annalisa; Babul, Arif; Bertoldi, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Radio haloes are diffuse synchrotron sources on scales of ∼1 Mpc that are found in merging clusters of galaxies, and are believed to be powered by electrons re-accelerated by merger-driven turbulence. We present measurements of extended radio emission on similarly large scales in two clusters of galaxies hosting cool cores: Abell 2390 and Abell 2261. The analysis is based on interferometric imaging with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, Very Large Array and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. We present detailed radio images of the targets, subtract the compact emission components and measure the spectral indices for the diffuse components. The radio emission in A2390 extends beyond a known sloshing-like brightness discontinuity, and has a very steep in-band spectral slope at 1.5 GHz that is similar to some known ultrasteep spectrum radio haloes. The diffuse signal in A2261 is more extended than in A2390 but has lower luminosity. X-ray morphological indicators, derived from XMM-Newton X-ray data, place these clusters in the category of relaxed or regular systems, although some asymmetric features that can indicate past minor mergers are seen in the X-ray brightness images. If these two Mpc-scale radio sources are categorized as giant radio haloes, they question the common assumption of radio haloes occurring exclusively in clusters undergoing violent merging activity, in addition to commonly used criteria for distinguishing between radio haloes and minihaloes.

  7. Establishment of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) gene knockout mice with preliminary gene function analyses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoli; Li, Yaqing; Han, Gaoyang; Li, Xiaoran; Ji, Yasai; Fan, Zhirui; Zhong, Yali; Cao, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Mariusz, Goscinski; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wen, Jianguo; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate plays a critical role in the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and it is the center product for the synthesis of amino acids, carbohydrates and fatty acids. Pyruvate transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane appears to be essential in anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) mounted in the inner membrane of mitochondria serves as the channel to facilitate pyruvate permeating. In mammals, the MPC is formed by two paralogous subunits, MPC1 and MPC2. It is known that complete ablation of MPC2 in mice causes death on the 11th or 12th day of the embryonic period. However, MPC1 deletion and the knowledge of gene function in vivo are lacking. Using the new technology of gene manipulation known as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) systems, we gained stable MPC1 gene heterozygous mutation mice models, and the heterozygous mutations could be stably maintained in their offsprings. Only one line with homozygous 27 bases deletion in the first exon was established, but no offsprings could be obtained after four months of mating experiments, indicating infertility of the mice with such homozygous deletion. The other line of MPC1 knockout (KO) mice was only heterozygous, which mutated in the first exon with a terminator shortly afterwards. These two lines of MPC1 KO mice showed lower fertility and significantly higher bodyweight in the females. We concluded that heterozygous MPC1 KO weakens fertility and influences the metabolism of glucose and fatty acid and bodyweight in mice. PMID:27835892

  8. STS-35 MS Hoffman operates ASTRO-1 MPC on OV-102's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Mission Specialist (MS) Jeffrey A. Hoffman, wearing headset and monitoring closed circuit television (CCTV) display screen, operates the Astronomy Laboratory 1 (ASTRO-1) manual pointing controller (MPC) on the aft flight deck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. MPC is used to position the instrument pointing system (IPS) and its three ultraviolet telescopes in OV-102's payload bay (PLB). Hoffman and other crewmembers were able to command the IPS to record astronomical data using the MPC. At Hoffman's left are the onorbit station control panels and the two aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10.

  9. The toothbrush-relic: evidence for a coherent 3-Mpc scale shock wave ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottgering, Huub

    2010-10-01

    Recently, we have discovered an amzing 3 Mpc radio relic. Its coherent linear morphology and enormous size are very difficult to understand in the standard scenario that relics trace shocks in the ICM induced by massive cluster mergers. With our proposed observations we will determine (i) the presence of shock waves and their properties, (ii) the number of merging sub-clusters and dynamical state of the cluster, and (iii) the temperature structure of the ICM. This will allow us then to address the following questions: (1) are we witnessing a very special configuration consisting of multiple merging events that collectively conspire to yield a linear structure? (2) is there a compelling need for a more sophisticated particle acceleration mechanism?

  10. 1 Mpc giant radio galaxy IC 711 - 3 km Westerbork observations at 92 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Vallee, J.P.; Strom, R.G.

    1988-05-01

    New Westerbork obsevations at 92 cm of the galaxy IC 711 show a radio trail that extends 1 Mpc long, much farther out than previously observed at shorter wavelengths. These new observations confirm IC 711 as the longest head-tail galaxy known, and move IC 711 to the fifth rank among galaxies with the largest radio extension from an optical galaxy nucleus (after the classical double sources 3C 236, 3C 326, HB 13, and MSH 05-22). 20 references.

  11. The Case for a Hubble Constant of 30 km s-1 Mpc-1.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J G; Blanchard, A; Silk, J; Turner, M S

    1995-02-17

    Although recent determinations of the distance to the Virgo cluster based on Cepheid variable stars represent an important step in pinning down the Hubble constant, after 65 years a definitive determination of the Hubble constant still eludes cosmologists. At present, most of the observational determinations place the Hubble constant between 40 and 90 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km s(-1) Mpc(-1)). The case is made here for a Hubble constant that is even smaller than the lower bound of the accepted range on the basis of the great advantages, all theoretical in nature, of a Hubble constant of around 30 kilometers per second per megaparsec. Such a value for the Hubble cures all of the ills of the current theoretical orthodoxy, that is, a spatially flat universe composed predominantly of cold dark matter.

  12. Searching for NEO precoveries in the PS1 and MPC databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weryk, Robert J.; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2016-10-01

    The Pan-STARRS (PS1) survey telescope, operated by the University of Hawai`i, covers the sky north of -49 degrees declination with its seven square degree field-of-view. Described in detail by Wainscoat et al. (2015), it has become the leading telescope for new Near Earth Object (NEO) discoveries. In 2015, it found almost half of the new Near Earth Asteroids, as well as half of the new comets.Observations of potential NEOs must be followed up before they can be confirmed and announced as new discoveries, and we are dependent on the follow-up capabilities of other telescopes for this. However, not every NEO candidate is immediately followed up and linked into a well established orbit, possibly due to the fact that smaller bodies may not be visible at current instrument sensitivity limits for very long, or that their predicted orbits are too uncertain so follow-up telescopes look in the wrong location. But in certain cases, these objects may have been observed during previous lunations.We present a method to search for precovery detections in both the PS1 database, and the Isolated Tracklet File (ITF) provided by the Minor Planet Center (MPC). This file contains over 12 million detections mostly from the large surveys, which are not associated with any known objects. We demonstrate that multi-tracklet linkages for both known and unknown objects may be found in these databases, including detections for both NEOs and non-NEOs which often appear on the MPC's NEO Confirmation Page.[1] Wainscoat, R. et al., IAU Symposium 318, editors S. Chesley and R. Jedicke (2015)

  13. Einstein SSS and MPC observations of Aql X-1 and 4U1820-30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Christian, D. J.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    The results of timing and spectral analyses of the X-ray sources Aql X-1 (X1908+005) and 4U1820-30 (NGC6624) are reported using data obtained with the Einstein SSS (Solid State Spectrometer) and MPC (Monitor Proportional Counter) instruments. A classic type I burst was observed from Aql X-1 in both detectors and a coherent modulation with a period of 131.66 + or - 0.02 ms and a pulsed fraction of 10 percent was detected in the SSS data. There is no evidence for a loss of coherance during the approximately 80 sec when the burst is observable. The 2 sigma upper limit on the rate of change of the pulse period is 0.00005s/s. It is argued that an asymmetrical burst occurring on a neutron star rotating at 7.6 Hz offers a plausible explanation for the oscillation. The data from 4U1820-30 show that the amplitude of the 685 sec modulation, identified as the orbital period, is independent of energy down to 0.6 keV. The SSS data show that the light curve in the 0.6 to 4.5 keV band is smoother than at higher energies.

  14. Rewiring yeast acetate metabolism through MPC1 loss of function leads to mitochondrial damage and decreases chronological lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi, Ivan; Coppola, Damiano Pellegrino; Vai, Marina

    2014-01-01

    During growth on fermentable substrates, such as glucose, pyruvate, which is the end-product of glycolysis, can be used to generate acetyl-CoA in the cytosol via acetaldehyde and acetate, or in mitochondria by direct oxidative decarboxylation. In the latter case, the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is responsible for pyruvate transport into mitochondrial matrix space. During chronological aging, yeast cells which lack the major structural subunit Mpc1 display a reduced lifespan accompanied by an age-dependent loss of autophagy. Here, we show that the impairment of pyruvate import into mitochondria linked to Mpc1 loss is compensated by a flux redirection of TCA cycle intermediates through the malic enzyme-dependent alternative route. In such a way, the TCA cycle operates in a “branched” fashion to generate pyruvate and is depleted of intermediates. Mutant cells cope with this depletion by increasing the activity of glyoxylate cycle and of the pathway which provides the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA. Moreover, cellular respiration decreases and ROS accumulate in the mitochondria which, in turn, undergo severe damage. These acquired traits in concert with the reduced autophagy restrict cell survival of the mpc1∆ mutant during chronological aging. Conversely, the activation of the carnitine shuttle by supplying acetyl-CoA to the mitochondria is sufficient to abrogate the short-lived phenotype of the mutant. PMID:28357219

  15. The "toothbrush-relic": evidence for a coherent linear 2-Mpc scale shock wave in a massive merging galaxy cluster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Weeren, R. J.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Intema, H. T.; Rudnick, L.; Brüggen, M.; Hoeft, M.; Oonk, J. B. R.

    2012-10-01

    Some merging galaxy clusters host diffuse extended radio emission, so-called radio halos and relics, unrelated to individual galaxies. The origin of these halos and relics is still debated, although there is compelling evidence now that they are related to cluster merger events. Here we present detailed Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) radio observations between 147 MHz and 4.9 GHz of a new radio-selected galaxy cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214, for which we find a redshift of 0.225. The cluster is detected as an extended X-ray source in the ROSAT All Sky Survey with an X-ray luminosity of LX, 0.1-2.4 keV ~ 1 × 1045 erg s-1. The cluster hosts a large bright 1.9 Mpc radio relic, an elongated ~2 Mpc radio halo, and two fainter smaller radio relics. The large radio relic has a peculiar linear morphology. For this relic we observe a clear spectral index gradient from the front of the relic towards the back, in the direction towards the cluster center. Parts of this relic are highly polarized with a polarization fraction of up to 60%. We performed rotation measure (RM) synthesis between 1.2 and 1.7 GHz. The results suggest that for the west part of the large relic some of the Faraday rotation is caused by the intracluster medium and not only due to galactic foregrounds. We also carried out a detailed spectral analysis of this radio relic and created radio color-color diagrams. We find (i) an injection spectral index of -0.6 to -0.7; (ii) steepening spectral index and increasing spectral curvature in the post-shock region; and (iii) an overall power-law spectrum between 74 MHz and 4.9 GHz with α = -1.10 ± 0.02. Mixing of emission in the beam from regions with different spectral ages is probably the dominant factor that determines the shape of the radio spectra. Changes in the magnetic field, total electron content, or adiabatic gains/losses do not play a major role. A model in which particles are (re)accelerated in a

  16. Periodic zone-MPC with asymmetric costs for outpatient-ready safety of an artificial pancreas to treat type 1 diabetes().

    PubMed

    Gondhalekar, Ravi; Dassau, Eyal; Doyle, Francis J

    2016-09-01

    A novel Model Predictive Control (MPC) law for an Artificial Pancreas (AP) to automatically deliver insulin to people with type 1 diabetes is proposed. The MPC law is an enhancement of the authors' zone-MPC approach that has successfully been trialled in-clinic, and targets the safe outpatient deployment of an AP. The MPC law controls blood-glucose levels to a diurnally time-dependent zone, and enforces diurnal, hard input constraints. The main algorithmic novelty is the use of asymmetric input costs in the MPC problem's objective function. This improves safety by facilitating the independent design of the controller's responses to hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. The proposed controller performs predictive pump-suspension in the face of impending hypoglycemia, and subsequent predictive pump-resumption, based only on clinical needs and feedback. The proposed MPC strategy's benefits are demonstrated by in-silico studies as well as highlights from a US Food and Drug Administration approved clinical trial in which 32 subjects each completed two 25 hour closed-loop sessions employing the proposed MPC law.

  17. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): A Study of Energy, Mass, and Structure (1 kpc-1 Mpc) at z<0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, S. P.; GAMA Team

    2016-10-01

    The GAMA survey has now completed its spectroscopic campaign of over 250,000 galaxies (r<19.8 mag), and will shortly complete the assimilation of the complementary panchromatic imaging data from GALEX, VST, VISTA, WISE, and Herschel. In the coming years the GAMA fields will be observed by the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder allowing a complete study of the stellar, dust, and gas mass constituents of galaxies within the low-z Universe (z<0.3). The science directive is to study the distribution of mass, energy, and structure on kpc-Mpc scales over a 3 billion year timeline. This is being pursued both as an empirical study in its own right, as well as providing a benchmark resource against which the outputs from numerical simulations can be compared. GAMA has three particularly compelling aspects which set it apart: completeness, selection, and panchromatic coverage. The very high redshift completeness (˜ 98%) allows for extremely complete and robust pair and group catalogs; the simple selection (r<19.8 mag) minimizes the selection bias and simplifies its management; and the panchromatic coverage, 0.2 μm - 1 m, enables studies of the complete energy distributions for individual galaxies, well defined sub-samples, and population assembles (either directly or via stacking techniques). For further details and data releases see: http://www.gama-survey.org.

  18. Application of strainrange partitioning to the prediction of MPC creep-fatigue data for 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltsman, J. F.; Halford, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    Strainrange partitioning is used to predict the long time cyclic lives of the metal properties council (MPC) creep-fatigue interspersion and cyclic creep-rupture tests conducted with annealed 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel. Observed lives agree with predicted lives within factors of two. The strainrange partitioning life relations used for the long time predictions were established from short time creep-fatigue data generated at NASA-Lewis on the same heat of material.

  19. Status of the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    The multipurpose canister (MPC) project represents a cornerstone of the current U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program for handling spent nuclear fuel. The MPC and associated support equipment is being designed to accommodate the requirements for not only storage and transport but also for the specified disposal requirements of the mined geologic repository system. The phase 1 design effort for the MPC system, being performed by the Westinghouse team on behalf of TRW Environmental Safety Systems (TESS), the OCRWM management & operating (M&O) contractor, is on schedule for delivery of completed safety analysis reports (SARs) in April 1996.

  20. The MPC&A Questionnaire

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC&A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC&A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC&A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC&A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC&A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC&A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC&A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC&A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC&A functions.

  1. Calibrating the Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolnik, Marianne

    2012-10-01

    The Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC) is a subsystem of the PHENIX detector. The MPC, an electromagnetic calorimeter, is effective at measuring the energy of photons and electrons produced from collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The MPC outputs a voltage signal that we then convert into an energy reading. One common way to calibrate electromagnetic calorimeters is to use photons from π^0 decays. Since many of the photons that enter the detector are the result of natural pion decay, we can pair up the photons and create π^0 candidates. We then plot their masses tower by tower and with the correct cuts a mass peak will appear close to the position predicted by the simulation PISA of the PHENIX detector. Then, we relate the mass peaks from the measured data to mass peaks from simulated data to adjust the gains. Once the MPC is calibrated we can use it to study Au+Au collisions. Previously, the detector has been used to study spin physics using data collected from p+p collisions, and cold nuclear matter effects using d+Au collisions. These new calibrations will allow us to measure new global variables such as transverse energy in both the forward and backward kinematic regions, 3.1< |η| < 3.9.

  2. An 80 Mpc Filament of Galaxies at Redshift z=2.38

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodgate, B.; Palunas, P.; Francis, P.; Williger, G.; Teplitz, H.

    2004-01-01

    We present the detection of 34 Lyman-alpha emission-line galaxy candidates in a 80 x 80 x 60 co-moving Mpc region surrounding the known z=2.38 galaxy cluster J2143-4423. We have confirmed 15 of these candidates in followup spectroscopy with 2dF at the AAT. The peak space density is a factor of 4 greater than that found by field samples at similar redshifts. The distribution of these galaxy candidates contains several 5-10 Mpc scale voids. We compare our observations with mock catalogs derived from the VIRGO consortium Lambda-CDM N-body simulations. Fewer than 1\\% of the mock catalogues contains voids as large as we observe. Our observations thus tentatively suggest that the galaxy distribution at redshift 2.38 contains larger voids than predicted by current models. The distribution of galaxies suggests a filament or cross-section of a great wall at least 80 x 10 Mpc in transverse extent. Three of the candidate galaxies and one previously discovered galaxy have the large luminosities and extended morphologies of "Lyman-alpha blobs". X-ray properties and physical characteristics of those blobs will be discussed in an accompanying poster by Williger et al.

  3. OPC care-area feedforwarding to MPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Brian; Peng, Yi-Hsing; Hamaji, Masakazu; Tsunoda, Dai; Muramatsu, Tomoyuki; Ohara, Shuichiro; Zou, Yi; Arnoux, Vincent; Baron, Stanislas; Zhang, Xiaolong

    2016-10-01

    Demand for mask process correction (MPC) is growing for leading-edge process nodes. MPC was originally intended to correct CD linearity for narrow assist features difficult to resolve on a photomask without any correction, but it has been extended to main features as process nodes have been shrinking. As past papers have observed, MPC shows improvements in photomask fidelity. Using advanced shape and dose corrections could give more improvements, especially at line-ends and corners. However, there is a dilemma on using such advanced corrections on full mask level because it increases data volume and run time. In addition, write time on variable shaped beam (VSB) writers also increases as the number of shots increases. Optical proximity correction (OPC) care-area defines circuit design locations that require high mask fidelity under mask writing process variations such as energy fluctuation. It is useful for MPC to switch its correction strategy and permit the use of advanced mask correction techniques in those local care-areas where they provide maximum wafer benefits. The use of mask correction techniques tailored to localized post-OPC design can result in similar desired level of data volume, run time, and write time. ASML Brion and NCS have jointly developed a method to feedforward the care-area information from Tachyon LMC to NDE-MPC to provide real benefit for improving both mask writing and wafer printing quality. This paper explains the detail of OPC care-area feedforwarding to MPC between ASML Brion and NCS, and shows the results. In addition, improvements on mask and wafer simulations are also shown. The results indicate that the worst process variation (PV) bands are reduced up to 37% for a 10nm tech node metal case.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEGRADATION DUE TO WATER AND GASES IN MPC

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. McCoy

    1995-09-29

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department in response to a request received via a QAP-3-12 Design Input Data Request (Ref. 5.16) from WAST Design (formerly MRS/MPC Design). The request is to provide: (1) Dryness requirements for the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) cavity environment after loading and closure operations at the Purchaser site. The objective of this analysis is to provide a response to the foregoing request. The analysis treats nominal loading conditions only, not accidents or accident conditions. In particular, leaky (waterlogged) fuel rods are not considered. The purpose of this analysis is to provide the basis for the response.

  5. Search for the matter clumps in scales Z approximately 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, V. F.; Holzmann, F. M.; Taibin, B. S.; Smirnov, A. V.; Grebenkina, E. T.; Baryshnikov, V. N.; Orlov, V. V.; Anosova, J. P.; Polyakova, G. D.

    1994-05-01

    The diagram V - log(1 + Ze) as function of (alpha, delta) is considered for quasars. Here V is the apparent visual magnitude, Ze is the emission line redshift, alpha and delta are the equatorial coordinates. Two opposite extreme 'spots' NE and SE are observed on the sky, where the inclination of the straight line fitting the dependence V - log(1+ Ze) is maximum and minimum. The coordinates of the centers of these extreme spots are (alphaNE, deltaNE) equal to (282 deg, +42 deg) and (alphaSE, deltaSE) equal to (70 deg, -38 deg) with errors 5 deg. A hypothesis of the Super-attractor (SA) is proposed to explain such an effect. Two independent tests of this hypothesis are realized. First, the dependence or the frequency a of the absorbers in QSO spectra on (alpha, delta) is investigated. A region of the larger a is found. The coordinates of its center are (alpha, delta) equal to (82 deg, -10 deg) with error 5 deg. Second, the cases of Za greater than Ze are plotted in the Mercatorial projection (alpha, delta). The most of the cases Za - Ze greater than 0.02 are concentrated within the circle with radius R equal to 34 deg and center (alpha, delta) equal to 50 deg, -15 deg). The both anomalous regions overlap the Southern extreme spot around SE. The SA direction is (alpha, delta) equal to (67 deg, -21 deg) with errors about 12 deg. The redshift of SA is ZSA equal to 1.7 +/- 0.3 that corresponds to the distance rSA equal to (3100 plus or minus 300)h-1 Mpc for the Hubble constant H0 = 75h km per sec Mpc. The SA mass is MSA approximately 10SA approximately 1018 - 1020 solar masses. The orientation of the normal to the quasiperiodical large-scale sheet structure on the sky occurs near SA.

  6. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... Codes (MPC). (a) MPCs identify individual Provost Marshal Offices/Directorates of Emergency...

  7. ANALYSIS OF MPC ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR ADDITION OF FILLER MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    W. Wallin

    1996-09-03

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) in response to a request received via a QAP-3-12 Design Input Data Request (Ref. 5.1) from WAST Design (formerly MRSMPC Design). The request is to provide: Specific MPC access requirements for the addition of filler materials at the MGDS (i.e., location and size of access required). The objective of this analysis is to provide a response to the foregoing request. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a documented record of the basis for the response. The response is stated in Section 8 herein. The response is based upon requirements from an MGDS perspective.

  8. Gene chip/PCR-array analysis of tissue response to 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer surfaces in a mouse subcutaneous transplantation system.

    PubMed

    Kakinoki, Sachiro; Sakai, Yusuke; Takemura, Taro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Fujisato, Toshia; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the in vivo foreign body reaction to bio-inert 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymers, MPC polymer-coated porous substrates, with large surface area, were implanted subcutaneously in mice for 7 and 28 days, and the surrounding tissue response and cells infiltrating into the porous structure were evaluated. The MPC polymer surface induced low angiogenesis and thin encapsulation around the porous substrate, and slightly suppressed cell infiltration into the porous substrate. M1-type macrophage specific gene (CCR7) expression was suppressed by the MPC polymer surface after 7 days, resulting in the suppression of inflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression. However, the expression of these genes on the MPC polymer surface was higher than on the non-coated surface after 28 days. These findings suggest that MPC polymer surfaces successfully inhibit inflammatory responses during the early stage of tissue response, and seem to retard its occurrence over time.

  9. Russian Navy fresh fuel MPC and A training and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Forehand, H.M.; Rexroth, P.; Dove, A.; Shmelev, V.; Sukhoruchkin, V.; Roumiantsev, A.

    1998-07-01

    The Regulations and Training Projects are part of the US-Russian Federation Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) cooperative program to protect Russian Navy Fuels. This paper describes the general status of the projects, progress achieved to date, and long-term plans for further work in producing regulatory documents and training to support this ewffort. The regulatory development will result in a document set that will include general requirements and rules for the Russian Navy MPC&A as well as specific instructions for operation and maintenance of each facility. The goals of the training program are to instill in managers a culture of sustainable commitment to MPC&A through the understanding of its principles and philosophies. In addition, the training program will help ensure that upgrades are effectively utilized and maintained by training operators and maintenance personnel in MPC&A principles as well in as the detailed operations of the systems.

  10. Material Protection, Control, and Accountancy (MPC&A) Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Mark; Farmer, James; Haase, Michael; Mann, Greg; Soo Hoo, Mark; Toth, William

    1999-07-21

    To date, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accountancy (MPC and A) program has assisted in the implementation of operational site-wide MPC and A systems at several nuclear facilities in Russia. Eleven sites from the civilian sector have completed the site-wide installations and two have completed sub-site installations. By the end of 1999, several additional sites will have completed site-wide and sub-site system installations through DOE assistance. the effort at the completed sites has focused primarily on the design, integration, and installation of upgraded MPC and A systems. In most cases, little work has been performed to ensure that the installed systems will be sustained. Because of concerns that the installed systems would not be operated in the future, DOE established a sustainability pilot program involving the 11 sites. The purpose of DOE's MPC and A Sustainability Program is to ensure that MPC and A upgrades installed at sites in Russia are effective and will continue to operate over the long term. The program mission is to work with sites where rapid upgrades have been completed to cultivate enduring and consistent MPC and A practices. The program attempts to assist the Russian sites to develop MPC and A organizations that will operate, maintain, and continue to improve the systems and procedures. Future assistance will strive to understand and incorporate culturally sensitive approaches so that the sites take ownership for all MPC and A matters. This paper describes the efforts of the sustainability program to date.

  11. Cooperative MPC&A Enhancements at Russian Navy Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, N N; O'Shell, P; Hendrickson, S; Sukhoruchkin, V; Antipov, S; Melkhov, E; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N; Yurasov, N

    2001-05-30

    U.S. MPC&A cooperation with the Russian Federation (RF) Navy is based on a Joint Statement signed in 1996 to protect Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fresh fuel used for nuclear propulsion. The Russian Federation Navy is the largest owner in Russia of highly enriched uranium, both in the form of fresh nuclear fuel, and in the form of slightly irradiated fuel with a long cooling time after irradiation. As a result of this agreement, projects began at the Northern Fleet Fresh Fuel Storage Facility (Site 49) and Refueling Ship PM-63. Initial projects provided upgrades for RF Navy HEU fresh fuel storage facilities, beginning with a land-based facility near Murmansk and later adding other land-based and ship-based fresh fuel storage facilities. Additional protocols (December 1997, January 1999, and March 2000) significantly expanded cooperation to include all HEU fuel under RF Navy control. To date, it is estimated that tens of metric tons of HEU have been secured - enough to construct hundreds of nuclear devices. It was determined that the cooperation would be coordinated by the Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute. This paper describes the history of the Program development, its stages, current status, scale of the work and prospects.

  12. New Directions for MPC&A at Chelyabinsk-70

    SciTech Connect

    Tsygankov, G.; Churikov, Y.; Bukin, D.; Karpov, A.; Zuev,V.; Blasy, J.; Labiak, B.; Hernandez, J.; Apt, K.; Schultz, F.; Neymotin, L.; Ystesund, K.; Griggs, J.; Cahalane, P.

    2000-06-27

    This paper describes the new directions for the Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF), also called Chelyabinsk-70. Chelyabinsk-70 is located in the Ural Mountains, approximately 2000 km east of Moscow and 100 km south of Ekaterinburg. US sponsored MPC&A work has been underway at VNIITF since mid 1995. During the first three years of the VNIITF project, emphasis was on the Pulse Research Reactor Facility (PRR), which contains one metal and two liquid pulse reactors and associated nuclear material storage rooms and a control center. A commissioning of the PRR was held in May of 1998. With the completion of the MPC&A work in the PRR, new physical protection work has focused on building 726, which contains a pulse reactor and a criticality facility. Physical protection work is now complete at building 726. Several changes in the direction of MPC&A work at VNIITF have taken place and others are underway as a result of new DOE Guidelines for MPC&A at Russian Facilities, the National Research Council report issued in late 1999 and other recommendations. A major change is to do MPC&A work only at facilities for which the US can assure the proper categorization of nuclear materials, that upgrades are appropriate, properly installed and operational and that the equipment and funds used to implement and support those upgrades are being utilized in the manner intended. Other changes in direction which will be described include, an increased emphasis on completing inventories, the use of ''inherently sustainable'' upgrades wherever possible, and completing improved accounting systems and other MPC&A upgrades on a prioritized facility by facility basis rather than attempting to implement them site wide.

  13. Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and building energy optimization through model predictive control (MPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldekidan, Korbaga

    include thermal comfort control based on ASHRAE comfort zone (based on temperature and relative humidity) and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and ventilation control based on ASHRAE 62.1 and Demand Control Ventilation (DCV). The building energy consumption was also evaluated with and without integrated lighting and window blind control. The simulation results revealed better performance of MPC both in terms of energy savings as well as maintaining acceptable indoor environmental quality. Energy saving as high as 48% was possible using MPC with integrated lighting and window blind control. A new critical contaminant - based demand control ventilation strategy was also developed to ensure acceptable or higher indoor air quality. Common indoor and outdoor contaminants were considered in the study and the method resulted in superior performance especially for buildings with strong indoor or outdoor contaminant sources compared to conventional CO2-based demand control ventilation which only monitors CO2 to vary the minimum outdoor air ventilation rate.

  14. Two-stage observer based offset-free MPC.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkhani, MohammadAli; Bayat, Farhad; Jalali, Ali Akbar

    2015-07-01

    This paper addresses design of model predictive control (MPC) for dynamic systems in the presence of disturbances. For the systems with disturbances, it is common to use observers to estimate states and disturbances, allowing control algorithm to reject disturbances. In this paper, we demonstrate how one can extend model predictive control for systems with disturbances by applying full state and disturbance observer. To this aim, a two-stage approach is proposed where the observer design procedure is completely decoupled from the MPC problem, known as the separation principle. We focus on the decoupling principal and it is shown that the observer can be designed independently via a norm minimization problem to reduce effects of disturbances and model mismatch. On the other hand, the MPC law is obtained using the multi-parametric quadratic programming approach where the parameters are the components of the state vector.

  15. Revisiting constraints on small scale perturbations from big-bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Tada, Yuichiro

    2016-08-01

    We revisit the constraints on the small scale density perturbations (1 04 Mpc-1≲k ≲1 05 Mpc-1 ) from the modification of the freeze-out value of the neutron-proton ratio at the big-bang nucleosynthesis era. Around the freeze-out temperature T ˜0.5 MeV , the universe can be divided into several local patches that have different temperatures since any perturbation that enters the horizon after the neutrino decoupling has not diffused yet. Taking account of this situation, we calculate the freeze-out value in detail. We find that the small scale perturbations decrease the n -p ratio in contrast to previous works. With the use of the latest observed 4He abundance, we obtain the constraint on the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations as ΔR2≲0.018 on 1 04 Mpc-1≲k ≲1 05 Mpc-1 .

  16. SU-E-T-434: Evaluation of the Machine Performance Check (MPC) Program for Truebeam 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, E; Yu, S; Hadsell, M; Bush, K; Mok, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Machine Performance Check (MPC) is a software application used to verify that the TrueBeam machine is operating within major specifications prior to treatment. Used in combination with a phantom named Isocal, it verifies beam output, beam uniformity, treatment isocenter size, coincidence of treatment and imaging isocenters, positioning accuracy of kV and MV imaging systems, accuracy of collimator and gantry rotation angle, positioning accuracy of jaws and MLC leafs, and couch positioning. The tests can be performed semi-automatically and requires approximately 10 minutes of machine time. It is the purpose of this study to report the performance of this program. Methods: A pre-release version of the MPC tool was installed on a Truebeam linac with 6D couch at our center. Baseline beam output measurements were taken for 5 photon beams (6–15 MV, 6 FFF, 10 FFF) and 5 electron beams (6–20 MeV). Deviations from the baseline output were subsequently recorded for several days and compared against independent measurements from a PTW farmer chamber and our daily QA device (Fluke Biomedical Tracker) as part of an ongoing evaluation. Results: The beam output deviations between the MPC and the PTW chamber measurements were within ±0.7% for photons beams and ±1.0% for electrons beams. This was similar to the tracker performance. There were some isolated incidents where the MPC measurements had unexplained spikes (>3%) that disappeared on a repeat measurement. MPC was also able to detect maximum positioning errors in the jaws (1.12 mm), MLCs (1.14 mm), and couch roll (0.11°). Conclusion: Overall, the ability of the MPC to monitor linac output stability was comparable to that of ionization chamber-based measurements. MPC also provided fast daily mechanical tests not currently available in the clinic. How best to utilize this previously unavailable data is still under investigation.

  17. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  18. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  19. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  20. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  1. Testing a Constrained MPC Controller in a Process Control Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis A.; Blankespoor, Wesley; Budman, Hector M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment performed by the fourth year chemical engineering students in the process control laboratory at the University of Waterloo. The objective of this experiment is to test the capabilities of a constrained Model Predictive Controller (MPC) to control the operation of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger (DPHE) in real time.…

  2. Final Report: Efficient Databases for MPC Microdata

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Bender; Martin Farach-Colton; Bradley C. Kuszmaul

    2011-08-31

    The purpose of this grant was to develop the theory and practice of high-performance databases for massive streamed datasets. Over the last three years, we have developed fast indexing technology, that is, technology for rapidly ingesting data and storing that data so that it can be efficiently queried and analyzed. During this project we developed the technology so that high-bandwidth data streams can be indexed and queried efficiently. Our technology has been proven to work data sets composed of tens of billions of rows when the data streams arrives at over 40,000 rows per second. We achieved these numbers even on a single disk driven by two cores. Our work comprised (1) new write-optimized data structures with better asymptotic complexity than traditional structures, (2) implementation, and (3) benchmarking. We furthermore developed a prototype of TokuFS, a middleware layer that can handle microdata I/O packaged up in an MPI-IO abstraction.

  3. Discovery of an L-alanine ester prodrug of the Hsp90 inhibitor, MPC-3100.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Ho; Tangallapally, Rajendra; Kim, In Chul; Trovato, Richard; Parker, Daniel; Patton, J Scott; Reeves, Leslie; Bradford, Chad; Wettstein, Daniel; Baichwal, Vijay; Papac, Damon; Bajji, Ashok; Carlson, Robert; Yager, Kraig M

    2015-11-15

    Various types of Hsp90 inhibitors have been and continue to undergo clinical investigation. One development candidate is the purine-based, synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor 1 (MPC-3100), which successfully completed a phase I clinical study. However, further clinical development of 1 was hindered by poor solubility and consequent formulation issues and promoted development of a more water soluble prodrug. Towards this end, numerous pro-moieties were explored in vitro and in vivo. These studies resulted in identification of L-alanine ester mesylate, 2i (MPC-0767), which exhibited improved aqueous solubility, adequate chemical stability, and rapid bioconversion without the need for solubilizing excipients. Based on improved physical characteristics and favorable PK and PD profiles, 2i mesylate was selected for further development. A convergent, scalable, chromatography-free synthesis for 2i mesylate was developed to support further clinical evaluation.

  4. Dynamics of self-compressed argon and helium plasma streams in the MPC facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladygina, M. S.; Marchenko, A. K.; Solyakov, D. G.; Petrov, Yu V.; Makhlaj, V. A.; Yeliseyev, D. V.; Garkusha, I. E.; Cherednichenko, T. N.

    2016-07-01

    The results of experimental investigations on self-compressed plasma streams and compression zone formation are presented for varied mass flow rate and initial concentrations of particles of working gas that depend on initial pressure. Experiments were carried out in the Magnetoplasma Compressor (MPC) facility. Space-time distributions of the electric current and electron density in the plasma stream compression region were measured under different experimental conditions. High-speed images of plasma stream dynamics in the MPC accelerating channel with a high temporal resolution were also obtained for different initial pressures. The experimental results show a strong dependence of plasma stream parameters and compression zone location on the initial gas concentration. The maximum electron density is obtained in the range of Ne = (1 ÷ 5) × 1018 cm-3. Plasma streams have a good radial symmetry under all experimental conditions. The distributions of plasma parameters along the plasma stream flows are discussed.

  5. Material protection, control, and accounting enhancements through the Russian/US cooperative MPC & A program

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.C.; Sude, S.; Buckley, W.M.

    1997-11-01

    The cooperative Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC & A) project was initiated in June 1996. Since then, the GKhK has collaborated with Brookhaven, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories to test, evaluate, and implement MPC & A elements including bar codes, computerized nuclear material accounting software, nondestructive assay technologies, bulk measurement systems, seals, video surveillance systems, radio communication systems, metal detectors, vulnerability assessment tools, personnel access control systems, and pedestrian nuclear material portal monitors. This paper describes the strategy for implementation of these elements at the GKhK and the status of the collaborative efforts. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Surface grafting density analysis of high anti-clotting PU-Si-g-P(MPC) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chun-Yan; Zhou, Ning-Lin; Xiao, Ying-Hong; Tang, Yi-Da; Jin, Su-Xing; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Jun; Shen, Jian

    2012-02-01

    Well-defined zwitterionic polymer brushes with good blood compatibility were studied, grafted from polyurethane (PU) substrate (PU-Si-g-P(MPC)) by surface-initiated reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-RATRP). We found that the structure of polymer brushes and hence their properties greatly depend on the grafting density. To solve the problems of the normal method for grafting density measurement, i.e., more requirements for qualified and proficient instrument operator, we established an effective and feasible way instead of the conventional method of spectroscopic ellipsometer combined with gel permeation chromatograph (ELM/GPC) to calculate the grafting density of PU-Si-g-P(MPC) films by using a software named ImageJ 1.44e in combination with scanning electronic microscope (SEM) or atomic microscope (AFM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), SEM and AFM were employed to analyze the surface topography and changes of elements before and after graft modification of the synthetic PU-Si-g-P(MPC) biofilms.

  7. Russian Navy Fresh Fuel MPC and A Training

    SciTech Connect

    Forehand, Harry M.; O'Shell, Parker; Opanassiouk, Yuri R.; Rexroth, Paul E.; Shmelev, Vladimir; Sukhoruchkin, Vladimir K.

    1999-07-06

    The goal of the Russian Navy Fuels Program is to incorporate nuclear fuel that is in the custody of the Russian Navy into a materials protection, control and accounting program. In addition to applying MPC and A upgrades to existing facilities, a program is underway to train site personnel in MPC and A activities. The goal is to assure that the upgraded facilities are managed, operated and maintained in an effective, sustainable manner. Training includes both the conceptual and necessary operational aspects of the systems and equipment. The project began with a Needs Assessment to identify priorities and objectives of required training. This led to the creation of a series of classes developed by Kurchatov Institute. One course was developed to allow attendees to get a general understanding of goals and objectives of nuclear MPC and A systems in the context of the Russian Navy. A follow-on course provided the detailed skills necessary for the performance of specialized duties. Parallel sessions with hands-on exercises provided the specific training needed for different personnel requirements. The courses were presented at KI facilities in Moscow. This paper reviews the work to date and future plans for this program.

  8. Mask model calibration for MPC applications utilizing shot dose assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Mishra, Kushlendra; Bürgel, Christian; Standiford, Keith; Chua, Gek Soon

    2014-10-01

    Shrinking feature sizes and the need for tighter CD (Critical Dimension) control require the introduction of new technologies in mask making processes. One of those methods is the dose assignment of individual shots on VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) mask writers to compensate CD non-linearity effects and improve dose edge slope. Using increased dose levels only for most critical features, generally only for the smallest CDs on a mask, the change in mask write time is minimal while the increase in image quality can be significant. However, this technology requires accurate modeling of the mask effects, especially the CD/dose dependencies. This paper describes a mask model calibration flow for Mask Process Correction (MPC) applications with shot dose assignment. The first step in the calibration flow is the selection of appropriate test structures. For this work, a combination of linespace patterns as well as a series of contact patterns are used for calibration. Features sizes vary from 34 nm up to several micrometers in order to capture a wide range of CDs and pattern densities. After mask measurements are completed the results are carefully analyzed and measurements very close to the process window limitation and outliers are removed from the data set. One key finding in this study is that by including patterns exposed at various dose levels the simulated contours of the calibrated model very well match the SEM contours even if the calibration was based entirely on gauge based CD values. In the calibration example shown in this paper, only 1D line and space measurements as well as 1D contact measurements are used for calibration. However, those measurements include patterns exposed at dose levels between 75% and 150% of the nominal dose. The best model achieved in this study uses 2 e-beam kernels and 4 kernels for the simulation of development and etch effects. The model error RMS on a large range of CD down to 34 nm line CD is 0.71 nm. The calibrated model is then

  9. Einstein SSS+MPC observations of Seyfert type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Turner, T. J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Weaver, K.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray spectra of 27 Seyfert galaxies measured with the Solid State Spectrometer (SSS) onboard the Einstein Observatory is investigated. This new investigation features the utilization of simultaneous data from the Monitor Proportional Counter (MPC) and automatic correction for systematic effects in the SSS. The new results are that the best-fit single power law indices agree with those previously reported, but that soft excesses are inferred for at least 20 percent of the measured spectra. The soft excesses are consistent with either an approximately 0.25 keV black body or Fe-L line emission.

  10. Move Suppression Calculations for Well-Conditioned MPC.

    PubMed

    Short, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Several popular tuning strategies applicable to Model Predictive Control (MPC) schemes such as GPC and DMC have previously been developed. Many of these tuning strategies require an approximate model of the controlled process to be obtained, typically of the First Order Plus Dead Time type. One popular method uses such a model to analytically calculate an approximate value of the move suppression coefficient to achieve a desired condition number for the regularized system dynamic matrix; however it is not always accurate and tends to under-estimate the required value. In this paper an off-line method is presented to exactly calculate the move suppression coefficient required to achieve a desired condition number directly from the unregularized system dynamic matrix. This method involves an Eigendecomposition of the system dynamic matrix - which may be too unwieldy in some cases -and a simpler analytical expression is also derived. This analytical expression provides a guaranteed tight upper bound on the required move suppression coefficient yielding a tuning formula which is easy to apply, even in on-line situations. Both methods do not require the use of approximate or reduced order process models for their application. Simulation examples and perturbation studies illustrate the effectiveness of the methods in both off-line and on-line MPC configurations. It is shown that accurate conditioning and improved closed loop robustness can be achieved.

  11. Efficient prediction strategies for disturbance compensation in stochastic MPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouvaritakis, Basil; Cannon, Mark; Muñoz-Carpintero, Diego

    2013-07-01

    The optimisation of predicted control policies in model predictive control (MPC) enables the use of information on uncertainty that, though not available at current time, will be so at a future point on the prediction horizon. Optimisation over feedback laws is however prohibitively computationally expensive. The so-called affine-in-the-disturbance strategies provide a compromise and this article considers the use of disturbance compensation in the context of stochastic MPC. Unlike the earlier approaches, compensation here is applied over the entire prediction horizon (extending to infinity) thereby leading to a significant constraint relaxation which makes more control authority available for the optimisation of performance. In addition, our compensation has a striped lower triangular dependence on the uncertainty on account of which the relevant gains can be obtained sequentially, thereby reducing computational complexity. Further reduction in computation is achieved by performing this computation offline. Simulation results show that this reduction can be gained at a negligible cost in terms of closed-loop performance.

  12. LYα FOREST TOMOGRAPHY FROM BACKGROUND GALAXIES: THE FIRST MEGAPARSEC-RESOLUTION LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE MAP AT z > 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Eilers, Anna-Christina; Stark, Casey; White, Martin; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Schlegel, David J.; Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Suzuki, Nao; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Ilbert, Olivier; Le Brun, Vincent; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Garilli, Bianca; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Maccagni, Dario; Nugent, Peter; and others

    2014-11-01

    We present the first observations of foreground Lyα forest absorption from high-redshift galaxies, targeting 24 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with z ∼ 2.3-2.8 within a 5' × 14' region of the COSMOS field. The transverse sightline separation is ∼2 h {sup –1} Mpc comoving, allowing us to create a tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) Lyα forest absorption field over the redshift range 2.20 ≤ z ≤ 2.45. The resulting map covers 6 h {sup –1} Mpc × 14 h {sup –1} Mpc in the transverse plane and 230 h {sup –1} Mpc along the line of sight with a spatial resolution of ≈3.5 h {sup –1} Mpc, and is the first high-fidelity map of a large-scale structure on ∼Mpc scales at z > 2. Our map reveals significant structures with ≳ 10 h {sup –1} Mpc extent, including several spanning the entire transverse breadth, providing qualitative evidence for the filamentary structures predicted to exist in the high-redshift cosmic web. Simulated reconstructions with the same sightline sampling, spectral resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio recover the salient structures present in the underlying 3D absorption fields. Using data from other surveys, we identified 18 galaxies with known redshifts coeval with our map volume, enabling a direct comparison with our tomographic map. This shows that galaxies preferentially occupy high-density regions, in qualitative agreement with the same comparison applied to simulations. Our results establish the feasibility of the CLAMATO survey, which aims to obtain Lyα forest spectra for ∼1000 SFGs over ∼1 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, in order to map out the intergalactic medium large-scale structure at (z) ∼ 2.3 over a large volume (100 h {sup –1} Mpc){sup 3}.

  13. An information theory based search for homogeneity on the largest accessible scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Suman; Pandey, Biswajit

    2016-11-01

    We analyse the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12 quasar catalogue to test the large-scale smoothness in the quasar distribution. We quantify the degree of inhomogeneity in the quasar distribution using information theory based measures and find that the degree of inhomogeneity diminishes with increasing length scales which finally reach a plateau at ˜250 h-1 Mpc. The residual inhomogeneity at the plateau is consistent with that expected for a Poisson point process. Our results indicate that the quasar distribution is homogeneous beyond length scales of 250 h-1 Mpc.

  14. THE MEGAMASER COSMOLOGY PROJECT. V. AN ANGULAR-DIAMETER DISTANCE TO NGC 6264 AT 140 Mpc

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, C. Y.; Braatz, J. A.; Lo, K. Y.; Condon, J. J.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Reid, M. J.; Henkel, C.

    2013-04-20

    We present the direct measurement of the Hubble constant, yielding the direct measurement of the angular-diameter distance to NGC 6264 using the H{sub 2}O megamaser technique. Our measurement is based on sensitive observations of the circumnuclear megamaser disk from four observations with the Very Long Baseline Array, the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Effelsberg telescope. We also monitored the maser spectral profile for 2.3 years using the GBT to measure accelerations of maser lines by tracking their line-of-sight velocities as they change with time. The measured accelerations suggest that the systemic maser spots have a significantly wider radial distribution than in the archetypal megamaser in NGC 4258. We model the maser emission as arising from a circumnuclear disk with orbits dominated by the central black hole. The best fit of the data gives a Hubble constant of H{sub 0} = 68 {+-} 9 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}, which corresponds to an angular-diameter distance of 144 {+-} 19 Mpc. In addition, the fit also gives a mass of the central black hole of (3.09 {+-} 0.42) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }. The result demonstrates the feasibility of measuring distances to galaxies located well into the Hubble flow by using circumnuclear megamaser disks.

  15. Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-28

    Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress Andrew Feickert...00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC):Background and...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC) Congressional Research Service Summary On

  16. Lyα Forest Tomography from Background Galaxies: The First Megaparsec-resolution Large-scale Structure Map at z > 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Stark, Casey; Prochaska, J. Xavier; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Eilers, Anna-Christina; Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Suzuki, Nao; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Ilbert, Olivier; Garilli, Bianca; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Le Brun, Vincent; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Maccagni, Dario; Nugent, Peter; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Tasca, Lidia A. M.; Tresse, Laurence; Zamorani, Gianni; Zucca, Elena

    2014-11-01

    We present the first observations of foreground Lyα forest absorption from high-redshift galaxies, targeting 24 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with z ~ 2.3-2.8 within a 5' × 14' region of the COSMOS field. The transverse sightline separation is ~2 h -1 Mpc comoving, allowing us to create a tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) Lyα forest absorption field over the redshift range 2.20 <= z <= 2.45. The resulting map covers 6 h -1 Mpc × 14 h -1 Mpc in the transverse plane and 230 h -1 Mpc along the line of sight with a spatial resolution of ≈3.5 h -1 Mpc, and is the first high-fidelity map of a large-scale structure on ~Mpc scales at z > 2. Our map reveals significant structures with >~ 10 h -1 Mpc extent, including several spanning the entire transverse breadth, providing qualitative evidence for the filamentary structures predicted to exist in the high-redshift cosmic web. Simulated reconstructions with the same sightline sampling, spectral resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio recover the salient structures present in the underlying 3D absorption fields. Using data from other surveys, we identified 18 galaxies with known redshifts coeval with our map volume, enabling a direct comparison with our tomographic map. This shows that galaxies preferentially occupy high-density regions, in qualitative agreement with the same comparison applied to simulations. Our results establish the feasibility of the CLAMATO survey, which aims to obtain Lyα forest spectra for ~1000 SFGs over ~1 deg2 of the COSMOS field, in order to map out the intergalactic medium large-scale structure at langzrang ~ 2.3 over a large volume (100 h -1 Mpc)3.

  17. Robust Oncolytic Virotherapy Induces Tumor Lysis Syndrome and Associated Toxicities in the MPC-11 Plasmacytoma Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianwen; Steele, Michael B; Jenks, Nathan; Grell, Jacquelyn; Behrens, Marshall; Nace, Rebecca; Naik, Shruthi; Federspiel, Mark J; Russell, Stephen J; Peng, Kah-Whye

    2016-12-01

    Tumor-selective oncolytic vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSVs) are being evaluated in clinical trials. Here, we report that the MPC-11 murine plasmacytoma model is so extraordinarily susceptible to oncolytic VSVs that a low dose of virus leads to extensive intratumoral viral replication, sustained viremia, intravascular coagulation, and a rapidly fatal tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). Rapid softening, shrinkage and hemorrhagic necrosis of flank tumors was noted within 1-2 days after virus administration, leading to hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hyperuricemia, increase in plasma cell free DNA, lymphopenia, consumptive coagulopathy, increase in fibrinogen degradation products, decreased liver function tests, dehydration, weight loss, and euthanasia or death after 5-8 days. Secondary viremia was observed but viral replication in normal host tissues was not detected. Toxicity could be mitigated by using VSVs with slowed replication kinetics, and was less marked in animals with smaller flank tumors. The MPC-11 tumor represents an interesting model to further study the complex interplay of robust intratumoral viral replication, tumor lysis, and associated toxicities in cases where tumors are highly responsive to oncolytic virotherapy.

  18. Scale Dependence of Dark Energy Antigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perivolaropoulos, L.

    2002-09-01

    We investigate the effects of negative pressure induced by dark energy (cosmological constant or quintessence) on the dynamics at various astrophysical scales. Negative pressure induces a repulsive term (antigravity) in Newton's law which dominates on large scales. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data we determine the critical scale $r_c$ beyond which antigravity dominates the dynamics ($r_c \\sim 1Mpc $) and discuss some of the dynamical effects implied. We show that dynamically induced mass estimates on the scale of the Local Group and beyond are significantly modified due to negative pressure. We also briefly discuss possible dynamical tests (eg effects on local Hubble flow) that can be applied on relatively small scales (a few $Mpc$) to determine the density and equation of state of dark energy.

  19. Differences in Halo-scale Environments between Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs at Low Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ning; Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, Houjun; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Tinggui; Zhou, Hongyan

    2016-12-01

    Using low-redshift (z\\lt 0.09) samples of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), normal galaxies and groups of galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we study the environments of Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs, both on small and large scales. Comparisons are made for galaxy samples matched in redshift, r-band luminosity, [O iii] luminosity, and also the position in groups (central or satellite). We find that Type 2 AGNs and normal galaxies reside in similar environments. Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs have similar clustering properties on large scales (≳ 1 {h}-1 {Mpc}), but at scales smaller than 100 {h}-1 {kpc}, Type 2s have significantly more neighbors than Type 1s (3.09 ± 0.69 times more for central AGNs at ≲ 30 {h}-1 {kpc}). These results suggest that Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs are hosted by halos of similar masses, as can also be seen directly from the mass distributions of their host groups (˜ {10}12 {h}-1 {M}⊙ for centrals and ˜ {10}13 {h}-1 {M}⊙ for satellites). Type 2s have significantly more satellites around them, and the distribution of their satellites is also more centrally concentrated. The host galaxies of both types of AGNs have similar optical properties, but their infrared colors are significantly different. Our results suggest that the simple unified model based solely on torus orientation is not sufficient, but that galaxy interactions in dark matter halos must have played an important role in the formation of the dust structure, which obscures AGNs.

  20. Human Cognition and 1/f Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Guy C.; Holden, John G.; Turvey, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    Ubiquitous 1/f scaling in human cognition and physiology suggests a mind-body interaction that contradicts commonly held assumptions. The intrinsic dynamics of psychological phenomena are interaction dominant (rather than component dominant), and the origin of purposive behavior lies with a general principle of self-organization (rather than a…

  1. U.S./Russian cooperative efforts to enhance nuclear MPC&A at VNIITF, (Chelyabinsk-70)

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, B; Apt, K; Blasy, J; Bukin, D; Churikov, Y; Curtis, D; Eras, A; Magda, E; Neymotin, L; Shultz, F; Slankas, T; Tittemore, G; Tsygankov, G; Zuev, V

    1999-04-20

    The work described here is part of an effort called the Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) Program, a cooperative program between the US Department of Eenrgy (DOE) and Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy (MinAtom). The objective of the program is to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation by strengthening MPC&A systems at Russian nuclear Facilities. This paper describes that portion of the MPC&A program that is directed specifically to the needs of the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF), also called Chelyabinsk-70. A major MPC&A milestone was met at VNIITF when the MPC&A improvements were commissioned at the Pulse Research Reactor Facility in May of this year.

  2. Silk Damping at a Redshift of a Billion: New Limit on Small-Scale Adiabatic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Donghui; Pradler, Josef; Chluba, Jens; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2014-08-01

    We study the dissipation of small-scale adiabatic perturbations at early times when the Universe is hotter than T ≃0.5 keV. When the wavelength falls below the damping scale kD-1, the acoustic modes diffuse and thermalize, causing entropy production. Before neutrino decoupling, kD is primarily set by the neutrino shear viscosity, and we study the effect of acoustic damping on the relic neutrino number, primordial nucleosynthesis, dark-matter freeze-out, and baryogenesis. This sets a new limit on the amplitude of primordial fluctuations of ΔR2<0.007 at 104 Mpc-1≲k ≲105 Mpc-1 and a model-dependent limit of ΔR2≲0.3 at k ≲1020-25 Mpc-1.

  3. Using rule-based shot dose assignment in model-based MPC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Wang, Lin; Müller, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    levels and requires a model which accurately predicts mask shapes at all dose levels used. The calibration of such a model is described in a separate paper [1]. In summary this paper presents an efficient method for combining rule-based VSB shot dose assignment with modelbased shape corrections in MPC. This method expands the printability of small features sizes without the need for increasing the base dose of the e-beam writer which reduces backscattering and increases the lifetime of the electron gun of the writer.

  4. GHOSTS I: A new faint very isolated dwarf galaxy at D = 12 ± 2 Mpc

    SciTech Connect

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David; Vlajić, Marija; Bailin, Jeremy; Holwerda, Benne W.; Alyson Ford, H.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2014-01-10

    We report the discovery of a new faint dwarf galaxy, GHOSTS I, using HST/ACS data from one of our GHOSTS (Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disk, and Star clusters) fields. Its detected individual stars populate an approximately 1 mag range of its luminosity function (LF). Using synthetic color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) to compare with the galaxy's CMD, we find that the colors and magnitudes of GHOSTS I's individual stars are most consistent with being young helium-burning and asymptotic giant branch stars at a distance of ∼12 ± 2 Mpc. Morphologically, GHOSTS I appears to be actively forming stars, so we tentatively classify it as a dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxy, although future Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations deep enough to resolve a larger magnitude range in its LF are required to make a more secure classification. GHOSTS I's absolute magnitude is M{sub V}∼−9.85{sub −0.33}{sup +0.40}, making it one of the least luminous dIrr galaxies known, and its metallicity is lower than [Fe/H] = –1.5 dex. The half-light radius of GHOSTS I is 226 ± 38 pc and its ellipticity is 0.47 ± 0.07, similar to Milky Way and M31 dwarf satellites at comparable luminosity. There are no luminous massive galaxies or galaxy clusters within ∼4 Mpc from GHOSTS I that could be considered as its host, making it a very isolated dwarf galaxy in the local universe.

  5. Short communication: Effect of storage temperature on the solubility of milk protein concentrate 80 (MPC80) treated with NaCl or KCl.

    PubMed

    Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Walker, J; Wang, T; Rodriguez-Saona, L E

    2016-03-01

    A previous study in our laboratory showed that addition of 150 mM NaCl or KCl into diafiltration water improved the solubility of freshly made milk protein concentrate 80 (MPC80). In the present study, the objectives were (1) to evaluate the solubility of NaCl- or KCl-treated MPC80 samples kept at varying temperatures and then stored for extensive periods at room temperature (21 °C ± 1 °C); and (2) to determine if MPC80 samples stored at different temperatures and protein conformation can be grouped or categorized together. Freshly manufactured MPC80 samples were untreated (control), processed with NaCl, or processed with KCl. One set of sample bags was stored at 4 °C; second and third sets of bags were kept at 25 °C and 55 °C for 1 mo (31 d) and then transferred to room temperature (21 °C ± 1 °C) storage conditions for 1 yr (365 d). Samples were tested for nitrogen solubility index (NSI) and for protein changes by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Analysis of variance results for NSI showed 2 significantly different groupings of MPC80 samples. The more soluble group contained samples treated with NaCl or KCl and stored at either 4 °C or 25 °C. These samples had mean NSI >97.5%. The less soluble groups contained all control samples, regardless of storage temperature, and NaCl- or KCl-treated samples stored at 55 °C. These samples had mean NSI from 39.5 to 58%. Within each of these groups (more soluble and less soluble), no significant differences in solubility were detected. Pattern recognition analysis by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to assess protein changes during storage by monitoring the amide I and amide II (1,700(-1) to 1,300 cm(-1)) regions. Dominant bands were observed at 1,385 cm(-1) for control, 1,551 cm(-1) for KCl-treated samples, and 1,694 cm(-1) for NaCl-treated samples. Moreover, SIMCA clustered the MPC80 samples stored at 4 °C separately from samples stored at 25 °C and 55 °C. This study

  6. 75 FR 42339 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NAC-MPC System, Revision 6

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ..., Whistleblowing. For the reasons set out in the preamble and under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954.... Certificate Expiration Date: April 10, 2020. Model Number: NAC-MPC. * * * * * Dated at Rockville,...

  7. Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-26

    CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ) and Marine...Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC):Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC

  8. Large-scale Structure around a z=2.1 Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Casey, Caitlin M.; Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Capak, Peter L.; Cowley, Michael J.; Darvish, Behnam; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Kovač, K.; Lilly, Simon J.; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Spitler, Lee R.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Yuan, Tiantian

    2016-08-01

    The most prodigious starburst galaxies are absent in massive galaxy clusters today, but their connection with large-scale environments is less clear at z≳ 2. We present a search of large-scale structure around a galaxy cluster core at z = 2.095 using a set of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies. We find that both color-selected star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) show significant overdensities around the z = 2.095 cluster. A total of eight DSFGs (including three X-ray luminous active galactic nuclei, AGNs) and 34 SFGs are found within a 10‧ radius (corresponds to ˜15 cMpc at z˜ 2.1) from the cluster center and within a redshift range of {{Δ }}z=0.02, which leads to galaxy overdensities of {δ }{{DSFG}}˜ 12.3 and {δ }{{SFG}}˜ 2.8. The cluster core and the extended DSFG- and SFG-rich structures together demonstrate an active cluster formation phase, in which the cluster is accreting a significant amount of material from large-scale structure while the more mature core may begin to virialize. Our finding of this DSFG-rich structure, along with a number of other protoclusters with excess DSFGs and AGNs found to date, suggest that the overdensities of these rare sources indeed trace significant mass overdensities. However, it remains puzzling how these intense star formers are triggered concurrently. Although an increased probability of galaxy interactions and/or enhanced gas supply can trigger the excess of DSFGs, our stacking analysis based on 850 μm images and morphological analysis based on rest-frame optical imaging do not show such enhancements of merger fraction and gas content in this structure.

  9. Evaluation of the truebeam machine performance check (MPC) geometric checks for daily IGRT geometric accuracy quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Michael P; Greer, Peter B

    2017-03-22

    Machine Performance Check (MPC) is an automated and integrated image-based tool for verification of beam and geometric performance of the TrueBeam linac. The aims of the study were to evaluate the performance of the MPC geometric tests relevant to OBI/CBCT IGRT geometric accuracy. This included evaluation of the MPC isocenter and couch tests. Evaluation was performed by comparing MPC to QA tests performed routinely in the department over a 4-month period. The MPC isocenter tests were compared against an in-house developed Winston-Lutz test and the couch compared against routine mechanical QA type procedures. In all cases the results from the routine QA procedure was presented in a form directly comparable to MPC to allow a like-to-like comparison. The sensitivity of MPC was also tested by deliberately miscalibrating the appropriate linac parameter. The MPC isocenter size and MPC kV imager offset were found to agree with Winston-Lutz to within 0.2 mm and 0.22 mm, respectively. The MPC couch tests agreed with routine QA to within 0.12 mm and 0.15°. The MPC isocenter size and kV imager offset parameters were found to be affected by a change in beam focal spot position with the kV imager offset more sensitive. The MPC couch tests were all unaffected by an offset in the couch calibration but the three axes that utilized two point calibrations were sensitive to a miscalibration of the size in the span of the calibration. All MPC tests were unaffected by a deliberate misalignment of the MPC phantom and roll of the order of one degree.

  10. Progress and future plans for MPC and A at Chelyabinsk-70

    SciTech Connect

    Apt, K; Blasy, J; Bukin, D; Cahalane, P; Churikov, Y; Curtis, D; Karpov, A; Labiak, B; Neymotin, L; Schultz, F; Tsygankov, G; Ystesund, K Slankas, T; Zuev, V

    1999-07-08

    This paper describes that portion of the Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) program that is directed specifically to the needs of the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF), also called Chelyabinsk-70. Chelyabinsk-70 is located in the Ural Mountains, approximately 2000 km east of Moscow and 100 km south of Ekaterinburg. The MPC and A work that has been completed, is underway and planned at the facility will be described. During the first two years of the VNIITF project, emphasis was on the Pulse Research Reactor Facility (PRR), which contains one metal and two liquid pulse reactors and associated nuclear material storage rooms and a control center. A commissioning of the PRR was held in May of 1998. With the completion of the MPC and A work in the PRR, new physical protection work is focusing on other areas. VNIITF-wide physical protection initiatives underway include access control and computerized badging systems, and a central MPC and A control system. Measured physical inventory taking is a high priority for the VNIITF Project Team. A VNIITF-wide computerized accounting system is also being developed for the large and diverse inventory of nuclear material subject to MPC and A.

  11. Nanomechanical and tribological characterization of the MPC phospholipid polymer photografted onto rough polyethylene implants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Trunfio-Sfarghiu, Ana-Maria; Portinha, Daniel; Descartes, Sylvie; Fleury, Etienne; Berthier, Yves; Rieu, Jean-Paul

    2013-08-01

    Grafting biomimetic polymers onto biomaterials such as implants is one of the promising approaches to increase their tribological performance and biocompatibility and to reduce wear. In this paper, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (p(MPC)) brushes were obtained by photografting MPC from the rough surface of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) joint implants. Such substrates have a high roughness (Ra∼650nm) which often has the same order of magnitude as the brush thickness, so it is very difficult to estimate the vertical density profile of the grafted content. The quality of the p(MPC) grafting was evaluated through a wide range of characterization techniques to reveal the effectiveness of the grafting: atomic force microcopy (AFM) imaging and force spectroscopy, contact angle, SEM/EDX, and confocal microscopy. After testing the methods on smooth glass substrate as reference, AFM nano-indentation proves to be a reliable non destructive method to characterize the thickness and the mechanical properties of the p(MPC) layer in liquid physiological medium. Tribological measurements using a homemade biotribometer confirm that, despite heterogeneity thickness (h=0.5-6μm), the p(MPC) layer covers the roughness of the UHMWPE substrate and acts as an efficient lubricant with low friction coefficient and no wear for 9h of friction.

  12. SCALE Code System 6.2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    2016-08-01

    The SCALE Code System is a widely-used modeling and simulation suite for nuclear safety analysis and design that is developed, maintained, tested, and managed by the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division (RNSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SCALE provides a comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly tool set for criticality safety, reactor and lattice physics, radiation shielding, spent fuel and radioactive source term characterization, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for safety analysis and design. SCALE provides an integrated framework with dozens of computational modules including three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that are selected based on the desired solution strategy. SCALE includes current nuclear data libraries and problem-dependent processing tools for continuous-energy (CE) and multigroup (MG) neutronics and coupled neutron-gamma calculations, as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE includes unique capabilities for automated variance reduction for shielding calculations, as well as sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization of nuclear data, and convenient access to desired results.

  13. Cooperative Management of a Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage Network: A Distributed MPC Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Huazhen; Wu, Di; Yang, Tao

    2016-12-12

    This paper presents a study of cooperative power supply and storage for a network of Lithium-ion energy storage systems (LiBESSs). We propose to develop a distributed model predictive control (MPC) approach for two reasons. First, able to account for the practical constraints of a LiBESS, the MPC can enable a constraint-aware operation. Second, a distributed management can cope with a complex network that integrates a large number of LiBESSs over a complex communication topology. With this motivation, we then build a fully distributed MPC algorithm from an optimization perspective, which is based on an extension of the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) method. A simulation example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  14. 1. Perspective View of Scales Shanty looking south with Scranton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective View of Scales Shanty looking south with Scranton Yards in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Track Scales, 500 feet Southeast of Bridge No. 60, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  15. 1. VIEW OF EAST FRONT OF BREAKER, WITH SCALE STICK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF EAST FRONT OF BREAKER, WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING FOUNDATIONS OF RETAIL SCALES IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING WEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  16. 1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING HEAVY SCALES OFFICE TO LEFT, LOOKING NORTH - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  17. Galaxy clustering on large scales.

    PubMed Central

    Efstathiou, G

    1993-01-01

    I describe some recent observations of large-scale structure in the galaxy distribution. The best constraints come from two-dimensional galaxy surveys and studies of angular correlation functions. Results from galaxy redshift surveys are much less precise but are consistent with the angular correlations, provided the distortions in mapping between real-space and redshift-space are relatively weak. The galaxy two-point correlation function, rich-cluster two-point correlation function, and galaxy-cluster cross-correlation function are all well described on large scales ( greater, similar 20h-1 Mpc, where the Hubble constant, H0 = 100h km.s-1.Mpc; 1 pc = 3.09 x 10(16) m) by the power spectrum of an initially scale-invariant, adiabatic, cold-dark-matter Universe with Gamma = Omegah approximately 0.2. I discuss how this fits in with the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite detection of large-scale anisotropies in the microwave background radiation and other measures of large-scale structure in the Universe. PMID:11607400

  18. ASASSN-15oi: a rapidly evolving, luminous tidal disruption event at 216 Mpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Prieto, J. L.; Grupe, D.; Chen, Ping; Godoy-Rivera, D.; Stanek, K. Z.; Shappee, B. J.; Dong, Subo; Brown, J. S.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Brimacombe, J.; Carlson, E. K.; Falco, E.; Johnston, E.; Madore, B. F.; Pojmanski, G.; Seibert, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present ground-based and Swift photometric and spectroscopic observations of the tidal disruption event (TDE) ASASSN-15oi, discovered at the centre of 2MASX J20390918-3045201 (d ≃ 216 Mpc) by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae. The source peaked at a bolometric luminosity of L ≃ 1.3 × 1044 erg s-1 and radiated a total energy of E ≃ 6.6 × 1050 erg over the first ˜3.5 months of observations. The early optical/UV emission of the source can be fit by a blackbody with temperature increasing from T ˜ 2 × 104 K to T ˜ 4 × 104 K while the luminosity declines from L ≃ 1.3 × 1044 erg s-1 to L ≃ 2.3 × 1043 erg s-1, requiring the photosphere to be shrinking rapidly. The optical/UV luminosity decline during this period is most consistent with an exponential decline, L∝ e^{-(t-t_0)/τ}, with τ ≃ 46.5 d for t0 ≃ 57241.6 (MJD), while a power-law decline of L ∝ (t - t0)-α with t0 ≃ 57 212.3 and α = 1.62 provides a moderately worse fit. ASASSN-15oi also exhibits roughly constant soft X-ray emission that is significantly weaker than the optical/UV emission. Spectra of the source show broad helium emission lines and strong blue continuum emission in early epochs, although these features fade rapidly and are not present ˜3 months after discovery. The early spectroscopic features and colour evolution of ASASSN-15oi are consistent with a TDE, but the rapid spectral evolution is unique among optically selected TDEs.

  19. Describing galaxy weak lensing measurements from tenths to tens of Mpc and up to z ˜ 0.6 with a single model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciato, Marcello; van Uitert, Edo; Hoekstra, Henk

    2014-01-01

    The clustering of galaxies and the matter distribution around them can be described using the halo model complemented with a realistic description of the way galaxies populate dark matter haloes. This has been used successfully to describe statistical properties of samples of galaxies at z < 0.2. Without adjusting any model parameters, we compare the predicted weak lensing signal induced by Luminous Red Galaxies to measurements from SDSS DR7 on much larger scales (up to {˜ } 90 h_{70}^{-1} Mpc) and at higher redshift (z ˜ 0.4). We find excellent agreement, suggesting that the model captures the main properties of the galaxy-dark matter connection. To extend the comparison to lenses at even higher redshifts we complement the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data with shape measurements from the deeper RCS2, resulting in precise lensing measurements for lenses up to z ˜ 0.6. These measurements are also well described using the same model. Considering solely these weak lensing measurements, we robustly assess that, up to z ˜ 0.6, the number of central galaxies as a function of halo mass is well described by a log-normal distribution with scatter σ _{log L_c}=0.146± 0.011, in agreement with previous independent studies at lower redshift. Our results demonstrate the value of complementing the information about the properties of the (lens) galaxies provided by SDSS with deeper, high-quality imaging data.

  20. Scaling of the photon index vs. mass accretion rate correlation and estimate of black hole mass in M101 ULX-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of Swift and Chandra observations of an ultraluminous X-ray source, ULX-1 in M101. We show strong observational evidence that M101 ULX-1 undergoes spectral transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state during these observations. The spectra of M101 ULX-1 are well fitted by the so-called bulk motion Comptonization (BMC) model for all spectral states. We have established the photon index (Γ) saturation level, Γsat = 2.8 ± 0.1, in the Γ versus mass accretion rate (Ṁ) correlation. This Γ-Ṁ correlation allows us to evaluate black hole (BH) mass in M101 ULX-1 to be MBH ~ (3.2-4.3) × 104 M⊙, assuming the spread in distance to M101 (from 6.4 ± 0.5 Mpc to 7.4 ± 0.6 Mpc). For this BH mass estimate we apply the scaling method, using Galactic BHs XTE J1550-564, H 1743-322 and 4U 1630-472 as reference sources. The Γ vs. Ṁ correlation revealed in M101 ULX-1 is similar to that in a number of Galactic BHs and clearly exhibits the correlation along with the strong Γ saturation at ≈ 2.8. This is robust observational evidence for the presence of a BH in M101 ULX-1. We also find that the seed (disk) photon temperatures are low, on the order of 40-100 eV, which is consistent with high BH mass in M101 ULX-1. Thus, we suggest that the central object in M101 ULX-1 has intermediate BH mass on the order of 104 solar masses.

  1. US/Russian MPC{ampersand}A program at the VNIITF Institute, Chelyabinsk 70

    SciTech Connect

    Teryohin, V.; Tsygankov, G.; Churikov, Y,

    1997-09-22

    The All Russian Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF) is one of the major sites in the nuclear weapons complex in Russia. The site contains a number of research facilities which use nuclear material as well as assembly, disassembly, and testing of prototypes (pilot samples) of nuclear weapons. Chelyabinsk-70 (C-70) also has ties to the major nuclear materials production facilities in the Urals region of Russia. Under the U.S./Russian Materials Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) cooperative program, enhanced safeguards systems are being implemented, initially at a reactor test area that contains two pulse reactors and a nuclear material storage facility. Current year projects include site-wide improvements and next year, expansion of work into other facilities at the site. C-70 has developed an extensive computerized system that integrates the physical security alarm station with elements of the nuclear material control system. Under the MPC&A program, the existing systems have been augmented with Russian and US technologies. Additional facilities were added in 1997 to broaden the impact of the MPC&A program at the site. The integrated MPC&A system will be demonstrated to US and Russian audiences when completed in the spring, 1998. This paper describes the on-going activities and describe the cooperative effort between the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Brookhaven US Department of Energy National Laboratories in support of VNIITF.

  2. Scale Up in Education. Volume 1: Ideas in Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barbara Ed.; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Scale Up in Education, Volume 1: Ideas in Principle" examines the challenges of "scaling up" from a multidisciplinary perspective. It brings together contributions from disciplines that routinely take promising innovations to scale, including medicine, business, engineering, computing, and education. Together the contributors explore appropriate…

  3. Implementation of the MPC and A Operations Monitorying (MOM) System at JSC PO Sevmas

    SciTech Connect

    Monogarov, A.; Taranenko, V.; Serov,A; Duncan, C; Brownell, L; Pratt, W.T.; Carbonaro, J; White, R.M.; Coffing, J.A.

    2010-07-11

    The Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program has been working since 1994 with nuclear sites in Russia to upgrade the physical protection (PP) and material control and accounting (MC&A) functions at facilities containing weapons usable nuclear material. In early 2001, the MPC&A program initiated the MPC&A Operations Monitoring (MOM) Project to monitor facilities where MPC&A upgrades have been installed to provide increased confidence that personnel are present and vigilant, provide confidence that security procedures are being properly performed and provide additional assurance that nuclear materials have not been stolen. The MOM project began as a pilot project at the Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and a MOM system was successfully installed in October 2001. Following the success of the MEPhI pilot project, the MPC&A Program expanded the installation of MOM systems to several other Russian facilities, including the JSC 'PO' Sevmash', Severodvinsk, Russia. The MOM system was made operational at Sevmash in September, 2008. This paper will discuss the objectives of the MOM system installed at Sevmash and indicate how the objectives influenced the development of the conceptual design. The paper will also describe activities related to installation of the infrastructure and the MOM system at Sevmash. Experience gained from operation of the system and how the objectives are being met will also be discussed. The paper will describe how the MOM system is used at Sevmash and, in particular, how the data is analyzed. Finally, future activities including potential expansion of the MOM system, operator training, data sharing and analysis, procedure development, repair and maintenance will be included in the paper.

  4. Enhanced wear resistance of orthopaedic bearing due to the cross-linking of poly(MPC) graft chains induced by gamma-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Miyaji, Fumiaki; Konno, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Masami; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Takatori, Yoshio; Nakamura, Kozo; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2008-02-01

    We assumed that the extra energy supplied by gamma-ray irradiation produced cross-links in 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer grafted cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE-g-MPC) and investigated its effects on the tribological properties of CLPE-g-MPC. In this study, we found that the gamma-ray irradiation produced cross-links in three kinds of regions of CLPE-g-MPC: poly(MPC) layer, CLPE-MPC interface, and CLPE substrate. The dynamic coefficient of friction of CLPE-g-MPC slightly increased with increasing irradiation doses. After the simulator test, both the nonsterilized and gamma-ray sterilized CLPE-g-MPC cups exhibited lower wear than the untreated CLPE ones. In particular, the gamma-ray sterilized CLPE-g-MPC cups showed extremely low and stable wear. As for the nonsterilized CLPE-g-MPC cups, the weight change varied with each cup. When the CLPE surface is modified by poly(MPC) grafting, the MPC graft polymer leads to a significant reduction in the sliding friction between the surfaces that are grafted because water thin films formed can behave as extremely efficient lubricants. Such a cross-link of poly(MPC) slightly increases the friction of CLPE by gamma-ray irradiation but provides a stable wear resistant layer on the friction surface. The cross-links formed by gamma-ray irradiation would give further longevity to the CLPE-g-MPC cups.

  5. Scale Factor Study for 1:30 Local Scour Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    ERDC/CHL CHETN-VII-15 August 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Scale Factor Study for 1:30 Local Scour Model by...contains a description of the process used to generate a scale factor for a 1:30 physical model of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway Company (BNSF...railway crossing on the Santa Ana River near Corona, CA. Data from the scale factor study provide an adjustment for applying documented scour

  6. Galactic Conformity from z=0.2-1.0 with PRIMUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Angela; Coil, Alison L.

    2016-06-01

    We test for galactic conformity from z=0.2-1.0 to a projected distance of 5 Mpc using spectroscopic redshifts from the PRism MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS). Our sample consists of ~60,000 galaxies in five separate fields covering a total of ~5.5 square degrees, which allows us to account for cosmic variance. Dividing our sample into star-forming and quiescent galaxies using a cut in specific star formation rate, we identify star-forming and quiescent “isolated primary” galaxies. We match the redshift and stellar mass distributions of these samples, to control for correlations between quiescent fraction and redshift and stellar mass. We detect a significant conformity signal (>3 sigma) of ~5% on scales of 0-1 Mpc and a 2.5-sigma signal of ~1% on scales of 1-3 Mpc. We also test for redshift and stellar mass dependence of the conformity signal within our sample.

  7. Synergistic effect on corrosion resistance of Phynox substrates grafted with surface-initiated ATRP (co)polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA).

    PubMed

    Barthélémy, Bastien; Maheux, Simon; Devillers, Sébastien; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Combellas, Catherine; Delhalle, Joseph; Mekhalif, Zineb

    2014-07-09

    Phynox is of high interest for biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. However, some Phynox applications require specific surface properties. These can be imparted with suitable surface functionalizations of its oxide layer. The present work investigates the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 2-methacryloyoxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and ATRP copolymerization of (HEMA-co-MPC) (block and statistic copolymerization with different molar ratios) on grafted Phynox substrates modified with 11-(2-bromoisobutyrate)-undecyl-1-phosphonic acid (BUPA) as initiator. It is found that ATRP (co)polymerization of these monomers is feasible and forms hydrophilic layers, while improving the corrosion resistance of the system.

  8. Superlarge-scale structure in N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshkevich, A. G.; Müller, V.; Retzlaff, J.; Turchaninov, V.

    1999-07-01

    The simulated matter distribution on large scales is studied using core-sampling, cluster analysis, inertia tensor analysis and minimal spanning tree techniques. Seven simulations in large boxes for five cosmological models with COBE-normalized CDM-like power spectra are studied. A wall-like superlarge-scale structure with parameters similar to the observed one is found for the OCDM and ΛCDM models with Οmh = 0.2-0.3. In these simulations, the rich structure elements with a typical value for the largest extension of ~(30 - 50) h-1 Mpc incorporate ~40 per cent of matter with overdensity of about 10 above the mean. These rich elements are formed by the anisotropic non-linear compression of sheets with an original size of ~(15-25) h-1 Mpc. They surround low-density regions with a typical diameter ~(50-70) h-1 Mpc. The statistical characteristics of these structures are found to be approximately consistent with observations and theoretical expectations. The cosmological models with higher matter density Ωm=1 in CDM with Harrison-Zeldovich or tilted power spectra cannot reproduce the characteristics of the observed galaxy distribution because of the very strong disruption of the rich structure elements. Another model with a broken scale-invariant initial power spectrum (BCDM) does not show enough matter concentration in the rich structure elements.

  9. US/Russian Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC&A at the RRC Kurchatov Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarev, N.D.; Sukhoruchkin, V.; Melkof, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    Formal interactions with Kurchatov Institute (KI) began summer 1994 on material protection, control and accountability (MPC&A). Contracts were placed by LANL and Sandia with KI to implement a nuclear material accounting system and a physical security system at a KI demonstration facility which contain two critical assemblies with special nuclear material. LLNL implemented May 1995 a task to measure by gamma-ray spectroscopy the uranium enrichment of fuel in the facility. This laboratory-to-laboratory effort is part of the cooperative program between US and Russian institutes in nuclear material nonproliferation. In 1994-5, KI personnel demonstrated the physical security system. The next facility for work in MPC&A at KI is the Central Storage Facility, which is important for the computerized material accounting system for KI.

  10. An MPC Algorithm with Combined Speed and Steering Control for Obstacle Avoidance in Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-24

    Borrelli, “A unified approach to threat assessment and control for automotive active safety,” IEEE Transactions On Intelligent Transportation Systems , vol...Proceedings of ASME 2015 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference DSCC 2015 October 28-30, 2015, Ohio, USA DSCC2015 - 9747 AN MPC ALGORITHM WITH... INTRODUCTION Obstacle avoidance is a critical capability for autonomous ground vehicles (AGVs). It refers to the task of sensing the vehicle’s

  11. Effect on the reference catalog system on the asteroid positions in the MPC Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maigurova, N. V.; Chernetenko, Yu. A.; Kryuchkovsky, V. F.

    2017-02-01

    The results of analysis of the selected MPC asteroid positions are presented. Systematic errors in star positions, arising through the use of different reference catalogs, and astrometric weighting problems are discussed using observations of the 12 selected asteroids. The observational series for these asteroids include 30-year period obtained with Mykolaiv Zone Astrograph during 1960-1990. The analysis of the residuals (O-C)RA,Dec of the selected asteroids has been performed.

  12. Novel Formulation of Adaptive MPC as EKF Using ANN Model: Multiproduct Semibatch Polymerization Reactor Case Study.

    PubMed

    Kamesh, Reddi; Rani, Kalipatnapu Yamuna

    2016-10-13

    In this paper, a novel formulation for nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) has been proposed incorporating the extended Kalman filter (EKF) control concept using a purely data-driven artificial neural network (ANN) model based on measurements for supervisory control. The proposed scheme consists of two modules focusing on online parameter estimation based on past measurements and control estimation over control horizon based on minimizing the deviation of model output predictions from set points along the prediction horizon. An industrial case study for temperature control of a multiproduct semibatch polymerization reactor posed as a challenge problem has been considered as a test bed to apply the proposed ANN-EKFMPC strategy at supervisory level as a cascade control configuration along with proportional integral controller [ANN-EKFMPC with PI (ANN-EKFMPC-PI)]. The proposed approach is formulated incorporating all aspects of MPC including move suppression factor for control effort minimization and constraint-handling capability including terminal constraints. The nominal stability analysis and offset-free tracking capabilities of the proposed controller are proved. Its performance is evaluated by comparison with a standard MPC-based cascade control approach using the same adaptive ANN model. The ANN-EKFMPC-PI control configuration has shown better controller performance in terms of temperature tracking, smoother input profiles, as well as constraint-handling ability compared with the ANN-MPC with PI approach for two products in summer and winter. The proposed scheme is found to be versatile although it is based on a purely data-driven model with online parameter estimation.

  13. Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-26

    2012 released a strategic vision for how amphibious operations will be conducted in the future. The primary assertion of this study is that the...MPC) Congressional Research Service 5 Century: Strategic Opportunity and a Vision for Change, contends the United States is a maritime nation...Amphibious Capability in the 21 st Century: Strategic Opportunity and a Vision for Change might be viewed as redefining thinking about the role of amphibious

  14. Practical application of drainage system control by using MPC in Noorderzijlvest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; Gooijer, Jan; Schwanenberg, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    We discuss the implementation of a Model Predictive Control (MPC) approach for the control of the pump stations and tidal spilling sluices in the district of the regional water authority Noorderzijlvest in the north of the Netherlands. The RTC component is integrated in a Delft-FEWS application that connects to the SCADA system of the waterboard and also 17 aggregated structures including 127 individual pumps and gates The approach consists of a Nonlinear MPC in combination with a low-pass filter for state updating. The MPC runs hourly for a 5-day forecast horizon. One main objective of the control is flood mitigation during extreme taken into account by anticipating approaching rainfall events by flow forecasting. Another objective has is the reduction of pumping costs by taking advantage of gravity flow through gates during low tide conditions and the exploitation of cheaper electricity at night, both in combination with tactical usage of the available storage in the water system. Firstly the approach is tested in a closed-loop setting in combination with a detailed one-dimensional hydraulic model as the real-world replacement. A performance comparison of the approach against the existing feedback control shows pumping cost reductions in the range of 7-35% for different sub-systems or total annual cost savings in the order of 150-200 thousand Euros as well as significantly reduced peak water levels during flood events.

  15. ESO 243-49 HLX-1: scaling of X-ray spectral properties and black hole mass determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2016-11-01

    We report the results of Swift/XRT observations (2008-2015) of a hyper-luminous X-ray source, ESO 243-49 HLX-1. We demonstrate a strong observational evidence that ESO 243-49 HLX-1 undergoes spectral transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state during these observations. The spectra of ESO 243-49 HLX-1 are well fitted by the so-called bulk motion Comptonization model for all spectral states. We have established the photon index (Γ) saturation level, Γsat = 3.0 ± 0.1, in the Γ versus mass accretion rate (Ṁ) correlation. This Γ-Ṁ correlation allows us to estimate black hole (BH) mass in ESO 243-49 HLX-1 to be MBH 7 × 104 M⊙ assuming the distance to ESO 243-49 of 95 Mpc. For the BH mass estimate we use the scaling method taking Galactic BHs XTE J1550-564, H 1743-322 and 4U 1630-472, and an extragalactic BH source, M101 ULX-1 as reference sources. The Γ versus Ṁ correlation revealed in ESO 243-49 HLX-1 is similar to those in a number of Galactic and extragalactic BHs and it clearly shows the correlation along with the strong Γ saturation at ≈3. This is a robust observational evidence for the presence of a BH in ESO 243-49 HLX-1. We also find that the seed (disk) photon temperatures are quite low, of order of 50-140 eV which are consistent with high BH mass in ESO 243-49 HLX-1.

  16. Large-Scale 1:1 Computing Initiatives: An Open Access Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.; McLeod, Scott; Flora, Kevin; Sauers, Nick J.; Kannan, Sathiamoorthy; Sincar, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This article details the spread and scope of large-scale 1:1 computing initiatives around the world. What follows is a review of the existing literature around 1:1 programs followed by a description of the large-scale 1:1 database. Main findings include: 1) the XO and the Classmate PC dominate large-scale 1:1 initiatives; 2) if professional…

  17. Acoustic characteristics of 1/20-scale model helicopter rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoy, Rajarama K.; Kohlhepp, Fred W.; Leighton, Kenneth P.

    1986-01-01

    A wind tunnel test to study the effects of geometric scale on acoustics and to investigate the applicability of very small scale models for the study of acoustic characteristics of helicopter rotors was conducted in the United Technologies Research Center Acoustic Research Tunnel. The results show that the Reynolds number effects significantly alter the Blade-Vortex-Interaction (BVI) Noise characteristics by enhancing the lower frequency content and suppressing the higher frequency content. In the time domain this is observed as an inverted thickness noise impulse rather than the typical positive-negative impulse of BVI noise. At higher advance ratio conditions, in the absence of BVI, the 1/20 scale model acoustic trends with Mach number follow those of larger scale models. However, the 1/20 scale model acoustic trends appear to indicate stall at higher thrust and advance ratio conditions.

  18. Fiscal year 1993 1/25-scale sludge mobilization testing

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, M.R.; Golcar, G.R.; Hymas, C.R.; McKay, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Sixteen 1/25-scale sludge mobilization experiments were conducted in fiscal year (FY) 1993. The results of this testing are presented in this document. The ability of a single, centrally-located, scale model mixer pump to resuspend a layer of simulated tank sludge was evaluated for five different simulant types. The resistance of these simulants to the mobilizing action of the mixer pump jets was not found to adequately correlate with simulant vane shear strength. The data indicate that the simulant cohesion, as quantified by tensile strength, may provide a good measure of mobilization resistance. A single test was done to evaluate whether indexed mixer pump rotation is significantly more effective than the planned continuous oscillation. No significant difference was found in the sludge mobilization caused by these two modes of operation. Two tests were conducted using a clay-based sludge simulant that contained approximately 5 wt% soluble solids. The distance to which the mixer pump jets were effective for this simulant was approximately 50% greater than on similar simulants that did not contain soluble solids. The implication is that sludge dissolution effects may significantly enhance the performance of mixer pumps in some tanks. The development of a means to correlate the magnitude of this effect with waste properties is a direction for future work. Two tests were performed with the goal of determining whether the 1/25-scale sludge mobilization data can be scaled linearly to 1/12-scale. The two 1/25-scale tests were conducted using the same simulant recipe as had been used in previous 1/12-scale tests. The difficulty of matching the 1/25-scale simulants, with those used previously is thought to have adversely affected the results. Further tests are needed to determine whether the data from sludge mobilization tests can be linearly scaled.

  19. FEATURE 1, SMALL GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH, (with scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 1, SMALL GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH, (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Small Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 1/f scaling in heart rate requires antagonistic autonomic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Hayano, Junichiro; Sakata, Seiichiro; Kwak, Shin; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2004-11-01

    We present systematic evidence for the origins of 1/f -type temporal scaling in human heart rate. The heart rate is regulated by the activity of two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic (PNS) and the sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems. We examine alterations in the scaling property when the balance between PNS and SNS activity is modified, and find that the relative PNS suppression by congestive heart failure results in a substantial increase in the Hurst exponent H towards random-walk scaling 1/f2 and a similar breakdown is observed with relative SNS suppression by primary autonomic failure. These results suggest that 1/f scaling in heart rate requires the intricate balance between the antagonistic activity of PNS and SNS.

  1. Superlarge-Scale Structure in N-Body Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshkevich, A. G.; Muller, V.; Retzlaff, J.; Turchaninov, V.

    The simulated matter distribution on large scales is studied using core-sampling, cluster analysis, inertia tensor analysis, and minimal spanning tree techniques. Seven simulations in large boxes for five cosmological models with COBE normalized CDM-like power spectra are studied. The wall-like Super Large Scale Structure with parameters similar to the observed one is found for the OCDM and LambdaCDM models with Omega_mh = 0.2 -- 0.3. In these simulations, the rich structure elements with typical diameters geq 20h^{-1}Mpc incorporate ~40% of matter at an overdensity of about 10 above the mean. These rich elements are formed due to the nonlinear matter compression within sheet-like structures with a typical thickness ~(15 - 20) h^{-1}Mpc. They surround underdense regions with a typical diameter ~(50 - 70)h^{-1}Mpc. The statistical characteristics of these elements are found to be approximately consistent with observations and theoretical expectations. The cosmological models with higher matter density Omega_m = 1 in CDM and tilted or break power spectra cannot reproduce the characteristics of the observed galaxy distribution due to the very strong disruption of the rich structure elements. School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia

  2. U.S./Russian cooperative efforts to enhance nuclear MPC&A at VNIITF, (Chelyabinsk-70)

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, B; Apt, K; Blasy, J; Bukin, D; Churikov, Y; Eras, A; Magda, E; Neymotin, L; Schultz, F; Slankas, T; Tsygankov, G; Zuev, V

    1998-09-01

    The All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF) is one of the major sites in the nuclear weapons complex in Russia. The site contains a number of research facilities which use nuclear material as well as assembly, disassembly, and testing of prototypes (pilot samples) of nuclear weapons. VNIITF also has ties to the major nuclear materials production facilities in the Urals region of Russia. The objective of the U.S./Russian Materials Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) cooperative program between the US Department of Energy and Russia's Ministry of Atomic Eneryy, at VNIITF is to improve the protection and accountability of nuclear material at VNIITF. Enhanced safeguards systems have been implemented at a reactor test area called the Pulse Research Reactor Facility (PRR) in Area 20. The area contains three pulse reactors with associated storage areas. The integrated MPC&A system at the PRR was demonstrated to US and Russian audiences in May, 1998. Expansion of work into several new facilities is underway both in Area 20 and at other locations. These include processing and production facilities some of which are considered sensitive facilities, by the Russian side. Methods have been developed to assure that work is done as agreed without actually having access to the buildings. C-70 has developed an extensive computerized system which integrates the physical security alarm station with elements of the nuclear material control system. Under the MPC&A program, the existing systems have been augmented with Russian and US technologies. This paper will describe the work completed at the PRR, and the on-going activities and cooperative effort between the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Brookhaven US Department of Energy National Laboratories in support of VNIITF.

  3. A characteristic size of approximately 10 Mpc for the ionized bubbles at the end of cosmic reionization.

    PubMed

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2004-11-11

    The first galaxies to appear in the Universe at redshifts z > 20 created ionized bubbles in the intergalactic medium of neutral hydrogen left over from the Big Bang. The ionized bubbles grew with time, surrounding clusters of dwarf galaxies and eventually overlapped quickly throughout the Universe over a narrow redshift interval near z approximately 6. This event signalled the end of the reionization epoch when the Universe was a billion years old. Measuring the size distribution of the bubbles at their final overlap phase is a focus of forthcoming programmes to observe highly redshifted radio emission from atomic hydrogen. Here we show that the combined constraints of cosmic variance and light travel time imply an observed bubble size at the end of the overlap epoch of approximately 10 physical Mpc, and a scatter in the observed redshift of overlap along different lines-of-sight of approximately 0.15. This scatter is consistent with observational constraints from recent spectroscopic data on the farthest known quasars. This implies that future radio experiments should be tuned to a characteristic angular scale of 0.5 degrees and have a minimum frequency bandwidth of approximately 8 MHz for an optimal detection of 21-cm flux fluctuations near the end of reionization.

  4. Attitude control of an underactuated spacecraft using quaternion feedback regulator and tube-based MPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirshams, M.; Khosrojerdi, M.

    2017-03-01

    Feasibility of achieving 3-axis stabilization of an asymmetric spacecraft for cases where there is no control available in one axis (underactuated spacecraft) is explored in this paper. A novel control design methodology is presented which can stabilize the underactuated spacecraft and steer it to the origin. A passive fault tolerant control (FTC) is defined which controls and maintains the attitude of the spacecraft near the desired point in presence of uncertainties, disturbances, control constraints and actuator faults. Considering the general conditions of the underactuated spacecraft, a hybrid controller combining a quaternion feedback regulator (QFR) with a tube-based model predictive controller (MPC) is developed based on the nonlinear kinematic and dynamic equations of the spacecraft motion. The hybrid controller is composed of two control stages. At the first stage, QFR decreases the angular velocities and brings the state vector to an acceptable region for the next stage. Then, tube-based MPC solves two optimal control problems, a standard problem for the nominal system to define a central guide path, and an ancillary problem to steer the state vector towards the central path with semi-optimal control effort. Numerical simulation results obtained for the underactuated spacecraft merely indicate effectiveness of the proposed attitude control method.

  5. System Identification and Control Design of an Unmanned Helicopter Using a PI-MPC Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Tri, Quang; Lai, Ying-Chih

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the study of the system identification and controller design for an unmanned helicopter using the integration of Proportional Integral (PI) and Model Predictive Control (MPC). Since the dynamic model of a helicopter is highly nonlinear and contains many uncertainties, the system identification and control are challenging and complicated. To accelerate the development, the autonomous flight and trajectory tracking of an unmanned helicopter, this study first setup a software simulation environment of the helicopter using the X-Plane flight simulator. The prediction-error minimization (PEM) and subspace methods were applied in this study to identify the dynamic model of the interested flight trim conditions. The lateral, longitudinal, heave, and yaw dynamic models were predicted by using the System Identification Toolbox of MATLAB. To enhance the stability and eliminate the uncertainty of the control system, the Integration of Proportional Integral (PI) and MPC were introduced. The developed control system was then applied to perform the trajectory tracking of a helicopter. The simulation results show that the performance of the proposed approach can track the desired trajectory.

  6. Output feedback robust MPC for LPV system with polytopic model parametric uncertainty and bounded disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Baocang; Pan, Hongguang

    2016-08-01

    The output feedback robust model predictive control (MPC), for the linear parameter varying (LPV) system with norm-bounded disturbance, is addressed, where the model parametric matrices are only known to be bounded within a polytope. The previous techniques of norm-bounding technique, quadratic boundedness (QB), dynamic output feedback, and ellipsoid (true-state bound; TSB) refreshment formula for guaranteeing recursive feasibility, are fused into the newly proposed approaches. In the notion of QB, the full Lyapunov matrix is applied for the first time in this context. The single-step dynamic output feedback robust MPC, where the infinite-horizon control moves are parameterised as a dynamic output feedback law, is the main topic of this paper, while the multi-step method is also suggested. In order to strictly guarantee the physical constraints, the outer bound of the true state replaces the true state itself, so tightness of this bound has a major effect on the control performance. In order to tighten the TSB, a procedure for refreshing the real-time ellipsoid based on that of the last sampling instant is given. This paper is conclusive for the past results and far-reaching for the future researches. Two benchmark examples are given to show the effectiveness of the novel results.

  7. Large-Scale Pressurizable Fire Test Facility-Fire 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-30

    not available because of size and internal pressure requirements. This meant that a chamber would have to be manufactured. The chamber was designed ...KEY WNORD (CPRI...- In. 5 fn.. aff U *P .1 Scale modeling Enclosed space Fire hazard Fire supptession * ZN~~~~~.ANS CT (CIIIN. - 1,-M - 501 M**M - AK...Laboratory (NRL) maintains two pressurizable fire test chambers, 0.27 m) (9 5 ft’) [11 and 5 m3 (177 ft’) 121 In addition, a one-sixth scale model of the

  8. The significance of the 1-TeV scale

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1988-01-01

    the Standard Model of elementary particle physics organizes our knowledge of the basic constituents and interactions, and achieves a wide-ranging synthesis of elementary phenomena, but leaves unanswered some fundamental questions. Important clues to a more complete understanding are to be found on the energy scale of 1 TeV, where the kinship between the weak and electromagnetic interactions will be illuminated. Exploration of the 1-TeV scale is an essential goal for the 1990s. 37 refs., 3 figs.

  9. KrasMAS: Implementation of a nuclear material computerized accounting system at the Mining and Chemical Combine through the Russian/US cooperative MPC and A program

    SciTech Connect

    Dorofeev, K.V.; Zhidkov, V.V.; Martinez, B.J.; Perry, R.T.; Scott, S.C.

    1998-12-31

    The Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Kimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) project was initiated in June 1996. A critical component of the ongoing cooperative MPC and A enhancements at the GKhK is the implementation of a computerized nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system. This system must meet the MC and A requirements of the GKhK by integrating the information generated by numerous existing and new MC and A components in place at the GKhK (e.g., scales, bar-code equipment, NDA measurement systems). During the first phase of this effort, the GKhK adapted CoreMAS (developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) for use in the PuO{sub 2} storage facility. This included formulation of Web-based user interfaces for plant personnel, Russification of the existing user interface, and at the functional level, modification of the CoreMAS stored procedures. The modified system is referred to as KrasMAS and builds upon completed work on CoreMAS. Ongoing efforts include adding GKhK specific report forms and expanding the functionality of the system for implementation at the radiochemical processing and reactor plants of the GKhK. Collaborations with other Russian facilities for appropriate parts of these efforts will be pursued.

  10. Very Small Scale Clustering and Merger Rate of Luminous Red Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masjedi, Morad; Hogg, David W.; Cool, Richard J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Blanton, Michael R.; Zehavi, Idit; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bell, Eric F.; Schneider, Donald P.; Warren, Michael S.; Brinkmann, Jon

    2006-06-01

    We present the small-scale (0.01 Mpc1 Mpc) projected correlation function wp(rp) and real-space correlation function ξ(r) of 24,520 luminous early-type galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) sample (0.16scales smaller than 55" prevents measurements of the correlation function for LRGs on scales smaller than ~0.3 Mpc by the usual methods. In this work, we cross-correlate the spectroscopic sample with the imaging sample, with a weighting scheme to account for the collisions, extensively tested against mock catalogs. We correct for photometric biases in the SDSS imaging of close galaxy pairs. We find that the correlation function ξ(r) is surprisingly close to a r-2 power law over more than 4 orders of magnitude in separation r. This result is too steep at small scales to be explained in current versions of the halo model for galaxy clustering. We infer an LRG-LRG merger rate of <~0.6×104 Gyr-1 Gpc-3 for this sample. This result suggests that the LRG-LRG mergers are not the main mode of mass growth for LRGs at z<0.36.

  11. Biocontrol of Late Blight (Phytophthora capsici) Disease and Growth Promotion of Pepper by Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7

    PubMed Central

    Sopheareth, Mao; Chan, Sarun; Naing, Kyaw Wai; Lee, Yong Seong; Hyun, Hae Nam; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Kil Yong

    2013-01-01

    A chitinolytic bacterial strain having strong antifungal activity was isolated and identified as Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7 based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. MPC-7 solubilized insoluble phosphorous in hydroxyapatite agar media. It produced gluconic acid and 2-ketogluconic acid related to the decrease in pH of broth culture. The antagonist produced benzoic acid (BA) and phenylacetic acid (PA). The authentic compounds, BA and PA, showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against yeast, several bacterial and fungal pathogens in vitro. To demonstrate the biocontrol efficiency of MPC-7 on late blight disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, pepper plants in pot trials were treated with modified medium only (M), M plus zoospore inoculation (MP), MPC-7 cultured broth (B) and B plus zoospore inoculation (BP). With the sudden increase in root mortality, plants in MP wilted as early as five days after pathogen inoculation. However, plant in BP did not show any symptom of wilting until five days. Root mortality in BP was markedly reduced for as much as 50%. Plants in B had higher dry weight, P concentration in root, and larger leaf area compared to those in M and MP. These results suggested that B. cepacia MPC-7 should be considered as a candidate for the biological fertilizer as well as antimicrobial agent for pepper plants. PMID:25288930

  12. Implementation of the MPC and A Operations Monitoring (MOM) System at IRT-T FSRE Nuclear Power Institute (NPI)

    SciTech Connect

    Sitdikov,I.; Zenkov, A.; Tsibulnikov, Y.; Duncan, C.; Brownell, L.; Pratt, W.T.; Carbonaro, J.; White, R.M.; Coffing, J.A.

    2008-07-13

    The Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program has been working since 1994 with nuclear sites in Russia to upgrade the physical protection (PP) and material control and accounting (MC&A) functions at facilities containing weapons usable nuclear material. In early 2001, the MPC&A program initiated the MPC&A Operations Monitoring (MOM) Project to monitor facilities where MPC&A upgrades have been installed to provide increased confidence that personnel are present and vigilant, provide confidence that security procedures are being properly performed and provide additional assurance that nuclear materials have not been stolen. The MOM project began as a pilot project at the Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and a MOM system was successfully installed in October 2001. Following the success of the MEPhI pilot project, the MPC&A Program expanded the installation of MOM systems to several other Russian facilities, including the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) in Tomsk. The MOM system was made operational at NPI in October 2004. This paper is focused on the experience gained from operation of this system and the objectives of the MOM system. The paper also describes how the MOM system is used at NPI and, in particular, how the data is analyzed. Finally, potential expansion of the MOM system at NPI is described.

  13. MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

    2006-07-01

    This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

  14. Observational requirements for Lyα forest tomographic mapping of large-scale structure at z ∼ 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; White, Martin; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Ozbek, Melih

    2014-06-10

    The z ≳ 2 Lyα forest traces the underlying dark matter distribution on large scales and, given sufficient sightlines, can be used to create three-dimensional (3D) maps of large-scale structures. We examine the observational requirements to construct such maps and estimate the signal-to-noise as a function of exposure time and sightline density. Sightline densities at z = 2.25 are n {sub los} ≈ [360, 1200, 3300] deg{sup –2} at limiting magnitudes of g = [24.0, 24.5, 25.0], resulting in transverse sightline separations of (d ) ≈ [3.6, 1.9, 1.2] h {sup –1} Mpc, which roughly sets the reconstruction scale. We simulate these reconstructions using mock spectra with realistic noise properties and find that spectra with S/N ≈ 4 per angstrom can be used to generate maps that clearly trace the underlying dark matter at overdensities of ρ/(ρ) ∼ 1. For the VLT/VIMOS spectrograph, exposure times t {sub exp} = [4, 6, 10] hr are sufficient for maps with spatial resolution ε{sub 3D} = [5.0, 3.2, 2.3] h {sup –1} Mpc. Assuming ∼250 h {sup –1} Mpc is probed along the line of sight, 1 deg{sup 2} of survey area would cover a comoving volume of ≈10{sup 6} h {sup –3} Mpc{sup 3} at (z) ∼ 2.3, enabling the efficient mapping of large volumes with 8-10 m telescopes. These maps could be used to study galaxy environments, the topology of large-scale structures at high z, and to detect proto-clusters.

  15. AN ACCURATE FLUX DENSITY SCALE FROM 1 TO 50 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, R. A.; Butler, B. J. E-mail: BButler@nrao.edu

    2013-02-15

    We develop an absolute flux density scale for centimeter-wavelength astronomy by combining accurate flux density ratios determined by the Very Large Array between the planet Mars and a set of potential calibrators with the Rudy thermophysical emission model of Mars, adjusted to the absolute scale established by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The radio sources 3C123, 3C196, 3C286, and 3C295 are found to be varying at a level of less than {approx}5% per century at all frequencies between 1 and 50 GHz, and hence are suitable as flux density standards. We present polynomial expressions for their spectral flux densities, valid from 1 to 50 GHz, with absolute accuracy estimated at 1%-3% depending on frequency. Of the four sources, 3C286 is the most compact and has the flattest spectral index, making it the most suitable object on which to establish the spectral flux density scale. The sources 3C48, 3C138, 3C147, NGC 7027, NGC 6542, and MWC 349 show significant variability on various timescales. Polynomial coefficients for the spectral flux density are developed for 3C48, 3C138, and 3C147 for each of the 17 observation dates, spanning 1983-2012. The planets Venus, Uranus, and Neptune are included in our observations, and we derive their brightness temperatures over the same frequency range.

  16. The scale of cosmic isotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Marinoni, C.; Bel, J.; Buzzi, A. E-mail: Julien.Bel@cpt.univ-mrs.fr

    2012-10-01

    The most fundamental premise to the standard model of the universe states that the large-scale properties of the universe are the same in all directions and at all comoving positions. Demonstrating this hypothesis has proven to be a formidable challenge. The cross-over scale R{sub iso} above which the galaxy distribution becomes statistically isotropic is vaguely defined and poorly (if not at all) quantified. Here we report on a formalism that allows us to provide an unambiguous operational definition and an estimate of R{sub iso}. We apply the method to galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, finding that R{sub iso} ∼ 150h{sup −1}Mpc. Besides providing a consistency test of the Copernican principle, this result is in agreement with predictions based on numerical simulations of the spatial distribution of galaxies in cold dark matter dominated cosmological models.

  17. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  18. The EFT of Large Scale Structures at all redshifts: analytical predictions for lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, Simon; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    We study the prediction of the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) for the matter power spectrum at different redshifts. In previous work, we found that the two-loop prediction can match the nonlinear power spectrum measured from N-body simulations at redshift zero within approximately 2% up to k~ 0.6 h Mpc-1 after fixing a single free parameter, the so-called "speed of sound". We determine the time evolution of this parameter by matching the EFTofLSS prediction to simulation output at different redshifts, and find that it is well-described by a fitting function that only includes one additional parameter. After the two free parameters are fixed, the prediction agrees with nonlinear data within approximately 2% up to at least k~ 1 h Mpc-1 at z>= 1, and also within approximately 5% up to k~ 1.2 h Mpc-1 at z=1 and k~ 2.3 h Mpc-1 at z=3, a major improvement with respect to other perturbative techniques. We also develop an accurate way to estimate where the EFTofLSS predictions at different loop orders should fail, based on the sizes of the next-order terms that are neglected, and find agreement with the actual comparisons to data. Finally, we use our matter power spectrum results to perform analytical calculations of lensing potential power spectra corresponding to both CMB and galaxy lensing. This opens the door to future direct applications of the EFTofLSS to observations of gravitational clustering on cosmic scales.

  19. Investigation of Homogeneity and Matter Distribution on Large Scales Using Large Quasar Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Hua

    2015-12-01

    We use 20 large quasar group (LQG) samples in Park et al. (2015) to investigate the homogeneity of the 0.3 ≲ z ≲ 1.6 Universe (z denotes the redshift). For comparison, we also employ the 12 LQGs samples at 0.5 ≲ z ≲ 2 in Komberg et al. (1996) to do the analysis. We calculate the bias factor b and the two-point correlation function ξLQG for such groups for three different density profiles of the LQG dark matter halos, i.e. the isothermal profile, the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, and the (gravitational) lensing profile. We consider the ΛCDM (cold dark matter plus a cosmological constant Λ) underlying matter power spectrum with Ωm = 0.28, ΩΛ = 0.72, the Hubble constant H0 = 100 h·km·s-1· Mpc-1 with h = 0.72. Dividing the samples into three redshift bins, we find that the LQGs with higher redshift are more biased and correlated than those with lower redshift. The homogeneity scale RH of the LQG distribution is also deduced from theory. It is defined as the comoving radius of the sphere inside which the number of LQGs N(< r) is proportional to r3 within 1%, or equivalently above which the correlation dimension of the sample D2 is within 1% of D2 = 3. For Park et al.'s samples and the NFW dark matter halo profile, the homogeneity scales of the LQG distribution are RH ⋍ 247 h-1· Mpc for 0.2 < z ≤ 0.6, RH ⋍ 360 h-1· Mpc for 0.6 < z ≤ 1.2, and RH ⋍ 480 h-1· Mpc for 1.2 < z ≲ 1.6. The maximum extent of the LQG samples are beyond RH in each bin, showing that the LQG samples are not homogeneously distributed on such a scale, i.e. a length range of ˜ 500 h-1. Mpc and a mass scale of ˜1014M⊙. The possibilities of a top-down structure formation process as was predicted by the hot/warm dark matter (WDM) scenarios and the redshift evolution of bias factor b and correlation amplitude ξLQG of the LQGs as a consequence of the cosmic expansion are both discussed. Different results were obtained based on the LQG sample in Komberg et al. (1996

  20. Light domain walls, massive neutrinos and the large scale structure of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massarotti, Alessandro

    1991-01-01

    Domain walls generated through a cosmological phase transition are considered, which interact nongravitationally with light neutrinos. At a redshift z greater than or equal to 10(exp 4), the network grows rapidly and is virtually decoupled from the matter. As the friction with the matter becomes dominant, a comoving network scale close to that of the comoving horizon scale at z of approximately 10(exp 4) gets frozen. During the later phases, the walls produce matter wakes of a thickness d of approximately 10h(exp -1)Mpc, that may become seeds for the formation of the large scale structure observed in the Universe.

  1. Layer-by-layer assembled magnetic prednisolone microcapsules (MPC) for controlled and targeted drug release at rheumatoid arthritic joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, Chakkarapani; Latha, Subbiah; Selvamani, Palanisamy; Ahrentorp, Fredrik; Johansson, Christer; Takeda, Ryoji; Takemura, Yasushi; Ota, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    We report here in about the formulation and evaluation of Magnetic Prednisolone Microcapsules (MPC) developed in order to improve the therapeutic efficacy relatively at a low dose than the conventional dosage formulations by means of magnetic drug targeting and thus enhancing bioavailability at the arthritic joints. Prednisolone was loaded to poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) doped calcium carbonate microspheres confirmed by the decrease in surface area from 97.48 m2/g to 12.05 of m2/g by BET analysis. Adsorption with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes incorporated with iron oxide nanoparticles was confirmed through zeta analysis. Removal of calcium carbonate core yielded MPC with particle size of 3.48 μm, zeta potential of +29.7 mV was evaluated for its magnetic properties. Functional integrity of MPC was confirmed through FT-IR spectrum. Stability studies were performed at 25 °C±65% relative humidity for 60 days showed no considerable changes. Further the encapsulation efficiency of 63%, loading capacity of 18.2% and drug release of 88.3% for 36 h and its kinetics were also reported. The observed results justify the suitability of MPC for possible applications in the magnetic drug targeting for efficient therapy of rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. BINARY QUASARS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: EVIDENCE FOR EXCESS CLUSTERING ON SMALL SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Hennawi, J F; Strauss, M A; Oguri, M; Inada, N; Richards, G T; Pindor, B; Schneider, D P; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Hall, P B; Johnston, D E; Fan, X; Burles, S; Schlegel, D J; Gunn, J E; Lupton, R; Bahcall, N A; Brunner, R J; Brinkman, J

    2005-11-10

    We present a sample of 218 new quasar pairs with proper transverse separations R{sub prop} < 1 h{sup -1} Mpc over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 3.0, discovered from an extensive follow up campaign to find companions around the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 2dF Quasar Redshift Survey quasars. This sample includes 26 new binary quasars with separations R{sub prop} < 50 h{sup -1} kpc ({theta} < 10''), more than doubling the number of such systems known. We define a statistical sample of binaries selected with homogeneous criteria and compute its selection function, taking into account sources of incompleteness. The first measurement of the quasar correlation function on scales 10 h{sup -1} kpc < R{sub prop} < 400 h{sup -1} kpc is presented. For R{sub prop} {approx}< 40 h{sup -1} kpc, we detect an order of magnitude excess clustering over the expectation from the large scale (R{sub prop} {approx}> 3 h{sup -1} Mpc) quasar correlation function, extrapolated down as a power law to the separations probed by our binaries. The excess grows to {approx}30 at R{sub prop} {approx} 10 h{sup -1} kpc, and provides compelling evidence that the quasar autocorrelation function gets progressively steeper on sub-Mpc scales. This small scale excess can likely be attributed to dissipative interaction events which trigger quasar activity in rich environments. Recent small scale measurements of galaxy clustering and quasar-galaxy clustering are reviewed and discussed in relation to our measurement of small scale quasar clustering.

  3. Control of the tokamak safety factor profile with time-varying constraints using MPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; de Baar, M. R.; van Dongen, J.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Geelen, P. J. M.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-02-01

    A controller is designed for the tokamak safety factor profile that takes real-time-varying operational and physics limits into account. This so-called model predictive controller (MPC) employs a prediction model in order to compute optimal control inputs that satisfy the given limits. The use of linearized models around a reference trajectory results in a quadratic programming problem that can easily be solved online. The performance of the controller is analysed in a set of ITER L-mode scenarios simulated with the non-linear plasma transport code RAPTOR. It is shown that the controller can reduce the tracking error due to an overestimation or underestimation of the modelled transport, while making a trade-off between residual error and amount of controller action. It is also shown that the controller can account for a sudden decrease in the available actuator power, while providing warnings ahead of time about expected violations of operational and physics limits. This controller can be extended and implemented in existing tokamaks in the near future.

  4. The U.S. DOE MPC and A assistance program to Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmycz, G.; Bingham, C.; Chen, R.

    1997-09-01

    The nuclear industry of Ukraine is a vital part of the national economy. In 1995 nuclear power accounted for approximately 37% of the total electricity production. Ukraine has five nuclear power stations with fourteen reactors in commercial operation. Ukraine also has research facilities whose work involves nuclear materials. Improving the security of the nuclear material under its control is an important goal for the Ukrainian nuclear community. Ukraine has requested and is receiving the assistance of several IAEA member states in material protection, control and accounting (MPC and A). The US DOE is providing assistance in nuclear material safeguards in both material control and accountability (MC and A) and physical protection (PP) to the national regulatory authority and to four facilities in Ukraine. The program is well under way. At the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR) a significant upgrade of the PP system has been completed. Similar upgrades are in progress at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP) and Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry (SINEI). MC and A equipment and software, including computers and NDA instrumentation, have been delivered to the facilities. This paper summarizes accomplishments of the program to date, and future plans.

  5. Hadron supercolliders: The 1-TeV scale and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1990-08-10

    Greater understanding of the connection between the weak and electromagnetic interactions is central to progress in elementary-particle physics. A definitive exploration of the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking will require collisions between fundamental constituents at energies on the order of 1 TeV. This goal drives the design of high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders that will be commissioned during the next decade, but by no means completely defines their scientific potential. These three lectures are devoted to a review of the standard-model issues that motivated an experimental assault on the 1-TeV scale, an introduction to the machines and the experimental environment they will present, and a survey of possibilities for measurement and discovery with a multi-TeV hadron collider. 72 refs., 29 figs.

  6. Characterization of oxide scales from Loviisa Units 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, P.; Maekelae, K.; Buddas, T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the characterization of oxide scales formed on the primary loop piping of Loviisa NPP, Units 1 and 2. X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and optical microscopy, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, Laser Raman Spectroscopy and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis were carried out to compare the oxides. The both units have been operated under the similar water chemistry since the early 80`s but the average activity levels in Unit 2 was observed to increase faster than in Unit 1. The conducted analyses indicated differences in the oxide structures between the sample from Unit 2 cold leg and all other samples, but the connection between this oxide structure and the activity build-up is still under discussion. Different parameters affecting the morphology and structure of the oxide films formed in VVER primary water environment will be discussed.

  7. SN 2008jb: A 'LOST' CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA IN A STAR-FORMING DWARF GALAXY AT {approx}10 Mpc

    SciTech Connect

    Prieto, J. L.; Lee, J. C.; Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; McNaught, R.; Garradd, G.; Beacom, J. F.; Beshore, E.; Catelan, M.; Pojmanski, G.; Stanek, K. Z.; Szczygiel, D. M.

    2012-01-20

    We present the discovery and follow-up observations of SN 2008jb, a core-collapse supernova in the southern dwarf irregular galaxy ESO 302-14 (M{sub B} = -15.3 mag) at 9.6 Mpc. This nearby transient was missed by galaxy-targeted surveys and was only found in archival optical images obtained by the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey and the All-Sky Automated Survey. The well-sampled archival photometry shows that SN 2008jb was detected shortly after explosion and reached a bright optical maximum, V{sub max} {approx_equal} 13.6 mag (M{sub V,max} {approx_equal} -16.5). The shape of the light curve shows a plateau of {approx}100 days, followed by a drop of {approx}1.4 mag in the V band to a slow decline with an approximate {sup 56}Co decay slope. The late-time light curve is consistent with 0.04 {+-} 0.01 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni synthesized in the explosion. A spectrum of the supernova obtained two years after explosion shows a broad, boxy H{alpha} emission line, which is unusual for normal Type II-Plateau supernovae at late times. We detect the supernova in archival Spitzer and WISE images obtained 8-14 months after explosion, which show clear signs of warm (600-700 K) dust emission. The dwarf irregular host galaxy, ESO 302-14, has a low gas-phase oxygen abundance, 12 + log(O/H) = 8.2 ({approx}1/5 Z{sub Sun }), similar to those of the Small Magellanic Cloud and the hosts of long gamma-ray bursts and luminous core-collapse supernovae. This metallicity is one of the lowest among local ({approx}< 10 Mpc) supernova hosts. We study the host environment using GALEX far-UV, R-band, and H{alpha} images and find that the supernova occurred in a large star formation complex. The morphology of the H{alpha} emission appears as a large shell (R {approx_equal} 350 pc) surrounding the FUV and optical emission. Using the H{alpha}-to-FUV ratio and FUV and R-band luminosities, we estimate an age of {approx}9 Myr and a total mass of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun

  8. Mapping 3D Large-Scale Structure at z ˜2 with Lyman-α Forest Tomographic Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, J. F.; White, M.; Croft, R. A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Schlegel, D. J.; Suzuki, N.; Kneib, J.; Bailey, S. J.; Spergel, D. N.; Rix, H.; Strauss, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lyman-α (Lyα) forest absorption at z>2 traces the underlying dark-matter distribution, and with a sufficient density of background sightlines can be used to create 3D tomographic maps of large-scale structure. Since the useful Lyα forest in each sightline spans ˜400-500 h-1Mpc, Lyα forest tomography can efficiently map out large-scale structure at z˜2. The Cosmic Lyman-Alpha Program for the Tomographic Reconstruction of Absorption Probes (CLAPTRAP) will be the first survey to attempt this technique. We aim to obtain spectra for a background grid of faint quasars and bright LBGs at 21Mpc, allowing a 3D map with similar 3 h-1Mpc resolution to be reconstructed from the data. In a recent paper, we have found that spectra with S/N ˜ 4 per Å are sufficient to make excellent-quality tomographic maps that clearly trace the underlying dark-matter distribution at overdensities of order unity. This requires integrations of several hours on moderate-resolution spectrographs mounted on existing 8-10m telescopes, such as LRIS on the Keck-I telescope and VIMOS on the Very Large Telescopes. We aim to observe ˜1500-2000 background sources over 1 sq deg of the COSMOS field with Lyα forest coverage over 2.0Mpc3, equivalent to the zCOSMOS and DEEP2 galaxy redshift maps out to z˜1. The total time requirement is 16 nights on either VLT-VIMOS or Keck-LRIS. The resulting tomographic maps will be the first 3D maps of large-scale structure at z>1. In conjunction with the rich multi-wavelength data from the COSMOS survey, these maps will facilitate the study of galaxies in the context of the large-scale environment, reveal the topology of large-scale structure at high-redshifts, and allow the direct detection of galaxy protoclusters at the intersections of the cosmic web. The

  9. VORTICAL MOTIONS OF BARYONIC GAS IN THE COSMIC WEB: GROWTH HISTORY AND SCALING RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Weishan; Feng, Long-long

    2015-10-01

    The vortical motions of the baryonic gas residing in large-scale structures are investigated by cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. Proceeding in the formation of the cosmic web, the vortical motions of baryonic matter are pumped up by baroclinity in two stages, i.e., the formation of sheets and filaments. The mean curl velocities are about <1, 1–10, 10–150, and 5–50 km s{sup −1} in voids, sheets, filaments, and knots at z = 0, respectively. The scaling of the vortical velocity of gas can be well described by the She–Leveque hierarchical turbulence model in the range of l < 0.65(1.50) h{sup −1} Mpc in a simulation with a box of size 25(100) h{sup −1} Mpc. The fractal Hausdorff dimension of vortical motions, d, revealed by velocity structure functions, is ∼2.1–2.3(∼1.8–2.1). It is slightly larger than the fractal dimension of mass distribution in filaments, D{sup f} ∼ 1.9–2.2, and smaller than the fractal dimension of sheets, D{sup s} ∼ 2.4–2.7. The vortical kinetic energy of baryonic gas is mainly transported by filaments. Both scalings of mass distribution and vortical velocity increments show distinctive transitions at the turning scale of ∼0.65(1.50) h{sup −1} Mpc, which may be closely related to the characteristic radius of density filaments.

  10. Scaling of X pinches from 1 MA to 6 MA.

    SciTech Connect

    Bland, Simon Nicholas; McBride, Ryan D.; Wenger, David Franklin; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Pikuz, Sergei A.; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Yu, Edmund P.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; Hansen, Stephanie B.

    2010-09-01

    This final report for Project 117863 summarizes progress made toward understanding how X-pinch load designs scale to high currents. The X-pinch load geometry was conceived in 1982 as a method to study the formation and properties of bright x-ray spots in z-pinch plasmas. X-pinch plasmas driven by 0.2 MA currents were found to have source sizes of 1 micron, temperatures >1 keV, lifetimes of 10-100 ps, and densities >0.1 times solid density. These conditions are believed to result from the direct magnetic compression of matter. Physical models that capture the behavior of 0.2 MA X pinches predict more extreme parameters at currents >1 MA. This project developed load designs for up to 6 MA on the SATURN facility and attempted to measure the resulting plasma parameters. Source sizes of 5-8 microns were observed in some cases along with evidence for high temperatures (several keV) and short time durations (<500 ps).

  11. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 1. Founding principles and scale laws.

    PubMed

    Auffray, Charles; Nottale, Laurent

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, and discuss how scale laws of increasing complexity can be used to model and understand the behaviour of complex biological systems. In scale relativity theory, the geometry of space is considered to be continuous but non-differentiable, therefore fractal (i.e., explicitly scale-dependent). One writes the equations of motion in such a space as geodesics equations, under the constraint of the principle of relativity of all scales in nature. To this purpose, covariant derivatives are constructed that implement the various effects of the non-differentiable and fractal geometry. In this first review paper, the scale laws that describe the new dependence on resolutions of physical quantities are obtained as solutions of differential equations acting in the scale space. This leads to several possible levels of description for these laws, from the simplest scale invariant laws to generalized laws with variable fractal dimensions. Initial applications of these laws to the study of species evolution, embryogenesis and cell confinement are discussed.

  12. LUMINOUS RED GALAXY HALO DENSITY FIELD RECONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION TO LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Beth A.; Spergel, David N.; Bode, Paul E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2009-09-01

    The nontrivial relationship between observations of galaxy positions in redshift space and the underlying matter field complicates our ability to determine the linear theory power spectrum and extract cosmological information from galaxy surveys. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalog has the potential to place powerful constraints on cosmological parameters. LRGs are bright, highly biased tracers of large-scale structure. However, because they are highly biased, the nonlinear contribution of satellite galaxies to the galaxy power spectrum is large and fingers-of-God (FOGs) are significant. The combination of these effects leads to a {approx}10% correction in the underlying power spectrum at k = 0.1 h Mpc{sup -1} and {approx}40% correction at k = 0.2 h Mpc{sup -1} in the LRG P(k) analysis of Tegmark et al., thereby compromising the cosmological constraints when this potentially large correction is left as a free parameter. We propose an alternative approach to recovering the matter field from galaxy observations. Our approach is to use halos rather than galaxies to trace the underlying mass distribution. We identify FOGs and replace each FOG with a single halo object. This removes the nonlinear contribution of satellite galaxies, the one-halo term. We test our method on a large set of high-fidelity mock SDSS LRG catalogs and find that the power spectrum of the reconstructed halo density field deviates from the underlying matter power spectrum at the {<=}1% level for k {<=} 0.1 h Mpc{sup -1} and {<=}4% at k = 0.2 h Mpc{sup -1}. The reconstructed halo density field also removes the bias in the measurement of the redshift space distortion parameter {beta} induced by the FOG smearing of the linear redshift space distortions.

  13. Handling Difficult Towers in the Calibration of the PHENIX Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC) for Analysis of RHIC Au+Au Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallow, Emran; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The PHENIX Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC) is an electromagnetic detector with a kinematic coverage of (3 . 1 < | η | < 3 . 9). This allows for measurements at high forward and backward pseudorapidity and will be used to measure transverse energy in √{SNN} = 200, 62.4, 39, and 7.7 GeV RHIC Au+Au collisions in this kinematic region. The towers will be calibrated by using an iterative procedure in which neutral pions are reconstructed from their decay photons. To augment the iterative process, rough calibrations of individual towers can be obtained by direct examination of ADC distributions. These rough calibrations serve as input to the more rigorous neutral pion reconstruction method and will be described in this poster. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1507841.

  14. System-wide hybrid MPC-PID control of a continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravendra; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2013-11-01

    The next generation of QbD based pharmaceutical products will be manufactured through continuous processing. This will allow the integration of online/inline monitoring tools, coupled with an efficient advanced model-based feedback control systems, to achieve precise control of process variables, so that the predefined product quality can be achieved consistently. The direct compaction process considered in this study is highly interactive and involves time delays for a number of process variables due to sensor placements, process equipment dimensions, and the flow characteristics of the solid material. A simple feedback regulatory control system (e.g., PI(D)) by itself may not be sufficient to achieve the tight process control that is mandated by regulatory authorities. The process presented herein comprises of coupled dynamics involving slow and fast responses, indicating the requirement of a hybrid control scheme such as a combined MPC-PID control scheme. In this manuscript, an efficient system-wide hybrid control strategy for an integrated continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction has been designed. The designed control system is a hybrid scheme of MPC-PID control. An effective controller parameter tuning strategy involving an ITAE method coupled with an optimization strategy has been used for tuning of both MPC and PID parameters. The designed hybrid control system has been implemented in a first-principles model-based flowsheet that was simulated in gPROMS (Process System Enterprise). Results demonstrate enhanced performance of critical quality attributes (CQAs) under the hybrid control scheme compared to only PID or MPC control schemes, illustrating the potential of a hybrid control scheme in improving pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.

  15. Characterization of AGIPD1.0: The full scale chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezza, D.; Allahgholi, A.; Arino-Estrada, G.; Bianco, L.; Delfs, A.; Dinapoli, R.; Goettlicher, P.; Graafsma, H.; Greiffenberg, D.; Hirsemann, H.; Jack, S.; Klanner, R.; Klyuev, A.; Krueger, H.; Marras, A.; Mozzanica, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schwandt, J.; Sheviakov, I.; Shi, X.; Trunk, U.; Xia, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zimmer, M.

    2016-12-01

    The AGIPD (adaptive gain integrating pixel detector) detector is a high frame rate (4.5 MHz) and high dynamic range (up to 104 ·12.4 keV photons) detector with single photon resolution (down to 4 keV taking 5σ as limit and lowest noise settings) developed for the European XFEL (XFEL.EU). This work is focused on the characterization of AGIPD1.0, which is the first full scale version of the chip. The chip is 64×64 pixels and each pixel has a size of 200×200 μm2. Each pixel can store up to 352 images at a rate of 4.5 MHz (corresponding to 220 ns). A detailed characterization of the AGIPD1.0 chip has been performed in order to assess the main performance of the ASIC in terms of gain, noise, speed and dynamic range. From the measurements presented in this paper a good uniformity of the gain, a noise around 320 e- (rms) in standard mode and around 240 e- (rms) in high gain mode has been measured. Furthermore a detailed discussion about the non-linear behavior after the gain switching is presented with both experimental results and simulations.

  16. Is fractal 1/f scaling in stream chemistry universal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrachowitz, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Stream water chemistry data from catchments worldwide suggest that catchments act as filters that transform white noise, i.e. random, input signals such as in precipitation, into 1/f^α noise whose slope in a power spectrum typically ranges between -0.5>α>-1.5. This previously lead to the hypothesis that catchments act as fractal filters. In other words, it was posed that considering uncertainty, a slope of α=-1 may be a universal and intrinsic property of catchments. Such fractal scaling characteristics would have considerable implications on the predictability of stream water chemistry, as both, temporal short- and long-range interdependence and memory control the system response. While short memories and thus flatter slopes with α closer to 0 indicate poor short term but good long-term predictability, steeper slopes with values of α <<-1 indicate the opposite. In fractal systems, i.e. where α=-1, this therefore leads to inherent problems of robustly predicting both, short and long-term response patterns. The hypothesis of catchments acting as fractal filters (α=-1), however, remains to be tested more profoundly. It is, for example, not yet clear, if the observed inter-catchment variations in α indeed need to be interpreted as uncertainty and noise in the signal or if the variations underlie a systematic pattern and can be explained by some characteristic of catchment function, as was recently suggested in a modelling study based two experimental catchments (Hrachowitz et al., 2015). Here we will therefore further test the hypothesis that the spectral slope of stream water chemistry is not necessarily α=-1 and that catchments therefore do not inherently act as fractal filters. Further, it will be tested if closer links between the variations in spectral slope and hydrological function of catchments can be identified. The combined data-analysis and modelling study uses hydrochemical data (i.e. Cl- and O-18) from a wide range of catchments worldwide to

  17. Drift scale test status report (Chapters 1-9)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W., LLNL

    1998-07-01

    The Drift-Scale Test (DST) is one of the thermal tests being conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of the potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. One of the DST`s major objectives is to study the coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes at the potential repository`s horizon. The objectives, test design, and test layouts of the DST are included in a previous test design report. this report present results and analysis of several difference measurements made in the DST by researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through the second quarter of the heating phase. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 describe the layout of the DST and the boreholes and instrumentation used to monitor the THCM processes in the rock of associated drifts. Section 2 presents an analysis of temperature data for the test through the end of May 1998. Sections 3 and 4 present results of electrical resistance tomography and neutron logging measurements, respectively. These two sets of measurements are designed to determine the movement of moisture in the test. Results of a series of geochemical measurements made on gas and water samples are presented in Section 5. The purpose of these measurements is to monitor the chemical processes occurring in the DST. Section 6 presents results of thermohydrologic modeling analysis of the test, and Section 7 presents data collected via the laboratory testing for characterization of the hydrologic properties of the rock forming the DST. A brief analysis of barometric pressure and humidity data collected through the end of May 1998 is discussed in Section 8, along with temperature data for the bulkhead. Finally, Section 9 presented an evaluation of sensors used in the DST.

  18. New results on large-scale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinkov, M.; Stavrev, K.; Kuneva, I.

    A new version of the magnetic-tape catalog of Abell clusters of galaxies is used to obtain redshift estimators and to generate two samples of clusters. A procedure for searching for superclusters of galaxies is applied and the results are given in tabular and graphic form. For a limited homogeneous sample (distance 60 - 275 Mpc, galactic latitude B > 35°), 12 multiplets, having member clusters with known redshifts, are found. It is shown that the spatial covariance function for rich clusters has the form ξ = (r0/r)γ with r0 = 22.4±1.8 Mpc and γ = 1.90±0.25 for 3 Mpc ⪉ r ⪉ 80 Mpc.

  19. A practical approach to Model Predictive Control (MPC) for solar communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Humberto

    Solar district heating (SDH) systems are part of the solution to reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions required for space heating. This kind of installation takes advantage of the convenience of a centralized system and of solar energy to reduce dependency on fossil-fuels. An SDH system is a proven concept that can be enhanced with the addition of long-term thermal energy storage to compensate the seasonal disparity between solar energy supply and heating load demand. These systems are especially deployed in Europe. In Canada, the only SDH installation is the Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC). This project, which includes seasonal storage (Borehole Thermal Energy Storage-BTES), has been a remarkable success, reaching a solar fraction of 97% by the fifth year of operation. An SDH system cannot be complete without an appropriate supervisory control that coordinates the operation and interaction of system components. The control is based on a set of rules that must consider the system's internal status and external conditions to guarantee occupant comfort with minimal fossil-fuels consumption. This research project is mainly focused on conceiving and assessing new control mechanisms aiming towards an increase of SDH systems' overall energy efficiency. The case study is the DLSC plant, and the proposed control strategies are based on the practical application of Model Predictive Control (MPC) theory. A calibrated model of DLSC including the supervisory control strategies was developed in TRNSYS, building upon the model used for design studies. The model was improved and new components were created when needed. The calibration process delivered a very good agreement for the most important yearly energy performance indices (2 % for solar heat input to the district and for gas consumption, and 5 % for electricity use). Proposed control strategies were conceived for modifying four aspects of the current control: the parameters that define the interaction between

  20. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  1. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  2. Location and acoustic scale cues in concurrent speech recognition1

    PubMed Central

    Ives, D. Timothy; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Kistler, Doris J.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2010-01-01

    Location and acoustic scale cues have both been shown to have an effect on the recognition of speech in multi-speaker environments. This study examines the interaction of these variables. Subjects were presented with concurrent triplets of syllables from a target voice and a distracting voice, and asked to recognize a specific target syllable. The task was made more or less difficult by changing (a) the location of the distracting speaker, (b) the scale difference between the two speakers, and∕or (c) the relative level of the two speakers. Scale differences were produced by changing the vocal tract length and glottal pulse rate during syllable synthesis: 32 acoustic scale differences were used. Location cues were produced by convolving head-related transfer functions with the stimulus. The angle between the target speaker and the distracter was 0°, 4°, 8°, 16°, or 32° on the 0° horizontal plane. The relative level of the target to the distracter was 0 or −6 dB. The results show that location and scale difference interact, and the interaction is greatest when one of these cues is small. Increasing either the acoustic scale or the angle between target and distracter speakers quickly elevates performance to ceiling levels. PMID:20550271

  3. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.

    1996-03-01

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

  4. Criticality Safety Validation of Scale 6.1

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Rearden, Bradley T

    2011-11-01

    The computational bias of criticality safety computer codes must be established through the validation of the codes to critical experiments. A large collection of suitable experiments has been vetted by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Program (ICSBEP) and made available in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (IHECSBE). A total of more than 350 cases from this reference have been prepared and reviewed within the Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data (VALID) maintained by the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The performance of the KENO V.a and KENO-VI Monte Carlo codes within the Scale 6.1 code system with ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section data in 238-group and continuous energy is assessed using the VALID models of benchmark experiments. The TSUNAMI tools for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are utilized to examine some systems further in an attempt to identify potential causes of unexpected results. The critical experiments available for validation of the KENO V.a code cover eight different broad categories of systems. These systems use a range of fissile materials including a range of uranium enrichments, various plutonium isotopic vectors, and mixed uranium-plutonium oxides. The physical form of the fissile material also varies and is represented as metal, solutions, or arrays of rods or plates in a water moderator. The neutron energy spectra of the systems also vary and cover both fast and thermal spectra. Over 300 of the total cases used utilize the KENO V.a code. The critical experiments available for the validation of the KENO-VI code cover three broad categories of systems. The fissile materials in the systems vary and include high and intermediate-enrichment uranium and mixed uranium/plutonium oxides. The physical form of the fissile material is either metal or rod arrays in water. As with KENO V.a, both fast and thermal neutron energy spectra

  5. Ionocovalency and applications 1. Ionocovalency model and orbital hybrid scales.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yonghe

    2010-11-03

    Ionocovalency (IC), a quantitative dual nature of the atom, is defined and correlated with quantum-mechanical potential to describe quantitatively the dual properties of the bond. Orbiotal hybrid IC model scale, IC, and IC electronegativity scale, X(IC), are proposed, wherein the ionicity and the covalent radius are determined by spectroscopy. Being composed of the ionic function I and the covalent function C, the model describes quantitatively the dual properties of bond strengths, charge density and ionic potential. Based on the atomic electron configuration and the various quantum-mechanical built-up dual parameters, the model formed a Dual Method of the multiple-functional prediction, which has much more versatile and exceptional applications than traditional electronegativity scales and molecular properties. Hydrogen has unconventional values of IC and X(IC), lower than that of boron. The IC model can agree fairly well with the data of bond properties and satisfactorily explain chemical observations of elements throughout the Periodic Table.

  6. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

  7. Large-scale structure in the Southern Sky Redshift Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J. R., III; Da Costa, L. N.

    1992-01-01

    The power spectrum from the Southern Sky Redshift Survey and the CfA samples are measured in order to explore the amplitude of fluctuation in the galaxy density. At lambda of less than or equal to 30/h Mpc the observed power spectrum is quite consistent with the standard CDM model. At larger scales the data indicate an excess of power over the standard CDM model. The observed power spectrum from these optical galaxy samples is in good agreement with that drawn from the sparsely sampled IRAS galaxies. The shape of the power spectrum is also studied by examining the relation between the genus per unit volume and the smoothing length. It is found that, over Gaussian smoothing scales from 6 to 14/h Mpc, the power spectrum has a slope of about -1. The topology of the galaxy density field is studied by measuring the shift of the genus curve from the Gaussian case. Over all smoothing scales studied, the observed genus curves are consistent with a random phase distribution of the galaxy density field, as predicted by the inflationary scenarios.

  8. Large-scale motions in the universe: Using clusters of galaxies as tracers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramann, Mirt; Bahcall, Neta A.; Cen, Renyue; Gott, J. Richard

    1995-01-01

    Can clusters of galaxies be used to trace the large-scale peculiar velocity field of the universe? We answer this question by using large-scale cosmological simulations to compare the motions of rich clusters of galaxies with the motion of the underlying matter distribution. Three models are investigated: Omega = 1 and Omega = 0.3 cold dark matter (CDM), and Omega = 0.3 primeval baryonic isocurvature (PBI) models, all normalized to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) background fluctuations. We compare the cluster and mass distribution of peculiar velocities, bulk motions, velocity dispersions, and Mach numbers as a function of scale for R greater than or = 50/h Mpc. We also present the large-scale velocity and potential maps of clusters and of the matter. We find that clusters of galaxies trace well the large-scale velocity field and can serve as an efficient tool to constrain cosmological models. The recently reported bulk motion of clusters 689 +/- 178 km/s on approximately 150/h Mpc scale (Lauer & Postman 1994) is larger than expected in any of the models studied (less than or = 190 +/- 78 km/s).

  9. The Vimos VLT Deep Survey. Stellar mass segregation and large-scale galaxy environment in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scodeggio, M.; Vergani, D.; Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Lamareille, F.; Bolzonella, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Abbas, U.; Marinoni, C.; Contini, T.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Foucaud, S.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brinchmann, J.; de La Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Gregorini, L.; Memeo, P.; Perez-Montero, E.; Mellier, Y.; Temporin, S.; Walcher, C. J.

    2009-07-01

    Context: Hierarchical models of galaxy formation predict that the properties of a dark matter halo depend on the large-scale environment surrounding the halo. As a result of this correlation, we expect massive haloes to be present in larger number in overdense regions than in underdense ones. Given that a correlation exists between a galaxy stellar mass and the hosting dark matter halo mass, the segregation in dark matter halo mass should then result in a segregation in the distribution of stellar mass in the galaxy population. Aims: In this work we study the distribution of galaxy stellar mass and rest-frame optical color as a function of the large-scale galaxy distribution using the VLT VIMOS Deep Survey sample, in order to verify the presence of segregation in the properties of the galaxy population. Methods: We use VVDS redshift measurements and multi-band photometric data to derive estimates of the stellar mass, rest-frame optical color, and of the large-scale galaxy density, on a scale of approximately 8 Mpc, for a sample of 5619 galaxies in the redshift range 0.21.4. Results: We observe a significant mass and optical color segregation over the whole redshift interval covered by our sample, such that the median value of the mass distribution is larger and the rest-frame optical color is redder in regions of high galaxy density. The amplitude of the mass segregation changes little with redshift, at least in the high stellar mass regime that we can uniformly sample over the 0.2 < z < 1.4 redshift interval. The color segregation, instead, decreases significantly for z > 0.7. However, when we consider only galaxies in narrow bins of stellar mass, in order to exclude the effects of stellar mass segregation on galaxy properties, we no longer observe any significant color segregation. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, program 070.A-9007(A), and on data obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope

  10. Series Overview. Sustaining School Turnaround at Scale. Brief 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Members of the non-profit organization Education Resource Strategies (ERS) have worked for over a decade with leaders of urban school systems to help them organize talent, time and technology to support great schools at scale. One year into the Federal program they are noticing significant differences in district turnaround approaches, engagement…

  11. Development of Physical Protection Regulations for Rosatom State Corporation Sites under the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program

    SciTech Connect

    Izmaylov, Alexander; Babkin, Vladimir; Shemigon, Nikolai N.; O'Brien, Patricia; Wright, Troy L.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Lane, Melinda; Kovchegin, Dmitry

    2012-07-14

    This paper describes issues related to upgrading the physical protection regulatory basis for Rosatom State Corporation sites. It is underlined that most of the regulatory and methodological documents for this subject area have been developed under the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program. According to the joint management plan developed and agreed upon by the parties in 2005, nearly 50 physical protection documents were identified to be developed, approved and implemented at Rosatom sites by 2012. It is also noted that, on the whole, the plans have been fulfilled.

  12. Large- and small-scale constraints on power spectra in Omega = 1 universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1993-01-01

    The CDM model of structure formation, normalized on large scales, leads to excessive pairwise velocity dispersions on small scales. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we study three scenarios (all with Omega = 1) with more large-scale and less small-scale power than the standard CDM model: (1) cold dark matter with significantly reduced small-scale power (inspired by models with an admixture of cold and hot dark matter); (2) cold dark matter with a non-scale-invariant power spectrum; and (3) cold dark matter with coupling of dark matter to a long-range vector field. When normalized to COBE on large scales, such models do lead to reduced velocities on small scales and they produce fewer halos compared with CDM. However, models with sufficiently low small-scale velocities apparently fail to produce an adequate number of halos.

  13. Reheating the universe once more: the dissipation of acoustic waves as a novel probe of primordial inhomogeneities on even smaller scales.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Tomohiro; Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2014-08-08

    We provide a simple but robust bound on the primordial curvature perturbation in the range 10(4)  Mpc(-1)Mpc(-1), which has not been constrained so far unlike low-wave-number modes. Perturbations on these scales dissipate the energy of their acoustic oscillations by the Silk damping after primordial nucleosynthesis but before the redshift z∼2×10(6) and reheat the photon bath without invoking cosmic microwave background distortions. This acoustic reheating results in the decrease of the baryon-photon ratio. By combining independent measurements probing the nucleosynthesis era and around the recombination epoch, we find an upper bound on the amplitude of the curvature perturbation over the above wave number range as P(ζ)<0.06. Implications for supermassive black holes are also discussed.

  14. Are galaxy distributions scale invariant? A perspective from dynamical systems theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, J. L.

    2002-06-01

    Unless there is an evidence for fractal scaling with a single exponent over distances 0.1<=r<=100h-1Mpc, then the widely accepted notion of scale invariance of the correlation integral for 0.1<=r<=10h-1Mpc must be questioned. The attempt to extract a scaling exponent /ν from the correlation integral /n(r) by plotting /log(n(r)) vs. /log(r) is unreliable unless the underlying point set is approximately monofractal. The extraction of a spectrum of generalized dimensions νq from a plot of the correlation integral generating function Gn(q) by a similar procedure is probably an indication that Gn(q) does not scale at all. We explain these assertions after defining the term multifractal, mutually inconsistent definitions having been confused together in the cosmology literature. Part of this confusion is traced to the confusion in interpreting a measure-theoretic formula written down by Hentschel and Procaccia in the dynamical systems theory literature, while other errors follow from confusing together entirely different definitions of multifractal from two different schools of thought. Most important are serious errors in data analysis that follow from taking for granted a largest term approximation that is inevitably advertised in the literature on both fractals and dynamical systems theory.

  15. REIONIZATION ON LARGE SCALES. I. A PARAMETRIC MODEL CONSTRUCTED FROM RADIATION-HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, N.; Trac, H.; Cen, R.; Loeb, A.

    2013-10-20

    We present a new method for modeling inhomogeneous cosmic reionization on large scales. Utilizing high-resolution radiation-hydrodynamic simulations with 2048{sup 3} dark matter particles, 2048{sup 3} gas cells, and 17 billion adaptive rays in a L = 100 Mpc h {sup –1} box, we show that the density and reionization redshift fields are highly correlated on large scales (∼> 1 Mpc h {sup –1}). This correlation can be statistically represented by a scale-dependent linear bias. We construct a parametric function for the bias, which is then used to filter any large-scale density field to derive the corresponding spatially varying reionization redshift field. The parametric model has three free parameters that can be reduced to one free parameter when we fit the two bias parameters to simulation results. We can differentiate degenerate combinations of the bias parameters by combining results for the global ionization histories and correlation length between ionized regions. Unlike previous semi-analytic models, the evolution of the reionization redshift field in our model is directly compared cell by cell against simulations and performs well in all tests. Our model maps the high-resolution, intermediate-volume radiation-hydrodynamic simulations onto lower-resolution, larger-volume N-body simulations (∼> 2 Gpc h {sup –1}) in order to make mock observations and theoretical predictions.

  16. THE OPACITY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM DURING REIONIZATION: RESOLVING SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Emberson, J. D.; Thomas, Rajat M.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.

    2013-02-15

    Early in the reionization process, the intergalactic medium (IGM) would have been quite inhomogeneous on small scales, due to the low Jeans mass in the neutral IGM and the hierarchical growth of structure in a cold dark matter universe. This small-scale structure acted as an important sink during the epoch of reionization, impeding the progress of the ionization fronts that swept out from the first sources of ionizing radiation. Here we present results of high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations that resolve the cosmological Jeans mass of the neutral IGM in representative volumes several Mpc across. The adiabatic hydrodynamics we follow are appropriate in an unheated IGM, before the gas has had a chance to respond to the photoionization heating. Our focus is determination of the resolution required in cosmological simulations in order to sufficiently sample and resolve small-scale structure regulating the opacity of an unheated IGM. We find that a dark matter particle mass of m {sub dm} {approx}< 50 M {sub Sun} and box size of L {approx}> 1 Mpc are required. With our converged results we show how the mean free path of ionizing radiation and clumping factor of ionized hydrogen depend on the ultraviolet background flux and redshift. We find, for example at z = 10, clumping factors typically of 10-20 for an ionization rate of {Gamma} {approx} (0.3-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} s{sup -1}, with corresponding mean free paths of {approx}3-15 Mpc, extending previous work on the evolving mean free path to considerably smaller scales and earlier times.

  17. MAGNETIC FIELD PROPERTIES IN HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION FROM LARGE TO SMALL SCALES: A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS FROM POLARIZATION DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2010-09-20

    Polarization data from high-mass star formation regions (W51 e2/e8, Orion BN/KL) are used to derive statistical properties of the plane of sky projected magnetic field. Structure function and auto-correlation function are calculated for observations with various resolutions from the BIMA and SMA interferometers, covering a range in physical scales from {approx}70 mpc to {approx}2.1 mpc. Results for the magnetic field turbulent dispersion, its turbulent-to-mean field strength ratio, and the large-scale polarization angle correlation length are presented as a function of the physical scale at the star formation sites. Power-law scaling relations emerge for some of these physical quantities. The turbulent-to-mean field strength ratio is found to be close to constant over the sampled observing range, with a hint of a decrease toward smaller scales, indicating that the role of the magnetic field and turbulence is evolving with the physical scale. A statistical method is proposed to separate large- and small-scale correlations from an initial ensemble of polarization segments. This also leads to a definition of a turbulent polarization angle correlation length.

  18. Reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (RATRP) for anti-clotting PU-LaCl3-g-P(MPC) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chunyan; Zhou, Ninglin; Xiao, Yinghong; Tang, Yida; Jin, Suxing; Wu, Yue; Shen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Low grafting density is a disadvantage both in reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (RATRP) and ATRP. In this work, the surfaces of polyurethane (PU) were treated by LaCl3·6H2O to obtain modified surfaces with hydrated layers. The reaction of surface-initiated RATRP was carried out easily, which may be attributed to the enriched hydroxyl groups on the hydrated layers. An innovation found in this work is that some free lanthanum ions (La3+) reacted with the silane coupling agent (CPTM) and the product served as mixed ligand complex. The mixed ligand complex instead of conventional 2,2‧-bipyridine was adopted to serve as a ligand in the process of RATRP. As a result, PU surfaces grafted with well-defined polymer brushes (MPC) were obtained. PU substrates before and after modification were characterized by FTIR, XPS, AFM, SEM, SCA, respectively. The results showed that zwitterionic brushes were successfully fabricated on the PU surfaces (P(MPC)), and the content of the grafted layer increased gradually with polymerization time with the grafting density as high as 97.9%. The blood compatibility of the PU substrates was evaluated by plasma recalcification profiles test and platelet adhesion tests in vitro. It was found that all PU functionalized with zwitterionic brush showed improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion.

  19. Level 1 Radiance Scaling and Conditioning Algorithm Theoretical Basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruegge, C.; Diner, D.; Korechoff, R.; Lee, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Algorithm Theoretical Basis (ATB) document describes the algorithms used to produce the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Level 1B1 Radiometric Product, and certain parameters of the Level 1A Reformatted Annotated Product.

  20. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.; Smith, H.D.; Tracy, E.M.; Myers, R.L.; sills, J.A.; Fisher, D.L.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1996-02-01

    This data package, milestone C95-02.02Y, provides a brief observation and operation report on available data for the Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) feed preparation activities. The test was conducted in two melter feed batch segments prepared from two different feed preparation flowsheets. Testing primarily addressed feed preparation alternate flowsheet options tested in the laboratory to mitigate potential safety issues related to generation of hydrogen and ammonia, to produce acceptable melter feed rheological properties, to maximize total waste oxide loading in the glass, to simplify the vitrification flowsheet, and to increase vitrification flowsheet processing rate. The two flowsheets selected for testing were (1) no reductant addition and titration with HNO{sub 3} to provide an acceptable melter feed rheology near the target oxide loading (Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1), and (2) titration with glycolic acid, an alternate reductant to HCOOH (Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2).

  1. MREG V1.1 : a multi-scale image registration algorithm for SAR applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Eichel, Paul H.

    2013-08-01

    MREG V1.1 is the sixth generation SAR image registration algorithm developed by the Signal Processing&Technology Department for Synthetic Aperture Radar applications. Like its predecessor algorithm REGI, it employs a powerful iterative multi-scale paradigm to achieve the competing goals of sub-pixel registration accuracy and the ability to handle large initial offsets. Since it is not model based, it allows for high fidelity tracking of spatially varying terrain-induced misregistration. Since it does not rely on image domain phase, it is equally adept at coherent and noncoherent image registration. This document provides a brief history of the registration processors developed by Dept. 5962 leading up to MREG V1.1, a full description of the signal processing steps involved in the algorithm, and a user's manual with application specific recommendations for CCD, TwoColor MultiView, and SAR stereoscopy.

  2. Development of 1 L hr-1 scale hydrogen liquefier using Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, J. H.; Karng, S. W.; Garceau, N.; Jang, Y. H.; Lim, C. M.; Kim, S. Y.; Oh, I. H.

    2014-01-01

    Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) and Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) have collaborated to develop a demonstration-scale hydrogen liquefier for future liquid hydrogen research in Korea. A 1 L hr-1 liquefaction rate, direct-cooling type hydrogen liquefier using a commercially available GM cryocooler has been designed, fabricated, and tested at KIST. The liquefier consists of a GM cryocooler, finned heat pipe, liquid nitrogen precooler, ortho-para hydrogen converter, and vacuum jacketed internal storage tank. The system successfully demonstrated more than 1 L hr-1 of hydrogen liquefaction rate from ambient temperature gas. A detailed design method, loss analysis, overview of component fabrication, and experimental results are discussed in this paper.

  3. Soil map of the Russian Arctic on a 1 : 1 M scale: Contents and compilation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, I. S.

    2016-04-01

    A new soil map of the Russian Arctic on a scale of 1 : 1 M shows the soil cover in the north of Eurasia and on the islands of the Arctic Ocean to the north of 68° N. This map has been developed in a geoinformation system in the vector format with the wide use of remote sensing data. The delineated soil polygons show dominant and accompanying soils and the structure of soil cover patterns with indication of soil associations and soil complexes, the character of parent materials, and the topographic conditions. The map of the soil-geographic zoning of the Russian Arctic developed on the basis of the soil map differs from its earlier analogues in a greater degree of detail. The soil map of the Russian Arctic on a scale of 1 : 1 M displays the most detailed information on the soil cover patterns and can be used for solving various problems related to the exploration and development of this territory. Soil names from the new classification system of Russian soils [10] have been introduced into the legend of the map. New soil information and the use of remote sensing data have made it possible to enlarge the number of soil polygons shown on the map and to correct their boundaries in comparison with previous soil maps of the Russian Arctic.

  4. The MASSIVE survey. I. A volume-limited integral-field spectroscopic study of the most massive early-type galaxies within 108 Mpc

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Chung-Pei; Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; McConnell, Nicholas; Janish, Ryan; Blakeslee, John P.; Thomas, Jens

    2014-11-10

    Massive early-type galaxies represent the modern day remnants of the earliest major star formation episodes in the history of the universe. These galaxies are central to our understanding of the evolution of cosmic structure, stellar populations, and supermassive black holes, but the details of their complex formation histories remain uncertain. To address this situation, we have initiated the MASSIVE Survey, a volume-limited, multi-wavelength, integral-field spectroscopic (IFS) and photometric survey of the structure and dynamics of the ∼100 most massive early-type galaxies within a distance of 108 Mpc. This survey probes a stellar mass range M* ≳ 10{sup 11.5} M {sub ☉} and diverse galaxy environments that have not been systematically studied to date. Our wide-field IFS data cover about two effective radii of individual galaxies, and for a subset of them, we are acquiring additional IFS observations on sub-arcsecond scales with adaptive optics. We are also acquiring deep K-band imaging to trace the extended halos of the galaxies and measure accurate total magnitudes. Dynamical orbit modeling of the combined data will allow us to simultaneously determine the stellar, black hole, and dark matter halo masses. The primary goals of the project are to constrain the black hole scaling relations at high masses, investigate systematically the stellar initial mass function and dark matter distribution in massive galaxies, and probe the late-time assembly of ellipticals through stellar population and kinematical gradients. In this paper, we describe the MASSIVE sample selection, discuss the distinct demographics and structural and environmental properties of the selected galaxies, and provide an overview of our basic observational program, science goals and early survey results.

  5. The Pervasiveness of 1/f Scaling in Speech Reflects the Metastable Basis of Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kello, Christopher T.; Anderson, Gregory G.; Holden, John G.; Van Orden, Guy C.

    2008-01-01

    Human neural and behavioral activities have been reported to exhibit fractal dynamics known as "1/f noise," which is more aptly named "1/f scaling." Some argue that 1/f scaling is a general and pervasive property of the dynamical substrate from which cognitive functions are formed. Others argue that it is an idiosyncratic property of…

  6. Constraining gravity at the largest scales through CMB lensing and galaxy velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, Anthony R.; Alam, Shadab; He, Siyu; Ho, Shirley

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a new method to constrain gravity on the largest cosmological scales by combining measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing and the galaxy velocity field. EG is a statistic, constructed from a gravitational lensing tracer and a measure of velocities such as redshift-space distortions (RSD), that can discriminate between gravity models while being independent of clustering bias and σ8. While traditionally, the lensing field for EG has been probed through galaxy lensing, CMB lensing has been proposed as a more robust tracer of the lensing field for EG at higher redshifts while avoiding intrinsic alignments. We perform the largest-scale measurement of EG ever, up to 150 Mpc h-1, by cross-correlating the Planck CMB lensing map with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) CMASS galaxy sample and combining this with our measurement of the CMASS auto-power spectrum and the RSD parameter β. We report EG(z = 0.57) = 0.243 ± 0.060 (stat) ± 0.013 (sys), a measurement in tension with the general relativity (GR) prediction at a level of 2.6σ. Note that our EG measurement deviates from GR only at scales greater than 80 Mpc h-1, scales which have not been probed by previous EG tests. Upcoming surveys, which will provide an order-of-magnitude reduction in statistical errors, can significantly constrain alternative gravity models when combined with better control of systematics.

  7. Well integrity assessment under temperature and pressure stresses by a 1:1 scale wellbore experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manceau, J. C.; Tremosa, J.; Audigane, P.; Lerouge, C.; Claret, F.; Lettry, Y.; Fierz, T.; Nussbaum, C.

    2015-08-01

    A new in situ experiment is proposed for observing and understanding well integrity evolution, potentially due to changes that could occur during a well lifetime. The focus is put on temperature and pressure stresses. A small section of a well is reproduced at scale 1:1 in the Opalinus Clay formation, representative of a low permeable caprock formation (in Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, Switzerland). The well-system behavior is characterized over time both by performing hydro-tests to quantify the hydraulic properties of the well and their evolution, and sampling the fluids to monitor the chemical composition and its changes. This paper presents the well integrity assessment under different imposed temperature (17-52°C) and pressure (10-28 bar) conditions. The results obtained in this study confirm the ability of the chosen design and observation scale to estimate the evolution of the well integrity over time, the characteristics of the flow along the well-system and the reasons of the observed evolution. In particular, the estimated effective well permeability is higher than cement or caprock intrinsic permeability, which suggest preferential flow pathways at interfaces especially at the very beginning of the experiment; the significant variations of the effective well permeability observed after setting pressure and temperature stresses indicate that operations could influence well integrity in similar proportions than the cementing process.

  8. Synthesis, characterisation, and in vitro cellular uptake kinetics of nanoprecipitated poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)- b-poly(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (MPC-DPA) polymeric nanoparticle micelles for nanomedicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvage, Jonathan P.; Smith, Tia; Lu, Tao; Sanghera, Amendeep; Standen, Guy; Tang, Yiqing; Lewis, Andrew L.

    2016-10-01

    Nanoscience offers the potential for great advances in medical technology and therapies in the form of nanomedicine. As such, developing controllable, predictable, and effective, nanoparticle-based therapeutic systems remains a significant challenge. Many polymer-based nanoparticle systems have been reported to date, but few harness materials with accepted biocompatibility. Phosphorylcholine (PC) based biomimetic materials have a long history of successful translation into effective commercial medical technologies. This study investigated the synthesis, characterisation, nanoprecipitation, and in vitro cellular uptake kinetics of PC-based polymeric nanoparticle micelles (PNM) formed by the biocompatible and pH responsive block copolymer poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)- b-poly(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (MPC-DPA). Atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to synthesise and characterise the well-defined MPC100-DPA100 polymer, revealing organic GPC, using evaporative light scatter detection, to be more accurate than aqueous GPC for this application. Subsequent nanoprecipitation investigations utilising photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) revealed PNM size increased with polymer concentration, and conferred Cryo-stability. PNM diameters ranged from circa 64-69 nm, and increased upon hydrophobic compound loading, circa 65-71 nm, with loading efficiencies of circa 60 % achieved, whilst remaining monodisperse. In vitro studies demonstrated that the PNM were of low cellular toxicity, with colony formation and MTT assays, utilising V79 and 3T3 cells, yielding comparable results. Investigation of the in vitro cellular uptake kinetics revealed rapid, 1 h, cellular uptake of MPC100-DPA100 PNM delivered fluorescent probes, with fluorescence persistence for 48 h. This paper presents the first report of these novel findings, which highlight the potential of the system for nanomedicine application

  9. Large-scale Health Information Database and Privacy Protection*1

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Japan was once progressive in the digitalization of healthcare fields but unfortunately has fallen behind in terms of the secondary use of data for public interest. There has recently been a trend to establish large-scale health databases in the nation, and a conflict between data use for public interest and privacy protection has surfaced as this trend has progressed. Databases for health insurance claims or for specific health checkups and guidance services were created according to the law that aims to ensure healthcare for the elderly; however, there is no mention in the act about using these databases for public interest in general. Thus, an initiative for such use must proceed carefully and attentively. The PMDA*2 projects that collect a large amount of medical record information from large hospitals and the health database development project that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) is working on will soon begin to operate according to a general consensus; however, the validity of this consensus can be questioned if issues of anonymity arise. The likelihood that researchers conducting a study for public interest would intentionally invade the privacy of their subjects is slim. However, patients could develop a sense of distrust about their data being used since legal requirements are ambiguous. Nevertheless, without using patients’ medical records for public interest, progress in medicine will grind to a halt. Proper legislation that is clear for both researchers and patients will therefore be highly desirable. A revision of the Act on the Protection of Personal Information is currently in progress. In reality, however, privacy is not something that laws alone can protect; it will also require guidelines and self-discipline. We now live in an information capitalization age. I will introduce the trends in legal reform regarding healthcare information and discuss some basics to help people properly face the issue of health big data and privacy

  10. Superlarge-scale structure in the Durham/UKST Galaxy Redshift Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshkevich, Andrei G.; Fong, Richard; McCracken, Henry J.; Ratcliffe, Andrew; Shanks, Tom; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    2000-07-01

    Several `great walls' are clearly visible in the Durham/UKST Galaxy Redshift Survey (DURS). We make a statistical study of this superlarge-scale structure (SLSS) by applying our core sampling, cluster, inertia tensor and minimal-spanning-tree analyses to the DURS. The results in the main support similar results from the complementary Las Campañas Redshift Survey (LCRS); the DURS is a fully three-dimensional, though shallower, survey, whilst the LCRS was carried out in six thin wedges of space. Because of the one-in-three sparse sampling used for DURS, the galaxy filaments of large-scale structure (LSS) are less clear here; the mean separation of ~25h-1Mpc for the richer filaments is consistent with the LCRS result, but the poorer filaments are not seen in the DURS. In contrast, the analysis clearly picks out SLSS and we find, as with the LCRS, that ~50 per cent of the galaxies lie within the SLSS in regions with overdensities of 5-10 times the mean galaxy density. It quantitatively demonstrates that SLSS is a major component of large-scale structure in the Universe. The SLSS is also confirmed as having statistical parameters similar to those for a sheet-like object, albeit a very irregular one with a highly inhomogeneous inner structure. The `mean-free path', or average separation between SLSS structures, is found to be Ds~50h-1Mpc. The inertia tensor analysis gives mean lengths, widths and thicknesses of ~20-40, 10 and 5h-1Mpc, respectively, for the clusters of SLSS. In particular, the largest great wall in the DURS is found to have a length of ~75h-1Mpc. Unlike the LCRS, the cluster mass function for the three-dimensional DURS has a high mass `tail' such a `tail' would constitute a quantitative signature for the presence of great walls. Finally, theoretical considerations would suggest that the results support arguments for the large-scale biasing of galaxies with respect to dark matter.

  11. The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-20

    The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

  12. The large-scale quasar-Lyman α forest cross-correlation from BOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Font-Ribera, Andreu; Arnau, Eduard; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi E-mail: edu.arnau.lazaro@gmail.com; and others

    2013-05-01

    We measure the large-scale cross-correlation of quasars with the Lyα forest absorption in redshift space, using ∼ 60000 quasar spectra from Data Release 9 (DR9) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The cross-correlation is detected over a wide range of scales, up to comoving separations r of 80 h{sup −1}Mpc. For r > 15 h{sup −1}Mpc, we show that the cross-correlation is well fitted by the linear theory prediction for the mean overdensity around a quasar host halo in the standard ΛCDM model, with the redshift distortions indicative of gravitational evolution detected at high confidence. Using previous determinations of the Lyα forest bias factor obtained from the Lyα autocorrelation, we infer the quasar bias factor to be b{sub q} = 3.64{sup +0.13}{sub −0.15} at a mean redshift z = 2.38, in agreement with previous measurements from the quasar auto-correlation. We also obtain a new estimate of the Lyα forest redshift distortion factor, β{sub F} = 1.1±0.15, slightly larger than but consistent with the previous measurement from the Lyα forest autocorrelation. The simple linear model we use fails at separations r < 15h{sup −1}Mpc, and we show that this may reasonably be due to the enhanced ionization due to radiation from the quasars. We also provide the expected correction that the mass overdensity around the quasar implies for measurements of the ionizing radiation background from the line-of-sight proximity effect.

  13. A large scale virtual screen of DprE1.

    PubMed

    Wilsey, Claire; Gurka, Jessica; Toth, David; Franco, Jimmy

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis continues to plague the world with the World Health Organization estimating that about one third of the world's population is infected. Due to the emergence of MDR and XDR strains of TB, the need for novel therapeutics has become increasing urgent. Herein we report the results of a virtual screen of 4.1 million compounds against a promising drug target, DrpE1. The virtual compounds were obtained from the Zinc docking site and screened using the molecular docking program, AutoDock Vina. The computational hits have led to the identification of several promising lead compounds.

  14. Operating nanoliter scale NMR microcoils in a 1 tesla field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Andrew F.; Adolphi, Natalie L.

    2007-09-01

    Microcoil probes enclosing sample volumes of 1.2, 3.3, 7.0, and 81 nanoliters are constructed as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detectors for operation in a 1 tesla permanent magnet. The probes for the three smallest volumes utilize a novel auxiliary tuning inductor for which the design criteria are given. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and line width of water samples are measured. Based on the measured DC resistance of the microcoils, together with the calculated radio frequency (RF) resistance of the tuning inductor, the SNR is calculated and shown to agree with the measured values. The details of the calculations indicate that the auxiliary inductor does not degrade the NMR probe performance. The diameter of the wire used to construct the microcoils is shown to affect the signal line widths.

  15. Dynamic Heterogeneity and Density Scaling In 1,4-Polyisoprene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Changes in V were carried out by isobaric changes in T from 0 to -74 C (squares) or isothermal changes inP up to as high as 750MPa (all other symbols...is the difference in the inverse of the isobaric heat capacities for the liquid and glass atTg (note that the choice of Δcp -1 rather than the (Δcp...times for the lowest (open symbols) and highest Mw (dotted symbols). Each symbol is a distinct isotherm or isobar . The value of γ was chosen to minimize

  16. Local Large-Scale Structure and the Assumption of Homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Ryan C.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.

    2016-10-01

    Our recent estimates of galaxy counts and the luminosity density in the near-infrared (Keenan et al. 2010, 2012) indicated that the local universe may be under-dense on radial scales of several hundred megaparsecs. Such a large-scale local under-density could introduce significant biases in the measurement and interpretation of cosmological observables, such as the inferred effects of dark energy on the rate of expansion. In Keenan et al. (2013), we measured the K-band luminosity density as a function of distance from us to test for such a local under-density. We made this measurement over the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.2 (radial distances D ~ 50 - 800 h 70 -1 Mpc). We found that the shape of the K-band luminosity function is relatively constant as a function of distance and environment. We derive a local (z < 0.07, D < 300 h 70 -1 Mpc) K-band luminosity density that agrees well with previously published studies. At z > 0.07, we measure an increasing luminosity density that by z ~ 0.1 rises to a value of ~ 1.5 times higher than that measured locally. This implies that the stellar mass density follows a similar trend. Assuming that the underlying dark matter distribution is traced by this luminous matter, this suggests that the local mass density may be lower than the global mass density of the universe at an amplitude and on a scale that is sufficient to introduce significant biases into the measurement of basic cosmological observables. At least one study has shown that an under-density of roughly this amplitude and scale could resolve the apparent tension between direct local measurements of the Hubble constant and those inferred by Planck team. Other theoretical studies have concluded that such an under-density could account for what looks like an accelerating expansion, even when no dark energy is present.

  17. Extended general relativity: Large-scale antigravity and short-scale gravity with ω=-1 from five-dimensional vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madriz Aguilar, José Edgar; Bellini, Mauricio

    2009-08-01

    Considering a five-dimensional (5D) Riemannian spacetime with a particular stationary Ricci-flat metric, we obtain in the framework of the induced matter theory an effective 4D static and spherically symmetric metric which give us ordinary gravitational solutions on small (planetary and astrophysical) scales, but repulsive (anti gravitational) forces on very large (cosmological) scales with ω=-1. Our approach is an unified manner to describe dark energy, dark matter and ordinary matter. We illustrate the theory with two examples, the solar system and the great attractor. From the geometrical point of view, these results follow from the assumption that exists a confining force that make possible that test particles move on a given 4D hypersurface.

  18. The one-loop matter bispectrum in the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Angulo, Raul E.; Foreman, Simon; Senatore, Leonardo; Schmittfull, Marcel E-mail: sfore@stanford.edu E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu

    2015-10-01

    Given the importance of future large scale structure surveys for delivering new cosmological information, it is crucial to reliably predict their observables. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a manifestly convergent perturbative scheme to compute the clustering of dark matter in the weakly nonlinear regime in an expansion in k/k{sub NL}, where k is the wavenumber of interest and k{sub NL} is the wavenumber associated to the nonlinear scale. It has been recently shown that the EFTofLSS matches to 1% level the dark matter power spectrum at redshift zero up to k≅ 0.3 h Mpc{sup −1} and k≅ 0.6 h Mpc{sup −1} at one and two loops respectively, using only one counterterm that is fit to data. Similar results have been obtained for the momentum power spectrum at one loop. This is a remarkable improvement with respect to former analytical techniques. Here we study the prediction for the equal-time dark matter bispectrum at one loop. We find that at this order it is sufficient to consider the same counterterm that was measured in the power spectrum. Without any remaining free parameter, and in a cosmology for which k{sub NL} is smaller than in the previously considered cases (σ{sub 8}=0.9), we find that the prediction from the EFTofLSS agrees very well with N-body simulations up to k≅ 0.25 h Mpc{sup −1}, given the accuracy of the measurements, which is of order a few percent at the highest k's of interest. While the fit is very good on average up to k≅ 0.25 h Mpc{sup −1}, the fit performs slightly worse on equilateral configurations, in agreement with expectations that for a given maximum k, equilateral triangles are the most nonlinear.

  19. The one-loop matter bispectrum in the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Angulo, Raul E.; Foreman, Simon; Schmittfull, Marcel; Senatore, Leonardo

    2015-10-14

    With this study, given the importance of future large scale structure surveys for delivering new cosmological information, it is crucial to reliably predict their observables. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a manifestly convergent perturbative scheme to compute the clustering of dark matter in the weakly nonlinear regime in an expansion in k/kNL, where k is the wavenumber of interest and kNL is the wavenumber associated to the nonlinear scale. It has been recently shown that the EFTofLSS matches to 1% level the dark matter power spectrum at redshift zero up to k ≃ 0.3 h Mpc1 and k ≃ 0.6 h Mpc1 at one and two loops respectively, using only one counterterm that is fit to data. Similar results have been obtained for the momentum power spectrum at one loop. This is a remarkable improvement with respect to former analytical techniques. Here we study the prediction for the equal-time dark matter bispectrum at one loop. We find that at this order it is sufficient to consider the same counterterm that was measured in the power spectrum. Without any remaining free parameter, and in a cosmology for which kNL is smaller than in the previously considered cases (σ8=0.9), we find that the prediction from the EFTofLSS agrees very well with N-body simulations up to k ≃ 0.25 h Mpc1, given the accuracy of the measurements, which is of order a few percent at the highest k's of interest. While the fit is very good on average up to k ≃ 0.25 h Mpc1, the fit performs slightly worse on equilateral configurations, in agreement with expectations that for a given maximum k, equilateral triangles are the most nonlinear.

  20. Determination of the large scale volume weighted halo velocity bias in simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Pengjie; Jing, Yipeng

    2015-06-01

    A profound assumption in peculiar velocity cosmology is bv=1 at sufficiently large scales, where bv is the volume-weighted halo(galaxy) velocity bias with respect to the matter velocity field. However, this fundamental assumption has not been robustly verified in numerical simulations. Furthermore, it is challenged by structure formation theory (Bardeen, Bond, Kaiser and Szalay, Astrophys. J. 304, 15 (1986); Desjacques and Sheth, Phys. Rev D 81, 023526 (2010), which predicts the existence of velocity bias (at least for proto-halos) due to the fact that halos reside in special regions (local density peaks). The major obstacle to measuring the volume-weighted velocity from N-body simulations is an unphysical sampling artifact. It is entangled in the measured velocity statistics and becomes significant for sparse populations. With recently improved understanding of the sampling artifact (Zhang, Zheng and Jing, 2015, PRD; Zheng, Zhang and Jing, 2015, PRD), for the first time we are able to appropriately correct this sampling artifact and then robustly measure the volume-weighted halo velocity bias. (1) We verify bv=1 within 2% model uncertainty at k ≲0.1 h /Mpc and z =0 - 2 for halos of mass ˜1012- 1013h-1M⊙ and, therefore, consolidate a foundation for the peculiar velocity cosmology. (2) We also find statistically significant signs of bv≠1 at k ≳0.1 h /Mpc . Unfortunately, whether this is real or caused by a residual sampling artifact requires further investigation. Nevertheless, cosmology based on the k ≳0.1 h /Mpc velocity data should be careful with this potential velocity bias.

  1. Measuring swirl at a model scale of 1:1 for vertically submersible pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fockert, A.; Verhaart, F. I. H.; Czarnota, Z.; Rajkumar, S.

    2016-11-01

    Intakes of large pump stations are often designed with the aid of hydraulic modeling. The approach flow to pumps is tested for adverse hydraulic phenomena, such as pre-swirl, velocity variations and vortices. Most commonly, the limits for these phenomena are taken from the ANSI/HI 9.8-2012 standard - Rotodynamic Pumps for Pump Intake Design. The standard, however, does not explain how real pumps respond to swirl, uneven velocity distribution or vortices. The present joined study between Deltares and Xylem aims to bridge this gap. At the Deltares pump sump test facility, two identical pump compartments were built according to the ANSI/HI 9.8-2012 standard. In one of the compartments, a submersible, vertical column pump (Flygt PL7020) was installed, while a 1:1 scale model of that pump was installed in the other compartment. This arrangement allowed measurements of both pump performance (pump head and input power as a function of flow rate) and the model parameters (pre-rotation and vortex occurrence) for nearly identical approach flow conditions. By varying the geometry of the approach channels, the asymmetry of the flow was varied to produce various degrees of pre-swirl including values in excess of the commonly accepted limit of 5 degrees. This paper describes the measurement setup, the results of the measurements with the model pump and the measurement plan for the prototype pump.

  2. Evaluation of a 40 to 1 scale model of a low pressure engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, C. E., Jr.; Thoenes, J.

    1972-01-01

    An evaluation of a scale model of a low pressure rocket engine which is used for secondary injection studies was conducted. Specific objectives of the evaluation were to: (1) assess the test conditions required for full scale simulations; (2) recommend fluids to be used for both primary and secondary flows; and (3) recommend possible modifications to be made to the scale model and its test facility to achieve the highest possible degree of simulation. A discussion of the theoretical and empirical scaling laws which must be observed to apply scale model test data to full scale systems is included. A technique by which the side forces due to secondary injection can be analytically estimated is presented.

  3. A topological analysis of large-scale structure, studied using the CMASS sample of SDSS-III

    SciTech Connect

    Parihar, Prachi; Gott, J. Richard III; Vogeley, Michael S.; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Juhan; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Speare, Robert; Brownstein, Joel R.; Brinkmann, J. E-mail: yy.choi@khu.ac.kr

    2014-12-01

    We study the three-dimensional genus topology of large-scale structure using the northern region of the CMASS Data Release 10 (DR10) sample of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We select galaxies with redshift 0.452 < z < 0.625 and with a stellar mass M {sub stellar} > 10{sup 11.56} M {sub ☉}. We study the topology at two smoothing lengths: R {sub G} = 21 h {sup –1} Mpc and R {sub G} = 34 h {sup –1} Mpc. The genus topology studied at the R {sub G} = 21 h {sup –1} Mpc scale results in the highest genus amplitude observed to date. The CMASS sample yields a genus curve that is characteristic of one produced by Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The data thus support the standard model of inflation where random quantum fluctuations in the early universe produced Gaussian random phase initial conditions. Modest deviations in the observed genus from random phase are as expected from shot noise effects and the nonlinear evolution of structure. We suggest the use of a fitting formula motivated by perturbation theory to characterize the shift and asymmetries in the observed genus curve with a single parameter. We construct 54 mock SDSS CMASS surveys along the past light cone from the Horizon Run 3 (HR3) N-body simulations, where gravitationally bound dark matter subhalos are identified as the sites of galaxy formation. We study the genus topology of the HR3 mock surveys with the same geometry and sampling density as the observational sample and find the observed genus topology to be consistent with ΛCDM as simulated by the HR3 mock samples. We conclude that the topology of the large-scale structure in the SDSS CMASS sample is consistent with cosmological models having primordial Gaussian density fluctuations growing in accordance with general relativity to form galaxies in massive dark matter halos.

  4. THREE-POINT PHASE CORRELATIONS: A NEW MEASURE OF NONLINEAR LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Wolstenhulme, Richard; Bonvin, Camille; Obreschkow, Danail

    2015-05-10

    We derive an analytical expression for a novel large-scale structure observable: the line correlation function. The line correlation function, which is constructed from the three-point correlation function of the phase of the density field, is a robust statistical measure allowing the extraction of information in the nonlinear and non-Gaussian regime. We show that, in perturbation theory, the line correlation is sensitive to the coupling kernel F{sub 2}, which governs the nonlinear gravitational evolution of the density field. We compare our analytical expression with results from numerical simulations and find a 1σ agreement for separations r ≳ 30 h{sup −1} Mpc. Fitting formulae for the power spectrum and the nonlinear coupling kernel at small scales allow us to extend our prediction into the strongly nonlinear regime, where we find a 1σ agreement with the simulations for r ≳ 2 h{sup −1} Mpc. We discuss the advantages of the line correlation relative to standard statistical measures like the bispectrum. Unlike the latter, the line correlation is independent of the bias, in the regime where the bias is local and linear. Furthermore, the variance of the line correlation is independent of the Gaussian variance on the modulus of the density field. This suggests that the line correlation can probe more precisely the nonlinear regime of gravity, with less contamination from the power spectrum variance.

  5. LyMAS: Predicting large-scale Lyα forest statistics from the dark matter density field

    SciTech Connect

    Peirani, Sébastien; Colombi, Stéphane; Dubois, Yohan; Pichon, Christophe; Weinberg, David H.; Blaizot, Jérémy

    2014-03-20

    We describe Lyα Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS), a method of predicting clustering statistics in the Lyα forest on large scales from moderate-resolution simulations of the dark matter (DM) distribution, with calibration from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of smaller volumes. We use the 'Horizon-MareNostrum' simulation, a 50 h {sup –1} Mpc comoving volume evolved with the adaptive mesh hydrodynamic code RAMSES, to compute the conditional probability distribution P(F{sub s} |δ {sub s}) of the transmitted flux F{sub s} , smoothed (one-dimensionally, 1D) over the spectral resolution scale, on the DM density contrast δ {sub s}, smoothed (three-dimensionally, 3D) over a similar scale. In this study we adopt the spectral resolution of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) at z = 2.5, and we find optimal results for a DM smoothing length σ = 0.3 h {sup –1} Mpc (comoving). In its simplest form, LyMAS draws randomly from the hydro-calibrated P(F{sub s} |δ {sub s}) to convert DM skewers into Lyα forest pseudo-spectra, which are then used to compute cross-sightline flux statistics. In extended form, LyMAS exactly reproduces both the 1D power spectrum and one-point flux distribution of the hydro simulation spectra. Applied to the MareNostrum DM field, LyMAS accurately predicts the two-point conditional flux distribution and flux correlation function of the full hydro simulation for transverse sightline separations as small as 1 h {sup –1} Mpc, including redshift-space distortion effects. It is substantially more accurate than a deterministic density-flux mapping ({sup F}luctuating Gunn-Peterson Approximation{sup )}, often used for large-volume simulations of the forest. With the MareNostrum calibration, we apply LyMAS to 1024{sup 3} N-body simulations of a 300 h {sup –1} Mpc and 1.0 h {sup –1} Gpc cube to produce large, publicly available catalogs of mock BOSS spectra that probe a large comoving volume. LyMAS will be a powerful

  6. Comparisons of the Impact Responses of a 1/5-Scale Model and a Full-Scale Crashworthy Composite Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2003-01-01

    A 25-fps vertical drop test of a 1/5-scale model composite fuselage section was conducted to replicate a previous test of a full-scale fuselage section. The purpose of the test was to obtain experimental data characterizing the impact response of the 1/5-scale model fuselage section for comparison with the corresponding full-scale data. This comparison is performed to assess the scaling procedures and to determine if scaling effects are present. For the drop test, the 1/5-scale model fuselage section was configured in a similar manner as the full-scale section, with lead masses attached to the floor through simulated seat rails. Scaled acceleration and velocity responses are compared and a general assessment of structural damage is made. To further quantify the data correlation, comparisons of the average acceleration data are made as a function of floor location and longitudinal position. Also, the percentage differences in the velocity change (area under the acceleration curve) and the velocity change squared (proportional to kinetic energy) are compared as a function of floor location. Finally, correlation coefficients are calculated for corresponding 1/5- and full-scale data channels and these values are plotted versus floor location. From a scaling perspective, the differences between the 1/5- and full-scale tests are relatively small, indicating that appropriate scaling procedures were used in fabricating the test specimens and in conducting the experiments. The small differences in the scaled test data are attributed to minor scaling anomalies in mass, potential energy, and impact attitude.

  7. 45. STEEL FRAMING FOR LOFT, Y&D No. 107723 Scales 1/2' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. STEEL FRAMING FOR LOFT, Y&D No. 107723 Scales 1/2' and 1-1/2' = 1'; July 2, 1929 - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  8. Origin of the Scaling Constant "d" = 1.7 in Item Response Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Gregory

    1994-01-01

    Describes the scaling constant "d" = 1.702, used in Item Response Theory, which minimizes the maximum difference between the normal and logistic distribution functions. Recapitulates the theoretical and numerical derivation of "d" given by D. Haley (1952). (SLD)

  9. 25. FOLSOM, CALIFORNIA, 15 MINUTE QUADRANGLE. 1941. Scale 1:62,500. United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. FOLSOM, CALIFORNIA, 15 MINUTE QUADRANGLE. 1941. Scale 1:62,500. United States Geological Survey. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  10. Bayesian inference of cosmic density fields from non-linear, scale-dependent, and stochastic biased tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata, Metin; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Müller, Volker

    2015-02-01

    We present a Bayesian reconstruction algorithm to generate unbiased samples of the underlying dark matter field from halo catalogues. Our new contribution consists of implementing a non-Poisson likelihood including a deterministic non-linear and scale-dependent bias. In particular we present the Hamiltonian equations of motions for the negative binomial (NB) probability distribution function. This permits us to efficiently sample the posterior distribution function of density fields given a sample of galaxies using the Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique implemented in the ARGO code. We have tested our algorithm with the Bolshoi N-body simulation at redshift z = 0, inferring the underlying dark matter density field from subsamples of the halo catalogue with biases smaller and larger than one. Our method shows that we can draw closely unbiased samples (compatible within 1-σ) from the posterior distribution up to scales of about k ˜ 1 h Mpc-1 in terms of power-spectra and cell-to-cell correlations. We find that a Poisson likelihood including a scale-dependent non-linear deterministic bias can yield reconstructions with power spectra deviating more than 10 per cent at k = 0.2 h Mpc-1. Our reconstruction algorithm is especially suited for emission line galaxy data for which a complex non-linear stochastic biasing treatment beyond Poissonity becomes indispensable.

  11. Modelling galaxy clustering on small scales to tighten constraints on dark energy and modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We present a new approach to measuring cosmic expansion history and growth rate of large-scale structure using the anisotropic two-dimensional galaxy correlation function (2DCF) measured from data; it makes use of the empirical modelling of small-scale galaxy clustering derived from numerical simulations by Zheng et al. We validate this method using mock catalogues, before applying it to the analysis of the CMASS sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find that this method enables accurate and precise measurements of cosmic expansion history and growth rate of large-scale structure. Modelling the 2DCF fully including non-linear effects and redshift space distortions in the scale range of 16-144 h-1 Mpc, we find H(0.57)rs(zd)/c = 0.0459 ± 0.0006, DA(0.57)/rs(zd) = 9.011 ± 0.073, and fg(0.57)σ8(0.57) = 0.476 ± 0.050, which correspond to precisions of 1.3 per cent, 0.8 per cent, and 10.5 per cent, respectively. We have defined rs(zd) to be the sound horizon at the drag epoch computed using a simple integral, fg(z) as the growth rate at redshift z, and σ8(z) as the matter power spectrum normalization on 8 h-1 Mpc scale at z. We find that neglecting the small-scale information significantly weakens the constraints on H(z) and DA(z), and leads to a biased estimate of fg(z). Our results indicate that we can significantly tighten constraints on dark energy and modified gravity by reliably modelling small-scale galaxy clustering.

  12. Imaging of diffuse H I absorption structure in the SSA22 proto-cluster region at z = 3.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawatari, Ken; Inoue, Akio K.; Yamada, Toru; Hayashino, Tomoki; Otsuka, Takuya; Matsuda, Yuichi; Umehata, Hideki; Ouchi, Masami; Mukae, Shiro

    2017-01-01

    Using galaxies as background light sources to map intervening Lyα absorption is a novel approach to study the interplay among galaxies, the circum-galactic medium (CGM), and the intergalactic medium (IGM). Introducing a new measure of z = 3.1 H I Lyα absorption relative to the cosmic mean, ΔNB497, estimated from photometric data of star-forming galaxies at 3.3 ⪉ z ⪉ 3.5, we have made two-dimensional ΔNB497 maps in the z = 3.1 SSA22 proto-cluster region and two control fields (SXDS and GOODS-N fields) with a spatial resolution of ˜5 comoving Mpc. The ΔNB497 measurements in the SSA22 field are systematically larger than those in the control fields, and this H I absorption enhancement extends more than 50 comoving Mpc. The field-averaged (i.e., ˜50 comoving Mpc scale) ΔNB497 and the overdensity of Lyα emitters (LAEs) seem to be correlated, while there is no clear dependency of the ΔNB497 on the local LAE overdensity in a few comoving Mpc scale. These results suggest that diffuse H I gas spreads out in/around the SSA22 proto-cluster. We have also found an enhancement of ΔNB497 at a projected distance <100 physical kpc from the nearest z = 3.1 galaxies at least in the SSA22 field, which is probably due to H I gas associated with the CGM of individual galaxies. The H I absorption enhancement in the CGM-scale tends to be weaker around galaxies with stronger Lyα emission, which suggests that the Lyα escape fraction from galaxies depends on hydrogen neutrality in the CGM.

  13. Magnetic Field Effects on the CMB and Large-Scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Dai G.; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant. J.

    2010-08-01

    A primordial magnetic field (PMF) would be expected to manifest itself in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies, and also in the formation of large scale structure(LSS). In this article, we demonstrate how the PMF is an important cosmological physical process on small scales as follows, We also report the newest constraints on the PMF amplitude Bλ and the power spectral index nB which have been deduced from the available CMB observational data by using our computational framework and the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. In particular we find that |Bλ|<2.10(68%CL) nG and < 2.98(95%CL) nG and nB<-1.19(68%CL) and <-0.25(95%CL) at a present scale of 1 Mpc.

  14. A fully model-based MPC solution including VSB shot dose assignment and shape correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Reddy, Murali; Durvasula, Bhardwaj

    2015-10-01

    The value of using multiple dose levels for individual shots on VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) mask writers has been demonstrated earlier [1][2]. The main advantage of modulating dose on a per shot basis is the fact that higher dose levels can be used selectively for critical features while other areas of the mask with non-critical feature types can be exposed at lower dose levels. This reduces the amount of backscattering and mask write time penalty compared to a global overdose-undersize approach. While dose assignment to certain polygons or parts of polygons (VSB shots) can easily be accomplished via DRC rules on layers with limited shape variations like contact or VIA layers, it can be challenging to come up with consistent rules for layers consisting of a very broad range of shapes, generally found on metal layers. This work introduces a method for fully model-based modulation of shot dose for VSB machines supporting between two and eight dose levels and demonstrates results achieved with this method.

  15. U.S./Russian Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC&A Program at the VNIITF Institute, Chelyabinsk-70

    SciTech Connect

    Teryohin, V.; Tzygankov, G.; Blasy, J.

    1995-07-01

    The All Russian Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF) is one of the major sites in the nuclear weapons complex in Russia. The site contains a number of research facilities which use nuclear material as well as facilities active in disassembly and disposition of nuclear weapons. Chelyabinsk-70 (C-70) also has ties to the major nuclear materials production facilities in the Urals region of Russia. Under the U.S./Russian Laboratory -to- Laboratory cooperative program, enhanced safeguards systems are being implemented, initially at a reactor test area that contains two pulse reactors and a nuclear material storage facility. C-70 is developing an extensive computerized system that integrates the physical security alarm station with elements of the nuclear material control system. Under the Lab-to-Lab program, the existing systems will bi augmented with Russian and US technologies. The integrated MPC&A system for the test facilities will be demonstrated to US and Russian audiences when completed and follow-on work at additional C-70 facilities will be identified. This paper will describe the on-going activities and describe the cooperative effort between the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Brookhaven US Department of Energy National Laboratories in support of VNIITF.

  16. US/Russian laboratory-to-laboratory MPC&A Program at the VNIITF Institute, Chelyabinsk-70 May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tsygankov, G.; Churikov, Y.; Teryokhin, V.

    1996-05-01

    The AR Russian Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF), also called Chelyabinsk-70, is one of two Russian federal nuclear centers established to design, test and support nuclear weapons throughout their life cycle. The site contains research facilities which use nuclear materials, two experimental plants which manufacture prototype samples for nuclear weapons, and a site for various ground tests. Chelyabinsk-70 also has cooperative relationships with the major nuclear materials production facilities in the Urals region of Russia. Chelyabinsk-70 has been participating in the US/Russian Laboratory-to-laboratory cooperative program for approximately one year. Six US Department of Energy Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with VNIITF to improve the capabilities and facilities for nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A) at VNIITF. A Safeguards Effectiveness Evaluation Workshop was conducted at VNIITF in July, 1995. Enhanced safeguards systems are being implemented, initially at a reactor test area that contains three pulse reactors. Significant improvements to physical security and access control systems are under way. C-70 is developing an extensive computerized system that integrates the physical security alarm station with elements of the nuclear material control system. The existing systems will be augmented with Russian and US technologies. This paper will describe the on-going activities and describe the cooperative effort between the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Brookhaven US Department of Energy National Laboratories and VNIITF.

  17. CONSTRAINING PRIMORDIAL MAGNETIC FIELDS THROUGH LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Kahniashvili, Tina; Natarajan, Aravind; Battaglia, Nicholas; Maravin, Yurii; Tevzadze, Alexander G.

    2013-06-10

    We study primordial magnetic field effects on the matter perturbations in the universe. We assume magnetic field generation prior to the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), i.e., during the radiation-dominated epoch of the universe expansion, but do not limit analysis by considering a particular magnetogenesis scenario. Contrary to previous studies, we limit the total magnetic field energy density and not the smoothed amplitude of the magnetic field at large (of the order of 1 Mpc) scales. We review several cosmological signatures, such as halo abundance, thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and Ly{alpha} data. For a cross-check, we compare our limits with that obtained through the cosmic microwave background faraday rotation effect and BBN. The limits range between 1.5 nG and 4.5 nG for n{sub B} in (- 3; -1.5).

  18. Physiographic map of the Sicilian region (1:250,000 scale)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priori, Simone; Fantappiè, Maria; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.

    2015-04-01

    Physiographic maps summarize and group the landforms of a territory into homogeneous areas in terms of kind and intensity of main geomorphological process. Most of the physiographic maps have large scale, which is national or continental scale. Other maps have been produced at the semi-detailed scales, while examples at the regional scale are much less common. However, being the Region the main administrative level in Europe, they can be very useful for land planning in many fields, such as ecological studies, risk maps, and soil mapping. This work presents a methodological example of regional physiographic map, compiled at 1:250,000 scale, representing the whole Sicilian region, the largest and most characteristic of Mediterranean island. The physiographic units were classed matching thematich layers (NDVI, geology, DEM, land cover) with the main geomorphological processes that were identified by stereo-interpretation of aerial photographs (1:70,000 scale). In addition, information from other published maps, representing geomorphological forms, aeolian deposits, anthropic terraced slopes, and landslide were used to improve the accuracy and reliability of the map. The classification of the physiographic units, and then the map legend, was built up on the basis of literature and taking into account Italian geomorphological legend. The legend proposed in this map, which can be applied also in other Mediterranean countries, is suitable for different scales. The landform units were grouped on the base of a geomorphological classification of the forms into: anthropogenic, eolian, coastal, valley floor, intermountain fluvial, slope erosional, structural, karstic, and volcanic.

  19. The value of ERTS-1 imagery in resource inventorization on a national scale in South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malan, O. G.; Macvicar, C. N.; Edwards, D.; Temperley, B. N.; Claassen, L.

    1974-01-01

    It has been shown that ERTS imagery, particularly in the form of 1:500,000 scale false color photolithographic prints, can contribute very significantly towards facilitating and accelerating (dramatically, in some cases) resource surveys and geologic mapping. Fire mapping on a national scale becomes a feasability; numerous new geologic features, particularly lineaments, have been discovered, land use can be mapped efficiently on a regional scale and degraded areas identified. The first detailed tectonic and geomorphological maps of the Republic of South Africa will be published mainly owing to the availability of ERTS images.

  20. Analytic prediction of baryonic effects from the EFT of large scale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, Matthew; Perko, Ashley; Senatore, Leonardo

    2015-05-01

    The large scale structures of the universe will likely be the next leading source of cosmological information. It is therefore crucial to understand their behavior. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures provides a consistent way to perturbatively predict the clustering of dark matter at large distances. The fact that baryons move distances comparable to dark matter allows us to infer that baryons at large distances can be described in a similar formalism: the backreaction of short-distance non-linearities and of star-formation physics at long distances can be encapsulated in an effective stress tensor, characterized by a few parameters. The functional form of baryonic effects can therefore be predicted. In the power spectrum the leading contribution goes as propto k2 P(k), with P(k) being the linear power spectrum and with the numerical prefactor depending on the details of the star-formation physics. We also perform the resummation of the contribution of the long-wavelength displacements, allowing us to consistently predict the effect of the relative motion of baryons and dark matter. We compare our predictions with simulations that contain several implementations of baryonic physics, finding percent agreement up to relatively high wavenumbers such as k simeq 0.3 hMpc-1 or k simeq 0.6 hMpc-1, depending on the order of the calculation. Our results open a novel way to understand baryonic effects analytically, as well as to interface with simulations.

  1. Galaxy clustering constraints on deviations from Newtonian gravity at cosmological scales

    SciTech Connect

    Shirata, Akihito; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Naoki; Suto, Yasushi

    2005-03-15

    In spite of the growing observational evidence for dark matter and dark energy in the universe, their physical nature is largely unknown. In fact, several authors have proposed modifications of Newton's law of gravity at cosmological scales to account for the apparent acceleration of the cosmic expansion. Inspired by such suggestions, we attempt to constrain possible deviations from Newtonian gravity by means of the clustering of SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) galaxies. To be specific, we assume a simple modification of Newton's law with an additional Yukawa-type term characterized by the amplitude {alpha} and the length scale {lambda}. Adopting spatially-flat universes dominated by cold dark matter and/or dark energy, we solve a linear perturbation equation for the growth of density fluctuations. In particular, we find an exact analytic solution for the Einstein-de Sitter case. Following the Peacock-Dodds prescription, we compute the nonlinear power spectra of mass fluctuations, perform a statistical comparison with the SDSS galaxy data, and derive constraints in the {alpha}-{lambda} plane; for instance, we obtain the constraints of -0.5<{alpha}<0.6 and -0.8<{alpha}<0.9 (99.7% confidence level) for {lambda}=5h{sup -1} Mpc and 10h{sup -1} Mpc, respectively. We also discuss several future possibilities for improving our analysis.

  2. MPC improves reformer control

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, C.S.; Noh, K.K.; Yi, S.; Kim, J.S.; Song, H.K.; Hyun, J.C.

    1995-04-01

    A model predictive control strategy was applied to a synthesis gas reformer of Samsung-BP Chemicals in Korea that produces carbon monoxide and hydrogen from naphtha. A strongly endothermic reaction occurs in a catalytic reformer, and reformer outlet temperature is considered to have the most significant effect on product composition. The newly developed reformer is known to be a cost-effective process operating at high reaction temperatures and low steam-to-carbon ratio, but its drawback is temperature control difficulty due to the use of offgas as a part of the fuel. Without smooth control of the reformer outlet temperature, stable operation of the downstream separation units cannot be expected. Therefore, it is a great challenge to apply a model predictive control technique for tight control of reformer outlet temperature. The paper describes model predictive control, the process advanced control project, computer system architecture, analysis of operating condition, control structure, sampling rate, and disturbance estimation.

  3. Preliminary Landing Tests of a 1/6-Scale Dynamic Model of a Lunar Excursion Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Preliminary Landing Tests of a 1/6-Scale Dynamic Model of a Lunar Excursion Vehicle. The film shows 21 trials made on 8 days of the scale Model 413 lunar landing vehicle. Attitudes tested were a pitch of 0, -15, or 15 degrees and yaw of 0 or 45 degrees. Velocities were vertical 10 and horizontal 10, though two trials were simple vertical drops. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030974. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  4. Probing for Dark Energy Perturbations using the CMB and Large Scale Structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Rachel; Doré, Olivier

    2004-12-01

    We review the implications of having a non-trivial matter component in the universe and the potential for detecting such a component through the matter power spectrum and ISW effect. We adopt a phenomenological approach and consider the mysterious dark energy to be a cosmic fluid. It is thus fully characterized, up to linear order, by its equation of state and its speed of sound. Whereas the equation of state has been widely studied in the literature, less interest has been devoted to the speed of sound. Its observational consequences come predominantly from very large scale modes of dark matter perturbations (k < 0.01hMpc-1). Since these modes have hardly been probed so far by large scale galaxy surveys, we investigate whether joint constraints that can be placed on those two quantities using the recent CMB fluctuations measurements by WMAP as well as the recently measured CMB large scale structure cross-correlation.

  5. Spectral scaling laws of solar wind fluctuations at 1 AU: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, John J.

    2013-06-13

    In-situ measurements of solar wind fluctuations at 1 AU show that the reduced energy spectrum, equal to the sum of the reduced kinetic plus magnetic energy spectra, is characterized by a power-law scaling k{sup -{alpha}} in the inertial range with an average spectral exponent {alpha} Asymptotically-Equal-To 3/2, a result confirmed by independent analyses using data from different spacecraft. Magnetic field and electron density spectra at kinetic scales {rho}{sup -1}{sub i} < k < {rho}{sup -1}{sub e} both have a spectral index of approximately 2.7. These and other recent observations of spectral scaling laws in the solar wind using single spacecraft measurements are briefly reviewed. The first part of this review, Part 1, is contained in a separate paper in these proceedings.

  6. Convenient large-scale synthesis of D-glucaro-1,4:6,3-dilactone.

    PubMed

    Gehret, Troy C; Frobese, A Stephen; Zerbe, James S; Chenault, H Keith

    2009-11-06

    Calcium D-glucarate was converted into D-glucaro-1,4:6,3-dilactone on 32-g, 1-kg, and 22-kg scale, using azeotropic distillation with methyl isobutyl ketone to drive the dehydration. The crystalline product was > or = 99.5% pure by GC and NMR, and overall yield was as high as 72%.

  7. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). An unprecedented view of galaxies and large-scale structure at 0.5 < z < 1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Fritz, A.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Hudelot, P.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.

    2014-06-01

    We describe the construction and general features of VIPERS, the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey. This ESO Large Programme is using the Very Large Telescope with the aim of building a spectroscopic sample of ~ 100 000 galaxies with iAB< 22.5 and 0.5 1.5. The survey covers a total area of ~ 24 deg2 within the CFHTLS-Wide W1 and W4 fields. VIPERS is designed to address a broad range of problems in large-scale structure and galaxy evolution, thanks to a unique combination of volume (~ 5 × 107h-3 Mpc3) and sampling rate (~ 40%), comparable to state-of-the-art surveys of the local Universe, together with extensive multi-band optical and near-infrared photometry. Here we present the survey design, the selection of the source catalogue and the development of the spectroscopic observations. We discuss in detail the overall selection function that results from the combination of the different constituents of the project. This includes the masks arising from the parent photometric sample and the spectroscopic instrumental footprint, together with the weights needed to account for the sampling and the success rates of the observations. Using the catalogue of 53 608 galaxy redshifts composing the forthcoming VIPERS Public Data Release 1 (PDR-1), we provide a first assessment of the quality of the spectroscopic data. The stellar contamination is found to be only 3.2%, endorsing the quality of the star-galaxy separation process and fully confirming the original estimates based on the VVDS data, which also indicate a galaxy incompleteness from this process of only 1.4%. Using a set of 1215 repeated observations, we estimate an rms redshift error σz/ (1 + z) = 4.7 × 10-4 and calibrate the internal spectral quality grading. Benefiting from the combination of size and detailed sampling of this dataset, we conclude by presenting a map showing in unprecedented detail the large-scale distribution of galaxies between 5 and 8 billion years ago. Based on observations

  8. DEVELOPMENT, INSTALLATION AND OPERATION OF THE MPC&A OPERATIONS MONITORING (MOM) SYSTEM AT THE JOINT INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH (JINR) DUBNA, RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    Kartashov,V.V.; Pratt,W.; Romanov, Y.A.; Samoilov, V.N.; Shestakov, B.A.; Duncan, C.; Brownell, L.; Carbonaro, J.; White, R.M.; Coffing, J.A.

    2009-07-12

    The Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Operations Monitoring (MOM) systems handling at the International Intergovernmental Organization - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) is described in this paper. Category I nuclear material (plutonium and uranium) is used in JINR research reactors, facilities and for scientific and research activities. A monitoring system (MOM) was installed at JINR in April 2003. The system design was based on a vulnerability analysis, which took into account the specifics of the Institute. The design and installation of the MOM system was a collaborative effort between JINR, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Financial support was provided by DOE through BNL. The installed MOM system provides facility management with additional assurance that operations involving nuclear material (NM) are correctly followed by the facility personnel. The MOM system also provides additional confidence that the MPC&A systems continue to perform effectively.

  9. DOE Lab-to-Lab MPC&A workshop for cooperative tasks with Russian institutes: Focus on critical assemblies and item facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.; Fishbone, L.G.; Kato, W.Y.; Lazareth, O.W.; Suda, S.C.; Garcia, D.; Haga, R.

    1995-12-01

    Seventeen Russian scientists and engineers representing five different institutes participated in a Workshop on material control and accounting as part of the US-Russian Lab-to-Lab Cooperative Program in Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A). In addition to presentations and discussions, the Workshop included an exercise at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and demonstrations at the Zero Power Physics Reactor (critical-assembly facility) of Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). The Workshop particularly emphasized procedures for physical inventory-taking at critical assemblies and item facilities, with associated supporting techniques and methods. By learning these topics and applying the methods and experience at their own institutes, the Russian scientists and engineers will be able to determine and verify nuclear material inventories based on sound procedures, including measurements. This will constitute a significant enhancement to MPC&A at the Russian institutes.

  10. SCALE 5.1 Predictions of PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Isotopic Compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Gauld, Ian C; Ilas, Germina

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this calculation report is to document the comparison to measurement of the isotopic concentrations for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel determined with the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) 5.1 (Ref. ) epletion calculation method. Specifically, the depletion computer code and the cross-section library being evaluated are the twodimensional (2-D) transport and depletion module, TRITON/NEWT,2, 3 and the 44GROUPNDF5 (Ref. 4) cross-section library, respectively, in the SCALE .1 code system.

  11. Subtask 12A1: Fabrication of production-scale heat of V-4Cr-4Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Tsai, H.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-03-01

    On the basis of excellent properties that were determined for a laboratory-scale heat, V-4Cr-4Ti has been identified previously as the most promising vanadium-based candidate alloy for application in fusion reactor structural components. The objective of this work is to produce a large-scale (500-kg) ingot of the alloy and fabricate various plates and sheets from the ingot, thereby demonstrating a reliable method of fabricating an industrial-scale heat of V-4Cr-4Ti that exhibits excellent properties. A 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti, an alloy identified previously as the most promising vanadium-based candidate alloy for application in fusion reactor structural components, has been produced. The ingot was produced by multiple vacuum-arc melting using screened high-quality raw materials of vanadium, chrome, and titanium. Several long bars {approx}64 mm in thickness and {approx}200 mm in width were extruded from the ingot, and plates and sheets of various thicknesses ranging from 1.0 to 29.2 mm were fabricated successfully from the extruded bars. The chemical composition of the ingot and the secondary fabrication procedures, specified on the basis of the experience and knowledge gained from fabrication, testing, and microstructural characterization of a laboratory-scale heat, were found to be satisfactory. Charpy-impact tests showed that mechanical properties of the production-scale heat are as good as those of the laboratory-scale heat. This demonstrates a method of reliable fabrication of industrial-scale heats of V-4Cr-4Ti that exhibit excellent properties. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Bench-scale development of mild gasification char desulfurization. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of this project is to scale up a process, developed under a previous ICCI grant, for desulfurization of mild gasification char by treatment with hydrogen-rich process-derived fuel gas at 650--760 C and 7--15 atm. The char can be converted into a low-sulfur metallurgical form coke. In the prior study, IBC-105 coal with 4.0 wt% sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt% sulfur in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The susceptibility of the char to desulfurization was correlated with physicochemical char properties and mild gasification conditions. Acid pretreatment of the coal prior to mild gasification was also shown to significantly enhance subsequent sulfur removal. In this study, IGT is conducting continuous bench-scale tests in a 1-lb/h fluidized-bed reactor to determine the preferred process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process design and scale-up. The desulfurized chars are to be used to produce low-sulfur form coke, which will be evaluated for density, reactivity, and strength properties relevant to utilization in blast furnaces. This quarter, 2,500 g of mild gasification char was produced from untreated IBC-105 coal in the bench-scale reactor. Half of this char will be subjected to sulfuric acid treatment to enhance subsequent desulfurization. Char-producing runs were also initiated with acid-pretreated coal, which will produce about 1,250 g of char.

  13. Variability in Soil Properties at Different Spatial Scales (1 m to 1 km) in a Deciduous Forest Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Kang, S.; Brice, Deanne Jane; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Zhou, Jizhong

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that variability in 11 soil properties, related to soil texture and soil C and N, would increase from small (1 m) to large (1 km) spatial scales in a temperate, mixed-hardwood forest ecosystem in east Tennessee, USA. The results were somewhat surprising and indicated that a fundamental assumption in geospatial analysis, namely that variability increases with increasing spatial scale, did not apply for at least five of the 11 soil properties measured over a 0.5-km2 area. Composite mineral soil samples (15 cm deep) were collected at 1, 5, 10, 50, 250, and 500 m distances from a center point along transects in a north, south, east, and westerly direction. A null hypothesis of equal variance at different spatial scales was rejected (P{le}0.05) for mineral soil C concentration, silt content, and the C-to-N ratios in particulate organic matter (POM), mineral-associated organic matter (MOM), and whole surface soil. Results from different tests of spatial variation, based on coefficients of variation or a Mantel test, led to similar conclusions about measurement variability and geographic distance for eight of the 11 variables examined. Measurements of mineral soil C and N concentrations, C concentrations in MOM, extractable soil NH{sub 4}-N, and clay contents were just as variable at smaller scales (1-10 m) as they were at larger scales (50-500 m). On the other hand, measurement variation in mineral soil C-to-N ratios, MOM C-to-N ratios, and the fraction of soil C in POM clearly increased from smaller to larger spatial scales. With the exception of extractable soil NH4-N, measured soil properties in the forest ecosystem could be estimated (with 95% confidence) to within 15% of their true mean with a relatively modest number of sampling points (n{le}25). For some variables, scaling up variation from smaller to larger spatial domains within the ecosystem could be relatively easy because small-scale variation may be

  14. 17.1%-Efficient Multi-Scale-Textured Black Silicon Solar Cells without Dielectric Antireflection Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Toor, F.; Page, M. R.; Branz, H. M.; Yuan, H. C.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present 17.1%-efficient p-type single crystal Si solar cells with a multi-scale-textured surface and no dielectric antireflection coating. Multi-scale texturing is achieved by a gold-nanoparticle-assisted nanoporous etch after conventional micron scale KOH-based pyramid texturing (pyramid black etching). By incorporating geometric enhancement of antireflection, this multi-scale texturing reduces the nanoporosity depth required to make silicon `black' compared to nanoporous planar surfaces. As a result, it improves short-wavelength spectral response (blue response), previously one of the major limiting factors in `black-Si' solar cells. With multi-scale texturing, the spectrum-weighted average reflectance from 350- to 1000-nm wavelength is below 2% with a 100-nm deep nanoporous layer. In comparison, roughly 250-nm deep nanopores are needed to achieve similar reflectance on planar surface. Here, we characterize surface morphology, reflectivity and solar cell performance of the multi-scale textured solar cells.

  15. A Catalog of Proper Motions to Dynamically Measure the Hubble Expansion and the Evolution of Large-Scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truebenbach, Alexandra; Darling, Jeremiah K.

    2017-01-01

    Objects and structures gravitationally decoupled from the Hubble expansion will appear to shrink in angular size as the universe expands. Observations of extragalactic proper motions can thus directly reveal the cosmic expansion without reliance on canonical cosmological models. Relatively static structures such as galaxies or galaxy clusters will show an apparent fractional angular compression of ~ 15 microarcseconds/yr in the local universe. Pairs of gravitationally bound objects (separations less than ~ 150 Mpc) will also show a deviation from pure cosmic expansion due to the collapse of large-scale structure. We have created a catalog of quasar proper motions to detect and measure these effects through the angular expansion / contraction of quasar pairs rather than with the Doppler method, which relies on cosmological models such as the “distance ladder.” With our catalog, we have confirmed that large separation pairs (600 - 10^4 Mpc comoving) show no net convergence or divergence, 0.18 +/- 0.18 microarcseconds/yr, consistent with Hubble expansion and significantly inconsistent with static structures, as expected. For pairs with comoving separations 150 < r < 300 Mpc, we have detected an unexplained expansion that is faster than the Hubble expansion, 9.7 +/- 1.7 microarcseconds/yr. For pairs with separations < 150 Mpc, we expect a pairwise contraction from the collapse of large-scale structure, but lack enough pairs to significantly detect this effect. We measure an insignificant divergence of 6.3 +/- 2.8 microarcseconds/yr. We are currently expanding our proper motion catalog using the VLBA, Gemini and Gaia in order to dynamically detect the evolution of large-scale structure. This will be the largest extragalactic proper motion catalog to date and will include new and updated proper motions with errors < 1 microarcseconds/yr for many well-known quasars. Finally, this project will provide a dynamical means to confirm the isotropy of the universe, to

  16. HOWARD EISEN, JPL'S LEAD MECHANICAL TECHNICIAN, HOLDS MARS PATHFINDER 'SOJOURNER' ROVER 1:1 SCALE DU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder 'Sojourner' rover l:l scale duplicate test vehicle is held by Howard Eisen, its lead mechanical technician from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with Kennedy Space Center's Vehicle Assembly Building looming in the background. The launch of NASA's Mars Pathfinder spacecraft aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket is scheduled for Monday, Dec. 2, at 2:09:11 a.m. EST. This is a single instantaneous target launch time without a second opportunity on that day. Liftoff will occur from Pad B at Launch Complex 17 on Cape Canaveral Air Station, Fla. There is a 24-day launch opportunity which extends through Dec. 31.

  17. MARS PATHFINDER 'SOJOURNER' ROVER 1:1 SCALE DUPLICATE TEST VEHICLE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's 'Sojourner' rover l:l scale duplicate test vehicle undergoes Earthbound tests at the Kennedy Space Center. The launch of NASA's Mars Pathfinder spacecraft aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket is scheduled for Monday, Dec. 2, at 2:09:11 a.m. EST. This is a single instantaneous target launch time without a second opportunity on that day. Liftoff will occur from Pad B at Launch Complex 17 on Cape Canaveral Air Station, Fla. There is a 24-day launch opportunity which extends through Dec. 31.

  18. INTEGRATED SACHS-WOLFE IMPRINT OF SUPERSTRUCTURES ON LINEAR SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Papai, Peter; Szapudi, Istvan; Granett, Benjamin R.

    2011-05-01

    We build a model for the density and integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) profile of supervoid and supercluster structures. Our model assumes that fluctuations evolve linearly from an initial Gaussian random field. We find these assumptions capable of describing N-body simulations and simulated ISW maps remarkably well on large scales. We construct an ISW map based on locations of superstructures identified previously in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Luminous Red Galaxy sample. A matched filter analysis of the cosmic microwave background confirms a signal at the 3.2{sigma} confidence level and estimates the radius of the underlying structures to be 55 {+-} 28 h{sup -1} Mpc. The amplitude of the signal, however, is 2{sigma} higher than {Lambda}CDM predictions.

  19. Continuum Climate Variability:. Long-Term Memory, Scaling, and 1/F-NOISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraedrich, Klaus; Blender, Richard; Zhu, Xiuhua

    Continuum temperature variability represents the response of the Earth's climate to deterministic external forcing. Scaling regimes are observed which range from hours to millennia with low frequency fluctuations characterizing long-term memory. The presence of 1/f power spectra in weather and climate is noteworthy: (i) In the tropical atmosphere 1/f scaling ranging from hours to weeks is found for several variables; it emerges as superposition of uncorrelated pulses with individual 1/f spectra. (ii) The daily discharge of the Yangtze shows 1/f within one week to one year, although the precipitation spectrum is white. (iii) Beyond one year mid-latitude sea surface temperatures reveal 1/f scaling in large parts of the global ocean. The spectra can be simulated by complex atmosphere-ocean general circulation models and understood as a two layer heat diffusion process forced by an uncorrelated stochastic atmospheric. Long-term memory on time scales up to millennia are the global sea surface temperatures and the Greenland ice core records (GISP2, GRIP) with δ18O temperature proxy data during the Holocene. Complex atmosphere ocean general circulation models reproduce this behavior quantitatively up to millennia without solar variability, interacting land-ice and vegetation components.

  20. Genome-scale functional profiling of the mammalian AP-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Sumit K.; White, Suhaila; Orth, Anthony P.; Reisdorph, Richard; Miraglia, Loren; Thomas, Russell S.; DeJesus, Paul; Mason, Daniel E.; Huang, Qihong; Vega, Raquel; Yu, De-Hua; Nelson, Christian G.; Smith, Brendan M.; Terry, Robert; Linford, Alicia S.; Yu, Yang; Chirn, Gung-wei; Song, Chuanzheng; Labow, Mark A.; Cohen, Dalia; King, Frederick J.; Peters, Eric C.; Schultz, Peter G.; Vogt, Peter K.; Hogenesch, John B.; Caldwell, Jeremy S.

    2003-01-01

    Large-scale functional genomics approaches are fundamental to the characterization of mammalian transcriptomes annotated by genome sequencing projects. Although current high-throughput strategies systematically survey either transcriptional or biochemical networks, analogous genome-scale investigations that analyze gene function in mammalian cells have yet to be fully realized. Through transient overexpression analysis, we describe the parallel interrogation of ≈20,000 sequence annotated genes in cancer-related signaling pathways. For experimental validation of these genome data, we apply an integrative strategy to characterize previously unreported effectors of activator protein-1 (AP-1) mediated growth and mitogenic response pathways. These studies identify the ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein Centaurin α1 and a Tudor domain-containing hypothetical protein as putative AP-1 regulatory oncogenes. These results provide insight into the composition of the AP-1 signaling machinery and validate this approach as a tractable platform for genome-wide functional analysis. PMID:14514886

  1. Clipping the cosmos: the bias and bispectrum of large scale structure.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Fergus; James, J Berian; Heavens, Alan F; Heymans, Catherine

    2011-12-30

    A large fraction of the information collected by cosmological surveys is simply discarded to avoid length scales which are difficult to model theoretically. We introduce a new technique which enables the extraction of useful information from the bispectrum of galaxies well beyond the conventional limits of perturbation theory. Our results strongly suggest that this method increases the range of scales where the relation between the bispectrum and power spectrum in tree-level perturbation theory may be applied, from k(max) ∼ 0.1 to ∼0.7 hMpc(-1). This leads to correspondingly large improvements in the determination of galaxy bias. Since the clipped matter power spectrum closely follows the linear power spectrum, there is the potential to use this technique to probe the growth rate of linear perturbations and confront theories of modified gravity with observation.

  2. 411. Delineator Unknown November 2, 1933 1/8" SCALE DETAIL STUDY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    411. Delineator Unknown November 2, 1933 1/8" SCALE DETAIL STUDY OF S.F. ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SHEET NO. R31 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. Psychometric Properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael L.; Locke, Dona E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) was designed to be psychometrically superior to its MMPI-2 counterpart. However, the test has yet to be extensively evaluated in diverse clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) scale in…

  4. Child Proportional Scaling: Is 1/3 = 2/6 = 3/9 = 4/12?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ty W.; Levine, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The current experiments examined the role of scale factor in children's proportional reasoning. Experiment 1 used a choice task and Experiment 2 used a production task to examine the abilities of kindergartners through fourth-graders to match equivalent, visually depicted proportional relations. The findings of both experiments show that accuracy…

  5. Neighborhood-Scale Spatial Models of Diesel Exhaust Concentration Profile Using 1-Nitropyrene and Other Nitroarenes

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Jill K.; Fox, Julie R.; Oron, Assaf P.; Larson, Timothy V.; Simpson, Christopher D.; Paulsen, Michael; Beaudet, Nancy; Kaufman, Joel D.; Magzamen, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    With emerging evidence that diesel exhaust exposure poses distinct risks to human health, the need for fine-scale models of diesel exhaust pollutants is growing. We modeled the spatial distribution of several nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) to identify fine-scale gradients in diesel exhaust pollution in two Seattle, WA neighborhoods. Our modeling approach fused land-use regression, meteorological dispersion modeling, and pollutant monitoring from both fixed and mobile platforms. We applied these modeling techniques to concentrations of 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), a highly specific diesel exhaust marker, at the neighborhood scale. We developed models of two additional nitroarenes present in secondary organic aerosol: 2-nitro-pyrene and 2-nitrofluoranthene. Summer predictors of 1-NP, including distance to railroad, truck emissions, and mobile black carbon measurements, showed a greater specificity to diesel sources than predictors of other NPAHs. Winter sampling results did not yield stable models, likely due to regional mixing of pollutants in turbulent weather conditions. The model of summer 1-NP had an R2 of 0.87 and cross-validated R2 of 0.73. The synthesis of high-density sampling and hybrid modeling was successful in predicting diesel exhaust pollution at a very fine scale and identifying clear gradients in NPAH concentrations within urban neighborhoods. PMID:26501773

  6. Resilience Design Patterns - A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale (version 1.1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hukerikar, Saurabh; Engelmann, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest the prevalence of very high fault rates in future systems. The errors resulting from these faults will propagate and generate various kinds of failures, which may result in outcomes ranging from result corruptions to catastrophic application crashes. Therefore the resilience challenge for extreme-scale HPC systems requires management of various hardware and software technologies that are capable of handling a broad set of fault models at accelerated fault rates. Also, due to practical limits on power consumption in HPC systems future systems are likely to embrace innovative architectures, increasing the levels of hardware and software complexities. As a result the techniques that seek to improve resilience must navigate the complex trade-off space between resilience and the overheads to power consumption and performance. While the HPC community has developed various resilience solutions, application-level techniques as well as system-based solutions, the solution space of HPC resilience techniques remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to investigate and evaluate resilience holistically in HPC systems that consider impact scope, handling coverage, and performance & power efficiency across the system stack. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software environments that will be deployed on future systems. In this document, we develop a structured approach to the management of HPC resilience using the concept of resilience-based design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the commonly occurring problems and solutions used to deal with faults, errors and failures in HPC systems. Each established solution is described in the form of a pattern that

  7. Testing gravity using large-scale redshift-space distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Bertacca, Daniele; Pietrobon, Davide; Schmidt, Fabian; Samushia, Lado; Bartolo, Nicola; Doré, Olivier; Matarrese, Sabino; Percival, Will J.

    2013-11-01

    We use luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) II to test the cosmological structure growth in two alternatives to the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM)+general relativity (GR) cosmological model. We compare observed three-dimensional clustering in SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) with theoretical predictions for the standard vanilla ΛCDM+GR model, unified dark matter (UDM) cosmologies and the normal branch Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (nDGP). In computing the expected correlations in UDM cosmologies, we derive a parametrized formula for the growth factor in these models. For our analysis we apply the methodology tested in Raccanelli et al. and use the measurements of Samushia et al. that account for survey geometry, non-linear and wide-angle effects and the distribution of pair orientation. We show that the estimate of the growth rate is potentially degenerate with wide-angle effects, meaning that extremely accurate measurements of the growth rate on large scales will need to take such effects into account. We use measurements of the zeroth and second-order moments of the correlation function from SDSS DR7 data and the Large Suite of Dark Matter Simulations (LasDamas), and perform a likelihood analysis to constrain the parameters of the models. Using information on the clustering up to rmax = 120 h-1 Mpc, and after marginalizing over the bias, we find, for UDM models, a speed of sound c∞ ≤ 6.1e-4, and, for the nDGP model, a cross-over scale rc ≥ 340 Mpc, at 95 per cent confidence level.

  8. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 3-Surry Unit 1 Cycle 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit for the negative reactivity of the depleted (or spent) fuel isotopics is desired, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods against spent fuel critical configurations. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial pressurized-water reactors. The analysis methodology selected for all the calculations in this report is based on the codes and data provided in the SCALE-4 code system. The isotopic densities for the spent fuel assemblies in the critical configurations were calculated using the SAS2H analytical sequence of the SCALE-4 system. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code module was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from the SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required by the SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of the cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of each case. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all the calculations. This volume of the report documents the SCALE system analysis of two reactor critical configurations for Surry Unit 1 Cycle 2. This unit and cycle were chosen for a previous analysis using a different methodology because detailed isotopics from multidimensional reactor calculations were available from the Virginia Power Company. These data permitted a direct comparison of criticality calculations using the utility-calculated isotopics with those using the isotopics generated by the SCALE-4

  9. Scaling theory of magnetoresistance and carrier localization in Ga1-xMnxAs.

    PubMed

    Moca, C P; Sheu, B L; Samarth, N; Schiffer, P; Janko, B; Zarand, G

    2009-04-03

    We compare experimental resistivity data on Ga1-xMnxAs films with theoretical calculations using a scaling theory for strongly disordered ferromagnets. The characteristic features of the temperature dependent resistivity can be quantitatively understood through this approach as originating from the close vicinity of the metal-insulator transition. However, accounting for thermal fluctuations is crucial for a quantitative description of the magnetic field induced changes in resistance. While the noninteracting scaling theory is in reasonable agreement with the data, we find clear evidence for interaction effects at low temperatures.

  10. Intensity mapping cross-correlations: connecting the largest scales to galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolz, L.; Tonini, C.; Blake, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-05-01

    Intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen (H I) is a new observational tool to efficiently map the large-scale structure over wide redshift ranges. The cross-correlation of intensity maps with galaxy surveys is a robust measure of the cosmological power spectrum and the H I content of galaxies which diminishes systematics caused by instrumental effects and foreground removal. We examine the cross-correlation signature at redshift 0.9 using a semi-analytical galaxy formation model in order to model the H I gas of galaxies as well as their optical magnitudes. We determine the scale-dependent clustering of the cross-correlation power for different types of galaxies determined by their colours, which act as a proxy for their star formation activity. We find that the cross-correlation coefficient with H I density for red quiescent galaxies falls off more quickly on smaller scales k > 0.2 h Mpc-1 than for blue star-forming galaxies. Additionally, we create a mock catalogue of highly star-forming galaxies to mimic the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, and use this to predict existing and future measurements using data from the Green Bank telescope and Parkes telescope. We find that the cross-power of highly star-forming galaxies shows a higher clustering on small scales than any other galaxy type and that this significantly alters the power spectrum shape on scales k > 0.2 h Mpc-1. We show that the cross-correlation coefficient is not negligible when interpreting the cosmological cross-power spectrum and additionally contains information about the H I content of the optically selected galaxies.

  11. Galaxy Pairwise Velocity Distributions on Nonlinear Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaferio, Antonaldo; Geller, Margaret J.

    1996-08-01

    The redshift-space correlation function ξ_s_ for projected galaxy separations <~ 1 h^-1^ Mpc can be expressed as the convolution of the real-space correlation function with the galaxy pairwise velocity distribution function (PVDF). An exponential PVDF yields the best fit to the ξ_s_ measured from galaxy samples of different redshift surveys. We show that this exponential PVDF is not merely a fitting function but arises from well-defined gravitational processes. Two ingredients conspire to yield a PVDF with a nearly exponential shape: (1) the number density n(σ) of systems with velocity dispersion σ and (2) the unrelaxed dynamical state of most galaxy systems. The former ingredient determines the exponential tail, and the latter determines the central peak of the PVDF. We examine a third issue: the transfer of orbital kinetic energy to galaxy internal degrees of freedom. Although this effect is of secondary importance for the PVDF exponential shape, it is detectable in galaxy groups, which indicates that galaxy merging is an ongoing process in the present universe. We compare the ξ_s_ measured on nonlinear scales from galaxy samples of the Center for Astrophysics redshift surveys with different models of the PVDF convolved with the measured real-space correlation function. This preliminary comparison indicates that the agreement between model and observations depends strongly on both the underlying cosmological model and the internal dynamics of galaxy systems. Neither parameter dominates. Moreover, the agreement depends sensitively on the accuracy of the galaxy position and velocity measurements. We expect that ξ_s_ will pose further constraints on the model of the universe and will improve the knowledge of the dynamics of galaxy systems on very small scales if we improve (1) the galaxy coordinate determination and (2) the measurement of relative velocities of galaxies with small projected separation. In fact, the redshift-space correlation function

  12. Development of thermal stratification and destratification scaling concepts. Volume 1: Definition of thermal stratification scaling parameters and experimental investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovrich, T. N.; Schwartz, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    The dimensionless parameters associated with the thermal stratification and pressure history of a heated container of liquid and its vapor were examined. The Modified Grashof number, the Fourier number, and an Interface number were parameterized using a single test liquid, Freon 113. Cylindrical test tanks with spherical dome end caps were built. Blanket heaters covered the tanks and thermocouples monitored the temperatures of the liquid, the ullage, the tank walls, and the foam insulation encapsulating the tank. A centrifuge was used for the 6 inch tank to preserve the same scaling parameter values between it and the larger tanks. Tests were conducted over a range of Gr* values and the degree of scaling was checked by comparing the dimensionless pressures and temperatures for each scaled pair of tests. Results indicate that the bulk liquid temperature, the surface temperature of the liquid, and the tank pressure can be scaled with the three dimensionless parameters. Some deviation was, however, found in the detailed temperature profiles between the scaled pairs of tests.

  13. Short Time-Scale Sensory Coding in S1 during Discrimination of Whisker Vibrotactile Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Toshio; Lee, Daniel J.; Smith, Katherine A.; Feldman, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Rodent whisker input consists of dense microvibration sequences that are often temporally integrated for perceptual discrimination. Whether primary somatosensory cortex (S1) participates in temporal integration is unknown. We trained rats to discriminate whisker impulse sequences that varied in single-impulse kinematics (5–20-ms time scale) and mean speed (150-ms time scale). Rats appeared to use the integrated feature, mean speed, to guide discrimination in this task, consistent with similar prior studies. Despite this, 52% of S1 units, including 73% of units in L4 and L2/3, encoded sequences at fast time scales (≤20 ms, mostly 5–10 ms), accurately reflecting single impulse kinematics. 17% of units, mostly in L5, showed weaker impulse responses and a slow firing rate increase during sequences. However, these units did not effectively integrate whisker impulses, but instead combined weak impulse responses with a distinct, slow signal correlated to behavioral choice. A neural decoder could identify sequences from fast unit spike trains and behavioral choice from slow units. Thus, S1 encoded fast time scale whisker input without substantial temporal integration across whisker impulses. PMID:27574970

  14. ESMO - Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale V.1.0 questions and answers

    PubMed Central

    Cherny, N I; Sullivan, R; Dafni, U; Kerst, J M; Sobrero, A; Zielinski, C; Piccart, M J; Bogaerts, J; Tabernero, J; Latino, N J; de Vries, E G E

    2016-01-01

    The ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS) is a standardised, generic, validated tool to stratify the magnitude of clinical benefit that can be anticipated from anticancer therapies. The ESMO-MCBS is intended to both assist oncologists in explaining the likely benefits of a particular treatment to their patients as well as to aid public health decision makers' prioritise therapies for reimbursement. From its inception the ESMO-MCBS Working Group has invited questions and critiques to promote understanding and to address misunderstandings regarding the nuanced use of the scale, and to identify shortcomings in the scale to be addressed in future planned revisions and updates. The ESMO-MCBS V.1.0 has attracted many questions regarding its development, structure and potential applications. These questions, together with responses from the ESMO-MCBS Working Group, have been edited and collated, and are herein presented as a supplementary resource. PMID:27900206

  15. Langley Full-Scale Tunnel Investigation of a 1/3-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XF5U-1 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Roy H.; Cocke, Bennie W., Jr.; Proterra, Anthony J.

    1946-01-01

    The results of an investigation of a 1/3-scale model of the Chance Vought XF5U-1 airplane in the Langley full-scale tunnel are presented in this report. The maximum lift and stalling characteristics of several model configurations, the longitudinal stability characteristics of the model, and the effectiveness of the control surfaces were determined with the propellers removed. The propulsive characteristics, the effect of propeller operation on the lift, and the static thrust of the model propellers were determined at several propeller-blade angles. The results with the propellers removed showed that the maximum lift coefficient of the complete model configuration was only 0.97 was compared with the value of 1.31 for the model configuration in which the engine-air ducts and canopy are removed. The model with the propellers removed (normal center-of-gravity position) has a positive static margin, stick fixed, varying from 5 to 13 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord throughout the unstalled range of lift coefficients. The unit horizontal tail is sufficiently powerful to trim the airplane with the propellers removed throughout the unstalled range of lift coefficients. The peak propulsive efficiencies for beta = 20 degrees and beta = 30 degrees were increased 7 percent at C(sub L) congruent to 0.67 and 20 percent at C(sub L) congruent to 0.74, respectively, with the propellers rotating upward in the center than with the propellers rotating downward in the center. Indications are that the minimum forward-flight speed of the airplane for full-power operation at sea level will be about 90 miles per hour. Decreasing the weight and increasing the power reduced this value of minimum speed and there were no indications from the results of a lower limit to the minimum speed.

  16. Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Volume 1; Overview, Results, and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. E.; Yu, J.

    1999-01-01

    Scale model fan rigs that simulate new generation ultra-high-bypass engines at about 1/5-scale are achieving increased importance as development vehicles for the design of low-noise aircraft engines. Testing at small scale allows the tests to be performed in existing anechoic wind tunnels, which provides an accurate simulation of the important effects of aircraft forward motion on the noise generation. The ability to design, build, and test miniaturized acoustic treatment panels on scale model fan rigs representative of the fullscale engine provides not only a cost-savings, but an opportunity to optimize the treatment by allowing tests of different designs. The primary objective of this study was to develop methods that will allow scale model fan rigs to be successfully used as acoustic treatment design tools. The study focuses on finding methods to extend the upper limit of the frequency range of impedance prediction models and acoustic impedance measurement methods for subscale treatment liner designs, and confirm the predictions by correlation with measured data. This phase of the program had as a goal doubling the upper limit of impedance measurement from 6 kHz to 12 kHz. The program utilizes combined analytical and experimental methods to achieve the objectives.

  17. Power scaling of high-efficiency 1.5 μm cascaded Raman fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Supradeepa, V R; Nicholson, Jeffrey W

    2013-07-15

    High-power fiber lasers operating at the 1.5 μm wavelength region have attractive features, such as eye safety and atmospheric transparency, and cascaded Raman fiber lasers offer a convenient method to obtain high-power sources at these wavelengths. A limitation to power scaling, however, has been the lower conversion efficiency of these lasers. We recently introduced a high-efficiency architecture for high-power cascaded Raman fiber lasers applicable for 1.5 μm fiber lasers. Here we demonstrate further power scaling using this new architecture. Using numerical simulations, we identify the ideal operating conditions for the new architecture. We demonstrate a high-efficiency 1480 nm cascaded Raman fiber laser with an output power of 301 W, comparable to record power levels achieved with rare-earth-doped fiber lasers in the 1.5 μm wavelength region.

  18. The environments of Ly α blobs - I. Wide-field Ly α imaging of TN J1338-1942, a powerful radio galaxy at z ≃ 4.1 associated with a giant Ly α nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Tomoki; Matsuda, Yuichi; Lacey, Cedric G.; Smail, Ian; Orsi, Alvaro; Baugh, Carlton M.; Inoue, Akio K.; Tanaka, Ichi; Yamada, Toru; Ohta, Kouji; De Breuck, Carlos; Kodama, Tadayuki; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    2015-03-01

    We exploit wide-field Ly α imaging with Subaru to probe the environment around TN J1338-1942, a powerful radio galaxy with a > 100 kpc Ly α halo at z = 4.11. We used a sample of Ly α emitters (LAEs) down to log (LLyα[ erg s-1]) ˜ 42.8 to measure the galaxy density around TN J1338-1942, compared to a control sample from a blank field taken with the same instrument. We found that TN J1338-1942 resides in a region with a peak overdensity of δLAE = 2.8 ± 0.5 on scales of 8 h- 1 Mpc (on the sky) and 112 h- 1 Mpc (line of sight) in comoving coordinates. Adjacent to this overdensity, we found a strong underdensity where virtually no LAEs are detected. We used a semi-analytical model of LAEs derived from the Millennium Simulation to compare our results with theoretical predictions. While the theoretical density distribution is consistent with the blank field, overdense regions such as that around TN J1338-1942 are very rare, with a number density of 6.4 × 10- 8 Mpc- 3 (comoving), corresponding to the densest <0.4 percentile at z ≃ 4.1. We also found that the Ly α luminosity function in the TN J1338-1942 field differs from that in the blank field: the number of bright LAEs (log (LLyα[ erg s- 1]) ≳ 43.3) is enhanced, while the number of fainter LAEs is relatively suppressed. These results suggest that some powerful radio galaxies associated with Ly α nebulae reside in extreme overdensities on ˜3-6 Mpc scales, where star formation and AGN activity may be enhanced via frequent galaxy mergers or high rates of gas accretion from the surroundings.

  19. Bench-scale development of mild gasification char desulfurization; [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.

    1994-03-01

    This goal of this project is to scale up a process, developed under a previous ICCI grant, for desulfurization of mild gasification char by treatment with hydrogen-rich process-derived fuel gas at 650{degree}--760{degree}C and 7-15 atm. The char can be converted into a low-sulfur metallurgical form coke. In the prior study, IBC-105 coal with 4.0 wt % sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt % sulfur in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The susceptibility of the char to desulfurization was correlated with physicochemical char properties and mild gasification conditions. Acid pretreatment of the coal prior to mild gasification was also shown to significantly enhance subsequent sulfur removal. In this study, IGT is conducting continuous bench-scale tests in a 1-lb/h fluidized-bed reactor to determine the preferred process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process design and scale-up. The desulfurized chars are to be used to produce low-sulfur form coke, which will be evaluated for density, reactivity, and strength properties relevant to utilization in blast furnaces. During the first quarter, 180 lb (82 kg) of IBC-105 coal was obtained and subjected to crushing, and sizing to prepare 49 lb (22 kg) of material for test operation.

  20. KILOPARSEC-SCALE JETS IN THREE RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Joseph L.; Lister, Matthew L.

    2015-02-10

    We have discovered kiloparsec-scale extended radio emission in three narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) in sub-arcsecond resolution 9 GHz images from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We find all sources show two-sided, mildly core-dominated jet structures with diffuse lobes dominated by termination hotspots. These span 20–70 kpc with morphologies reminiscent of FR II radio galaxies, while the extended radio luminosities are intermediate between FR I and FR II sources. In two cases the structure is linear, while a 45° bend is apparent in the third. Very Long Baseline Array images at 7.6 GHz reveal parsec-scale jet structures, in two cases with extended structure aligned with the inner regions of the kiloparsec-scale jets. Based on this alignment, the ratio of the radio core–luminosity to the optical luminosity, the jet/counter-jet intensity and extension length ratios, and moderate core brightness temperatures (≲10{sup 10} K), we conclude these jets are mildly relativistic (β≲0.3, δ∼11.5) and aligned at moderately small angles to the line of sight (10–15°). The derived kinematic ages of ∼10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} yr are much younger than radio galaxies but comparable to other NLS1s. Our results increase the number of radio-loud NLS1s with known kiloparsec-scale extensions from 7 to 10 and suggest that such extended emission may be common, at least among the brightest of these sources.

  1. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures at two loops

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Foreman, Simon; Green, Daniel; Senatore, Leonardo E-mail: sfore@stanford.edu E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu

    2014-07-01

    Large scale structure surveys promise to be the next leading probe of cosmological information. It is therefore crucial to reliably predict their observables. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a manifestly convergent perturbation theory for the weakly non-linear regime of dark matter, where correlation functions are computed in an expansion of the wavenumber k of a mode over the wavenumber associated with the non-linear scale k{sub NL}. Since most of the information is contained at high wavenumbers, it is necessary to compute higher order corrections to correlation functions. After the one-loop correction to the matter power spectrum, we estimate that the next leading one is the two-loop contribution, which we compute here. At this order in k/k{sub NL}, there is only one counterterm in the EFTofLSS that must be included, though this term contributes both at tree-level and in several one-loop diagrams. We also discuss correlation functions involving the velocity and momentum fields. We find that the EFTofLSS prediction at two loops matches to percent accuracy the non-linear matter power spectrum at redshift zero up to k∼ 0.6 h Mpc{sup −1}, requiring just one unknown coefficient that needs to be fit to observations. Given that Standard Perturbation Theory stops converging at redshift zero at k∼ 0.1 h Mpc{sup −1}, our results demonstrate the possibility of accessing a factor of order 200 more dark matter quasi-linear modes than naively expected. If the remaining observational challenges to accessing these modes can be addressed with similar success, our results show that there is tremendous potential for large scale structure surveys to explore the primordial universe.

  2. The three-point function as a probe of models for large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gaztanaga, Enrique

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the consequences of models of structure formation for higher order (n-point) galaxy correlation functions in the mildly nonlinear regime. Several variations of the standard Omega = 1 cold dark matter model with scale-invariant primordial perturbations have recently been introduced to obtain more power on large scales, R(sub p) is approximately 20/h Mpc, e.g., low matter-density (nonzero cosmological constant) models, 'tilted' primordial spectra, and scenarios with a mixture of cold and hot dark matter. They also include models with an effective scale-dependent bias, such as the cooperative galaxy formation scenario of Bower et al. We show that higher-order (n-point) galaxy correlation functions can provide a useful test of such models and can discriminate between models with true large-scale power in the density field and those where the galaxy power arises from scale-dependent bias: a bias with rapid scale dependence leads to a dramatic decrease of the the hierarchical amplitudes Q(sub J) at large scales, r is greater than or approximately R(sub p). Current observational constraints on the three-point amplitudes Q(sub 3) and S(sub 3) can place limits on the bias parameter(s) and appear to disfavor, but not yet rule out, the hypothesis that scale-dependent bias is responsible for the extra power observed on large scales.

  3. Does lower Omega allow a resolution of the large-scale structure problem?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph; Vittorio, Nicola

    1987-01-01

    The intermediate angular scale anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background, peculiar velocities, density correlations, and mass fluctuations for both neutrino and baryon-dominated universes with Omega less than one are evaluated. The large coherence length associated with a low-Omega, hot dark matter-dominated universe provides substantial density fluctuations on scales up to 100 Mpc: there is a range of acceptable models that are capable of producing large voids and superclusters of galaxies and the clustering of galaxy clusters, with Omega roughly 0.3, without violating any observational constraint. Low-Omega, cold dark matter-dominated cosmologies are also examined. All of these models may be reconciled with the inflationary requirement of a flat universe by introducing a cosmological constant 1-Omega.

  4. The effective field theory of cosmological large scale structures

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Hertzberg, Mark P.; Senatore, Leonardo

    2012-09-20

    Large scale structure surveys will likely become the next leading cosmological probe. In our universe, matter perturbations are large on short distances and small at long scales, i.e. strongly coupled in the UV and weakly coupled in the IR. To make precise analytical predictions on large scales, we develop an effective field theory formulated in terms of an IR effective fluid characterized by several parameters, such as speed of sound and viscosity. These parameters, determined by the UV physics described by the Boltzmann equation, are measured from N-body simulations. We find that the speed of sound of the effective fluid is c2s ≈ 10–6c2 and that the viscosity contributions are of the same order. The fluid describes all the relevant physics at long scales k and permits a manifestly convergent perturbative expansion in the size of the matter perturbations δ(k) for all the observables. As an example, we calculate the correction to the power spectrum at order δ(k)4. As a result, the predictions of the effective field theory are found to be in much better agreement with observation than standard cosmological perturbation theory, already reaching percent precision at this order up to a relatively short scale k ≃ 0.24h Mpc1.

  5. Scaled-up separation of cellobiohydrolase1 from a cellulase mixture by ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhuoliang; Lane, Andrew N; Willing, Gerold A; Berson, R Eric

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose often involves cellulases produced by Trichoderma reesei, of which cellobiohydrolase1 (CBH1) is the most abundant (about 60% of total cellulases) and plays an important role in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. A method for separating sufficient quantities from the bulk cellulase cocktail is highly desirable for many studies, such as those that aim to characterize binding and hydrolysis kinetics of CBH1. In this work, CBH1 was separated from other Spezyme CP cellulases by ion-exchange chromatography using an efficient modification of a smaller scale process. The ion-exchange column was connected to a vacuum manifold system to provide a steady flow through parallel columns and thus achieve scale-up for enzyme separation. With five 5-mL columns running in parallel, about 55 mg of CBH1 was separated from 145 mg of Spezyme CP in a single separation. Step elution was used to replace the continuous gradient used at smaller scale. The purified CBH1 was collected in the fraction eluted with a buffer containing 0.33 M salt and showed comparable purity and activity as the enzyme purified by a fast protein liquid chromatography system. The stability of separated CBH1 was studied for up to 2 days and good thermal stability was observed. Separated CBH1 also showed both high adsorption to bacterial microcrystalline cellulose with ~4 μmol/g maximum adsorption and a K(a) of 5.55 ± 2.34 μM(-1) , and good hydrolytic activity based on atomic force microscopy observations that show a reduction in fiber height.

  6. Wind tunnel test on a 1/4.622 Froude scale, hingeless rotor, tilt rotor model, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Alexander, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    Wing tunnel test data on a 1/4.622 Froude scale, hingeless rotor, tilt rotor mode are reported for all potential flight conditions through hover and a wide envelope of transitions. A mathematical model was used to describe the rotor system in real time simulation by means of regression analyses. Details of the model, test program and data system are provided together with four data files for hover and transition.

  7. Evolution of light domain walls interacting with dark matter, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massarotti, Alessandro

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of domain walls generated in the early Universe is discussed considering an interaction between the walls and a major gaseous component of the dark matter. The walls are supposed able to reflect the particles elastically and with a reflection coefficient of unity. A toy Lagrangian that could give rise to such a phenomenon is discussed. In the simple model studied, highly non-relativistic and slowly varying speeds are obtained for the domain walls (approximately 10 (exp -2)(1+z)(exp -1)) and negligible distortions of the microwave background. In addition, these topological defects may provide a mechanism of forming the large scale structure of the Universe, by creating fluctuations in the dark matter (delta rho/rho approximately O(1)) on a scale comparable with the distance the walls move from the formation (in the model d less than 20 h(exp -1) Mpc). The characteristic scale of the wall separation can be easily chosen to be of the order of 100 Mpc instead of being restricted to the horizon scale, as usually obtained.

  8. Uncertainties in modelling and scaling of critical flows and pump model in TRAC-PF1/MOD1

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Yu, Wen-Shi

    1987-01-01

    The USNRC has established a Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology to quantify the uncertainty in the prediction of safety parameters by the best estimate codes. These codes can then be applied to evaluate the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS). The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 version was selected as the first code to undergo the CSAU analysis for LBLOCA applications. It was established through this methodology that break flow and pump models are among the top ranked models in the code affecting the peak clad temperature (PCT) prediction for LBLOCA. The break flow model bias or discrepancy and the uncertainty were determined by modelling the test section near the break for 12 Marviken tests. It was observed that the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code consistently underpredicts the break flow rate and that the prediction improved with increasing pipe length (larger L/D). This is true for both subcooled and two-phase critical flows. A pump model was developed from Westinghouse (1/3 scale) data. The data represent the largest available test pump relevant to Westinghouse PWRs. It was then shown through the analysis of CE and CREARE pump data that larger pumps degrade less and also that pumps degrade less at higher pressures. Since the model developed here is based on the 1/3 scale pump and on low pressure data, it is conservative and will overpredict the degradation when applied to PWRs.

  9. Aeroelastic Tests of an Eight Percent Scale Saturn C-1 Block II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Aeroelastic Tests of an Eight Percent Scale Saturn C-1 Block II. Buffet and flutter characteristics of Saturn Apollo mission were studied using a dynamically scaled model. The model was built around a central aluminum tube for scaled stiffness distribution and strength to resist loads imposed during testing. Styrofoam sections attached to the core provided the correct external contours. Lead weights were added for correct mass distribution. An electromagnetic shaker was used to excite the model in its flexible modes of vibration during portions of the test. The model was supported on a sting, mounted by leaf springs, cables and torsion bars. The support system provided for simulating the full scale rigid body pitch frequency with minimum restraint imposed on elastic deflections. Bending moments recorded by sensors on the aluminum tube. Several modified nose configurations were tested: The basic configuration was tested with and without a flow separator disk on the escape rocket motor, tests also were made with the escape tower and rocket motor removed completely. For the final test, the Apollo capsule was replaced with a Jupiter nose cone. The test program consisted of determining model response throughout the transonic speed range at angles of attack up to 6 degrees and measuring the aerodynamic damping over the same range for the basic model and the modified configurations. Signals from the model pickup were recorded on tape for later analysis. The data obtained were used to estimate bending moments that would be produced on the full-scale vehicle by aerodynamic forces due to buffeting. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030987. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  10. Revision of the gas-phase acidity scale below 300 kcal mol(-1).

    PubMed

    Leito, Ivo; Raamat, Elin; Kütt, Agnes; Saame, Jaan; Kipper, Karin; Koppel, Ilmar A; Koppel, Ivar; Zhang, Min; Mishima, Masaaki; Yagupolskii, Lev M; Garlyauskayte, Romute Yu; Filatov, Andrey A

    2009-07-23

    The gas-phase acidity (GA) scale from (CF(3)CO)(2)NH to (C(2)F(5)SO(2))(2)NH--about a 24 kcal mol(-1) range of gas-phase acidities--was reexamined using the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance equilibrium measurement approach. Some additions and modifications to the standard methodology of GA measurements were introduced (estimation of partial pressures from mass spectra of the compounds, instead of the pressure gauge readings and use of long reaction times) to achieve higher reliability. Gas-phase acidities of 18 compounds were determined for the first time. The results reveal a contraction of the previously published values in this part of the scale. In particular, the GA values of (CF(3)SO(2))(2)NH and (C(2)F(5)SO(2))(2)NH (important components of lithium ion battery electrolytes and ionic liquids) were revised toward stronger acidities from 291.8 kcal mol(-1) to 286.5 kcal mol(-1) and from 289.4 kcal mol(-1) to 283.7 kcal mol(-1) (i.e., by 5.3 and 5.7 kcal mol(-1)), respectively. Experimental and computational evidence is presented in support of the current results.

  11. The effect of baryons on the variance and the skewness of the mass distribution in the Universe at small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet, T.; Teyssier, R.; Colombi, S.

    2010-06-01

    We study the dissipative effects of baryon physics on cosmic statistics at small scales using a cosmological simulation of a (50Mpch-1)3 volume of universe. The MareNostrum simulation was performed using the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code RAMSES, and includes most of the physical ingredients which are part of the current theory of galaxy formation, such as metal-dependent cooling and UV heating, subgrid modelling of the interstellar medium, star formation and supernova feedback. We reran the same initial conditions for a dark matter only universe, as a reference point for baryon-free cosmic statistics. In this paper, we present the measured small-scale amplification of σ2 and S3 due to baryonic physics and their interpretation in the framework of the halo model. As shown in recent studies, the effect of baryons on the matter power spectrum can be accounted for at scales k <~ 10hMpc-1 by modifying the halo concentration parameter. We propose to extend this result by using a composite halo profile, which is a linear combination of a Navarro, Frenk and White profile for the dark matter component and an exponential disc profile mimicking the baryonic component at the heart of the halo. This halo profile form is physically motivated and depends on two parameters, the mass fraction f d of baryons in the disc and the ratio λd of the disc's characteristic scale to the halo's virial radius. We find this composite profile to reproduce both the small-scale variance and skewness boosts measured in the simulation up to k ~ 102hMpc-1 for physically meaningful values of the parameters f d and λd. Although simulations like the one presented here usually suffer from various problems when compared to observations, our modified halo model could be used as a fitting model to improve the determination of cosmological parameters from weak lensing convergence spectra and skewness measurements.

  12. Validation to Portuguese of the Scale of Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning1

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Rodrigo Guimarães dos Santos; Mazzo, Alessandra; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Baptista, Rui Carlos Negrão; Girão, Fernanda Berchelli; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: translate and validate to Portuguese the Scale of Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning. Material and Methods: methodological translation and validation study of a research tool. After following all steps of the translation process, for the validation process, the event III Workshop Brazil - Portugal: Care Delivery to Critical Patients was created, promoted by one Brazilian and another Portuguese teaching institution. Results: 103 nurses participated. As to the validity and reliability of the scale, the correlation pattern between the variables, the sampling adequacy test (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) and the sphericity test (Bartlett) showed good results. In the exploratory factorial analysis (Varimax), item 9 behaved better in factor 1 (Satisfaction) than in factor 2 (Self-confidence in learning). The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) showed coefficients of 0.86 in factor 1 with six items and 0.77 for factor 2 with 07 items. Conclusion: in Portuguese this tool was called: Escala de Satisfação de Estudantes e Autoconfiança na Aprendizagem. The results found good psychometric properties and a good potential use. The sampling size and specificity are limitations of this study, but future studies will contribute to consolidate the validity of the scale and strengthen its potential use. PMID:26625990

  13. SCALE-4 Analysis of LaSalle Unit 1 BWR Commercial Reactor Critical Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I.C.

    2000-03-01

    Five commercial reactor criticals (CRCs) for the LaSalle Unit 1 boiling-water reactor have been analyzed using KENO V.a, the Monte Carlo criticality code of the SCALE 4 code system. The irradiated fuel assembly isotopics for the criticality analyses were provided by the Waste Package Design team at the Yucca Mountain Project in the US, who performed the depletion calculations using the SAS2H sequence of SCALE 4. The reactor critical measurements involved two beginning-of-cycle and three middle-of-cycle configurations. The CRCs involved relatively low-cycle burnups, and therefore contained a relatively high gadolinium poison content in the reactor assemblies. This report summarizes the data and methods used in analyzing the critical configurations and assesses the sensitivity of the results to some of the modeling approximations used to represent the gadolinium poison distribution within the assemblies. The KENO V.a calculations, performed using the SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 ENDF/B-V cross-section library, yield predicted k{sub eff} values within about 1% {Delta}k/k relative to reactor measurements for the five CRCs using general 8-pin and 9-pin heterogeneous gadolinium poison pin assembly models.

  14. SCALE-4 Analysis of LaSalle Unit 1 BWR Commercial Reactor Critical Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I.C.

    2000-03-16

    Five commercial reactor criticals (CRCs) for the LaSalle Unit 1 boiling-water reactor have been analyzed using KENO V.a, the Monte Carlo criticality code of the SCALE 4 code system. The irradiated fuel assembly isotopics for the criticality analyses were provided by the Waste Package Design team at the Yucca Mountain Project in the United States, who performed the depletion calculations using the SAS2H sequence of SCALE 4. The reactor critical measurements involved two beginning-of-cycle and three middle-of-cycle configurations. The CRCs involved relatively low-cycle burnups, and therefore contained a relatively high gadolinium poison content in the reactor assemblies. This report summarizes the data and methods used in analyzing the critical configurations and assesses the sensitivity of the results to some of the modeling approximations used to represent the gadolinium poison distribution within the assemblies. The KENO V.a calculations, performed using the SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 ENDF/B-V cross-section library, yield predicted k{sub eff} values within about 1% {Delta}k/k relative to reactor measurements for the five CRCs using general 8-pin and 9-pin heterogeneous gadolinium poison pin assembly models.

  15. Development of dynamic kinetic resolution on large scale for (±)-1-phenylethylamine.

    PubMed

    Thalén, Lisa K; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2010-09-13

    Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) and racemization catalyst 4 were combined in the dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of (±)-1-phenylethylamine (1). Several reaction parameters have been investigated to modify the method for application on multigram scale. A comparison of isopropyl acetate and alkyl methoxyacetates as acyl donors was carried out. It was found that lower catalyst loadings could be used to obtain (R)-2-methoxy-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide (3) in good yield and high ee when alkyl methoxyacetates were used as acyl donors compared to when isopropyl acetate was used as the acyl donor. The catalyst loading could be decreased to 1.25 mol % Ru-catalyst 4 and 10 mg CALB per mmol 1 when alkyl methoxyacetates were used as the acyl donor.

  16. Collection Efficiency and Ice Accretion Characteristics of Two Full Scale and One 1/4 Scale Business Jet Horizontal Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Papadakis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Collection efficiency and ice accretion calculations have been made for a series of business jet horizontal tail configurations using a three-dimensional panel code, an adaptive grid code, and the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion code. The horizontal tail models included two full scale wing tips and a 25 percent scale model. Flow solutions for the horizontal tails were generated using the PMARC panel code. Grids used in the ice accretion calculations were generated using the adaptive grid code ICEGRID. The LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion program was used to calculate impingement efficiency and ice shapes. Ice shapes typifying rime and mixed icing conditions were generated for a 30 minute hold condition. All calculations were performed on an SGI Octane computer. The results have been compared to experimental flow and impingement data. In general, the calculated flow and collection efficiencies compared well with experiment, and the ice shapes appeared representative of the rime and mixed icing conditions for which they were calculated.

  17. PRIMUS: One- and Two-halo Galactic Conformity at 0.2 < z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Angela M.; Coil, Alison L.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Bray, Aaron D.; Cool, Richard J.; Moustakas, John

    2017-01-01

    We test for galactic conformity at 0.2< z< 1.0 to a projected distance of 5 Mpc using spectroscopic redshifts from the PRism MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS). Our sample consists of ∼60,000 galaxies in five separate fields covering a total of ∼5.5 square degrees, which allows us to account for cosmic variance. We identify star-forming and quiescent “isolated primary” (i.e., central) galaxies using isolation criteria and cuts in specific star formation rate. We match the redshift and stellar mass distributions of these samples to control for correlations between quiescent fraction and redshift and stellar mass. We detect a significant (>3σ) one-halo conformity signal, or an excess of star-forming neighbors around star-forming central galaxies, of ∼5% on scales of 0–1 Mpc and a 2.5σ two-halo signal of ∼1% on scales of 1–3 Mpc. These signals are weaker than those detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and are consistent with galactic conformity being the result of large-scale tidal fields and reflecting assembly bias. We also measure the star-forming fraction of central galaxies at fixed stellar mass as a function of large-scale environment and find that central galaxies are more likely to be quenched in overdense environments, independent of stellar mass. However, we find that environment does not affect the star formation efficiency of central galaxies, as long as they are forming stars. We test for redshift and stellar mass dependence of the conformity signal within our sample and show that large volumes and multiple fields are required at intermediate redshift to adequately account for cosmic variance.

  18. Towards the 1 mm/y Stability of the Radial Orbit Error at Regional Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couhert, Alexandre; Cerri, Luca; Legeais, Jean-Francois; Ablain, Michael; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Haines, Bruce J.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Bertiger, William I.; Desai, Shailen D.; Otten, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    An estimated orbit error budget for the Jason-1 and Jason-2 GDR-D solutions is constructed, using several measures of orbit error. The focus is on the long-term stability of the orbit time series for mean sea level applications on a regional scale. We discuss various issues related to the assessment of radial orbit error trends; in particular this study reviews orbit errors dependent on the tracking technique, with an aim to monitoring the long-term stability of all available tracking systems operating on Jason-1 and Jason-2 (GPS, DORIS, SLR). The reference frame accuracy and its effect on Jason orbit is assessed. We also examine the impact of analysis method on the inference of Geographically Correlated Errors as well as the significance of estimated radial orbit error trends versus the time span of the analysis. Thus a long-term error budget of the 10-year Jason-1 and Envisat GDR-D orbit time series is provided for two time scales: interannual and decadal. As the temporal variations of the geopotential remain one of the primary limitations in the Precision Orbit Determination modeling, the overall accuracy of the Jason-1 and Jason-2 GDR-D solutions is evaluated through comparison with external orbits based on different time-variable gravity models. This contribution is limited to an East-West "order-1" pattern at the 2 mm/y level (secular) and 4 mm level (seasonal), over the Jason-2 lifetime. The possibility of achieving sub-mm/y radial orbit stability over interannual and decadal periods at regional scales and the challenge of evaluating such an improvement using in situ independent data is discussed.

  19. The multifrequency parsec-scale structure of PKS 2254-367 (IC 1459): a luminosity-dependent break in morphology for the precursors of radio galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, S. J.; Edwards, P. G.

    2015-03-01

    We present the first multifrequency very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) images of PKS 2254-367, a gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) radio source hosted by the nearby galaxy IC 1459 (D = 20.5 Mpc). PKS 2254-367 and the radio source in NGC 1052 (PKS 0238-084; D = 17.2 Mpc) are the two closest GPS radio sources to us, far closer than the next closest example, PKS 1718-649 (D = 59 Mpc). As such, IC 1459 and NGC 1052 offer opportunities to study the details of the parsec-scale radio sources as well as the environments that the radio sources inhabit, across the electromagnetic spectrum. Given that some models for the origin and evolution of GPS radio sources require a strong connection between the radio source morphology and the gaseous nuclear environment, such opportunities for detailed study are important. Our VLBI images of PKS 2254-367 show that the previously identified similarities between IC 1459 and NGC 1052 continue on to the parsec-scale. Both compact radio sources appear to have symmetric jets of approximately the same luminosity, much lower than typically noted in compact double GPS sources. Similarities between PKS 2254-367 and NGC 1052, and differences with respect to other GPS galaxies, lead us to speculate that a sub-class of GPS radio sources, with low luminosity and with jet-dominated morphologies, exists and would be largely absent from radio source surveys with ˜1 Jy flux density cut-offs. We suggest that this possible low-luminosity, jet-dominated population of GPS sources could be an analogue of the Fanaroff-Riley type I (FR I) radio galaxies, with the higher luminosity lobe-dominated GPS sources being the analogue of the FR II radio galaxies.

  20. 1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid.

  1. Voids in the Large-Scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ad, Hagai; Piran, Tsvi

    1997-12-01

    Voids are the most prominent feature of the large-scale structure of the universe. Still, their incorporation into quantitative analysis of it has been relatively recent, owing essentially to the lack of an objective tool to identify the voids and to quantify them. To overcome this, we present here the VOID FINDER algorithm, a novel tool for objectively quantifying voids in the galaxy distribution. The algorithm first classifies galaxies as either wall galaxies or field galaxies. Then, it identifies voids in the wall-galaxy distribution. Voids are defined as continuous volumes that do not contain any wall galaxies. The voids must be thicker than an adjustable limit, which is refined in successive iterations. In this way, we identify the same regions that would be recognized as voids by the eye. Small breaches in the walls are ignored, avoiding artificial connections between neighboring voids. We test the algorithm using Voronoi tesselations. By appropriate scaling of the parameters with the selection function, we apply it to two redshift surveys, the dense SSRS2 and the full-sky IRAS 1.2 Jy. Both surveys show similar properties: ~50% of the volume is filled by voids. The voids have a scale of at least 40 h-1 Mpc and an average -0.9 underdensity. Faint galaxies do not fill the voids, but they do populate them more than bright ones. These results suggest that both optically and IRAS-selected galaxies delineate the same large-scale structure. Comparison with the recovered mass distribution further suggests that the observed voids in the galaxy distribution correspond well to underdense regions in the mass distribution. This confirms the gravitational origin of the voids.

  2. Nanoprecipitation of polymeric nanoparticle micelles based on 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) with 2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DPA), for intracellular delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Salvage, Jonathan P; Thom, Christopher; Lewis, Andrew L; Phillips, Gary J; Lloyd, Andrew W

    2015-03-01

    Biodistribution of nanoparticle-based intracellular delivery systems is mediated primarily by particle size and physicochemical properties. As such, overcoming the rapid removal of these by the reticuloendothelial system remains a significant challenge. To date, a number of copolymer nanoparticle systems based on 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) with 2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DPA), displaying biomimetic and pH responsive properties, have been published, however these have been predominately polymersome based, whilst micelle systems have remained relatively unexplored. This study utilised nanoprecipitation to investigate the effects of solvent and buffer choice upon micelle size and polydispersity, and found using methanol produced monodisperse micelles of circa 70 nm diameter, whilst ethanol produced polydisperse systems with nanoparticles of circa 128 nm diameter. The choice of aqueous buffer, dialysis of the systems, extended storage, and exposure to a wide temperature range (5-70 °C) had no significant effect on micelle size, and the systems were highly resistant to dilution, indicating excellent colloidal stability. Optimisation of the nanoprecipitation process, post precipitation, was investigated, and model drugs successfully loaded whilst maintaining system stability. Subsequent in vitro studies suggested that the micelles were of negligible cellular toxicity, and an apparent cellular uptake was observed via confocal laser scanning microscopy. This paper presents the first report of an optimised nanoprecipitation methodology for the formation of MPC-DPA nanoparticle micelles, and in doing so achieved monodisperse systems with the size and physicochemical characteristics seen as desirable for long circulating therapeutic delivery vehicles.

  3. Design and test of 1/5th scale horizontal axis tidal current turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-wei; Zhou, Hong-bin; Lin, Yong-gang; Li, Wei; Gu, Hai-gang

    2016-06-01

    Tidal current energy is prominent and renewable. Great progress has been made in the exploitation technology of tidal current energy all over the world in recent years, and the large scale device has become the trend of tidal current turbine (TCT) for its economies. Instead of the similarity to the wind turbine, the tidal turbine has the characteristics of high hydrodynamic efficiency, big thrust, reliable sealing system, tight power transmission structure, etc. In this paper, a 1/5th scale horizontal axis tidal current turbine has been designed, manufactured and tested before the full scale device design. Firstly, the three-blade horizontal axis rotor was designed based on traditional blade element momentum theory and its hydrodynamic performance was predicted in numerical model. Then the power train system and stand-alone electrical control unit of tidal current turbine, whose performances were accessed through the bench test carried out in workshop, were designed and presented. Finally, offshore tests were carried out and the power performance of the rotor was obtained and compared with the published literatures, and the results showed that the power coefficient was satisfactory, which agrees with the theoretical predictions.

  4. Results of Overpressurization Test of a 1:4-Scale Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hessheimer, Michael F.; Shibata, Satoru; Costello, James F.

    2002-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have been co-sponsoring and jointly funding a Cooperative Containment Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories. The purpose of the program is to investigate the response of representative models of nuclear containment structures to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions with measured behavior. This is accomplished by conducting static, pneumatic overpressurization tests of scale models at ambient temperature. The first project in this program was a test of a mixed scale steel containment vessel (SCV). Next, a 1:4-scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV), representative of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in Japan, was constructed by NUPEC at Sandia National Laboratories from January 1997 through June, 2000. Concurrently, Sandia instrumented the model with over 1500 transducers to measure strain, displacement and forces in the model from prestressing through the pressure testing. The limit state test of the PCCV model was conducted in September, 2000 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the conduct and some of the results of this test. (authors)

  5. Investigating Tiltrotor Formation Flight via 1/48-Scale Wind Tunnel Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romander, Ethan; Betzina, Mark; Silva, Mark; Wadcock, Alan; Yamauchi, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes two small-scale wind tunnel tests conducted in the Army 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. These tests featured two 1/48-scale V-22 models that were operated in a variety of simulated flight conditions including climb, descent, and level flight at various flight speeds and spatial separations. Forces and moments experienced by the trail aircraft were used to deduce the influence of the lead aircraft on the trail aircraft. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data were collected to relate these forces and moments to features in the lead aircraft wake. In general, the roll moment on the trail aircraft is shown to be maximum when the aircraft are laterally offset by a full wingspan and the trail aircraft is vertically positioned so as to be in the wake of the lead aircraft. Furthermore, the roll moment is maximal when operating near 50 knots full-scale flight speed. Because the interaction persists far downstream and the vertical position of the wake is dependent on descent angle and flight speed, lateral separation has been determined to be the best means of avoiding adverse interactions between aircraft.

  6. Investigating Tiltrotor Formation Flight Via 1/48-Scale Wind Tunnel Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romander, Ethan; Betzina, Mark; Silva, Mark; Wadcock, Alan; Yamauchi, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes two small-scale wind tunnel tests conducted in the Army 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. These tests featured two 1/48-scale V-22 models that were operated in a variety of simulated flight conditions including climb, descent, and level flight at various flight speeds and spatial separations. Forces and moments experienced by the trail aircraft were used to deduce the influence of the lead aircraft on the trail aircraft. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data were collected to relate these forces and moments to features in the lead aircraft wake. In general, the roll moment on the trail aircraft is shown to be maximum when the aircraft are laterally offset by a full wingspan and the trail aircraft is vertically positioned so as to be in the wake of the lead aircraft. Furthermore, the roll moment is maximal when operating near 50 knots full-scale flight speed. Because the interaction persists far downstream and the vertical position of the wake is dependent on descent angle and flight speed, lateral separation has been determined to be the best means of avoiding adverse interactions between aircraft.

  7. Analysis and test for space shuttle propellant dynamics (1/10th scale model test results). Volume 1: Technical discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, R. L.; Tegart, J. R.; Demchak, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Space shuttle propellant dynamics during ET/Orbiter separation in the RTLS (return to launch site) mission abort sequence were investigated in a test program conducted in the NASA KC-135 "Zero G" aircraft using a 1/10th-scale model of the ET LOX Tank. Low-g parabolas were flown from which thirty tests were selected for evaluation. Data on the nature of low-g propellant reorientation in the ET LOX tank, and measurements of the forces exerted on the tank by the moving propellent will provide a basis for correlation with an analytical model of the slosh phenomenon.

  8. Advances in Sensitivity Analysis Capabilities with SCALE 6.0 and 6.1

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T; Petrie Jr, Lester M; Williams, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis sequences of SCALE compute the sensitivity of k{sub eff} to each constituent multigroup cross section using perturbation theory based on forward and adjoint transport computations with several available codes. Versions 6.0 and 6.1 of SCALE, released in 2009 and 2010, respectively, include important additions to the TSUNAMI-3D sequence, which computes forward and adjoint solutions in multigroup with the KENO Monte Carlo codes. Previously, sensitivity calculations were performed with the simple and efficient geometry capabilities of KENO V.a, but now calculations can also be performed with the generalized geometry code KENO-VI. TSUNAMI-3D requires spatial refinement of the angular flux moment solutions for the forward and adjoint calculations. These refinements are most efficiently achieved with the use of a mesh accumulator. For SCALE 6.0, a more flexible mesh accumulator capability has been added to the KENO codes, enabling varying granularity of the spatial refinement to optimize the calculation for different regions of the system model. The new mesh capabilities allow the efficient calculation of larger models than were previously possible. Additional improvements in the TSUNAMI calculations were realized in the computation of implicit effects of resonance self-shielding on the final sensitivity coefficients. Multigroup resonance self-shielded cross sections are accurately computed with SCALE's robust deterministic continuous-energy treatment for the resolved and thermal energy range and with Bondarenko shielding factors elsewhere, including the unresolved resonance range. However, the sensitivities of the self-shielded cross sections to the parameters input to the calculation are quantified using only full-range Bondarenko factors.

  9. 1/f and the Earthquake Problem: Scaling constraints to facilitate operational earthquake forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, M. R.; Rundle, J. B.; Glasscoe, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    The difficulty of forecasting earthquakes can fundamentally be attributed to the self-similar, or '1/f', nature of seismic sequences. Specifically, the rate of occurrence of earthquakes is inversely proportional to their magnitude m, or more accurately to their scalar moment M. With respect to this '1/f problem,' it can be argued that catalog selection (or equivalently, determining catalog constraints) constitutes the most significant challenge to seismicity based earthquake forecasting. Here, we address and introduce a potential solution to this most daunting problem. Specifically, we introduce a framework to constrain, or partition, an earthquake catalog (a study region) in order to resolve local seismicity. In particular, we combine Gutenberg-Richter (GR), rupture length, and Omori scaling with various empirical measurements to relate the size (spatial and temporal extents) of a study area (or bins within a study area), in combination with a metric to quantify rate trends in local seismicity, to the local earthquake magnitude potential - the magnitudes of earthquakes the region is expected to experience. From this, we introduce a new type of time dependent hazard map for which the tuning parameter space is nearly fully constrained. In a similar fashion, by combining various scaling relations and also by incorporating finite extents (rupture length, area, and duration) as constraints, we develop a method to estimate the Omori (temporal) and spatial aftershock decay parameters as a function of the parent earthquake's magnitude m. From this formulation, we develop an ETAS type model that overcomes many point-source limitations of contemporary ETAS. These models demonstrate promise with respect to earthquake forecasting applications. Moreover, the methods employed suggest a general framework whereby earthquake and other complex-system, 1/f type, problems can be constrained from scaling relations and finite extents.

  10. A Sensitive VLA Search for Small-Scale Glycine Emission Toward OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Snyder, L. E.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Palmer, Patrick; Liu, S.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    We have conducted a deep Q-band (lambda-7 mm) search with the Very Large Array (VLA) toward OMC-1 for the lowest energy conformation (conformer I) of glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in four rotational transitions: the 6(sub 15)- 5(sub 14), 6(sub 24)-5(sub 23), 7(sub 17- 6(sub 16), and 7(sub 07)-6(sub 06). Our VLA observations sample the smallest-scale structures to date in the search for glycine toward OMC-1. No glycine emission features were detected. Thus if glycine exists in OMC-1, either it is below our detection limit, or it is more spatially extended than other large molecules in this source, or it is primarily in its high energy form (conformer II). Our VLA glycine fractional abundance limits in OMC-1 are comparable to those determined from previous IRAM 30m measurements -- somewhat better or worse depending on the specific source model -- and the entire approximately 1 foot primary beam of the VLA was searched while sensitive to an areal spatial scale approximately 150 times smaller than the 24 inch beam of the IRAM single-element telescope. In the course of this work, we detected and imaged the 4(sub 14)-3(sub 13) A and E transitions of methyl formate (HCOOCH3) and also the 2(sub 02) - 1(sub 01) transition of formic acid (HCOOH). Since formic acid is a possible precursor to glycine, our glycine limits and formic acid results provide a constraint on this potential formation chemistry route for glycine in OMC-1.

  11. Scaling Approach to Anomalous Surface Roughening of the (d+1)-DIMENSIONAL Molecular-Beam Epitaxy Growth Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hui; Tang, Gang; Han, Kui; Hao, Da-Peng; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Lei-Ming

    To determine anomalous dynamic scaling of continuum growth equations, López12 proposed an analytical approach, which is based on the scaling analysis introduced by Hentschel and Family.15 In this work, we generalize this scaling analysis to the (d+1)-dimensional molecular-beam epitaxy equations to determine their anomalous dynamic scaling. The growth equations studied here include the linear molecular-beam epitaxy (LMBE) and Lai-Das Sarma-Villain (LDV). We find that both the LMBE and LDV equations, when the substrate dimension d>2, correspond to a standard Family-Vicsek scaling, however, when d<2, exhibit anomalous dynamic roughening of the local fluctuations of the growth height. When the growth equations exhibit anomalous dynamic scaling, we obtain the local roughness exponents by using scaling relation αloc=α-zκ, which are consistent with the corresponding numerical results.

  12. iAK692: A genome-scale metabolic model of Spirulina platensis C1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis is a well-known filamentous cyanobacterium used in the production of many industrial products, including high value compounds, healthy food supplements, animal feeds, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, for example. It has been increasingly studied around the world for scientific purposes, especially for its genome, biology, physiology, and also for the analysis of its small-scale metabolic network. However, the overall description of the metabolic and biotechnological capabilities of S. platensis requires the development of a whole cellular metabolism model. Recently, the S. platensis C1 (Arthrospira sp. PCC9438) genome sequence has become available, allowing systems-level studies of this commercial cyanobacterium. Results In this work, we present the genome-scale metabolic network analysis of S. platensis C1, iAK692, its topological properties, and its metabolic capabilities and functions. The network was reconstructed from the S. platensis C1 annotated genomic sequence using Pathway Tools software to generate a preliminary network. Then, manual curation was performed based on a collective knowledge base and a combination of genomic, biochemical, and physiological information. The genome-scale metabolic model consists of 692 genes, 837 metabolites, and 875 reactions. We validated iAK692 by conducting fermentation experiments and simulating the model under autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic growth conditions using COBRA toolbox. The model predictions under these growth conditions were consistent with the experimental results. The iAK692 model was further used to predict the unique active reactions and essential genes for each growth condition. Additionally, the metabolic states of iAK692 during autotrophic and mixotrophic growths were described by phenotypic phase plane (PhPP) analysis. Conclusions This study proposes the first genome-scale model of S. platensis C1, iAK692, which is a predictive metabolic platform

  13. Experimental blade vortex interaction noise characteristics of a utility helicopter at 1/4 scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. A.; Hoad, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Models of both the advanced main rotor system and the standard or "baseline" UH-1 main rotor system were tested at one-quarter scale in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter (V/STOL) Tunnel using the general rotor model system. Tests were conducted over a range of descent angles which bracketed the blade-vortex interaction phenomenon for a range of simulated forward speeds. The tunnel was operated in the open-throat configuration with acoustic treatment to improve the semi-anechoic characteristics of the test chamber. Acoustical data obtained for these two rotor systems operating at similar flight conditions are presented without analysis or discussion.

  14. Plant-Scale Concentration Column Designs for SHINE Target Solution Utilizing AG 1 Anion Exchange Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Stepinski, Dominique C.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    2015-09-30

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) in their efforts to develop SHINE, an accelerator-driven process that will utilize a uranyl-sulfate solution for the production of fission product Mo-99. An integral part of the process is the development of a column for the separation and recovery of Mo-99, followed by a concentration column to reduce the product volume from 15-25 L to <1 L. Argonne has collected data from batch studies and breakthrough column experiments to utilize the VERSE (Versatile Reaction Separation) simulation program (Purdue University) to design plant-scale product recovery and concentration processes.

  15. 1:500 Scale Aerial Triangulation Test with Unmanned Airship in Hubei Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feifei, Xie; Zongjian, Lin; Dezhu, Gui

    2014-03-01

    A new UAVS (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System) for low altitude aerial photogrammetry is introduced for fine surveying and mapping, including the platform airship, sensor system four-combined wide-angle camera and photogrammetry software MAP-AT. It is demonstrated that this low-altitude aerial photogrammetric system meets the precision requirements of 1:500 scale aerial triangulation based on the test of this system in Hubei province, including the working condition of the airship, the quality of image data and the data processing report. This work provides a possibility for fine surveying and mapping.

  16. 1/12-scale physical modeling experiments in support of tank 241-SY- 101 hydrogen mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, J.A.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Enderlin, C.W.; Elmore, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Hanford tank 241-SY-101 is a 75-ft-dia double-shell tank that contains approximately 1.1 M gal of radioactive fuel reprocessing waste. Core samples have shown that the tank contents are separated into two main layers, a article laden supernatant liquid at the top of the tank and a more dense slurry on the bottom. Two additional layers may be present, one being a potentially thick sludge lying beneath the slurry at the bottom of the tank and the other being the crust that has formed on the surface of the supernatant liquid. The supernatant is more commonly referred to as the convective layer and the slurry as the non-convective layer. Accumulation of gas (partly hydrogen) in the non-convective layer is suspected to be the key mechanism behind the gas burp phenomena, and several mitigation schemes are being developed to encourage a more uniform gas release rate (Benegas 1992). To support the full-scale hydraulic mitigation test, scaled experiments were performed to satisfy two objectives: 1. provide an experimental database for numerical- model validation; 2. establish operating parameter values required to mobilize the settled solids and maintain the solids in suspension.

  17. 1D Scaling with Ablation for K-Shell Radiation from Stainless Steel Wire Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J.; Clark, R. W.; Jones, B.; Cuneo, M.; Coverdale, C. A.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    A 1D Lagrangian magnetohydrodynamic z-pinch simulation code is extended to include wire ablation. The plasma transport coefficients are calibrated to reproduce the K-shell yields measured on the Z generator for three stainless steel arrays of diameter 55 mm and masses ranging from 1.8 to 2.7 mg. The resulting 1D scaling model is applied to a larger SS array (65 mm and 2.5 mg) on the refurbished Z machine. Simulation results predict a maximum K-shell yield of 77 kJ for an 82 kV charging voltage. This maximum drops to 42 kJ at 75 kV charging. Neglecting the ablation precursor leads to a {approx}10% change in the calculated yield.

  18. Scaling law characterizing the dynamics of the transition of HIV-1 to error catastrophe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vipul; Dixit, Narendra M.

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the mutation rate, μ , of viruses above a threshold, {μ }c, has been predicted to trigger a catastrophic loss of viral genetic information and is being explored as a novel intervention strategy. Here, we examine the dynamics of this transition using stochastic simulations mimicking within-host HIV-1 evolution. We find a scaling law governing the characteristic time of the transition: τ ≈ 0.6/≤ft(μ -{μ }c\\right). The law is robust to variations in underlying evolutionary forces and presents guidelines for treatment of HIV-1 infection with mutagens. We estimate that many years of treatment would be required before HIV-1 can suffer an error catastrophe.

  19. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Krznar, Petra; Hörl, Manuel; Ammar, Zeinab; Montessuit, Sylvie; Pierredon, Sandra; Zamboni, Nicola; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic profiles, and both defects could be restored by reexpression of MPC1. Labeling experiments using 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine demonstrated that MPC deficiency causes increased glutaminolysis and reduced contribution of glucose-derived pyruvate to the TCA cycle. Morphological defects were observed in mutant embryonic brains, together with major alterations of their metabolome including lactic acidosis, diminished TCA cycle intermediates, energy deficit and a perturbed balance of neurotransmitters. Strikingly, these changes were reversed when the pregnant dams were fed a ketogenic diet, which provides acetyl-CoA directly to the TCA cycle and bypasses the need for a functional MPC. This allowed the normal gestation and development of MPC deficient pups, even though they all died within a few minutes post-delivery. This study establishes the MPC as a key player in regulating the metabolic state necessary for embryonic development, neurotransmitter balance and post-natal survival. PMID:27176894

  20. Activity-dependent synaptic GRIP1 accumulation drives synaptic scaling up in response to action potential blockade.

    PubMed

    Gainey, Melanie A; Tatavarty, Vedakumar; Nahmani, Marc; Lin, Heather; Turrigiano, Gina G

    2015-07-07

    Synaptic scaling is a form of homeostatic plasticity that stabilizes neuronal firing in response to changes in synapse number and strength. Scaling up in response to action-potential blockade is accomplished through increased synaptic accumulation of GluA2-containing AMPA receptors (AMPAR), but the receptor trafficking steps that drive this process remain largely obscure. Here, we show that the AMPAR-binding protein glutamate receptor-interacting protein-1 (GRIP1) is essential for regulated synaptic AMPAR accumulation during scaling up. Synaptic abundance of GRIP1 was enhanced by activity deprivation, directly increasing synaptic GRIP1 abundance through overexpression increased the amplitude of AMPA miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), and shRNA-mediated GRIP1 knockdown prevented scaling up of AMPA mEPSCs. Furthermore, knockdown and replace experiments targeting either GRIP1 or GluA2 revealed that scaling up requires the interaction between GRIP1 and GluA2. Finally, GRIP1 synaptic accumulation during scaling up did not require GluA2 binding. Taken together, our data support a model in which activity-dependent trafficking of GRIP1 to synaptic sites drives the forward trafficking and enhanced synaptic accumulation of GluA2-containing AMPAR during synaptic scaling up.

  1. Dynamic Model Investigation of a 1/20 Scale Gemini Spacecraft in the Langley Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Dynamic Model Investigation of a 1/20 Scale Gemini Spacecraft in the Langley Spin Tunnel. The investigation was conducted in the Langley spin tunnel. The tunnel is an atmospheric wind tunnel with a vertically rising airstream in the test section and a maximum airspeed of approximately 90 feet per second. For this investigation, the model was hand launched into the vertically rising airstream. At times the model, both with and without a drogue parachute, was launched gently with as little disturbance as possible to determine what motions of the spacecraft were self-excited. At other times, the spacecraft with pre-deployed drogue parachute was launched into various spinning motions to determine the effectiveness of the drogue parachute in terminating these spinning motions. During drogue-parachute deployment tests, the spacecraft was launched into various spinning and tumbling motions and the drogue parachute was deployed. The motions of the model were photographed with a motion-picture camera, and some of the film records were read to obtain typical time histories of the model motion. The angles of attack indicated in the time histories presented are believed to be accurate within +/-1 degree. The mass and dimensional characteristics of the dynamic model are believed to be measured to an accuracy of: +/-1 percent for the weight, +/-1 percent for z(sub cg)/d, +/-15 percent for x (sub cg), and +/-5 percent for the moments of inertia. The towline and bridle-line lengths were simulated to an accuracy of +/-1 foot full scale. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030985. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  2. Production and isolation of azaspiracid-1 and -2 from Azadinium spinosum culture in pilot scale photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Jauffrais, Thierry; Kilcoyne, Jane; Séchet, Véronique; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Hervé, Fabienne; Bérard, Jean Baptiste; Nulty, Cíara; Taylor, Sarah; Tillmann, Urban; Miles, Christopher O; Hess, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    Azaspiracid (AZA) poisoning has been reported following consumption of contaminated shellfish, and is of human health concern. Hence, it is important to have sustainable amounts of the causative toxins available for toxicological studies and for instrument calibration in monitoring programs, without having to rely on natural toxin events. Continuous pilot scale culturing was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of AZA production using Azadinium spinosum cultures. Algae were harvested using tangential flow filtration or continuous centrifugation. AZAs were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, and subsequently purified. When coupling two stirred photobioreactors in series, cell concentrations reached 190,000 and 210,000 cell · mL(-1) at steady state in bioreactors 1 and 2, respectively. The AZA cell quota decreased as the dilution rate increased from 0.15 to 0.3 day(-1), with optimum toxin production at 0.25 day(-1). After optimization, SPE procedures allowed for the recovery of 79 ± 9% of AZAs. The preparative isolation procedure previously developed for shellfish was optimized for algal extracts, such that only four steps were necessary to obtain purified AZA1 and -2. A purification efficiency of more than 70% was achieved, and isolation from 1200 L of culture yielded 9.3 mg of AZA1 and 2.2 mg of AZA2 of >95% purity. This work demonstrated the feasibility of sustainably producing AZA1 and -2 from A. spinosum cultures.

  3. Local Scale Radiobrightness Modelling during Intensive Observing Period-4 of the Cold Land Processes Experiment-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Tedesco, Marco; deRoo, Roger; England, Anthony W.; Gu, Haoyu; Pham, Hanh; Boprie, David; Graf, Tobias; Koike, Toshio; Armstrong, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX-1) was designed to provide microwave remote sensing observations and ground truth for studies of snow and frozen ground remote sensing, particularly issues related to scaling. CLPX-1 was conducted in the spring of 2003 in Colorado, USA. Initial forward model validation work is concentrating on the Local-Scale Observation Site (LSOS), a 0.8 ha study site consisting of open meadows separated by trees where the most detailed measurements were made of snow depth and temperature, density, and grain size profiles. This paper will focus on the ability of forward Dense Medium Radiative Transfer (DMRT) modelling, combined with snowpack measurements to reproduce the radiobrightness signatures observed by the University of Michigan s Truck-Mounted Radiometer System at 19 and 37 GHz during the 4th Intensive Observing Period (IOP4) in March, 2003. Unlike the earlier IOP3, conditions during IOP4 include both wet and dry periods, providing a valuable test of DMRT model performance. Observations of upwelling and downwelling tree radiobrightness will be used to formulate a simple model for the effect of trees within the field of view. In addition, a comparison will be made for the one day of coincident observations by the University of Tokyo s Ground- Based Microwave Radiometer-7 (GBMR-7). These analyses will help guide the choice of future snow retrieval algorithms and the design of future Cold Lands observing systems.

  4. A Froude-scaled model of a bedrock-alluvial channel reach: 1. Hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Rebecca A.; Hoey, Trevor B.

    2016-09-01

    The controls on hydraulics in bedrock-alluvial rivers are relatively poorly understood, despite the importance of the flow in determining rates and patterns of sediment transport and consequent erosion. To measure hydraulics within a bedrock-alluvial channel, we developed a 1:10 Froude-scaled laboratory model of an 18 × 9 m bedrock-alluvial river reach using terrestrial laser scanning and 3-D printing. In the reported experiments, water depth and velocity were recorded at 18 locations within the channel at each of five different discharges. Additional data from runs with sediment cover in the flume were used to evaluate the hydraulic impact of sediment cover; the deposition and erosion of sediment patches in these runs are analyzed in the companion paper. In our data (1) spatial variation in both flow velocity and Froude number increases with discharge; (2) bulk flow resistance and Froude number become independent of discharge at higher discharges; (3) local flow velocity and Reynolds stress are correlated to the range of local bed topography at some, but not most, discharges; (4) at lower discharges, local topography induces vertical flow structures and slower velocities, but these effects decrease at higher discharges; and (5) there is a relationship between the linear combination of bed and sediment roughness and local flow velocity. These results demonstrate the control that bedrock topography exerts over both local and reach-scale flow conditions, but spatially distributed hydraulic data from bedrock-alluvial channels with different topographies are needed to generalize these findings.

  5. Analysis of fuelling requirements in ITER H-modes with SOLPS-EPED1 derived scalings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polevoi, A. R.; Loarte, A.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Pacher, H. D.; Pacher, G. W.; Köchl, F.

    2017-02-01

    Fuelling requirements for ITER are analysed in relation to pellet fuelling and ELM pacing, and a divertor power load control consistent with the ITER pumping and fuel throughput capabilities. The plasma parameters at the separatrix and the particle sources are derived from scalings based on SOLPS simulations. Effective transport coefficients in the H-mode pedestal are derived from EPED1 + SOLPS scalings for the pedestal height and width. 1.5D transport is simulated in the ASTRA framework. The operating window for ITER DT plasmas with the required fusion performance and level of ELM, and divertor power load control compatible with ITER fuelling and pumping capabilities, is determined. It is shown that the flexibility of the ITER fuelling systems, comprising pellet and gas injection systems, enables operation with Q  =  10, which was found to be marginal in previous studies following a similar approach but with different assumptions. The present assessment shows that a reduction of < {{n}e}> by a factor ~2 (from 9 to 5  ×  1019 m-3) in 15 MA H-mode plasmas leads to a reduction in the required pellet fuelling rate by a factor of four. Results of the analysis of the fuelling requirements for a range of ITER scenarios are found to be similar to those obtained with the JINTRAC code that included 2D modelling of the edge plasma.

  6. Criticality Safety Validation of SCALE 6.1 with ENDF/B-VII.0 Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Rearden, Bradley T

    2012-01-01

    ANSI/ANS-8.1-1998;2007, Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Material Outside Reactors, and ANSI/ANS-8.24-2007, Validation of Neutron Transport Methods for Nuclear Criticality Safety Calculations, require validation of a computer code and the associated data through benchmark evaluations based on physical experiments. The performance of the code and data are validated by comparing the calculated and the benchmark results. A SCALE procedure has been established to generate a Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data (VALID). This procedure provides a framework for preparing, peer reviewing, and controlling models and data sets derived from benchmark definitions so that the models and data can be used with confidence. The procedure ensures that the models and data were correctly generated using appropriate references with documented checks and reviews. Configuration management is implemented to prevent inadvertent modification of the models and data or inclusion of models that have not been subjected to the rigorous review process. VALID entries for criticality safety are based on critical experiments documented in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (IHECSBE). The findings of a criticality safety validation of SCALE 6.1 utilizing the benchmark models vetted in the VALID library at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are summarized here.

  7. The discriminative capacity of CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales to identify disruptive and internalizing disorders in preschool children.

    PubMed

    de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Trepat, Esther; Domenech, Josep Maria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the discriminative capacity of CBCL/1½-5 (Manual for the ASEBA Preschool-Age Forms & Profiles, University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families, Burlington, 2000) DSM5 scales attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety and depressive problems for detecting the presence of DSM5 (DSM5 diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, APA, Arlington, 2013) disorders, ADHD, ODD, Anxiety and Mood disorders, assessed through diagnostic interview, in children aged 3-5. Additionally, we compare the clinical utility of the CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales with respect to analogous CBCL/1½-5 syndrome scales. A large community sample of 616 preschool children was longitudinally assessed for the stated age group. Statistical analysis was based on ROC procedures and binary logistic regressions. ADHD and ODD CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales achieved good discriminative ability to identify ADHD and ODD interview's diagnoses, at any age. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 Anxiety scale discriminative capacity was fair for unspecific anxiety disorders in all age groups. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 depressive problems' scale showed the poorest discriminative capacity for mood disorders (including depressive episode with insufficient symptoms), oscillating into the poor-to-fair range. As a whole, DSM5-oriented scales generally did not provide evidence better for discriminative capacity than syndrome scales in identifying DSM5 diagnoses. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales discriminate externalizing disorders better than internalizing disorders for ages 3-5. Scores on the ADHD and ODD CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales can be used to screen for DSM5 ADHD and ODD disorders in general populations of preschool children.

  8. Scale-up of anaerobic 1,3-propanediol production by Clostridium butyricum DSP1 from crude glycerol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As the production of biofuels from raw materials continuously increases, optimization of production processes is necessary. A very important issue is the development of wasteless methods of biodiesel production. One way of utilization of glycerol generated in biodiesel production is its microbial conversion to 1,3-PD (1,3-propanediol). Results The study investigated the scale-up of 1,3-PD synthesis from crude glycerol by Clostridium butyricum. Batch fermentations were carried out in 6.6 L, 42 L and 150 L bioreactors. It was observed that cultivation of C. butyricum on a pilot scale did not decrease the efficiency of 1,3-PD production. The highest concentrations of 1,3-PD, 37 g/L for batch fermentation and 71 g/L for fed-batch fermentation, were obtained in the 6.6 L bioreactor. The kinetic parameters of 1,3-PD synthesis from crude glycerol established for batch fermentation were similar regarding all three bioreactor capacities. During fed-batch fermentation, the concentration of 1,3-PD in the 150 L bioreactor was lower and the substrate was not completely utilized. That suggested the presence of multifunctional environmental stresses in the 150 L bioreactor, which was confirmed by protein analysis. Conclusion The values of effectivity parameters for 1,3-PD synthesis in batch fermentations carried out in 6.6 L, 42 L and 150 L bioreactors were similar. The parameters obtained during fed-batch fermentations in the 150 L bioreactor differed in the rate and percentage of substrate utilization. The analysis of cell proteins demonstrated that a number of multifunctional stresses occurred during fed-batch fermentations in the 150 L bioreactor, which suggests the possibility of identifying the key stages in the biochemical process where inhibition of 1,3-PD synthesis pathways can be observed. PMID:24555775

  9. Improving the modelling of redshift-space distortions- II. A pairwise velocity model covering large and small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Davide; Percival, Will J.; Bel, Julien

    2016-12-01

    We develop a model for the redshift-space correlation function, valid for both dark matter particles and haloes on scales >5 h-1 Mpc. In its simplest formulation, the model requires the knowledge of the first three moments of the line-of-sight pairwise velocity distribution plus two well-defined dimensionless parameters. The model is obtained by extending the Gaussian-Gaussianity prescription for the velocity distribution, developed in a previous paper, to a more general concept allowing for local skewness, which is required to match simulations. We compare the model with the well-known Gaussian streaming model and the more recent Edgeworth streaming model. Using N-body simulations as a reference, we show that our model gives a precise description of the redshift-space clustering over a wider range of scales. We do not discuss the theoretical prescription for the evaluation of the velocity moments, leaving this topic to further investigation.

  10. Late time cosmological phase transitions 1: Particle physics models and cosmic evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Hill, Christopher T.; Watkins, Richard

    1991-01-01

    We described a natural particle physics basis for late-time phase transitions in the universe. Such a transition can seed the formation of large-scale structure while leaving a minimal imprint upon the microwave background anisotropy. The key ingredient is an ultra-light pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson with an astronomically large (O(kpc-Mpc)) Compton wavelength. We analyze the cosmological signatures of and constraints upon a wide class of scenarios which do not involve domain walls. In addition to seeding structure, coherent ultra-light bosons may also provide unclustered dark matter in a spatially flat universe, omega sub phi approx. = 1.

  11. Transit Time Distributions, Legacy Contamination and Variability in Biogeochemical 1/f^α Scaling: How are Hydrological Response Dynamics Linked to Water Quality at the Catchment Scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrachowitz, M.; Fovet, O.; Ruiz, L.; Savenije, H.

    2015-12-01

    In spite of recent progress, hydrological processes underlying observed water quality response patterns, such as the emergence of near-chemostatic conditions and fractal 1/fα scaling of stream chemistry, are not completely understood. Analysing hydrological and Cl- tracer data for two intensely managed, hydrologically contrasting yet biogeochemically similar catchments we tested if (1) a semi-distributed, conceptual model can simultaneously reproduce catchment scale hydrological and biogeochemical responses, (2) legacy stores, allowing for long-term storage of nutrient inputs can be identified and (3) a model can reproduce 1/fα scaling. Further we analysed (4) transit (TTD) and residence time distributions (RTD) and the associated response dynamics of legacy stores, to explore (5) what controls fluctuations in the scaling exponent α, thereby establishing a process based link between 1/fα scaling, legacy stores, and age distributions. We found that the model could reproduce the variable hydrological and the stable Cl- responses. This was possible through Cl- accumulation in hydrologically passive legacy stores that are mainly associated with the groundwater store, where Cl- age is well above 2000 days, one magnitude above the Cl- age in other components, such as the root zone (~200d). The results indicate that legacy stores can cause stable nutrient concentrations in streams for several decades after the end of nutrient input. It was further found that the model could reproduce fractal scaling of stream Cl- in both catchments, with higher values of α for the catchment with the smaller legacy store and faster response (α=-0.88 vs. -1.29). Further analysing the spectral properties of model components, it was found that the parts of the system with less storage are characterized by higher values of α. This suggests a plausible processes-based link between the fluctuations of α, legacy stores and RTDs: the smaller the legacy store and the higher the flow

  12. Modeling scaled processes and 1/fβ noise using nonlinear stochastic differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaulakys, B; Alaburda, M

    2009-02-01

    We present and analyze stochastic nonlinear differential equations generating signals with the power-law distributions of the signal intensity, 1/fβ noise, power-law autocorrelations and second-order structural (height-height correlation) functions. Analytical expressions for such characteristics are derived and a comparison with numerical calculations is presented. The numerical calculations reveal links between the proposed model and models where signals consist of bursts characterized by power-law distributions of burst size, burst duration and interburst time, as in the case of avalanches in self-organized critical models and the extreme event return times in long-term memory processes. The approach presented may be useful for modeling long-range scaled processes exhibiting 1/f noise and power-law distributions.

  13. Transonic wind tunnel tests of A.015 scale space shuttle orbiter model, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struzynski, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    Transonic wind tunnel tests were run on a 0.015 scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle in an eight-foot tunnel during August 1975. The purpose of the program was to obtain basic shuttle aerodynamic data through a full range of elevon and aileron deflections, verification of data obtained at other facilities, and effects of Reynolds numbers. The first part of a discussion of test procedures and results in both tabular and graphical form were presented. Tests were performed at Mach numbers from 0.35 to 1.20, and at Reynolds numbers for 3.5 million to 8.2 million per foot. The angle of attack was varied from -1 to +20 degrees at sideslip angles of -2, 0, +2 degrees. Sideslip was varied from -6 to +8 degrees at constant angles of attack from 0 to +20 degrees. Various aileron and ailevon settings were tested for various angles of attack.

  14. The IR-resummed Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu

    2015-02-01

    We present a new method to resum the effect of large scale motions in the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures. Because the linear power spectrum in ΛCDM is not scale free the effects of the large scale flows are enhanced. Although previous EFT calculations of the equal-time density power spectrum at one and two loops showed a remarkable agreement with numerical results, they also showed a 2% residual which appeared related to the BAO oscillations. We show that this was indeed the case, explain the physical origin and show how a Lagrangian based calculation removes this differences. We propose a simple method to upgrade existing Eulerian calculations to effectively make them Lagrangian and compare the new results with existing fits to numerical simulations. Our new two-loop results agrees with numerical results up to k∼ 0.6 h Mpc{sup −1} to within 1% with no oscillatory residuals. We also compute power spectra involving momentum which is significantly more affected by the large scale flows. We show how keeping track of these velocities significantly enhances the UV reach of the momentum power spectrum in addition to removing the BAO related residuals. We compute predictions for the real space correlation function around the BAO scale and investigate its sensitivity to the EFT parameters and the details of the resummation technique.

  15. SCALE: A modular code system for performing Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation. Volume 1, Part 2: Control modules S1--H1; Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automated the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.3 of the system.

  16. Effect of organic material on field-scale emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene.

    PubMed

    Yates, S R; Knuteson, J; Zheng, W; Wang, Q

    2011-01-01

    Soil fumigation is important for growing many fruits and vegetable crops, but fumigant emissions may contaminate the atmosphere. A large-scale field experiment was initiated to test the hypothesis that adding composted municipal green waste to the soil surface in an agricultural field would reduce atmospheric emissions of the 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) after shank injection at a 133 kg ha(-1) application rate. Three micrometeorological methods were used to obtain fumigant flux density and cumulative emission values. The volatilization rate was measured continuously for 16 d, and the daily peak volatilization rates for the three methods ranged from 12 to 24 μg m(-2) s(-1). The total 1,3-D mass that volatilized to the atmosphere was approximately 14 to 68 kg, or 3 to 8% of the applied active ingredient. This represents an approximately 75 to 90% reduction in the total emissions compared with other recent field, field-plot, and laboratory studies. Significant reductions in the volatilization of 1,3-D may be possible when composted municipal green waste is applied to an agricultural field. This methodology also provides a beneficial use and disposal mechanism for composted vegetative material.

  17. The Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS1) in a sample of inmates.

    PubMed

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2014-01-01

    This paper comprises two studies which address the validity of the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, GSS1. In study 1, the means and standard deviations for the suggestibility results of a sample of Portuguese inmates (N=40, Mage=37.5 years, SD=8.1) were compared to those of a sample of Icelandic inmates (Gudjonsson, 1997; Gudjonsson & Sigurdsson, 1996). Portuguese inmates' results were in line with the original results. In study 2, the means and standard deviations for the suggestibility results of the sample of Portuguese inmates were compared to those of a general Portuguese population sample (N=57, Mage=36.1 years, SD=12.7). The forensic sample obtained significantly higher scores in suggestibility measures than the general population sample. ANOVA confirmed that the increased suggestibility in the inmates sample was due to the limited memory capacity of this latter group. Given that the results of both studies 1 and 2 are in keeping with the author's original results (Gudjonsson, 1997), this may be regarded as a confirmation of the validity of the Portuguese GSS1.

  18. THE RADIO PROPERTIES OF RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES ON PARSEC SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Minfeng; Chen, Yongjun; Shen, Zhiqiang; Komossa, S.; Zensus, J. A.; Yuan, Weimin; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Zhou, Hongyan

    2015-11-15

    We present the detection of the compact radio structures of 14 radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies from Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 5 GHz performed in 2013. While 50% of the sources of our sample show a compact core only, the remaining 50% exhibit a core-jet structure. The measured brightness temperatures of the cores range from 10{sup 8.4} to 10{sup 11.4} K with a median value of 10{sup 10.1} K, indicating that the radio emission is from non-thermal jets, and that, likely, most sources are not strongly beamed, thus implying a low jet speed in these radio-loud NLS1 galaxies. In combination with archival data taken at multiple frequencies, we find that seven sources show flat or even inverted radio spectra, while steep spectra are revealed in the remaining seven objects. Although all of these sources are very radio-loud with R > 100, their jet properties are diverse in terms of their milliarcsecond (mas) scale (parsec scale) morphology and their overall radio spectral shape. The evidence for slow jet speeds (i.e., less relativistic jets), in combination with the low kinetic/radio power, may offer an explanation for the compact VLBA radio structure in most sources. The mildly relativistic jets in these high accretion rate systems are consistent with a scenario where jets are accelerated from the hot corona above the disk by the magnetic field and the radiation force of the accretion disk. Alternatively, a low jet bulk velocity can be explained by low spin in the Blandford–Znajek mechanism.

  19. Multiscale Modeling Techniques for Plasmas: 1D Scaling Results and Application to Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, M. A.; Dorland, B.; Drake, J. F.; Stantchev, G.

    2005-12-01

    We examine a novel simulation scheme called "equation free projective integration"[1] which has the potential to allow global simulations which still include microscale physics, a necessary ingredient in order to model multiscale problems. Such codes could be used to examine the global effects of reconnection and turbulence in the Earth's magnetosphere, and the solar corona, as well as in laboratory Tokamaks. Using this method to simulate the propagation and steepening of a 1D ion acoustic wave, we have already achieved excellent agreement between full particle codes and equation free with a factor of 20 speed-up. This speedup appears to scale linearly with system size, so large scale 2D and 3D simulations using this method will show a speedup of 100 or more. In this method of simulation, the global plasma variables stepped forward in time are not time-integrated directly using dynamical differential equations, hence the name "equation free." Instead, these variables are represented on a microgrid using a kinetic simulation. This microsimulation is integrated forward long enough to determine the time derivatives of the global plasma variables, which are then used to integrate forward the global variables with much larger timesteps. Results will be presented of the successful application of equation free to 1-D ion acoustic wave steepening with a PIC code serving as the underlying kinetic model. Initial results of this technique applied to magnetic reconnection will also be discussed. 1 I. G. Kevrekidis et. al., Equation-free multiscale computation: Enabling microscopic simulators to perform system-level tasks, arXiv:physics/0209043.

  20. U.S. Photovoltaic Prices and Cost Breakdowns. Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Davidson, Carolyn; Fu, Ran; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has continued to decline across all major market sectors. This report provides a Q1 2015 update regarding the prices of residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variations in business models, labor rates, and system architecture choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.09/W for residential scale rooftop systems, $2.15/W for commercial scale rooftop systems, $1.77/W for utility scale systems with fixed mounting structures, and $1.91/W for utility scale systems using single-axis trackers. All systems are modeled assuming standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon PV modules, and further assume installation within the United States.

  1. Experimental results from pressure testing a 1:6-scale nuclear power plant containment

    SciTech Connect

    Horschel, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the testing of a 1:6-scale, reinforced-concrete containment building at Sandia National Laboratories, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The scale-model, Light Water Reactor (LWR) containment building was designed and built to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., and was instrumented with over 1200 transducers to prepare for the test. The containment model was tested to failure to determine its response to static internal overpressurization. As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s program on containment integrity, the test results will be used to assess the capability of analytical methods to predict the performance of containments under severe-accident loads. The scaled dimensions of the cylindrical wall and hemispherical dome were typical of a full-size containment. Other typical features included in the heavily reinforced model were equipment hatches, personnel air locks, several small piping penetrations, and a ihin steel liner that was attached to the concrete by headed studs. In addition to the transducers attached to the model, an acoustic detection system and several video and still cameras were used during testing to gather data and to aid in the conduct of the test. The model and its instrumentation are briefly discussed, and is followed by the testing procedures and measured response of the containment model. A summary discussion is included to aid in understanding the significance of the test as it applies to real world reinforced concrete containment structures. The data gathered during SIT and overpressure testing are included as an appendix.

  2. On the reversal of star formation rate-density relation at z = 1: Insights from simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Cen, Renyue E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-06-20

    Recent surveys have found a reversal of the star formation rate (SFR)-density relation at z = 1 from that at z = 0, while the sign of the slope of the color-density relation remains unchanged. We use adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of a 21 × 24 × 20 h {sup –3} Mpc{sup 3} region to examine the SFR-density and color-density relations of galaxies at z = 0 and z = 1. The local environmental density is defined by the dark matter mass in spheres of radius 1 h {sup –1} Mpc, and we probe two decades of environmental densities. Our simulations produce a large increase of SFR with density at z = 1, as in the Elbaz et al. observations. We also find a significant evolution to z = 0, where the SFR-density relation is much flatter. The simulated color-density relation is consistent from z = 1 to z = 0, in agreement with observations. We find that the increase in SFR with local density at z = 1 is due to a growing population of star-forming galaxies in higher-density environments. At z = 0 and z = 1 both the SFR and cold gas mass are correlated with the galaxy halo mass, and therefore the correlation between median halo mass and local density is an important cause of the SFR-density relation at both redshifts. However, at z = 0 the local density on 1 h {sup –1} Mpc scales affects galaxy SFRs as much as halo mass. Finally, we find indications that while at z = 0 high-density environments depress galaxy SFRs, at z = 1 high-density environments tend to increase SFRs.

  3. Large-Scale Pumping Test Recommendations for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A.

    2010-09-08

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently assessing aquifer characterization needs to optimize pump-and-treat remedial strategies (e.g., extraction well pumping rates, pumping schedule/design) in the 200-ZP-1 operable unit (OU), and in particular for the immediate area of the 241 TX-TY Tank Farm. Specifically, CHPRC is focusing on hydrologic characterization opportunities that may be available for newly constructed and planned ZP-1 extraction wells. These new extraction wells will be used to further refine the 3-dimensional subsurface contaminant distribution within this area and will be used in concert with other existing pump-and-treat wells to remediate the existing carbon tetrachloride contaminant plume. Currently, 14 extraction wells are actively used in the Interim Record of Decision ZP-1 pump-and-treat system for the purpose of remediating the existing carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater within this general area. As many as 20 new extraction wells and 17 injection wells may be installed to support final pump-and-treat operations within the OU area. It should be noted that although the report specifically refers to the 200-ZP-1 OU, the large-scale test recommendations are also applicable to the adjacent 200-UP-1 OU area. This is because of the similar hydrogeologic conditions exhibited within these two adjoining OU locations.

  4. Thermal Testing and Integration: Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) Observatories with Digital 1-Wire Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solimani, Jason A.; Rosanova, Santino

    2015-01-01

    Thermocouples require two thin wires to be routed out of the spacecraft to connect to the ground support equipment used to monitor and record the temperature data. This large number of wires that exit the observatory complicates integration and creates an undesirable heat path during testing. These wires exiting the spacecraft need to be characterized as a thermal short that will not exist during flight. To minimize complexity and reduce thermal variables from these ground support equipment (GSE) wires, MMS pursued a hybrid path for temperature monitoring, utilizing thermocouples and digital 1-wire temperature sensors. Digital 1-wire sensors can greatly reduce harness mass, length and complexity as they can be spliced together. For MMS, 350 digital 1-wire sensors were installed on the spacecraft with only 18 wires exiting as opposed to a potential 700 thermocouple wires. Digital 1-wire sensors had not been used in such a large scale at NASAGSFC prior to the MMS mission. During the MMS thermal vacuum testing a lessons learned matrix was formulated that will assist future integration of 1-wires into thermal testing and one day into flight.

  5. Evaluation of Cartosat-1 Multi-Scale Digital Surface Modelling Over France

    PubMed Central

    Gianinetto, Marco

    2009-01-01

    On 5 May 2005, the Indian Space Research Organization launched Cartosat-1, the eleventh satellite of its constellation, dedicated to the stereo viewing of the Earth's surface for terrain modeling and large-scale mapping, from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (India). In early 2006, the Indian Space Research Organization started the Cartosat-1 Scientific Assessment Programme, jointly established with the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Within this framework, this study evaluated the capabilities of digital surface modeling from Cartosat-1 stereo data for the French test sites of Mausanne les Alpilles and Salon de Provence. The investigation pointed out that for hilly territories it is possible to produce high-resolution digital surface models with a root mean square error less than 7.1 m and a linear error at 90% confidence level less than 9.5 m. The accuracy of the generated digital surface models also fulfilled the requirements of the French Reference 3D®, so Cartosat-1 data may be used to produce or update such kinds of products. PMID:22412311

  6. Expanding photospheres of type II supernovae and the extragalactic distance scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Eastman, Ronald G.

    1992-08-01

    The Expanding Photosphere Method is applied here to determine distances to 10 Type II SNe, exploring the effects of asymmetries, extinction, and flux dilution. It is shown that blackbody corrections caused by flux dilution are small for type II SNe in the infrared, and in the optical when their color temperatures are less than 6000 K. The distance measurements to the SNe span a wide range of 50 kpc to 120 Mpc, which is unique among the methods for establishing the extragalactic distance scale. A value of H(0) = 60 +/- 10 km/s/Mpc is derived.

  7. Ditching Investigation of a 1/18-Scale Model of the North American B-45 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Lloyd J.; Thompson, William C.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation of a 1/18-scale dynamically similar model of the North American B-45 airplane was made to observe the ditching behavior and determine the proper landing technique to be used in an emergency water landing. Various conditions of damage were simulated to determine the behavior which probably would occur in a full-scale ditching. The behavior of the model was determined from high-speed motion-picture records, time-history acceleration records, and visual observations. It was concluded that the airplane should be ditched at the maximum nose-high attitude with the landing flaps full down for minimum landing speed. During the ditching, the nose-wheel and bomb-bay doors probably will be torn away and the rear of the fuselage flooded. A violent dive will very likely occur. Longitudinal decelerations of approximately 5g and vertical accelerations of approximately -6g (including gravity) will be experienced near the pilots' compartment. Ditching braces installed in the bomb bay will tend to improve the behavior slightly but will be torn away along with the bomb-bay doors. A hydroflap installed ahead of the nose-wheel doors will eliminate the dive and failure of the nose-wheel doors, and substantially reduce the motions and accelerations.

  8. F/A-18 1/9th scale model tail buffet measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. A.; Glaister, M. K.; Maclaren, L. D.; Meyn, L. A.; Ross, J.

    1991-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were carried out on a 1/9th scale model of the F/A-18 at high angles of attack to investigate the characteristics of tail buffet due to bursting of the wing leading edge extension (LEX) vortices. The tests were carried out at the Aeronautical Research Laboratory low-speed wind tunnel facility and form part of a collaborative activity with NASA Ames Research Center, organized by The Technical Cooperative Program (TTCP). Information from the program will be used in the planning of similar collaborative tests, to be carried out at NASA Ames, on a full-scale aircraft. The program covered the measurement of unsteady pressures and fin vibration for cases with and without the wing LEX fences fitted. Fourier transform methods were used to analyze the unsteady data, and information on the spatial and temporal content of the vortex burst pressure field was obtained. Flow visualization of the vortex behavior was carried out using smoke and a laser light sheet technique.

  9. The Hubble Space Telescope Extragalactic Distance Scale Key Project. 1: The discovery of Cepheids and a new distance to M81

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Wendy L.; Hughes, Shaun M.; Madore, Barry F.; Mould, Jeremy R.; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Stetson, Peter; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Turner, Anne; Ferrarese, Laura; Ford, Holland

    1994-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 30 new Cepheids in the nearby galaxy M81 based on observations using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The periods of these Cepheids lie in the range of 10-55 days, based on 18 independent epochs using the HST wide-band F555W filter. The HST F555W and F785LP data have been transformed to the Cousins standard V and I magnitude system using a ground-based calibration. Apparent period-luminosity relations at V and I were constructed, from which apparent distance moduli were measured with respect to assumed values of mu(sub 0) = 18.50 mag and E(B - V) = 0.10 mag for the Large Magellanic Cloud. The difference in the apparent V and I moduli yields a measure of the difference in the total mean extinction between the M81 and the LMC Cepheid samples. A low total mean extinction to the M81 sample of E(B - V) = 0.03 +/- 0.05 mag is obtained. The true distance modulus to M81 is determined to be 27.80 +/- 0.20 mag, corresponding to a distance of 3.63 +/- 0.34 Mpc. These data illustrate that with an optimal (power-law) sampling strategy, the HST provides a powerful tool for the discovery of extragalactic Cepheids and their application to the distance scale. M81 is the first calibrating galaxy in the target sample of the HST Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale, the ultimate aim of which is to provide a value of the Hubble constant to 10% accuracy.

  10. A test of Gaia Data Release 1 parallaxes: implications for the local distance scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casertano, Stefano; Riess, Adam G.; Bucciarelli, Beatrice; Lattanzi, Mario G.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: We present a comparison of Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) parallaxes with photometric parallaxes for a sample of 212 Galactic Cepheids at a median distance of 2 kpc, and explore their implications on the distance scale and the local value of the Hubble constant H0. Methods: The Cepheid distances are estimated from a recent calibration of the near-infrared period-luminosity (P-L) relation. The comparison is carried out in parallax space, where the DR1 parallax errors, with a median value of half the median parallax, are expected to be well-behaved. Results: With the exception of one outlier, the DR1 parallaxes are in very good global agreement with the predictions from a well-established P-L relation, with a possible indication that the published errors may be conservatively overestimated by about 20%. This confirms that the quality of DR1 parallaxes for the Cepheids in our sample is well within their stated errors. We find that the parallaxes of 9 Cepheids brighter than G = 6 may be systematically underestimated. If interpreted as an independent calibration of the Cepheid luminosities and assumed to be otherwise free of systematic uncertainties, DR1 parallaxes are in very good agreement (within 0.3%) with the current estimate of the local Hubble constant, and in conflict at the level of 2.5σ (3.5σ if the errors are scaled) with the value inferred from Planck cosmic microwave background data used in conjunction with ΛCDM. We also test for a zeropoint error in Gaia parallaxes and find none to a precision of 20 μas. We caution however that with this early release, the complete systematic properties of the measurements may not be fully understood at the statistical level of the Cepheid sample mean, a level an order of magnitude below the individual uncertainties. The early results from DR1 demonstrate again the enormous impact that the full mission will likely have on fundamental questions in astrophysics and cosmology.

  11. S-2 stage 1/25 scale model base region thermal environment test. Volume 1: Test results, comparison with theory and flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadunas, J. A.; French, E. P.; Sexton, H.

    1973-01-01

    A 1/25 scale model S-2 stage base region thermal environment test is presented. Analytical results are included which reflect the effect of engine operating conditions, model scale, turbo-pump exhaust gas injection on base region thermal environment. Comparisons are made between full scale flight data, model test data, and analytical results. The report is prepared in two volumes. The description of analytical predictions and comparisons with flight data are presented. Tabulation of the test data is provided.

  12. Results of direct containment heating integral experiments at 1/40th scale at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, J.L.; McUmber, L.M.; Spencer, B.W.

    1993-09-01

    A series of integral tests have been completed that investigate the effect of scale and containment atmosphere initial composition on Direct Containment Heating (DCH) phenomena at 1/40 linear scale. A portion of these experiments were performed as counterparts to integral experiments conducted at 1/10th linear scale at Sandia National Laboratories. The tests investigated DCH phenomena in a 1/40th scale mockup of Zion Nuclear Power Plant geometry. The test apparatus was a scaled down version of the SNL apparatus and included models of the reactor vessel lower head, containment cavity, instrument tunnel, lower subcompartment structures and the upper dome. A High Pressure Melt Ejection (HPME) was produced using steam as a blowdown gas and iron-alumina thermite with chromium as a core melt simulant. The results of the counterpart experiments indicated no effect of scale on debris/gas heat transfer and debris metal oxidation with steam. However, the tests indicated a slight effect of scale on hydrogen combustion, the results indicating slightly more efficient combustion with increasing scale. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of the subcompartment structures in trapping debris exiting the cavity and preventing it from reaching the upper dome. The test results also indicated that a 50% air -- 50% steam atmosphere prevented hydrogen combustion. However, a 50% air - 50% nitrogen did not prevent hydrogen combustion in a HPME with all other conditions being nominally the same.

  13. 1:2,000,000-scale digital line graph data on CD-ROM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Updated U.S. Geological Survey digital line graph (DLG) data collected at a scale of 1:2,000,000 are now available on two compact discs-read only memory (CD-ROM). Each CD-ROM contains digital cartographic data for 49 States and the District of Columbia. The U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and Alaska will be ready within the next year. These DLG data were originally collected from maps published in 1970. Extensive revisions have been made and no data source more than 5 years old was used in this update. In addition, text files containing information such as place names and population have been added for the first time. The records in these text files can be related to corresponding features in the DLG data files. Metadata that comply with the Federal Geographic Data Committee Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata are included for each category of DLG data.

  14. Spin-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/28-Scale Model of a Subsonic Attack Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Henry A.; Healy, Frederick M.

    1964-01-01

    An investigation has been made of a 1/28-scale model of the Grumman A-6A airplane in the Langley spin tunnel. The erect spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the flight design gross weight loading and for a loading with full internal fuel and empty external wing fuel tanks. The effects of extending slats and deflecting flaps were investigated. Inverted-spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the flight design gross weight loading. The size of the spin-recovery tail parachute necessary to insure satisfactory spin-recovery was determined, and the effect of firing wing-mounded rockets during spins was investigated.

  15. Method of single expression: an exact solution for wavelength scale 1D photonic structure computer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdasaryan, Hovik V.; Knyazyan, Tamara M.

    2003-12-01

    The principles of the method of single expression (MSE) for boundary problems solution in classical electrodynamics are presented. In the MSE the solution of the Helmholtz's equation is presented in the special form of a single expression describing resultant amplitude and phase distributions in the medium. This form of solution presenation permits to pass over the restrictions of the superposition principle and to solve both linear and nonlinear problems with ths same ease. In the MSE the Helmholtz's equation is reformulated to the set of first order differential equations and the boundary problem is solved numerically. No approximations are implied either in Helmholtz's equation or in boundary conditions. Using the MSE steady-state boundary problems are modeled for wavelength scale multilayer and modulated 1D photonic structures including amplification and nonuniformity evoked by intense electromagnetic field.

  16. Vibration analysis of a 1/15 scale dynamic model of a space shuttle configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    The natural frequencies and mode shapes of a 1/15 scale space shuttle dynamics model are analytically determined. The model, a parallel beam type structure with delta wings, is dynamically representative of the stiffness and mass properties of an early space shuttle design. Important characteristics of the model are elastic interfaces with adjustable spring rates. Normal mode computations are made using the finite element modeling technique as implemented in the NASTRAN (NASA Structural Analysis) computer program. The feasibility of neglecting elastic deformations in the lower modes was investigated using a rigid body model. Using NASTRAN, natural frequencies and mode shapes were first calculated for the booster fuselage, orbiter fuselage, and both delta wings in a free-free condition. Next, the fuselages were connected for various spring rates. Then the wings were attached to each fuselage, and the booster and orbiter were analyzed as separate airplanes. Finally, the two airplanes were elastically joined, and the complete model was analyzed.

  17. Assessing of IDF curves for hydrological design by simple scaling of 1-day precipitation totals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bara, M.; Kohnová, S.; Szolgay, J.; Gaál, L.; Hlavčová, K.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper the scaling properties of short term extreme rainfall in Slovakia were investigated. The simple scaling theory was applied to the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) characteristics of a short duration rainfall. This method allows for the estimation of the design values of rainfall of selected recurrence intervals and durations shorter than a day by using only the daily data. The scaling behavior of rainfall intensities was examined, and the possibility of using simple scaling in Slovakia was verified. The methodology for the simple scaling of rainfall is demonstrated using an example of the meteorological station in Ilava.

  18. Evidence for horizon-scale power from CMB polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Mortonson, Michael J.; Hu, Wayne

    2009-07-15

    The CMB temperature power spectrum offers ambiguous evidence for the existence of horizon-scale power in the primordial power spectrum due to uncertainties in spatial curvature and the physics of cosmic acceleration as well as the observed low quadrupole. Current polarization data from WMAP provide evidence for horizon-scale power that is robust to these uncertainties. Polarization on the largest scales arises mainly from scattering at z < or approx. 6 when the Universe is fully ionized, making the evidence robust to ionization history variations at higher redshifts as well. A cutoff in the power spectrum is limited to C=k{sub C}/10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -1}<5.2 (95% C.L.) by polarization, only slightly weaker than joint temperature and polarization constraints in flat {lambda}CDM (C<4.2). Planck should improve the polarization limit to C<3.6 for any model of the acceleration epoch and ionization history as well as provide tests for foreground and systematic contamination.

  19. Large-scale structure formation with global topological defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrer, Ruth; Zhou, Zhi-Hong

    1996-05-01

    We investigate cosmological structure formation seeded by topological defects which may form during a phase transition in the early Universe. First, we derive a partially new, local, and gauge-invariant system of perturbation equations to treat microwave background and dark matter fluctuations induced by topological defects or any other type of seeds. We then show that this system is well suited for numerical analysis of structure formation by applying it to seeds induced by fluctuations of a global scalar field. Our numerical results cover a larger dynamical range than those covered by previous investigations and are complementary to them since we use substantially different methods. The resulting microwave background fluctuations are compatible with older simulations. We also obtain a scale-invariant spectrum of fluctuations although with somewhat higher amplitude. On the other hand, our dark matter results yield a smaller bias parameter compatible with b~2 on scales of 20h-1 Mpc in contrast with previous work which yielded larger bias factors. Our conclusions are thus more positive. According to the aspects analyzed in this work, global topological defect-induced fluctuations yield viable scenarios of structure formation and do better than standard CDM on large scales.

  20. A case study of large-scale structure in a 'hot' model universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan M.; Gallagher, John S., III; Melott, Adrian L.; Bushouse, Howard A.

    1988-01-01

    Large-scale structure is studied in an Omega(0) = 1 model universe filled with 'hot' dark matter. A particle mesh computer code is used to calculate the development of gravitational instabilities in 64-cubed mass clouds on a 64-cubed three-dimensional grid over an expansion factor of about 1000. The present epoch is identified by matching the slope of the model particle-particle two-point correlation function with that obtained from observations of galaxies, and the model then corresponds to a cubical sample of the universe of about 105/h Mpc on a side. Properties of the simulated universe are investigated by casting the model quantities into observer's coordinates and comparing the results with observations of the spatial and velocity distributions of luminous matter. It is concluded based on simple arguments that current limits on the time of galaxy formation do not rule out 'hot' dark matter.

  1. Scaling to 150K cores: recent algorithm and performance engineering developments enabling XGC1 to run at scale

    SciTech Connect

    Mark F. Adams; Seung-Hoe Ku; Patrick Worley; Ed D'Azevedo; Julian C. Cummings; C.S. Chang

    2009-10-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) methods have proven to be eft#11;ective in discretizing the Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations describing the core of toroidal burning plasmas for many decades. Recent physical understanding of the importance of edge physics for stability and transport in tokamaks has lead to development of the fi#12;rst fully toroidal edge PIC code - XGC1. The edge region poses special problems in meshing for PIC methods due to the lack of closed flux surfaces, which makes fi#12;eld-line following meshes and coordinate systems problematic. We present a solution to this problem with a semi-#12;field line following mesh method in a cylindrical coordinate system. Additionally, modern supercomputers require highly concurrent algorithms and implementations, with all levels of the memory hierarchy being effe#14;ciently utilized to realize optimal code performance. This paper presents a mesh and particle partitioning method, suitable to our meshing strategy, for use on highly concurrent cache-based computing platforms.

  2. Evaluation of the pressure ulcers risk scales with critically ill patients: a prospective cohort study 1

    PubMed Central

    Borghardt, Andressa Tomazini; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; de Araújo, Thiago Moura; Rogenski, Noemi Marisa Brunet; Bringuente, Maria Edla de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: to evaluate the accuracy of the Braden and Waterlow risk assessment scales in critically ill inpatients. METHOD: this prospective cohort study, with 55 patients in intensive care units, was performed through evaluation of sociodemographic and clinical variables, through the application of the scales (Braden and Waterlow) upon admission and every 48 hours; and through the evaluation and classification of the ulcers into categories. RESULTS: the pressure ulcer incidence was 30.9%, with the Braden and Waterlow scales presenting high sensitivity (41% and 71%) and low specificity (21% and 47%) respectively in the three evaluations. The cut off scores found in the first, second and third evaluations were 12, 12 and 11 in the Braden scale, and 16, 15 and 14 in the Waterlow scale. CONCLUSION: the Braden scale was shown to be a good screening instrument, and the Waterlow scale proved to have better predictive power. PMID:25806628

  3. Large-scale variations of the interplanetary magnetic field: Voyager 1 and 2 observations between 1-5 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Behannon, K. W.; Klein, L. W.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft of the interplanetary magnetic field between 1 and 5 AU were used to investigate the large scale structure of the IMF in a period of increasing solar activity. The Voyager spacecraft found notable deviations from the Parker axial model. These deviations are attributed both to temporal variations associated with increasing solar activity, and to the effects of fluctuations of the field in the radial direction. The amplitude of the latter fluctuations were found to be large relative to the magnitude of the radial field component itself beyond approximately 3 AU. Both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 observed decreases with increasing heliocentric distance in the amplitude of transverse fluctuations in the averaged field strength (B) which are consistent with the presence of predominantly undamped Alfven waves in the solar wind, although and necessarily implying the presence of them. Fluctuations in the strength of B (relative to mean field strength) were found to be small in amplitude, with a RMS which is approximately one third of that for the transverse fluctuations and they are essentially independent of distance from the Sun.

  4. 52. EQUIPMENT HOUSE, Y&D No. 107730 Scales 1/4', 3/8', 3/4', ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EQUIPMENT HOUSE, Y&D No. 107730 Scales 1/4', 3/8', 3/4', 1-1/2' and 3' = 1'; July 2, 1929 - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  5. The galaxy distribution and the large-scale structure of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. J.; Kurtz, M. J.; De Lapparent, V.

    1986-01-01

    Data related to the large-scale galaxy distribution are discussed. The galaxy counts of Shane-Wirtanen (1967) are analyzed; the effects of residual systematic errors on the galaxy distribution measurements are considered. The analysis reveals that the Shane-Wirtanen data are not applicable to the study of large-scale structure. A model which is capable of measuring galaxy correlation functions on scales greater than about 10 Mpc is evaluated.

  6. The coherence length of the peculiar velocity field in the universe and the large-scale galaxy correlation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    1992-01-01

    This study presents a method for obtaining the true rms peculiar flow in the universe on scales up to 100-120/h Mpc using APM data as an input assuming only that peculiar motions are caused by peculiar gravity. The comparison to the local (Great Attractor) flow is expected to give clear information on the density parameter, Omega, and the local bias parameter, b. The observed peculiar flows in the Great Attractor region are found to be in better agreement with the open (Omega = 0.1) universe in which light traces mass (b = 1) than with a flat (Omega = 1) universe unless the bias parameter is unrealistically large (b is not less than 4). Constraints on Omega from a comparison of the APM and PV samples are discussed.

  7. Test of P3M-1 nacelle in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Test of P3M-1 nacelle in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The NACA conducted drag tests on P3M-1 nacelle in 1931 which were presented in a special report to the Navy. Smith DeFrance described this work in the report's introduction: 'Tests were conducted in the full-scale wind tunnel on a five to four geared Pratt and Whitney Wasp engine mounted in a P3M-1 nacelle. In order to simulate the flight conditions the nacelle was assembled on a 15-foot span of wing from the same airplane. The purpose of the tests was to improve the cooling of the engine and to reduce the drag of the nacelle combination. Thermocouples were installed at various points on the cylinders and temperature readings were obtained from these by the power plants division. These results will be reported in a memorandum by that division. The drag results, which are covered by this memorandum, were obtained with the original nacelle condition as received from the Navy with the tail of the nacelle modified, with the nose section of the nacelle modified, with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached to the engine, with a Type G ring developed by the N.A.C.A., and with a Type D cowling which was also developed by the N.A.C.A.' (p. 1) This picture shows the engine with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached. The NACA tested several different modifications and cowlings as noted above. The Navy did not want to make any major structural alterations to the original wing and nacelle installation. Thus, the NACA did not conduct a full investigation of the aerodynamics of this particular configuration. DeFrance concludes his report with this note: 'in view of the limitations of the test, the drag data for the combinations tested may be summarized, and considering the necessity of temperature control and accessibility to the engine it is apparent that the best combination tested was with the large nose piece, the Curtiss anti-drag ring, and the modified tail section.'

  8. Analytic prediction of baryonic effects from the EFT of large scale structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, Matthew; Perko, Ashley; Senatore, Leonardo E-mail: perko@stanford.edu

    2015-05-01

    The large scale structures of the universe will likely be the next leading source of cosmological information. It is therefore crucial to understand their behavior. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures provides a consistent way to perturbatively predict the clustering of dark matter at large distances. The fact that baryons move distances comparable to dark matter allows us to infer that baryons at large distances can be described in a similar formalism: the backreaction of short-distance non-linearities and of star-formation physics at long distances can be encapsulated in an effective stress tensor, characterized by a few parameters. The functional form of baryonic effects can therefore be predicted. In the power spectrum the leading contribution goes as ∝ k{sup 2} P(k), with P(k) being the linear power spectrum and with the numerical prefactor depending on the details of the star-formation physics. We also perform the resummation of the contribution of the long-wavelength displacements, allowing us to consistently predict the effect of the relative motion of baryons and dark matter. We compare our predictions with simulations that contain several implementations of baryonic physics, finding percent agreement up to relatively high wavenumbers such as k ≅ 0.3 hMpc{sup −1} or k ≅ 0.6 hMpc{sup −1}, depending on the order of the calculation. Our results open a novel way to understand baryonic effects analytically, as well as to interface with simulations.

  9. Centennial-scale paleoceanography during sapropel S1 deposition in the NE Aegean (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantaphyllou, Maria; Gogou, Alexandra; Dimiza, Margarita; Kostopoulou, Sofia; Parinos, Constantine; Roussakis, Grigoris; Geraga, Maria; Skampa, Elisavet; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Fleitmann, Dominik; Zervakis, Vassilis; Velaoras, Dimitris; Diamantopoulou, Antonia; Sampatakaki, Angeliki; Lykousis, Vassilis

    2016-04-01

    Combined micropaleontological and geochemical analyses in the high-sedimentation gravity core M-4G, provided new centennial scale paleoceanographic data for the sapropel S1 deposition in the NE Aegean Sea. Sapropel layer S1a (10.2-8.0 ka) is deposited in dysoxic to oxic bottom waters; sediments are characterized by the high abundance of benthic foraminifers Chilostomella mediterranensis and Globobulimina affinis that are able to tolerate surface sediment and/or pore water oxygen depletion and the presence of the oxic mesotrophic-eutrophic U. mediterranea. Adequate preservation of organic matter is proven by the high organic carbon and loliolide and isololiolide contents, whereas the biomarker record and the abundances of eutrophic planktonic foraminifera document enhanced productivity. Both alkenone-based SSTs and δO18 G. bulloides records indicate coolings at 8.2 ka (S1a) and at ~7.8 ka (S1 interruption). Sapropelic layer S1b (7.7-6.4 ka) is characterized by rather oxic conditions marked by the prominent increase of U. mediterranea. The highly fluctuating SSTs demonstrate repeated coolings and associated dense water formation; major event at 7.4 ka, followed by cold spells at 7.0, 6.8, 6.5 ka. Besides, the increase of algal biomarkers, labile organic matter-feeding foraminifera and eutrophic planktonic species pinpoints rise in in situ marine productivity, which is enhanced by more efficient vertical convection due to repeated cold events. The associated contributions of labile marine organic matter (OM) along with fresher terrestrial OM inputs after ~7.7 ka BP imply alternative/ additional than the north Aegean riverine borderland sources for the influx of organic matter at the south Limnos Basin, also related to the inflow of highly productive Marmara/Black Sea waters

  10. Ditching Tests of a 1/10-Scale Model of the North American XFJ-1 Airplane Ted No. NACA 314

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Lloyd J.; McBride, Ellis E.

    1948-01-01

    Tests were made of a 1/10-scale dynamically similar model of the North American XFJ-1 airplane to study its behavior when ditched. The model was landed in calm water at the Langley tank no. 2 monorail. Various landing attitudes, speeds, and conditions of damage were simulated. The behavior of the model was determined from visual observations, by recording the accelerations, and by taking motion pictures of the ditchings. Data are presented in tabular form, sequence photographs, and time-history acceleration curves. From the results of the tests it was concluded that the airplane should be ditched at the near-stall, tail-down landing attitude of 12 deg. The flaps should be fully extended to obtain the lowest possible landing speed. The wing-tip tanks should be jettisoned if any appreciable load of fuel remains; if empty, they should be retained for additional buoyancy. In a calm-water ditching the airplane will probably run about 600 feet Maximum longitudinal decelerations of about 2.5g and maximum vertical acceleration of about 2g will be encountered. The nose-intake duct will be clear of the water until practically all forward motion has stopped.

  11. Spatial and statistical differences between 1:250,000- and 1:24,000-scale digital soil databases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.; Wolock, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, 1:250,000- and 1:24,000-scale digital soil databases for Kansas were compared statistically and spatially. The soil attributes used in this comparison were soil permeability, percent clay, and hydrologic group. Results indicate that, although the two databases were correlated, the potential exists for substantial site-specific variability between them. The largest differences between the two databases typically are in and along the stream networks. With distance away from the stream networks, the mean differences generally stabilize. The results also indicate the possibility of systematic bias between the two databases that varies with landscape position. For applications using mean soil attribute values, the two soil databases usually yield similar values for the three soil attributes analyzed, especially for areas of 25 km2 (9.7 mi2) or larger. However, for applications where more detailed information on soil variability and the spatial pattern of soil properties within the landscape is required, such as for studies focused on small areas or areas in and along stream networks, the two soil databases are sufficiently different such that using one or the other may result in substantially different results.

  12. Measurements of a 1/4-scale model of an explosives firing chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J.W.; Baker, C.F.; Simmons, L.F.

    1995-01-27

    In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to construct a 60-kg firing chamber to provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high-explosive, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the generated hazardous waste. The major design consideration of such a chamber is its overall structural dynamic response in terms of long-term containment of all blast effects from repeated internal detonations of high explosives. Another concern is how much other portions of the facility outside the firing chamber must be hardened to ensure personnel protection in the event of an accidental detonation while the chamber door is open. To assess these concerns, a 1/4-scale replica model of the planned contained firing chamber was designed, constructed, and tested with scaled explosive charges ranging from 25 to 125% of the operational explosives limit of 60 kg. From 16 detonations of high explosives, 880 resulting strains, blast pressures, and temperatures within the model were measured to provide information for the final design. Factors of safety for dynamic yield of the firing chamber structure were calculated and compared to the design criterion of totally elastic response. The rectangular, reinforced-concrete chamber model exhibited a lightly damped vibrational response that placed the structure in alternating cycles of tension and compression. During compression, both the reinforcing steel and the concrete remained elastic.

  13. Measurements of a 1/4-scale model of a 60-kg explosives firing chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J.W.; Baker, C.F.; Simmons, L.F.

    1995-01-27

    In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to construct a 60-kg firing chamber to provide blast-effects containment for, most of its open-air, high-explosive, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the generated hazardous waste. The major design consideration of such a chamber is its overall structural dynamic response in terms of long-term containment of all blast effects from repeated internal detonations of high explosives. Another concern is how much other portions of the facility must be hardened to ensure personnel protection in the event of an accidental detonation. To assess these concerns, a 1/4-scale replica model of the planned contained firing chamber was designed, constructed, and tested with scaled explosive charges ranging from 25 to 125% of the operational explosives limit of 60 kg. From 16 detonations of high explosives, 880 resulting strains, blast pressures, and temperatures within the model were measured. Factors of safety for dynamic yield of the firing chamber structure were calculated and compared to the design criterion of totally elastic response. The rectangular, reinforced-concrete chamber model exhibited a lightly damped vibrational response that placed the structure in alternating cycles of tension and compression. During compression, both the reinforcing steel and the concrete remained elastic. During tension, the reinforcing steel remained elastic, but the concrete elastic limit was exceeded in two areas, the center spans of the ceiling and the north wall, where elastic safety factors as low as 0.66 were obtained, thus indicating that the concrete would be expected to crack in those areas. Indeed, visual post-test inspection of those areas revealed tight cracks in the concrete.

  14. Large-scale opacity fluctuations in the Lyα forest: evidence for QSOs dominating the ionizing UV background at z ∼ 5.5-6?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardin, Jonathan; Puchwein, Ewald; Haehnelt, Martin G.

    2017-03-01

    Lyα forest data probing the post-reionization Universe show surprisingly large opacity fluctuations over rather large (≥50 h-1 comoving Mpc) spatial scales. We model these fluctuations using a hybrid approach utilizing the large-volume Millennium simulation to predict the spatial distribution of QSOs combined with smaller scale full hydrodynamical simulation performed with RAMSES and post-processed with the radiative transfer code ATON. We produce realistic mock absorption spectra that account for the contribution of galaxies and QSOs to the ionizing UV background. These improved models confirm our earlier findings that a significant ( ≳ 50 per cent) contribution of ionizing photons from QSOs can explain the large reported opacity fluctuations on large scales. The inferred QSO luminosity function is thereby consistent with recent estimates of the space density of QSOs at this redshift. Our simulations still somewhat struggle, however, to reproduce the very long (110 h-1 comoving Mpc) high-opacity absorption through observed in ULAS J0148+0600, perhaps suggesting an even later end of reionization than assumed in our previously favoured model. Medium-deep/medium area QSO surveys as well as targeted searches for the predicted strong transverse QSO proximity effect would illuminate the origin of the observed large-scale opacity fluctuations. They would allow us to substantiate whether UV fluctuations due to QSO are indeed primarily responsible, or whether significant contributions from other recently proposed mechanisms such as large-scale fluctuations in temperature and mean free path (even in the absence of rare bright sources) are required.

  15. Pretest Round Robin Analysis of 1:4-Scale Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model

    SciTech Connect

    HESSHEIMER,MICHAEL F.; LUK,VINCENT K.; KLAMERUS,ERIC W.; SHIBATA,S.; MITSUGI,S.; COSTELLO,J.F.

    2000-12-18

    The purpose of the program is to investigate the response of representative scale models of nuclear containment to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. This objective is accomplished by conducting static, pneumatic overpressurization tests of scale models at ambient temperature. This research program consists of testing two scale models: a steel containment vessel (SCV) model (tested in 1996) and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model, which is the subject of this paper.

  16. Use of orbital shaken disposable bioreactors for mammalian cell cultures from the milliliter-scale to the 1,000-liter scale.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Stettler, Matthieu; De Sanctis, Dario; Perrone, Marco; Parolini, Nicola; Discacciati, Marco; De Jesus, Maria; Hacker, David; Quarteroni, Alfio; Wurm, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Driven by the commercial success of recombinant biopharmaceuticals, there is an increasing demand for novel mammalian cell culture bioreactor systems for the rapid production of biologicals that require mammalian protein processing. Recently, orbitally shaken bioreactors at scales from 50 mL to 1,000 L have been explored for the cultivation of mammalian cells and are considered to be attractive alternatives to conventional stirred-tank bioreactors because of increased flexibility and reduced costs. Adequate oxygen transfer capacity was maintained during the scale-up, and strategies to increase further oxygen transfer rates (OTR) were explored, while maintaining favorable mixing parameters and low-stress conditions for sensitive lipid membrane-enclosed cells. Investigations from process development to the engineering properties of shaken bioreactors are underway, but the feasibility of establishing a robust, standardized, and transferable technical platform for mammalian cell culture based on orbital shaking and disposable materials has been established with further optimizations and studies ongoing.

  17. Use of Orbital Shaken Disposable Bioreactors for Mammalian Cell Cultures from the Milliliter-Scale to the 1,000-Liter Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Stettler, Matthieu; de Sanctis, Dario; Perrone, Marco; Parolini, Nicola; Discacciati, Marco; de Jesus, Maria; Hacker, David; Quarteroni, Alfio; Wurm, Florian

    Driven by the commercial success of recombinant biopharmaceuticals, there is an increasing demand for novel mammalian cell culture bioreactor systems for the rapid production of biologicals that require mammalian protein processing. Recently, orbitally shaken bioreactors at scales from 50 mL to 1,000 L have been explored for the cultivation of mammalian cells and are considered to be attractive alternatives to conventional stirred-tank bioreactors because of increased flexibility and reduced costs. Adequate oxygen transfer capacity was maintained during the scale-up, and strategies to increase further oxygen transfer rates (OTR) were explored, while maintaining favorable mixing parameters and low-stress conditions for sensitive lipid membrane-enclosed cells. Investigations from process development to the engineering properties of shaken bioreactors are underway, but the feasibility of establishing a robust, standardized, and transferable technical platform for mammalian cell culture based on orbital shaking and disposable materials has been established with further optimizations and studies ongoing.

  18. Large-scale Filamentary Structures around the Virgo Cluster Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Bureau, Martin; Yoon, Hyein; Chung, Aeree; Jerjen, Helmut; Lisker, Thorsten; Jeong, Hyunjin; Sung, Eon-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Lee, Woong; Chung, Jiwon

    2016-12-01

    We revisit the filamentary structures of galaxies around the Virgo cluster, exploiting a larger data set, based on the HyperLeda database, than previous studies. In particular, this includes a large number of low-luminosity galaxies, resulting in better sampled individual structures. We confirm seven known structures in the distance range 4 h -1 Mpc < SGY < 16 h -1 Mpc, now identified as filaments, where SGY is the axis of the supergalactic coordinate system roughly along the line of sight. The Hubble diagram of the filament galaxies suggests they are infalling toward the main body of the Virgo cluster. We propose that the collinear distribution of giant elliptical galaxies along the fundamental axis of the Virgo cluster is smoothly connected to two of these filaments (Leo II A and B). Behind the Virgo cluster (16 h -1 Mpc < SGY < 27 h -1 Mpc), we also identify a new filament elongated toward the NGC 5353/4 group (“NGC 5353/4 filament”) and confirm a sheet that includes galaxies from the W and M clouds of the Virgo cluster (“W-M sheet”). In the Hubble diagram, the NGC 5353/4 filament galaxies show infall toward the NGC 5353/4 group, whereas the W-M sheet galaxies do not show hints of gravitational influence from the Virgo cluster. The filamentary structures identified can now be used to better understand the generic role of filaments in the build-up of galaxy clusters at z ≈ 0.

  19. Analysis of disease-dependent sedative profiles of H(1)-antihistamines by large-scale surveillance using the visual analog scale.

    PubMed

    Izumi, N; Mizuguchi, H; Umehara, H; Ogino, S; Fukui, H

    2008-04-01

    Sedation is the most frequent side effect of H(1)-antihistamines, and, sometimes, it may be life-threatening for patients. Evaluation of the sedative properties of H(1)-antihistamines is important to improve the patients' quality of life (QOL). Therefore, we carried out a large-scale surveillance quantified through a questionnaire using visual analog scale (VAS) from 1,742 patients. The results showed that the degree of sleepiness caused by some nonsedative second-generation antihistamines, including fexofenadine, olopatadine and cetirizine, was disease dependent. In atopic dermatitis, an unexpectedly low VAS score of sleepiness was obtained for the first-generation antihistamine d-chlorpheniramine, which is similar to those obtained for bepotastine and epinastine. d-Chlorpheniramine also showed a high VAS score in efficacy. Meanwhile, fexofenadine showed a higher VAS score of sleepiness in atopic dermatitis than those obtained in the other allergic diseases including allergic rhinitis, urticaria and asthma. In asthma, a higher VAS score of sleepiness was found for olopatadine, ebastine and cetirizine, when compared with d-chlorpheniramine. On the other hand, bepotastine showed the lowest VAS score for sleepiness. Our findings suggest the existence of unknown factors influencing the sedative properties of H(1)-antihistamines. Therefore, appropriate H(1)-antihistamines may need to be selected, depending on allergic diseases, to improve patients' QOL.

  20. A hydrologically explicit, spatially exact, classification of landforms for Canada at 1:500,000 scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, Robert A.; Geng, Xiaoyuan; Smith, Scott; Zawadzka, Joanna; Hengl, Tom

    2016-04-01

    A new approach for classifying landform types has been developed and applied to all of Canada using a 250 m DEM. The resulting LandMapR classification has been designed to provide a stable and consistent spatial fabric to act as initial proto-polygons to be used in updating the current 1:1 M scale Soil Landscapes of Canada map to 1:500,000 scale. There is a desire to make the current SLC polygon fabric more consistent across the country, more correctly aligned to observable hydrological and landscape features, more spatially exact, more detailed and more interpretable. The approach is essentially a modification of the Hammond (1954) criteria for classifying macro landform types as implemented for computerized analysis by Dikau (1989, 1991) and Brabyn (1998). The major modification is that the key input variables of local relief and relative position in the landscape are computed for specific hillslopes that occur between individual, explicitly defined, channels and divides. While most approaches, including Dikau et al., (1991) and SOTER (Dobos et al., 2005) compute relative relief and landscape position within a neighborhood analysis window (NAW) of some fixed size (9,600 m and 1 km respectively) the LandMapR method assesses these variables based on explicit analysis of flow paths between locally defined divides and channels (or lakes). We have modified the Hammond criteria by splitting the lowest relief class of 0-30 m into 4 classes of 0-0 m, 0-1 m, 1-10 m and 10-30 m) in order to be able to better differentiate subtle landform features in areas of low relief. Essentially this enables recognition of lakes and open water (0 relief and 0 slope), shorelines and littoral zones (0-1 m), nearly flat, low-relief landforms (1-10 m) and low relief undulating plains (10-30 m). We also modified the Hammond approach for separating upper versus lower landform positions used to differentiate flat areas in uplands from flat lowlands. We instead differentiate 3 relative slope

  1. Dynamic stability test results on an 0.024 scale B-1 air vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeman, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    Dynamic longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics of the B-1 air vehicle were investigated in three wind tunnels at the Langley Research Center. The main rotary derivatives were obtained for an angle of attack range of -3 degrees to +16 degrees for a Mach number range of 0.2 to 2.16. Damping in roll data could not be obtained at the supersonic Mach numbers. The Langley 7 x 10 foot high speed tunnel, the 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel, and the 4 foot Unitary Plan wind tunnel were the test sites. An 0.024 scale light-weight model was used on a forced oscillation type balance. Test Reynolds number varied from 474,000/ft to 1,550,000/ft. through the Mach number range tested. The results showed that the dynamic stability characteristics of the model in pitch and roll were generally satisfactory up to an angle attack of about +6 degrees. In the wing sweep range from 15 to 25 degrees the positive damping levels in roll deteriorated rapidly above +2 degrees angle of attack. This reduction in roll damping is believed to be due to the onset of separation over the wing as stall is approached.

  2. Intermediate scale structure of the interstellar medium towards NGC 6231 in Sco OB1 with FUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marggraf, O.; Bluhm, H.; de Boer, K. S.

    2004-03-01

    The FUSE far-ultraviolet interstellar spectra toward seven targets in NGC 6231 show that the molecules H2, HD, and CO as well as various atomic species are distributed in several clouds. The main absorption component found on the sight lines lies in the Lupus cloud region at a distance of about 150 pc, and there is a weaker second one, presumably in the Sco OB1 shell surrounding NGC 6231 (d≃1.8 kpc). H2 excitation modelling is used to constrain the radiation field and the density in the gas; HD is used to estimate the abundance of H+. The small angular separation of the target stars allows column density variations to be probed over the field of view, on scales of 0.05 pc in the case of the Lupus cloud distance. They are 40% for H2 and 60% for H I. A rather strong radiation field inside the molecular clouds suggests a separation of the gas into smaller cloudlets also along the line of sight. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. FUSE is operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  3. Z ', Higgses and heavy neutrinos in U(1)' models: from the LHC to the GUT scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomando, Elena; Corianò, Claudio; Rose, Luigi Delle; Fiaschi, Juri; Marzo, Carlo; Moretti, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    We study a class of non-exotic minimal U(1)' extensions of the Standard Model, which includes all scenarios that are anomaly-free with the ordinary fermion content augmented by one Right-Handed neutrino per generation, wherein the new Abelian gauge group is spontaneously broken by the non-zero Vacuum Expectation Value of an additional Higgs singlet field, in turn providing mass to a Z ' state. By adopting the B - L example, whose results can be recast into those pertaining to the whole aforementioned class, and allowing for both scalar and gauge mixing, we first extract the surviving parameter space in presence of up-to-date theoretical and experimental constraints. Over the corresponding parameter configurations, we then delineate the high energy behaviour of such constructs in terms of their stability and perturbativity. Finally, we highlight key production and decay channels of the new states entering the spectra of this class of models, i.e., heavy neutrinos, a second Higgs state and the Z ', which are amenable to experimental investigation at the Large Hadron Collider. We therefore set the stage to establish a direct link between measurements obtainable at the Electro-Weak scale and the dynamics of the underlying model up to those where a Grand Unification Theory embedding a U(1)' can be realised.

  4. Measuring Large-Scale Structure at z ~ 1 with the VIPERS galaxy survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is the largest redshift survey ever conducted with the ESO telescopes. It has used the Very Large Telescope to collect nearly 100,000 redshifts from the general galaxy population at 0.5 < z < 1.2. With a combination of volume and high sampling density that is unique for these redshifts, it allows statistical measurements of galaxy clustering and related cosmological quantities to be obtained on an equal footing with classic results from local redshift surveys. At the same time, the simple magnitude-limited selection and the wealth of ancillary photometric data provide a general view of the galaxy population, its physical properties and the relation of the latter to large-scale structure. This paper presents an overview of the galaxy clustering results obtained so far, together with their cosmological implications. Most of these are based on the ~ 55,000 galaxies forming the first public data release (PDR-1). As of January 2015, observations and data reduction are complete and the final data set of more than 90,000 redshifts is being validated and made ready for the final investigations.

  5. A Clinical Indications Prediction Scale Based on TWIST1 for Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boregowda, Siddaraju V.; Krishnappa, Veena; Haga, Christopher L.; Ortiz, Luis A.; Phinney, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to their stem/progenitor properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) also exhibit potent effector (angiogenic, antiinflammatory, immuno-modulatory) functions that are largely paracrine in nature. It is widely believed that effector functions underlie most of the therapeutic potential of MSCs and are independent of their stem/progenitor properties. Here we demonstrate that stem/progenitor and effector functions are coordinately regulated at the cellular level by the transcription factor Twist1 and specified within populations according to a hierarchical model. We further show that manipulation of Twist1 levels by genetic approaches or by exposure to widely used culture supplements including fibroblast growth factor 2 (Ffg2) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) alters MSC efficacy in cell-based and in vivo assays in a predictable manner. Thus, by mechanistically linking stem/progenitor and effector functions our studies provide a unifying framework in the form of an MSC hierarchy that models the functional complexity of populations. Using this framework, we developed a CLinical Indications Prediction (CLIP) scale that predicts how donor-to-donor heterogeneity and culture conditions impact the therapeutic efficacy of MSC populations for different disease indications. PMID:26981553

  6. Plasma-field Coupling at Small Length Scales in Solar Wind Near 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, G.; Desai, M. I.

    2016-10-01

    In collisionless plasmas such as the solar wind, the coupling between plasma constituents and the embedded magnetic field occurs on various temporal and spatial scales, and is primarily responsible for the transfer of energy between waves and particles. Recently, it was shown that the transfer of energy between solar wind plasma particles and waves is governed by a new and unique relationship: the ratio between the magnetosonic energy and the plasma frequency is constant, E ms/ω pl ˜ ℏ*. This paper examines the variability and substantial departure of this ratio from ℏ* observed at ˜1 au, which is caused by a dispersion of fast magnetosonic (FMS) waves. In contrast to the efficiently transferred energy in the fast solar wind, the lower efficiency of the slow solar wind can be caused by this dispersion, whose relation and characteristics are derived and studied. In summary, we show that (i) the ratio E ms/ω pl transitions continuously from the slow to the fast solar wind, tending toward the constant ℏ* (ii) the transition is more efficient for larger thermal, Alfvén, or FMS speeds; (iii) the fast solar wind is almost dispersionless, characterized by quasi-constant values of the FMS speed, while the slow wind is subject to dispersion that is less effective for larger wind or magnetosonic speeds; and (iv) the constant ℏ* is estimated with the best known precision, ℏ* ≈ (1.160 ± 0.083) × 10-22 Js.

  7. Effect of two-scale roughness on boundary layer transition over a heated flat plate: Part 1 -- Surface heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Pinson, M.W.; Wang, T.

    2000-04-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate surface heat transfer and boundary layer development associated with flow over a flat test surface covered with two roughness scales. Two-scale roughness was used because in-service aeroengines commonly display larger roughness concentrated at the leading edge with smaller roughness distributed downstream. The first scale, covering up to the first 5 cm of the test surface, was in the form of a sandpaper strip, an aluminum strip, or a cylinder. The second roughness scale covered the remainder of the test surface (2 m) in the form of sandpaper or a smooth surface. In Part 1, the surface heat transfer results are examined. Even though the roughness scales were hydraulically smooth, they induced significantly earlier transition onset, with the two-dimensional roughness causing earlier transition than three-dimensional roughness. All of the rough/smooth cases unexpectedly triggered earlier transition than rough/rough cases. This indicated that the scale of the step-change at the joint between two roughness scales was predominant over the downstream roughness on inducing early transition. Reducing the overall height of the step change was shown to have a greater effect on transition than the specific geometry of the roughness scale.

  8. Scale-4 analysis of pressurized water reactor critical configurations: Volume 5, North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.; Suto, T. |

    1996-10-01

    ANSI/ANS 8.1 requires that calculational methods for away-from- reactor (AFR) criticality safety analyses be validated against experiment. This report summarizes part of the ongoing effort to benchmark AFR criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial PWRs. Codes and data in the SCALE-4 code system were used. This volume documents the SCALE system analysis of one reactor critical configuration for North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5. The KENO V.a criticality calculations for the North Anna 1 Cycle 5 beginning-of-cycle model yielded a value for k{sub eff} of 1. 0040{+-}0.0005.

  9. Production of a national 1:1,000,000-scale hydrography dataset for the United States: feature selection, simplification, and refinement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gary, Robin H.; Wilson, Zachary D.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Thompson, Florence E.; Vrabel, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    During 2006-09, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Atlas of the United States, produced a 1:1,000,000-scale (1:1M) hydrography dataset comprising streams and waterbodies for the entire United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, for inclusion in the recompiled National Atlas. This report documents the methods used to select, simplify, and refine features in the 1:100,000-scale (1:100K) (1:63,360-scale in Alaska) National Hydrography Dataset to create the national 1:1M hydrography dataset. Custom tools and semi-automated processes were created to facilitate generalization of the 1:100K National Hydrography Dataset (1:63,360-scale in Alaska) to 1:1M on the basis of existing small-scale hydrography datasets. The first step in creating the new 1:1M dataset was to address feature selection and optimal data density in the streams network. Several existing methods were evaluated. The production method that was established for selecting features for inclusion in the 1:1M dataset uses a combination of the existing attributes and network in the National Hydrography Dataset and several of the concepts from the methods evaluated. The process for creating the 1:1M waterbodies dataset required a similar approach to that used for the streams dataset. Geometric simplification of features was the next step. Stream reaches and waterbodies indicated in the feature selection process were exported as new feature classes and then simplified using a geographic information system tool. The final step was refinement of the 1:1M streams and waterbodies. Refinement was done through the use of additional geographic information system tools.

  10. On the connection between the intergalactic medium and galaxies: the H I-galaxy cross-correlation at z ≲ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejos, Nicolas; Morris, Simon L.; Finn, Charles W.; Crighton, Neil H. M.; Bechtold, Jill; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Altay, Gabriel; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Ryan-Weber, Emma; Davé, Romeel

    2014-01-01

    We present a new optical spectroscopic survey of 1777 `star-forming' (`SF') and 366 `non-star-forming' (`non-SF') galaxies at redshifts z ˜ 0-1 (2143 in total), 22 AGN and 423 stars, observed by instruments such as the Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph, the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph and the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph, in three fields containing five quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ultraviolet spectroscopy. We also present a new spectroscopic survey of 173 `strong' (1014 ≤ NHI≲ 1017 cm-2) and 496 `weak' (1013 ≲ NHI < 1014 cm-2) intervening H I (Lyα) absorption-line systems at z ≲ 1 (669 in total), observed in the spectra of eight QSOs at z ˜ 1 by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and the Faint Object Spectrograph on the HST. Combining these new data with previously published galaxy catalogues such as the Very Large Telescope Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph Deep Survey and the Gemini Deep Deep Survey, we have gathered a sample of 654 H I absorption systems and 17 509 galaxies at transverse scales ≲50 Mpc, suitable for a two-point correlation function analysis. We present observational results on the H I-galaxy (ξag) and galaxy-galaxy (ξgg) correlations at transverse scales r⊥ ≲ 10 Mpc, and the H I-H I autocorrelation (ξaa) at transverse scales r⊥ ≲ 2 Mpc. The two-point correlation functions are measured both along and transverse to the line of sight, ξ(r⊥, r∥). We also infer the shape of their corresponding `real-space' correlation functions, ξ(r), from the projected along the line-of-sight correlations, assuming power laws of the form ξ(r) = (r/r0)-γ. Comparing the results from ξag, ξgg and ξaa, we constrain the H I-galaxy statistical connection, as a function of both H I column density and galaxy star formation activity. Our results are consistent with the following conclusions: (i) the bulk of H I systems on ˜ Mpc scales have little velocity dispersion (≲120 km s-1) with

  11. Local scale-invariance of the 2  +  1 dimensional Kardar–Parisi–Zhang model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelling, Jeffrey; Ódor, Géza; Gemming, Sibylle

    2017-03-01

    Local scale-invariance theory is tested by extensive dynamical simulations of the driven dimer lattice gas model, describing the surface growth of the 2  +  1 dimensional Kardar–Parisi–Zhang surfaces. Very precise measurements of the universal autoresponse function enabled us to perform nonlinear fitting with the scaling forms, suggested by local scale-invariance (LSI). While the simple LSI ansatz does not seem to work, forms based on logarithmic extension of LSI provide satisfactory description of the full (measured) time evolution of the autoresponse function.

  12. Evaluation of the First Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT 1) Full-Scale Crash Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annett, Martin S.; Littell, Justin D.; Jackson, Karen E.; Bark, Lindley W.; DeWeese, Rick L.; McEntire, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the NASA Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Program initiated the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program by obtaining two CH-46E helicopters from the Navy CH-46E Program Office (PMA-226) at the Navy Flight Readiness Center in Cherry Point, North Carolina. Full-scale crash tests were planned to assess dynamic responses of transport-category rotorcraft under combined horizontal and vertical impact loading. The first crash test (TRACT 1) was performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR), which enables the study of critical interactions between the airframe, seat, and occupant during a controlled crash environment. The CH-46E fuselage is categorized as a medium-lift rotorcraft with fuselage dimensions comparable to a regional jet or business jet. The first TRACT test (TRACT 1) was conducted in August 2013. The primary objectives for TRACT 1 were to: (1) assess improvements to occupant loads and displacement with the use of crashworthy features such as pre-tensioning active restraints and energy absorbing seats, (2) develop novel techniques for photogrammetric data acquisition to measure occupant and airframe kinematics, and (3) provide baseline data for future comparison with a retrofitted airframe configuration. Crash test conditions for TRACT 1 were 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocity onto soft soil, which represent a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. The extraordinary value of the TRACT 1 test was reflected by the breadth of meaningful experiments. A total of 8 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate ATD responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and photogrammetric techniques. A combination of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. Loads from ATDs in energy

  13. Flight Characteristics of a 1/4-Scale Model of the XFV-1 Airplane (TED No. NACA DE-378)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Mark W.; Smaus, Louis H.

    1952-01-01

    A l/4-scale dynamically similar model of the XFV-1 airplane has been flown in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel, using the trailing flight-cable technique. This investigation was devoted to establishing the flight characteristics of the model in forward flight from hovering to wing stall, and in yawed flight (wing span alined with the relative wind) from hovering to the maximum speed at which controlled flight could be maintained. Landings, take-offs, and hovering characteristics in flights close to the ground were also investigated.. Since the remote control system for the model was rather complicated and provided artificial damping about the pitch, roll, and yaw axes, sufficient data from the control-system calibration tests are included in this report to specify the performance of the control system in relation to both the model flight tests and the design of an automatic control system for the full-scale airplane. The model in hovering flight appeared to be neutrally stable. The response of the model to the controls was very rapid, and it was always necessary to provide some amount of artificial damping to maintain control. The model could be landed with little difficulty by hovering approximately a foot above the floor and then cutting the power. Take-offs were more difficult to perform, primarily because the rate of change in power to the model motors was limited by the characteristics of the available power source. The model was,capable of controlled yawed flight at translational velocities up to and including 20 feet per second. The effectiveness of the controls decreased with increasing speed, however, and at 25 fps control in pitch, and probably roll, was lost completely. The model was flown in controlled forward flight from hovering up to 70 fps. During these flights the model appeared to be more difficult to control in yaw than it was in pitch or roll. The flights of the model were recorded by motion picture cameras. These motion pictures are

  14. Impact studies of a 1/3-scale model of an air cushion vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of various parameters of the impact performance of a 1/3-scale dynamic model of an air cushion vehicle. Impact response was determined by measuring the maximum values of variables, including sidelobe, front lobe, and cavity pressures, normal acceleration, pitch and roll angles, and vertical displacement during impact, for various combinations of drop height, initial pitch and roll angles, and forward speed. Increasing initial pitch angle increased the maximum values of the front lobe pressure, normal acceleration, nose down pitch angle, and to some extent, vertical displacement, but it inversely affected the maximum cavity pressure. Increasing the drop height of the model increased the potential energy of the system and generally produced larger responses over the entire range of variables measured, except for the roll angle after impact, which remained constant. Forward speed had no effect on the impact performance of the model, except for essentially doubling the maximum nose down pitch angle after impact at the maximum speed tested.

  15. PROSPECTS FOR COLLIDERS AND COLLIDER PHYSICS TO THE 1 PEV ENERGY SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    KING,B.J.

    2000-05-05

    A review is given of the prospects for future colliders and collider physics at the energy frontier. A proof-of-plausibility scenario is presented for maximizing the authors progress in elementary particle physics by extending the energy reach of hadron and lepton colliders as quickly and economically as might be technically and financially feasible. The scenario comprises 5 colliders beyond the LHC--one each of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and hadron colliders and three {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders--and is able to hold to the historical rate of progress in the log-energy reach of hadron and lepton colliders, reaching the 1 PeV constituent mass scale by the early 2040's. The technical and fiscal requirements for the feasibility of the scenario are assessed and relevant long-term R and D projects are identified. Considerations of both cost and logistics seem to strongly favor housing most or all of the colliders in the scenario in a new world high energy physics laboratory.

  16. Sensitivity test of parameterizations of subgrid-scale orographic form drag in the NCAR CESM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yishuang; Wang, Lanning; Zhang, Guang Jun; Wu, Qizhong

    2016-08-01

    Turbulent drag caused by subgrid orographic form drag has significant effects on the atmosphere. It is represented through parameterization in large-scale numerical prediction models. An indirect parameterization scheme, the Turbulent Mountain Stress scheme (TMS), is currently used in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model v1.0.4. In this study we test a direct scheme referred to as BBW04 (Beljaars et al. in Q J R Meteorol Soc 130:1327-1347, 2004. doi: 10.1256/qj.03.73), which has been used in several short-term weather forecast models and earth system models. Results indicate that both the indirect and direct schemes increase surface wind stress and improve the model's performance in simulating low-level wind speed over complex orography compared to the simulation without subgrid orographic effect. It is shown that the TMS scheme produces a more intense wind speed adjustment, leading to lower wind speed near the surface. The low-level wind speed by the BBW04 scheme agrees better with the ERA-Interim reanalysis and is more sensitive to complex orography as a direct method. Further, the TMS scheme increases the 2-m temperature and planetary boundary layer height over large areas of tropical and subtropical Northern Hemisphere land.

  17. Safety analysis of the CSTR-1 bench-scale coal liquefaction unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hulburt, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the CSTR-1 bench scale unit located in Building 167 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. It was apparent that considerable effort was expended in the design and construction of the unit, and in the development of operating procedures, with regard to safety. Exhaust ventilation, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S monitoring, overpressure protection, overtemperature protection, and interlock systems have been provided. Present settings on the pressure and temperature safety systems are too high, however, to insure prevention of vessel deformation or damage in all cases. While the occurrence of catastrophic rupture of a system pressure vessel (e.g., reactor, high pressure separators) is unlikely, the potential consequences to personnel are severe. Feasibility of providing shielding for these components should be considered. A more probable mode of vessel failure in the event of overpressure or overtemperature and failure of the safety system is yielding of the closure bolts followed by high pressure flow across the mating surfaces. As a minimum, shielding should be designed to restrict travel of resultant spray. The requirements for personal protective equipment are presently stated in rather broad and general terms in the operating procedures. Safe practices and procedures would be more assured if specific requirements were stated and included for each operational step. Recommendations were developed for all hazards triggered by the guidelines.

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale powered model of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.; Freeman, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the effects of the main-rotor wake on the aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA). For the investigation, a 1/6-scale model with a four-blade articulated main rotor was used. Tests were conducted with and without the main rotor. Both the helicopter and the compound helicopter were tested. The latter configuration included the auxiliary thrust engines and the variable-incidence wing. Data were obtained over ranges of angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and main-rotor collective pitch angle at several main-rotor advance ratios. Results are presented for the total loads on the airframe as well as the loads on the rotor, the wing, and the tail. The results indicated that without the effect of the rotor wake, the RSRA had static longitudinal and directional stability and positive effective dihedral. With the effect of the main rotor and its wake, the RSRA exhibited longitudinal instability but retained static directional stability and positive effective dihedral.

  19. Large scale prop-fan structural design study. Volume 1: Initial concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, L. C.; Gruska, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Leishman, D. K.; Turnberg, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been directed toward improving aircraft fuel consumption. Studies have shown that the inherent efficiency advantage that turboprop propulsion systems have demonstrated at lower cruise speeds may now be extended to the higher speeds of today's turbofan and turbojet-powered aircraft. To achieve this goal, new propeller designs will require features such as thin, high speed airfoils and aerodynamic sweep, features currently found only in wing designs for high speed aircraft. This is Volume 1 of a 2 volume study to establish structural concepts for such advanced propeller blades, to define their structural properties, to identify any new design, analysis, or fabrication techniques which were required, and to determine the structural tradeoffs involved with several blade shapes selected primarily on the basis of aero/acoustic design considerations. The feasibility of fabricating and testing dynamically scaled models of these blades for aeroelastic testing was also established. The preliminary design of a blade suitable for flight use in a testbed advanced turboprop was conducted and is described in Volume 2.

  20. Wind tunnel test results of a 1/8-scale fan-in-wing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.; Gentry, Garl L.; Gorton, Susan A.

    1996-01-01

    A 1/8-scale model of a fan-in-wing concept considered for development by Grumman Aerospace Corporation for the U.S. Army was tested in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. Hover testing, which included height above a pressure-instrumented ground plane, angle of pitch, and angle of roll for a range of fan thrust, was conducted in a model preparation area near the tunnel. The air loads and surface pressures on the model were measured for several configurations in the model preparation area and in the tunnel. The major hover configuration change was varying the angles of the vanes attached to the exit of the fans for producing propulsive force. As the model height above the ground was decreased, there was a significant variation of thrust-removed normal force with constant fan speed. The greatest variation was generally for the height-to-fan exit diameter ratio of less than 2.5; the variation was reduced by deflecting fan exit flow outboard with the vanes. In the tunnel angles of pitch and sideslip, height above the tunnel floor, and wind speed were varied for a range of fan thrust and different vane angle configurations. Other configuration features such as flap deflections and tail incidence were evaluated as well. Though the V-tail empennage provided an increase in static longitudinal stability, the total model configuration remained unstable.

  1. Interferometric 30 m bench for calibrations of 1D scales and optical distance measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkuri, J.; Rantanen, A.; Manninen, J.; Esala, V.-P.; Lassila, A.

    2012-09-01

    During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for calibrations. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When calibrating optical distance measuring instruments, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for calibrations of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy calibrations is 2.6 µm.

  2. Aerobic bioremediation of 1,2 dichloroethane and vinyl chloride at field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Gregory B.; Patterson, Bradley M.; Johnston, Colin D.

    2009-06-01

    Aerobic bioremediation of 1,2 dichloroethane (1,2 DCA) and vinyl chloride (VC) was evaluated at field scale in a layered, silty and fine-sand anaerobic aquifer. Maximum concentrations of 1,2 DCA (2 g/L) and VC (0.75 g/L) in groundwater were within 25% and 70% of pure compound solubility, respectively. Aerobic conditions were induced by injecting air into sparging wells screened 20.5-21.5 m below ground (17-18 m below the water table). Using a cycle of 23 h of air injection followed by three days of no air injection, fifty days of air injection were accumulated over a 12 month period which included some longer periods of operational shutdown. Oxygen and volatile organic compound probes, and multilevel samplers were used to determine changes of the primary contaminants and the associated inorganic chemistry at multiple locations and depths. Air (oxygen) was distributed laterally up to 25 m from the sparge points, with oxygen partial pressures up to 0.7 atmospheres (28-35 mg/L in groundwater) near to the sparge points. The dissolved mass of 1,2 DCA and VC was reduced by greater than 99% over the 590 m 2 trial plot. Significantly, pH declined from nearly 11 to less than 9, and sulfate concentrations increased dramatically, suggesting the occurrence of mineral sulfide (e.g., pyrite) oxidation. Chloride and bicarbonate (aerobic biodegradation by-products) concentration increases were used to estimate that 300-1000 kg of chlorinated hydrocarbons were biodegraded, although the ratio of 1,2 DCA to VC that was biodegraded remained uncertain. The mass biodegraded was comparable but less than the 400-1400 kg of chlorinated compounds removed from the aqueous phase within a 10,000 m 3 volume of the aquifer. Due to the likely presence of non-aqueous phase liquid, the relative proportion of volatilisation compared to biodegradation could not be determined. The aerobic biodegradation rates were greater than those previously estimated from laboratory-based studies.

  3. The multi-scale 3D-1D compatibility scoring for inverse protein folding problem

    SciTech Connect

    Oniuka, Kentaro; Asai, Kiyoshi

    1994-12-31

    The applicability of the Multi-Scale Structure Description (MSSD) scheme to the inverse-folding problems was investigated. An MSSD represents a 3D protein structure with multiple symbolic sequences, where fine structures are represented with the sequence at low levels, the middle scale structural motifs at middle levels, and global topology at high levels. Each symbol in the symbolic sequence denotes a type of local structure of the level scale. The structure fragments are classified at each scale level respectively according to the shape and the environment around the fragments: how the structure is exposed to the solvent or buried in the molecule. I modeled the propensity of an amino-acid sequence to the structure fragment type (i.e., primary constraint) at each scale level. The local propensity is, therefore, modeled at small scale (low) levels, while the global propensity modeled at large scale (high) levels. Thus, superposing all the primary constraints, a 3D protein structure yields an amino-acid sequence profile. Evaluating the fit of an amino acid sequence to the profile derived from the known 3D protein structure, we can identify which 3D structure the given amino-acid sequence would fold into. I checked whether a sequence identifies its own structure over two hundred protein sequences. In many cases, an amino acid sequence identified its own 3D protein structure.

  4. A Comparison of Pressure Measurements Between a Full-Scale and a 1/6-Scale F/A-18 Twin Tail During Buffet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.; Pendleton, Ed

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, tail buffet tests were performed on a full-scale, production model F/A-18 in the 80 x 120-foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Steady and unsteady pressures were recorded on both sides of the starboard vertical tail for an angle-of-attack range of 20 to 40 degrees and at a sideslip range of -1 6 to 16 degrees at freestream velocities up to 100 knots (Mach 0.15, Reynolds number 1.23 x 10(exp 7). The aircraft was equipped with removable leading edge extension (LEX) fences that are used in flight to reduce tail buffet loads. In 1995, tail buffet tests were performed on a 1/6-scale F-18 A/B model in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at NASA Langley Research Center. Steady and unsteady pressures were recorded on both sides of both vertical tails for an angle-of-attack range of 7 to 37 degrees at freestream velocities up to 65 knots (Mach 0.10). Comparisons of steady and unsteady pressures and root bending moments are presented for these wind-tunnel models for selected test cases. Representative pressure and root bending moment power spectra are also discussed, as are selected pressure cross-spectral densities.

  5. Design, construction, and evaluation of a 1:8 scale model binaural manikin.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Philip; Xiang, Ning

    2013-03-01

    Many experiments in architectural acoustics require presenting listeners with simulations of different rooms to compare. Acoustic scale modeling is a feasible means to create accurate simulations of many rooms at reasonable cost. A critical component in a scale model room simulation is a receiver that properly emulates a human receiver. For this purpose, a scale model artificial head has been constructed and tested. This paper presents the design and construction methods used, proper equalization procedures, and measurements of its response. A headphone listening experiment examining sound externalization with various reflection conditions is presented that demonstrates its use for psycho-acoustic testing.

  6. 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer (MPC)-coating improves the transfection activity of GALA-modified lipid nanoparticles by assisting the cellular uptake and intracellular dissociation of plasmid DNA in primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, Masami; Akita, Hidetaka; Masuda, Tomoya; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Konno, Tomohiro; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2010-08-01

    We previously reported that modification of GALA peptide on the surface of liposomes enhanced fusion with endosomal membrane, and cytoplasmic release of encapsulated macromolecules. We report herein that an additional coating of GALA-modified liposomes with 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer resulted in a two order of magnitude enhancement in the transfection activity of encapsulating plasmid DNA (pDNA). Quantification of the delivered gene copies in whole cells and isolated nuclei revealed that the increase of transfection activity can be attributed to improved efficiencies in cellular uptake and post-nuclear delivery processes. Imaging studies revealed that the intracellular dissociation of pDNA from the lipid envelope is enhanced by GALA modification and further coating with MPC polymer in a stepwise manner. The MPC polymer-coating decreased the zeta-potential of GALA-modified liposomes, suggesting that it assisted in the functional display of negatively charged GALA on the cationic liposomes by providing shielding from mutual electrostatic interactions. Collectively, these data indicate that MPC polymer-coating induced the fusogenic activity of the GALA-modified envelope with endosomes, leading to a more effective cytoplasmic release pDNA. The extensive fusion of the lipid envelope may also reduce electrostatic interactions between mRNA and cationic lipid components, thereby resulting in an enhancement in the translation process.

  7. Scale up tools in reactive extrusion and compounding processes. Could 1D-computer modeling be helpful?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradel, J.-L.; David, C.; Quinebèche, S.; Blondel, P.

    2014-05-01

    Industrial scale-up (or scale down) in Compounding and Reactive Extrusion processes is one of the most critical R&D challenges. Indeed, most of High Performances Polymers are obtained within a reactive compounding involving chemistry: free radical grafting, in situ compatibilization, rheology control... but also side reactions: oxidation, branching, chain scission... As described by basic Arrhenius and kinetics laws, the competition between all chemical reactions depends on residence time distribution and temperature. Then, to ensure the best possible scale up methodology, we need tools to match thermal history of the formulation along the screws from a lab scale twin screw extruder to an industrial one. This paper proposes a comparison between standard scale-up laws and the use of Computer modeling Software such as Ludovic® applied and compared to experimental data. Scaling data from a compounding line to another one, applying general rules (for example at constant specific mechanical energy), shows differences between experimental and computed data, and error depends on the screw speed range. For more accurate prediction, 1D-Computer Modeling could be used to optimize the process conditions to ensure the best scale-up product, especially in temperature sensitive reactive extrusion processes. When the product temperature along the screws is the key, Ludovic® software could help to compute the temperature profile along the screws and extrapolate conditions, even screw profile, on industrial extruders.

  8. The technological influence on health professionals' care: translation and adaptation of scales1

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Carlos Manuel Torres; Almeida, Filipe Nuno Alves dos Santos; Escola, Joaquim José Jacinto; Rodrigues, Vitor Manuel Costa Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: in this study, two research tools were validated to study the impact of technological influence on health professionals' care practice. Methods: the following methodological steps were taken: bibliographic review, selection of the scales, translation and cultural adaptation and analysis of psychometric properties. Results: the psychometric properties of the scale were assessed based on its application to a sample of 341 individuals (nurses, physicians, final-year nursing and medical students). The validity, reliability and internal consistency were tested. Two scales were found: Caring Attributes Questionnaire (adapted) with a Cronbach's Alpha coefficient of 0.647 and the Technological Influence Questionnaire (adapted) with an Alpha coefficient of 0.777. Conclusions: the scales are easy to apply and reveal reliable psychometric properties, an additional quality as they permit generalized studies on a theme as important as the impact of technological influence in health care. PMID:27143537

  9. Root Systems Biology: Integrative Modeling across Scales, from Gene Regulatory Networks to the Rhizosphere1

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kristine; Porco, Silvana; Lobet, Guillaume; Zappala, Susan; Mooney, Sacha; Draye, Xavier; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic and genomic approaches in model organisms have advanced our understanding of root biology over the last decade. Recently, however, systems biology and modeling have emerged as important approaches, as our understanding of root regulatory pathways has become more complex and interpreting pathway outputs has become less intuitive. To relate root genotype to phenotype, we must move beyond the examination of interactions at the genetic network scale and employ multiscale modeling approaches to predict emergent properties at the tissue, organ, organism, and rhizosphere scales. Understanding the underlying biological mechanisms and the complex interplay between systems at these different scales requires an integrative approach. Here, we describe examples of such approaches and discuss the merits of developing models to span multiple scales, from network to population levels, and to address dynamic interactions between plants and their environment. PMID:24143806

  10. Relationship of L1 Skills and L2 Aptitude to L2 Anxiety on the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) has been challenged on the grounds that it may also assess language learning skills. In this study, 128 students who had been administered measures of first language (L1) skills in elementary school were followed from 1st to 10th grade. Fifty-three students had completed second language (L2)…

  11. Wind-tunnel tests of a 1/4 scale model of the Bell XS-1 transonic airplane. 1: Longitudinal stability and control characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, C. J.; Kemp, W. B., Jr.; Polhamus, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    A 1/4 scale model of the Bell XS-1 transonic aircraft was tested in the Langley 300 mile-per-hour 7 by 10 foot tunnel to determine its low speed longitudinal stability and control characteristics. Pertinent longitudinal flying qualities expected of the XS-1 research airplane were estimated from the results of these tests including the effects of compressibility likely to be encountered at speeds below the force break. It appears that the static longitudinal stability and elevator control power will be adequate, but that the elevator control force gradient in steady flight will be undesirably low for all configurations. It is suggested that a centering spring be incorporated in the elevator control system of the airplane in order to increase the control force gradient in steady flight and in maneuvers.

  12. Analysis of Multi-Scale Radiometric Data Collected during the Cold Land Processes Experiment-1 (CLPX-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, M.; Kim, E. J.; Gasiewski, A.; Stankov, B.

    2005-01-01

    Brightness temperature maps at 18.7 and 37 GHz collected at the Fraser and North Park Meso-Scale Areas during the Cold Land Processes Experiment by the NOAA Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSWA) airborne sensor are analyzed. The Fraser site is mostly covered by forest with a typical snowpack depth of 1 m while North Park has no forest cover and is characterized by patches of shallow snow. We examine histograms of the brightness temperatures at 500 m resolution for both the Fraser and North Park areas. The histograms can be modelled by a log-normal distribution in the case of the Fraser MSA and by a bi-modal distribution in the case of the North Park MSA. The histograms of the brightness temperatures at coarser resolutions are also plotted to study the effects of sensor resolution on the shape of the distribution, on the values of the average brightness temperatures and standard deviations. Finally, the values of brightness temperatures obtained by re-sampling (aggregating) the data at 25 km resolution are compared with the values of the brightness temperatures collected by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSMII) satellite radiometers. The results show that in both areas for sensor footprint larger than 5000 m, the brightness temperatures show a flat distribution and the memory of the initial distribution is lost. The values of the brightness temperatures measured by the satellite radiometers are in good agreement with the values obtained averaging the airborne data, even if some discrepancies occur.

  13. Developing the Psychological Strain Scales (PSS): Reliability, Validity, and Preliminary Hypothesis Tests1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Juncheng; Zhao, Sibo; Lamis, Dorian A.; Li, Ning; Kong, Yuanyuan; Jia, Cunxian; Zhou, Li; Ma, Zhenyu

    2012-01-01

    Since its inception, the Strain Theory of Suicide has been tested and supported in a number of empirical studies. This social psychological theory can be employed as a complementary conceptualization to account for suicidal behaviors as well as mental disorders. However, the lack of consistent measurements of the strains limits the application of the theory in scientific research. Our research team has developed such scales for future testing of the Strain Theory of Suicide in a more systematic approach. For the initial items to measure the four strains (value, aspiration, deprivation, and coping), we solicited approximately 40 items for each strain with high face validity by about 30 fellow researchers. A preliminary examination of about 160 items for consistency and validity, with a sample of about 300 college students, yielded 20 consistent items for each of the four strain scales. Then, a second study was conducted at a different university with approximately 500 students to further streamline each of the four strain scales and test the validity of each with corresponding established scales and variables. As a result, 15 items were selected for each of the four Psychological Strain Scales (PSS). In correlation and multiple regression analyses, we found support for the hypotheses regarding the positive associations between psychological strains measured by the PSS and psychopathology including suicidal ideation. Follow up research with the new scales needs to be carried out in order to test the effects of psychological strains on suicide and mental disorders for various populations. PMID:24443628

  14. Data from Tests of a 1/5-Scale Model of a Proposed High-Speed Submarine in the Langley Full-Scale Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocke, Bennie W.; Lipson, Stanley; Scallion, William I.

    1950-01-01

    Tests of a 1/5 scale model of a proposed 153-foot high-speed submarine have been conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel at the request of the Bureau of Ships, Department of the Navy. The test program included: (1) force tests to determine the drag, control effectiveness, and static stability characteristics for a number of model configurations, both in pitch and in yaw, (2) pressure measurements to determine the boundary-layer conditions and flow characteristics in the region of the propeller, and (3) an investigation of the effects of propeller operation on the model aerodynamic characteristics. In response to oral requests from the Bureau of Ships representatives t hat the basic data obtained in these tests be made available to them as rapidly as possible, this data report has been prepared to present some of the more pertinent results. All test results given in the present paper are for the propeller-removed condition and were obtained at a Reynolds number of approximately 22,300,000 based on model length.

  15. The effect of large scale inhomogeneities on the luminosity distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouzakis, Nikolaos; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Eleftheria

    2007-02-01

    We study the form of the luminosity distance as a function of redshift in the presence of large scale inhomogeneities, with sizes of order 10 Mpc or larger. We approximate the Universe through the Swiss-cheese model, with each spherical region described by the Lemaitre Tolman Bondi metric. We study the propagation of light beams in this background, assuming that the locations of the source and the observer are random. We derive the optical equations for the evolution of the beam area and shear. Through their integration we determine the configurations that can lead to an increase of the luminosity distance relative to the homogeneous cosmology. We find that this can be achieved if the Universe is composed of spherical void-like regions, with matter concentrated near their surface. For inhomogeneities consistent with the observed large scale structure, the relative increase of the luminosity distance is of the order of a few per cent at redshifts near 1, and falls short of explaining the substantial increase required by the supernova data. On the other hand, the effect we describe is important for the correct determination of the energy content of the Universe from observations.

  16. Weak gravitational lensing due to large-scale structure of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaroszynski, Michal; Park, Changbom; Paczynski, Bohdan; Gott, J. Richard, III

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the large-scale structure of the universe on the propagation of light rays is studied. The development of the large-scale density fluctuations in the omega = 1 universe is calculated within the cold dark matter scenario using a smooth particle approximation. The propagation of about 10 to the 6th random light rays between the redshift z = 5 and the observer was followed. It is found that the effect of shear is negligible, and the amplification of single images is dominated by the matter in the beam. The spread of amplifications is very small. Therefore, the filled-beam approximation is very good for studies of strong lensing by galaxies or clusters of galaxies. In the simulation, the column density was averaged over a comoving area of approximately (1/h Mpc)-squared. No case of a strong gravitational lensing was found, i.e., no 'over-focused' image that would suggest that a few images might be present. Therefore, the large-scale structure of the universe as it is presently known does not produce multiple images with gravitational lensing on a scale larger than clusters of galaxies.

  17. KPC-SCALE STUDY OF SUBSTRUCTURES INSIDE GALAXIES out to z ~ 1.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Mobasher, B.; Miller, S.; Nayyeri, H.

    2014-01-01

    Studying the resolved properties of galaxies in kpc scale has the capability to address major questions in galaxy structure formation and stellar properties evolution. We use a unique sample of 129 morphologically inclusive disk-like galaxies in the redshift range 0.21.3, spread over both GOODS fields with available dynamics from the Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) on the KECK II telescope, with extended integration times leading to significant improvements in determining rotational velocity for each galaxy. We take advantage of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS and WFC3 mosaics from the CANDELS program, to perform SED modeling per resolution element in each galaxy and produce resolved rest-frame (U-V) color, stellar mass, star formation rate, age and extinction map for each galaxy. We analyze the effect of changing the Metallicity from solar to sub-solar on all our measurements. We identify red and blue regions inside galaxies based on their rest-frame (U-V) color maps with an innovative method. We show that red regions have higher stellar masses and older ages compared to the blue regions in galaxies. We also demonstrate that red regions are on average closer to the center of the galaxy than the blue regions and their spatial distance does not show a significant evolution with redshift and stellar mass of the host galaxy. Investigating the specific star formation rate evolution with redshift and dynamical mass, we notice that the evolutions in the whole galaxies are in perfect agreement with predictions from theory and previous observations. Blue regions show significantly higher sSFR and also higher slopes with redshift and dynamical mass compared to the whole galaxies and red regions are below the well-defined relation for the main sequence of star forming galaxies.

  18. Degree-scale cosmic microwave background polarization measurements from three years of BICEP1 data

    SciTech Connect

    Barkats, D.; Aikin, R.; Bock, J. J.; Filippini, J.; Hristov, V. V.; Bischoff, C.; Buder, I.; Kovac, J. M.; Kaufman, J. P.; Keating, B. G.; Bierman, E. M.; Su, M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Battle, J. O.; Dowell, C. D.; Chiang, H. C.; Duband, L.; Hivon, E. F.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Jones, W. C.; and others

    2014-03-10

    BICEP1 is a millimeter-wavelength telescope designed specifically to measure the inflationary B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background at degree angular scales. We present results from an analysis of the data acquired during three seasons of observations at the South Pole (2006-2008). This work extends the two-year result published in Chiang et al., with additional data from the third season and relaxed detector-selection criteria. This analysis also introduces a more comprehensive estimation of band power window functions, improved likelihood estimation methods, and a new technique for deprojecting monopole temperature-to-polarization leakage that reduces this class of systematic uncertainty to a negligible level. We present maps of temperature, E- and B-mode polarization, and their associated angular power spectra. The improvement in the map noise level and polarization spectra error bars are consistent with the 52% increase in integration time relative to Chiang et al. We confirm both self-consistency of the polarization data and consistency with the two-year results. We measure the angular power spectra at 21 ≤ ℓ ≤ 335 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with Lambda cold dark matter cosmology, with the first acoustic peak of the EE spectrum now detected at 15σ. The BB spectrum remains consistent with zero. From B-modes only, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r=0.03{sub −0.23}{sup +0.27}, or r < 0.70 at 95% confidence level.

  19. 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft in Flow Visualization Facility (FVF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This image shows a plastic 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft inside the 'Water Tunnel' more formally known as the NASA Dryden Flow Visualization Facility. Water is pumped through the tunnel in the direction of normal airflow over the aircraft; then, colored dyes are pumped through tubes with needle valves. The dyes flow back along the airframe and over the airfoils highlighting their aerodynamic characteristics. The aircraft can also be moved through its pitch axis to observe airflow disruptions while simulating actual flight at high angles of attack. The Water Tunnel at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, became operational in 1983 when Dryden was a Flight Research Facility under the management of the Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. As a medium for visualizing fluid flow, water has played a significant role. Its use dates back to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), the Renaissance Italian engineer, architect, painter, and sculptor. In more recent times, water tunnels have assisted the study of complex flows and flow-field interactions on aircraft shapes that generate strong vortex flows. Flow visualization in water tunnels assists in determining the strength of vortices, their location, and possible methods of controlling them. The design of the Dryden Water Tunnel imitated that of the Northrop Corporation's tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. Called the Flow Visualization Facility, the Dryden tunnel was built to assist researchers in understanding the aerodynamics of aircraft configured in such a way that they create strong vortex flows, particularly at high angles of attack. The tunnel provides results that compare well with data from aircraft in actual flight in another fluid-air. Other uses of the tunnel have included study of how such flight hardware as antennas, probes, pylons, parachutes, and experimental fixtures affect airflow. The facility has also been helpful in finding the best locations for emitting smoke from flight vehicles for flow

  20. 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft in Flow Visualization Facility (FVF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This short movie clip shows a plastic 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft inside the 'Water Tunnel' more formally known as the NASA Dryden Flow Visualization Facility. Water is pumped through the tunnel in the direction of normal airflow over the aircraft; then, colored dyes are pumped through tubes with needle valves. The dyes flow back along the airframe and over the airfoils highlighting their aerodynamic characteristics. The aircraft can also be moved through its pitch axis to observe airflow disruptions while simulating actual flight at high angles of attack. The Water Tunnel at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, became operational in 1983 when Dryden was a Flight Research Facility under the management of the Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. As a medium for visualizing fluid flow, water has played a significant role. Its use dates back to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), the Renaissance Italian engineer, architect, painter, and sculptor. In more recent times, water tunnels have assisted the study of complex flows and flow-field interactions on aircraft shapes that generate strong vortex flows. Flow visualization in water tunnels assists in determining the strength of vortices, their location, and possible methods of controlling them. The design of the Dryden Water Tunnel imitated that of the Northrop Corporation's tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. Called the Flow Visualization Facility, the Dryden tunnel was built to assist researchers in understanding the aerodynamics of aircraft configured in such a way that they create strong vortex flows, particularly at high angles of attack. The tunnel provides results that compare well with data from aircraft in actual flight in another fluid-air. Other uses of the tunnel have included study of how such flight hardware as antennas, probes, pylons, parachutes, and experimental fixtures affect airflow. The facility has also been helpful in finding the best locations for emitting smoke from flight vehicles

  1. QSAR Modeling Using Large-Scale Databases: Case Study for HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tarasova, Olga A; Urusova, Aleksandra F; Filimonov, Dmitry A; Nicklaus, Marc C; Zakharov, Alexey V; Poroikov, Vladimir V

    2015-07-27

    Large-scale databases are important sources of training sets for various QSAR modeling approaches. Generally, these databases contain information extracted from different sources. This variety of sources can produce inconsistency in the data, defined as sometimes widely diverging activity results for the same compound against the same target. Because such inconsistency can reduce the accuracy of predictive models built from these data, we are addressing the question of how best to use data from publicly and commercially accessible databases to create accurate and predictive QSAR models. We investigate the suitability of commercially and publicly available databases to QSAR modeling of antiviral activity (HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibition). We present several methods for the creation of modeling (i.e., training and test) sets from two, either commercially or freely available, databases: Thomson Reuters Integrity and ChEMBL. We found that the typical predictivities of QSAR models obtained using these different modeling set compilation methods differ significantly from each other. The best results were obtained using training sets compiled for compounds tested using only one method and material (i.e., a specific type of biological assay). Compound sets aggregated by target only typically yielded poorly predictive models. We discuss the possibility of "mix-and-matching" assay data across aggregating databases such as ChEMBL and Integrity and their current severe limitations for this purpose. One of them is the general lack of complete and semantic/computer-parsable descriptions of assay methodology carried by these databases that would allow one to determine mix-and-matchability of result sets at the assay level.

  2. Rantiga Osservatorio, Tincana (MPC-D03): Observations and searching for small Solar System bodies using a remotely controlled telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolnowski, M.; Kusiak, M.

    2014-07-01

    Rantiga Osservatorio is the first Polish project aimed at discovering and observing small solar-system objects, including near-Earth objects and comets. The observatory officially started in March 2012, as a result of cooperation between two amateur astronomers: Michal Zolnowski and Michal Kusiak. Subsequently, our station received official designation D03 assigned by the IAU's Minor Planet Center. The equipment is installed in northern Italy, on the border between Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany, in the small village of Tincana at an altitude of 643 m. The heart of the observatory is a 0.4-meter reflector f/3.8, mounted on Paramount ME and CCD camera SBIG STX-16803. The equipment is controlled by an industrial computer connected to the internet, and software allowing for automation and remote control of the telescope from Poland. It is also the first Polish amateur observatory which has been used for the discoveries of potentially new asteroids since 1949. Between 2012 and 2013, Rantiga Osservatorio made it possible to submit over 13,000 astrometric measurements of 3,500 asteroids, and we also reported 1,151 candidates for potentially unknown objects. During our presentation, we would like to introduce details of design and several enhancements to allow a convenient and safe way to control an observing session from anywhere in the world using a smartphone.

  3. A coarse grained perturbation theory for the Large Scale Structure, with cosmology and time independence in the UV

    SciTech Connect

    Manzotti, Alessandro; Peloso, Marco; Pietroni, Massimo; Viel, Matteo; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco E-mail: peloso@physics.umn.edu E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it

    2014-09-01

    Standard cosmological perturbation theory (SPT) for the Large Scale Structure (LSS) of the Universe fails at small scales (UV) due to strong nonlinearities and to multistreaming effects. In ref. [1] a new framework was proposed in which the large scales (IR) are treated perturbatively while the information on the UV, mainly small scale velocity dispersion, is obtained by nonlinear methods like N-body simulations. Here we develop this approach, showing that it is possible to reproduce the fully nonlinear power spectrum (PS) by combining a simple (and fast) 1-loop computation for the IR scales and the measurement of a single, dominant, correlator from N-body simulations for the UV ones. We measure this correlator for a suite of seven different cosmologies, and we show that its inclusion in our perturbation scheme reproduces the fully non-linear PS with percent level accuracy, for wave numbers up to k∼ 0.4 h Mpc{sup -1} down to 0z=. We then show that, once this correlator has been measured in a given cosmology, there is no need to run a new simulation for a different cosmology in the suite. Indeed, by rescaling this correlator by a proper function computable in SPT, the reconstruction procedure works also for the other cosmologies and for all redshifts, with comparable accuracy. Finally, we clarify the relation of this approach to the Effective Field Theory methods recently proposed in the LSS context.

  4. Modelling large-scale halo bias using the bispectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, Jennifer E.; Smith, Robert E.; Porciani, Cristiano

    2012-03-01

    We study the relation between the density distribution of tracers for large-scale structure and the underlying matter distribution - commonly termed bias - in the Λ cold dark matter framework. In particular, we examine the validity of the local model of biasing at quadratic order in the matter density. This model is characterized by parameters b1 and b2. Using an ensemble of N-body simulations, we apply several statistical methods to estimate the parameters. We measure halo and matter fluctuations smoothed on various scales. We find that, whilst the fits are reasonably good, the parameters vary with smoothing scale. We argue that, for real-space measurements, owing to the mixing of wavemodes, no smoothing scale can be found for which the parameters are independent of smoothing. However, this is not the case in Fourier space. We measure halo and halo-mass power spectra and from these construct estimates of the effective large-scale bias as a guide for b1. We measure the configuration dependence of the halo bispectra Bhhh and reduced bispectra Qhhh for very large-scale k-space triangles. From these data, we constrain b1 and b2, taking into account the full bispectrum covariance matrix. Using the lowest order perturbation theory, we find that for Bhhh the best-fitting parameters are in reasonable agreement with one another as the triangle scale is varied, although the fits become poor as smaller scales are included. The same is true for Qhhh. The best-fitting values were found to depend on the discreteness correction. This led us to consider halo-mass cross-bispectra. The results from these statistics supported our earlier findings. We then developed a test to explore whether the inconsistency in the recovered bias parameters could be attributed to missing higher order corrections in the models. We prove that low-order expansions are not sufficiently accurate to model the data, even on scales k1˜ 0.04 h Mpc-1. If robust inferences concerning bias are to be drawn

  5. Pilot scale production of the vaccine adjuvant Proteoliposome derived Cochleates (AFCo1) from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The use of new adjuvants in vaccine formulations is a subject of current research. Only few parenteral adjuvants have been licensed. We have developed a mucosal and parenteral adjuvant known as AFCo1 (Adjuvant Finlay Cochleate 1, derived from proteoliposomes of N. meningitidis B) using a dialysis procedure to produce them on lab scale. The immunogenicity of the AFCo1 produced by dialysis has been already evaluated, but it was necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of a larger-scale manufacturing process. Therefore, we used a crossflow diafiltration system (CFS) that allows easy scale up to obtain large batches in an aseptic environment. The aim of this work was to produce AFCo1 on pilot scale, while conserving the adjuvant properties. The proteoliposomes (raw material) were resuspended in a buffer containing sodium deoxycholate and were transformed into AFCo1 under the action of a calcium forming buffer. The detergent was removed from the protein solution by diafiltration to a constant volume. In this CFS, we used a hollow fiber cartridge from Amicon (polysulfona cartridge of 10 kDa porosity, 1mm channel diameter of fiber and 0.45 m2 area of filtration), allowing production of a batch of up to 20 L. AFCo1 were successfully produced by tangential filtration to pilot scale. The batch passed preliminary stability tests. Nasal immunization of BALB/c mice, induced specific saliva IgA and serum IgG. The induction of Th1 responses were demonstrated by the induction of IgG2a, IFNγ and not IL-5. The adjuvant action over Neisseria (self) antigens and with co-administered (heterologous) antigens such as ovalbumin and a synthetic peptide from haemolytic Streptococcus B was also demonstrated. PMID:23458578

  6. Pilot scale production of the vaccine adjuvant Proteoliposome derived Cochleates (AFCo1) from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Caridad; González, Domingo; Acevedo, Reinaldo; del Campo, Judith; Lastre, Miriam; González, Elizabeth; Romeu, Belkis; Cuello, Maribel; Balboa, Julio; Cabrera, Osmir; Guilherme, Luisa; Pérez, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The use of new adjuvants in vaccine formulations is a subject of current research. Only few parenteral adjuvants have been licensed. We have developed a mucosal and parenteral adjuvant known as AFCo1 (Adjuvant Finlay Cochleate 1, derived from proteoliposomes of N. meningitidis B) using a dialysis procedure to produce them on lab scale. The immunogenicity of the AFCo1 produced by dialysis has been already evaluated, but it was necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of a larger-scale manufacturing process. Therefore, we used a crossflow diafiltration system (CFS) that allows easy scale up to obtain large batches in an aseptic environment. The aim of this work was to produce AFCo1 on pilot scale, while conserving the adjuvant properties. The proteoliposomes (raw material) were resuspended in a buffer containing sodium deoxycholate and were transformed into AFCo1 under the action of a calcium forming buffer. The detergent was removed from the protein solution by diafiltration to a constant volume. In this CFS, we used a hollow fiber cartridge from Amicon (polysulfona cartridge of 10 kDa porosity, 1mm channel diameter of fiber and 0.45 m² area of filtration), allowing production of a batch of up to 20 L. AFCo1 were successfully produced by tangential filtration to pilot scale. The batch passed preliminary stability tests. Nasal immunization of BALB/c mice, induced specific saliva IgA and serum IgG. The induction of Th1 responses were demonstrated by the induction of IgG2a, IFNγ and not IL-5. The adjuvant action over Neisseria (self) antigens and with co-administered (heterologous) antigens such as ovalbumin and a synthetic peptide from haemolytic Streptococcus B was also demonstrated.

  7. 17.1%-Efficient Multi-Scale-Textured Black Silicon Solar Cells without Dielectric Antireflection Coating: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Toor, F.; Page, M. R.; Branz, H. M.; Yuan, H. C.

    2011-07-01

    In this work we present 17.1%-efficient p-type single crystal Si solar cells with a multi-scale-textured surface and no dielectric antireflection coating. Multi-scale texturing is achieved by a gold-nanoparticle-assisted nanoporous etch after conventional micron scale KOH-based pyramid texturing (pyramid black etching). By incorporating geometric enhancement of antireflection, this multi-scale texturing reduces the nanoporosity depth required to make silicon 'black' compared to nanoporous planar surfaces. As a result, it improves short-wavelength spectral response (blue response), previously one of the major limiting factors in 'black-Si' solar cells. With multi-scale texturing, the spectrum-weighted average reflectance from 350- to 1000-nm wavelength is below 2% with a 100-nm deep nanoporous layer. In comparison, roughly 250-nm deep nanopores are needed to achieve similar reflectance on planar surface. Here, we characterize surface morphology, reflectivity and solar cell performance of the multi-scale textured solar cells.

  8. Propeller propulsion integration, phase 1. [conducted in langley 30 by 60 foot full scale wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, G.; Koenig, K.; Miley, S. J.; Mcwhorter, J.; Wells, G.

    1981-01-01

    A bibliography was compiled of all readily available sources of propeller analytical and experimental studies conducted during the 1930 through 1960 period. A propeller test stand was developed for the measurement of thrust and torque characteristics of full scale general aviation propellers and installed in the LaRC 30 x 60 foot full scale wind tunnel. A tunnel entry was made during the January through February 1980 period. Several propellers were tested, but unforseen difficulties with the shaft thrust torque balance severely degraded the data quality.

  9. Utility-Scale Future, Continuum Magazine: Clean Energy Innovation at NREL, Spring 2011, Issue 1 Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    This quarterly magazine is dedicated to stepping beyond the technical journals to reveal NREL's vital work in a real-world context for our stakeholders. Continuum provides insights into the latest and most impactful clean energy innovations, while spotlighting those talented researchers and unique facilities that make it all happen. This edition focuses on creating a utility-scale future.

  10. Lars Onsager Prize Talk: 1+1d conformal field theories as natural languages for asymptotically large-scale quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedan, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    An abstract argument is offered that the ideal physical systems for asymptotically large-scale quantum computers are near-critical quantum circuits, critical in the bulk, whose bulk universality classes are described by 1+1d conformal field theories. One in particular -- the Monster conformal field theory -- is especially ideal, because all of its bulk couplings are irrelevant.

  11. Evidence for a common scale O(0.1) m that controls seabed scattering and reverberation in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Holland, Charles W

    2012-10-01

    Analysis of the spectral content of long-range reverberation yields two observations. First, there is a remarkably similar scale, O(0.1) m, between three diverse continental shelf regions. This is surprising given the complexity and diversity of geologic processes. Second, there is strong evidence that the scale is associated with heterogeneities within the sediment. Thus, sediment volume scattering, not interface scattering, controls long-range reverberation from a few hundred hertz to several kilohertz. This is also unexpected given that at long ranges the vertical grazing angles are less than the critical angle, and hence the penetration of the acoustic field into the sub-bottom is expected to be modest. The consistency of the scale, O(0.1) m, suggests an underlying feature or mechanism that is consistent across many ostensibly diverse geological settings. Neither the feature nor mechanism is known at this time.

  12. Episiotomy healing assessment: Redness, Oedema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA) scale reliability1

    PubMed Central

    Alvarenga, Marina Barreto; Francisco, Adriana Amorim; de Oliveira, Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos; da Silva, Flora Maria Barbosa; Shimoda, Gilcéria Tochika; Damiani, Lucas Petri

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyse the Redness, Oedema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA) scale reliability when evaluating perineal healing after a normal delivery with a right mediolateral episiotomy. METHOD: observational study based on data from a clinical trial conducted with 54 randomly selected women, who had their perineal healing assessed at four time points, from 6 hours to 10 days after delivery, by nurses trained in the use of this scale. The kappa coefficient was used in the reliability analysis of the REEDA scale. RESULTS: the results indicate good agreement in the evaluation of the discharge item (0.75< Kappa ≥0.88), marginal and good agreement in the first three assessments of oedema (0.16< Kappa ≥0.46), marginal agreement in the evaluation of ecchymosis (0.25< Kappa ≥0.42) and good agreement regarding redness (0.46< Kappa ≥0.66). For the item coaptation, the agreement decreased from excellent in the first assessment to good in the last assessment. In the fourth evaluation, the assessment of all items displayed excellent or good agreement among the evaluators. CONCLUSION: the difference in the scores among the evaluators when applying the scale indicates that this tool must be improved to allow an accurate assessment of the episiotomy healing process. PMID:25806645

  13. Development and extension of an aggregated scale model: Part 1 - Background to ASMITA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townend, Ian; Wang, Zheng Bing; Stive, Marcel; Zhou, Zeng

    2016-07-01

    Whilst much attention has been given to models that describe wave, tide and sediment transport processes in sufficient detail to determine the local changes in bed level over a relatively detailed representation of the bathymetry, far less attention has been given to models that consider the problem at a much larger scale (e.g. that of geomorphological elements such as a tidal flat and tidal channel). Such aggregated or lumped models tend not to represent the processes in detail but rather capture the behaviour at the scale of interest. One such model developed using the concept of an equilibrium concentration is the Aggregated Scale Morphological Interaction between Tidal basin and Adjacent coast (ASMITA). In this paper we provide some new insights into the concepts of equilibrium, and horizontal and vertical exchange that are key components of this modelling approach. In a companion paper, we summarise a range of developments that have been undertaken to extend the original model concept, to illustrate the flexibility and power of the conceptual framework. However, adding detail progressively moves the model in the direction of the more detailed process-based models and we give some consideration to the boundary between the two. Highlights The concept of aggregating model scales is explored and the basis of the ASMITA model is outlined in detail

  14. Scale-up of miscible flood processes. Quarterly report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Progress is reported for a comprehensive investigation of the scaling behavior of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs. The interplay of phase behavior, viscous fingering, gravity segregation, capillary imbibition and drainage, and reservoir heterogeneity is examined in a series of simulations and experiments. Compositional and first-contact miscible simulations of viscous fingering and gravity segregation are compared to show that the two techniques can give very different results. Also, analyzed are two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows in which gravity segregation and viscous fingering interact. The simulations show that 2D and 3D flows can differ significantly. A comparison of analytical solutions for three-component two-phase flow with experimental results for oil/water/alcohol systems is reported. While the experiments and theory show reasonable agreement, some differences remain to be explained. The scaling behavior of the interaction of gravity segregation and capillary forces is investigated through simulations and through scaling arguments based on analysis of the differential equations. The simulations show that standard approaches do not agree well with results of low IFT displacements. The scaling analyses, however, reveal flow regimes where capillary, gravity, or viscous forces dominate the flow.

  15. Validation of the Comfort scale for relatives of people in critical states of health 1

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Kátia Santana; Menezes, Igor Gomes; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: this methodological study aims to present the construct validity of the Comfort scale for family members of people in a critical state of health (ECONF). Method: this is a methodological study. The sample was made up of 274 family members of adults receiving inpatient treatment in six Intensive Care Units (ICU) in the State of Bahía responded to 62 items distributed in 7 dimensions. The validation procedures adopted were based on the techniques of the Classical Test Theory. Results: the analysis of dimensionality was undertaken through principal components analysis, a scale being obtained with 55 items distributed in four factors: Safety, Support, Family member-relative interaction and Integration with oneself and the everyday. The analysis of the items' , discriminative power, undertaken by the item-total correlation-coefficient showed a good relationship of the items with their respective factors. From the ECONF's reliability test, from the analysis of internal consistency, a raised Alpha Cronbach coefficient was obtained for the 4 factors and the general measurement. Conclusion: the comfort scale presented satisfactory psychometric parameters, thus constituting the first valid instrument for evaluating the comfort of family members of people in a critical state of health. The advance made by the study lies in its theoretical framework on comfort, and provides the health team with a scale based on empirical evidence. PMID:26444168

  16. Aeroelastic Tests of an Eight Percent Scale Saturn C-1 Block II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Buffet and flutter characteristics of Saturn Apollo mission were studied using a dynamically scaled model. The model was built around a central aluminum tube for scaled stiffness distribution and strength to resist loads imposed during testing. Styrofoam sections attached to the core provided the correct external contours. Lead weights were added for correct mass distribution. An electromagnetic shaker was used to excite the model in its flexible modes of vibration during portions of the test. The model was supported on a sting, mounted by leaf springs, cables and torsion bars. The support system provided for simulating the full scale rigid body pitch frequency with minimum restraint imposed on elastic deflections. Bending moments recorded by sensors on the aluminum tube. Several modified nose configurations were tested: The basic configuration was tested with and without a flow separator disk on the escape rocket motor, tests also were made with the escape tower and rocket motor removed completely. For the final test, the Apollo capsule was replaced with a Jupiter nose cone. The test program consisted of determining model response throughout the transonic speed range at angles of attack up to 6 degrees and measuring the aerodynamic damping over the same range for the basic model and the modified configurations. Signals from the model pickup were recorded on tape for later analysis. The data obtained were used to estimate bending moments that would be produced on the full-scale vehicle by aerodynamic forces due to buffeting.

  17. Validation of the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale among women with breast and cervical cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, Paula Renata Amorim; Ribeiro, Samila Gomes; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; de Almeida, Paulo Cesar; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: the aim was to translate and culturally adapt the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale for the Portuguese language in the Brazilian context, and to check its reliability and validity to analyze the elements of the adherence of patients to the clinical treatment for breast and cervical cancer. Method: this was a methodological study, carried out in two oncology reference centers. The sample consisted of 198 participants, with 152 being treated for breast cancer and 46 being treated for cervical cancer. The content validation was performed by a committee of experts. The construct validation was demonstrated through factor analysis and the reliability was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha. Results: the committee of experts made the necessary adjustments so that the scale was adapted to the Brazilian context. The factor analysis suggested a reduction from seven to five factors and the maintenance of 38 items similar to those of the original scale. The reliability, investigated through Cronbach's alpha, was .829, showing high internal consistency. Conclusion: it was concluded that the Brazilian version of the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale is a valid and reliable instrument that is able to measure the elements of adherence to the treatment for breast and cervical cancer. PMID:26487149

  18. Improved scaling laws for stage inert mass of space propulsion systems. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Summarized is a study which satisfies the need for improved scaling laws for stage inert mass of space propulsion systems. The resulting laws are applicable to current and future vehicle systems and designs for a comprehensive spectrum of anticipated planetary missions.

  19. Observation of Nuclear Scaling in the A(e,e{prime}) Reaction at x{sub B} > 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kim Egiyan; Natalya Dashyan; Misak Sargsian; Stepan Stepanyan; Lawrence Weinstein; et. al.

    2003-07-01

    The ratios of inclusive electron scattering cross sections of 4He, 12C, and 56Fe to 3He have been measured for the first time. It is shown that these ratios are independent of xB at Q2 > 1.4 GeV2 for xB > 1.5, where the inclusive cross section depends primarily on the high momentum components of the nuclear wave function. The observed scaling shows that the momentum distributions at high-momenta have the same shape for all nuclei and differ only by a scale factor. The observed onset of the scaling at Q2 > 1.4 GeV2 and xB > 1.5 is consistent with the kinematical expectation that two-nucleon short range correlations (SRC) dominate the nuclear wave function at pm300 MeV/c. The values of these ratios in the scaling region can be related to the relative probabilities of SRC in nuclei with A3. Our data, combined with calculations and other measurements of the 3He/deuterium ratio, demonstrate that for nuclei with A12 these probabilities are 4.9-5.9 times larger than in deuterium, while for 4He it is larger by a factor of about 3.8.

  20. Spin-tunnel investigation of a 1/25-scale model of the General Dynamics F-16XL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, R. D.; White, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    A spin-tunnel investigation of the spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/25-scale model to the General Dynamics F-16XL aircraft was conducted in the Langley Spin Tunnel. Tests included erect and inverted spins at various symmetric and asymmetric loading conditions. The required size of an emergency spin-recovery parachute was determined.

  1. The Parsec-scale Structure and Kinematics of Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Joseph L; Lister, Matthew L.; Foschini, Luigi; Savolainen, Tuomas; Homan, Daniel C.; Kadler, Matthias; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Arshakian, Tigran; Chavushyan, Vahram

    2014-08-01

    We have begun a campaign to monitor a sample of 15 radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Here, we present early results from this program, which includes total intensity and polarimetric observations at 1, 2, 4, and 6cm wavelengths. NLS1s are a class of active galactic nuclei that share many observational properties with the much more powerful blazar classes. Despite their low black hole masses and near- or super-Eddington accretion rates, a small minority are radio loud. A growing number of these have been detected in GeV gamma rays, indicating that a relativistic jet has formed in at least some of these sources. This presents a challenge to jet models, but may provide a link between jets found at the small scales of galactic binaries and the large scales of giant quasars. In addition to our VLBA program, we are carrying out complementary fast-cadence single dish 2cm radio monitoring with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory 40m telescope and an optical spectroscopic monitoring campaign using the Guillermo Haro Astrophysics Observatory 2m-class telescope in Cananea, Mexico. Using data from this program, we will expand the currently limited knowledge of the parsec-scale properties and kinematics of this class of sources. Among our first epoch results, we find significant parsec-scale extension in about about two thirds of our sample, many of which are excellent candidates for jet kinematics analysis.

  2. Performance and energy costs associated with scaling infrared heater arrays for warming field plots from 1 to 100 m

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the likely effects of global warming on open-field vegetation, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters are currently being used for low-stature (<1 m) plants in small (=3 m) plots. To address larger ecosystem scales, herein we show that excellent uniformity of the warming can be achieved using...

  3. COMMODITY SCALE SYNTHESIS OF 1-METHYLIMIDAZOLE BASED IONIC LIQUIDS USING A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The continuous large-scale preparation of several 1-methylimidazole based ionic liquids was carried out using a Spinning Tube-in-Tube (STT) reactor (manufactured by Kreido Laboratories). This reactor, which embodies and facilitates the use of Green Chemistry principles and Proce...

  4. Scales, scales and more scales.

    PubMed

    Weitzenhoffer, Andre M

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the nature, uses, and limitations of the large variety of existing, so-called, hypnosis scales; that is, instruments that have been proposed for the assessment of hypnotic behavior. Although the major aim of most of the scales ostensively seems to be to assess several aspects of hypnotic states, they are found generally to say little about these and much more about responses to suggestions. The greatest application of these scales is to be found in research, but they also have a limited place in clinical work.

  5. Topology of large-scale structure in seeded hot dark matter models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaky, Matthew M.; Scherrer, Robert J.; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1992-01-01

    The topology of the isodensity surfaces in seeded hot dark matter models, in which static seed masses provide the density perturbations in a universe dominated by massive neutrinos is examined. When smoothed with a Gaussian window, the linear initial conditions in these models show no trace of non-Gaussian behavior for r0 equal to or greater than 5 Mpc (h = 1/2), except for very low seed densities, which show a shift toward isolated peaks. An approximate analytic expression is given for the genus curve expected in linear density fields from randomly distributed seed masses. The evolved models have a Gaussian topology for r0 = 10 Mpc, but show a shift toward a cellular topology with r0 = 5 Mpc; Gaussian models with an identical power spectrum show the same behavior.

  6. Pangolin v1.0, a conservative 2-D transport model for large scale parallel calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praga, A.; Cariolle, D.; Giraud, L.

    2014-07-01

    To exploit the possibilities of parallel computers, we designed a large-scale bidimensional atmospheric transport model named Pangolin. As the basis for a future chemistry-transport model, a finite-volume approach was chosen both for mass preservation and to ease parallelization. To overcome the pole restriction on time-steps for a regular latitude-longitude grid, Pangolin uses a quasi-area-preserving reduced latitude-longitude grid. The features of the regular grid are exploited to improve parallel performances and a custom domain decomposition algorithm is presented. To assess the validity of the transport scheme, its results are compared with state-of-the-art models on analytical test cases. Finally, parallel performances are shown in terms of strong scaling and confirm the efficient scalability up to a few hundred of cores.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Attitudes Scale facing Alcohol and Alcoholism in nursing students 1

    PubMed Central

    de Vargas, Divane; Rocha, Fernanda Mota

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to verify the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Scale facing Alcohol and Alcoholism (EAFAA) and people with disorders related to the use of alcohol in nursing students. Method: a convenience sample (n=420) completed the EAFAA, the data were submitted to Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Results: the EFA resulted in an instrument composed of 48 items divided into four factors. The CFA has established the validity of the factorial structure. The internal consistency of the scale was considered adequate (α=0.85) presenting a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 75%. Conclusion: the EAFAA constitutes a reliable instrument to identify the attitudes of nursing students towards alcohol, alcoholism and persons with disorders related to alcohol use. PMID:27992026

  8. Atomic-scale insights into 1D and 2D nano-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangert, U.; Pierce, W.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Migliorato, M.; Pan, C.-T.; Harvey, A. J.; Kepatsoglou, D. M.; Ramasse, Q. M.

    2015-10-01

    Atomic resolution imaging and narrow-energy spread spectroscopy in aberration corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscopes, in combination with DFT modelling has made it possible to uncover atomic-scale morphology, defect constellations, lattice impurities and ad-atoms in nano-materials, as well as revealing their influence on the surrounding bandstructure. Using atomic-scale imaging, EEL spectroscopy and EFTEM, we address issues beyond the more common investigations of their atomic lattice structure. We focus on the demonstration of (i) ripples in graphene and on effects of (ii) metal ad-atoms as well as of (iii) controllably introduced impurities -via low energy ion implantation- in both, graphene and carbon nanotubes, on the electronic band structure. We demonstrate the creation of a new feature with collective charge carrier behaviour (plasmon) in the UV/vis range in graphene and carbon nanotubes via EEL spectrum imaging and EFTEM, and support this with dielectric theory modelling.

  9. Full-Scale Incineration System Demonstration at the Naval Construction Battalion Center, Gulfport, Mississippi. Volume 1. Project Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    AD-A252 956 VL FULL-SCALE INCINE AT ION SYST72Z DEMIONSTRAT ION AT THE NAVAL C071, * *STRUCTION BATTALION CENTER, ~*~GULFPORT, MISSISSIPPI -VOL!1...concentration must be corrected to 7% 02, for reporting consistency.) a The total stack emission of chloride (expressed as HCI) must be less than 1.8...CONDITIONS SUMMARY (AS OF NOVEMBER 23, 1987) The incinerator must meet a 99.9999% Destruction and Removal Efficiency. * Hydrogen chloride (HCI) emission

  10. Flow-Induced Structural Response of a 1:5-Scale Olmsted Wicket Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    characteristics of the wicket using ABAQUS FE general-purpose computer code (HKS 1992). The extracted modal parameters were transported to the I...strain levels in laboratory compression tests and pile response tests to account for the distortion in soil properties due to geometric effects. They used...a scale model for predicting the earthquake response of pile foundations embedded in over-consolidated soil. Gravity effects were simulated in the

  11. Report on phase 1 of the Microprocessor Seminar. [and associated large scale integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Proceedings of a seminar on microprocessors and associated large scale integrated (LSI) circuits are presented. The potential for commonality of device requirements, candidate processes and mechanisms for qualifying candidate LSI technologies for high reliability applications, and specifications for testing and testability were among the topics discussed. Various programs and tentative plans of the participating organizations in the development of high reliability LSI circuits are given.

  12. Validation and Simulation of ARES I Scale Model Acoustic Test -1- Pathfinder Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, G. C.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustics Test (ASMAT) is a series of live-fire tests of scaled rocket motors meant to simulate the conditions of the Ares I launch configuration. These tests have provided a well documented set of high fidelity measurements useful for validation including data taken over a range of test conditions and containing phenomena like Ignition Over-Pressure and water suppression of acoustics. To take advantage of this data, a digital representation of the ASMAT test setup has been constructed and test firings of the motor have been simulated using the Loci/CHEM computational fluid dynamics software. Within this first of a series of papers, results from ASMAT simulations with the rocket in a held down configuration and without water suppression have then been compared to acoustic data collected from similar live-fire tests to assess the accuracy of the simulations. Detailed evaluations of the mesh features, mesh length scales relative to acoustic signals, Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy numbers, and spatial residual sources have been performed to support this assessment. Results of acoustic comparisons have shown good correlation with the amplitude and temporal shape of pressure features and reasonable spectral accuracy up to approximately 1000 Hz. Major plume and acoustic features have been well captured including the plume shock structure, the igniter pulse transient, and the ignition overpressure. Finally, acoustic propagation patterns illustrated a previously unconsidered issue of tower placement inline with the high intensity overpressure propagation path.

  13. The Regionalization of National-Scale SPARROW Models for Stream Nutrients1

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Gregory E; Alexander, Richard B; Smith, Richard A; Preston, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This analysis modifies the parsimonious specification of recently published total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) national-scale SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes models to allow each model coefficient to vary geographically among three major river basins of the conterminous United States. Regionalization of the national models reduces the standard errors in the prediction of TN and TP loads, expressed as a percentage of the predicted load, by about 6 and 7%. We develop and apply a method for combining national-scale and regional-scale information to estimate a hybrid model that imposes cross-region constraints that limit regional variation in model coefficients, effectively reducing the number of free model parameters as compared to a collection of independent regional models. The hybrid TN and TP regional models have improved model fit relative to the respective national models, reducing the standard error in the prediction of loads, expressed as a percentage of load, by about 5 and 4%. Only 19% of the TN hybrid model coefficients and just 2% of the TP hybrid model coefficients show evidence of substantial regional specificity (more than ±100% deviation from the national model estimate). The hybrid models have much greater precision in the estimated coefficients than do the unconstrained regional models, demonstrating the efficacy of pooling information across regions to improve regional models. PMID:22457586

  14. Form drag in rivers due to small-scale natural topographic features: 1. Regular sequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kean, J.W.; Smith, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Small-scale topographic features are commonly found on the boundaries of natural rivers, streams, and floodplains. A simple method for determining the form drag on these features is presented, and the results of this model are compared to laboratory measurements. The roughness elements are modeled as Gaussian-shaped features defined in terms of three parameters: a protrusion height, H; a streamwise length scale, ??; and a spacing between crests, ??. This shape is shown to be a good approximation to a wide variety of natural topographic bank features. The form drag on an individual roughness element embedded in a series of identical elements is determined using the drag coefficient of the individual element and a reference velocity that includes the effects of roughness elements further upstream. In addition to calculating the drag on each element, the model determines the spatially averaged total stress, skin friction stress, and roughness height of the boundary. The effects of bank roughness on patterns of velocity and boundary shear stress are determined by combining the form drag model with a channel flow model. The combined model shows that drag on small-scale topographic features substantially alters the near-bank flow field. These methods can be used to improve predictions of flow resistance in rivers and to form the basis for fully predictive (no empirically adjusted parameters) channel flow models. They also provide a foundation for calculating the near-bank boundary shear stress fields necessary for determining rates of sediment transport and lateral erosion.

  15. A Compendium of Scale Surface Microstructures: Ni(pt)al Coatings Oxidized at 1150 C for 2000 1-h Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Garg, Anita

    2010-01-01

    The surface structure of scales formed on Ni(Pt)Al coatings was characterized by SEM/EDS/BSE in plan view. Two nominally identical {100} samples of aluminide coated CMSX4 single crystal were oxidized at 1150 C for 2000 1-h cycles and were found to produce somewhat disparate behavior. One sample, with less propensity for coating grain boundary ridge deformation, presented primarily alpha-Al2O3 scale structures, with minimal weight loss and spallation. The original scale structure, still retained over most of the sample, consisted of the classic theta-alpha transformation-induced ridge network structure, with approx. 25 nm crystallographic steps and terraces indicative of surface rearrangement to low energy alumina planes. The scale grain boundary ridges were often decorated with a fine, uniform distribution of (Hf,Ti)O2 particles. Another sample, producing steady state weight losses, exhibited much interfacial spallation and a complex assortment of different structures. Broad areas of interfacial spalling, crystallographically-faceted (Ni,Co)(Al,Cr)2O4 spinel, with an alpha-Al2O3 base scale, were the dominant features. Other regions exhibited nodular spinel grains, with fine or (Ta,Ti)-rich (rutile) particles decorating or interspersed with the spinel. While these features were consistent with a coating that presented more deformation at extruded grain boundaries, the root cause of the different behavior between the duplicate samples could not be conclusively identified.

  16. A rating scale for psychotic symptoms (RSPS) part I: theoretical principles and subscale 1: perception symptoms (illusions and hallucinations).

    PubMed

    Chouinard, G; Miller, R

    1999-08-17

    The authors present a new rating scale for the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia and related psychoses. The scale links specific symptoms of psychopathology to dysfunction and overactivity of dopaminergic mechanisms underlying the processes of reward and selective attention. The Rating Scale for Psychotic Symptoms (RSPS) is a 44-item rating instrument with a seven-point severity scale for each item. Psychotic symptoms are classified into three groups: Pathological amplification of mental images (perception symptoms) (subscale 1), Distraction symptoms (including catatonia and passivity experiences) (subscale 2), and Delusions (subscale 3). A dimensional, rather than a categorical, conceptualization of psychosis is assumed. Rating is accomplished through a manual and a semi-structured interview (SSCI-RSPS). In this first of two papers, general issues about the construction of the scale and the derivation of symptom groups are discussed. Dopamine-mediated modification of cortico-striatal synapses is seen as being of critical importance in all three groups of symptoms. In this first paper, we present subscale I (perception symptoms), which includes both amplified perceptual images (illusions) and hallucinations. A total of seven illusions and 11 hallucinations are rated as individual items.

  17. Local Scale Radiobrightness Modeling During the Intensive Observing Period-4 of the Cold Land Processes Experiment-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Tedesco, Marco; deRoo, Roger; England, Anthony W.; Gu, Hao-Yu; Pham, Hanh; Boprie, David; Graf, Tobias; Koike, Toshio; Armstrong, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX-1) was designed to provide microwave remote sensing observations and ground truth for studies of snow and frozen ground remote sensing, particularly issues related to scaling. CLPX-1 was conducted in 2002 and 2003 in Colorado, USA. One of the goals of the experiment was to test the capabilities of microwave emission models at different scales. Initial forward model validation work has concentrated on the Local-Scale Observation Site (LSOS), a 0.8 ha study site consisting of open meadows separated by trees where the most detailed measurements were made of snow depth and temperature, density, and grain size profiles. Results obtained in the case of the 3& Intensive Observing Period (IOP3) period (Feb., 2003, dry snow) suggest that a model based on Dense Medium Radiative Transfer (DMRT) theory is able to model the recorded brightness temperatures using snow parameters derived from field measurements. This paper focuses on the ability of forward DMRT modelling, combined with snowpack measurements, to reproduce the radiobrightness signatures observed by the University of Michigan s Truck-Mounted Radiometer System (TMRS) at 19 and 37 GHz during the 4th IOP (IOP4) in March, 2003. Unlike IOP3, conditions during IOP4 include both wet and dry periods, providing a valuable test of DMRT model performance. In addition, a comparison will be made for the one day of coincident observations by the University of Tokyo's Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer-7 (GBMR-7) and the TMRS. The plot-scale study in this paper establishes a baseline of DMRT performance for later studies at successively larger scales. And these scaling studies will help guide the choice of future snow retrieval algorithms and the design of future Cold Lands observing systems.

  18. Generality of Fractal 1/f Scaling in Catchment Tracer Time Series: Implications for Catchment Travel Time Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsey, S. E.; Palucis, M. C.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    The mean travel time - the time that it takes a parcel of rainwater to reach the stream - is a basic parameter used to characterize catchments. More generally, a catchment is characterized by its travel-time distribution, which is described not only by its mean but also its shape. The travel time distribution of water in a catchment is typically inferred from passive tracer time series (typically water isotopes or chloride concentrations) in rainfall and streamflow. The catchment mixes precipitation inputs (and thus passive tracers) falling at different points in time; as a result, tracer fluctuations in streamflow are usually strongly damped relative to precipitation. Mathematically, this mixing of waters of different ages is represented by the convolution of the travel time distribution and the precipitation inputs to generate the stream outputs. Previous analyses of both rainfall and streamflow tracer time series from several catchments in Wales have demonstrated that rainfall chemistry spectra resemble white noise, whereas these same catchments exhibit fractal 1/f scaling in stream tracer chemistry over three orders of magnitude. These observations imply that these catchments have an approximate power-law distribution of travel times, and thus they retain a long memory of past inputs. The observed fractal scaling places strong constraints on possible models of catchment behavior: commonly-used exponential or advection-dispersion travel time distribution models do not exhibit fractal scaling. Here we test the generality of the observed fractal scaling of streamflow chemistry, by analyzing long-term tracer time series from 17 other catchments in North America and Europe. Special care is taken to account for the effects of spectral aliasing. We demonstrate that 1/f fractal scaling of stream chemistry is a common feature of these catchments and discuss the implications of this observation to catchment-scale hydrologic modeling. We then present the best-fit travel

  19. Local Scale Radiobrightness Modeling During the Intensive Observing Period-4 of the Cold Land Processes Experiment-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Tedesco, M.; de Roo, R.; England, A. W.; Gu, H.; Pham, H.; Boprie, D.; Graf, T.; Koike, T.; Armstrong, R.; Brodzik, M.; Hardy, J.; Cline, D.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX-1) was designed to provide microwave remote sensing observations and ground truth for studies of snow and frozen ground remote sensing, particularly issues related to scaling. CLPX-1 was conducted in 2002 and 2003 in Colorado, USA. One of the goals of the experiment was to test the capabilities of microwave emission models at different scales. Initial forward model validation work has concentrated on the Local-Scale Observation Site (LSOS), a 0.8~ha study site consisting of open meadows separated by trees where the most detailed measurements were made of snow depth and temperature, density, and grain size profiles. Results obtained in the case of the 3rd Intensive Observing Period (IOP3) period (February, 2003, dry snow) suggest that a model based on Dense Medium Radiative Transfer (DMRT) theory is able to model the recorded brightness temperatures using snow parameters derived from field measurements. This paper focuses on the ability of forward DMRT modelling, combined with snowpack measurements, to reproduce the radiobrightness signatures observed by the University of Michigan's Truck-Mounted Radiometer System (TMRS) at 19 and 37~GHz during the 4th IOP (IOP4) in March, 2003. Unlike in IOP3, conditions during IOP4 include both wet and dry periods, providing a valuable test of DMRT model performance. In addition, a comparison will be made for the one day of coincident observations by the University of Tokyo's Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer-7 (GBMR-7) and the TMRS. The plot-scale study in this paper establishes a baseline of DMRT performance for later studies at successively larger scales. And these scaling studies will help guide the choice of future snow retrieval algorithms and the design of future Cold Lands observing systems.

  20. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 5 - North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor (AFR) criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit for the negative reactivity of the depleted (or spent) fuel isotopics is desired, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods against spent fuel critical configurations. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark AFR criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial pressurized-water reactors (PWR). The analysis methodology selected for all calculations reported herein was the codes and data provided in the SCALE-4 code system. The isotopic densities for the spent fuel assemblies in the critical configurations were calculated using the SAS2H analytical sequence of the SCALE-4 system. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code module was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from the SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required by the SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of the cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of each case. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all the calculations. This volume of the report documents the SCALE system analysis of one reactor critical configuration for North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5. This unit and cycle were chosen for a previous analysis using a different methodology because detailed isotopics from multidimensional reactor calculations were available from the Virginia Power Company. These data permitted comparison of criticality calculations directly using the utility-calculated isotopics to those using the isotopics generated by the SCALE-4 SAS2H

  1. Large Scale Structure in Absorption up to z~0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejos, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    We propose to observe and characterize IGM absorption systems associated with Large Scale Structure {LSS} in a statistical manner up to redshift 0.4. For this purpose, we have used a recently published cluster catalog {GMBCG; Hao et al., 2010} to identify massive nodes in the 'cosmic web'. Then, we used cluster pairs with small separations {<20 Mpc} at similar redshifts to identify zones where filaments should reside with high probabilities. Combining the GMBCG cluster catalog with the SDSS DR7 QSO catalog, we selected a single QSO whose sightline passes through a total of 6 predicted filaments {3 of which are independent} and 3 clusters with spectroscopic redshifts at impact parameters <1.5 Mpc. This will considerably increase the sample of known LSS {especially filaments} at low redshift. We propose to observe the QSO with HST/COS using the G130M and G160M gratings to cover the full FUV spectral range at high resolution {R 20000}. We require observations at S/N 10 to ensure a full characterization of HI and OVI lines at small column densities {N 10^13 cm^-2}. These low column densities will allow us to detect broad and shallow HI lines with OVI, believed to be associated with portions of the warm-hot intergalactic medium {WHIM}. Our results will also be suitable for testing an alternative hypothesis which states that the majority of OVI absorbers at low-z are confined within <300 kpc from galaxies and are not directly related to the WHIM {Prochaska et al., 2011; Tumlinson et al., 2011}. Our findings will test our understanding of galaxy formation and the importance of AGN/supernova feedbacks by comparing them with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations.

  2. Lack of Correlation of WAIS Digit Span with Clox 1 and the Dementia Rating Scale in MCI.

    PubMed

    Lortie, Jevin Jay; Remington, Ruth; Hoffmann, Heather; Shea, Thomas B

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with MCI declined in performance over 6 months in the Clock-drawing (Clox 1) and the WAIS Digit Span tests, but not in the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). Individual performance on Clox 1 and Digit Span did not correlate after 6 months. Performance on the Digit Span Test also did not correlate with the DRS, but performance on Clox 1 correlated with the DRS. Performance in Clox 1 was, therefore, not a predictor of performance in the Digit Span Test. These findings support the use of a test battery containing the Digit Span test to detect and track cognitive decline in MCI.

  3. THE DETECTION OF THE LARGE-SCALE ALIGNMENT OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 0.6

    SciTech Connect

    Li Cheng; Jing, Y. P.; Faltenbacher, A.; Wang Jie

    2013-06-10

    We report on the detection of the alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure at z {approx} 0.6 based on the CMASS galaxy sample from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopy Survey Data Release 9. We use two statistics to quantify the alignment signal: (1) the alignment two-point correlation function that probes the dependence of galaxy clustering at a given separation in redshift space on the projected angle ({theta}{sub p}) between the orientation of galaxies and the line connecting to other galaxies, and (2) the cos (2{theta})-statistic that estimates the average of cos (2{theta}{sub p}) for all correlated pairs at a given separation s. We find a significant alignment signal out to about 70 h {sup -1} Mpc in both statistics. Applications of the same statistics to dark matter halos of mass above 10{sup 12} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} in a large cosmological simulation show scale-dependent alignment signals similar to the observation, but with higher amplitudes at all scales probed. We show that this discrepancy may be partially explained by a misalignment angle between central galaxies and their host halos, though detailed modeling is needed in order to better understand the link between the orientations of galaxies and host halos. In addition, we find systematic trends of the alignment statistics with the stellar mass of the CMASS galaxies, in the sense that more massive galaxies are more strongly aligned with the large-scale structure.

  4. An evaluation of acoustic seabed classification techniques for marine biotope monitoring over broad-scales (>1 km 2) and meso-scales (10 m 2-1 km 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rein, H.; Brown, C. J.; Quinn, R.; Breen, J.; Schoeman, D.

    2011-07-01

    Acoustic seabed classification is a useful tool for monitoring marine benthic habitats over broad-scales (>1 km 2) and meso-scales (10 m 2-1 km 2). Its utility in this context was evaluated using two approaches: by describing natural changes in the temporal distribution of marine biotopes across the broad-scale (4 km 2), and by attempting to detect specific experimentally-induced changes to kelp-dominated biotopes across the meso-scale (100 m 2). For the first approach, acoustic backscatter mosaics were constructed using sidescan sonar and multibeam echosounder data collected from Church Bay (Rathlin Island, Northern Ireland) in 1999, 2008 and 2009. The mosaics were manually segmented into acoustic facies, which were ground-truthed using a drop-video camera. Biotopes were classified from the video by multivariate exploratory analysis and cross-tabulated with the acoustic facies, showing a positive correlation. These results were integrated with bathymetric data to map the distribution of seven unique biotopes in Church Bay. Kappa analysis showed the biotope distribution was highly similar between the biotope maps, possibly due to the stability of bedforms shaped by the tidal regime around Rathlin Island. The greatest biotope change in this approach was represented by seasonal and annual changes in the growth of the seagrass, Zostera marina. In the second approach, sidescan sonar data were collected before and after the removal of 100 m 2 of kelp from three sites. Comparison of the data revealed no differences between the high-resolution backscatter imagery. It is concluded that acoustic seabed classification can be used to monitor change over broad- and meso-scales but not necessarily for all biotopes; its success depends on the type of acoustic system employed and the biological characteristics of the target biotope.

  5. Preventable H5N1 avian influenza epidemics in the British poultry industry network exhibit characteristic scales.

    PubMed

    Jonkers, A R T; Sharkey, K J; Christley, R M

    2010-04-06

    Epidemics are frequently simulated on redundantly wired contact networks, which have many more links between sites than are minimally required to connect all. Consequently, the modelled pathogen can travel numerous alternative routes, complicating effective containment strategies. These networks have moreover been found to exhibit 'scale-free' properties and percolation, suggesting resilience to damage. However, realistic H5N1 avian influenza transmission probabilities and containment strategies, here modelled on the British poultry industry network, show that infection dynamics can additionally express characteristic scales. These system-preferred scales constitute small areas within an observed power law distribution that exhibit a lesser slope than the power law itself, indicating a slightly increased relative likelihood. These characteristic scales are here produced by a network-pervading intranet of so-called hotspot sites that propagate large epidemics below the percolation threshold. This intranet is, however, extremely vulnerable; targeted inoculation of a mere 3-6% (depending on incorporated biosecurity measures) of the British poultry industry network prevents large and moderate H5N1 outbreaks completely, offering an order of magnitude improvement over previously advocated strategies affecting the most highly connected 'hub' sites. In other words, hotspots and hubs are separate functional entities that do not necessarily coincide, and hotspots can make more effective inoculation targets. Given the ubiquity and relevance of networks (epidemics, Internet, power grids, protein interaction), recognition of this spreading regime elsewhere would suggest a similar disproportionate sensitivity to such surgical interventions.

  6. A Comparative Study of a 1/4-Scale Gulfstream G550 Aircraft Nose Gear Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Neuhart, Dan H.; Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Liu, Fei; Yardibi, Tarik; Cattafesta, Louis; Van de Ven, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A series of fluid dynamic and aeroacoustic wind tunnel experiments are performed at the University of Florida Aeroacoustic Flow Facility and the NASA-Langley Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel Facility on a high-fidelity -scale model of Gulfstream G550 aircraft nose gear. The primary objectives of this study are to obtain a comprehensive aeroacoustic dataset for a nose landing gear and to provide a clearer understanding of landing gear contributions to overall airframe noise of commercial aircraft during landing configurations. Data measurement and analysis consist of mean and fluctuating model surface pressure, noise source localization maps using a large-aperture microphone directional array, and the determination of far field noise level spectra using a linear array of free field microphones. A total of 24 test runs are performed, consisting of four model assembly configurations, each of which is subjected to three test section speeds, in two different test section orientations. The different model assembly configurations vary in complexity from a fully-dressed to a partially-dressed geometry. The two model orientations provide flyover and sideline views from the perspective of a phased acoustic array for noise source localization via beamforming. Results show that the torque arm section of the model exhibits the highest rms pressures for all model configurations, which is also evidenced in the sideline view noise source maps for the partially-dressed model geometries. Analysis of acoustic spectra data from the linear array microphones shows a slight decrease in sound pressure levels at mid to high frequencies for the partially-dressed cavity open model configuration. In addition, far field sound pressure level spectra scale approximately with the 6th power of velocity and do not exhibit traditional Strouhal number scaling behavior.

  7. Large scale structure forecast constraints on particle production during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Chantavat, Teeraparb; Gordon, Christopher; Silk, Joseph

    2011-05-15

    Bursts of particle production during inflation provide a well-motivated mechanism for creating bumplike features in the primordial power spectrum. Current data constrain these features to be less than about 5% the size of the featureless primordial power spectrum at wave numbers of about 0.1h Mpc{sup -1}. We forecast that the Planck cosmic microwave background experiment will be able to strengthen this constraint to the 0.5% level. We also predict that adding data from a square kilometer array galaxy redshift survey would improve the constraint to about the 0.1% level. For features at larger wave numbers, Planck will be limited by Silk damping and foregrounds, while the square kilometer array will be limited by nonlinear effects. We forecast, for a cosmic inflation probe galaxy redshift survey, that similar constraints can be achieved up to about a wave number of 1.0h Mpc{sup -1}.

  8. Effect of bedrock permeability on stream base flow mean transit time scaling relations: 1. A multiscale catchment intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, V. Cody; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of bedrock permeability and underlying catchment boundaries on stream base flow mean transit time (MTT) and MTT scaling relationships in headwater catchments is poorly understood. Here we examine the effect of bedrock permeability on MTT and MTT scaling relations by comparing 15 nested research catchments in western Oregon; half within the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest and half at the site of the Alsea Watershed Study. The two sites share remarkably similar vegetation, topography, and climate and differ only in bedrock permeability (one poorly permeable volcanic rock and the other more permeable sandstone). We found longer MTTs in the catchments with more permeable fractured and weathered sandstone bedrock than in the catchments with tight, volcanic bedrock (on average, 6.2 versus 1.8 years, respectively). At the permeable bedrock site, 67% of the variance in MTT across catchments scales was explained by drainage area, with no significant correlation to topographic characteristics. The poorly permeable site had opposite scaling relations, where MTT showed no correlation to drainage area but the ratio of median flow path length to median flow path gradient explained 91% of the variance in MTT across seven catchment scales. Despite these differences, hydrometric analyses, including flow duration and recession analysis, and storm response analysis, show that the two sites share relatively indistinguishable hydrodynamic behavior. These results show that similar catchment forms and hydrologic regimes hide different subsurface routing, storage, and scaling behavior—a major issue if only hydrometric data are used to define hydrological similarity for assessing land use or climate change response.

  9. The Possibility of Using as a Photogrammetric Base the 1:25,000 Map for Photogrammetric Mapping at Scales of 1:10,000 and 1:5,000 -- Czechoslovakia --

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-25

    MAPPING AT SCALES OF 1:10,000 AND lr.5,000 ; .• ,’ j L ~c.:...:; ;"": - Czechoslovakia - by Vaclav Pichlik ~ \\ ’, ~;~·--"’ ,~· :.. :.!, j...25,000 HAP FOR PHCTOGRAPETRIC MAPPHG AT SCALES OF Is 10,000 AND 1:5,000 [Following is a translation of an article by Vaclav PichHk inX Czechoslovak...Czechoslovakia, as soon as mapping at ^e 1.25,000 sc-w « completed, «oik started on topographic napping at the 1:10,000 scale and in some localities

  10. Scales of governance: the role of surveillance in facilitating new diplomacy during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Bell, Morag; Warren, Adam; Budd, Lucy

    2012-11-01

    The 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic has highlighted the importance of global health surveillance. Increasingly, global alerts are based on 'unexpected' 'events' detected by surveillance systems grounded in particular places. An emerging global governance literature investigates the supposedly disruptive impact of public health emergencies on mobilities in an interdependent world. Little consideration has been given to the varied scales of governance--local, national and global--that operate at different stages in the unfolding of an 'event', together with the interactions and tensions between them. By tracking the chronology of the H1N1 pandemic, this paper highlights an emergent dialogue between local and global scales. It also draws attention to moments of national autonomy across the global North and South which undermined the WHO drive for transnational cooperation.

  11. GoFFish: A Sub-Graph Centric Framework for Large-Scale Graph Analytics1

    SciTech Connect

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Kumbhare, Alok; Wickramaarachchi, Charith; Nagarkar, Soonil; Ravi, Santosh; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Prasanna, Viktor

    2014-08-25

    Large scale graph processing is a major research area for Big Data exploration. Vertex centric programming models like Pregel are gaining traction due to their simple abstraction that allows for scalable execution on distributed systems naturally. However, there are limitations to this approach which cause vertex centric algorithms to under-perform due to poor compute to communication overhead ratio and slow convergence of iterative superstep. In this paper we introduce GoFFish a scalable sub-graph centric framework co-designed with a distributed persistent graph storage for large scale graph analytics on commodity clusters. We introduce a sub-graph centric programming abstraction that combines the scalability of a vertex centric approach with the flexibility of shared memory sub-graph computation. We map Connected Components, SSSP and PageRank algorithms to this model to illustrate its flexibility. Further, we empirically analyze GoFFish using several real world graphs and demonstrate its significant performance improvement, orders of magnitude in some cases, compared to Apache Giraph, the leading open source vertex centric implementation. We map Connected Components, SSSP and PageRank algorithms to this model to illustrate its flexibility. Further, we empirically analyze GoFFish using several real world graphs and demonstrate its significant performance improvement, orders of magnitude in some cases, compared to Apache Giraph, the leading open source vertex centric implementation.

  12. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised 1

    PubMed Central

    Stacciarini, Thaís Santos Guerra; Pace, Ana Emilia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the factor structure of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale-Revised (ASAS-R), adapted for Brazil. Method: methodological study conducted with 150 individuals with diabetes mellitus cared for by the Family Health Strategy, most of whom are elderly with low educational levels. The test of the hypothesis concerning the confirmatory factor composition of the ASAS-R was performed using latent variables structural equations. Results: the model’s goodness-of-fit indexes were satisfactory (χ2 = 259.19; χ2/g.l = 2.97, p < 0.001; GFI = 0.85; RMR = 0.07; RMSEA = 0.09); the factor loads were greater than 0.40; and most item-to-factor-correlations presented moderate to strong magnitude (0.34 to 0.58); total alpha value was 0.74, while the alpha of the three factors were 0.69, 0.38 and 0.69, respectively. Conclusion: the scale’s factor structure presented satisfactory validity and reliability results, with the exception of one factor. Application of this scale to samples of the general population is desirable in order to strengthen analyses of internal consistency and the dimensionality of the factor structure. This study is expected to contribute to further studies addressing the self-care agency construct and the development of the ASAS-R. PMID:28146182

  13. T1DBase: update 2011, organization and presentation of large-scale data sets for type 1 diabetes research.

    PubMed

    Burren, Oliver S; Adlem, Ellen C; Achuthan, Premanand; Christensen, Mikkel; Coulson, Richard M R; Todd, John A

    2011-01-01

    T1DBase (http://www.t1dbase.org) is web platform, which supports the type 1 diabetes (T1D) community. It integrates genetic, genomic and expression data relevant to T1D research across mouse, rat and human and presents this to the user as a set of web pages and tools. This update describes the incorporation of new data sets, tools and curation efforts as well as a new website design to simplify site use. New data sets include curated summary data from four genome-wide association studies relevant to T1D, HaemAtlas-a data set and tool to query gene expression levels in haematopoietic cells and a manually curated table of human T1D susceptibility loci, incorporating genetic overlap with other related diseases. These developments will continue to support T1D research and allow easy access to large and complex T1D relevant data sets.

  14. Magnetizing NIF Sub-Scale Capsules For Reaching Ignition Using Laser Energy in the 1 MJ Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, G.; Ho, D.; Perkins, J.; Kagan, G.; Logan, G.; Salmonson, J.; Rhodes, M.; Blackfield, D.

    2016-10-01

    Fusion yield for ICF can be amplified by imposing a seed B-field around 50 T to confine alphas and to reduce electron heat conduction. Achieving 58 T in offline lab tests in sample hohlraum coils driven by a pulsed-power supply was demonstrated by Rhodes. Three topics are addressed. (1) The derivation of a 0D energy balance equation that including the effect of B-field. The ignition boundary obtained from this equation shows that a strong compressed B-field substantially reduces the minimum hotspot ρR required for ignition by about 50%. (2) The design of a near-term experimental demonstration of the effect of B-field on yield improvement based on our sub-scale gas-filled Symcap design for the NIF experiment (non-magnetized) that gave 1D yield and showed good symmetry. (3) The quest and design of magnetized sub-scale capsule with DT ice layer that gives robust ignition and requires only about 1 MJ of laser energy. Our baseline non-magnetized sub-scale design, with a seed field of 50T, gives a robust ignition with 1 MJ yield. This work performed under auspices of U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Clusters as cornerstones of large-scale structure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlöber, S.; Retzlaff, J.; Turchaninov, V.

    1997-04-01

    Galaxy clusters are one of the best tracers of large-scale structure in the Universe on scales well above 100 Mpc. The authors investigate here the clustering properties of a redshift sample of Abell/ACO clusters and compare the observational sample with mock samples constructed from N-body simulations on the basis of four different cosmological models. The authors discuss the power spectrum, the Minkowski functionals and the void statistics of these samples and conclude, that the SCDM and TCDM models are ruled out whereas the ACDM and BSI models are in agreement with the observational data.

  16. The role of zonally asymmetric heating in the vertical and temporal structure of the global scale flow fields during FGGE SOP-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paegle, J.; Kalnay, E.; Baker, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    The global scale structure of atmospheric flow is best documented on time scales longer than a few days. Theoretical and observational studies of ultralong waves have emphasized forcing due to global scale variations of topography and surface heat flux, possibly interacting with baroclinically unstable or vertically refracting basic flows. Analyses of SOP-1 data in terms of global scale spherical harmonics is documented with emphasis upon weekly transitions.

  17. Resilience Design Patterns - A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale (version 1.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Hukerikar, Saurabh; Engelmann, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest that very high fault rates in future systems. The errors resulting from these faults will propagate and generate various kinds of failures, which may result in outcomes ranging from result corruptions to catastrophic application crashes. Practical limits on power consumption in HPC systems will require future systems to embrace innovative architectures, increasing the levels of hardware and software complexities. The resilience challenge for extreme-scale HPC systems requires management of various hardware and software technologies that are capable of handling a broad set of fault models at accelerated fault rates. These techniques must seek to improve resilience at reasonable overheads to power consumption and performance. While the HPC community has developed various solutions, application-level as well as system-based solutions, the solution space of HPC resilience techniques remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to investigate and evaluate resilience holistically in HPC systems that consider impact scope, handling coverage, and performance & power eciency across the system stack. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software ecosystems, which are expected to be deployed on future systems. In this document, we develop a structured approach to the management of HPC resilience based on the concept of resilience-based design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the commonly occurring problems and solutions used to deal with faults, errors and failures in HPC systems. The catalog of resilience design patterns provides designers with reusable design elements. We define a design framework that enhances our understanding of the important

  18. Watershed boundaries and digital elevation model of Oklahoma derived from 1:100,000-scale digital topographic maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, J.R.; Rea, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a general description of the procedures used to develop the data sets included on this compact disc. This compact disc contains watershed boundaries for Oklahoma, a digital elevation model, and other data sets derived from the digital elevation model. The digital elevation model was produced using the ANUDEM software package, written by Michael Hutchinson and licensed from the Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies at The Australian National University. Elevation data (hypsography) and streams (hydrography) from digital versions of the U.S. Geological Survey 1:100,000-scale topographic maps were used by the ANUDEM package to produce a hydrologically conditioned digital elevation model with a 60-meter cell size. This digital elevation model is well suited for drainage-basin delineation using automated techniques. Additional data sets include flow-direction, flow-accumulation, and shaded-relief grids, all derived from the digital elevation model, and the hydrography data set used in producing the digital elevation model. The watershed boundaries derived from the digital elevation model have been edited to be consistent with contours and streams from the U.S. Geological Survey 1:100,000-scale topographic maps. The watershed data set includes boundaries for 11-digit Hydrologic Unit Codes (watersheds) within Oklahoma, and 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Codes (cataloging units) outside Oklahoma. Cataloging-unit boundaries based on 1:250,000-scale maps outside Oklahoma for the Arkansas, Red, and White River basins are included. The other data sets cover Oklahoma, and where available, portions of 1:100,000-scale quadrangles adjoining Oklahoma.

  19. Testing of aircraft passenger seat cushion materials. Full scale, test description and results, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, K. J.; Gaume, J. G.; Duskin, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    Eight different seat cushion configurations were subjected to full-scale burn tests. Each cushion configuration was tested twice for a total of sixteen tests. Two different fire sources were used. They consisted of one liter of Jet A fuel for eight tests and a radiant energy source with propane flame for eight tests. Both fire sources were ignited by a propane flame. During each test, data were recorded for smoke density, cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, animal response to combustion products, rate of weight loss of test specimens, cabin temperature, and for the type and content of gas within the cabin atmosphere. When compared to existing passenger aircraft seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advanced materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance.

  20. Bench-scale co-processing. Quarterly report No. 11, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.

    1992-02-19

    The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize UOP`s single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. The particular emphasis is one evaluating alternative and disposable slurry-catalyst systems. During the current quarter, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the manner in which the resid is upgraded at high-severity conditions to help understand the function of the resid during co-processing. This report coves Bench-Scale Runs 30 to 34. In Runs 30 to 34, Lloydminster vacuum resid was processed without the presence of coal using a 0.05 wt % molybdenum-based catalyst at 465{degrees}C.

  1. On estimating the basin-scale ocean circulation from satellite altimetry. Part 1: Straightforward spherical harmonic expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Chang-Kou

    1988-01-01

    Direct estimation of the absolute dynamic topography from satellite altimetry has been confined to the largest scales (basically the basin-scale) owing to the fact that the signal-to-noise ratio is more unfavorable everywhere else. But even for the largest scales, the results are contaminated by the orbit error and geoid uncertainties. Recently a more accurate Earth gravity model (GEM-T1) became available, providing the opportunity to examine the whole question of direct estimation under a more critical limelight. It is found that our knowledge of the Earth's gravity field has indeed improved a great deal. However, it is not yet possible to claim definitively that our knowledge of the ocean circulation has improved through direct estimation. Yet, the improvement in the gravity model has come to the point that it is no longer possible to attribute the discrepancy at the basin scales between altimetric and hydrographic results as mostly due to geoid uncertainties. A substantial part of the difference must be due to other factors; i.e., the orbit error, or the uncertainty of the hydrographically derived dynamic topography.

  2. RACORO Continental Boundary Layer Cloud Investigations: 1. Case Study Development and Ensemble Large-Scale Forcings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Toto, Tami; Endo, Satoshi; Lin, Wuyin; Wang, Jian; Feng, Sha; Zhang, Yunyan; Turner, David D.; Liu, Yangang; Li, Zhijin; Xie, Shaocheng; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Zhang, Minghua; Khairoutdinov, Marat

    2015-01-01

    Observation-based modeling case studies of continental boundary layer clouds have been developed to study cloudy boundary layers, aerosol influences upon them, and their representation in cloud- and global-scale models. Three 60 h case study periods span the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary layer cloud systems, representing mixed and transitional states rather than idealized or canonical cases. Based on in situ measurements from the Routine AAF (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility) CLOWD (Clouds with Low Optical Water Depth) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign and remote sensing observations, the cases are designed with a modular configuration to simplify use in large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. Aircraft measurements of aerosol number size distribution are fit to lognormal functions for concise representation in models. Values of the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter, kappa, are derived from observations to be approximately 0.10, which are lower than the 0.3 typical over continents and suggestive of a large aerosol organic fraction. Ensemble large-scale forcing data sets are derived from the ARM variational analysis, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, and a multiscale data assimilation system. The forcings are assessed through comparison of measured bulk atmospheric and cloud properties to those computed in "trial" large-eddy simulations, where more efficient run times are enabled through modest reductions in grid resolution and domain size compared to the full-sized LES grid. Simulations capture many of the general features observed, but the state-of-the-art forcings were limited at representing details of cloud onset, and tight gradients and high-resolution transients of importance. Methods for improving the initial conditions and forcings are discussed. The cases developed are available to the general modeling community for studying continental boundary

  3. TopoSCALE v.1.0: downscaling gridded climate data in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiddes, J.; Gruber, S.

    2014-02-01

    Simulation of land surface processes is problematic in heterogeneous terrain due to the the high resolution required of model grids to capture strong lateral variability caused by, for example, topography, and the lack of accurate meteorological forcing data at the site or scale it is required. Gridded data products produced by atmospheric models can fill this gap, however, often not at an appropriate spatial resolution to drive land-surface simulations. In this study we describe a method that uses the well-resolved description of the atmospheric column provided by climate models, together with high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), to downscale coarse-grid climate variables to a fine-scale subgrid. The main aim of this approach is to provide high-resolution driving data for a land-surface model (LSM). The method makes use of an interpolation of pressure-level data according to topographic height of the subgrid. An elevation and topography correction is used to downscale short-wave radiation. Long-wave radiation is downscaled by deriving a cloud-component of all-sky emissivity at grid level and using downscaled temperature and relative humidity fields to describe variability with elevation. Precipitation is downscaled with a simple non-linear lapse and optionally disaggregated using a climatology approach. We test the method in comparison with unscaled grid-level data and a set of reference methods, against a large evaluation dataset (up to 210 stations per variable) in the Swiss Alps. We demonstrate that the method can be used to derive meteorological inputs in complex terrain, with most significant improvements (with respect to reference methods) seen in variables derived from pressure levels: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and incoming long-wave radiation. This method may be of use in improving inputs to numerical simulations in heterogeneous and/or remote terrain, especially when statistical methods are not possible, due to lack of

  4. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Hierarchical scaling and biasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, A.; Marulli, F.; Bel, J.; Cucciati, O.; Branchini, E.; de la Torre, S.; Moscardini, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Schimd, C.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: Building on the two-point correlation function analyses of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), we investigate the higher-order correlation properties of the same galaxy samples to test the hierarchical scaling hypothesis at z ~ 1 and the dependence on galaxy luminosity, stellar mass, and redshift. With this work we also aim to assess possible deviations from the linearity of galaxy bias independently from a previously performed analysis of our survey. Methods: We have measured the count probability distribution function in spherical cells of varying radii (3 ≤ R ≤ 10 h-1 Mpc), deriving σ8g (the galaxy rms at 8 h-1 Mpc), the volume-averaged two-, three-, and four-point correlation functions and the normalized skewness S3g and kurtosis S4g for different volume-limited subsamples, covering the following ranges: -19.5 ≤ MB(z = 1.1) - 5log (h) ≤ -21.0 in absolute magnitude, 9.0 ≤ log (M∗/M⊙h-2) ≤ 11.0 in stellar mass, and 0.5 ≤ z< 1.1 in redshift. Results: We have performed the first measurement of high-order correlation functions at z ~ 1 in a spectroscopic redshift survey. Our main results are the following. 1) The hierarchical scaling between the volume-averaged two- and three-point and two- and four-point correlation functions holds throughout the whole range of scale and redshift we could test. 2) We do not find a significant dependence of S3g on luminosity (below z = 0.9 the value of S3g decreases with luminosity, but only at 1σ-level). 3) We do not detect a significant dependence of S3g and S4g on scale, except beyond z ~ 0.9, where S3g and S4g have higher values on large scales (R ≥ 10 h-1 Mpc): this increase is mainly due to one of the two CFHTLS Wide Fields observed by VIPERS and can be explained as a consequence of sample variance, consistently with our analysis of mock catalogs. 4) We do not detect a significant evolution of S3g and S4g with redshift (apart from the increase of their values with scale in the

  5. Large-scale precipitation estimation using Kalpana-1 IR measurements and its validation using GPCP and GPCC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Satya; Mahesh, C.; Gairola, Rakesh M.

    2011-12-01

    Large-scale precipitation estimation is very important for climate science because precipitation is a major component of the earth's water and energy cycles. In the present study, the GOES precipitation index technique has been applied to the Kalpana-1 satellite infrared (IR) images of every three-hourly, i.e., of 0000, 0300, 0600,…., 2100 hours UTC, for rainfall estimation as a preparatory to the INSAT-3D. After the temperatures of all the pixels in a grid are known, they are distributed to generate a three-hourly 24-class histogram of brightness temperatures of IR (10.5-12.5 μm) images for a 1.0° × 1.0° latitude/longitude box. The daily, monthly, and seasonal rainfall have been estimated using these three-hourly rain estimates for the entire south-west monsoon period of 2009 in the present study. To investigate the potential of these rainfall estimates, the validation of monthly and seasonal rainfall estimates has been carried out using the Global Precipitation Climatology Project and Global Precipitation Climatology Centre data. The validation results show that the present technique works very well for the large-scale precipitation estimation qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The results also suggest that the simple IR-based estimation technique can be used to estimate rainfall for tropical areas at a larger temporal scale for climatological applications.

  6. Methodology used to produce an encoded 1:100,000-scale digital hydrographic data layer for the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a River Reach File data layer for the Pacific Northwest for use in water-resource management applications. The Pacific Northwest (PNW) River Reach Files, a geo-referenced river reach data layer at 1:100,000-scale, are encoded with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency"s (EPA) reach numbers. The encoding was a primary task of the River Reach project, because EPA"s reach identifiers are also an integral hydrologic component in a regional Northwest Environmental Data Base-an ongoing effort by Federal and State agencies to compile information on reach-specific resources on rivers in Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and western Montana. A unique conflation algorithm was developed by the USGS to transfer the EPA reach codes and other meaningful attributes from the 1:250,000-scale EPA TRACE graphic files to the PNW Reach Files. The PNW Reach Files also were designed so that reach-specific information upstream or downstream from a point in the stream network could be extracted from feature attribute tables or from a Geographic Information System. This report documents the methodology used to create this 1:100,000-scale hydrologic data layer.

  7. The Color and Stellar Mass Dependence of Small-scale Galaxy Clustering in SDSS-III BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law-Smith, Jamie; Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    We measure the color and stellar mass dependence of clustering in spectroscopic galaxies at 0.6 < z < 0.65 using data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey component of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We greatly increase the statistical precision of our clustering measurements by using the cross-correlation of 66,657 spectroscopic galaxies to a sample of 6.6 million fainter photometric galaxies. The clustering amplitude w(R) is measured as the ratio of the mean excess number of photometric galaxies found within a specified radius annulus around a spectroscopic galaxy to that from a random photometric galaxy distribution. We recover many of the familiar trends at high signal-to-noise ratio. We find the ratio of the clustering amplitudes of red and blue massive galaxies to be {w}{red}/{w}{blue}=1.92+/- 0.11 in our smallest annulus of 75–125 kpc. At our largest radii (2–4 Mpc), we find {w}{red}/{w}{blue}=1.24+/- 0.05. Red galaxies therefore have denser environments than their blue counterparts at z ∼ 0.625, and this effect increases with decreasing radius. Irrespective of color, we find that w(R) does not obey a simple power-law relation with radius, showing a dip around 1 Mpc. Holding stellar mass fixed, we find a clear differentiation between clustering in red and blue galaxies, showing that clustering is not solely determined by stellar mass. Holding color fixed, we find that clustering increases with stellar mass, especially for red galaxies at small scales (more than a factor of 2 effect over 0.75 dex in stellar mass).

  8. Zoonotic Transmission of mcr-1 Colistin Resistance Gene from Small-Scale Poultry Farms, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Sébastien; Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Nghia, Nguyen Huu; Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Chieu, Tran Thi Bich; Mai, Ho Huynh; van Rooijen, Willemien; Campbell, James; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Hardon, Anita; Mai, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Hieu, Thai Quoc; Thwaites, Guy; de Jong, Menno D.; Schultsz, Constance; Hoa, Ngo Thi

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of colistin use in backyard chicken farms in Vietnam by examining the prevalence of mcr-1 in fecal samples from chickens and humans. Detection of mcr-1–carrying bacteria in chicken samples was associated with colistin use and detection in human samples with exposure to mcr-1–positive chickens. PMID:28221105

  9. VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) Design Tools Reference Manual - Release 1.0.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    34" SUBCXT Sabna N1 < N2 N3 ... > 1_V/NW VLSI Release 1 -18- * SPICE User’s Guide UW/NW VLSI Consortium Examples: .SUBCKT OPAMP 12 3 4 A circuit definition... OPAMP This card must be the last one for any subcircuit definition. The subcircuit name, if included, indicates which subcircuit definition is being

  10. Elevation contours of the bedrock surface, North Platte 1- by 2-degree Quadrangle, Nebraska, digitized from a published 1:250,000-scale geologic map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelt, Ronald B.

    1995-01-01

    A geologic map showing the configuration of the bedrock surface for the North Platte, Nebraska, 1- by 2-degree quadrangle was published at a scale of 1:250,000 in 1991. This report describes the conversion of the bedrock-surface elevation map into a digital geographic data set and includes those data at a nominal scale of 1:500,000. A film separation of the published elevation contours was scanned to produce a file of digital graphics data. The digital graphics data were processed further to produce a digital geographic data set. Geographic feature attributes and data-set documentation also are included in the digital data set. The digital geographic data are formatted for distribution in accordance with the Spatial Data Transfer Standard approved by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  11. Topographical map series in the Map Room of Institute and Museum of Military History in Budapest, Hungary between 1919-1945: Smaller scale series (1:100,000, 1:200,000, 1:300,000, 1:500,000, 1:750,000) of the territory of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankó, A.; Bánfi, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Royal Hungarian State Mapping Institute kept the smaller scales series of the third military survey of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, too, so the scales 1:200,000 and 1:750,000 maps. The results of the supervisions of larger scales were transferred onto these scales, 1:200,000 and 1:750,000 maps, for the territory of Central Europe. In 1943 a scale 1:500,000 aerial map was accomplished, too, for the territory of Pannonian basin. There are many other important series in the Map Room between 1919 and 1945, including the WWII German edition 1:300,000 scale map series of Central Europe and Russia to the Ural Mts.; and a series of scale 1:100,000 for the territory of Poland and Russia between 1939-1940.

  12. Towards DIB mapping in galaxies beyond 100 Mpc. A radial profile of the λ5780.5 diffuse interstellar band in AM 1353-272 B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monreal-Ibero, A.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wendt, M.; Selman, F.; Lallement, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Kamann, S.; Sandin, C.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are non-stellar weak absorption features of unknown origin found in the spectra of stars viewed through one or several clouds of the interstellar medium (ISM). Research of DIBs outside the Milky Way is currently very limited. In particular, spatially resolved investigations of DIBs outside of the Local Group are, to our knowledge, inexistent. Aims: In this contribution, we explore the capability of the high-sensitivity integral field spectrograph, MUSE, as a tool for mapping diffuse interstellar bands at distances larger than 100 Mpc. Methods: We used MUSE commissioning data for AM 1353-272 B, the member with the highest extinction of the Dentist's Chair, an interacting system of two spiral galaxies. High signal-to-noise spectra were created by co-adding the signal of many spatial elements distributed in a geometry of concentric elliptical half-rings. Results: We derived decreasing radial profiles for the equivalent width of the λ5780.5 DIB both in the receding and approaching side of the companion galaxy up to distances of ~4.6 kpc from the centre of the galaxy. The interstellar extinction as derived from the Hα/Hβ line ratio displays a similar trend, with decreasing values towards the external parts. This translates into an intrinsic correlation between the strength of the DIB and the extinction within AM 1353-272 B, consistent with the currently existing global trend between these quantities when using measurements for Galactic and extragalactic sightlines. Conclusions: It seems feasible to map the DIB strength in the Local Universe, which has up to now only been performed for the Milky Way. This offers a new approach to studying the relationship between DIBs and other characteristics and species of the ISM in addition to using galaxies in the Local Group or sightlines towards very bright targets outside the Local Group. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program

  13. Low-ℓ CMB from string-scale SUSY breaking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnotti, A.

    2017-01-01

    Models of inflation are instructive playgrounds for supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking in Supergravity and String Theory. In particular, combinations of branes and orientifolds that are not mutually BPS can lead to brane SUSY breaking, a phenomenon where nonlinear realizations are accompanied, in tachyon-free vacua, by the emergence of steep exponential potentials. When combined with milder terms, these exponentials can lead to slow-roll after a fast ascent and a turning point. This leaves behind distinctive patterns of scalar perturbations, where pre-inflationary peaks can lie well apart from an almost scale invariant profile. I review recent attempts to connect these power spectra to the low-ℓ cosmic microwave background (CMB), and a corresponding one-parameter extension of Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) with a low-frequency cut Δ. A detailed likelihood analysis led to Δ = (0.351 ± 0.114) × 10-3Mpc-1, at 99.4% confidence level, in an extended Galactic mask with fsky = 39%, to be compared with a nearby value at 88.5% in the standard Planck 2015 mask with fsky = 94%. In these scenarios, one would be confronted, in the CMB, with relics of an epoch of deceleration that preceded the onset of slow-roll.

  14. Large Scale Structure in the Epoch of Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koekemoer, Anton; Mould, Jeremy; Cooke, Jeffrey; Wyithe, Stuart; Lidman, Christopher; Trenti, Michele; Abbott, Tim; Kunder, Andrea; Barone-Nugent, Robert; Tescari, Edoardo; Katsianis, Antonios

    2014-02-01

    We propose to capitalize on the high red sensitivity and large field of view of DECam to detect the brightest and rarest galaxies at z=6-7. Our 2012 results show the signature of large scale structure with wavenumber of order 0.1 inverse Mpc in line with expectations of primordial non-gaussianity. But the signal to noise in one deep field from two nights' data is insufficient for a robust conclusion. Ten nights' data will do the job. These data will also constrain the galaxy contribution to reionization by enabling a tighter constraint on the full galaxy luminosity function, including the faint end. The observations will be executed with a cadence and depth that will enable the detection of super-luminous supernovae at z=6-7. Super-luminous supernovae are a recently observed class of supernovae that are 10-100x more luminous than typical supernovae. This class includes pair- instability supernovae that are a rare, third type of supernova explosion in which only 3 events are known. The proposed observations will greatly extend the current reach of supernovae research, examining their occurrence rate and properties near the epoch of reionization.

  15. Correlated primordial perturbations in light of CMB and large scale structure data

    SciTech Connect

    Kurki-Suonio, Hannu; Muhonen, Vesa; Vaeliviita, Jussi

    2005-03-15

    We use cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large scale structure data to constrain cosmological models where the primordial perturbations have both an adiabatic and a cold dark matter (CDM) isocurvature component. We allow for a possible correlation between the adiabatic and isocurvature modes, and for different spectral indices for the power in each mode and for their correlation. We do a likelihood analysis with 11 independent parameters and discuss the effect of choosing the pivot scale for the definition of amplitude parameters. The upper limit to the isocurvature fraction is 18% around a pivot scale k=0.01 Mpc{sup -1}. For smaller pivot wavenumbers the limit stays about the same. For larger pivot wavenumbers, very large values of the isocurvature spectral index are favored, which makes the analysis problematic, but larger isocurvature fractions seem to be allowed. For large isocurvature spectral indices n{sub iso}>2 a positive correlation between the adiabatic and isocurvature mode is favored, and for n{sub iso}<2 a negative correlation is favored. The upper limit to the nonadiabatic contribution to the CMB temperature variance is 7.5%. Of the standard cosmological parameters, determination of the CDM density {omega}{sub c} and the sound horizon angle {theta} (or the Hubble constant H{sub 0}) are affected most by a possible presence of a correlated isocurvature contribution. The baryon density {omega}{sub b} nearly retains its 'adiabatic value'.

  16. Large-scale galaxy distribution in the Las Campanas Redshift Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshkevich, A. G.; Tucker, D. L.; Fong, R.; Turchaninov, V.; Lin, H.

    2001-04-01

    We make use of three-dimensional clustering analysis, inertia tensor methods, and the minimal spanning tree technique to estimate some physical and statistical characteristics of the large-scale galaxy distribution and, in particular, of the sample of overdense regions seen in the Las Campanas Redshift Survey (LCRS). Our investigation provides additional evidence for a network of structures found in our core sampling analysis of the LCRS: a system of rich sheet-like structures, which in turn surround large underdense regions criss-crossed by a variety of filamentary structures. We find that the overdense regions contain ~40-50 per cent of LCRS galaxies and have proper sizes similar to those of nearby superclusters. The formation of such structures can be roughly described as a non-linear compression of protowalls of typical cross-sectional size ~20-25h-1Mpc this scale is ~5 times the conventional value for the onset of non-linear clustering - to wit, r0, the autocorrelation length for galaxies. The comparison with available simulations and theoretical estimates shows that the formation of structure elements with parameters similar to those observed is presently possible only in low-density cosmological models, Ωmh~0.2-0.3, with a suitable large-scale bias between galaxies and dark matter.

  17. THE OBSERVATIONS OF REDSHIFT EVOLUTION IN LARGE-SCALE ENVIRONMENTS (ORELSE) SURVEY. I. THE SURVEY DESIGN AND FIRST RESULTS ON CL 0023+0423 AT z = 0.84 AND RX J1821.6+6827 AT z = 0.82

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, L. M.; Lemaux, B. C.; Kocevski, D. D.; Gal, R. R.; Squires, G. K.

    2009-06-15

    We present the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large-Scale Environments (ORELSE) Survey, a systematic search for structure on scales greater than 10 h {sup -1} {sub 70} Mpc around 20 well-known clusters at redshifts of 0.6 < z < 1.3. The goal of the survey is to examine a statistical sample of dynamically active clusters and large-scale structures in order to quantify galaxy properties over the full range of local and global environments. We describe the survey design, the cluster sample, and our extensive observational data covering at least 25' around each target cluster. We use adaptively smoothed red galaxy density maps from our wide-field optical imaging to identify candidate groups/clusters and intermediate-density large-scale filaments/walls in each cluster field. Because photometric techniques (such as photometric redshifts, statistical overdensities, and richness estimates) can be highly uncertain, the crucial component of this survey is the unprecedented amount of spectroscopic coverage. We are using the wide-field, multiobject spectroscopic capabilities of the Deep Multiobject Imaging Spectrograph to obtain 100-200+ confirmed cluster members in each field. Our survey has already discovered the Cl 1604 supercluster at z {approx} 0.9, a structure which contains at least eight groups and clusters and spans 13 Mpc x 100 Mpc. Here, we present the results on the large-scale environments of two additional clusters, Cl 0023+0423 at z = 0.84 and RX J1821.6+6827 at z = 0.82, which highlight the diversity of global properties at these redshifts. The optically selected Cl 0023+0423 is a four-way group-group merger with constituent groups having measured velocity dispersions between 206 and 479 km s{sup -1}. The galaxy population is dominated by blue, star-forming galaxies, with 80% of the confirmed members showing [O II] emission. The strength of the H{delta} line in a composite spectrum of 138 members indicates a substantial contribution from recent

  18. The Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large-Scale Environments (ORELSE) Survey. I. The Survey Design and First Results on CL 0023+0423 at z = 0.84 and RX J1821.6+6827 at z = 0.82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, L. M.; Gal, R. R.; Lemaux, B. C.; Kocevski, D. D.; Squires, G. K.

    2009-06-01

    We present the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large-Scale Environments (ORELSE) Survey, a systematic search for structure on scales greater than 10 h -1 70 Mpc around 20 well-known clusters at redshifts of 0.6 < z < 1.3. The goal of the survey is to examine a statistical sample of dynamically active clusters and large-scale structures in order to quantify galaxy properties over the full range of local and global environments. We describe the survey design, the cluster sample, and our extensive observational data covering at least 25' around each target cluster. We use adaptively smoothed red galaxy density maps from our wide-field optical imaging to identify candidate groups/clusters and intermediate-density large-scale filaments/walls in each cluster field. Because photometric techniques (such as photometric redshifts, statistical overdensities, and richness estimates) can be highly uncertain, the crucial component of this survey is the unprecedented amount of spectroscopic coverage. We are using the wide-field, multiobject spectroscopic capabilities of the Deep Multiobject Imaging Spectrograph to obtain 100-200+ confirmed cluster members in each field. Our survey has already discovered the Cl 1604 supercluster at z ≈ 0.9, a structure which contains at least eight groups and clusters and spans 13 Mpc × 100 Mpc. Here, we present the results on the large-scale environments of two additional clusters, Cl 0023+0423 at z = 0.84 and RX J1821.6+6827 at z = 0.82, which highlight the diversity of global properties at these redshifts. The optically selected Cl 0023+0423 is a four-way group-group merger with constituent groups having measured velocity dispersions between 206 and 479 km s-1. The galaxy population is dominated by blue, star-forming galaxies, with 80% of the confirmed members showing [O II] emission. The strength of the Hδ line in a composite spectrum of 138 members indicates a substantial contribution from recent starbursts to the overall galaxy

  19. A KINETIC ALFVEN WAVE CASCADE SUBJECT TO COLLISIONLESS DAMPING CANNOT REACH ELECTRON SCALES IN THE SOLAR WIND AT 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, J. J.; Borovsky, J. E.; Gary, S. P.

    2010-03-20

    Turbulence in the solar wind is believed to generate an energy cascade that is supported primarily by Alfven waves or Alfvenic fluctuations at MHD scales and by kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) at kinetic scales k{sub perpendicular}rho{sub i} {approx}> 1. Linear Landau damping of KAWs increases with increasing wavenumber and at some point the damping becomes so strong that the energy cascade is completely dissipated. A model of the energy cascade process that includes the effects of linear collisionless damping of KAWs and the associated compounding of this damping throughout the cascade process is used to determine the wavenumber where the energy cascade terminates. It is found that this wavenumber occurs approximately when |gamma/omega| {approx_equal} 0.25, where omega(k) and gamma(k) are, respectively, the real frequency and damping rate of KAWs and the ratio gamma/omega is evaluated in the limit as k{sub perpendicular} >> k{sub ||}. For plasma parameters typical of high-speed solar wind streams at 1 AU, the model suggests that the KAW cascade in the solar wind is almost completely dissipated before reaching the wavenumber k{sub perpendicular}rho{sub i} {approx_equal} 25. Consequently, an energy cascade consisting solely of KAWs cannot reach scales on the order of the electron gyro-radius, k{sub perpendicular}rho{sub e} {approx} 1. This conclusion has important ramifications for the interpretation of solar wind magnetic field measurements. It implies that power-law spectra in the regime of electron scales must be supported by wave modes other than the KAW.

  20. Temporal patterns of human behaviour: are there signs of deterministic 1/ f scaling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dünki, Rudolf M.; Keller, Elvira; Meier, Peter F.; Ambühl, Brigitte

    2000-02-01

    Temporal patterns apparently exhibiting scaling properties may originate either from fractal stochastic processes or from causal (i.e., deterministic) dynamics. In general, the distinction between the possible two origins remains a non-trivial task. This holds especially for the interpretation of properties derived from temporal patterns of various types of human behaviour, which were reported repeatedly. We propose here a computational scheme based on a generic intermittency model to test predictability (thus determinism) of a part of a time series with knowledge gathered from another part. The method is applied onto psychodynamic time series related to turns from non-psychosis to psychosis. A nonrandom correlation ( ρ=0.76) between prediction and real outcome is found. Our scheme thus provides a particular kind of fractal risk-assessment for this possibly deterministic process. We briefly discuss possible implications of these findings to evaluate the risk to undergo a state transition, in our case a patients risk to enter a next psychotic state. We further point to some problems concerning data sample pecularities and equivalence between data and model setup.

  1. A global scale mechanistic model of photosynthetic capacity (LUNA V1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; Rogers, A.; Fisher, R. A.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Massoud, E. C.; Vrugt, J. A.; Muss, J. D.; McDowell, N. G.; Fisher, J. B.; Reich, P. B.; Wilson, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    Although plant photosynthetic capacity as determined by the maximum carboxylation rate (i.e., Vc, max25) and the maximum electron transport rate (i.e., Jmax25) at a reference temperature (generally 25 °C) is known to vary considerably in space and time in response to environmental conditions, it is typically parameterized in Earth system models (ESMs) with tabulated values associated with plant functional types. In this study, we have developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA) to predict photosynthetic capacity at the global scale under different environmental conditions. We adopt an optimality hypothesis to nitrogen allocation among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation and respiration. The LUNA model is able to reasonably capture the measured spatial and temporal patterns of photosynthetic capacity as it explains ˜ 55 % of the global variation in observed values of Vc, max25 and ˜ 65 % of the variation in the observed values of Jmax25. Model simulations with LUNA under current and future climate conditions demonstrate that modeled values of Vc, max25 are most affected in high-latitude regions under future climates. ESMs that relate the values of Vc, max25 or Jmax25 to plant functional types only are likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.

  2. A global scale mechanistic model of photosynthetic capacity (LUNA V1.0)

    DOE PAGES

    Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; Rogers, A.; ...

    2016-02-12

    Although plant photosynthetic capacity as determined by the maximum carboxylation rate (i.e., Vc, max25) and the maximum electron transport rate (i.e., Jmax25) at a reference temperature (generally 25 °C) is known to vary considerably in space and time in response to environmental conditions, it is typically parameterized in Earth system models (ESMs) with tabulated values associated with plant functional types. In this study, we have developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA) to predict photosynthetic capacity at the global scale under different environmental conditions. We adopt an optimality hypothesis to nitrogen allocation among light capture, electron transport,more » carboxylation and respiration. The LUNA model is able to reasonably capture the measured spatial and temporal patterns of photosynthetic capacity as it explains  ∼  55 % of the global variation in observed values of Vc, max25 and  ∼  65 % of the variation in the observed values of Jmax25. Model simulations with LUNA under current and future climate conditions demonstrate that modeled values of Vc, max25 are most affected in high-latitude regions under future climates. ESMs that relate the values of Vc, max25 or Jmax25 to plant functional types only are likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.« less

  3. Scale-up of miscible flood processes. [Quarterly report], January 1--April 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1992-08-01

    Efficient application of miscible floods to heterogeneous reservoirs requires the designer to take advantage of more than one of the physical mechanisms that act and interact to determine displacement performance. In this report, the investigators summarize the interactions of phase behavior, nonuniform flow, and crossflow and based on novel results obtained during the course of their experimental efforts. They suggest design opportunities for application of gas injection to near-miscible recovery processes, to enhanced gravity drainage, and even to fractured reservoirs. To design such processes intelligently, the quantitative scaling of the interplay of phase equilibria, reservoir heterogeneity, viscous fingering and particularly crossflow must be understood. In essence, they propose to make use of crossflow, i.e. transport in the direction transverse to the basic flow direction, to sweep portions of reservoirs that can be reached only very slowly by direct displacement. In this report, the core displacement and flow visualization experiments described suggest that the effects of low interfacial tensions (IFT`s) and gravity can be used to advantage in the design of multicontact miscible displacements for heterogeneous reservoirs, including fractured reservoirs.

  4. Fermion loops in the effective potential of N = 1 supergravity, with application to no-scale models

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.W.

    1990-03-27

    Powerful and quite general arguments suggest that N = 1 supergravity, and in particular the superstring-inspired no-scale models, may describe the physics of the four-dimensional vacuum at energy densities below the Planck scale. These models are not renormalizable, since they arise as effective theories after the large masses have been integrated out of the fundamental theory; thus, they have divergences in their loop amplitudes that must be regulated by imposing a cutoff. Before physics at experimental energies can be extracted from these models, the true vacuum state or states must be identified: at tree level, the ground states of the effective theories are highly degenerate. Radiative corrections at the one-loop level have been shown to break the degeneracy sufficiently to identify the states of vanishing vacuum energy. As the concluding step in a program to calculate these corrections within a self-consistent cutoff prescription, all fermionic one-loop divergent corrections to the scalar effective potential are evaluated. (The corresponding bosonic contributions have been found elsewhere.) The total effective scalar Lagrange density for N = 1 supergravity is written down, and comments are made about cancellations between the fermionic and bosonic loops. Finally, the result is specialized to a toy no-scale model with a single generation of matter fields, and prospects for eventual phenomenological constraints on theories of this type are briefly discussed. 48 refs.

  5. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Control modules -- Volume 1, Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, N.F.; Petrie, L.M.; Knight, J.R.

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. This manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for the functional module documentation, and Volume 3 for the documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries.

  6. Interneuronal mechanisms of hippocampal theta oscillations in a full-scale model of the rodent CA1 circuit.

    PubMed

    Bezaire, Marianne J; Raikov, Ivan; Burk, Kelly; Vyas, Dhrumil; Soltesz, Ivan

    2016-12-23

    The hippocampal theta rhythm plays important roles in information processing; however, the mechanisms of its generation are not well understood. We developed a data-driven, supercomputer-based, full-scale (1:1) model of the rodent CA1 area and studied its interneurons during theta oscillations. Theta rhythm with phase-locked gamma oscillations and phase-preferential discharges of distinct interneuronal types spontaneously emerged from the isolated CA1 circuit without rhythmic inputs. Perturbation experiments identified parvalbumin-expressing interneurons and neurogliaform cells, as well as interneuronal diversity itself, as important factors in theta generation. These simulations reveal new insights into the spatiotemporal organization of the CA1 circuit during theta oscillations.

  7. Interneuronal mechanisms of hippocampal theta oscillations in a full-scale model of the rodent CA1 circuit

    PubMed Central

    Bezaire, Marianne J; Raikov, Ivan; Burk, Kelly; Vyas, Dhrumil; Soltesz, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampal theta rhythm plays important roles in information processing; however, the mechanisms of its generation are not well understood. We developed a data-driven, supercomputer-based, full-scale (1:1) model of the rodent CA1 area and studied its interneurons during theta oscillations. Theta rhythm with phase-locked gamma oscillations and phase-preferential discharges of distinct interneuronal types spontaneously emerged from the isolated CA1 circuit without rhythmic inputs. Perturbation experiments identified parvalbumin-expressing interneurons and neurogliaform cells, as well as interneuronal diversity itself, as important factors in theta generation. These simulations reveal new insights into the spatiotemporal organization of the CA1 circuit during theta oscillations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18566.001 PMID:28009257

  8. FIELD SCALE EVALUATION OF TREATMENT OF TCE IN A BIOWALL AT THE OU-1 SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A passive reactive barrier (Biowall) was installed at the OU-1 site at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma to treat TCE contamination in ground water from a landfill. Depth to ground water varies from 1.8 to 2.4 meters below land surface. To intercept and treat the plume of contamin...

  9. Fine-scaling mapping of the gene responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1)

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimori, Minoru; Nakamura, Yusuke ); Wells, S.A. )

    1992-02-01

    The authors have constructed a high-resolution genetic linkage map in the vicinity of the gene responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). The mutation causing this disease, inherited as an autosomal dominant, predisposes carriers to development of neoplastic tumors in the parathyroid, the endocrine pancreas, and the anterior lobe of the pituitary. The 12 markers on the genetic linkage map reported here span nearly 20 cM, and linkage analysis of MEN1 pedigrees has placed the MEN1 locus within the 8-cM region between D11S480 and D11S546. The markers on this map will be useful for prenatal or presymptomatic diagnosis of individuals in families that segregate a mutant allele of the MEN1 gene.

  10. 3-D imaging of large scale buried structure by 1-D inversion of very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aydmer, A.A.; Chew, W.C.; Cui, T.J.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.; Abraham, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for large scale three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface imaging of inhomogeneous background is presented. One-dimensional (1-D) multifrequency distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) is employed in the inversion. Simulation results utilizing synthetic scattering data are given. Calibration of the very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) experimental waveforms is detailed along with major problems encountered in practice and their solutions. This discussion is followed by the results of a large scale application of the method to the experimental data provided by the VETEM system of the U.S. Geological Survey. The method is shown to have a computational complexity that is promising for on-site inversion.

  11. Effect of sequential surface irrigations on field-scale emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene.

    PubMed

    Yates, S R; Knuteson, J; Ernst, F F; Zheng, W; Wang, Q

    2008-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted to measure subsurface movement and volatilization of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) after shank injection to an agricultural soil. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of sprinkler irrigation on the emissions of 1,3-D to the atmosphere and is based on recent research that has shown that saturating the soil pore space reduces gas-phase diffusion and leads to reduced volatilization rates. Aerodynamic, integrated horizontal flux, and theoretical profile shape methods were used to estimate fumigant volatilization rates and total emission losses. These methods provide estimates of the volatilization rate based on measurements of wind speed, temperature, and 1,3-D concentration in the atmosphere. The volatilization rate was measured continuously for 16 days, and the daily peak volatilization rates for the three methods ranged from 18 to 60 microg m(-2) s(-1). The total 13-D mass entering the atmosphere was approximately 44-68 kg ha(-1), or 10-15% of the applied active ingredient This represents approximately 30-50% reduction in the total emission losses compared to conventional fumigant applications in field and field-plot studies. Significant reduction in volatilization of 1,3-D was observed when five surface irrigations were applied to the field, one immediately after fumigation followed by daily irrigations.

  12. Calm Water Resistance of a 1:25 Scale Model of the Armidale Class Patrol Boat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    2768 ABSTRACT DSTO has recently joined the International collaborative consortium FAST3.JIP with the aim to develop a numerical capability for the...TR- 2768 Contents ACRONYMS 1. INTRODUCTION...27 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TR- 2768

  13. Thinking big: scaling-up HIV-1 interventions in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Watts, C; Kumaranayake, L

    1999-10-30

    HIV-1 and AIDS continue to have a devastating impact in sub-Saharan Africa, where they accounted for 1.8 million deaths in 1998. Although there are strong HIV-1/AIDS interventions across Africa, few are implemented nationally. Hence, there is a need for rapid expansion of activities to curtail this epidemic. Existing infrastructures can be maximized to achieve widespread coverage. The incorporation of HIV education into the school curricula need to be redesigned, instead of targeting only those in the secondary school, more youths could be reached if education of HIV-1 is provided in the last year of primary school. Involvement of different private sectors and informal networks in the expansion of interventions could help increase the access of social and geographical groups to specific activities. Furthermore, because of the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the region, patients with HIV-1-related illnesses take up large hospitals. Coping mechanisms, such as home-based care, should be developed to reduce the burden placed by HIV-1 on hospitals. Fundamental changes in the current infrastructure are important but efforts will be undermined if it is not sustainable.

  14. Geologic Map of the Tucson and Nogales Quadrangles, Arizona (Scale 1:250,000): A Digital Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, J.A.; Berquist, J.R.; Reynolds, S.J.; Page-Nedell, S. S.; Digital database by Oland, Gustav P.; Hirschberg, Douglas M.

    2001-01-01

    The geologic map of the Tucson-Nogales 1:250,000 scale quadrangle (Peterson and others, 1990) was digitized by U.S. Geological Survey staff and University of Arizona contractors at the Southwest Field Office, Tucson, Arizona, in 2000 for input into a geographic information system (GIS). The database was created for use as a basemap in a decision support system designed by the National Industrial Minerals and Surface Processes project. The resulting digital geologic map database can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geologic maps. Digital base map data files (topography, roads, towns, rivers and lakes, etc.) are not included; they may be obtained from a variety of commercial and government sources. Additionally, point features, such as strike and dip, were not captured from the original paper map and are not included in the database. This database is not meant to be used or displayed at any scale larger than 1:250,000 (for example, 1:100,000 or 1:24,000). The digital geologic map graphics and plot files that are provided in the digital package are representations of the digital database. They are not designed to be cartographic products.

  15. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURE OF THE QUASAR 3C 279 MEASURED WITH 1.3 mm VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Rusen; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Crew, Geoffrey; Cappallo, Roger J.; Akiyama, Kazunori; Honma, Mareki; Algaba, Juan C.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Inoue, Makoto; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Dexter, Matt; Brinkerink, Christiaan; Chamberlin, Richard; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Gurwell, Mark A.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Loinard, Laurent; and others

    2013-07-20

    We report results from five day very long baseline interferometry observations of the well-known quasar 3C 279 at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) in 2011. The measured nonzero closure phases on triangles including stations in Arizona, California, and Hawaii indicate that the source structure is spatially resolved. We find an unusual inner jet direction at scales of {approx}1 pc extending along the northwest-southeast direction (P.A. = 127 Degree-Sign {+-} 3 Degree-Sign ), as opposed to other (previously) reported measurements on scales of a few parsecs showing inner jet direction extending to the southwest. The 1.3 mm structure corresponds closely with that observed in the central region of quasi-simultaneous super-resolution Very Long Baseline Array images at 7 mm. The closure phase changed significantly on the last day when compared with the rest of observations, indicating that the inner jet structure may be variable on daily timescales. The observed new direction of the inner jet shows inconsistency with the prediction of a class of jet precession models. Our observations indicate a brightness temperature of {approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} K in the 1.3 mm core, much lower than that at centimeter wavelengths. Observations with better uv coverage and sensitivity in the coming years will allow the discrimination between different structure models and will provide direct images of the inner regions of the jet with 20-30 {mu}as (5-7 light months) resolution.

  16. Scaling of the F_2 structure function in nuclei and quark distributions at x>1

    SciTech Connect

    Fomin, N; Arrington, J; Gaskell, D; Daniel, A; Seely, J; Asaturyan, R; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Boillat, B; Bosted, P; Bruell, A; Bukhari, M.H.S.; Christy, M E; Chudakov, E; Clasie, B; Connell, S H; Dalton, M M; Dutta, D; Ent, R; El Fassi, L; Fenker, H; Filippone, B W; Garrow, K; Hill, C; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Jones, M K; Jourdan, J; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Kiselev, D; Kotulla, M; Lindgren, R; Lung, A F; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Miyoshi, T; Mkrtchyan, H; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Okayasu, Y; Opper, A K; Perdrisat, C; Potterveld, D H; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Reimer, P E; Roche, J; Rodriguez, V M; Rondon, O; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Slifer, K; Smith, G R; Solvignon, P; Tadevosyan, V; Tajima, S; Tang, L; Testa, G; Tvaskis, V; Vulcan, W F; Wasko, C; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S A; Wright, J; Zheng, X

    2010-11-01

    We present new data on electron scattering from a range of nuclei taken in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. For heavy nuclei, we observe a rapid falloff in the cross section for $x>1$, which is sensitive to short range contributions to the nuclear wave-function, and in deep inelastic scattering corresponds to probing extremely high momentum quarks. This result agrees with higher energy muon scattering measurements, but is in sharp contrast to neutrino scattering measurements which suggested a dramatic enhancement in the distribution of the `super-fast' quarks probed at x>1. The falloff at x>1 is noticeably stronger in ^2H and ^3He, but nearly identical for all heavier nuclei.

  17. The large scale view of the young stellar populations in the Orion OB1 Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria

    2016-06-01

    The Orion OB1 association, at ~400 pc and with a wide range of ages (~1-10 Myr) and environmental conditions, is an ideal place to look at how stars form, first evolve and disperse among the general population of field stars. Also to study disk dispersal and the duration of the planet formation phase.However, despite spanning nearly 200 deg2 on the sky, almost all we know about Orion comes from studies of a limited fraction of the entire region, mostly of the youngest objects (~<1 Myr) in the A and B molecular clouds and the ~3 Myr old sigma Ori cluster.We will present here the results of our 180 sq deg photometric multi-epoch survey across the Orion OB1 association, using the known variability of T Tauri stars to pick them among the general field population, and following with spectroscopy to confirm members and characterize them.The ~2000 newly identified young low-mass stars are mostly located away from the molecular clouds, across tens of sq. deg. in the Orion OB1a and OB1b sub-associations, with ages in the range ~4-10 Myr. But within this general population we identify a significant fraction concentrated in distinct overdensities, most notably the ~7 Myr old 25 Orionis cluster. These stellar aggregates point to a previously unknown degree of substructure that has survived the dissipation of the parent molecular clouds. We also find that the Orion Nebula Cluster is surrounded by a few sq.deg. halo of young stars, as has been suggested by recent sudies.

  18. OECD MMCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-1 final data report, Rev. 1 February 10, 2003.; Report, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure; and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx}{phi}30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the first water ingression test, designated SSWICS-1. The test investigated the quench behavior of a 15 cm deep

  19. ifet-1 is a broad-scale translational repressor required for normal P granule formation in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Madhu S.; Low, Wai Yee; Patterson, Joseph R.; Kim, Hyun-Min; Traven, Ana; Beilharz, Traude H.; Colaiácovo, Monica P.; Schisa, Jennifer A.; Boag, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein germ granule complexes are a common feature in germ cells. In C. elegans these are called P granules and for much of the life-cycle they associate with nuclear pore complexes in germ cells. P granules are rich in proteins that function in diverse RNA pathways. Here we report that the C. elegans homolog of the eIF4E-transporter IFET-1 is required for oogenesis but not spermatogenesis. We show that IFET-1 is required for translational repression of several maternal mRNAs in the distal gonad and functions in conjunction with the broad-scale translational regulators CGH-1, CAR-1 and PATR-1 to regulate germ cell sex determination. Furthermore we have found that IFET-1 localizes to P granules throughout the gonad and in the germ cell lineage in the embryo. Interestingly, IFET-1 is required for the normal ultrastructure of P granules and for the localization of CGH-1 and CAR-1 to P granules. Our findings suggest that IFET-1 is a key translational regulator and is required for normal P granule formation. PMID:23264733

  20. ifet-1 is a broad-scale translational repressor required for normal P granule formation in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Madhu S; Low, Wai Yee; Patterson, Joseph R; Kim, Hyun-Min; Traven, Ana; Beilharz, Traude H; Colaiácovo, Monica P; Schisa, Jennifer A; Boag, Peter R

    2013-02-01

    Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein germ granule complexes are a common feature in germ cells. In C. elegans these are called P granules and for much of the life-cycle they associate with nuclear pore complexes in germ cells. P granules are rich in proteins that function in diverse RNA pathways. Here we report that the C. elegans homolog of the eIF4E-transporter IFET-1 is required for oogenesis but not spermatogenesis. We show that IFET-1 is required for translational repression of several maternal mRNAs in the distal gonad and functions in conjunction with the broad-scale translational regulators CGH-1, CAR-1 and PATR-1 to regulate germ cell sex determination. Furthermore we have found that IFET-1 localizes to P granules throughout the gonad and in the germ cell lineage in the embryo. Interestingly, IFET-1 is required for the normal ultrastructure of P granules and for the localization of CGH-1 and CAR-1 to P granules. Our findings suggest that IFET-1 is a key translational regulator and is required for normal P granule formation.

  1. Discovery of megaparsec-scale, low surface brightness nonthermal emission in merging galaxy clusters using the green bank telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, Damon; Rudnick, Lawrence; Brown, Shea; Brunetti, Gianfranco

    2013-12-20

    We present results from a study of 12 X-ray bright clusters at 1.4 GHz with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope. After subtraction of point sources using existing interferometer data, we reach a median (best) 1σ rms sensitivity level of 0.01 (0.006) μJy arcsec{sup –2}, and find a significant excess of diffuse, low surface brightness emission in 11 of 12 Abell clusters observed. We also present initial results at 1.4 GHz of A2319 from the Very Large Array. In particular, we find: (1) four new detections of diffuse structures tentatively classified as two halos (A2065, A2069) and two relics (A2067, A2073); (2) the first detection of the radio halo in A2061 at 1.4 GHz, which qualifies this as a possible ultra-steep spectrum halo source with a synchrotron spectral index of α ∼ 1.8 between 327 MHz and 1.4 GHz; (3) a ∼2 Mpc radio halo in the sloshing, minor-merger cluster A2142; (4) a >2× increase of the giant radio halo extent and luminosity in the merging cluster A2319; (5) a ∼7× increase to the integrated radio flux and >4× increase to the observed extent of the peripheral radio relic in A1367 to ∼600 kpc, which we also observe to be polarized on a similar scale; (6) significant excess emission of ambiguous nature in three clusters with embedded tailed radio galaxies (A119, A400, A3744). Our radio halo detections agree with the well-known X-ray/radio luminosity correlation, but they are larger and fainter than current radio power correlation studies would predict. The corresponding volume-averaged synchrotron emissivities are 1-2 orders of magnitude below the characteristic value found in previous studies. Some of the halo-like detections may be some type of previously unseen, low surface brightness radio halo or blend of unresolved shock structures and sub-Mpc-scale turbulent regions associated with their respective cluster merging activity. Four of the five tentative halos contain one or more X-ray cold fronts, suggesting a possible connection between gas

  2. Reflected Blast Measurements at Small Scaled Distances for M26E1 Propellant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    produces a half- sine , positive pressure pulse with peak amplitudes from 100 psi (0.7 MPa) to more than 10,000 psi (70 MPa), and rise times of 1 to 2...Plant ATTN: SARMI-S Milan, TN 38358 Commander Radford Army Ammunition Plant ATTN: SARRA -IE (2) Radford, VA 24141 Commander Badger Army

  3. Evaluation of Laboratory Scale Testing of Tunnels and Tunnel Intersections. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC ATTN: CEWES J K INGRAM ATTN: R FRANK ATTN: CEWES-SD DR J G JACKSON JR ATTN: DR D BANKS CEWES-GS BDM ENGINEERING SERVICES CO ATTN...216-V1 (DL CONTINUED) KAMAN SCIENCES CORP SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTL CORP ATTN: LIBRARY B KINSLOW ATTN: W LAYSON ATTN: RICHARD KEEFFE SOUTHWEST RESEARCH

  4. Large Scale Variability Surveys from Venezuela: Orion OB1 and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, C.; Calvet, N.; Vivas, A. K.; Hartmann, L.

    We present our scheme and initial results for variability surveys spanning hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, carried out with an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning, installed on the 1m Schmidt telescope at the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory. In the Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formation, we are conducting a 120 sqr.deg. VRIHalpha survey to map the low mass young stellar population in this region. The absence of dust and gas around the young stars in the ˜ 10 Myr Ori OB 1a sub-association suggests that star formation is a rapid process, and that molecular clouds do not last more than a few million years after the first stars are born. The lack of accretion indicators or near IR emission from inner dusty disks among stars in Ori OB 1a suggests that significant disk dissipation has occurred in a few Myr, possibly due to the coagulation/agglomeration of dust particles into larger bodies like planetesimals or planets. The results of our variability surveys will be made available through a massive database equipped with web-based data mining tools, as part of the effort leading to the International Virtual Observatory.

  5. Deliverable 3.1.4 -- Final reservoir report and field-scale models Bluebell Field, Utah, Class 1

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, Milind D.

    2000-07-12

    The objective of this project were to: (1) Simulate parts of the reservoir using the conventional dual-porosity, dual-permeability approach, generate progressively complex reservoir models and use the production history match results to quantify formation damage; (2) Examine the effect of the numerical aspects such as grid sizes and fracture properties on the simulations results; (3) Evaluate the effect of fluid thermodynamic properties on production; and (4) Study effect of inclusion of fractures on variability in production from stochastically generated reservoir models.

  6. LARGE-SCALE STAR-FORMATION-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS AT 1 < z < 2 IN THE 3D-HST SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, Britt F.; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Bezanson, Rachel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine; Brammer, Gabriel; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbe, Ivo; Patel, Shannon; Da Cunha, Elizabete; Rix, Hans Walter; Schmidt, Kasper; Erb, Dawn K.; Fan Xiaohui; Kriek, Mariska; Marchesini, Danilo; and others

    2012-11-20

    We present evidence of large-scale outflows from three low-mass (log(M {sub *}/M {sub Sun }) {approx} 9.75) star-forming (SFR > 4 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}) galaxies observed at z = 1.24, z = 1.35, and z = 1.75 in the 3D-HST Survey. Each of these galaxies is located within a projected physical distance of 60 kpc around the sight line to the quasar SDSS J123622.93+621526.6, which exhibits well-separated strong (W {sup {lambda}2796} {sub r} {approx}> 0.8 A) Mg II absorption systems matching precisely to the redshifts of the three galaxies. We derive the star formation surface densities from the H{alpha} emission in the WFC3 G141 grism observations for the galaxies and find that in each case the star formation surface density well exceeds 0.1 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, the typical threshold for starburst galaxies in the local universe. From a small but complete parallel census of the 0.65 < z < 2.6 galaxies with H {sub 140} {approx}< 24 proximate to the quasar sight line, we detect Mg II absorption associated with galaxies extending to physical distances of 130 kpc. We determine that the W{sub r} > 0.8 A Mg II covering fraction of star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 2 may be as large as unity on scales extending to at least 60 kpc, providing early constraints on the typical extent of starburst-driven winds around galaxies at this redshift. Our observations additionally suggest that the azimuthal distribution of W{sub r} > 0.4 A Mg II absorbing gas around star-forming galaxies may evolve from z {approx} 2 to the present, consistent with recent observations of an increasing collimation of star-formation-driven outflows with time from z {approx} 3.

  7. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Functional modules F1--F8 -- Volume 2, Part 1, Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, N.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Westfall, R.M.; Bucholz, J.A.; Hermann, O.W.; Fraley, S.K.

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. The manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation; Volume 2--for functional module documentation; and Volume 3--for documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries.

  8. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. IV. SCALING RELATIONS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Rettura, A.; Jee, M. J.; Holden, B. P.; Illingworth, G.; Rosati, P.; Shankar, F.; Tanaka, M.; Ford, H.; Postman, M.; White, R. L.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.

    2012-02-01

    We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations (MSR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z {approx} 1.3. Our sample includes 76 visually classified ETGs with masses 10{sup 10} < M/M{sub Sun} < 10{sup 11.5}, selected in the Lynx supercluster and in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey/Chandra Deep Field South field; 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups, and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. The Kormendy relation, in place at z {approx} 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The MSR reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average around 30%-50% smaller than those of the local universe and a distribution with a smaller scatter, whereas field ETGs show an MSR with a similar distribution to the local one. Our results imply that (1) the MSR in the field did not evolve overall from z {approx} 1.3 to present; this is interesting and in contrast to the trend found at higher masses from previous works; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs have increased in size by 30%-50% on average and spread their distributions, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from non-ETG progenitors, or larger galaxies have been accreted to a pristine compact population to reproduce the MSR observed in the local universe. Our results are driven by galaxies with masses M {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} and those with masses M {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} follow the same trends as that of the entire sample. Following the Valentinuzzi et al. definition of superdense ETGs, {approx}35%-45% of our cluster sample is made up of superdense ETGs.

  9. Fine Scale Structure of AGN Jets with 1.3 mm VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Rusen; Fish, V. L.; Weintroub, J.; Doeleman, S.; Bower, G. C.; Freund, R.; Friberg, P.; Ho, P. T.; Honma, M.; Inoue, M.; Jorstad, S. G.; Krichbaum, T.; Marrone, D. P.; Marscher, A. P.; Moran, J. M.; Oyama, T.; Plambeck, R. L.; Primiani, R.; Shen, Z.; Tilanus, R.; Wright, M.; Young, K.; Ziurys, L. M.; Zensus, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report results from 1.3 mm VLBI observations of AGN jets with the Event Horizon Telescope focusing on the southern blazar 1921-293. We show the first 1.3 mm VLBI model image of 1921-293 using closure phase techniques obtained with four telescopes at three observatories: the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the Arizona Radio Observatory's Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) in Arizona, and two telescopes of the Combined Array for Research in Millimeterwave Astronomy (CARMA) in California in April 2009. With the greatly improved resolution compared with previous observations and robust closure phase measurement, the inner jet structure of 1921-293 was spatially resolved. The inner jet extends to the northwest along a position angle of -53° degree at a distance of 0.38 mas from the tentatively identified core, in agreement with the inner jet structure inferred from lower frequencies, and making a position angle difference of ~80° with respect to the cm-jet. The size of the compact core is 0.15 pc with a brightness temperature of 1.2 ×1011 K. Compared with those measured at lower frequencies, the low brightness temperature may argue in favor of the decelerating jet model or particle-cascade models. Some results for another blazar 3C 279 will also be presented.

  10. Analysis of long term heart rate variability: methods, 1/f scaling and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saul, J. P.; Albrecht, P.; Berger, R. D.; Cohen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of spectral techniques to quantify short term heart rate fluctuations on the order of seconds to minutes has helped define the autonomic contributions to beat-to-beat control of heart rate. We used similar techniques to quantify the entire spectrum (0.00003-1.0 Hz) of heart rate variability during 24 hour ambulatory ECG monitoring. The ECG from standard Holter monitor recordings from normal subjects was sampled with the use of a phase locked loop, and a heart rate time series was constructed at 3 Hz. Frequency analysis of the heart rate signal was performed after a nonlinear filtering algorithm was used to eliminate artifacts. A power spectrum of the entire 24 hour record revealed power that was inversely proportional to fre